Text
                    Н. Л. Утевская
English
Grammar
Book
Грамматика английского языка
для VII-X1 классов школ
с углубленным изучением
английского языка
HntHofoqii
PUBLISHER SCJ -J

ББК 81.2Англ У 84 По вопросам приобретения продукции издательства обращайтесь: ООО «Антология трэйд»: Санкт-Петербург: (812) 326-01-27; 326-01-28 e-mail: sales@anthology.spb.ru Москва: (495) 282-04-02 e-mail: chimera_trade@mtu-net.ru www.anthology.spb.ru Интернет-магазин www.bookstreet.ru Утевская Н. Л. У 84 English Grammar Book = Грамматика английского язы- ка : Учебное пособие. - СПб. : Антология, 2007. - 544 с. ISBN 978-5-94962-117-2 Пособие по грамматике современного английского языка предназначено для учащихся VII-XI классов школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, а также для студентов универси- тетов и лиц, совершенствующихся в изучении английского языка на курсах или путем самостоятельной работы. Цель пособия - помочь учащимся выработать навыки грам- матически правильной английской речи. ББК 81.2Англ ISBN 978-5-94962-117-2 © Утевская Н. Л., 2006 ©Антология, 2007
От автора Настоящее пособие представляет собой полное и системати- ческое описание морфологического строя современного англий- ского языка и узловые темы синтаксического строя, часто пред- ставляющие значительные трудности для учащихся при изуче- нии. Оно предназначено для учащихся VII-XI классов школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, гимназий, лицеев, колледжей, а также для студентов университетов и лиц, занима- ющихся английским языком на курсах или самостоятельно. Цель пособия - познакомить изучающих английский язык с системой грамматических правил, чтобы способствовать улуч- шению навыков правильной устной и письменной речи. При со- ставлении пособия использовался традиционный подход, но при этом учитывались последние достижения грамматической мыс- ли. Описывая грамматические явления, их формы и функции, автор стремился представить самую современную языковую нор- му, используемую в новейшей английской учебной литературе. Каждой новой теме предпослана краткая характеристика опи- сываемого грамматического явления. Пройденный материал зак- репляется упражнениями. Основные виды упражнений: анализ грамматической формы, определение её функций и значений, пе- ревод с английского языка на русский и с русского на англий- ский. Характер упражнений определяется как общими целями пособия, так и спецификой каждой конкретной формы. Упраж- нения типа “Translate into English”, имеющие целью контроль усвоения грамматического материала, предусматривает употреб- ление лексики, доступной учащимся, на которых рассчитано дан- ное пособие. Все упражнения направлены на практическое и ак- тивное владение английской грамматикой. Пособие состоит из основной части и приложений, которые включают краткое изложение глагольных времен, список выра- жений с предлогами, список фразовых глаголов и упражнения на их использование, список идиом, таблицу неправильных гла- голов, список соединительных слов и фраз, сведения по слово- образованию, материал о различиях в грамматике английского языка в Великобритании и США, словарь грамматических тер- минов и основных слов пособия.
Contents The Word The Parts of Speech................................................9 The Noun ........................................................9 Kinds of Nouns..............................................12 Proper Nouns............................................12 Common Nouns............................................12 Class Nouns..........................................13 Collective Nouns.....................................13 Mass Nouns...........................................13 Abstract Nouns.......................................13 Gender......................................................16 Masculine Gender........................................16 Feminine Gender.........................................16 Neuter Gender...........................................16 Ways of Indicating Gender............................16 Number......................................................17 The Formation of the Plural.............................17 Nouns Used Only in the Singular or in the Plural, or in Both Singular and Plural...........................20 The Plural of the Compound Nouns........................21 The Plural of Abbreviations.............................21 The Plural of Foreign Words.............................22 Nouns with Two Plurals, Each with a Different Meaning...23 Nouns Having One Meaning in the Singular and Another in the Plural................................23 Case........................................................28 The Use of the Possessive Case..........................28 The Article.....................................................33 The Use of the Indefinite Article......"....................33 The Use of the Indefinite Article with Nouns in Set Expressions...........................................35 The Use of the Definite Article..............................35 The Use of the Definite Article with Nouns in Set Expressions..........................................38 The Absence of the Article..................................39 Nouns Used in Set Expressions without an Article............41 The Adjective...................................................51 Word Order of Adjectives....................................56 Comparison of Adjectives....................................58 Two Ways of Forming the Comparative and the Superlative Degrees.....................................58 Adjectives of One Syllable..................................58 Adjectives of Two Syllables.................................60 Adjectives of Three and More Syllables......................60 Irregular Forms of Comparison...............................61 Constructions with Comparisons..............................62 Use of Some Adjectives......................................63 4
The Adverb........................................................70 The Formation of Adverbs......................................70 Adverbs with Two Forms and Differences in Meaning.............71 Kinds of Adverbs..............................................72 Comparison of Adverbs.........................................73 Word Order of Adverbs in the Sentence.........................74 The Use of Adverbs............................................76 The Numeral.......................................................83 Cardinal Numerals.............................................83 Ordinal Numerals..............................................84 Words and Expressions Used in Mathematics.....................85 The Pronoun.......................................................88 Personal Pronouns................................-............88 Possessive Adjectives/Pronouns................................89 Demonstrative Pronouns........................................94 Interrogative Pronouns........................................98 Relative Pronouns............................................100 Conjunctive Pronouns.........................................103 Reflexive/Emphatic Pronouns..................................105 Reciprocal Pronouns..........................................108 Indefinite Pronouns..........................................110 Negative Pronouns............................................113 Much, Many, Little, Few, a Little, a Few.....................123 The Verb.........................................................127 To Be in the Present Simple Tense........................127 There Is (Are) Construction..............................129 To Have in the Present Simple Tense......................131 The Use of Tenses............................................134 Simple Tenses............................................134 The Present Simple Tense..............................134 The Past Simple Tense.................................138 The Future Simple Tense...............................144 Continuous (Progressive) Tenses..........................150 The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense............150 The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense...............159 The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense............166 Perfect Tenses...........................................168 The Present Perfect Tense.............................169 The Past Perfect Tense................................178 The Future Perfect Tense..............................182 Perfect Continuous Tenses................................185 The Present Perfect Continuous........................185 The Past Perfect Continuous...........................194 The Future Perfect Continuous.........................203 The Sequence of Tenses...........................................207 Direct and Reported Speech...................................212 Changing from Direct into Reported Speech................212 The Tense Shift when Changing from Direct Speech to Reported Speech........................................214 5
Reported Questions/Indirect Questions....................216 Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions...................217 Modal Verbs in Reported Speech...........................224 Reporting a Dialogue or a Conversation...................225 Exclamations/Yes/No Short Answers/Question Tags...........225 Conversational Formulas..................................226 The Voice .......................................................230 The Formation of the Passive Voice...........................231 The Use of the Passive Voice.................................232 Modal Verbs......................................................240 Can..........................................................241 May..........................................................248 Must.........................................................253 To Have to - Have Got to.....................................262 To Be to.....................................................265 Need.........................................................268 Ought to.....................................................271 Should.......................................................272 Shall........................................................277 Will/Would...................................................278 Dare.........................................................282 The Mood ........................................................288 The Indicative Mood..........................................288 The Imperative Mood..........................................288 The Subjunctive Mood.........................................289 The Subjunctive Mood after the Verb Wish.....................289 The Subjunctive Mood in Conditional Sentences................294 Unreal Conditions in the Present.........................294 Unreal Conditions in the Past............................295 Mixed Conditionals.......................................296 Inversion in Conditionals................................296 The Subjunctive Mood after but for in Conditionals...........296 Implied Conditionals.........................................296 The Subjunctive Mood after the Conjunctions as if (as though).304 The Subjunctive Mood after the Verbs Expressing Orders, Commands, Suggestions....................................308 The Subjunctive Mood after It is necessary; It is natural etc........................................311 The Subjunctive Mood after It’s (about) time; It's high time...............................................314 The Subjunctive Mood in Adverbial Clauses of Purpose..........316 The Verbals (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb).......................325 The Infinitive...............................................325 The Use of the Infinitive................................326 The Use of the Infinitive without the Particle to........326 The Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence..........327 The Infinitive Constructions.................................337 The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction (The Complex Object)......................................337 6
The For-to-Infinitive Construction..........................344 The Subjective Infinitive Construction (The Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction)...........349 The Gerund......................................................360 The Forms of the Gerund.....................................360 The Functions of the Gerund in the Sentence.................360 The Tense and Voice Distinctions of the Gerund..............361 Noun Characteristics of the Gerund..........................362 Verb Characteristics of the Gerund..........................362 Constructions with the Gerund...............................363 Rendering of the Gerund in Russian..........................363 The Use of Gerund...........................................364 Verbs Used with the Gerund and the Infinitive...............368 Verbs Used with the Gerund and the Infinitive without a Change in Meaning............................... 370 Verbs Followed by the Gerund or That-Clause.................370 Verbs Followed by the Gerund, the Infinitive and That-Clause.................................................371 The Gerund and the Verbal Noun..............................372 The Participle..................................................382 The Forms of the Participle.................................383 The Functions of the Present Participle (Participle I)......383 The Functions of the Past Participle (Participle II)........384 The Tense and Voice Distinctions of the Present Participle and the Past Participle..........384 Verb Characteristics of the Participle......................386 Adjective Characteristics of the Participle.................386 The Objective Participial Construction (The Complex Object)........................................403 The Subjective Participial Construction.....................407 The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction............409 The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction.........410 The Nominative Absolute Construction (without a Participle)......................................415 The Prepositional Absolute Construction (without a Participle)......................................415 The Preposition.....................................................417 Kinds of Prepositions...........................................417 The Place of Prepositions.......................................418 The Use of More Frequently Met Prepositions.....................418 Prepositions of Place.......................................418 Prepositions of Movement and Direction......................421 Prepositions of Time........................................421 Verbs, Adjectives, Nouns, Participles with Prepositions.........430 The Conjunction.....................................................438 Coordinating Conjunctions.......................................438 Subordinating Conjunctions......................................438 The Particle........................................................443 Kinds of Particles..............................................443 7
The Interjection...............................................444 The Sentence...................................................445 Kinds of Sentences.........................................445 Interrogative Sentences................................445 Yes/No Questions.......................................446 Wh-Questions...........................................446 Subject/Object Questions...............................447 Question Tags..........................................447 Alternative Questions..................................449 Indirect Questions.....................................449 Short Answers..........................................449 Emphatic Structures............................................456 Inversion .....................................................458 Punctuation....................................................464 The Full Stop..............................................464 The Comma..................................................465 The Semicolon..............................................467 The Colon..................................................467 The Question Mark..........................................467 The Exclamation Mark.......................................467 The Brackets...............................................468 The Hyphen.................................................468 The Dash...................................................468 The Inverted Commas........................................468 The Apostrophe.............................................469 Abbreviations..................................................469 Letter-Writing.................................................469 Appendices.....................................................471 Appendix 1 Summary of Tenses.............................471 Appendix 2 Irregular Verbs...............................475 Appendix 3 Prepositional Phrases.........................481 Appendix 4 Linking Words/Phrases.........................486 Appendix 5 Phrasal Verbs.................................491 Appendix 6 Word Families.................................513 Appendix 7 Idioms........................................518 Appendix 8 American English..............................525 Appendix 9 List of Grammar Terms and Key Words...........526 Sources........................................................542
The Word The Parts of Speech A word is the smallest unit of speech that can express a thought. The different kinds of words used in any language are called the parts of speech. There are eleven main parts of speech in the English lan- guage. Name 1. The Noun 2. The Article 3. The Adjective 4. The Pronoun 5. The Numeral 6. The Verb 7. The Adverb 8. The Conjunction 9. The Preposition 10. The Particle 11. The Interjection Examples Moscow, a man, bread etc. the, an, a Russian, English, good, black etc. I, you, she, this, no etc. one, six, twenty, the first etc. to work, to go, to write etc. here, there, now, then, well etc. and, but, neither...nor etc. on, in, at, under, below etc. but, only, too, also etc. Oh, yes! Of course etc. The Noun The noun is a part of speech which denotes things (a table, a book), living beings (a girl, a boy), materials (air, gold), quali- ties (kindness, strength) processes (conversation, writingJ, abstract notions (beauty, love, peace) and states (sleep, consciousness). Nouns can be divided into simple nouns, derived nouns and compound nouns. Simple nouns consist of only one stem: dog, chair, room. Derived nouns are composed of one stem and prefixes or suffixes: freedom, cruelty, friendship, visitor, brotherhood etc. Compound nouns consist of at least two stems. There are a great many compound nouns in English such as: newspaper, seaman, bluebell, forget-me-not, passer-by etc. 9
The main noun forming suffixes are: Suffix Examples -er -ist -ment -ness -ion/tion/sion -dom -hood -ship -ty -ess -or -ance -ence worker, teacher, writer dramatist, telegraphist development, government happiness, kindness connection, production freedom, wisdom childhood, brotherhood friendship, leadership property, cruelty actress, hostess sailor, visitor importance, resistance difference, dependence The main prefixes are: Prefix dis- in- re- co- mis- over- sub- ex- un- Examples disorder inability reconstruction coeducation misunderstanding overproduction subcommittee ex-president unemployment 0 EXERCISES Exercise I State the part of speech of each word in bold type giving a reason for your answer. 1. I like spring flowers. 2. The cat springs on the mouse. 3. Spring is the first season of the year. 4. I haven’t any doubt about the result. 5. I doubt whether you can do this work. 6. The boy is a very hard worker. 7. You must work hard. 8. That firm is a very good one. 10
9. He spoke in a firm voice. 10. The fly walked over the table and then began to fly round the room. 11. The pond is round. 12. Give me a drink of water. 13. I <im going to water the garden, it is very dry. 14. I am going to paper my bedroom. 15. The boy wore a paper hat. 16. Did you read the paper this morning? Exercise II State to what part of speech each word in bold type belongs. 1. We have received a wire from Moscow. 2. Wire me as soon as you arrive in Moscow. 3. I iron my clothes with an iron. 4. The iron bars were covered with rust. 5. Iron is heavy. 6. Let me drive as quick as possible. 7. We had a long drive in a motor-car. 8. Your hat wants a brush. 9. I brush my hair with a hair-brush. 10. He headed the movement. 11. He has a good head. 12. He is a forward boy for his age. 13. He has promised to forward your letters. 14. Paper the walls with white paper. 15. Light the lamp. 16. The lamp gives a poor light. 17. You have got wet paint on the back of your coat. 18. Now let’s paint. Exercise III Form nouns from the given words with the help of suffixes -er and -or. Model: to buy <=> buyer; to direct <=> director To inspect, to invent, to produce, to sell, to teach, to supply, to translate, to visit, to work, to write, to interpret, to lead, to sail, to drive, to ride. Exercise IV Form nouns from the given words with the help of suffixes: -ment, -ance, -ence, -dom, -hood, -ness, -ist, -ion, -tion. Model: to develop <=> development important <=> importance To agree, dark, free, different, child, wise, to govern, kind, to improve, resistant, neighbour, to move, material, science, to collect, to dictate, to produce, weak. 11
Exercise V Give words opposite in meaning to the following; use nega- tive prefixes: dis-, un-, in-. Model: honesty c> dishonesty Appearance, armament, comfort, certainty, dependencejustice, trust, truth, decision, ability, easiness, employment, agreement, comfort, convenience. Exercise VI Form compound nouns from these phrases. Model: a machine for sewing = a sewing-machine a stick for walking a desk for writing a room where we sit a room where we dress a room where we dine a bath where we can swim a lamp for reading Kinds of Nouns The main kinds of nouns are: 1) proper nouns; 2) common nouns. Proper Nouns Proper nouns are individual names given to separate per- sons and things (personal names, geographical names etc): Ann, Peter, London, Moscow, September, Tuesday. Proper names are always written with a capital letter. Common Nouns A common noun denotes not one person or thing, but is com- mon to all persons and things of the same kind: girl, book, house, table, eat, family, coal, oil, love, navy etc. Common nouns are divided into: a) class nouns, b) collective nouns, 12
c) mass nouns, d) abstract nouns. Class Nouns Class nouns denote persons or things of the same class: book, man, dog, engineer, doctor. Class nouns are countables for they can be counted. Therefore they have two numbers: the singular and the plural. Collective Nouns Collective nouns denote a number of individuals or things considered as one complete whole: nation, army, cattle, machinery. Collective nouns fall under the following groups: a) nouns used only in the singular and denoting a number of things considered as one object: machinery, people, crowd', b) nouns which are singular in form but have plural meaning: people, police, cattle', c) group nouns that refer to a group of people. They may be both singular and plural depending on whether we see the group as a whole or as individuals. Such nouns are: army, audience, crew, crowd, family, press, public, team etc. Note: The plural form peoples means nations. Mass Nouns Mass nouns denote different kinds of material: coal, iron, gold, milk, coffee, tea, honey etc. These nouns may be used in plural number to denote differ- ent sorts of that material: Different kinds of coals are excavated in Siberia. Mass nouns can’t be counted, and therefore they are called uncountable nouns. Abstract Nouns Abstract nouns denote some quality, action or idea: kind- ness, friendship, liberty, love, knowledge, freedom, sorrow, courage etc. 13
Abstract nouns may become class nouns when used with the article. Then they can be used in the plural number too: beauty - a beauty - beauties The girl is a beauty. coal - a coal - coals Coal is mainly composed of carbon. A coal fell out of the fire. iron - an iron - irons Iron is heavy. I have bought a new iron. Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by means of partitives: A piece of cake/information/advice/fumiture; a jar of jam; a glass/bottle of water; a tin of beans; a pint of milk; a box of chocolates; a packet of biscuits/tea; a slice/loaf of bread; a pot of yoghurt; a pot/cup of tea; a kilo of meat; a bottle of vinegar; a tube of toothpaste; a bar of chocolate/soap; a bit/piece of chalk; an ice cube; a lump of sugar; a sheet of paper; a bag of flour; a pair of trousers; a game of soccer; a(n) item /piece of news; a drop/can of oil; a can of cola; a carton of milk; a block of wood etc. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Write (c) countable or (u) uncountable. 1. sugar 11. house 2. pen 12. boy 3. bird 13. fruit 4. transport 14. luggage 5. housework 15. chess 6. ball 16. food 7. soap 17. dog 8. bridge 18. furniture 9. news 19. weather 10. water 20. sausage Exercise II Write the countable and uncountable nouns into two columns. Air, aviation, hair, bread, darkness, water, glass (стекло), glass (стакан), iron (железо), iron (утюг), happiness, hero, sand, 14
music, friend, friendship, coffee, coin, money, ink, watch, tree, ice, horse, speed, umbrella, butter, cow, heat, chalk, armchair, sand, idea, ship, meat. Exercise III State whether the nouns in bold type are countable or un- countable. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The box is made of iron. 2. A red-hot iron pressed her hand. 3. He saw a light in one window on the ground floor. 4. The moon gave good light though it was low in the sky. 5. The boys stood on the bank throwing stones into the river. 6. When I think of this my heart turns to stone*. 7. Her hair has gone quite grey. 8. Among the guests I saw a man with hardly a hair on his head. 9.1 prefer fish for supper. 10. All the water rushed out and the reeds were full of fishes. 11. The doctor says that the patient is past danger. 12. Old seamen like to talk about past dangers at sea. 13. The Crimea is famous for its wines. 14. Wine is made of grapes. 15. Ice is frozen water. 16. Ices are made of cream, sugar and eggs. Exercise IV State whether the nouns in bold type are proper or common. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. By the time the clock on the tower struck midnight the streets of the city were almost deserted. 2. The group of ancient fortified buildings, called the Tower, is of the greatest historical interest. 3. The picture we spoke about is in the Hermitage. 4. The Albatross dropped anchor at a small port to get a new supply of fresh water. The albatross is a large sea-bird. 5. The snow-covered summit was glistening in the rays of the rising sun. 6. There was a town, down there, called Summit. 7. Isaac Newton was a great British physicist. 8. The unit of power is called the newton. 15
There are three genders of nouns: 1) masculine, 2) feminine, 3) neuter. Masculine Gender Masculine gender is used for all male persons, animals, birds etc: boy, actor, poet, cock, son, father, man, husband, brother etc. Note: In fairy-tales and folk-lore in general big and strong animals always are considered as masculine: the bear, the lion, the elephant, the tiger. But the cat, the hare, the mouse is considered to be femi- nine. Feminine Gender Feminine gender is used for females: girl, daughter, mother, sister, wife, woman, hen, bee etc. Neuter Gender Neuter gender is used for names of inanimate objects and abstract notions: table, bed, pen, tree, stone, road, storm, fear. Note: Very young children and animals are usually con- sidered as neuter: baby, horse, sheep. Most nouns describing people have the same form whether they are male or female: teacher, student etc. Some nouns have different forms, though: actor - actress, groom - bride etc. Ways of Indicating Gender There are usually three ways of showing the gender of dif- ferent nouns. a) by using different words: boy - girl nephew - niece gentleman - lady brother - sister son - daughter king - queen 16
father - mother husband - wife widower - widow groom - bride lord - lady barman - barmaid monk - nun uncle - aunt cock - hen b) by adding the suffix (usually -ess): actor - actress lion - lioness author - authoress mister - mistress duke - duchess tiger - tigress host - hostess poet - poetess waiter - waitress emperor - empress prince - princess steward - stewardess host - hostess hero - heroine usher - usherette c) by adding a word denoting gender (after or before): cock-sparrow - hen-sparrow grandfather - grandmother tom-cat - tabby-cat he-bear - she-bear man-servant - billy-goat - male-child - pea-cock boy-friend - man-student - maid-servant nanny-goat female-child pea-hen girl-friend woman-student man-teacher - woman-teacher etc. In poetry or in folk-lore many things are often personified and considered as being either masculine or feminine: The Sun, time, day, death, names of rivers, mountains are masculine; The Moon, the Earth, night, nature, names of countries, names of vessels (ship, boat, steamer, ice-breaker etc), names of vehi- cles (car, carriage, coach), abstract nouns (beauty, peace, wis- dom) are feminine. Number English nouns have two numbers: the singular and the plu- ral. A noun that names only one thing is in the singular number. A noun that names more than one thing is in the plural number. Proper, material and abstract nouns, unless used as com- mon nouns, have no plural. 17
The Formation of the Plural The different ways of forming the plural of nouns are a) by adding -5 to the singular; -5 is pronounced like [s] after voiceless consonants: book - books; map - maps; like [z] after vowels and voiced consonants: table - tables; girl - girls; b) by adding -es to the singular, if the noun ends in -s, -x, -z, -sh, -ss or ch; -es are pronounced like [iz]: class - classes bus - buses watch - watches box - boxes brush - brushes; •c) by changing final -y into i + the ending -es: copy - copies country - countries berry - berries fly - fifes. Note. A final -y is changed into -ies only when it is pre- ceded by another consonant. Otherwise, i. e. if the -y is preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed by adding simply -s day - days monkey - monkeys toy - toys; d) by adding -es to nouns ending in -o which is preceded by a consonant: hero - heroes potato - potatoes echo - echoes Exceptions piano - pianos canto - cantos photo - photos concerto - concertos dynamo - dynamos tango - tangos 18
solo - solos tobacco - tobaccos grotto - grottos auto - autos kilo - kilos memo - memos If -o is preceded by a vowel, then the plural is formed by adding simply -5: studio - studios cuckoo - cuckoos portfolio - portfolios e) Some nouns ending in -o can take -es or -s. These are: buf- faloes/buffalos, mosquitoes/mosquitos, volcanqes/volcanos, zeroes/zeros, tornadoes/tornados etc. f) by changing final -f or -fe into -ves: thief- thieves wolf - wolves self - selves leaf - leaves life - lives calf - calves half - halves knife - knives shelf - shelves Exceptions roof - roofs cliff - cliffs proof - proofs chief - chiefs safe - safes gulf - gulfs belief - beliefs reef - reefs grief - griefs handkerchief - handkerchiefs In a few cases both -fs and -ves are possible: scarf - scar/s/scarves dwarf - dwar/s/dwarves hoof - hoo/s/hooves g) by changing the root vowel: man - men woman - women tooth - teeth foot - feet goose - geese mouse - mice louse - lice h) by adding -en or -ren\ ox - oxen child - children 19
i) Nouns ending in -th after a long vowel or a diphthong have [dz] in the plural: baths [bcudz paths [pcudz oaths [avdz] Exceptions youths [ju:0s]; births [b3:0s] Nouns Used Only in the Singular or in the Plural, or in Both Singular and Plural 1. Some nouns are used only in the singular form: weather, advice, air, peace, knowledge, strength, business, luggage, money, information, progress, news, research, fur- niture. 2. Some nouns are used only in the plural form: compasses, pyjamas, binoculars, outskirts, congratulations, wages, spectacles, scissors, trousers, tongs, contents, proceeds, thanks, sweets, goods, stairs, oats, riches. 3. The following nouns have the same form in the singular and in the plural: sheep - sheep, deer - deer, swine - swine, fish - fish, trout - trout, salmon - salmon, grouse - grouse, means - means, species - species, series - series, aircraft - aircraft, spacecraft - spacecraft, hovercraft - hovercraft, corps [кэ:] - corps [ko:z]. 4. Names, indicating number, such as: pair, couple, dozen, score, stone (мера веса: 14 англ, фунтов = 6,35 кг) and head have the same form for both the singular and plural when they are preceded by a numeral: two dozen of handkerchiefs, five pair of shoes, one thousand head of cattle. But when they are not preceded by a numeral they take the usual plural form: to go in pairs, dozens of times. 20
5. Nationality nouns ending in -ese, -ss have the same form in the singular and in the plural: Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Swiss. We met a Japanese. We met many Japanese on our holiday. The Plural of the Compound Nouns Compound nouns form their plural by adding -sl-es\ 1. to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns: pocket-knife - pocket-knives, tooth-brush - tooth-brushes; 2. to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and a noun: flying pan - flying pans, walking stick - walking sticks; 3. to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns con- nected by a preposition or to the noun if the compound has only one noun: mother-in-law - mothers-in-law, passer-by - passers-by; 4. at the end of the compound if it does not include any nouns: forget-me-not - forget-me-nots, grown-up - grown-ups. The Plural of Abbreviations MP (Member of Parliament) - MPs ['em'pi:z] MD (Doctor of Medicine) - MDs ['em'di:z] Co (Company) - Cos [kavz] The plural of abbreviations is sometimes formed in spelling by doubling a letter: Ms(manuscript) - MSS p. (page) - pp Mr (Mister) - Messrs ['mesoz] 21
The Plural of Foreign Words A number of foreign (particularly Latin and Greek) nouns have their original plural endings. Singular Plural -is [is] c> -es [i-z] analysis axis basis crisis diagnosis thesis analyses axes bases crises diagnoses theses -on, -urn Ф -а[э] phenomenon criterion datum stratum maximum minimum phenomena criteria data strata maxima minima -us Ф -z[ai] -ora [ora] -era [ara] focus radius nucleus genus corpus foci radii nuclei genera corpora -a -ae [i:] formula antenna corona formulae antennae coronae - ex, -ix c> -ices [aisiz] index appendix indices - appendices 22
Some foreign nouns may have two plural forms: the English plural and the original foreign one: curriculum formula memorandum memoranda memorandums curricula curriculums formulae formulas Nouns with Two Plurals, Each with a Different Meaning Some nouns have two plurals used with some difference of meaning: brother 1) brothers (sons of the same mother) 2) brethren ['bredrm] (members of the same society) cloth 1) cloth (kinds of cloth) 2) clothes (articles of dress) penny 1) pennies (coins) 2) pence (amount of pennies in value) staff 1) staff (military staffs, staffs of an institution) [stu:f] 2) staves (sticks) genius 1) geniuses (men of talent) ['djimjos] 2) genii ['djmiai] (spirits) index 1) indexes (tables of content) 2) indices ['mdisi:z] (mathematical terms) Nouns Having One Meaning in the Singular and Another in the Plural compass (magnetic instrument) - compasses (mathematical instruments ) beef (meat) - beeves (live animals) custom (habit) - customs (import duties) colour (tint) - colours (flag) 23
force (strength) - forces (troops) spectacle (sight) - spectacles (eye-glasses) work (action) - works (plants, factories) pain (ache) - pains (effort) damage (injury) - damages (compensation for injury) quarter (fourth part) - quarters (lodgings) paper (material) - papers (documents) scale (proportion) - scales (weighing machine) glass (drinking vessel) - glasses (spectacles) 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Give the plural of the following nouns. 1) man, woman, tooth, foot, mouse, goose, child; 2) fly, city, toy, key, fox, watch, clock, bus, bush, thief, life, wolf, roof, shelf, company, country, valley; 3) formula, antenna, basis, crisis, phenomenon, nucleus, se- ries, datum, index, apparatus, medium; 4) fellow-student, passer-by, brother-in-law, merry-go-round, man-of-war, room-mate. Exercise II Give the plural of the following nouns. 1) hero, piano, calf, proof, chief, stitch, bath, Negro, belief, berry, family; 2) boot, ox, mouth, ship, deer, cheese, sheep, leaf; 3) corps, criterion, analysis, curriculum, stratum; 4) room-mate, fellow-worker, sister-in-law, woman-doctor. Exercise III Give the plural of the following nouns. class death language fellow-student house cliff tomato story tower village child storey judge month berry brush hope hoof pie stepmother sea truth brush bee shoe scarf postman wife pin tooth textbook genius 24
Exercise IV State the number of the following nouns and give the corre- sponding singular or plural, if any. Brethren, memoranda, antenna, means, scissors, school- inspector, pence, sanatoria, strata, fish, photo, axes, physics, cloth, cpmmander-in-chief, works, forget-me-not, swine, halves, staff, sleeves, grief, mice, species, contents, sledges, business, knowledge, feet, corps, phenomena, clothes, bases, sheep, information, louse, copy, oxen, shelves. Exercise V State the number of each noun in bold type and say whether the noun has the corresponding singular or plural form. 1. What is the news? 2. These scissors are made long ago. 3. Under the great oaks a flock of sheep was feeding, and behind a steel fence a herd of deer. 4. The fruit is not yet ripe. 5. She gave me some good advice. 6. My friend spends much money on education. 7. He gave me all the necessary information. 8. Her hair is dark. 9. These data are quite correct. 10. He took five or six fish out of the net. 11. A series of English classics has recently been published. 12. Optics is a branch of physics. 13. Such phenomena as we saw last night are rarely to be seen. 14. Several strange species of animals exist in Australia. 15. The cattle were driven home. Exercise VI Fill in the plural. I wonder who decides what sort of...........(animal) are kept in.............(zoo)? You expect to see a lot of........... (monkey),.............(rhino), and............(lion), but you rarely see............(ox),............(sheep),............. (deer) or...........(goose), probably because these can be seen commonly enough in the wild. Each day large................. (delivery) of food arrive for........... (beast) to eat. Not expensive items like..........(salmon) or.........(trout), but ordinary things like...........(potato) and............. (tomato) - although the............(panda) like............. (bamboo). The whole family...............(man),............. (woman) and..............(child) can take...........(photo) or make ................. (video) of them eating with their ....................(paw)...............and.(tooth), since animals do not use....................................................(knife) and.(fork) to eat. 25
Exercise VII State the number of the nouns in bold type and give the cor- responding singular or plural, if any. 1. The doctor told me not to read without eye-glasses. 2. He remembered Pete and his brethren. 3. Once she got an offer, but the wages were only fourteen shillings a week. 4. Do you ski? - Used to. But I haven’t any skis now. 5. You did not witness any of these phenomena yourself, did you? 6. One of the air hostesses was making a count of heads. 7. These was hardly a white hair on her head. 8. A wire fence ran all around to keep our rabbits and deer. 9. He walked out of the room and towards the stairs. 10. She was one of those actresses who were quite sure of themselves from the first rehearsal. 11. Three mouthfuls of soup convinced him that he could not eat. 12. The sheep were silent; the only sound in the darkness was from the stream. Exercise VIII Change the number of the nouns in bold type making all the necessary changes. 1. The ox drove a cart of hay. 2. Her hair was soft and curly. 3. A very strange phenomenon was observed by astronomers yesterday. 4. She gave a dog a fish. 5. He showed me a photo of his country house. 6. That girl had a pet sheep. 7. The roof of the house is made of slate. 8. The fox stole a goose from the farmyard. 9.1 lost the key to the cupboard. 10. The hunter got a prize for killing a wolf. 11. The child was bitterly crying over the broken toy. 12. At the festival there was a Swiss, a German, a Frenchman and others. 13. I was presented with a dozen handkerchiefs. 14. The scout brought some valuable information. 15. The boy must have two teeth pulled out. Exercise IX Change the nouns in bold type into the singular and make other necessary changes. 1. In this shop the girls bought two pair of very good scissors. 2. My mother put two loaves of bread on the table. 3. We saw black sheep in the field. 4. Deer are grazing in the valley. 5. In the library we saw long shelves with books. 6. The wolves have been shot. 7. The leaves of the flower were darkgreen. 8. The mice were caught. 9. The keys to the boxes were lost. 10. These factories produce furniture. 11. Women and children came to the shore. 26
12. Where are the knives? 13. Some copies of the contract were sent to the factory. 14. Put these boxes on the shelves. Exercise X Translate into English. 1. Мне нужен ваш совет в этом вопросе. 2. Многие из этих советов нам очень пригодились. 3. Все сведения были очень важные. 4. Мы получили такие же сведения. 5. Эти деньги не мои. 6. Сколько у тебя денег? - У меня мало денег; их не хватит на покупку приемника. 7. Его знания в этой области поразили нас. 8. Ваших знаний недостаточно, чтобы выпол- нить эту работу. 9. Его работы в области физики широко известны. 10. Какая интересная работа! 11. Какие вы нам принесли новости? 12. Эти новости уже всем известны. 13. Какая дождливая погода! 14. В детстве её волосы были совсем светлые; теперь они потемнели. 15. Я могу расска- зать вам очень интересную новость. Exercise XI Translate into English. 1. Фрукты в нашем саду уже созрели. 2. Мне очень нравятся эти часы. Где вы их купили? 3. Волосы растут быстрее в дет- стве. 4. Какая приятная новость: к нам приезжают друзья, которых мы давно ждали. 5. Каково содержание этой кни- ги? 6. Знания, приобретенные в молодом возрасте, остают- ся в памяти на долгие годы. 7. Деньги держат в бумажнике или кошельке. 8. Когда мы спим, наша одежда обычно ле- жит на стуле около кровати. 9. Какие из этих овец будут посланы на выставку? 10. Рыбаки были довольны: они пой- мали много рыбы. 11. Мои попутчики были веселые и инте- ресные люди. 12. Возьмите эти ножницы, они острые. 13. Мальчик вырос, и брюки стали ему коротки. 14. В ко- робке было шесть пар чулок. 15. Его одежда совсем новая. Exercise XII Translate into English. 1. Фрукты и овощи полезны для здоровья. 2. Молодой спе- циалист всегда следовал советам своих друзей. 3. Ваш брат делает большие успехи в учебе. 4. Я могу рассказать вам очень интересную новость. 5. Купите для детей несколько пар перчаток и две дюжины шерстяных носков. 6. Какая ваша заработная плата? 7. В этом лесу водятся олени. 27
8. Не знаю, насколько важны эти сведения. 9. Это очень трудная, но интересная работа. 10. Твои часы неправиль- но идут. 11. Я не мог войти в сад, так как ворота были закрыты. 12. Товар только что прибыл. 13. Содержание его письма было совсем неожиданным. 14. Кому принад- лежат эти деньги? 15. Какого цвета у неё волосы? 16. Это твои деньги, не так ли? Case English nouns have two cases: 1) the common case with no ending: father, boy, sister, 2) the possessive case which is marked by the apostrophe s('s): father's, sister's;fathers', sisters'. The possessive case usually shows possession. In the singu- lar it has ending -'s. It is pronounced [s] after voiceless conso- nants: the student's book', and [z] after voiced consonants and vowels: the dog's tail, the boy's cap. In the plural it is formed by - (e) s': the boys' caps, the horses' hoofs. When a proper noun ends in -5, -ss, -x, only apostrophe is added, and the ending is pronounced [iz]: Burns's [ Zb3:nziz] po- ems, Dickens's ['dikmziz] novels. Sometimes -'s is added, the pronounciation remains [iz]: Bum’s poems, Dickens’s novels. In compound nouns the ending's is added to the final word: the editor-in-chief's office, my mother-in-law's garden. Nouns denoting inanimate objects and sometimes abstract notions form the idea of the possessive case by the of + noun phrase: The roof of the house was brown. She asked a glass of water. The Use of the Possessive Case 1. As a rule, the possessive case is used with nouns denoting persons and animals: John's idea, the swallow's nest. 2. In the following instances the possessive case may be used with names denoting inanimate objects. a) With nouns denoting time and distance, such as: minute, moment, hour, day, week, month, year, inch, foot, mile and ad- verbs: today, yesterday etc: today’s newspaper, a, month’s absence, a week’s time, a mile’s distance, a njght’s rest, a few minutes’ silence. 28
b) Often with the nouns town, city, country, river, water, ocean, world, life', the country's camps, the water's edge, the town's streets. c) With the nouns ship, boat, car. the ship's crew. d) With nouns denoting planets sun, moon, earth: the sun's rays, the earth's life. e) With the names of newspapers and nouns denoting dif- ferent kinds of organizations: the Tribune 's role, the government's policy. f) With some inanimate nouns in a few set expressions: at death's door (при смерти); at arm's length (на расстоянии вытянутой руки); for order's sake (порядка ради); at a stone's throw (в двух шагах); at one's fingers end (до крайности); for pity's sake (умоляю вас); a pin's head (ушко иглы) etc. There are some cases when the noun in the possessive case is not followed by the head noun and then it stands for the whole noun phrase. It is used: 1. to avoid repetition: Our house is better than Mary's. 2. after the preposition я/if there is an attribute before the noun modified by the ^/-phrase: an old friend of my mother's, that cousin of my husband's', 3. to denote places where business is conducted such as: at the butcher's, at the baker's, at the grocer's, at the chemist's or institutions, where the possessive is usually a saint’s name: St Paul's (Cathedral), St James's (Palace), or places of resi- dence: at Timothy's, at my uncle's, at old Jolyon's. 1И EXERCISES Exercise I Use the nouns in bold type in the possessive case. 1. The room of my friend. 2. A meeting of workers. 3. The novels of Dickens (2 variants). 4. The rights of women. 5. The poems of Byron. 6. The flat of my brother-in-law. 7. The interval of three hours. 8. The rights of a judge. 9. Rights of judges. 10. A book which belongs to James. 11. Coats for men. 12. A coat for a man. 13. The hammer of a worker. 29
Exercise II Replace the ^/-phrases by the noun in the possessive case. 1. The new club of the workers. 2. The poems of Lermontov. 3. The clothes of the boys. 4. The streets of the town. 5. The plays of Shakespeare. 6. The voice of his sister. 7. The orders of the Commander-in-Chief. 8. The pages of the book. 9. The watch of my friend Peter. 10. The birthday of my daughter Helen. 11. The parents of all the other boys. 12. The boats of the fishermen. 13. The opinion of the lawyer. 14. The house of my father-in-law. 15. The rights of women. 16. The fathers of Peter and John. 17. The poems of Byron and Shelly. Exercise III Replace the ^/-phrases by the noun in the possessive case where possible. 1. I spent a fortnight in the house of my sister. 2. Never shall I forget those words of my father. 3. We could not tear our eyes Qff the hands of the pianist. 4. The girl was nicely dressed for the ceremony of the evening. 5. He did not want to hurt the feelings of the girl. 6. The river was at a distance of a mile and a half from the camp. 7. The supper of the children is ready. 8. The house of my daughter-in-law is within a stone’s throw from here. 9. There was a great variety of books for children on display. 10. There was a spot of ink on the table cloth. 11. We visited the village of Mikhailovskoye where Pushkin, the great poet of Russia, lived in exile. 12. He told me of the return of his brother Mike. 13. Will you join the excursion of today? 14. Before I could say a word, the sound of carriage wheels was heard. Exercise IV Put the apostrophe, comment upon use of the possessive case and translate into Russian. 1. These are Pushkins poems. 2. For politeness sake stay a little longer. 3. Goats milk contains more fat than cows milk. 4. Dickens novels are true to life. 5. Ann has gone to the butchers. 6. Kate is Peters friend. 7. A lot of ladies and gentlemens shoes are on sale. 8. My younger brothers wife is a singer. 9. It is todays literature that we are studying. 10. We kept him at arms length. 11. What kind of girl was Toms wife? 12.1 went to the chemists with the doctors prescription. 13. Many Scotts novels are very romantic. 14. Four sheeps heads appeared above the hedge. 30
Exercise V Put s, ’s, or s’ instead of the hyphens where necessary. 1. This is a new adition of Pushkin_ poem_. 2. That man was Pete_ and Mary_ old teacher_ of music. 3. Those were Nick_ and Kate_ parent. . 4. We spent a week, holiday in Britain. 5. We spent a two week, holiday with the Petrov.. 6. The book is neither John, nor Helen.. 7. Father took some money from his pocket and gave it to my younger brother.. 9. Esenin, life was short but bright. 10. Tchaikovsky, house in Klin is now a museum. 11. The wall, in the hunter, club were decorated with mountain goat, and wild deer. horn.. 12. A great many musician, took part in the competition. 13. Many times he rewrote some of his novel, chapter, before publishing them. 14. His eyes narrowed like a cat.. Exercise VI Use’s or s’ where it is possible. 1. the exercise-books of the pupils 2. a voyage of a month 3. the birthday of her son 4. the days of the week 5. work of three years 6. theatres of Moscow 7. the decision of the government 8. the crew of the ship 9. the best museums of our city 10. the clothes of the girls 11. the windows of the room 12. the success of the company Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. Вы знаете телефон Петра? 2. У вас есть карта Европы? 3. Рабочий день моего брата начинается в 9 часов утра. 4. Вы знаете мнение вашего учителя? 5. Муж моей сестры уехал в Москву. 6. Они сообщили нам о прибытии такси. 7. Учащиеся выполнили советы учителя. 8. Я еще не знаю решения директора. 9. Мы еще не получили ответы поку- пателей. 10. Сестра моего мужа работает в школе. 11. Давай зайдем в кондитерскую. 12. Он все еще у твоей матери. 31
Exercise VIII Translate into English. 1. Лагерь туристов был расположен на берегу реки. 2. Они пошли в отдел детской обуви. 3. Чье предложение вы под- держиваете - директора или главного инженера? 4. Как зовут сестру вашего друга? 5. У него не было своего ве- лосипеда, он брал велосипед у соседа. 6. Глаза её были такие же красивые, как у её матери. 7. Мы с братом ку- пили башмаки в одно и то же время. Мои уже износи- лись, а у брата совсем еще новые. 8. В санатории после обеда необходимо отдыхать в течение часа. 9. Мнения разошлись. Одни предлагали встречать Новый год у Пет- ровых, а другие - у Никитиных. 10. По дороге домой мы купили большой букет роз - любимые цветы моей мате- ри. 11. Население Лондона составляет более восьми мил- лионов. 12. Портрет жены Рембранта - один из шедев- ров художника. Exercise IX Translate into English. 1. Книги Ильфа и Петрова очень популярны в нашей стра- не. 2. Я очень люблю пьесы Шекспира. 3. Её лицо было маленькое, как у ребенка. 4. Он один из ближайших дру- зей моего отца. 5. Мне не нравится новая подруга Анны. 6. Я провела зимние каникулы у тети. 7. Как я люблю этот портрет отца! 8. Вчера у меня не было времени пойти в парикмахерскую. 9. Сегодня мы собираемся к дедушке и бабушке. 10. На лестничной площадке было четыре две- ри. Я не знала, которая из них была дверь моих друзей. 11. Каково ваше мнение о сегодняшнем путешествии? 12. Несколько дней тому назад я встретила старую под- ругу моей мамы. 13. Вчера я отдала мои часы часовщику. 14. У меня была пятиминутная беседа с преподавателем литературы. 15. Я очень хорошо помню эту улыбку Ма- рии! 16. Глаза доктора встретились с его глазами. 17. Не люблю я эту новую приятельницу Мэри! Exercise X Translate into English. 1. Я провел неделю в гостях у друга моей матери, который живет в Нью-Йорке. 2. В сегодняшней газете есть длинная статья моего учителя. 3. До его работы было несколько ми- 32
нут ходьбы. 4. Он никогда не забудет доброту своей ба- бушки. 5. Хозяин дома не живет в нем, но иногда сюда при- езжает. 6. Тон его голоса был очень добрым. 7. Он отпра- вился в аптеку купить лекарство. 8. Это не мои друзья. Они друзья моей матери и отца. 9. Я сейчас не дома. Я у Елены. 10. Кого вы встретили у моих родителей? 11. Он все еще у своей матери. 12. Я встретил их, когда они возвращались от друзей. 13. Чье сочинение вам больше нравится: Ника или Елены? 14. Она одна из двоюродных сестер моего отца. 15. Это одна из любимых книг моей мамы. 16. Маленький Том улыбался. Его улыбка была похожа на улыбку отца. 17. У меня нет своего фотоаппарата. Это фотоаппарат мо- его дедушки. 18. Филипп был одним из старых школьных друзей Джона. The Article The article is used as a determiner of the noun. There are two articles in the English language: 1) the indefinite article and 2) the definite article. A [o] and an [on] are called indefinite articles. They have developed from the old cardinal numeral one. It is pronounced [o] before consonants and [on] before vowels: a table [o ' teibl]; an apple [on 'aepl]. The definite article the [do, di] has developed from the de- monstrative pronoun this. The definite article is pronounced do] before consonants and [di] before vowel sounds: the pen do 'pen]; the hour [di 'avo] The use of articles in English is a difficult thing, but gram- mar rules can help in this work. The Use of the Indefinite Article The indefinite article is used: 1. before common nouns in the singular used in a general sense: I have a chair in my room. 2 H. Утевская 33
Note. In the plural no article is used in this case: I have chairs in my room. 2. before nouns showing time, number, weight, measure, price: Summer comes once a year. I go to the cinema once a week. I bought a kilogram of sugar. 3. before the words dozen, hundred, thousand, million etc: I want a dozen of eggs. A hundred students took part in the festival. 4. before the words few and little in the meaning of some: There were a few apples in the tree. I have a little time for you. 5. after the words many, such, quite, rather followed by a noun in the singular: He is such a clever boy. She is quite q good girl. This is rather a difficult problem. 6. after what in exclamatory sentences: What a nice day! 7. after the verbs be and have*. She is a teacher. 8. before a noun in apposition: Pete, a sixth-form pupil, is our best chess player. 9. it is often used in the sense of every '. The students have two English lessons a week. A child can understand it. A square has four sides. 10. after adjectives preceded by so and too'. It is riot so simple a question as it seems. There was too difficult a problem for the child to solve. 11. before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname when we refer to an unfa- miliar person: There's a Mr Smith waiting for you. 34
The Use of the Indefinite Article with Nouns in Set Expressions at a speed of co скоростью at a time when в то время когда for a short (long) time в течение короткого (долгого) времени in a loud (low) voice громким (тихим) голосом on a large (small) scale в большом (малом) масштабе all of a sudden внезапно in a hurry второпях to be in a position быть в состоянии to be at a loss быть в растерянности (недоумении) it’s a pity жаль as a result of в результате as a matter of fact фактически to have a good time хорошо провести время to have a mind to do something намереваться что-либо сделать to have a look взглянуть to have a headache испытывать головную боль to take a seat сесть to go for a walk пойти гулять to have a cold быть простуженным to fly into a passion прийти в бешенство to fly into a fury (rage) прийти в ярость to take a fancy to проникнуться симпатией it’s a shame стыдно it’s a pleasure приятно at a glance сразу, с первого взгляда to tell a lie говорить неправду The Use of the Definite Article The definite article is used: 1) before common nouns in the singular and the plural in a particular sense: How did you like the film? I have got the dictionary, you gave me. The performances at this theatre are of great artistic value. 35
2) before nouns denoting only one thing of its kind: the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, the sky, the world, the ground, the cosmos, the universe, the horizon. 3) before nouns preceded by an adjective in the superlative degree: the best pupil, the worst news, the most difficult thing. Note. Most used as a determiner followed by a noun, does not take the*. Most children like animals. 4) before family names meaning all its members: The Petrovs moved to a new flat. The Smiths left London for the USA. 5) before the names of certain buildings which are unique: the Kremlin, the Hermitage, the British Museum etc. 6) before the names of ships, railways, planes etc: the “Aurora”, the Great Midland Railway. 7) before the names of public institutions, theatres, cinemas, museums, libraries and hotels: the Bolshoi Theatre, the Russian Museum, the Russian National Library. 8) before the names of English-language newspapers: The Times, the Morning Star. 9) before the names of nationalities in plural ending in -sh, -ch or -ese: the English, the Japanese, the Dutch. Other plural nationalities are used with or without the: (the) Russians, (the) Germans, (the) Italians. 10) before an individual representing the whole class: The tiger is a fierce fighter. 11) before the names of four cardinal points and winds: the north, the south, the west, the east, the north wind. But when these words show direction, the is not needed: The expedition moved north. 36
12) before geographical names of rivers, seas, groups of islands, oceans, canals, deserts, mountain ranges and the names or nouns with of\ the Thames, the North Sea, the Alps, the Pacific Ocean, the Suez Canal, the Sahara Desert, the Bahamas, the Tower of London, the Statue of Liberty. 13) before the names of states which contain either a preposi- tion or the words Kingdom, States, Republic: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, the Yemen Arab Republic. Exceptions the Netherlands, the Argentine, the Hague, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transvaal, the Congo. 14) before musical instruments, dances: the piano, the tango 15) before the words: station, shop, cinema, pub, library, city, village etc.: She went to the station to see Peter off. 16) before the words: morning, afternoon, evening, night'. I'll be at home in the evening. 17) before historical references/events: the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, the Second World War. 18) before adjectives used as plural nouns: The rich can 7 understand the poor. 19) before titles: the Queen, the Prince. The is omitted before titles with proper names: Queen Victoria. 20) before the nouns preceded by same and very: I should like to read the same story. He read the book to the very end. 21) before the words: only, last, first (used as adjectives): He was the last person to come. 37
22) after the expressions: one of, some of many of each of most of all, both: Both of the girls won a prize. Some of the children got a five for a test. The Use of the Definite Article with Nouns in Set Expressions the other day на днях the day after tomorrow послезавтра by the dozen (hundred) дюжинами (сотнями) in the morning утром in (during) the night ночью in the afternoon днем in the evening вечером what’s the time? который час? the day before yesterday позавчера in (the) summer летом in (the) winter зимой in (the) spring весной in the country за городом in the singular в единственном числе in the plural во множественном числе in the past в прошлом in the present в настоящее время in the future в будущем in the original в оригинале on the whole в целом on the one hand с одной стороны on the other hand с другой стороны it’s out of the question об этом и речи быть не может to tell the time сказать, который час to pass the time проводить время to tell the truth говорить правду to break the record побить рекорд to run the risk подвергаться риску to play the piano (the violin, the harp) играть на пианино, скрипке, арфе to take the trouble to do something потрудиться to keep the house сидеть дома to keep the bed соблюдать постельный режим 38
to be on the safe side для верности to take (seize) smb by the shoulder схватить кого-либо за плечо to pull smb by the hair тащить кого-либо за волосы to kiss smb on the cheek (on the forehead etc.) поцеловать кого- либо в щеку (в лоб) to be wounded in the knee (in the arm etc.) быть раненым в колено (в руку) just the same точно такой же by the by кстати, между прочим by the way между прочим, кстати The Absence of the Article Usually the article is omitted: 1) before proper nouns: Peter, Ann, Mary, John 2) before the nouns of material: Iron is a very useful metal. Some children don 7 like milk. But: The milk in this bottle is sour. 3) before abstract nouns: After the day's work we needed rest. 4) before common nouns in the plural used in a general sense: Cows are useful domestic animals. 5) before the names of years, months, days: My work begins on Monday. Last winter was rather warm. 6) before the names of meals: Our first meal is breakfast. I usually drink tea at supper. 7) before the names of sciences and languages: Mathematics is my favourite subject. My sister studies English. 39
8) before the names of natural substances: We can 7 live without oxygen. 9) before the names of sports and games: Figure-skating is popular in this country. 10) before the names of different kinds of arts: The exhibition of Dutch painting is open in the Hermitage. 11) before the names of continents: Asia, Europe, South America. 12) before the names of countries and states: Japan, France, Texas. 13) before the names of cities, towns, villages: London is the biggest city in England. 14) before the names of individual mountains, islands and lakes: Everest, Ben Nevis, Easter Island, Lake Michigan. 15) before the names of holidays: Easter is a religious holiday. 16) before the names of planets and constellations: Mars, Pluto. 17) before the names of streets, roads, squares, bridges, parks: Red Square, Broadway, Piccadilly Circus, Tower Bridge, Hyde Park. 18) before the words: bed, church, college, court, hospital, prison, school, university, when we refer to the purpose for which they exist: Tom was sent to prison. But: She went to the prison as a visitor. 19) before the words: pubs, restaurants, shops, banks and hotels, which have the name of their founder and end in -s or -’s\ Lloyds Bank, John s shop. 20) before the names of airports, stations and universities where the first word is usually the name of a person or place: Cambridge University, Victoria Station, Kennedy Airport. 40
21) before the words: home, father/mother when we talk about our own home/parents: I'll ask Father about it. 22) before cardinal numerals: Three and four is seven. 23) before countable nouns in the singular when they show a post or a rank: We'll discuss the matter with Petrov, dean of our faculty. 24) before the names of illnesses: malaria, bronchites. But: mumps/the mumps, measles/the measles, flu/the flu. 25) Work (place of work) never takes the'. She s at work. Nouns Used in Set Expressions without an Article out of doors на улице, вне дома to take to heart принимать близко к сердцу at heart в глубине души to take offence обижаться to give (to get, to ask) permission дать (получить, попросить) разрешение to lose heart терять мужество from time to time время от времени from morning till night с утра до вечера from day to day co дня на день from shop to shop из магазина в магазин from head to foot с головы до ног from beginning to end с начала до конца at first sight с первого взгляда at sunrise на рассвете at sunset на закате at work за работой at night ночью at home дома at peace в мире 41
at war в состоянии войны at dinner (breakfast, supper) за обедом (завтраком, ужи- ном) at table за столом (т. е. за обедом, завтраком, ужином) at school в школе (на занятиях) by chance случайно by mistake по ошибке by land, by sea, by air сушей, морем, по воздуху by tram (train, boat, bus etc) трамваем (поездом, пароходом, автобусом и т. д.) by air воздушным путем by water водным путем by post (airmail) по почте (воздушной почтой) by heart наизусть by name по имени by order of по приказу кого-либо by means of посредством to be in town быть в городе to go to town поехать в город to go to bed ложиться спать to be in bed лежать в постели to go to sea стать моряком, выходить в море for hours часами for ages целую вечность in time во время in debt в долгу in demand пользоваться спросом on demand по требованию in sight в поле зрения in fact в действительности in conclusion в заключение on deck на палубе on board the ship на борту судна on credit в кредит on sale в продаже day after day день за днем day and night днем и ночью to be at hospital быть в больнице to be in church быть в церкви to be at prison быть в тюрьме to put to prison посадить в тюрьму to make use of использовать to pay attention to обратить внимание 42
to set fire to поджечь to shake hands with поздороваться to take care of заботиться 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Insert a or an if necessary. 1. My neighbour is.....photographer; let’s ask him for ... advice about colour films. 2. We had ... fish and...chips for.....lunch. That doesn’t sound.....very interesting lunch. 3. I had.....very bad night; I didn’t sleep..wink. 4. He is .... vegetarian; you won’t get ..... meat at his house. 5 travel agent would give you......... information about ....hotels. 6. We’d better go by...taxi - if we can get...taxi at such ....hour as 2 a.m. 7. Do you take.....sugar in.....coffee? I used to, but now I’m on....diet. I’m trying to lose..weight. 8 man suffering from.......shock should not be given any- thing to drink. 9 Mr Smith is.........old customer and......honest man. Why do you say that? Has he been accused of....dishon- esty? 10 friend of mine is expecting......baby. If it’s..girl she is going to be called Helen. 11. I have....hour and......half for lunch. I only have half ....hour.....time for....cup of coffee. 12. I hope you have...lovely time and...good weather. But I’m not going for...holiday; I’m going on....business. 13. He looked at me with.....horror when I explained that I was.....policeman. 14. I won’t climb...mountain because I have......horror of ....heights. Exercise II Insert a or an if necessary. 1. I have....headache and......sore throat. I think I’ve got ....cold. I think you’re getting the flu. 43
2 Mr Jones called while you were out. He wants to make ....complaint about......article in the paper. He was in ........................very bad temper. 3. If you go by...train you can have quite....comfortable journey, but make sure you get....express, not.....train that stops at all the stations. 4. I’m having ..... few friends in to ...coffee tomorrow evening. Would you like to come? - I’d love to, but I’m afraid I’m going to...concert. 5. It’s time you had....holiday. You haven’t had......day off for...month. 6. He broke......leg in ...skiing accident. It’s still in . plaster. 7. I want....assistant with....knowledge of French. 8. I see that your house is built of.wood. Are you insured against...fire? 9. I had.....amazing experience last night. I saw.....dino- saur eating..........................................meat pie in London Park. - You mean you had.....nightmare. Anyway, dinosaurs didn’t eat..... meat. 10. I’ll pay you...hundred......week. It’s not....large sal- ary but after all you are.........................completely unskilled man. 11 little is known about the effect of this medicine; yet ...chemist will sell it to you without...prescription. 12. I have....little money left; let’s have dinner in.restau- rant. 13. Would it be....trouble to you to buy me......newspaper on your way home? 14 man is.........clever animal. Exercise III Insert the if necessary. 1.....youngest boy has just started going to.school..... eldest boy is at.college. 2. She lives on.top floor of an old house. When.wind blows, all...windows rattle. 3 darkness doesn’t worry.......cats;......cats can see in ...dark. 4. My little boys say that they want to be.spacemen, but most of them will probably have...less dangerous jobs. 5. Do you know...time? - Yes, ....clock in....hall has just struck nine. Then it isn’t.time to go yet. 44
6. He was sent to..prison for.....six months. When....... six months are over he’ll be released.....difficulty then will be to find....work. 7. I went to..school to talk to.....headmistress. I per- suaded her to let Ann give up..........gymnastics and take ...ballet lessons instead. 8...... ballet isn’t much use for....girls; it is much better to be able to play.....piano. 9. I am on..night duty. When you go to.......bed, I go to ...work. 10. Peter’s at.office but you could get him on....phone. There’s a telephone box just round....corner. 11. He got ..bronchitis and was taken to ..... hospital. I expect they’ll send him home at...end of.....week. Have you rung......hospital to ask how he is? 12. Ann’s habit of riding a motorcycle up and down...road early in....morning troubled......neighbours and in...... end they took her to court. 13. He first went to..sea in a Swedish ship, so as well as learning....navigation he had to learn.....Swedish. 14 family hotels are.....hotels which welcome.......par- ents and................................................children. 15. On..Sundays my father stays in.....bed till ten o’clock, reading.....Sundays papers. 16. Then he gets up, puts on....old clothes, has..break- fast and starts.......................................work in.garden. 17. My parents have...cold meat and....salad for.....sup- per in..................................................winter and.summer. Exercise IV Insert the if necessary. 1. We have a very good train service from here to......city centre and most people go to.....work by train. You can go by....bus too, of course, but you can get a season ticket on...bus. 2. I’d like to see....Mr Smith please. Do you mean.......... Mr Smith who works in ........ box office or .... other Mr Smith? 3. Did you come by......air? - No, I came by......sea. I had a lovely voyage on....Queen Elizabeth II. 4 most of.........stories that...people tell about....Irish aren’t true. 45
5 married couples with.........children often rent...cot- tages by.............................................seaside for.summer holidays. The men hire boats and go for....trips along coast; children spend....day on.....beach and......poor mothers spend ...most of the time doing...cooking and cleaning. 6. It’s usually safe to walk on...sand, but here, when..... tide is coming in,..sand becomes dangerously soft...... people have been swallowed up by it. 7. When ..... Titanic was crossing.....Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow....captain ordered....crew to help.....passengers into.....boats. 8. Everywhere......man has cut down........forests in order to cultivate...ground or to use....wood as......fuel or as...building material. 9 people think that.........lead is...heaviest metal, but ...gold is heavier. 10. Our air hostess said, “...rack is only for...light arti- cles, ...........................................heavy things such as.bottles must be put on ...floor”. 11 windows are supposed to let in.........light; but...win- dows on this house are so small that we have to have elec- tric light on all.time. 12. They’ll always be a conflict between..old and....young. ...young people want.....change but....old people want .......................................things to stay.same. 13. You can fool some of....people all......time, and all... people some of....time; but you cannot fool all...peo- ple all ..........................................time. Exercise V Insert a, an or the if necessary. I knew....man who had travelled very much in his life. He had visited many countries in....East in.....West. He loved...... children and often told them....interesting stories. I remember some of...... stories which he told me. One of them was about... ad venture he had in...London. He was........young man at that time and was interested in history of architecture. One day he visited one of.....towers of......Houses of....... Parliament. He came out on to......balcony of.....tower and began to look at....ornaments on......walls. Then he climbed up on.....roof. Suddenly......man came running to him and seized him by.....arm. He began shouting something in........ 46
English, but my friend knew only.....few words of......English and did not understand him...........Englishman called ........ policeman......fact was that he thought that...Russian tourist wanted to kill himself by jumping from......top of.....tower. Later, when everything became clear, they laughed a lot over it. Exercise VI Insert a, an or the if necessary. 1. ... thunder and... lightning are caused by... electricity. 2. .. .last time I saw you was in.. .2002. 3. We met.. .last year. 4. Have you ever seen such.. .terrible weather? 5. Is there.. .bus to.. .town where.. .Browns live? 6. What.. .terrible noise they are making.. .next door. 7. What.. .pity you didn’t see.. .film. It was.. .most interesting. 8. Please do shut...window;...flies come in from...garden in... evening. 9. There is.. .old tree in.. .front of.. .house, with.. .very pretty flowers in...spring. 10. Do you go to.. .school? Do you go to.. .school on.. .hill? 11. They usually sell.. .eggs by.. .dozen. 12. They made him...secretary of...club; they had already chosen.. .chairman. 13. I went for...walk after...dinner. 14. .. .people in.. .photo, from.. .left to...right, are Tom, Dick and Harry. Harry is standing on...left of Dick. 15. She always liked...good conversation and...company of...interesting people. 16. There is.. .very pleasant country round our town. 17. I have not forgotten.. .promise you made me.. .last week. 18. ...water is very hard in our part of.. .country. 19. He does not like to take.. .advice, even.. .advice of.. .clever people. 20. Tom’s family could not afford to give him.. .education. Exercise VII Insert a, an or the if necessary. 1. Mrs Ivanova is......director of.....school №12. 2. Peter’s father is...experienced engineer. 3. My friend has pronouncing dictionary by.........Dr Jones, ...professor of......phonetics in......University of...... London. 47
4. It is too important...matter to be discussed by....chil- dren alone. 5. I simply could not reject so inviting..offer. 6 Popovs started on their trip on........following day. 7 two gentlemen in the carriage were greatly frightened. 8 31st of...December is last day of...........year. 9. This is.. .only road to..village. 10. It is...very book I need. 11 last winter I visited......Tretyakov Gallery. 12 rubber is...juice of.......rubber plant. 13. It is...great pleasure to listen how you play....piano. Exercise VIII Insert a, an or the if necessary. 1......fog was so thick that we couldn’t see...side of..... road. We followed.....car in front of us and hoped that we were going.....right way. 2......postman’s little boy says that he’d rather be..den- tist than..............................................doctor, because.dentists don’t get called out at......night. 3......day after.....day passed without.....news, and we began to lose.....hope. 4. We’re going to.tea with.....Smiths today, aren’t we? Shall we take.....car? - We can go by....car if you wash ....car first. We can’t go to..Mrs Smith’s in....car all covered with.....................................mud. 5. He got..job in...south and spent.....next two years doing.......work he really enjoyed. 6. It was .windy morning but they hired......boat and went for.....sail along....coast. In.....afternoon...... wind increased and they soon found themselves in...dif- ficulties. 7. Don’t give the same task to.strongest and...weakest students. 8. Both.junior and.. .senior members of the family were present at the dinner-party. 9. It was..wonderful concert:..conductor and......vio- linist both were a great success with the public. 10. It was..blue night with..full moon hanging over..... city. 11. Don’t give me.milk. You know I hate it at this time of ....day. 48
12. They had two children, one of them still at...school, ...other in her first year at....university. 13. He looked clean and brushed; he was going to.....town for....day. Exercise IX Translate into English. 1. Я познакомился с ним в одном маленьком южном го- роде. 2. Какой-то человек ждет вас около дома. 3. Кто принес это письмо? - Какой-то мальчик. 4. Где словарь? - Он в книжном шкафу. 5. Кто эта женщина? - Она жена одного инженера, который работает на нашем заводе. 6. Какой-то человек звонил вам по телефону сегодня ут- ром. 7. Я знал их, когда они были студентами. 8. Он ро- дился в одном маленьком городе недалеко от Москвы. 9. Дверь открылась, и в комнату вошел молодой чело- век с чемоданом в руке. 10. Когда профессор вошел в аудиторию, студенты встали. 11. Ребенку легко изучать иностранный язык. 12. Какой прекрасный день! 13. Ка- кая теплая погода! 14. Это такой интересный рассказ. 15. Это слишком легкий текст для вас. 16. Они такие об- разованные люди! Exercise X Translate into English. 1. Прошлым летом мы жили в деревне, расположенной на берегу Волги, в маленьком домике, окруженном боль- шим садом. 2. Перед домом росли огромные старые липы. 3. Вчера я разговаривал с человеком, который провел не- сколько лет в Китае. 4. Я не помню цифр, которые он упо- мянул в своем докладе. 5. Человек, который хочет овла- деть иностранным языком, должен работать очень усердно и систематически. 6. Я только что прочел рас- сказ, который мне очень понравился. 7. Рассказ, который я только что прочел, очень интересный. 8. Мы встретим- ся после школы? - Где? - У входа в школу. 9. Была уже ночь; но, к счастью, это была летняя ночь, и погода сто- яла сухая. 10. День только что начался, и воздух был чист и прохладен. 11. Я зайду после обеда. 12. Он просил меня передать вам, что они пойдут на экскурсию в Эрмитаж на следующей неделе. 13. Нам его рекомендовали как че- ловека с хорошим знанием языка. 14. Некоторые люди 49
едят мороженое на улице даже зимой. 15. Такие сведения всегда нужны. Exercise XI Translate into English. 1. В маленькой комнате книжная полка удобнее, чем шкаф. 2. Он любит пить не из чашки, а только из стакана. 3. Про- блема такого рода должна вас интересовать. 4. Они вошли в вагон, в котором не было свободных мест. 5. Я еще ни- когда не видел дружбы крепче, чем дружба этих двух лю- дей. 6. Она посмотрела на часы на углу и поняла, что опоз- дает на поезд. 7. Сегодня группа журналистов, которая состоит в основном из студентов, начнет подниматься на Эльбрус. 8. Вашего сына будет оперировать хирург, кото- рый сейчас работает над диссертацией на эту тему. 9. Рано утром, до завтрака, спортсмены ходили на речку купать- ся. 10. Что у нас будет на ужин? 11. В этой столовой вы всегда можете получить горячий завтрак. 12. По субботам у них обычно бывают гости к ужину. 13. Экскурсанты при- езжают сюда днем и ночью сушей и морем. 14. Мы прове- ли лето на Днепре. 15. Будьте внимательны, вы сделали ошибку. Exercise XII Translate into English. 1. Мне нужен совет в этом трудном деле. 2. Жалко сидеть дома в такую прекрасную погоду. 3. Не сидите так долго на солнце, у вас заболит голова. 4. Черное море очень бур- но зимой. 5. Она очень любит музыку. 6. Небо было ясное, а звезды ярко светили. 7. Какие приятные новости вы нам принесли! 8. Волга самый важный водный путь в нашей стране. 9. Было раннее утро, и трава была покрыта росой. 10. Молоко, которое я купила сегодня утром, скисло. 11. Было теплое утро; легкий ветер дул с моря. 12. В Кры- му растут очень хорошие сорта винограда. 13. Был вечер и семья сидела за столом. 14. Чай очень крепкий, долейте немного воды. 15. Я надеюсь, что вы не будете проводить свои каникулы в городе. 50
The Adjective Adjectives describe nouns. They have the same form in both the singular and the plural. They normally go before nouns. They also go alone (without nouns) after the verbs appear, be, become, feel, seem, smell, taste, look, get etc. The egg smells awful. The soup tastes delicious. Adjectives can be common, derived and compound. Some common adjectives (good, red, sad) do not have end- ings but many derived adjectives formed from nouns and verbs have a particular ending (or suffix). These are: -able comfortable -ent dependent -al accidental -esque picturesque -ant reluctant -ful useful -ar popular -ian Italian -ary imaginary -ible horrible -ate passionate -ic historic -ical historical -like businesslike -ions victorious -iy friendly -ish childish -ory compulsory -ist racist -OUS humorous -ive attractive -some wholesome -less useless -y sunny Adjectives are also formed with prefixes which generally have a negative meaning: possible - impossible. These are: un- untrue, unwise im- immoral, impractical in- incorrect, insincere dis- dishonest, disagreeable il- illegal, illegible ir- irregular, irresponsible Note. Adjectives derived from proper nouns are written with a capital letter and are called proper adjectives: Rus- sian, Indian, Hungarian etc. There are also compound adjectives which are formed with: 1. present participles: a never-ending story, 2. past participles: worn-out shoes, 3. cardinal numerals .+ nouns: a three-week holiday, 4. an adjective + an adjective: a dark-blue dress, 51
5. well, badly, ill, poorly + past participle: a well paid job, 6. a noun/pronoun + a verbal: a heart-breaking decision, 7. an adjective/adverb + a noun + the suffix -ed: a fair haired Certain adjectives can be used as plural nouns referring to a group of people in general. These are: the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the disabled, the hungry, the strong, the deaf, the living, the dead, the sick, the elderly etc. The rich should help the poor. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Study the list of adjectives formed from nouns. Say how ad- jectives can be formed, what suffixes can be used for that. Noun adventure athlete beauty boy continent courage coward noise poet star terror value sun Adjective adventurous athletic beautiful boyish continental courageous cowardly noisy poetic starry terrible valuable sunny Noun Adjective faith faithful fool foolish friend friendly gold golden hero heroic metal metallic music musical mistery mysterious nation national nature natural person personal skill skilful Exercise II Complete these phrases using the adjectives formed from the nouns: a.............................sea (storm) a.............................sound (metal) ............................behaviour (child) ............................forests (value) a...........................wonder (nature) a.............................place (mystery) 52
a.............................phrase (poet) a.............................armchair (comfort) a...........................class (friend) a.............................deed (courage) streets (centre) an..............................trip (adventure) Exercise III Form adjectives from the given words with the help of the suffixes: Wonder, friend, trouble, blood, harm, care, green, wool, tire, truth, comfort, faith, shame, sun, wood, attract,fool, humour, occasion, rain, natural. Exercise IV Complete each sentence by inserting the adjective formed from the noun in brackets: 1. This has been a very.......................decision (fool). 2. The shop was situated in a...........................square (centre). 3. Gold is a very.......................metal (value). 4. The runner was a man of....................build (athlete). 5. We studied the.....................sky through a telescope (star). 6. He feels quite....................in this warm, light room (comfort). 7. Mark Twain wrote many.....................stories (humour). 8. A......................person soon puts you at your ease (friend). Exercise V a) Study this list of proper adjectives. Say how they are formed. Proper Proper Proper Proper Noun Adjective Noun Adjective Britain British Italy Italian Canada Canadian Japan Japanese China Chinese Scotland Scottish Europe European Spain Spanish France French Wales Welsh Germany German Greece Greek Ireland Irish Mexico Mexican 53
b) Insert the correct proper adjective in each phrase below. .............................athletes (Canada) .............................traditions (Japan) .............................Isles (Britain) .............................humour (France) .............................dances (Spain) .............................championship (Europe) .............................songs (Scotland) .............................music (Italy) Exercise VI In each space insert the adjective formed from the proper noun. The humour of Ireland .......................humour The lakes of Canada ................lakes The people of China ................people The mountains of Scotland ..................mountains A village of Mexico ................village The population of France ...................population The plants of Germany ......................plants Computers of Japan ................computers The tourists of Italy ................tourists The Armada of Spain ................Armada The coast of Greece ................coast Exercise VII Suffixes -able, -ous, -al, -ful, -y, -less, -ic are often used to form adjectives. Make adjectives from each of the follow- ing words. geography person understand experiment hero patriot luck health enjoy truth classic remark mystery glory nerve fun noise wonder colour harm greed grass care fantasy eat delight artist fear Exercise VIII Form adjectives from the given ones with the help of the pre- fixes. Certain, pleasant, attentive, capable, legal, successful, definite, moral, visible, important, friendly, convenient, logical, polite, happy, patient, grateful, educated. 54
Exercise IX Use adjectives with the negative prefix in place of the adjec- tives with the preceding not. 1. It was not probable that more than one child would win the scholarship a year. 2. The scholarship examination was not fair. 3. I do not feel well in this climate. The climate here is not agreeable. 4. His handwriting was so bad that the notes he usually took were not legible to anybody but himself. 5. His knowledge in the subject does not seem to be satisfactory. Exercise X Translate into English using the negative prefixes. Неспособный, неудобный, несоединенный, неофициаль- ный, неудовлетворительный, несправедливый, неподвиж- ный, нерешенный, незначительный, нетерпеливый, негра- мотный, неблагодарный, неестественный, нерелигиозный, независимый. Exercise XI Translate into Russian the following compound adjectives. 1. A broad-brimmed hat. 2. A tile-floored kitchen. 3. A fat merry-looking little old man. 4. The kind old man never comes to the children empty-handed. 5. Red-hot steel. 6. A dark- complexioned young girl. 7. It was a weather-beaten old ship. 8. A marble-topped table. 9. A ten-thousand-dollar car. 10. A twenty-year-old building. Exercise XII Make compound adjectives to describe the following. 1. A book which is written badly. 2. A city that has no pollution. 3. An announcement which has been awaited for a long time. 4. A course that lasts three years. 5. A worker who works hard. 6. A bus journey that takes two hours. 7. A hotel with five stars. 8. A room that has good ventilation. 55
Word Order of Adjectives Adjectives normally go before nouns. Sometimes there are two or more adjectives in the sentence. My friend has a nice new flat. There was a beautiful large round wooden table in the dining room. Adjectives like new, large, round, wooden are fact adjectives. They give us objective information about something (age, size, colour etc.). Adjectives like nice, beautiful are opinion objectives. They tell us what someone thinks of something. Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives. Opinion Fact Noun a nice sunny day delicious hot soup an intelligent young man a beautiful large round wooden table If there are two or more fact adjectives, we put fact adjec- tives in this order: size c=> age Ф shape c=> colour > origin c=> material c=; > noun a tall young — — — — girl big — — grey — — eyes a small — — blue — plastic bag a large — square — — wooden table — an old — — English — song — a new — black — woollen skirt Adjectives of size and length (big, small, tall, short, long etc.) usually go before adjectives of shape and width (round, thin, fat, wide etc.): a small round table, a tall thin woman, a long white street. The adjectives afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, content, glad, ill etc. are never followed by a noun. The child was never left alone. The adjectives chief, elder, eldest, former, indoor, inner, main, only, outdoor, outer, principal, upper can only be used before nouns. He is the eldest son. Nouns which express purpose, material or substance (cotton, gold, shopping etc.) can be used as adjectives before other nouns. / bought a new woollen hat. 56
Note. Golden hair (hair like gold) but gold watch (watch made of gold), wooden table, woollen scarf, silk dress but silky hair, stone wall but stony look, feather pillow but feathery leaves. Й EXERCISES Exercise I Put the adjectives in the correct order. 1. a Japanese/little/pretty/girl....... 2. a(n) wedding/expensive/silk/white/dress.......... 3. a(n) pair of leather/black/walking/old/shoes......... 4. a(n) English/ancient/famous/monument............. 5. a detective/new/fascinating/French/film.......... 6. a red/lovely/marble/chess set......... 7. a dessert/crystal/lovely/bowl......... Exercise II Put the adjectives in the correct order. 1. a long/linen/cream/dress.......... 2. a three-course/home-made/delicious/meal............ 3. a(n) interesting/nice/short/speech........ 4. Spanish/live/excellent music.......... 5. a round/gold/big brooch........... 6. a grey/smart/woollen/new/suit........... 7. a(n) old/black/leather/jacket......... Exercise III Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position. 1. long hair (fair)......... 2. a large table (wooden).......... 3. a wide street (long)......... 4. a tall girl (thin)....... 5. a little cottage (old)........ 6. a good-looking woman (young).............. 7. a small cat (black).......... 8. a beautiful dress (red)......... 9. an old shirt (cotton)......... 10. a blue car (little)....... 11. a wooden box (small)............ 12. an old song (Italian)......... 13. a sunny day (nice)........... 57
Comparison of Adjectives There are three degrees of comparison for adjectives in English. 1) positive, which shows a simple quality: small, deep, wise, hot; 2) comparative, which shows a high degree of the quality: smaller, deeper, wiser, hotter; 3) superlative, which shows the highest degree of quality: the smallest, the deepest, the wisest, the hottest. Notes. A noun preceded by an adjective in the superlative form is generally used with the definite article: Mike is the tallest boy in the family. The comparative form is used when comparing two per- sons or things. The superlative form is used only when comparing three or more persons or things. Not all adjectives have degrees of comparison. Two Ways of Forming the Comparative and the Superlative Degrees There are two ways of forming the comparative and the su- perlative degrees: a) by adding -er(-r) (comparative) and -est(-st) (superlative) to the positive degree; b) by adding to the positive degree more to form less the comparative degree most to form least the superlative degree Adjectives of One Syllable Superlative the hardest the biggest Most adjectives of one syllable compare by adding -er(-r) and -est(-st): Positive hard big Comparative harder bigger 58
light lighter short shorter the lightest the shortest Note 1. If the positive ends in two consonants or in one consonant preceded by a diphthong, -er and -est are added: small long light bright smaller longer lighter brighter the smallest the longest the lightest the brightest Note 2. If the positive ends in one consonant preceded by a short vowel, the consonant is doubled before adding -er and -est: big bigger the biggest fat fatter the fattest hot hotter the hottest Note 3. If the positive ends in -e, add only -r and -st: wise wiser the wisest white whiter the whitest safe safer the safest Note 4 a) If the positive ends in -y preceded by a consonant, change the -y into -i and add -er and -est: early earlier the earliest pretty prettier the prettiest happy happier the happiest There are some exceptions like shy and sly: shy shyer the shyest sly slyer the slyest b) If the -y is preceded by a vowel, the -y is not changed: grey greyer the greyest gay gayer the gayest 59
Adjectives of Two Syllables 1. Most adjectives of two syllables compare by adding more or less and most or least to the positive: famous more r the most r , famous . famous less the least active more .. the most , active . active less the least 2. Adjectives of two syllables with the stress on the second syl- lable compare like adjectives of one syllable: polite sincere politer the politest sincerer the sincerest 3. Adjectives ending in -al, -ed, -fid, -ic, -He, -ine, -ous form their comparative and superlative degrees by adding more and most to the positive: liberal learned cheerful magic fertile more liberal the most liberal more learned the most learned more cheerful the most cheerful more magic the most magic more fertile the most fertile 4. Certain adjectives form their comparative and superlative in both ways, either by adding -er/-est to the positive form or by taking more/most. Some of these are: clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quiet. simple also simple simpler the simplest more simple the most simple Adjectives of Three and More Syllables Most adjectives of three or more syllables compare by add- ing more or less, and most or least to the positive: beautiful courageous industrious interesting more beautiful the most beautiful more courageous the most courageous more industrious the most industrious less interesting the least interesting 60
Irregular Forms of Comparison Some adjectives have irregular forms of comparison: good bad (ill, evil) many -x. much ' little better the best worse the worst more the most less the least A few adjectives have two forms of comparison: far farther further the farthest the furthest late latter later the last the latest near nearer the nearest the next old older elder the oldest the eldest Note 1. Farther and farthest are used for distance; further and furthest are used to mean something additional: The school is at the farthest end of the village. Further discussion will follow. Note 2. Later and latest are used for denoting time, latter and last are used for denoting order: Did you hear the latest news? The last edition of this book is sold out. Note 3. Nearest refers to distance, next is used when order is meant: The nearest town is 30 km. Come again the next day. Note 4. Elder and eldest are used for the people of the same family. Older and oldest are used to denote age for things and other people: John is the eldest son of his family. It is the oldest building in our city. 61
Constructions with Comparisons a) Comparison of equals is expressed by as... as for positive com- parison and not as ... as or not so ... as for negative comparison. An apple is usually as big as an orange. A grape is not so (as) big as an orange. b) Comparison of two unequal persons or things is expressed by the comparative with than. He is taller than his brother. A mountain is higher than a hill. The blue car is less expensive than the red one. c) Comparison of three or more persons or things is expressed by the superlative with the ... of or the ... in (of place). Tom is the cleverest boy in the class. Ann is the prettiest of them all. d) Sometimes two comparatives are used together. For example harder and harder, more and more difficult, better and better. Your English is improving. It’s getting better and better. e) Sometimes the construction the + comparative the better is used. For example: the sooner the better. the bigger the better. What time will we leave? - The sooner the better. f) 7%e.../Ae...with two comparatives are used to say that one thing depends on another thing: The earlier we leave, the sooner we will arrive. The warmer is the weather, the better I feel. g) Adjectives in the comparative and the superlative can be made more emphatic by adding some words. Comparatives are preceded by much гораздо a bit (little) немного far намного a great deal значительно still еще 62
Superlatives are preceded by the very самый by far намного, гораздо, and they are followed by possible, imaginable'. He was far more than a translator. England is much larger than Scotland. Your flat is a great deal better than mine. This text is still more difficult. She is the very best pupil in our class. It is by far the most difficult task. It is the easiest task possible. Use of Some Adjectives Much is always singular, and is used chiefly a) in questions: Was there much rain here last week? b) in sentences with a negative sense: / don 7 like much sugar in my coffee. Many is always plural: There are many children at school. Most is preceded by an adjective in the superlative degree: This is the most interesting story. When a noun is preceded by most, it is used without an arti- cle and it means большинство, большая часть: Most students like sport. With the indefinite article most means крайне, весьма: His father was a most experienced hunter. Few and little are used a) preceded by the indefinite article when the sentence has a positive sense: It will be a little boat. A few pupils were at the concert. b) without the indefinite article when the sentence has a nega- tive sense: We have little time for breakfast. There are few people present. 63
1И EXERCISES Exercises 1 Write the comparative and the superlative degrees of the fob- lowing adjectives. Great, difficult, busy, far, polite, careful, deep, bad, dirty, clever, quick, little, different, young, comfortable, narrow, pretty, sad, big, happy, old, late, heavy, nice, dry, fat, ugly, joyful, yellow, sweet, near. Exercises II Open the brackets using the comparative or the superlative degree wherever necessary. 1. It’s autumn; every day the air becomes (cold), the leaves (yellow). 2. This is the (beautiful) view I have ever seen in my life. 3. Your handwriting is now (good) than it was last year; but still it is not so good as Pete’s handwriting. He has the (good) handwriting of all. 4. Are there (many) than two rooms in your new flat? 5. The weather got (bad) and (bad) every day. 6. His age was fifty; he looked several years (old). 7. He is much (good) now than yesterday. 8. Oh, you are (wonderful), you’re (wonderful) girl in the whole world. 9. He was (hungry) than he had ever been in his life. 10. The twenty-second of December is the (short) day of the year. Exercises III Open the brackets using the comparative or the superlative degree. 1. Iron is (useful) of all metals. 2. The Neva is (wide) and (deep) than the Moskva River. 3. Elbrus is the (high) peak in the Caucasian mountains. 4. His plan is (practical) than yours. 5. This room is (small) than all the rooms in the house. 6. Silver is (heavy) than copper. 7. Our house is (low) than yours. 8. This exercise is (good) than the last one. 9. Yesterday was the (hot) day we have had this summer. 10. My (old) brother John is two years (old) than I am. 64
11. The game of draughts is (easy) than chess. 12. There is (little) sunshine this summer than last year. 13. It was (good) concert I had ever attended. 14. Your sister is (old) than you, she is the (old) child in the family. 15. My composition was (good), Mike’s was a good deal (good), but Tom’s was the (good) of all pupils. Exercises IV Use the correct form of the adjective in brackets. 1. I wonder what his... action is going to be (near). 2. The... future will see this part of the desert turned into a flourishing oasis (near). 3. I have no one.. .than you (near). 4. And they got down to business without...delay (far). 5. In the.. .end of the exhibition hall we saw a group of young people engaged in a hot discussion (far). 6. Take this road. It is no...and much more pleasant (far). 7. The... brother was twenty years... than the youngest (old). 8. I always admired my... twin brother and looked up to him though he was only two hours my senior (old). 9. Who are the... members of the club (old)? 10. I’ve got a still... edition of the book (old). 11. Is there a... train passing here (late)? 12. It was the... thing I had expected of him (late). 13. What is the... news (late)? 14. We were in a hurry to catch a... bus (late). Exercise V Write the missing forms of adjectives. Positive little Comparative worse further Superlative best farthest Positive near Comparative older later Superlative eldest last 3 H. Утевская 65
Exercise VI Compare the objects according to the given model. Model: A winter coat... a mackintosh, (warm) A winter coat is warmer than a mackintosh. A mackintosh is not so warm as a winter coat. 1. A lemon ... an orange, (sour) 2. The Black Sea ... the Baltic Sea. (beautiful) 3. The Chinese language ... the French language, (difficult) 4. A lane ... a street, (narrow) 5. Copper wire ... iron wire, (flexible) 6. The fur of a fox ... the fur of a squirrel, (expensive) 7. Oil... water, (light) 8. Honey ... sugar, (sweet) 9. Stone ... wood, (heavy) 10. A diamond ... a sapphire, (valuable) Exercise VII Complete the sentences. 1. Our school is as ... as ... 2. The temperature today is as ... as it was yesterday. 3. He is not so ... as he looks. 4. His radio set is not so ... as ... 5. She is as ... as her sister. 6. The weather in winter is not so ... as ... 7. My friend is as ... as ... 8. She does not work as ... as ... 9. This street is as ... as ... 10. Our town is not so ... as ... Exercise VIII Fill in the blanks with adjectives in the correct form and make up sentences using the word-combinations. a) Take adjectives from the following list: fine, successful, unpleasant, simple, hard, courageous, easy, useful, bad, amusing, curious. As ... as I had expected, ... than I had expected, ... I had ever expected, not so ... as you imagine,... than one can imagine,... than before,... as before,... of all done before,... than ever,... as always,... in the world. 66
b) Use any adjective you like: not so ... as it used to be;... than at any other time;... man ever bom;... of the children;... than anywhere else; as ... as the rest of them;... poem ever written;... of all the things that happened; nothing ... than this; anything as ... as that. Exercise IX Make up sentences using the following phrases to emphasize a) the adjective in the positive degree: that bad, so interesting, only too glad, this hard; b) the adjective in the comparative degree: a great deal faster, still easier, far better, no better, the steeper... the more difficult, stronger and stronger, more and more interesting; c) the adjectives in the superlative degree: by far the easiest, the nearest... possible, the cheapest... to be found, the smallest... imaginable, the freshest... possible. Exercise X Give the English equivalents of: а) более трудный; гораздо более трудный; еще более труд- ный; самый трудный; Ь) большее число; гораздо большее число; еще большее число; самое большое число; с) более трудная задача; гораздо более трудная задача; еще более трудная задача; самая трудная задача; самая труд- ная задача, какая только возможна. Exercise XI Translate into English. 1. Я слышал оба доклада. Первый был значительно инте- реснее второго. 2. Этот текст еще более трудный, чем тот, который мы переводили на днях. 3. Это крайне важный вопрос. 4. С каждым днем погода ухудшалась. 5. Сегодня жарче, чем вчера. 6. Я не думал, что моя новая работа ока- жется настолько трудной. 7. Эта проблема не так серьезна, как вам кажется. 8. Язык этой статьи полегче. Начните с нее. 9. Нам нужен шкаф поменьше, так как комната неболь- шая. 10. Ваш брат очень способный человек; он самый спо- 67
собный из наших молодых ученых. 11. Советую пойти этой дорогой, так как это самый короткий путь. 12. Пальто ни- чуть не хуже после чистки. 13. Чем больше вы будете нахо- диться на открытом воздухе, тем лучше у вас будет здоро- вье. 14. Кто лучший спортсмен в команде? 15. На этот раз у меня меньше ошибок, чем было в последнем сочинении. Exercise XII Translate into English. 1. Ваш брат намного старше вас? - Нет, он моложе меня. 2. Последнее издание этой книги уже распродано. 3. Мы вынуждены были отложить поездку за город, так как по- года становилась все хуже и хуже. 4. Она была гораздо моложе своей сестры и менее веселая. 5. Последние извес- тия по телевидению начинаются в девять часов. 6. Чем быстрее вы пойдете к врачу, тем легче будет вылечить вашу болезнь. 7. Чем больше вы будете читать, тем скорее рас- ширите свой словарь. 8. Он сильный, он может поднять ящик и в три раза тяжелей. 9. Сегодня вдвое холодней, чем вчера. 10. Я нашел его в самом дальнем углу парка. 11. Ска- жите, пожалуйста, где ближайшая булочная? 12. Джейн была на год старше Марии. 13. Он чувствовал себя все луч- ше и лучше. 14. Москва зимой для него была всегда при- влекательнее, чем летом. 15. Ваша память нисколько не лучше моей. 16. Какие из всех этих книг вам больше всего нравятся? 17. Ты можешь положиться на него. Он сделает эту работу так же быстро, как и я. Exercise XIII Translate into English 1. Тема, над которой вы работаете, более сложная, чем моя. 2. Мои туфли хуже ваших. Ваши более модные и более удоб- ные. 3. Самое худшее время года в Индии - период дож- дей. 4. Мой отец был старший сын в семье. 5. Знаете ли вы последние новости о вашем друге? 6. Последняя глава в этом романе самая интересная. 7. В воскресенье я встала позже, чем обычно. 8. Самый интересный вопрос на пове- стке дня был о работе студенческого научного общества. 9. Большую часть своего свободного времени он проводит в библиотеке. 10. Сегодня у нас меньше работы, чем вчера. 11. Они шли также медленно, как и мы. 12. Сейчас вы учи- тесь лучше, чем в прошлом году. 13. Сколько лет вашей 68
младшей сестре? 14. Моя комната не такая светлая, как ваша. 15. Чем дольше я смотрю на эту картину, тем боль- ше она мне нравится. 16. Чем меньше ты будешь говорить, тем лучше. 17. Чем скорее ты сделаешь это, тем лучше. Exercise XIV Translate into English 1. Эта книга самая интересная в его библиотеке. 2. Это самый красивый дом в этом районе. 3. Этот мальчик выше всех дру- гих мальчиков в классе. 4. Аэропланы могут летать быстрее, чем птицы, не правла ли? 5. Он так же способен, как и его братья. 6. Вы гораздо умнее своих братьев. 7. Второй текст гораздо труднее первого, а третий еще более трудный. 8. Это самое лучшее решение, какое только можно себе представить. 9. Какой город Англии дальше всего от берега моря? 10. Чем короче ваше сочинение, тем лучше. 11. Чем внимательнее вы будете, тем меньше ошибок вы сделаете. 12. Вы не слышали последние известия? 13. Сегодня у нас больше работы, чем вчера. 14. Она переводит медленнее, чем ты. 15. Ты самый лучший ученик нашего класса, не правда ли?. 16. Где здесь ближайшая станция метро? 17 Они шли так же медленно, как и мы. 18. Кто прыгает выше и бегает быстрее? Exercise XV Translate into English 1. Самые красивые ткани на выставке были отмечены пре- миями. 2. Самый маленький радиоприемник помещается в спичечной коробке. 3. Величайшие достижения науки дол- жны служить миру. 4. Самое сложное задание поручили луч- шему ученику. 5. Я хочу купить туфли с более длинным нос- ком и с более высокими каблуками. 6. В зале Петербургской филармонии выступают самые знаменитые артисты мира. 7. Большинство моих друзей живет в Москве. 8. Музыкант исполнил свое последнее произведение. 9. Я нашел его в са- мой дальней комнате квартиры. 10. Этот самолет последней конструкции. 11. Наш тренер - старейший член нашего спортивного клуба. 12. Чем интереснее книга, тем быстрее она читается. 13. Ему бы хотелось работать над более слож- ной темой. 14. Купите обои посветлее для вашей комнаты. Она тогда не будет выглядеть такой мрачной, как сейчас. 15. Эта комната еще светлей. Она лучше подойдет для сту- дии. 69
Exercise XVI Translate into English 1. Многие считают, что самое красивое горное озеро - это озеро Севан в Армении. 2. Из всех живых существ самый сложный организм - у человека. 3. Большую часть своего свободного времени он проводит в библиотеке. 4. Она надела нарядную коричневую юбку и белую блузку, что делало ее намного моложе, чем она была. 5. Этот пере- вод вдвое легче. Вы с ним справитесь. 6. Новый стадион в несколько раз больше старого. 7. Хотя эта комната в два раза меньше, она мне больше нравится. 8. Вам следует по- мнить, что Петр на десять лет моложе Тома. 9. Вам нравит- ся этот костюм? - Да. Но он в полтора раза дороже. 10. Се- годня вдвое холодней, чем вчера. 11. Все его приятели в два раза старше его. 12. Пруд немного больше в длину, чем в ширину. 13. Он был самый добрый и самый приятный чело- век, которого я когда-либо знала. 14. Ее назвали Еленой, так как это было самое модное имя для девочек в то время. The Adverb The adverb is a word that serves to denote verbs, adjectives and other adverbs: I study seriously. She is coming here. Tom knows him very well. The Formation of Adverbs Adverbs are often formed by adding the suffix -ly to an ad- jective: lately, slowly, purely, immediately. Adjectives ending in -le drop -le and add -ly to form their adverbs: terrible - terribly. Adjectives ending in consonant -y drop -y and add -Uy to form their adverbs: happy - happily. Adjectives ending in -ly (friendly, lovely, fatherly, motherly, silly, lively, ugly etc.) form their adverbs with in a ... way. in a friendly way. 70
Adjectives ending in -e form their adverbs adding -ly with- out dropping -e: rare - rarely. Exceptions whole - wholly, true - truly. The less common suffixes are the following: -wise clockwise, crabwise -ward(s) backward(s), eastward(s) -fold twofold, manifold -most innermost, outermost -way(s) longways, sideways Compound adverbs are formed of two stems: somewhere, sometimes, downstairs etc. Phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-form, as a great deal, a little bit, now and then, a lot of, from time to time, a great deal of, far enough, kind of etc. Some adverbs are the same as their adjectives (daily, early, fast, hard, late, monthly, best, easy, low, high, near, much, lit- tle). He works hard. This is a hard job. It ’s a high mountain. The bird flew high. This is a fast train. She drives fast. The adverbs in -ly formed from the same root have differ- ent meaning. Thus we find in English pairs of parallel adverbs formed from the same root, one with the suffix -ly, the other without it. As a rule, the derived form has a more abstract meaning. She has a lot of near reatives. He came home nearly in the morning. How to Form Opposites Dis-, un-, in-, il- (before /), im- (before m or p), ir- (before r), mal- are negative prefixes which are used to make opposites of certain adverbs: legally - illegally', gratefully - ungratefully. 71
Adverbs with Two Forms and Differences in Meaning deep = a long way down deeply = greatly direct = by the shortest route directly = immediately easy = gently and slowly easily = without payment freely = willingly full = exactly, very fully = completely hard = with effort hardly = scarcely high = to/at a high level highly = very much last = after all others lastly = finally late = not early lately = recently near = close nearly = almost pretty = fairly prettily = in a pretty way short = suddenly shortly = soon sure = certainly surely = without doubt wide = far away from the right point widely = to a large extent wrong = incorrectly wrongly = incorrectly, unjustly Kinds of Adverbs According to their meaning adverbs can be divided into 1) adverbs of time a) definite - today, yesterday, now, tomorrow, immediately etc: He played football yesterday. Now he is busy with his research worle. 72
b) indefinite - before, soon, late, ever, afterwards, seldom, always etc: They will be here soon. He is always late. 2) adverbs of place or direction: here, there, above, under, near, outside, to and fro, backwards etc: Outside the factory there is a lot offlower-beds. 3) adverbs of frequency: once, twice, always, seldom, four times, again, monthly, firstly, often, usually, never, ever, regularly, rasely, sometimes etc: He is twice as clever as I am. The orchestra plays monthly. 4) adverbs of manner: well, badly, hard, easily, fast, slowly etc: Study well in school and work hard in life. He won the competition easily. 5) adverbs of degree: very, too, enough, quite, quickly, scarcely, almost, little, only, absolutely, just, completely, extremely, very, awfully, rather, slightly, fairly etc: He ran quickly half the way across the field. He is scarcely able to finish his report in a week. 6) sentence adverbs: certainly, surely, probably, possibly, perhaps, maybe, clearly, luckily etc: He will certainly come today. She did not come, possibly she is ill. 7) relative adverbs: where, why, when. It is the place where we used to play in our childhood. It was the year when the war broke out. Relative adverbs introduce attributive clauses. Comparison of Adverbs Certain adjectives form their comparatives and superlative degree in both ways, either by adding -er/-est to the positive form or taking more/most. Some of these are: clever, common, 73
cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, quiet, simple, stupid etc. clever cleverer the cleverest also clever more clever the most clever. Adverbs having the same forms as adjectives add -er/-est fast faster the fastest. Two syllable or compouns adverbs compare by adding more and most (less and least) brightly more brightly the most brightly loudly less loudly the least loudly A few adverbs have irregular degrees of comparison: well better the best badly worse the worst much more the most little less the least near nearer the nearest, the next far farther, further the farthest, the furthest late later the latest, the last Word Order of Adverbs in the Sentence Adverbs can go in front, mid or end position in a sentence. Front position is at the beginning of the sentence. Mid position is before the main verb or after the auxiliary. End position is at the end of the sentence. front mid end Finally, he will probably start working here next week. Adverbs of frequency (often, usually, never, ever, regularly, barely, seldom, scarcely, rarely, sometimes etc.) normally go before main verbs but after auxiliary verbs (mid position). How- ever, in short answers they go before the auxiliary verb. He often writes me letters. “He is always telling the truth, isn’t he?” “Yes, he always is. ” Used to and have to take the adverb of frequency before them: You always used to go for walks. 74
Frequency adverbs can go at the beginning or the end of the sentence: Sometimes I woke up late. I go on excursions rarely. Adverbs of time usually go at the end of the sentence: She left Moscow yesterday. or at the beginning of the sentence: Yesterday they left London. Such adverbs as soon, now, still, then etc. can go in the mid position: She is now writing a test. The adverbs already, no longer, hardly, normally, nearly, almost usually go in mid position: He is no longer working here. Sentence adverbs (probably, certainly, possibly, clearly, fortunately, luckily, maybe, perhaps, of course etc.) go in any position, front, mid or end; the front position is the most usual: Probably he is late. He probably is late. He is late probably. In negations certainly, probably, possibly go before the auxiliary: He probably doesn’t know the rule. Adverbs of degree (absolutely, just, completely, extremely, a lot, very, really, terribly, much, awfully, rather, quite, pretty, a little, a bit, slightly, enough, too etc.) can go before the adverb they denote: It is quite clear. The adverbs a lot, much, a little, a bit, awfully, terribly, abso- lutely, completely and totally go in mid or end position: The storm completely destroyed the area, or The storm de- stroyed the area completely. Adverbs of manner (beautifully, badly, eagerly etc.) and place (here, there etc.) go after the verb or the object of the verb if there is one: She looked at me angrily. Adverbs of manner can also go in mid position: She looked angrily at me. When there is more than one adverb in a sentence, their or- der is manner - place - time. However when there is a verb of movement (go, run, leave etc.) the place adverb goes next to the verb of movement: manner place time He spoke well at the meeting yesterday. place manner time She goes to work on foot every day. 75
The Use of Adverbs Adverbs have the function of an adverbial modifier in the sen- tence. When they denote verbs, they can serve as adverbial modi- fiers of place, manner, time, degree etc.: The car started moving backwards, (place) She spoke very distinctly, (manner) The children returned home late. (time) By the end of the day she felt quite exhausted. (degree) A few adverbs which denote nouns can have the function of an attribute: A teacher must be fully master of the classroom. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Form the adverbs from the following adjectives by adding the suffix -ly. quiet wonderful late careful easy beautiful usual wonderful true slow brave uncomfortable excellent clear comparative cheerful safe shy entire enthusiastical noble complete curious entire happy nervous immediate immense heavy steady frightful dry angry absolute free greedy gay real polite hasty Exercise II Give the degrees of comparison of the following adverbs: heavily, hard, gaily, fast, cheerfully, politely, late, shyly, far, dryly, bravely, carefully, often, early, badly. Exercise III Put the adverbs from the list below into the correct column. why where hard usually immediately badly near often probably occasionally here almost today carefully absolutely hardly quite slowly foolishly frequently soon well lately always suspiciosly clearly fast 76
How Where When How much How often manner place time degree frequency sentence adverbs relative adverbs fast here к soon almost often certainly when Exercise IV State whether the words in bold type are adjectives or adverbs. 1. a) The patient breathed hard, b) He was a hard patient to cure; he would not obey the doctor’s orders. 2. a) I watched the fighters at close quarters, b) He kept close to the road. 3. a) She is as pretty as a picture, b) In a month’s time the situation was pretty much the same. 4. a) I’m afraid she might do it worse than you. b) To make things still worse, he had a leg broken. 5. a) This is the right way to do it. b) She lives right around the corner. 6. a) Look straight ahead! b) You can’t expect a straight an- swer from him. 7. a) He was too long in doing it. b) It took him long to do it. 8. a) You look quite ill. b) You oughtn’t to speak ill of peo- ple you don’t know well. 9. a) It was still early when we returned, b) We returned very early. 10. a) The sportsman dived deep and appeared at the other end of the pool, b) They had to dig a well some hundreds meters deep to get to the water. 11. a) He came close to his friend, b) He was also his closest companion and his closest friend. 12. a) His hair was straight and long, b) He sat up straight in his chair. Exercise V Choose the correct word and state whether it is an adjective or an adverb. 1. a) His head is full of... ideas, b) They always speak ... of him. c) We ... appreciate your kidness, (high, highly) 77
2. a) All was settled ... between us. b) You don’t play ... . c) Why are you helping him? It isn’t.... (fair, fairly) 3. a) She cut him ... saying it was not to the point, b) He came to live there ... after the war. c) Speak .... (short, shortly) 4. a) They ... spoke during the walk, b) It was a pity he took life so ... c) Try again, try ... . (hard, hardly) 5. a) He tried to translate it as ... to the text as possible, b) It was... in the room, c) He felt he was being... watched, (close, closely) 6. a) I found him... in thought, b) I found him ... engrossed in reading the manuscript, c) Still waters run.... (deep, deeply) 7. a) The engine is ... to operate and its every part can be ... replaced, b) Take it... c) He is an ...-going man. (easy, easily) 8. a) We were... welcomed, b) She put a tea-cosy on the pot to keep it.... c) Don’t dress the child too .... (warm, warmly) 9. a) Here is some work for you; see that you do it ... . b) The Pamir is ... called “the world’s roof’, c) The car stopped ... in the middle of the road, (right, rightly) 10. a) How are you? - Very ..., thank you. b) How is life? - Very ..., thank you. c) How are you getting on? - Very ..., thank you. (good, well) Exercise VI Choose the correct word in brackets. 1. The birds were flying (high, highly) and low. 2. He was (high, highly) intelligent. 3. He had found out that the Petrovs’ family had lived (close, closely) to mine. 4. Meanwhile Martin’s own reward was coming (near, nearly). 5. We were (near, nearly) smashed up on the shore several times. 6. I’m sure you know how (deep, deeply) I sympathize with you. 7. With her beautiful expressive eyes she looked (deep, deeply) into his. 8. During his last year in London Philip had to work (hard, hardly). 9. I need (hard, hardly) say that I agree with you. 10. Suddenly she stopped (short, shortly), and left her companion. 11. He was joined (short, shortly) by an air hostess. 12. “Open your eyes (wide, widely),” he ordered gently and examined each eye in turn in the bright light. 13. This word is (wide, widely) used in spoken English. 14. The officer leaned down and looked (close, closely) at Mike. 15. There were three desks, one with a computer, and all with papers, books, and files piled (high, highly). 16. His heart beat so that he could (hard, hardly) breathe. 17. He drank long and (deep, deeply). 18. You paid too (dear, dearly) for this radio 78
set. 19. The father loved his daughter (dear, dearly). 20. Do I speak (loud, loudly) enough? 21. He was (deep, deeply) moved. 22. The doctor answered him (short, shortly). Exercise VII State to what part of speech the words hard, late, near, hardly, lately, nearly belong to. Translate the sentences. 1. He is doing hard work. His work is hard. He is working hard. I was so tired, I could hardly work. It’s raining hard. He is a hard nut to crack. 2. We returned to town late in autumn. It’s bad for one’s health to go to bed late. He has left Moscow lately. It’s nice to go to the south in late summer. 3. They will be through with their research in the nearest future. The bus stop is somewhere near here. The poor man was nearly drowned. It is nearly time to start. Exercise VIII Put the adverbs in their right place in the sentence. 1. The weather was gloomy on that day. (extremely) 2. I have seen a talking parrot, (never) 3. We will go to the country, (tomorrow). 4. My aunt Helen lives with her little daughter, (here) 5. The boys read this magazine, (seldom) 6. I looked at the apple, I didn’t touch it. (only) 7. Poor Tom has realized how long it is from breakfast to dinner, (never, before) 8. His father has been in the Far East two years, (nearly) 9. I could thank my sister, (hardly, enough) 10. Everything was ready, (quite, soon) Exersice IX Translate the adverbs in brackets into English. 1. We shan’t get out of the muddle we’re in except by thinking (усиленно) and realistically. 2. He could (едва) speak. 4. The geologists dug too (глубоко) to find oil. 5. The boy came (близ- ко) and looked at his friend. 6. The lantern held (высоко) was 79
in his left hand. 7. He will be here at ten (ровно). 8. He spoke (резко) to the children, and told them to go in to their tea. 9. He lives (далеко) from the university. 10. She put her arm round my shoulders and (почти) wept over me. 11. I am very sorry that I (плохо) know English. 12. It is (широко) known that John is the best sportsman in our town. 13. It is (весьма) probable that they are in the Crimea now. 14. He always came away (глубоко) depressed. 15. I’m afraid I can’t walk very (бы- стро). 16. I am (глубоко) interested in the happy conclusion of this problem. 17. The wind was blowing so (сильно) that I could (едва) stand on my feet. 18. Gorky’s works аге (хоро- шо) known in the whole world. Exercise X Translate the adverbs in brackets into English. 1. With eyes (широко) open she looked at the sight of Chicago opening before her. 2. I am (глубоко) interested in the happy conclusion of this problem. 3. The champion (справедливо) deserves the prize he received. 4. The factory stood (близко) by the river. 5. The sailor kept pulling (сильно) at the rope. 6. It was (почти) dinner-time when we got back. 7. The well-known Russian musical critic Stasov was а (высоко) educated man. 8. (Вскоре) after graduating from the university I went to the Far East. 9. The only thing that stood out (ясно) was his mother’s face. His sister he remembered (более смутно). 10. He shouted (громко) and (долго) but nobody came. 11. (Легче) said than done. 12. Do short-sighted people see (хорошо или плохо)? 13. I was so tired that I (едва) could work. 14. A spasm of trembling shot through his body and he was breathing (тяжело). Exercise XI Translate into English. Pay attention to the place of adverbs of time. 1. Вы всегда приходите вовремя. 2. Наш преподаватель ни- когда не говорит на занятиях по-русски. 3. Вы иногда быва- ете неправы. 4. Она упорно работает над этой проблемой. 5. Я только что закончил работу. 6. Я никогда не забуду этой встречи. 7. Я еще не возвратил книги в библиотеку. 8. Вы уже написали письмо? 9. Его только что видели в со- седней комнате. 10. Его редко об этом спрашивали. 11. Вы всегда можете обратиться к нему за помощью. 12. Вы ни- когда не должны забывать об этом. 13. Мы видели его вче- 80
ра в театре. 14. Я часто буду вспоминать эти веселые дни. 15. Мы будем с ними иногда встречаться на лекциях. 16. Летом мы почти всегда живем на Кавказе. 17. После про- гулки я хорошо спала вчера. Exercise XII Translate into English using the adverbs still, yet (as yet, not yet), else, already. 1. Ваша сестра вернулась в Санкт-Петербург? - Нет, она еще не приехала. Она еще в Сочи. - Куда еще она собира- ется поехать до возвращения домой? 2. Ты закончил готовить уроки? - Нет. Сочинение еще не написано. Я еще пишу его. - Что еще ты должен сделать сегодня? - Больше ничего. 3. Вы уже прочитали этот интересный роман? - Нет, я еще не прочитал его до конца. Я его еще читаю. 4. Уже десять часов, а он еще не пришел. Он уже должен был прийти полчаса тому назад. Я думаю, он еще дома. Он еще не ушел. 5. Вы уже перевели эту статью? - Нет еще. Я ее перевожу уже две недели, но еще не закончил. Exercise XIII Translate into English. 1. Чем дольше я смотрю на эту картину, тем больше она мне нравится. 2. Прежду чем делать какие-либо выводы, вы должны глубоко изучить этот вопрос. 3. Я вас правиль- но понял? 4. Чем интереснее книга, тем быстрее вы читаете ее. 5. Близорукому человеку приходится подносить текст близко к глазам. 6. Только высококвалифицированный рабочий может управлять этим сложным станком. 7. Кни- га была настолько увлекательная, что я читала до глубо- кой ночи. 8. Я был глубоко тронут его заботой. 9. Чем рань- ше вы придете, тем скорее мы закончим работу. 10. Смотрите мне прямо в глаза. 11. Его прервали в самой середине речи. 12. В этом месяце я истратил денег на по- купку книг в три раза больше, чем в прошлом. 13. Подож- дите, они скоро придут. 14. Больной тяжело дышал. 15. Больной едва дышал. 16. Он недавно вернулся из ко- мандировки. 17. Это выражение широко употреблялось в английском языке XVI века. 18. Мы живем совсем близко от железной дороги. 81
Exercise XIV Translate into English. 1. Дверь была широко открыта, и они вошли не позвонив. 2. Он пришел домой вскоре после того, как мы ушли. 3. Вы так сильно изменились, что я едва вас узнала. 4. Она ды- шала медленно и глубоко после соревнования. 5. Во время беседы он внимательно ее рассматривал. 6. Маленький Джон спустился вниз и сел на нижнюю ступеньку. 7. Нас считали высокообразованными людьми. 8. Чем скорее вы прочтете книгу, тем лучше. 8. Чем больше он думал о сво- ем путешествии, тем больше оно ему нравилось. 10. В тече- ние двух или трех дней доктор внимательно следил за То- мом. 11. Ребенок порезал большой палец и сильно плакал, когда мать вошла в детскую. 12. Он поскользнулся и чуть не упал. 13. Он оставил собаку около дома. 14. Он при- стально смотрел на девушку, которая сидела напротив него. Exercise XV Translate into English. 1. Чем быстрее вы обратитесь к врачу, тем легче будет выле- чить вашу болезнь. 2. Письмо пришло вскоре после твоего отъезда. 3. Чем больше вы будете читать, тем скорее вы рас- ширите свой словарь. 4. Рано или поздно, это должно было произойти. 5. Какие из всех этих книг вам больше всего нра- вятся? 6. Оливер взошел на крыльцо и робко попросил по- пить. Затем он еще более робко попросил кусочек хлеба. 7. Говорите громче! 8. Чем больше вы будете находиться на открытом воздухе, тем лучше будет у вас аппетит. 9. Ты мо- жешь положиться на него. Он сделает эту работу так же бы- стро, как ия. 10. Спидометр показывал, что машина идет в два раза быстрее, чем раньше. 11. Я хуже всех играю в шах- маты. 12. Кто живет дальше от университета: ты или твой товарищ? 13. Какая из всех картин на выставке вам нравит- ся больше всего? 14. Мой товарищ бегает быстрее меня. Exercise XVI Translate into English. 1. Кто из студентов вашей группы живет дальше всех от университета? 2. Какая из этих двух картин вам нравится больше? 3. Вы всегда приходите на заседания позже меня. 4. В этом году вы работаете меньше, чем в прошлом. 5. Из ваших рисунков этот пейзаж мне нравится меньше всех. 82
6. Мой товарищ бегает быстрее меня. 7. Вы уже прочитали эту интересную статью? - Я ее еще читаю. Я еще не прочи- тал ее до конца. 8. Уже восемь часов, а он еще не встал й не позавтракал. Он все еще спит. 9. Недавно я получила от брата открытку. Больше я от него ничего не получала. До сих пор я не получила телеграммы о том, как он себя чув- ствует. 10. Она так волновалась, что едва могла отвечать на вопросы. 11. Вы редко приходите вовремя. 12. Вы иног- да бываете неправы. 13. Его только что видели в соседней комнате. 14. Вы всегда можете обратиться к нему за помо- щью. 15. Недавно я встретил своего школьного товарища. The Numeral Words denoting number are called numerals. The cheif classes of numerals are cardinal numerals and ordinal numerals. Cardinal Numerals Cardinal numerals (one, two, three, four etc.) are used in counting answering the question “How many?”. 1. The cardinal numerals from 1 to 12 and 100, 1000, 1000000 are simple words; those from 13 to 19 are derivatives with the suffix -teen (thirteen, fourteen etc.). 2. The cardinal numerals of tens are formed by the suffix -ty\ sixty, seventy, eighty ..., but twenty, thirty, forty, fifty. 3. The numerals from 21 to 29, from 31 to 39 etc. consist of two words, and they are written with a hyphen twenty-one, thirty- two etc. 4. Cardinal numerals hundred, thousand, million are used with articles when denoting a definite number: a hundred sheep, a thousand workers. Years are counted in the following way: 1995 - nineteen hundred and ninety five or nineteen ninety-five. 83
2004 - twenty hundred and four or twenty О [эи] four. О = nought [no:t] or О [эи] when speaking of numbers: one, two, nought or О [эи] etc. 0 = 0 [эи] in telephone conversation: My telephone number is 29037 (two, nine, О [эи], three, seven). О = zero ['ziorov] - the point between the positive (+) and negative (-), especially on a thermometer: - 4° = four degrees below zero + 7 = seven degrees above zero 0 = nil in scoring at games: 4:0 = four to nil. Remember the following expressions: 1. to count by tens, hundreds, thousands; also by the hundred, by the thousand etc.; 2. 12 - a dozen, 20 - a score, 60 - three score; 3. half an hour, a quarter of an hour, three kilometres and a half, a thousand and a half kilometres; 4. 41 books; 5. 61 hours. Ordinal Numerals Ordinal numerals show the order of persons and things: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc. Most of the ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal nu- merals by means of the suffix -th (seventh, fourteenth, twentieth), except first, second and third. Notice also the spelling of fifth, ninth, twelfth. Ordinal numerals are usually preceded by the definite article: the first, the second, the tenth, the one hundred and twenty- fifth. The letter -y of cardinal numerals is changed into -ie in ordi- nals: forty - the fortieth, fifty - the fiftieth. In ordinal groups only the last figure of group takes the or- dinal form: the forty-third, the sixty-fifth. Dates may be written and read in different ways: 7 June, 2004 7th June, 2004 June 7, 2004 June 7th, 2004 the seventh of June, twenty О [эи] four June the seventh, twenty О [эи] four 84
Words and Expressions Used in Mathematics I. Fractional numerals: 1) common fractions: 1/2-a half 1/3-a third 1/4-a quarter 3/5 - three fifths 2/3 - two thirds 5/6 - five sixths 2) decimal fractions: 0.5 - nought point five 0.05 - nought point nought five 0.31 - nought point three one 2.35 - two point three five IL Addition: 4+5=9 - four and five are nine (four plus five are nine). III. Subtraction: 6-5=1 - six minus five is one. IV. Multiplication: 3x2=6 - three times two are six (three by two is six); 2x2=4 - twice two are four (two by two are four); 1x3=3 - once three is three (one by three is three). V. Division: 8:2=4 - eight divided by two is four. VI. Percentages: 1% - one per cent; 3% - three per cent; 3/8% - three eighths per cent; 1/2% - a half per cent; 0.2% - nought point two per cent; 3% from 200 = 6 - three per cent from two hundred is six; 5% from 300 = 15- five per cent from three hundred is fifteen; Some mathematical expressions: 20° - twenty degrees; 52 - five square (the square of five, five to the second power); 63 - six cubed (the cube of six, six to the third power); 23= 8 - the cube oflwo is eight; c18 - c [si:] to the eighteenth power; 85
a10 - a [ei] to the minus tenth power; 44 = 2- the square root of four is (equals) two; 4a- the cube root of a [ei]; 4a2 - the fifth root of a [ei] square. El EXERCISES Exercise I Read and write the following cardinal numerals: 5, 100, 73, 14, 31, 46, 88, 97, 123, 678, 779, 1050, 384, 2134, 1, 207, 641, 425, 712, 2, 032, 678, 75, 137. Exercise II Read and write the following numerals: 3, 4, 14, 40, 15, 18, 80, 12, 100, 226, 705, 1000, 4568, 6008, 75, 137, 425, 712, 1306527, 2032678, 3453, 696, 1/7, 2/19, 1 1/5, 8 3/8, 0.8, 1.35, 2.07, 2.386, 3.14 Exercise III Form, read and write ordinal numerals from the following cardinal numerals: 1, 12, 2, 20, 7, 14, 40, 15, 6, 16, 60, 18, 80, 9, 19, 90, 100, 103, 300, 425, 705, 1000, 1015. Exercise IV Form, read and write ordinal numerals from the following cardinal numerals: 5, 11, 21, 62, 100, 690, 3, 8, 13, 30, 76, 108, 1, 701, 4, 9, 22, 50. Exercise V Read and write in English the following: a) dates 6/VI.1995 8/XII.1939 12/IV.2001 2/VIII.1940 7/XI.1917 6/III.1987 31/VII.2003 22/VI.1941 b) common fractions: 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 7/16, 9/32, 1/4, 3/4 c) decimal fractions: 2,5; 25,16; 31,75; 49,165; 0,36; 0,105 86
Exercise VI Give the corresponding cardinal and ordinal numerals: Model: Seven-seventh-seventeen-seventeenth-seventy- seventieth. One, nine, four, five, three, eight, two, six. Exercise VII Translate into English: 1. Две тысячи рублей. 2. Тысячи людей. 3. Триста сорок метров. 4. Сотни лет. 5. Тысяча четыреста километров. 6. Двенадцать студентов. 7. Пятьдесят автомобилей. 8. Три с половиной килограмма. 9. Три четверти часа. 10. 16 про- центов. 11. 3/4 тонны. 12. 1/2 сантиметра. 13. 265 метра. 14. 0,75 процента. 15. 2 1/2 часа. Exercise VIII Translate into English: 1/4 километра; 1 1/2 часа; 1/3 фунта; 2 3/4 процента; 0,105 метра; 2,18 фунта; 17,562 тонны; 5 процентов; 23 сан- тиметра; 1/2 процента; 1 1/3 фунта; 2 1/2 тонны; 35 долла- ров; 2 500 рублей; 3/4 километра; 0,2 процента; 6,8 метра; 3 1/2 часа; 3445 рублей. Exercise IX Translate into English: 1. Пятьдесят килограммов. 2. Триста автомобилей. 3. Ше- стьдесят один грамм. 4. Два миллиона тонн. 5. Сотни ящи- ков. 6. Тысячи книг. 7. Двести восемьдесят один доллар. 8. Три тысячи рублей. 9. Сорок фунтов. 10. Тридцать че- тыре доллара и десять центов. 11. Сотня велосипедов. 12. Триста лет. 87
The Pronoun A pronoun is a word used instead of nouns, adjectives and numerals. There are ten kinds of pronouns: 1) personal, 2) possessive, 3) demonstrative, 4) interrogative, 5) relative, 6) reflexive, 7) conjunctive, 8) reciprocal, 9) indefinite, 10) negative. Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns are 7, he, she, it, we, you, they. The personal pronoun I is always written with a capital let- ter. The personal pronouns he, she, it denote gender (mascu- line, feminine, neuter), but the plural form they is used for all three genders. It is used for things, animals, plants, ideas, babies and as the impersonal subject: I like that book, it is very interesting. Note. Sometimes it is used to give emphasis and in imper- sonal sentences: It was Pete who came to the meeting first. It is cold today. It does not matter. It is also used in the following: It seems that, It appears that, It looks like, It is said that etc. It seems that it ’s going to snow. We use personal pronouns to refer to people, things or ani- mals: I’ve bought some milk. It’s on the table. 88
The personal pronouns have cases: nominative and objec- tive. We use /, you, he, she etc. before verbs as subjects and me, you, him, her etc. after verbs as objects. He gave her an expensive present but she didn’t like it. Persons Nominative Case Objective Case я I I me "□ W) II you you S III he, she, it him, her, it ce I we us h s II you you . pH III they them Possessive Adjectives/ Pronouns Possessive adjectives/pronouns express possession. Posses- sive adjectives go before nouns, whereas possessive pronouns do not go before nouns: This is my diary. Its mine. Sometimes possessive pronouns go at the beginning of a sen- tence: Yours is in the bedroom. Personal Pronouns Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns I my mine you your yours he his his she her hers it its its we our ours you your yours they their theirs Possessive adjectives usually have the functions of an at- tribute: Her exercise is good. Possessive pronouns may be used as the subject, the object and the predicative: This is not my pencil, mine is blue, (the subject) 89
I have broken my pencil. Please give me yours, (the object) The book is mine, (the predicative) Note 1. Possessive pronouns are used in such construc- tions as a friend of mine, that dictionary of yours'. That car of yours is very good. That music of hers is very pleasant. Note 2. Possessive adjectives are often used before the names of the parts of the body, clothing, things belonging to a person etc. In this case they are not translated into Russian: He put his hand into his pocket. Note 3. Possessive adjectives are not used with parts of the body after prepositions. Verbs used in this pattern are hit, kiss, punch, bite, touch, pat, sting etc.: She kissed the baby on the cheek. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Insert the proper form of the personal pronoun in brackets. 1. I had turned and faced (he). He was taller than (I). 2. He will be between (you) and (I), anyway. 3. It was (she) who asked the next question. 4. It’s (they) whom I pity desperately. 5. “She’s better at it than (we) are,” said Nora. 6. It was (I) not Martin, who had insisted on seeing (he) that night because I wanted his support. 7. I recalled, too, there had been some talk between Tom and (she). 8. It was (he) before whom she felt defeat. 9. This is (I) who can help you. 10. My mother gave (I) a very interesting story to read. 11. You must go to see (she) and talk to (she). 12. My friends came to see (we) yesterday and I showed (they) the pictures you had sent (I). 13. The box you wanted to give (he) is on the table, bring (it) here. 14. There were several other people no less amused to see (I) than I was to see (they). 15. If somebody inquires about me, tell (they) that I am well. Exercise II Insert personal pronouns. 1. Australia is one of the five continents, but... is much smaller than the other four. 2. Look at the yacht!... is almost touching 90
the waves with the sail. Look at...! 3. I hear a child has been bom to you. Is ... a boy or a girl? 4. When Kinuli had become a big lioness,... had to be returned to the Zoo, as it was dangerous to keep ... at home any longer. 5. What is the name of your dog? - ... is called Jip. 6. Mike soon made ... clear that... did not want to stay there long. 7. Do you like your car? - Oh ... has never let me down yet. 8. ... say there’s been a great earth quake in the Pacific. 9. It was ... who helped me most. 10. They invited you and ... to the party. 11. Very few could do it faster than.... 12. You can take the horse to the water, but you cannot make... drink. 13. Where is my umbrella? I left... in this corner. 14. Is he your friend? I have not yet seen .... Exercise III Underline the personal and possessive adjectives and pro- nouns in the following sentences. 1. Our country is very rich in oil, coal, iron and other natural resources. 2. England has to import most of them. 3. His dictation was much better than yours or mine. 4. He does his work much better than I do mine. 5. Their car was faster than ours. 6. At the concert I met an old friend of mine. 7. Lend them your dictionary, they have left theirs at home. 8. This book is neither hers nor his, it should be mine. 9. Their knowledge of chemistry is not much better than mine. 10. You can do without my help, but not without hers. Exercise IV Choose the correct form of the possessive adjectives or pro- nouns in brackets. 1. Would you like to see some of (her, hers) latest sketches? 2. He has not read a line of (your, yours), how can he criticize (your, yours) poems? 3. If this book is neither (her, hers) nor (his, his), it should be (my, mine). 4. (Their, theirs) knowledge of the subject is not much better than (our, ours). 5. I’m afraid they will take (your, yours) words against (her, hers). 6. All (our, ours) clothes were extremely dirty, and (my, mine) especially so. 7. Will you help me to sort out the things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our, ours). 8. (Their, theirs) boat was faster than (our, ours). 9. The man next door has been busy cutting the grass in (his, her) garden. 10. She put (her, hers) hands in (his, his). 91
Exercise V Use the correct form of possessive adjectives or pronouns in the following sentences: 1. This foolish wife of (I) thinks I’m a great artist,” said he. 2. Very well, Mother, I’ll have (I) hair cut this afternoon. 3. We can do (we) shopping before lunch. 4. She folded the letter and put it in (it) envelope. 5. She makes all (she) clothes herself. 6. This book is (I). There is (I) name on it. 7. There is a very interesting article of (he) in this evening’s paper. 8. This demand of (they) is quite unexpected. 9. She took off (she) coat and hat and sat down to wait for (she) friend. 10. He asked me what (I) name was and wrote it down in (he) notebook. Exercise VI Choose the correct form of the possessive adjectives or pro- nouns. 1. I went (my, mine) way, and she went (her, hers). 2. He left (her, hers) with (their, theirs) child. 3. What was this experiment of (your, yours)? 4. He put (his) arm in (her, hers). 5. From this moment (their, theirs) story comes in two versions, (my, mine) and (her, hers). 6. My friend’s room was only two doors from (my, mine). 7. “That thought is not (me, mine),” he said to himself quickly. 8. Where is (your, yours) seat? I will go to (my, mine). 9. Lend them (your, yours) dictionary; they have left (their, theirs) at home. 10.1 put on (my, mine) coat and hat and sat down to wait for (her, hers) friend. 11. We are all ready to defend (our, ours) country. 12. You can leave (your, yours) bags in the cloakroom. Exercise VII Change the following sentences as in the given models: Model I: This is my book. - This book is mine. Model II: This is my book. - And that one is his (hers). These are your books. - And those are ours (theirs). 1. This is my purse. 2. This is our suggestion. 3. This is your glove. 4. These are your seats. 5. This is her plan. 6. This is her toothbrush. 7. These are my pens. 8. This is their writing-table. 9. These are my notebooks. 10. This is their part of work. 11. This is my dictionary. 12. These are our postcards. 13. These are our records. 14. This is my umbrella. 15. These 92
are our notebooks. 16. This is my hat. 17. This is my watch. 18. These are our tickets. 19. These are our scissors. 20. This is my coat. Exercise VIII Translate into English. 1. Построена новая дорога; ее длина более тысячи кило- метров. 2. Построен новый мост; его ширина около ста метров. 3. У меня много книг этого поэта; я большой по- читатель его таланта. 4. Я предпочитаю Крым Кавказу из- за его более сухого климата. 5. Этот автомобиль очень не- большой, но мотор у него довольно мощный..6. Я не могу сейчас ездить на своем автомобиле: у него мотор не в по- рядке. 7. Чьи эти фотографии? - Мои. 8. Не трогай утюг, он горячий. 9. Кушайте больше моркови, она очень полез- ная. 10. Где фрукты? - Они в холодильнике. 11. Это ваша записная книжка, а это его, но где же моя? 12. На борту парохода я встретил своего старого друга. Он был также другом моего брата. Exercise IX Translate into English. 1. Вы едете в одном купе, но его место верхнее, а ваше ниж- нее. 2. Чьи стихи вам больше понравились: его или того молодого поэта? 3. Он взял ключ соседа вместо своего. 4. Мы поделились с ними своим опытом, а они своим. 5. Результаты показали, что наш план был более правиль- ным, чем их. 6. Самое лучшее предложение - ваше. 7. Ког- да вы увидите его, отдайте ему его карандаш. 8. Мы при- гласили их на наш вечер, и они обещали прийти со своим учителем. 9. Мать попросила ее принести из комнаты ее журналы, а она принесла свои. 10. Она заглянула в свою комнату и быстро вернулась в его. 11. Она вошла в ван- ную комнату, чтобы вымыть лицо и руки. 12. Он был на два года старше меня и моей подруги. Exercise X Translate into English. 1. Ее дядя был директором школы. - И мой тоже. 2. Я полагаю, что я прав, думая, что он один из ваших учени- ков. 3. Его мнение было таким же, как мое. 4. Его англий- ский был так же хорош, как и их. 5. Том недавно получил 93
письмо от школьного друга. 6. У меня было странное чув- ство, когда мы говорили о его друзьях. 7. В те дни я редко видел своего школьного друга и в его присутствии я чув- ствовал себя неловко, как и он в моем. 8. Сегодня утром мне звонила по телефону одна из моих племянниц. 9. «Мы поедем сегодня к нашему другу на вашей машине или на моей?» - спросила Аня. 10. Он говорит, что он один из ваших друзей или вы один из его друзей. 11. Я прочту вам свое сочинение и хочу, чтобы вы прочли мне свое. 12. Я вижу, что у вас нет словаря, я хочу дать вам свой. 13. Я еще не написал свои упражнения. А ваши готовы? 14. Вот ваш портфель. А где мой? 15. Вы еще не показали мне свой доклад. Exercise XI Translate into English. 1. Если вы оставили дома ключ, я могу вам дать свой. 2. Он надел шляпу и пальто и вышел на улицу. 3. Утром я убираю свою комнату, завтракаю и иду на работу. 4. Если у нее нет с собой зонтика, дайте ей ваш. 5. Наш секретарь хорошо знает свои обязанности. 6. Вы еще не сказали мне своего мнения о моей работе. 7. Идет дождь. Наденьте плащ. 8. Возьмите, пожалуйста, свои деньги, я могу их потерять. 9. Он признает свои недостатки. 10. Не вмешивайтесь не в свое дело. 11. Он надел шляпу и вышел. 12. Мы сняли пальто и вошли в комнату. 13. Они не хотят видеть ваши рисунки, они хотят видеть мои. 14. Вы можете очень хорошо обойтись без моей по- мощи, но не без их. Demonstrative Pronouns The demonstrative pronouns are this (these), that (those), the former, the latter, such, the same. The demonstrative pronoun refers to a noun which has al- ready been used. This (these) refer to near things, events or persons: This room is very comfortable. It is very cold this winter. 94
This (these) are used: a) for present or future situations: Гт going to London this month. b) to introduce people or when we introduce ourselves on the phone: “Pete, Jhis is Kate." “Hello? This is Tom speaking. " That (those) refer to distant things, events or persons: That boy is my brother. We haven't been to those places. That (those) are used: a) for past situations: We had a wonderful Christmas that year. b) to refer back to something mentioned before: “She failed her exam. " - “That 's too bad. " c) when speaking on the phone to ask who the other person is: “Hello? This is Ann. Who's that speaking?" Both this (these) and that (those) are used as adjectives and pronouns: This is the student that I was looking for. The former is used for the first of the two, the latter for the second of the two: Newton and Faraday were two great English scientists, the former lived in the 17th century, the latter in the 19th century. Such means “so great” or “of that kind”. It was such a funny story! The same is always used with the definite article: It is all the same to me. We were in the same form. A demonstrative pronoun may be used instead of a noun to save repetition: Compare these maps with those on the blackboard. 95
0 EXERCISES Exercise I Use the necessary demonstrative pronoun in the following sentences. 1.... book is mine. 2.1 prefer... flower to ... one. 3. My English dictionary is better than ... of yours. 4.... is the film we saw last year. 5. ... will do! 6. Try one of... pens. 6. The music of the “Queen of Spades” is more dramatic than ... of the “Eugene Onegin”. 7. The stories by O’Henry are as full of life as... written by Mark Twain. 8. Natural rubber is of higher quality than ... produced artificially. 9. “... depends on the new timetable,” said one of the pupils. 10. Their poetry was not ... of Byron and Shelley. Exercise II Use that or those for the repeated noun. 1. The trees in our garden are taller than the trees in the park. 2. The climate of Moscow is better than the climate of St Petersburg. 3. At our factory these are few machines similar to the machines described in this magazine. 4. The price of tin is higher than the price of copper. 5. Read my letter and the letter of my sister. 6. Look through these magazines and the magazines received before. 7. Correct the mistakes made in my composition and the mistakes in your composition. 8. Copy the figures written in this list and the figures written in that list. 9. The vase on the shelf is more beautiful than the vase on the table. 10. The medicine given me by your doctor has helped me much better than the medicine given me by my mother. Exercise III Use one of the demonstrative pronouns in the following sen- tences. 1. She gave the ... answer as before. 2. What do you want me to do with...? 3. Do you see... bushes on the other side of the river? 4. Well, ...’s exactly what I did. 5. Don’t be in ... a hurry. 6. I believe you but there are... who wouldn’t. 7.... is what I thought last year. 8.1 can’t find all the books you asked me for. I put... I found on your desk. 9. ... is what I want you to do. 10. I have divided the books into two piles. ... are to be kept. ... are to be sold. 11.1 have had ... a busy morning. 12. My seat was next to ... of John’s mother. 13. “One can’t compare Chopin’s waltzes 96
with ... of today,” she said. 14. My services,... as they are, are at your disposal. Exercise IV Complete the sentences as in the given models. Model I: Give me another envelope. I don’t like this (that) one. Give me some other pencils. I don’t like these (those). Or: Will you kindly show me another dress? This one won’t do. That one won’t do. Let’s choose a hat in another department... Just sing another song, will you? ... Let’s listen to some other tunes ... Model II: This is my dictionary and that one is yours. These are my books and those are not mine. This is your cup of tea ... These are your sandwiches ... There are my friend’s gloves ... This is my sister’s bag ... Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Климат Италии лучше климата Англии. 2. Ваши ошиб- ки хуже ошибок, сделанных вашим другом. 3. Он всегда приходит сюда в то же самое время. 4. Таков был резуль- тат их спора. 5. В этот момент я увидела моего друга в зале. 6. Он говорил ей о своей работе в больнице, а она расска- зала ему, что она делала в тот день в институте. 7. Я занят в данный момент. 8. Эта книга моя, а та ваша. 9. В те пер- вые августовские дни у меня было мало дел на работе. 10. Это такой интересный роман! 11. В тот день я был бо- лен и не ходил на лекции в университет. 12. Эти туфли мне не подходят. Дайте мне те, пожалуйста. 13. Читайте тот же самый текст, пожалуйста. 14. У меня никогда не было та- кой работы. 15. Зима в Англии более мягкая, чем зима на континенте. 16. Запах розы приятнее, чем запах лилии. 17. Не трогай те игрушки, возьми игрушки в углу. 18. Мне нравятся такие маленькие города, как этот. 19. У нее длин- ные вьющиеся волосы. Я никогда не видел такие красивые волосы. 20. Я принес вам последние новости. Это самые важные новости. 4 Н. Утевская 97
Exercise VI Translate into English paying attention to the use of personal and demonstrative pronouns. 1. Чьи это туфли? - Это мои туфли. 2. Кто-то заглянул в комнату. Это был мой сосед. 3. Когда я впервые увидел его, это был еще совсем молодой человек. 4. Куда вы положили деньги? - Они в кошельке, на полке. 5. Вы помните ее? Она была очень веселая девушка. 6. Это были самые красивые розы, какие я когда-либо видел. 7. Я получил все сведения, которые вы мне послали. Они очень интересны. Но это еще не полные сведения. 8. На столе было много фруктов: они были в красивых вазах. 9. Что с вашими часами? - Они от- стают на 5 минут. 10. Посмотрите, кто это? - Это один из наших студентов. Я его где-то видел. - Наверное на сорев- нованиях; это один из наших спортсменов. - Да, теперь я узнаю, это он. 11. Кто там? - Откройте, это я. Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. Много лет тому назад в этом доме была библиотека. 2. Посмотрите на маленький дом с зеленой крышей на том берегу реки. 3. Они скоро едут в Польшу. Они думают, что им придется пробыть в этой стране около года. 4. Он был в Китае несколько лет тому назад, но в то время он еще не знал китайского языка. 5. Это мои тетради, а это ваши. 6. Я не хочу ему звонить по телефону сейчас. Он всегда обедает в это время. 7. Возьмите эти журналы на столе, но не берите те журналы на полке. 8. Как называ- ются эти предложения? 9. Какого цвета те обои? 10. Это был 1810 год. В те дни в нашей стране не было железных дорог. 11. Это письмо от моего старшего брата, которого я не видел полтора года. 12. Все эти проблемы много раз обсуждались, но ни одна из них еще не решена. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns who, whose, whom, what, which are used to form special questions. Who, what, whose, to whom, whom are used when asking about persons: Who lives in this house? 98
Whom did you speak to? Whose dictionary is this? What is Mary? - Mary is an engineer. Which is used when asking about a particular thing: Which of the two stories do you prefer? Which is the tallest building in Moscow? What is used when asking about things in general: What happened last week? 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Fill in the blanks with the pronouns who, whom, whose, what, which'. 1. ... sleeps in this room? ... cap is it? ... did you meet there? 2.... is your sister?... game do you prefer, tennis or volleyball? 3. ... brother is Boris? ... is he by profession? 4. On ... days do you take English lessons? ... day is more convenient for you, Tuesday or Wednesday? 5. ... will help me? ... of these girls is the youngest? 6. ... is your telephone number? ... pencil is this Peter’s or Helen’s? 7.... are you drinking? ... understands this rule? 8. ... trees grow in your garden? ... of you must I thank for this? 9.... gloves are these? They are mine ... ? 10.... shoes do you want to buy? 11. ... of these cakes may I take? Exercise II Insert interrogative pronouns: 1.... colour is it to be, blue or violet? 2.... do you think can be entrusted with this task? 3. ... are your intentions for the summer? 4.... turn is it now? 5.... is speaking? 6.... can I do for you? 7.... does he do? Is he a lawyer? 8.... are you laughing at? 9.... problem are you working at now? 10. We serve coffee and tea... would you like? 11.... of you did it? 12.... would you like to see as your assistant? Exercise III Put questions to the words in bold type. 1. They are talking about the new opera. 2. They are talking about their friends. 3. I have bought it for you. 4. He looked 99
for his bag. 5. I am looking at him. 6. They are talking about the international situation. 7. They are painters. 8. He is waiting for me. 9. That book is mine. 10. These boys are my brothers. 11. I rang up my sister. 12. The handbag is made of leather. 13. The man asked for a cup of tea. 14. He has bought a gold watch. 15. He dictated the letter to the secretary. 16. This telegram.is from my sister. 17.1 spoke to the director about it. 18. The director’s office is on the third floor. 19. The height of this building is one hundred metres. 20. This is my brother’s dog. Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Кто оставил словарь на столе? 2. Кого из них вы спра- шивали об этом? 3. Кого вы ждете здесь? 4. На каком эта- же вы живете? 4. Что мы будем писать сегодня: диктант или грамматические упражнения? 5. Какой месяц самый холодный в Москве?. 6. Какой язык вы знаете лучше: анг- лийский или немецкий? 7. Что вы предпочитаете: чай или кофе? 8. О чем вы разговаривали, когда я вас встретил? 9. Кому вы дали свой словарь? 10. Какой из этих рассказов самый короткий?. 11. Какого цвета эти обои? 12. Чья эта тетрадь? 13. Что вы думаете по этому вопросу?. 14. Кто этот молодой человек? Он студент. 15. Что вы хотите: сыр, масло или печенье? 16. Кто изобрел радио? 17. Какие жур- налы вы купили? 18. Кто знает адрес нашего учителя? 19. Кого вы спрашивали? 20. Кто из нашей группы напи- сал диктант без ошибок? Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns who, whose, whom, which, that introduce attributive clauses. Who and whom are used when referring to persons and ani- mals: The boy who is speaking to me now was my pupil before. The first girl whom I saw was Alice. Whose is used when referring to persons, animals or things: Those trees whose branches are long look lovely. 100
Which is used only when referring to animals or things: Where is the article which you have translated? That is used instead of which. It may refer to persons and things: It is the most interesting book that I have ever read. The student that wrote the letter was his friend. As is used as a relative pronoun after same and such and may refer to living beings and things: I have the same opinion as you have. Note. The relative pronoun is sometimes omitted as being understood: This is the student I told you about. (This is the student that I told you about). EXERCISES Exercise I Fill in relative pronouns. 1. Do you know the man ... wrote this letter? 2. The magazine ... you gave me is very interesting. 3. The street... leads to the station is very wide. 4. The doctor ... she visited told her to stay in bed. 5. The man ... you want to see has ju^t left. 6. This is the student... book you found. 7. The girl... you see at the door is my sister. 8. He returned to his desk and dialled the number ... he knew by heart. 9. She came into a room in ... a child was sleeping and drew the curtains. 10. Often they discussed things about ... he knew nothing. 11. He was the architect of this very house... we live in now. 12. The telephone, ... was on a side table, suddenly rang out. 13. A friend of mine, ... was present at the meeting, told me all about it. 14. Is the man with ... you spoke a writer? 15. He will be glad of any help ... you can give him. 16. This is the only example ... I can tell you. 17. Yesterday I met my brother ... showed me a letter ... he had received from our parents. 18. My youngest sister, ... you met at my house last week, has just got married. 19. He has three sons, ... all work at the same factory. 20. The militiaman ... I asked for the way to the hotel was a very polite man. 101
Exercise П Fill in relative pronouns. 1. The man ... has just come in is our neighbour. 2. The woman ... you see in the office is waiting for the manager. 3. The young man ... application you have just read is a well- known chemist. 4. The girl... I have spoken about will be here in an hour. 5. The dog ... is running along the street has evi- dently lost its master. 6. Your pet... you want to punish does not deserve it. 7. The album ... is lying on the shelf contains many nice sketches. 8. Often they discussed things about... he knew nothing. 9. In the dark and the cold of the morning they drove out the country road through the mist ... hung heavy over the flat. 10. It was pleasant to walk among the trees ... leaves were of many colours. 11. They reached the street in ... she lived. 12. The room in ... I found myself was very large. 13. The person ... you said was waiting is gone. 14. The student ... book you borrowed wishes to have it back. Exercise III Translate into English. 1. Это моя подруга, которую вы вчера видели со мной в кино. 2. Пассажир, чемодан которого лежал рядом, ска- зал, что место занято. 3. Я еще не проверила диктант, который вы вчера писали. 4. Я не знаю никого, кто жи- вет в этой квартире. 5. Это та собака, которую мы виде- ли в цирке. 6. Девушка, о которой он говорил вам, сест- ра моего приятеля. 7. Студент, которому я одолжил свой словарь, принесет его завтра утром. 8. Это самая инте- ресная книга, которую я когда-либо читал по этому воп- росу. 9. Мы прошли мимо комнаты, дверь которой была открыта. 10. Он помог нести мой чемодан, что было очень любезно с его стороны. 11. В лесу было уже много деревьев, листья которых были совсем желтые. 12. Это та книга, которую вы ищете? 13. Человек, которого мы встретили в коридоре, директор нашей школы. 14. Он был единственным учеником, который написал этот дик- тант с ошибками. Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Книга, которую вы мне дали вчера, очень интересная. 2. Как фамилия человека, с которым ты только что раз- 102
говаривал? 3. Это дом, в котором я жил в детстве. 4. Он показал мне прекрасную картину, которую он недавно купил. 5. Вчера я встретил своего старого друга, кото- рого я сразу не узнал. 6. Человек, который только что звонил, просил вам кое-что передать. 7. Адрес, по кото- рому я написал, оказался неправильным. 8. Он один из самых интересных людей, которых я когда-либо встре- чал. 9. Это письмо от моего старшего брата, которого я не видел полтора года. 10. Дерево, из которого сделана эта мебель, очень твердое. 11. Поезд из Москвы, кото- рый должен прибыть в 5.30, опаздывает. Conjunctive Pronouns Conjunctive who (whose, whom), which, what introduce sub- ject, predicative and object clauses: Who locked the door remains a mystery, (subject) I don 7 know who these children are. (object) He is clever and witty, but that is not what I value him for. (predicative) 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Analyse the pronoun in bold type and say whether they are conjunctive, relative or interrogative. 1. He felt like one whose dream has come true, but too late. 2. He knew what was happening, of course. 3. He was the architect of this very house that we live in now. 4.1 remember you mentioned Wednesday and Friday. Which day shall we go to the cinema? 5. Ask him which of these books he will take. 6. The library is in the house which stands at the corner. 7. Whom did you give your book? 8. The man whom you see in the classroom is our teacher. 9. The question is what he will tell us. 10. My friend whom you saw yesterday is a good doctor. 11. I am not sure which of my brothers will meet me at the station. 12. The man whom I have spoken about will be here in an hour. 103
Exercise II Fill in conjunctive, relative or interrogative pronouns. 1. h.'am I speaking to, please? 2.1 don’t care ... he says to me. I know I’m a real artist. 3. They reached the street in ... he lived. 4. “My shoulder hurts,” I said. “... shoulder?” I touched my left shoulder. 5. He was late, ... made her angry. 6. He got up from the sofa on ... he was lying, and went into the dining- room. 7.1 don’t know... dress you would like more. 8.1 am not sure ... voice it is. 9. The book ... is lying on the shelf contains many nice stories. 10. The cat... is lying in the street has evidently lost the way home. 11.1 don’t know ... of the answers is right. 12. From ... did you receive a telegram? 13. There is the man ... we saw in the park yesterday. 14. The boy told his mother... he had met at the shop. 15. The last thing ... any of us wants is breakfast. Exercise III Use interrogative or conjunctive pronouns in the following sentences. 1. They had brought few books with them ... she hadn’t read. 2. You’re one of the few people ... I’d like to know better. 3. “... of the two of them is right?” he asked me. 4. I don’t honestly see ... I can do about it. 5. That is the worst news ... we’ve ever had from you. 6. ... do we call the sea between England and France? 7. ... pronoun is always written with a capital letter? 8. Looking at him she wondered ... sort of small boy he had been. 9. ... cost more money, ready-made clothes or tailor-made clothes? 10. There had grown between them an understanding ... reguired no words. 11. ... other things did you buy? 12. Now ... you see all the family together tell me ... you think of us. 13. It is for you to decide ... is to speak to the chief. 14. ... quality do you admire in a man? Exercise IV Use the relative or conjunctive pronouns. 1. The room in ... I found myself was large and cosy. 2. I did not remember to ... I lent the book. 3. I did not know ... to think of it. 4. The person... you said was waiting is gone. 5. She wanted to know ... he was supposed to do. 6. Please bring me the pencils... points need sharpening. 6. Tell me... you are going to do tomorrow. 7. Please tell me ... way he will come. 8. He crossed the street, and sat on one of the iron benches ... were 104
placed under the trees. 9. Everyone... you know is out of town. 10. The militiaman ... I asked at once told me the way. 11. At this house I met my cousin, ...wanted to see me. 12. I gave a lump of sugar to Tom’s horse,... is very fond of sweets. 13. He gave me the directions ... I needed. 14. Tell me ... you have written. 15.1 ran into a young man ... I had not noticed. Reflexive/Emphatic Pronouns 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person Singular myself yourself himself herself itself Plural ourselves yourselves themselves Reflexive pronouns are myself, yourself himself herself itself ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Reflexive pronouns are used arter certain verbs (behave, burn. cut. enjoy, hurt. kill, look at. laugh at. introduce, dry. teach etc.) when the subject and the object of the verb are the same: He taught himself how to drive. Reflexive pronouns can be used after be. feel. look, seem to describe emotions or states: He doesn 7 seem himself these days. Such verbs as wash, shave. (un)dress, afford, complain, meet, rest, relax, stand up. get up. sit down, wake up etc.: He got up and shaved. But when we talk about children or animals we can use a reflexive pronoun with wash or dress'. Гт teaching my son how to wash himself Emphatic pronouns have the same form as reflexive pro- nouns but a different meaning. They emphasize the noun, or the fact that one person, and not another, performs an ac- tion: He himself painted this picture. They also mean “without help”: She fixed the leak 'herself 105
Note these idioms: Enjoy yourself! (=Have a good time!) Behave yourself! (=Be good!) I like being by myself. (=1 like being alone.) She lives by herself. (=She lives on her own) By myself, by yourself, by himself etc. (=on my own, on your own, on his own etc) Help yourself to coffee. (=You’re wel- come to take some coffee if you want some) Do it yourself. (=Do it without being helped) Make yourself at home! (=Feel comfortable) Make yourself heard. (=Speak loudly enough to be heard by others) Make yourself understood. (=Make your meaning clear) 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Use reflexive or emphatic pronouns in the following sentences: 1. We enjoyed ... at the dance. 2. Why is she sitting all by ... in the dark? 3. I closed the door behind .... 4. All day the children were beside... from excitement. 5. “Sit down, Peter,” she said, seating ... in a chair opposite him. 6. You can speak to him .... 7. She opened the door to him .... 8. She wrote the words to them .... 9. At two o’clock I was cooling ... in the lake. 10. Did you invite him...? 11.1 looked at... in the mirror. 12. I will ask him ... . 13. They told me the news ... . 14. She will answer the letter ... . 15. My brother wanted to help us, but we decided to try to do it... without his help. 16. She fell down and hurt.... 17. “My child!” said her mother ... “Look at...!” And she held up her hand mirror. 18. We are back and have enjoyed ... very much. 19. I’ll see him ... tomorrow. 20. She wrote this and other poems to them ... . 21. They found ... in a strange place. Exercise II Use reflexive or emphatic pronouns in the following sentences. 1.1 liked having lodgings of my own, where I could be by ... . 2. I found ... doing nearly all the talking. 3. She looked in the mirror and could not recognize .... 4. Sit down and make ... at home. 5. She had made ... very unpopular. 6. The boat was expected between the eighth and tenth of August. I allowed ... to sit gazing out to sea in the hope that it would appear before time. 7. I thought what a pretty girl she was ... . 8. He had injured .... 9. What do you suggest ...? 10. The pupils ... 106
decorated the hall with flowers and garlands. 11. During the break the children amuse... in the playground. 12. John... wrote and posted the letter. 13. We protect... from the rain with an umbrella. 14. I ... was to blame. 15. You said so .... 16. He settled ... as comfortably as he could. Exercise III Translate into English. 1. Я сам отвечу на это письмо. 2. Он не любит говорить о себе. 3. Они хотели это сделать сами. 4. Ваш отец сам был здесь. 5. Он очень много рассказывал нам о себе. 6. Я ос- тавлю эту книгу для себя. 7. Она сама принесет вам кни- гу. 8. Он ходил туда и все видел сам. 9. Пусть дети дела- ют домашние задания сами. 10. Если он занят, я могу пойти в театр одна. 11. Когда она была готова, она по- смотрела в зеркало. 12. Он часто разговаривал сам с со- бой. 13. В тот вечер они должны были обедать одни. 14. Они предпочитали пить чай одни, а после чая играли в шахматы. 15. Вернись, мой мальчик, и закрой дверь. Двери сами не закрываются. 16. Я сама могу вам дать свою фотографию. 17. Кофе был готов. Она налила себе чашку и села за стол. 18. Он удивлялся самому себе. 19. Не брейтесь в темноте. Вы можете порезаться. 20. Он храбро защищался. Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Я сама увижу его завтра. 2. Затем ей самой захотелось что-то сделать. 3. В тот вечер она была сама доброта. 4. Были такие моменты, когда ему было чрезвычайно жал- ко самого себя. 5. Он слишком много о себе думает. 6. Он страшно упрекал себя за свое поведение в тот вечер. 7. Он был недоволен собой. 8. Они сделали это не для себя, а для своих товарищей. 9. Молодой человек ничего о себе не ска- зал, и мы не знали даже имени своего спасителя. 10. После болезни она слишком слаба, чтобы заботиться о себе. 11. Мы увидели перед собой красивое лесное озеро. 12. Она хочет это сделать сама. 13. Я очень удивлена, что он так себя вел. 14. Не беспокойтесь. Я сам отнесу письмо на по- чту. 15. Они очень много рассказывали нам о себе. 16. Вы сами видите, что вы неправы. 107
Reciprocal Pronouns There are two kinds of these pronouns: each other and one another. The first is used when speaking about two persons, the se- cond, when more than two are meant. In the sentence they have the function of an object: The boys helped each other. The children friendly played with one another. 3 EXERCISES Exercise I Complete the following sentences using either each, other or one another. 1. The workers stood in a line and handed heavy parcels to .... 2. All of us put down ... telephone numbers. 3. Without saying a word, my friend and I nodded to .... 4. Before the ascent all the sportsmen were fastened to .... 5. When my fellow-student and I met again we recognized ... at once. 6. When a company of former classmates met they could not recognize ... . 7. The two friends exchanged ... photos. 8. My friend and his guest sat down opposite.... 9. When parting the former fellow- students usually put down ... addresses. 10. The members of our large family live in different towns; though we don’t see ...for years, we keep up correspondence. 11. One was Russian, the other - Bulgarian, so they could understand ... rather well. 12. The friends kissed and embraced ... . 13. Was it the first time that you saw...? 14. When they met... they looked at... in astonishment. 15. The father and the son met... at the station. 16. The two sisters resembled ... very much. 17. The teams greeted ... warmly. 18. During the interval the pupils ran in the garden, sang and spoke to .... 19. John and Mary were always ready to help ... . 20. The students were helping ... to prepare for the lesson. Exercise II Insert each other or one another. 1. The old couple looked at ... . 2. They were red in the face and found looking at... for a moment. 3. The rest of us looked at... in amazement. 4. Tom and Mike spoke to ... only about 108
the game. 5. For the next three days neither Pete nor they spoke to .... 6. The two boys faced .... 7. The two families don’t know ... . 8. The two stood gazing at... for a minute in silence. 9. And for a moment they all three stood silently looking at ... . 10. The twins looking at ... glumly. 11. For a moment nothing more was said. And then they suddenly smiled at.... 12. These three ladies disliked and distrusted .... 13. The twins jumped up and ran round ... . 14. They sat opposite ..., as they had so offen sat before. Exercise III Translate into English. 1. Петя и Лена очень любят друг друга. 2. После школь- ных каникул школьники были рады видеть друг друга. 3. Все в нашей семье помогают друг другу. 4. Эти два бра- та никогда не видели друг друга. 5. Они часто ссорились друг с другом. 6. Они продолжали работать, помогая друг другу. 7. На секунду их глаза встретились, и они поняли мысли друг друга. 8. Они знают друг друга два года. 9. Они часто видят друг друга. 10. Когда они встретились снова, они узнали друг друга. 11. Они обвиняют друг дру- га, но, вероятно, они оба виноваты. 12. Они часто наве- щали друг друга. 13. Мы смотрели друг на друга с волне- нием. 14. Ее дети всегда помогали друг другу. 15. Два человека кивнули друг другу. Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Хотя они жили на одной и той же улице, они редко виде- лись друг с другом. 2. Члены нашей семьи живут в разных городах; хотя мы и не видим друг друга в течение несколь- ких лет, мы часто пишем письма друг другу. 3. Когда быв- шие одноклассники встретились, они не узнали друг дру- га. 4. Мы должны помогать друг другу. 5. Два товарища посмотрели друг на друга. 6. Когда друзья расставались, они записали номера телефонов друг друга. Затем они об- менялись фотографиями друг друга. 7. Мать и сын сидели напротив друг друга. 8. Они впервые увидели друг друга несколько лет тому назад. 9. Сестры были очень похожи друг на друга. 10. Они поцеловались и обнялись друг с дру- гом. 109
Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns refer to things or persons. They are: some, any, every, somebody, anybody, everybody, someone, any- one, everyone, something, anything, everything, each, all, both, several, either, (the) other, (the) others, another, one. Note. Some, any and every with -body and -one are used when speaking of persons, with -thing - when speaking of things: Is anybody there? (a person) I have to tell you something, (a thing) I. Some and its compounds are used 1) in positive sentences: I have bought you some good books. Someone entered the room. Something has happened to him. There is somebody in the garden. 2) in interrogative sentences when we want to make an offer, or request or when we expect a positive answer: Will you help me with some money? Could I have some tea? II. Any and its compounds are used 1) in interrogative and negative sentences, in indirect ques- tions and in adverbial clauses of condition: Is anybody absent today? I didn ’t bring anything. Are there any pictures in the book? If you have any doubt, tell it to me. 2) in positive sentences in the meaning of всякий, любой: You may ring me up at any time. III. Every and each. Every is used with singular countables. It refers to a group of people or things and means all, every- one, everything etc.: Every student must know this rule. He recognized everybody. Everyone took part in this meeting. Each is used with singular countables. It means one by one, considered individually: Each pupil in the class has an English dictionary. 110
Positive Interrogative some any any -thing something что-то, что-нибудь anything все, что угодно anything что-то, что-нибудь -body -one somebody someone кто-то кто-нибудь anybody anyone всякий, любой anybody anyone кто-нибудь, кто-либо -where somewhere где-то куда-то anywhere где угодно, куда угодно anywhere где-нибудь, куда-нибудь Negative Positive/Negative Interrogative not...any no every -thing not... anything ничего nothing ничего everything всё -body -one not... anybody not... anyone никто nobody никто everybody everyone все -where not... anywhere нигде, никуда nowhere нигде, никуда everywhere везде, всюду IV. All refers to more than two people or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. It is the opposite of none'. All the passengers went ashore. All + that-clause means everything and takes a singular verb: All that he said was lies. V. Both refers to two persons or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. It is the opposite of neither. Both my friends are good sportsmen. Ill
VI. Several denotes some, a few'. We had to repeat the words several times. VII. Either has two meanings 1) one or the other: You can take either book you see on the table. 2) both: Here are new houses on either side of the street. Note. Every, each and either are singular and require a verb in the singular: Everybody was present. It was a peak-hour and every trolleybus was full. Either is able to do this sum. Either of takes a verb either in the singular or plural: Either of them have/has promised to help me. VIII. Other and another. Other may be used as an adjective and as a noun. Plural form others', possessive case other's, others': Give other examples, please! Some students were present, others were missing. Another means 1) a different one: Please give me another book. 2) an additional one: Give me another piece of cake, please. IX. One has the function of a noun and of an adjective. It can have the possessive case (one's) and the plural form (ones)'. One must always keep one's word. One morning I came to the university very early. One in the function of a noun is used 1) to replace the noun which has just been mentioned: Take my pen. - Thank you, I've got one. 2) in the meaning of everyone, anyone'. One should always observe the traffic rules. 112
Negative Pronouns Negative pronouns express refusal of something positive. They are no, no one, none, nobody, nothing, neither. 1. No has the character of an adjective: She has no money. 2. No one and nobody refer to human beings: Nobody has told me about it. No one knew this rule. 3. None resembles a noun. It is used when speaking about persons and things: None of them is my friend. Is there a telephone in the room? - No, there is none. 4. Nothing refers to names of objects: I saw nothing interesting there. 5. Neither is the opposite of either. Neither book interested me. Neither is used before singular countables. Neither was present. It refers to two people or things. Neither of takes a verb either in the singular or plural: Neither of us is/are rich. 1И EXERCISES Exercise I Insert some or any. 1. We certainly don’t want... trouble. 2. There is ... soup in the pan. You may eat it. 3. But there aren’t... trains until morning. 4. Why do you always ask if there’s... news. 5. His mother bought ... notebooks for him. 6. She looked everywhere for matches but could not find ... 7. “Have you ... money?” - “Yes.” - “Give me ....” 8. Ann is much younger than ... other girls in her class. 9. If you have ... news, call me back. 10. There is hardly ... place in this house where we can talk alone. 11. They understood each other without ... words. 12. You have ... fine flowers in your garden. 13. Go and ask him for... more paper. I haven’t... in my desk. 14. Later we had ... tea. 15. He wants ... more pudding. 113
16.... time ago I read this story in a magazine. 17.1 don’t think there is ... milk left in the jug. 18. Are there ... mistakes in my dictation? - Yes, there are... 19. What kind of fruit do you prefer? - I like ... kind. 20. There is ... wine left in the bottle. 21. He found ... new expressions in the book. Exercise II Insert some, any or no. 1. There are... matches left. We must buy.... 2.... student can answer the question. 3. Are there ... illustrations in that book? 4. He puts ... sugar in his coffee. 5. He wants more milk. Give him ... . 6. Can you give me ... more information? 7. Do you want... apples? Here are ... ripe ones. 8. If you find ... money on the floor, it is mine. I dropped ... this morning. 9. Please give me ... pudding. -1 am sorry, but there is ... pudding left. 10. There is ... butter on the table, but there is ... milk. 11. Will you buy ... stamps forme, please? 12. If you have ... questions to the lecturer, write them down and hand in. 13. When I needed help, he didn’t ask ... questions. 14. Are there... apple- trees in your garden? 15. Have you got ... lessons tomorrow morning? 16. Give me ... time to think about it. 17. My grandmother does not watch ... programmes on TV. 18. Have ... more ice-cream. - Thanks, I don’t want ... more. 19. He can answer ... question on the subject. 20. What book shall I bring you? - ... you like. Exercise III Insert one of the compounds in some, any or no. 1. At the party you’ll see... you haven’t met yet. 2. Will there be ... at the club so early? 3. I’m not going to see him because I have ... important to report. 4. I was late. I found ... in the house. 5.1 am expecting ... at twelve o’clock. 6.1 think there’s ... wrong with my watch. 7. Is there ... at home? 8. The door- bell rang but there was ... there. 9.1 know ... at all. 10. ... can become a member of the club by paying a subscription. 11. When we get there it may be too late to do .... 12. ... has been here before us. 13. “Why don’t you say...?” he demanded. 14. In the winter he lived without doing.... 15. This is my affair and ... else’s. 16. Can’t you do ... by yourself now? 17. I took care to ask him ... about his own doings. 18. Will you bring ... with you or will you come alone? 19.... has any right to interfere in this matter. 20. If... delays you, you must let me know. 114
Exercise IV Insert some, any, no, none or compound pronouns. 1. If you have ... against me, speak out. 2. There is ... familiar in his voice. 3. The scientist was in ... need of an interpreter. 4. Is ... the matter with you? - ... is the matter. 5. Get off at the next stop and there ... will show you the way. 6. If you need ... money, you must get... out of the savings bank; there is hardly ... in the house. 7. We looked for a taxi, but there was ... around. 9. Should ... interesting turn up, give me a ring at once. 10. You are not expecting ... to call, are you? 11. Why the crowd? Has ... happened? 12. What book shall I bring you? - ... you like. 13. ... doctor will tell you that it is harmful to your health. 14. Shall I help you to ... fruit? 15. It was clear that ... had happened. 16. ... has any right to interfere in this matter. 17. He looked at my pictures and he didn’t say ... . Exercise V Insert some, any or their compounds. 1. If there’s ... you want, let me know. 2. You may have ... tea without milk because there isn’t ... at home. 3. It’s a subject you must know... about. 4. Now, can you tell me... about your children? 5.1 did not want to speak to ... I know here. 6. Don’t you remember ... about this afternoon? 7.1 will be very much surprised if... is wrong. 8. He knows a great deal more than ... of us about these machines. 9.There’ll be ... coffee in a minute. 10. If... man wants to raise a beard, let him. 11. Has ... been here to see me? - Yes,... has left a note. 12. Do you see... on the shelf? 13. Does ... lie on your table? 14. ... special happened yesterday. 15. Why didn’t you ask ... to help you? 16. If ... happens ring me up immediately. 17. He asked the secretary whether there was... waiting for him. 18. You can get this book at... bookshop. 19. You may come at... time that is convenient to you. 20. Will you have ... to eat? Exercise VI Translate into English paying attention to the use of some, any, no and their compounds. 1. Я вижу какую-то записку на нашем столе. Что, кто-ни- будь заходил? 2. По-моему, в статье есть кое-какие ошиб- ки. Вы не заметили? - Я пока ничего не заметил. 3. Я ниче- го не могу вам сказать. Спросите у кого-нибудь еще. 4. Я 115
не вижу ничего подходящего для себя на витрине; не може- те ли вы показать мне что-нибудь еще? - К сожалению, ничего больше не могу вам сейчас предложить. Зайдите в любой день на следующей неделе. 5. Он вам ничего не рас- сказал? А ему есть что рассказать: я думаю, что он за это время повидал больше, чем любой из нас. 6. Никто мне ничего не говорит. Может быть, вы мне что-нибудь скаже- те? 7. Я вижу чей-то мокрый зонтик в передней. Кто-ни- будь пришел? 8. Не даст ли мне кто-нибудь из вас свои за- писи? 9. Возьмите чьи угодно записи и посмотрите лекции, которые вы пропустили. 10. Я слишком устал, чтобы за- ниматься сейчас чем-нибудь серьезным. 11. Давайте встре- тимся в какой-нибудь другой день. В среду у меня совсем не будет времени. 12. На столе есть масло? - Да, есть. 13. Если вам нечего делать, идите гулять. 13. Мы никого не знали на этом вечере. 13. Она ничего не видела, так как в комнате было темно. 14. Никто из детей еще не встал. 15. Сегодня в вашем диктанте нет ошибок. 16. Я буду у себя в кабинете, если вам что-то понадобится. 17. Вам уда- лось найти какие-нибудь статьи по этому вопросу? 18. Мы что-нибудь можем для вас сделать? 19. Папа, ты освобо- дился? Я хочу тебе что-то сказать. 20. Вам предложили про- честь некоторые интересные статьи в этом журнале? Exercise VII Translate into English paying attention to the use of some, any, no and their compounds. 1. Я ходил на почту и купил марок и конвертов. 2. В этом журнале нет иллюстраций. 3. Если у вас есть книги по это- му вопросу, принесите их, пожалуйста. 4. Почему он не принес мне воды? Я просил его принести, так как я очень хочу пить. 5. Кто-то оставил дверь открытой. 6. Звонил мне кто-нибудь? 7. Не можете ли вы рассказать мне что- нибудь о жизни этого писателя? 8. Если вы найдете что- нибудь интересное в этом журнале, пришлите мне его, по- жалуйста. 9. Любой из вас может это сделать. 10. У меня нет времени, чтобы пойти туда. 11. Если у вас будет сво- бодное время, посмотрите этот фильм. 12. Вы говорили с кем-нибудь об этом? 13. Он ничего не знает об этом. 14. Вы можете застать его здесь в любой день между пя- тью и шестью. 15. Не можете ли вы дать мне бумагу? Я хочу написать письмо. 16. Есть ли английские журналы в 116
нашей библиотеке? 17. Есть ли вопросы к докладчику? 18. Он, конечно, ответит на любой вопрос. 19. Я еще не предупредил об этом некоторых из моих друзей. 20. Часть работы будет сделана завтра. 21. Могу я сыграть все, что я хочу? Exercise VIII Insert each or every. 1. The two little girls held his hands one on ... side. 2. There was... kind of news in the paper: accidents, sports and politics. 3. The bedrooms were all the same, ... with a window and a door. 4. Tom did four more variants of the speech, ... of which his teacher praised highly. 5. There were four students in the room, and I gave a ticket to ... of them. 6. There are new houses on ... side of the street. 7.... big plant has its polyclinic. 8. ... pupil was asked to name his favourite writer. 9. At ... lesson they were shown different pictures. 10.... week we have English lessons. 11. Have you seen ... of her two sisters? 12. Here are two houses. You may go to ... of them. 13. She always knew what ... of us would like best. 14. ... change of season, indeed ... hour of the day, makes some change in the wonderful colours of these mountains. 15. She searched ... corner but found nothing. 16. Two boys entered. ... was carrying a suitcase. Exercise IX Insert every, each or either or compound pronouns. 1. ... day he comes here, and ... time he asks me the same questions. 2. There was a large building on... side of the square, ... having an arched gate. 3. Which would you prefer, this or that dictionary? - ... will do. Thank you. 4. We will get books for ... and give a copy to .... 5. He shook hands and had a few minutes’ talk with... of us. 6. The men and women were coming from the vinegard,... two of them carrying a basket of grapes. 7. ... minute he stood up and looked through the window. 8. I remember... house in our street. 9. Two of them could not come, but ... of them had a valid reason. 10. There are two vacant rooms in the hotel, you may take ... . 11. They looked at ... picture in the museum with great interest. 12. There were chairs on ... side of the table. 13. There were many fine houses on ... bank of the river. 117
Exercise X Choose between all, every and each to use it in the following sentences. 1. I have ... book he has ever written. 2. He shouted her name twice... time banging his fist on the table. 3. He had been brought up by a mother who had taught him that ... pleasure must be paid for. 4. They did not talk much about what... feared most. 5. That’s the sort of job ... boys like doing. 6. They broke into little groups; ... had his own wonderful story to tell. 7. ... the people were cheering loudly. 8. Before he left the classroom he gave ... boy a task. 9. She had something to say on ... subject. 10. ... the money was spent. 11. ... the family was present. 12. And I had to sit out there with ... eye on me. 13. He has ... chance to win. 14. He looked at... of us in turn. 15. He didn’t answer. He had no doubt that she meant... word she said. Exercise XI Choose between all and a compound in every to use it in the following sentences. 1.1 want to hear... they say. 2. She took the initiative and herself spoke to ... she knew. 3. He couldn’t help noticing how well dressed... was. 4.1 want... to be happy. 5. Then, to ...’s surprise, she married someone quite undistinguished. 6. ... who have studied this issue have come to the same conclusion. 7. She believed that... was watching her. 8.... of his friends had offered him his help. 9. Soon... were asleep. 9. The lady laughed heartily at ... that was said to her. 10. ... felt indignant when he began hitting the boy with his stick. 11.... were of the same opinion on this question. 12. We are ... glad to see you. 13.... said the same thing. 14.... is ready for their departure. 15.... girls like beautiful things. 16.... he told me was of great interest. Exercise XII Translate into English. Pay attention to the use of the pro- nouns each and every. 1. Каждый школьник знает правила дорожного движения. 2. Она встречала его на катке каждую субботу. 3. Извест- но, что почти каждый ребенок любит яблоки. Мы дали каждой девочке и каждому мальчику по яблоку. 4. Каж- дую неделю я проводил несколько дней в деревне. 5. Он продолжал смотреть на часы каждые пять минут. 6. Они прислали мне два билета в Мариинский театр. Каждый 118
билет стоил более ста рублей. 7. Каждый студент должен знать свои обязанности. 8. Каждый из нас должен был вы- полнить свою работу вовремя. 9. Когда он был студен- том, он каждый год ездил на юг. 10. Он пожал руку каж- дому гостю. 11. Он навещает нас каждое воскресенье. 12. Мы встречаемся с друзьями каждое лето на юге. 13. На конференции каждому дали блокнот и ручку. 14. Преподаватель сказал, что каждый из нас должен вни- мательно прочитать эту статью. 15. Я помню каждый дом на нашей улице. Exercise XIII Use all (all of) or both (both of). Models: They are wrong. Both of them are wrong. They are both wrong. We saw the film. All of us saw the film. We all saw the film. 1. We knew the truth. 2. They were surprised to hear it. 2. You have been mistaken. 4. Will they be present? 5. We have large families. 6. We hope to see you again. 7. You will find them there. 8. Can you come earlier? 9. They were glad to meet you. 10. You could do it much better. Exercise XIV Insert other or another and the definite article where neces- sary. 1. Pete’s wife brought in two big cups, holding one in each hand. One she gave to Tom and ... to Pete. 2. Finally Jenny said, “Wouldn’t anybody like some more coffee?” - “I think my husband could use ... cup,” said Ann. 3. Alec whispered something from ... side of the table. 4. He spread the magazine flat on the floor, open so that its pages were on one side and its paper on ... . 5. There was ... pause. 6. I looked through the window. Three parachutes opened one after ... in rapid succession. 7. From one piece of news he went to ..., keeping the paper well before his face. 8. Mike was taking a short holiday which he spent in going every night to the theatre in one town after ... 9.1 will come in ... day to see how they get along with each other. 10. He entered the room and saw John and Maria 119
sitting on the sofa. He looked first at one, then at.... 11. When it happens, there must be only two persons present beside myself. One is Mark.... is a man whom I expect here only very seldom. 12. Her two sons were playing in the garden. Ann turned her eyes from one to .... Exercise XV Translate into English using other, others, the other, the others, another. 1. Этот лист бумаги слишком мал. Дайте мне другой. 2. Я постучала в дверь, но никто не ответил. Я постучала еще раз. 3. В понедельник я буду занята. Приходите в какой- нибудь другой день. 4. Некоторые люди любят кататься на коньках, другие предпочитают ходить на лыжах. 5. Почему ты одна, где остальные? 6. На другой берег реки мы перебрались на лодке. 7. Я хотела бы посмотреть ка- кой-нибудь другой фильм. 8. Несколько наших студентов остались в университете. Все остальные отправились на экскурсию. 9. Я увидела свою подругу на другой стороне улицы и помахала ей рукой. 10. У меня две сестры. Одна школьница, другая студентка. 11. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, любой другой словарь. 12. У меня в кармане только одна перчатка. Где же другая? 13. Не хотите ли еще чашку чая? 14. Уже поздно, не говорите так громко: нужно считаться с другими. Exercise XVI Use the pronoun one in the proper form and, if necessary, with the required article. 1. They are six in the family. ... you saw are David and Tommy. 2. Brown’s old car is much better than our new.... 3. There are woollen gloves and leather ... on the shelf. 4. He was rather pale, and the expression on his face was ... I had never seen before. 5. “Which girl is Jean?” - “... in the green dress.” 6. “What has happened to all the books?” - “I saw ... on the table in the hall.” 7. Such ... as you want is very rarely seen. 8. “Have you little ... finished your dessert?” said Ann. 9. Two more buses came up and pulled in behind the first.... 10. He has interviewed my friends, - ... I have now and ... who have been with me in former years. 11. “Which is Helen, the young ... or the old ...?” - “The young ....” 12.... morning he received a long letter from his friend. 13. My skis may be too small for 120
you. Better take George’s ... . 14. Which is my glass here? - Take ... that is nearest to you. Exercise XVII Translate into English using the pronoun one. 1. Следует быть осторожным, когда купаешься в море. 2. Никогда не знаешь, что может случиться. 3. Следует соблюдать правила уличного движения. 4. Если совершил ошибку, нужно ее исправить. 5. Телеграмму можно послать по телефону. 6. Следует всегда держать свое слово. 7. Прежде чем ехать куда-нибудь, нужно взять билет. 8. Расписание поездов можно узнать в справочном бюро. 9. Если работаешь с детьми, нужно обладать большим терпением. 10. Нужно много работать, если хочешь достигнуть хороших результатов в занятиях. 11. Следует считаться с мнением других. 12. Нельзя судить о книге, не прочитав ее до конца. Exercise XVIII Fill in по, по one or none. 1.1 have invited all of them, but... have (has) come. 2. There is ... doubt that you will cope with this work. 3. That is ... business of yours. 4. ... was (were) able to understand what he meant. 5. An accident happened, but... great harm was done. ... lives were lost. 6.... tried to teach her anything. 7.... of us is perfect; we all make mistakes. 8. ... of us knew how ill she was. 9. I’m sure you heard it from Mary,... else could tell you that. 10. I wanted some more coffee but there was ... left. 11. ... of them knows his duty yet. 12. We had ... to give us accurate information. 13. ... of us knows how much he has suffered. 14. Of all the girls he phoned ... were at home. 15. During that time he saw ... who could tell him what had gone wrong. Exercise XIX Use both, either or neither in the following sentences. 1. We drove along a wide road with trees on... side. 2. He invited us..., but I knew he did not want... of us at a family party. 3. The verandah stretched on ... side of me. 4.1 could hear them ..., but saw.... 5. These are... very gloomy rooms. I’m afraid ... will suit me. 6. “Which of the two newspapers would you like?” - “Oh,... 121
will do.” 7. She had brown shining hair which hung down on ... side of her face. 8. “What are you going to have, orange or apple juice?” - “... I’m not thirsty.” 9. “Tell... your mother and father that I’m expecting them tonight” - “I’m afraid I won’t see ... of them today”. 10. “Which job are you going to take?” - “I’m afraid ... .” 11. There were trees on ... bank. 12. Nick and Tom are... my friends. But... is in the town now. 13. “What have you written, a short story or an essay?” - “I’m afraid it doesn’t come within ... description.” 14. “... the jars, the big one and the small one, are empty. You can take ... of them.” - “I’m afraid ... will do.” Exercise XX Answer the following questions in the negative using the negative pronoun neither (speaking of two) or none (speak- ing of many). Model: How many books have you sent by post? - None. Which of the two books have you sent by post? - Neither. 1. Whom have you seen: Ann or Pete? 2. How many exercises has he done? 3. Which hand have you hurt? 4. Which stocking of this pair has a hole? 5. Which of these two poems have you learned? 6. Which of your fellow-students did you meet on your way to the university? 7. Which of these umbrellas do you like? 8. How many letters have you received from her? Exercise XXI Translate into English. Pay attention to the use of the pro- nouns no, none and their compounds. 1. Она решила никого не приглашать к себе до приезда мужа. 2. Мы никого не знали на этом вечере. 3. Никто не разговаривал. Все внимательно слушали лектора. 4. Ник- то из детей еще не пришел из школы. 5. Ни один журна- лист не писал об этом. 6. У меня нет времени помочь вам сегодня. 7. Есть ли телефон в комнате? - Нет. 8. Ни один пароход еще не вышел из порта. 9. В коробке ничего нет. 10. Оба улыбнулись, но никто из них не заговорил. 11. Никто из них не мог ответить на этот вопрос. 12. Ниче- 122
го не было видно в темноте. 13. Я ему ничего не сказал, хотя он настаивал. 14. В вазе нет цветов. 15. Ничего осо- бенного не случилось вчера. 16. Я не нашел ошибок в ва- шем переводе. 17. От него не получено никаких сведений. 18. Мы ничего не читали об этом. Much, Many, Little, Few, a Little, a Few Much and little are used with uncountable nouns and are singulars: We have much coal, iron, steel, oil. Many and few are used with countables and are plurals: We are building many new towns, factories, railroads. In spoken English we do not use many and much in positive sentences without some adverbs such as: very, too, so or rather. Instead of many and much in positive sentences we use different expressions, such as a lot of..., lots of..., plenty of..., a great deal of... . Except for a great deal of, they can be used with countables and uncountables; a great deal of can be used only with uncountables: There were lots of interesting books in the bookcase. There was a great deal of laughter in the rooms. We have plenty of time to fulfil our work. In spoken English much and many are usually used in inter- rogative and negative sentences: Have you got much work today? No. I haven 7 got much work today. When few and little are used without the article, they have a negative meaning (мало). When they are used with the in- definite article, they have a positive meaning (немного, несколько): There are few books on history in this library. A few books were on the table. She eats little bread. Give me a little bread. Very few/very little are more usual in everyday speech. It is also common to use only a little, only a few. Гт very tired because I’ve had very few days’ holiday. She speaks German quite well but only a little French. 123
01 EXERCISES Exercise I Insert many, much, little or/evv. 1. ... was said but ... done. 2. Say ... and do ... . 3. Very ... people know about it. 4.... heard about the book, but... read it. 5.... is spoken about it, but... believe it. 6. The forces were unequal, they were ..., we were ... . 7. We shan’t get all into the car. This one is too .... 8. He has very ... knowledge of the matter. 9. There isn’t... harm in it. 10. Is there ... milk left in the jar? - No, there is quite ... milk left there. 11. There were ... people in the streets (2). 12. I haven’t heard ... about this composer. 13. Hurry up! There is ... time left. 14. She is a person of... words. 15. How ... exercise-books do you want me to buy? 16. How ... time does it take you to get to your office? 17. How ... times did you visit the Russian Museum? Exercise II Complete the following using many, much, few or little in the required degree of comparison. 1. He knows ..., but he knows ... than you. 2. He knows ... than you, but it doesn’t mean that he knows ... . 3. We need no ... than five days to complete the work. 4. ... were present; much ... than you can imagine. 5. The instrument is very sensitive, the ... noise affects its work. 6. The food did not look appetizing, to say ... of it. 7. There were ... objections to the plan, but... part of it was approved of. 8.1 can’t do ... for you, this is ... I can do, and I think it’s ... than we had planned before. 9. Take this road, it has ... turns. 10.1 have so ... things to do that I don’t know which to do first. 11. Nowadays he was very busy and he couldn’t see ... of his old friends. 12. She was glad to see me because I was English and she knew ... English people. Exercise III Choose between much and many, (a) little and (a) few to use it in the following sentences. 1. My sister spends so ... money on her clothes that she has none left for holidays. 2. He was so busy in the building of his house that events outside it affected him .... 3. She had slept... last night and she had a headache. 4. At the bar ... men were discussing the coming elections in loud voices. 5. Helen returned 124
to England at the moment when... were leaving it. 6. Last week there was so ... rain that I was not able to go out. 7. There were ... big hotels that were closed but most of the shops were open. 8. How ... is the clock fast now? 9. There was ... time to think. 10. In the last twenty-four hours too ... things had happened. 11. Philip had ... friends. 12. It was a hot day and there were ... flies in thfc room. 13. There were ... people in the square, but I did not notice the faces as I hurried past. 14. Martin was ill and spent so ... time in the hospital. Exercise IV Choose between much and many, (a) little and (a) few to use it in the following sentences. 1. I suggested that he should get ... eggs and some bread. 2. Aunt Mary had ... money while none of the other family had inherited as ... as a pound. 3. My dear, I’m afraid I have not... news to convey but still there are... things I should like to add. 4.1 began to miss London: it was not so ... that I had ... close friends there, for I have ... friends but I missed variety. 5. Nick has eaten so... that he can’t move. 6. Ann had not had... visitors lately. 7. He didn’t earn ... money and lived in the country. 8. My father read ... books on economics. 9. I have ... time to watch TV. 10. He has... work to do this afternoon. 11. Please give me ... water. 12. There are very ... illustrations in this magazine. Exercise V Choose between little, a little, few, a few. 1. A good speaker can say much in ... words, (few, a few) 2. Could you describe the situation in ... words? (few, a few) 3. Why do you eat so ...? Try ... of everything, (little, a little) 4. The street looked almost deserted. There were ... people in it. (few, a few) 5. I have only ... things left undone, (few, a few) 6. He takes very ... trouble with his work, (little, a little) 7. It has given me not ... trouble, (little, a little)! 8. ... did I know what was in store for me. (little, a little) 9. ... are as capable at languages as he is. (few, a few) 10. Do you know the English language? - Just ... . (little, a little) 11. Are there many mistakes in my composition? - Quite .... (a few, few) 125
Exercise VI Use a lot (of), lots (of),plenty (of), a great deal (of), a good deal (of), a great many, a good many. 1. I have got ... work to do for tomorrow. 2. There were ... flowers in the room. 3. I have got ... valuable information. 4. The boy knows ... on the subject. 5. My brother reads ... books. 6. She got ... presents on her birthday. 7. He eats ... sweets. 8. Don’t hurry up. We have... time before us. 9.... people took part in the conference. 10. He took ... trouble with that boy. Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. Известный русский художник И. Левитан написал мно- го прекрасных картин. 2. Россия экспортирует много леса. 3. Вы потратили слишком много времени на этот перевод. 4. В библиотеке много английских книг. 5. У нас есть не- много времени. 6. У меня есть несколько книг по этому вопросу. 7. Мы пригласили много друзей на день рожде- ния. 8. Много народу было приглашено, но немногие при- шли. 9. Об этом сказано мало. 10. Что я могу вам сказать, если я сам так мало знаю об этом? 11. На улице было мало детей. 12. Много детей было на концерте в школе. Exercise VIII Translate into English. 1. Многое из того, что он сказал, уже обсуждалось рань- ше. 2. Многие это уже слышали. 3. Мало было сказано, но много сделано. 4. Мало кто знает об этом. 5. Как все- гда, он говорил много, но сказал мало. 6. Он сказал, что прочел много детективных романов во время каникул. 7. К сожалению, у меня мало времени. 8. Много ошибок в контрольной работе на употребление времен. 9. Многое из того, что он сказал, было ново для нас. 10. Говорят, что он написал мало книг, но почти все его книги имели большой успех. 11. Вы сделали гораздо больше ошибок, чем другие. 12. Я сделал на три ошибки больше, чем он. 13. На этот раз вы сделали в три раза меньше ошибок, чем в прошлый раз. 126
The Verb A verb is a word used to express some action or state: She sings. He is very busy. Verbs are divided into: 1) simple: to read, to speak, to love etc. 2) derived (having suffixes or prefixes): to discover, to rewrite, to blacken etc. 3) compound (consisting of two stems): to broadcast, to white- wash etc. 4) phrasal (consisting of a verb and an adverb or a preposi- tion): to give up, to come back etc. The main verbforming suffixes are: - en to widen, to strengthen; - fy to simplify, to justify; - ize to criticize, to organize; -ate to demonstrate, to separate. The main prefixes are: re- to resell, to reconstruct; dis- to disappear, to disarm; un- to untie, to unload. To Be in the Present Simple Tense Person Number Positive Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I am (I’m) Am I? I am not (I’m not) He is (he’s) Is he? He is not (he’s not or he isn’t) She is (she’s) Is she? She is not (she’s not or she isn’t) It is (it’s) Is it? It is not (it’s not or it isn’t) We are (we’re) Are we? We are not (we’re not or we aren’t) You are (you’re) Are you? You are not (you’re not or you aren’t) They are (they’re) Are they? They are not (they’re not or they aren’t) 127
EXERCISES Exercise I Put in am. is or are. 1.1... not quite well today. 2. She ... a painter. Her pictures ... on the walls. 3. Helen’s brother... a student. 4. They... the most experienced workers at this factory. 5. She ... not so attractive as her sister. 6. My room ... the smallest in our flat. 7. ... your cousin at home? 8. His family ... in London now. 9. ... your parents at work? - Yes, they ... 10. My granny ... an actress. 11. Where ... my spectacles? - They ... on the table. 12. This garden ... the most beautiful in our town. Exercise II Write sentences using short forms of the verb to be. Model: I’m busy today (ready to answer your questions, 18 years old, a pupil at a secondary school, your friend, in the 10th form, late for the meeting). Model: She’s a pupil (ill, a small girl, good at maths, a nice woman, fat). Model: He’s a big boy (at home, twenty-five, able to help us, our classteacher). Model: You’re late (strong, my friend, a history teacher, very angry, right). Model: He isn’t at home (my friend, a good pupil, at the con- cert, in the park). Model: They aren’t my friends (happy, present, at the exam, in the street, near the metro station). Exercise III Write positive and negative short answers. 1. Is your mother a doctor? 2. Is your friend a young girl? 3. Are you a student? 4. Are your mother and father at work? 5. Is your dog small? 6. Are the pupils late for the lesson? 7. Is the film dull? 8. Are your teachers kind? 9. Are they tired? 10. Is your father a doctor? 128
Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Мне семнадцать лет. 2. Я в 10 классе. 3. Я интересуюсь архитектурой. 4. Мой брат - инженер. 5. Он очень устает после работы. 6. Сейчас он в читальном зале. 7. Вечером он очень занят. 8. Моя сестра - студентка. 9. Она интересу- ется искусством. 10. Они дома сейчас. 11. Моя сестра - луч- шая студентка первого курса. 12. Она очень способная де- вушка. 13. Наша семья гордится ею. 14. Они лучшие ученики класса. 15. Он на уроке сейчас. 16. Мы студенты. 17. Мой брат - переводчик. There Is (Are) Construction The sentences with there is (are) construction are used to say that something or someone exists. This construction has the meaning «есть», «имеется», «находится», «лежит»: There is a newspaper on the table. На столе газета. The sentences with there is (are) construction have the fol- lowing word order: There is (are) the subject an adverbial modifier of place an adverbial modifier of time The Russian sentences begin with adverbial modifiers. Russian В моей диктовке есть не- сколько ошибок. В этом году в лесу много грибов. English There are some mistakes in my dictation. There are a lot of mush- rooms in the forest this year. Besides the verb to be some other verbs can also be used after there such as: to live, to exist, to occur, to come, to stand etc: There lives an old man in that house. If there are several subjects in the construction there is (are) the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first after the predicate: There is a table and five chairs in the room. There are five chairs and a table in the room. 5 H. Утевская 129
Interrogative and Negative Forms Is there a map in your room? No, there isn’t (a map in my room). No, there is no map in my room. Are there any new words in the text? No, there aren’t (any new words in the text). No, there are no new words in the text. Mind that the sentences: There is a telephone in my room and The telephone is in my room have different meaning. The first sentence shows that a telephone is in that place, the second one shows that the telephone we know is in that place (in my room). 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Put the following sentences in the interrogative and negative forms. 1. There is a blackboard in the classroom. 2. There are some English books on the table. 3. There are many mistakes in your dictation. 4. There’s a new grammar rule in this text. 5. There is a telegram on the table. 6. There are a lot of people in the street. 7. There are some textbooks in the bookcase. 8. There is a new cinema near my house. 9. There is a university in that town. 10. There is somebody in the room. Exercise II Ask questions to the words in bold type. 1. There’s a nice park in our city. 2. There are five chairs in the room. 3. There are some English textbooks on my table. 4. There are a lot of mistakes in your exercise-book. 5. There are three mistakes in my dictation. 6. There’s a new cinema near my house. 7. There are easy exercises in this textbook. 8. There are three rooms in our flat. 9. There is a vase of flowers on the table. 10. There is a bookcase in the corner of the room. Exercise III Translate into English. 1. В Москве много красивых зданий. 2. В центре Москвы находится Кремль. 3. В нашем городе много исторических 130
памятников. 4. В Санкт-Петербурге много университетов и школ. 5. У меня на столе интересная книга. 6. В этом уроке мало грамматических правил. 7. Недалеко от нашего дома есть новая школа. 8. В этом тексте есть новые слова. 9. У него в диктанте нет ошибок. 10. На том столе много журна- лов? - Нет, только два. 11. В этом журнале есть много инте- ресных статей. 12. На этом столе много русских и англий- ских книг. Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. В этой коробке лежат карандаши. 2. В аудитории две- надцать стульев. 3. В вашей группе 12 или 14 студентов? 4. Что висит на стене? 5. В этом шкафу лежат английские или русские книги? 6. Какая бумага лежит на той полке? 7. Сколько карандашей в коробке? 8. Сколько комнат в вашей квартире? 9. Сколько окон в вашей комнате? 10. Сколько стульев в аудитории? 11. Сколько страниц в этом учебнике? 12. Сколько детей в группе у этого препо- давателя? 13. На вашей улице много новых домов? 14. В вашем учебнике много картинок? 15. В вашем классе есть книжный шкаф? 16. Что лежит в этом книжном шкафу? То Have in the Present Simple Tense Person Number Positive Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I have (got) (I’ve got) Have I got? I have not got (haven’t got) He has (got) (he’s got) Has he got? He has not got (hasn’t got) She has (got) (she’s got) Has she got? She has not got It has (got) (it’s got) Has it got? It has not got We have (got) (we’re got) Have we got? We have not got You have (got) (you’re got) Have you got? You have not got They have (got) (they’re got) Have they got? They have not got 131
They fve got a lot of English books. Have you got a large family? Do/Does + Have I. In questions and negative sentences we can use do/does + have when we speak about regular actions: Do you have much time for your lessons? - No, I don 7 have much time for them. Does she always have much work to do?- She doesn’t always have much work to do. IL When the verb to have is used in a number of actions and has other meanings than to possess. For example: to have dinner (breakfast, supper) to have tea (coffee) to have a lesson to have classes to have a bath (a shower) to have a holiday to have a good time to have a rest etc. In questions and negative sentences it also takes the auxiliary verb to do: What time do you usually have dinner? We don’t have classes every day. Й EXERCISES Exercise I Write sentences using the following models. Model I: I’ve got a family. I haven’t got a family. Have you got a family? A son, a brother, a friend, a mother, a father, skis, skates, an English textbook, a Russian magazine, a question*. Model II: I have dinner at three. Do you have dinner at three? I don’t have dinner at three. To have breakfast, to have a bath, to have classes, to have a dictation, to have one’s English. 132
Model III: I’ve got a cold now. I don’t often have colds. Time, work, English classes, a dictation, a test. Exercise II Put these sentences in the interrogative and negative forms, a) 1. Ann has got a family. 2. Jane has got a lot of relatives. 3. I’ve got a cousin. 4. My children have got a lot of friends. 5. The boy has got a cold now. b) 1. They have their English in the morning. 2. They often have a dictation. 3. He has dinner in the afternoon. 4. The children have a rest in summer. 5. They have tea or coffee for breakfast, c) 1.1 often have a lot of work to do. 2. I’ve got a lot of work to do today. 3.1 usually have a cup of tea for breakfast. 4. I’ve got a camera. 5. They’ve got a lot of flowers in the garden. Exercise III Ask questions to the following sentences. 1. They have two little rooms. 2. She has few books at home. 3. He has a nice film. 4. We have little bread. 5. We have young teachers at the university. 6. They have a lot of good English books at home. 7. This room has two windows. 8. He has good friends at school. 9. We have guests tonight. 10. They have a nice little daughter. Exercise IV Translate into English. a) 1. У меня есть интересная книга о художниках. 2. У мое- го друга много русских книг, но у него нет английских книг. 3. У вашего друга большая или маленькая семья? 4. Сколь- ко детей у вашего друга? 5. У моей сестры двое маленьких детей. b) 1. Когда вы обычно завтракаете? 2. Я обычно пью кофе на завтрак. 3. Вы обедаете сегодня поздно? 4. У кого есть вопросы? - У меня есть один вопрос. 5. Сегодня у меня нет времени обсуждать этот вопрос с вами. с) 1. У вас вечером много времени, чтобы приготовить до- машнее задание по английскому языку? 2. У вас сегодня много работы? 3. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, журнал, у меня сейчас есть время, чтобы прочитать эту статью. 4. Вы час- то простужаетесь? 5. Вы простужены сейчас? 133
Exercise V Translate into English. 1. У меня есть два брата. 2. У моего друга есть собака. 3. У меня есть время, чтобы заниматься английским язы- ком. 4. У моего отца есть новая машина. 5. У моих друзей есть новый телевизор. 6. У кого есть ручка? 7. Какие уро- ки у вас сегодня? 8. У вас есть сегодня занятие по англий- скому языку? 9. У вас много друзей в школе? 10. У меня новый компьютер. The Use of Tenses Simple Tenses The Present Simple Tense It is formed from the infinitive without the particle to. Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I work Do I work? I do not work (don’t work) He works Does he work? He does not work (doesn’t work) She works Does she work? She does not work It works Does it work? It does not work We work Do we work? We do not work You work Do you work? You do not work They work Do they work? They do not work Pronunciation and Spelling Rules The 3rd person singular is pronounced: after voiceless consonants after vowels and voiced consonants after -s, -z, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x s] [z] [iz he asks he begins he closes he writes she reads he teaches Note 1. The 3rd person singular of the verb to say (says) is pronounced [sez]. 134
Note 2. The 3rd person singular of the verbs to go and to do is to go - goes [gauz] to do - does [dAz]. Note 3. Verbs which end in -y preceded by a consonant change у into i and add -es [z] in the 3rd person singular: I cry - he cries, I carry - he carries. But: I play - he plays (because -y is preceded by a vowel here). The Present Simple is used: 1. to state simple facts in the present: I live in St Petersburg. She is a student. We study English. 2. to state laws of nature and the permanent truths: It snows in winter. Snow melts at OP C. 3. to denote usual or repeated actions in the present: They get up at 8. On Sundays we stay at home. 4. to denote actions taking place at the present moment of verbs not used in continuous form: I don 7 see what you are doing. Now I hear you perfectly well. 5. a) to denote future actions if they are planned beforehand with verbs of motion: to go, to come, to start, to leave, to return, to arrive, to sail, to fly, and when we are talking about timetables and programmes: I go to Moscow next week. They start on Sunday. The train arrives in Washington at 3 p.m. b) in advervial clauses of time and condition, referring to the future, after the conjunctions: when (когда), until, till (до тех пор пока... не), as soon as (как только), as long as (пока), before (прежде), after (после), if (если), unless (если не), in case (в случае), on condition that (при условии), provided that, providing that (при условии): I will go there unless it rains. We will send you the documents as soon as we receive them. Note. In object clauses introduced by the conjunctions when and if the Future Indefinite is used to denote future actions: I don 7 know when she will come. Ask him if he will do it at all. 135
We generally use the Present Simple with the following time expressions: every day /week/month/уear, usually, often, always, rarely, never, sometimes, in the morning/evening/afternoon, at night, on Mondays. EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verb in brackets into the Present Simple. 1. We (to begin) our work today. 2. He always (to read) newspapers in the library. 3. My sister (to attend) English classes. 4. The child (to show) us his drawings. 5. Let her go home now. Classes (to be) over. 6. Every morning she (to hurry) to the university. 7. Father (to come) home from the factory at 6 o’clock. 8. My son (to do) his lessons every evening. 9. The teacher (to give) us English magazines. 10. The students (to take) books from the library. 11. He always (to do) exercises attentively. 12. My sister (to look) through the morning newspapers every day. Exercise II Open the brackets using the Present Simple. 1. The Strait of Dover ... the British Isles from the continent (to separate). 2. The main English rivers not ... rapidly (to flow). 3. The Thames ... only nine miles from the eastern bank of the Severn (to begin). 4. The west wind sometimes ... rise to the danger of flooding (give). 5. If you ... to the west of the Pennine Chain, you will enter the most beautiful part of England, the Lake District (to go). 6. Where ... the beautiful lake Windermere ... (to lie)? 7. The most northerly town of England, Berwick ... at the month of the Tweed (to stand). 8. When you ... in London, take as many photos as you can (to be). 9. The ship ... for London in a few days (to leave). 10. I was listening in last night. Suddenly the bell... and I ... my friend’s voice: “Hurray! I am going to England!” (to ring, to hear). 11. What... one ... if one is shortsighted (to use)? Exercise III Write the following sentences in the interrogative and nega- tive forms. 1. We listen to the radio every day. 2. He tells us about his work and studies. 3.1 read a page of some English book every 136
day. 4. My sister helps me to do my homework. 5. The librarian helps us to choose books for home reading. 6. We listen to his lectures on Sundays. 7. We speak English well. 8. My sister plays tennis. 9.1 learn new words every day. 10. She has dinner in the afternoon. 11. They play the piano well. 12. Those foreign students speak Russian. Exercise IV Ask wh-questions to the words in bold type. 1. I work at an office. 2. We usually have our English in the evening. 3. They often speak English in class. 4. We write a lot of sentences on the blackboard. 5. After my English I go to the office. 6. You read English books at home. 7. We read, write and speak English during our lesson. 8. We have dictations very often. 9. After classes I go home. 10. My friends read many English books. 11. I sometimes give Peter my exercise-books. 12. They usually go to the office in the morning. Exercise V Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. 1. What time ... (evening performances/begin) in St Petersburg? 2. What... (you/do)? - I am a teacher. 3. Where ... (you/go) after classes? 4. How often ... (you/have) dictations? 5. Where ... (your brother/work? - He ... (work) at the factory. 6. My sister ... (know) English well, but she ... (not/know) French. 7. What kind of books ... (you/read)? 8. How many times a week ... (you/have) English classes? 9. He has a computer but he ... (not/use) it very often. 10. My friends ... (not/live) in St Petersburg, they ... (live) in Moscow. Exercise VI Translate into English using the Present Simple. 1. Мой друг изучает два иностранных языка. 2. Какие книги вы читаете? 3. Во время урока мы читаем, пишем диктанты, делаем упражнения и разговариваем по-английски. 4. Вы разговариваете по-английски или по-русски со своим преподавателем? 5. Обычно мы говорим по-английски, иног- 137
да по-русски. 6. Кто дает вам английские книги для чтения? - Мой преподаватель. 7. Какие журналы вы любите читать? 8. Каждое утро мой друг приезжает в Санкт-Петербург, а ве- чером уезжает домой. 9. Он всегда вовремя приходит на ра- боту. 10. Когда вы обычно приходите домой с работы? 11. Что вы делаете по вечерам? - Я прихожу домой и делаю домашние задания. 12. Как часто вы готовите уроки вместе со своим другом? Два, три раза в неделю. Exercise VII Translate into English using the Present Simple. I. 1. Я работаю в одном крупном учреждении. 2. Мой ра- бочий день обычно начинается в 8 часов утра. 3. Я встаю, делаю утреннюю зарядку, умываюсь и завтракаю. 4. Пос- ле завтрака я иду на работу. 5. Так как я живу близко от места работы, я обычно иду туда пешком. 6. Я занят на работе с 9 часов утра до 6 часов вечера. 7. Я также учусь. Я занимаюсь на подготовительных курсах. 8. У нас занятия в понедельник, среду и пятницу. 9. Занятия начинаются в 18:30 и заканчиваются в 21:30. 10. Вечером, когда у меня нет занятий, я немного читаю, смотрю телепередачу или слушаю радио. 11. Иногда я хожу на прогулку или наве- щаю своих друзей. 12. В 12 часов я обычно ложусь спать. II. У меня есть друг. Его зовут Николай. Его родители живут не в Москве. Они живут в Киеве. Николай занима- ется спортом. Он учится в Московском университете. Он завтракает в столовой университета. Поэтому он уходит из дома в 8 часов. Чтобы дойти до университета, ему необ- ходимо 15-20 минут. Иногда после занятий он ходит в биб- лиотеку, где он читает книги и просматривает газеты. The Past Simple Tense According to the way in which the Past Simple and Participie II are formed, verbs are divided into 1) regular verbs and 2) irregular verbs. The regular verbs form the Past Simple and Participle II by adding -ed or -d to the infinitive of the verb: to open - opened, to translate - translated; -ed and -d are pronounced in three different ways: a) [id] after -t and -d: to act - acted to land - landed; 138
b) [d] after voiced consonants, except -J, and after vowels: to open - opened, to stay - stayed, to die - died', c) [t] after voiceless consonants, except -t: to look - looked, to work - worked. Spelling Rules 1. The final consonant letter is doubled if it follows a single vowel in a stressed syllable: to nod - nodded to permit - permitted to stop - stopped to refer - referred to stir - stirred to compel - compelled 2. The final -I is doubled even in an unstressed syllable: to travel - travelled to cancel - cancelled 3. In some words the final -p is doubled in an unstressed syllable: to kidnap - kidnapped to worship - worshipped 4. The final -y is changed to -i if it is preceded by a consonant: to cry - cried to reply - replied The irregular verbs form the Past Simple Tense and Partici- ple II in a different way: to be - was - were - been to begin - began - begun to write - wrote - written to meet - met - met to lie - lay - lain etc. Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I spoke (played) Did I speak? (play?) I did not (didn’t) speak (play) He spoke (played) Did he speak? (play?) He did not speak (play) She spoke (played) Did she speak? (play?) She did not speak (play) It spoke (played) Did it speak? (play?) It did not speak (play) We spoke (played) Did we speak? (play?) We did not speak (play) You spoke (played) Did you speak? (play?) You did not speak (play) They spoke (played) Did they speak? (play?) They did not speak (play) 139
The Use of the Past Simple Tense The Past Simple Tense is used: 1. to denote past habit or state: He went to school on foot. 2. to denote a complete action or event which happened at a stated past time: She rang me up an hour ago. 3. to denote past actions which happened one after the other: He got up, dressed and had breakfast. 4. to denote an action which happened at a definite past time although the time is not mentioned: Shakespeare wrote a lot of plays. Note. Besides the Past Simple Tense there are two other ways of expressing habitual actions in the past: a) by means of the form used 4- the infinitive. Used to expresses past habits, regularly repeated actions in the past or past states: Some years ago she used to call on me. The negative construction of used to is formed in one of two ways; didn’t use to or used not to: He didn’t use to call on me on weekdays. He used not to call on me on weekdays. The interrogative form is did (he) use to: Did he use to play tennis when he was a child? b) by means of the verb would 4- the infinitive. Would expresses regularly repeated actions in the past. It isn’t used for states: When he was a student he would spend his vacation moun- taineering. He used to live in the country (not would-state). The Past Simple Tense is used with the following time expres- sions: yesterday, the day before yesterday, a week ago, last night, last week, last month, last year, an hour ago, in 1970, when etc. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Use the Past Simple instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. He (to stay) at the University after classes. 2.1 (to know) all the words very well. 3. She (to study) English at school. 4. She 140
(to write) the letter to her friend. 5. Some years ago she (to live) in the country. 6. She (to make) an interesting report last week. 7. Last year he (to work) at the factory. 8. Yesterday we (to go) home by metro. 9. It (to take) me half an hour to get home. 10. We (to see) a very interesting film a week ago. 11. She (to be) very busy but she (to find) time to help us. 12. He (to do) the translation without a dictionary. 13. Last night we (to watch) a hockey match on TV. 14. She (to leave) for England the day before yesterday. 15. I (to do) my best to finish the report in time. 16. He (to finish) his design last night. 17. It (to take) me some years to master English. Exercise II Use the Past Simple instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. She (to cut) the cake and (to put) a large piece on my plate. 2. He (to look) at her for a moment with surprise. 3. My friend (to switch on) the wireless and (to sit down) beside it. 4. She (not to smile) when she (to see him). 5. On the way home she usually (to buy) a loaf at the baker’s. 6. Three o’clock (to strike), and four, but he (not to come). 7. When he (to arrive) he (to find) the patient to be a small boy of nine years of age. 8. A quarter of an hour later he (to hear) voices. 9. On the fifteenth of October Tom (to set out) alone for London. 10. His train (to arrive) in London at one o’clock, and he (to go) to the hotel and (to have) a bath and a sleep. 11. The stranger (to climb) into his car and (to drive away), and when he (to notice) later that his speedometer (to show) seventy-five, he (to laugh) at himself but (not to slow down). 12. When he (to leave) in the morning he (to take) her photograph with him. Exercise III Write the following sentences in the negative form. 1. They had their breakfast at the university dining-room. 2. He wanted to go to Moscow during the holidays. 3. Our English class began at 10 o’clock. 4. Last night I got a letter from my parents. 5. My sister tried to write the letter in English. 6. She made a report last week. 7. It snowed hard last week. 8. Dark clouds appeared in the sky. 9. He did the translation without any difficulty. 10. Yesterday I skied in the country. 11. First spring flowers appeared in the fields in April. 12. The weather was fine and cloudless the day before yesterday. 13. The students went on an excursion last week. 141
14. My brother left for England last year. 15. Last summer we spent the holidays in the Crimea. Exercise IV Ask yes/no and wh-questions. 1. We listened to the latest news over the radio. 2. The meeting began at 3 o’clock. 4. My father went to London last week. 5.1 got up late yesterday. 6. We spent the holidays in the country last summer. 7. It was pleasant to bathe in the river in summer. 8. There were a lot of leaves on the ground in the park. 9. We went in for skating last winter. 10. He worked hard at his English last year. 11. They studied at the library after classes. 12. They passed entrance examinations last summer. 13. We entered the technical school last year. 14. He attended the hockey club last year. Exercise V Ask wh-questions to the words of bold type. l.He was in Moscow last week. 2. My friend wrote to me very often last year. 3. They were at their office yesterday morning. 4. Our students read a lot of English books last year. 5. He took his son out on Monday evening. 6. The students usually went home after classes. 7. We decided to ask our friends to dinner. 8. Yesterday my friends came to see me in the evening. 9. I got home late yesterday evening and went to bed at once. 10. The meeting finished at 6 o’clock. Exercise VI Complete the sentences with used to ... . 1. She ... my best friend but we aren’t friends now. 2. When I was a child I... a lot of sweets but I don’t like them now. 3. They ... in a small village but now they live in Kiev. 4. She ... long hair but she cut it some time ago. 5. I... tennis when I was a child but I stopped doing it now. 6. I’ve started drinking coffee. I never ... it before. 7. I... alone but now I live with my relatives. 8. My brother... a lot but these days he doesn’t go away very often. 9. She ... hard when she was in the junior forms. 10. I... the piano a lot but I have no time now. 142
Exercise VII Replace the Past Simple Tense in the following sentences by used to or would. 1. He was a lecturer at the university. 2. She lived in that house when she was young. 3. There was a small house here, but now there is a new factory. 4. In her childhood Mary drank a glass of milk every morning. 5. Peter was very fat. 6. Grandmother always grumbled. 7. Helen was often late for work. 8. I had very good eyesight. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the Past Simple. 1. Я встретила его вчера. Мы боялись опоздать на поезд. К счастью, на углу нашей улицы мы увидели такси и приехали на вокзал вовремя. 2. Летом я вам не писала, так как потеряла ваш адрес. 3. На прошлой неделе я написала ей два письма, но ответа не получила. 4. Когда вы перевели эту трудную статью? 5. Что вы делали вчера: переводили статью или писали сочинение? 6. Когда моя сестра была здорова, она всегда сама шила платья себе и мне. 7. В прошлом году она сшила мне очень красивое платье. 8. Прошлым летом мы посетили много музеев. 9. Вчера я не могла прийти домой вовремя, поэтому я пообедала в столовой. 10. Когда вы получили это письмо? - Вчера утром. Exercise IX Translate into English using the Past Simple. 1. Вы смотрели вчера вечером фильм по телевизору? - Да. 2. Вам он понравился? - Не очень. 3. Что ты делала в выходные дни? - Я была у друзей. 4. Ты записал вчера лекцию на магнитофон? - Да. 5. Твой друг поступил в университет в прошлом году? 6. Как вы провели каникулы в прошлом году? 7. Когда вы приехали? 8. Где ты был вчера вечером? 143
9. Когда ты ходил в Третьяковскую галерею последний раз? 10. Куда вы ездили прошлой весной? Exercise X Translate into English using the Present Simple or the Past Simple. 1. Он улыбнулся, когда увидел своего приятеля в окне ва- гона. 2. Он говорит, что не помнит многих подробностей в романе, так как читал его еще в детстве. 3. Этой книги уже нет в продаже. Жаль, что я не купил ее на прошлой неделе. 4. Кажется, он очень интересуется химией? - Да, он интересовался ею еще в школе. 5. Почему вы не при- шли за книгой, когда я вас просила? 6. Я сержусь на вас за то, что вы были так невнимательны вчера. 7. Она оста- лась в гостинице, т.к. у нее болела голова, а мы отправи- лись осматривать город. 8. Наша библиотека снабжает студентов всеми нужными им книгами. 9. Несколько ве- ков тому назад не было поездов, машин и трамваев, люди путешествовали в каретах. 10. В юности я, бывало, часто ходил на охоту с отцом. 11. Жаль, что он не хочет вос- пользоваться такой прекрасной возможностью. 12. По его улыбке я понял, что ему приятно услышать эти новости. 13. Когда я был студентом, я обычно обедал в студенче- ской столовой. 14. Я очень вам благодарен за то, что при встрече вы напомнили ему об этом. 15. Латынь сейчас мертвый язык, но четыре века тому назад она была меж- дународным языком. The Future Simple Tense shall/will + Infinitive Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I shall/will work (I’ll work) Shall/will I work? I shall/will not work (I shan’t/won’t work) He will work Will he work? He will not work She will work Will she work? She will not work It will work Will it work? It will not work 144
Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form We shall/will work Shall/will we work? We shall/will not work You will work Will you work? You will not work They will work Will they work? They will not work The Future Simple Tense is used to show that an action will take place in the future: She will take her exams in spring. He will ring you up and tell you everything. In present day English the tendency is to use will in the first person singular and plural: I will be there tonight. Will is often used with these words and expressions: probably I’m afraid Гт sure I bet I think I suppose I quess III probably come home late. Гт afraid III be a little late. Гт sure you’ll like my friend. Г bet Ann 11 get the prize. I think you 11 win the match. I suppose you 11 see Pete at the meeting. I quess we 11 meet next week. The Future Simple is used with the following time expres- sions: tomorrow, next week, next month, next year, in two days, in a month, the day after tomorrow etc. Note. The Future Simple is not used 1. in adverbial clauses of time and condition referring to the future introduced by the conjunctions: when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as, if, unless, in case (that), on condition (that), provided (that), providing (that). In such clauses the Present Simple Tense is used instead: When she comes, ask her to type the letter. 2. for a planned future actions with verbs of motion: to come, to start, to leave, to return, to arrive, to sail, to fly and when we are talking about timetables, programmes the Present Simple is used: We leave at six, arrive in Paris at midnight. 145
QI EXERCISES Exercise I Write the following sentences in interrogative and negative forms. 1. There will be a lot of people at the meeting tomorrow. 2. The talk will be very interesting. 3. He will go with us if he has time. 4.1 will have to stay at home this evening. 5. He will be out tomorrow afternoon. 6. She will probably come today. 7. We shall be very busy tonight. 8. On my day off I will write letters. 9. On Monday you will be busy in the evening. 10. We will go to the exhibition next Sunday. 11.1 will finish the work in two days. 12. They will have to get up early tomorrow. Exercise II Ask yes/no questions and wh-questions to which the words in bold type are the answers. 1. They will be glad to see you. 2.1 will meet them again in two days. 3. We shall see your friend tomorrow. 4. My brother will be on leave in May. 5. She will keep in mind my request. 6. She will not allow her children to play on the road. 7.1 will give her a valuable present. 8. He will go to the post office to send a telegram to his mother. 9.1 will be a second year student next year. 10. Tomorrow they will be far from here. 11. It will rain hard in the afternoon. 12. In the Caucasus you will see high mountains and beautiful lakes. Exercise III Replace the infinitive in brackets by the Future Simple or the Present Simple. 1. The delegation (to start) for London as soon as they (to receive) their visas. 2. At the travel bureau they (to tell) you exactly when the train (to leave). 3. I (not to think) I (to be able) to call on them and (to say) good-bye before I (to go) abroad. 4. If you (not to want) to climb the tree, you can shake it and the apples (to fall) down to the ground. 5. When I (to go) to Moscow I usually (to stay) at my friends’. 6. Ask him when he (to finish) packing. 7. Ask her if she (to come) to the party alone or her sister (to come) too. 8. If she (to come) to the party alone and there (to be) nobody she (to know), she (to feel) lonely. 9. The milk (to be) fresh a long time if you (to put) it in the refrigerator. 10. Ask the flower-girl how 146
much money I (to have) to pay if I (to take) all the flowers. 11. Ask the teacher if we (to study) according to the old timetable or a new one (to be) ready when we (to begin) to study. 12.1 think we (to leave) for Chicago sooner than we thought. Exercise IV Use the Present Simple or the Future Simple instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. I (not to work) any more today; I (to stay) with you. 2. Now I (to tell) you a secret if you (to promise) not to tell anyone. 3. Of course it can’t last, but when it (to come) to an end it (to be) a wonderful experience for him. It really (to make) a man of him. 4. When you (to be) in the sanatorium it (not to seem) so bad, I (to be) sure. 5. In a minute I (to join) you, my friend. 6. You don’t think it (to rain), do you? 7.1 (to think) of you day and night. 8. You (to stay) in Rome long? 9. Why, we (to work) all night and (to finish) everything tomorrow. 10. I think we (to leave) for Paris sooner than we thought. 11. I expect we (to see) a lot of each other. 12. She knows that if she (to come) she (to have) a chance of a happier life than she has had. 13. If you (to mention) her name again, I (to be) very angry with you. 14. It (not to be) so long till we (to be) together and then it (not to be) so hard for him. Exercise V Use the verbs to go (to bed), to sweep and to invite in the Present Simple or in the Future Simple. 1. I will switch off the radio when you ... to bed. I will get up in time if I ... to bed early. May I ring you up at eleven? When ... you ... to bed tonight? - I have got much work to do, so I don’t know if I ... to bed at eleven as usual. How can I know when I... to bed? 2. If you ... the floor, it will be quite clean. Will you kindly look for my needle, when you ... the floor tomorrow? It’s nine o’clock already. When ... you ... the floor? She will be so busy tomorrow; she doesn’t know when she... the floor. She asks me if I... the floor tomorrow morning. 3. Though I don’t feel well, I ... come friends of mine to the housewarming party. When will you ... them, I wonder? It is not settled yet when I... them. I’ll be glad to see Ann if you... her to your housewarming party. I am eager to know if you ... the Browns too. 147
Exercise VI Complete the sentences using the Present Simple or the Fu- ture Simple. 1. We will go home after... 2. You must repeat the rule until... 3. When the water is really hot... 4. They will keep quiet while ... 5.1 will inform them about it as soon as ... 6. Close the door quietly when ... 7. I will be ready by the time you ... 8. Don’t lock the door in case ... 9. Nobody knows when ... 10. It is difficult to guess when ... 11. You’ll catch a cold if... 12. You won’t catch the train unless ... 13. Ask him when ... 14. Ask your teacher if... 15.1 can’t do anything unless ... Exercise VII Complete the following using the Present Simple or the Fu- ture Simple. 1.1 will accompany you with pleasure as soon as ... 2. The per- formance will be a great success if... 3. As soon as the meeting starts ... 4. If this time is convenient for you ... 5. We will not complete the work this week in case ... 6. Dinner will be served before... 7. When the tourists come to the camp... 8. If she keeps her promise ... 9. You will be in my way if ... 10. The expe- riment will be carried out as soon as ... 11. When you turn into that alley... 12. As soon as it begins to freeze... 13. Unless you look at this picture at some distance ... 14. I will remind you of your promise in case ... 15. The dentist will pull out the tooth if ... 16. If you work hard ... 17. I think everything will be clear when... 18. You will finish your report soon on condition that... Exercise VIII Translate into English. 1. Я подожду, пока он окончит свой рассказ, а потом по- прошу его ответить на мой вопрос. 2. Я с ним поговорю, когда он придет, но я не уверена, придет ли он сегодня. 3. Я не знаю, когда я получу от нее ответ, но как только я получу его, я немедленно вам позвоню. 4. Если вы будете работать усердно, то вы скоро кончите работу. 5. Я зайду к вам перед тем, как уеду из Москвы. 6. Я дам вам знать, как только получу письмо от него. 6. Я поговорю с ним об этом, когда я его встречу. 7. Он будет брать уроки англий- ского языка два раза в неделю. 8. Как только моя сестра приедет, я пошлю тебе записку; если ты будешь свободен, 148
ты придешь повидаться с ней. 9. Когда мы поедем в Крым, я буду много купаться в море. 10. Мне будет очень жаль, если вы не примите участия в экскурсии. 11. Лучше посо- ветоваться с врачом, прежде чем вы дадите согласие на эту поездку. Exercise IX Translate into English. 1. Если вы выучите новые слова, вы хорошо напишите дик- тант. 2. Я вам буду очень благодарен, если вы мне поможе- те перевести эту статью. 3. Я думаю, все станет ясно, как только мы получим от него письмо. 4. Если она позвонит и нас не будет дома, спросите ее, зайдет ли она к нам вече- ром. 5. Если вы возьмете такси, вы успеете встретить бра- та. 6. Как только вы его увидите, спросите его, когда он уезжает. 7. Если вы доберетесь до лагеря первыми, ждите нас. 8. Как только вы приедете в город, приезжайте ко мне: в доме достаточно места для всей вашей семьи. 9. Я буду вам очень благодарен, если вы напомните брату о его обе- щании. 10. Он обещал достать мне несколько книг, как только я начну работать над статьей. 11. Я уверен, что все полюбят ее, как только она начнет работать с нами. 12. Я не смогу прийти к тебе сегодня, если мне придется остать- ся здесь после работы. Exercise X Translate into English. 1. Интересно, когда они вернутся. 2. Вы сразу узнаете Тома, как только увидите его. 3. Если вы встретите Аню, попро- сите ее поторопиться. 4. Она будет очень рада, когда встре- тит вас там. 5. Я не помню, когда они возвращаются. 6. Если он опоздает, мы уйдем без него. 7. Я дам вам эту книгу, при условии, что вы ее скоро вернете. 8. Вы не буде- те знать английский язык, пока не начнете усиленно рабо- тать. 9. Когда станет темно, мы зажжем свет. 10. Я не знаю, когда мы опять встретимся. 12. Если вы сразу же не уйдете, вы опоздаете на поезд. 13. Стойте здесь, пока свет не ста- нет зеленым. 14. Я сообщу ему эту новость, как только он придет сюда. 15. Если вы будете читать при плохом осве- щении, вы испортите глаза. 149
Continuous (Progressive) Tenses to be + Participle I (-ing) The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I am speaking Am I speaking? I am not speaking He is speaking Is he speaking? He is not (isn’t) speaking She is speaking Is she speaking? She is not speaking It is speaking Is it speaking? It is not speaking We are speaking Are we speaking? We are not (aren’t) speaking You are speaking Are you speaking? You are not speaking They are speaking Are they speaking? They are not speaking Spelling Rules When verbs end in one stressed vowel between two consonants we double the final consonant: swim - swimmimg', stir - stirring. Look at the spelling of these verbs: die - dying', write - writing. The Present Continuous is used: 1) to denote continuous actions happening at or around the moment of speaking: Listen! The telephone is ringing. Go and answer it. 2) to denote temporary situations: They are spending their holidays at the seaside this summer. 3) to denote future actions with verbs of motion (to come, to arrive, to go, to leave, to return, to sail, to start), usually if the actions denote an intention or plan: She is leaving tomorrow. 4) to denote actions in progress referring to all or any time, the moment of speaking included. In this case the adverbials ever, for ever, constantly, always are used. It expresses annoyance or criticism. She is always interrupting me! 5) to denote two actions one of which is in progress and the other is a habitual one: I never speak while I am working. 150
6) to denote several simultaneous actions: Nell is reading in her room. Father is resting. The Present Continuous is used with the following time ex- pressions: now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, today, tonight, always, still etc. Note. In the construction I am going to + the infinitive, I am going has the meaning of I intend (я собираюсь), and refers the action expressed by the following infinitive to the future. I am going to read this book. Stative Verbs Stative verbs express a permanent state rather than an ac- tion and they do not have continuous forms. These are: 1) verbs of the senses: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste etc. Look, watch and listen can be used in continuous: John is watching TV. Feel and hurt can be used in either continuous or simple forms: He feels/is feeling worse today. 2) verbs of feelings and emotions: to adore, to appreciate, to detest, to dislike, to enjoy, to forgive, to hate, to like, to loathe'. I dislike the programme I am watching on TV now. 3) verbs of opinion: to agree, to believe, to expect (-to think), to see (~ to understand), to suppose, to understand etc.: I believe he is innocent. 4) other verbs: to keep (= to continue), to appear (= to seem), to belong, to concern, to contain, to depend, to fit, to have (-to pos- sess), to know, to mean, to owe, to own, to possess, to need, to want, to require, to prefer, to weigh, to wish, to seem etc.: He wants some more biscuits. Some stative verbs to be, to love, to see, to smell, to taste, to think etc. have continuous forms but there is a difference in meaning: State He thinks he is really (= he be- lieves) hardworking. What does it taste like? (= What is its flavour?) He has two houses (=he pos- sesses). Action I’m thinking about his offer (= I’m considering). He’s tasting the food (= he’s testing the flavour). She’s having breakfast (= she’s eating). 151
The silk skirt feels soft (= it has a soft texture). Do you see what I mean? (= Do you understand?) Your perfume smells of roses (= it has the smell). I love/enjoy good performan- ces (= I like in general). It looks like rain (= it appears). He appears to be working (= he seems to be). The box weighs a lot (= its weight is). Ann is naughty (= her charac- ter is bad). This dress fits me well (=it is the right size). I’m feeling the cat’s fur (= I’m touching). He’s seeing his friend tonight (= he’s meeting). She’s smelling the roses (= she’s trying the smell of). I’m loving/enjoying this per- formance (= I like especially). He is looking at the portrait (= he is viewing it). The actress is appearing on stage (= she will make an ap- pearance). She is weighing the vegetables on the scales (= she is find- ing out the weight of). She is being very naughty (= she is misbehaving). We are fitting a new carpet in the living-room (= laying). Some adjectives can be used with “to be” in the continuous form to express a temporary characteristic. These are: careful, foolish, kind, lazy, nice, patient, (im)polite, rude, silly etc.: You 're being very lazy. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Put the following sentences in the negative form and add af- firmative sentences using the words in brackets. Model: She is reading now. (to write a letter) She is not reading. She is writing a letter. 1. Helen is skating now. (to ski) 1. They are playing chess, (dominoes) 3. The students are going home, (to the library) 4. Mother is making dinner, (to wash dishes in the kitchen) 5. Father is working in the garden, (to take a rest) 6. Ann and Mike are swimming there, (to lie in the sun) 7.1 am asking you questions, (to answer your questions) 8. He is sitting at his desk, (to stand at the blackboard) 9. She is learning new words.(to recite a poem) 10. We are having a meeting, (to have an English class) 152
Exercise II Answer the questions using the words in brackets. Model: Are you free now? (Yes/have a rest). Yes, I am. I’m having a rest. 1. Are you busy now? (Yes/tidy up the flat) 2. Are you free now? (No/go to the theatre) 3. Is your mother busy now? (Yes/wash up) 4. Is your brother in the dining-room? (Yes/have a lunch) 5. Is mother in the kitchen now? (Yes/cook) 6. Are you leaving now? (Yes/go to the library) 7. Is your teacher busy now? (Yes/give a lecture) 8. Are the children resting now? (No/study) Exercise III Ask questions to the words in bold type. 1. Lucy is taking her examination now. 2. Tom is playing chess with his friend. 3. Many students are going to the library. 4. She is looking at the picture. 5. He is answering the teacher’s question. 6. They are speaking about their work. 7. The train is leaving at 5 o’clock. 8. She is swimming in the lake now. Exercise IV Fill in with the Present Simple or the Present Continuous. 1. I... (to think) about visiting Kate this afternoon. 2. I... (to think) she’s away on holiday. 3. Mr Smith ... (to have) a telephone message from his wife. 4. He ... (to have) a business meeting and I don’t want to disturb him. 5. I... (to love) breathing in clean, country air! 6. So do 1.1... (to love) every minute of this walking trip. 7. Why... (you/to taste) the soup? Is anything wrong with it? 8. Yes, it... (to taste) too sweet. I think I’ve used sugar in- stead of salt. 9. Why ... (you/to feel) Pete’s forehead, Mum? 10. I think he’s got a temperature. He ... (to feel) rather hot. 11. Nick ... (to be) a very rude person. 12. Helen ... (to be) very rude these days too, although she is usually polite. 153
13. Why ... (you/to smell) the inside of your car? 14. Because it... (to smell) of petrol. Exercise V Insert the construction to be going + infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. ... you ... to take part in the concert? - Certainly, I... 2. What... you ... to sing? - I shall sing two folk songs. 3. Who ... to accompany you? - My friend Helen as usual. 4. Who else ... to sing or recite something at the concert? - Nick ... to recite a poem written by himself and our choir will sing some songs. 5. ... they ... to have a dance after the concert? - Of course, they... 6. ... all your friends ... to be present at the party? - Certainly, they... 7. When will you come home? - We ... to dance till after midnight. Exercise VI Translate into English. a) What (Whose) book are you reading? 1. На какую картину ты смотришь? 2. Какой вопрос ты задаешь? 3. Какое упражнение они делают? 4. На какой вопрос они отвечают? 5. Чей рассказ ты читаешь? 6. Чей журнал он берет? 7. Чьей ручкой он пишет? 8. Чью ручку ты даешь мне? 9. Какое упражнение ты пишешь? 10. Какой рассказ ты читаешь? 11. Какую программу ты смотришь? 12. Какой текст ты переводишь? b) Who is sitting at the window? 1. Кто читает книгу? 2. Кто говорит по телефону? 3. Кто пишет на доске? 4. Кто берет книгу из библиотеки? 5. Кто кладет газету в почтовый ящик? 6. Кто пишет диктовку? 7. Кто отвечает на вопросы? 8. Кто декламирует стихотво- рение? 9. Кто читает журнал? 10. Кто разговаривает с учи- телем? 154
c) What аге you doing? 1. Что ты пишешь? 2. Что ты читаешь? 3. Что ты слуша- ешь? 4. О чем ты рассказываешь им? 5. Над чем ты работа- ешь? 6. О чем ты говоришь? 7. На что ты смотришь? 8. Что ты спрашиваешь? 9. О чем ты думаешь? 10. Что ты перево- дишь? d) Where are you going? 1. Куда ты смотришь? 2. Куда ты кладешь газету? 3. Где ты стоишь? 4. Где ты сидишь? 5. Куда ты посылаешь письмо? 6. Где вы сейчас отдыхаете? 7. Где вы живете? 8. Где вы работаете? 9. Куда вы посылаете телеграмму? 10. Где у вас урок английского языка? е) Why are you opening the door? 1. Почему ты закрываешь окно? 2. Почему он задает тот же самый вопрос? 3. Почему вы смеетесь? 4. Почему вы спешите? 5. Почему вы уезжаете? 6. Почему вы показывае- те этот журнал? 7. Почему вы сидите у окна? 8. Почему вы не слушаете учителя? 9. Почему вы кашляете? 10. Почему вы не пишите упражнение? 11. Почему ты запираешь дверь? Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. Вы торопитесь на занятия? - Да. В 11.00 у нас лекция. 2. Куда вы идете? - Я иду в библиотеку. 3. Вы читаете? Что вы читаете? 4. Кому вы пишете письмо? - Сестре. 5. Ваш брат дома сейчас? - Да. Он занят сейчас. Он готовит уроки. 6. Я хочу видеть профессора Петрова. - Простите, его здесь нет. Он читает лекцию. 7. Где Виктор? - Он в читальном зале. Он читает газеты. - Какие газеты он читает? - Я не знаю. 8. Не входите в класс. Учащиеся пишут контрольную работу. 9. На следующей неделе мы едем в Сочи. 10. Делега- ция приезжает завтра. Какой урок вы сейчас изучаете? - Мы проходим 5-й урок. 12. Куда все спешат? - На стадион. Там сегодня интересный матч. 13. Не шумите. Дети спят. 14. Что делает Петя? - Он рисует. 15. Вы уже заканчиваете эту рабо- ту? 16. Не мешайте мне. Я готовлюсь к докладу. 16. Отец дома? - Да. Он работает в саду. 17. О чем вы думаете? 18. С кем он там разговаривает? 19. На что вы смотрите? 20. О чем вы говорите?. 155
Compare the Present Simple and the Present Continuous Present Simple Does your daughter sing? (in general) Does it rain much in St Peters- burg? (actions that happen repeatedly ) My friend lives in Moscow. (a permanent situation) Present Continuous What is she singing? (at the pre sent moment) Is it raining? (now, at the mo ment of speaking) I’m living with my friend un til I find somewhere to live (a temporary situation) 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Use the Present Simple or the Present Continuous in the fol- lowing sentences. 1. The woman who (to speak) with my sister in the yard (to be) our neighbour who (to live) across the street. 2. You (to ask) too much of me. I (to be) quite powerless to help you. 3. You (to hear) the speaker well? - Yes, I (to hear) him clearly. I (to listen) very attentively, but still (not to understand) what he (to speak) about. 4. You (to go) in my direction? I can give you a lift. 5. It (to be) a very interesting scientific film. In it you can see how the grass (to grow) and the flowers (to unfold) their petals right before your eyes. 6.1 (to look) at the barometer and (to see) that it (to fall). 7. Don’t enter the study. Father (to work) there and he (not to like) to be disturbed. 8. You (to see) that woman in the corner? She (to have) heirdessert now. As soon as she (to leave) we (to occupy) the table. 9. Where you (to hurry)? - I (to be) afraid to miss the 2.35. My friend (to come) with it. 10. They will have to stay with us when they (to arrive) here. Exercise II Insert the Present Continuous or the Present Simple. 1. What you (to do) here? - I (to wait) for my friend. 2. He (to speak) French? - Yes, he (to speak) French very fluently. 3. The man (to be) drunk. He (not to know) what he (to say). 4. I’ll come down when I (to be) ready. 5. I will take off the jacket if it (to get) too hot. 6. “It (to get) windy,” he said in his quiet way. 7. Listen! Someone (to knock) at the door. 156
8. Don’t go into the classroom! The students (to write) a test there. 9. She (to write) letter to her mother every week. 10. Let’s go for a walk. It (not to rain). 11. You (to hear) anything? I (to listen) hard, but I not (to hear) anything. 11. Listen! The telephone (to ring). 12. They will have to stay with us when they (to arrive) here. Exercise III Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Continuous. 1. The sun (to rise) in the east and (to set) in the west. 2. Although the sun (to rise) I cannot see it because it is behind the clouds. 3. You (to play) the piano? - No, I (to do) not. 4. I hear somebody playing in the next room; who (to play) there? 5: It is pleasant to be at home when a storm (to rage) outside. 6. There are so many people there; where they all (to go)? 7. As a rule I (to feel) rather tired after my walk. 8. Thank you, now I (to feel) much better. 9. He (to swim) very fast. 10. Look! Somebody (to swim) over there. 11. Where is Alec? - He is in the garden. I think he (to do) his morning exercises. 12. He always (to do) his morning exercises with the window open. 13. I’d like to see Professor Smith. - Sorry. He is out at the moment. He (to give) a lecture. 14. Sometimes he (to give his lectures) in English for the students of the English department. 15. Who (to make a report) at the meeting? - I am sorry. I don’t know the speaker’s name. 16. Our teacher (to speak) two foreign languages. 17. Hello. This is Brown speaking. - Sorry, I don’t hear you well. Who (to speak)? 18. Is Nick in the dining-room? - Yes. He (to have lunch). Exercise IV Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Continuous. 1. Water (to boil) at 100 degrees Centigrade. 2. We (to meet) twice a week. 3. The clock (to strike), it is time to go home. 4. He (to take) his English lesson; he always (to take) his lessons in the morning. 5. Where is John? - He (to prepare) his lessons; he usually (to prepare) them at that time. 6.1 (not to understand) your remark. 7. Can you hear what I (to say)? 8. After a whole week of clear weather it (to begin) to rain. 9. What (to be) the title of the book you (to read)? 10. Look, smoke (to come) out of the window. 11. The sun (to set). What a glorious sight it 157
is! 12. What (to listen) to? - It seems to me I (to hear) a strange noise outside. 13. Why you (to wear) your new clothes, those in which you are to travel tomorrow? 14. Why, my dear boy, how stout you (to get)! 15. You (to joke) Tom? - No, Father, I (not to joke). 15. On his way he usually (to meet) many children who (to go) to school. 16. I (to look) for Pete. Have you seen him? 17. I am certain to know all about it when I (to get) his letter. 18. I (to wonder) if you’d like to come to a little party I (to give) next week. Exercise V Give answers to the following questions using the Present Continuous or the Present Simple. 1. Where are you going this Sunday? - This Sunday ... but usually on Sundays ... 2. When is he coming to see us? - He ... Friday night though most often ... 3. The delegation of French scientists is arriving by plane tonight, isn’t it? - Yes, it ... at the Vnukovo Airport, foreign delegations, as a rule... 4. When is the boat from Odessa coming? - It... in half an hour as it is late tonight, but regularly it... at 8 sharp. 5. When is the night train for St Petersburg leaving? - It ... in half an hour. It ... at 15:15 according to the timetable. Exercise VI Translate into English using the Present Simple or the Present Continuous. 1. Где Николай? - В саду. - Что он там делает? 2. Я не по- нимаю, о чем вы говорите. 3. Он знает, что мы уходим? 4. Как вы думаете, чего они ждут? 5. Я не знаю, почему я плачу. 6. Почему ты не ешь суп? - Я не хочу. 7. Я не вижу, что вы пишете. - Я пишу письмо своему брату, который живет в Москве. Мы большие друзья и часто пишем друг другу. Сейчас он работает над своей дипломной работой. 8. Я вижу двух студентов и слышу их голоса, но не пони- маю, на каком языке они говорят. Возможно, это какой-то восточный язык, а я не знаю восточных языков. 9. Я люб- лю, когда вся наша семья по вечерам собирается вместе. Обычно мы говорим о нашей работе. Сейчас мы все вместе в столовой. Мы пьем чай. Отец просматривает газету. Брат рассказывает нам о последних новостях в университете. Мама смотрит на часы и говорит, что младшим детям пора идти спать. 10. Что делает твой брат? - Он работает на 158
заводе? - А что он сейчас делает? - Он читает газету. Я приношу ему газеты, когда он приходит с работы. 11. Не выходите на улицу. Идет дождь. 12. Осенью в Петербурге часто идет дождь. 13. Могу я видеть Михаила? - Нет, он обедает. Он всегда обедает в это время. Exercise VII Translate into English using the Present Simple or the Present Continuous. 1. Дождь все еще идет. Я вижу дождевые капли на стекле. 2. Эти люди пристально смотрят на вас. Вы их знаете? 3. Как называется журнал, который вы просматриваете? 4. Что вы стоите в дверях? Проходите, мы как раз пьем чай; выпейте с нами чашку. 5. Мы приближаемся к морю. 6. Что ты слушаешь? - Я слушаю концерт из филармонии. 7. Этот человек, конечно, очень хорошо говорит по-анг- лийски, но мне трудно понимать его, так как он говорит очень быстро, а я знаю язык недостаточно хорошо. 8. Мо- лодой человек, с которым разговаривает журналист, изве- стный художник. Сейчас он, очевидно, рассказывает о сво- их картинах. 9. Я не люблю таких людей, как он. Он всегда мечтает, но ничего не делает, чтобы осуществить свои меч- ты. 10. Позвони на вокзал, пожалуйста, и узнай, когда при- ходит поезд из Москвы. 11. Достаньте ваш билет. Контро- лер проверяет билеты. 12. Не шевелись, фотограф уже снимает тебя. 13. Она всегда жалуется на своего сына, ког- да бы я ее ни встретил. 14. Вы говорите, что уезжаете ско- ро. Может быть вы побудете здесь, пока он не приедет? 15. Не входите в комнату, мой брат готовится к экзамену там. The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense Person Number Positive Form Interrogative Form Negative Form J was speaking Was I speaking? I was not (wasn’t) speaking He was speaking Was he speaking? He was not speaking She was speaking Was she speaking? She was not speaking It was speaking Was it speaking? It was not speaking 159
Person Number Positive Form Interrogative Form Negative Form We were speaking Were we speaking? We were not (weren’t) speaking You were speaking Were you speaking? You were not speaking They were speaking Were they speaking? They were not speaking The Past Continuous is formed with the Past Simple of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional v$rb. It is used 1) to denote a continuous action at a certain moment in the past: At 10 о clock it was still raining. The fire began at midnight when everybody was sleeping. 2) to denote a continuous action during a certain period in the past: We were working in the garden from six till eight. They were quarrelling all day long yesterday. 3) to denote two or more simultaneous past actions: I was preparing dinner while she was tidying up the room. 4) to denote past action in progress interrupted by another past action. The longer action is in the Past Continuous, the shorter action is in the Past Simple: While I was having breakfast the telephone rang. The Past Continuous is used with the following time expres- sions: while, when, as etc. EXERCISES Exercise I Put the following sentences in the interrogative and negative forms. 1. I was having supper when you rang me up. 2. My mother was making dinner in the kitchen when I came in. 3. Your friends were speaking in the corridor when we saw them. 4. I was hurrying to the canteen when I met you. 5. We were having our English at 10 in the morning. 6. He was waiting for us at 10 o’clock yesterday. 7. I was sleeping soundly when our 160
neighbours knocked at the door. 8. We were discussing the new film when you rang up. Exercise II Put the following sentences into the Past Continuous adding some necessary adverbials of time or adverbial clauses of time. 1. What’s his sister doing? 2. He’s not packing his things. 3. Are you waiting for your friend? 4. Where are you hurrying to? 5. My friend’s staying at a hotel. 6. She’s talking to a friend of mine. 7. My daughter’s having her English. 8. She’s cooking dinner. 9. Are they having dinner? 10. They are discussing a new film. Exercise III Put wh-questions to the words in bold type. 1. We were waiting for you at five yesterday. 2. They were discussing this question when we came in. 3.1 was reading when my friend rang me up. 4.1 was reading a difficult English book at that time. 5. We were having tea when my friend came in. 6. I was going to the library when you met me. 7. They were listening in when you entered the room. 8. She was taking a music lesson when her mother came home. Exercise IV Answer the questions concentrating on the use of the Past Continuous. 1. Were you doing your homework at 8 yesterday evening? 2. Were you hurrying home after classes when I met you? 3. Who were you talking to when I called you? 4. What were you talking about when I came in? 5. What was your sister doing when you got home yesterday? 6. Where were you going when I met you in the street yester- day? 7. What was your father doing when I rang you up? 8. What were you doing when the rain began? Exercise V Here is a list of things Kate did yesterday (and the time in which she did them): 1) 2:30 - 3:00 had dinner 4) 6:15 - 7:00 read a book 2) 3:00 - 4:00 had a rest 5) 7:30 - 8:00 had supper 3) 4:00 - 6:00 did her homework 6) 8:15 - 9:00 watched TV 6 Н.Утевская 161
Write sentences saying what she was doing at that time: 1) At 2:45 she was having dinner. 4) At 6:45 ... 2) At 3:30 she... 5) At 7:45... 3) At 5:00... 6) At 8:30... Exercise VI Translate into English. 1. Вчера в 5 ч. вечера я читал газету. 2. В воскресенье с 2-х до 4-х мы работали в саду. 3. Мы занимались английским языком весь день. 4. Когда я позвонил ему, он готовился к урокам. 5. Мы шли в библиотеку, когда она нас встретила. 6. Что вы делали в прошлую субботу вечером с 5 часов до 7 часов? 7. Когда я писал письмо, он делал упражнения по английскому языку. 8. Мы смотрели телевизор, а они слушали радио. 9. Во время обеда он читал газету. 10. Было уже темно, когда они выходили из леса. 11. Где вы работали сегодня в 9 часов утра? 12. Я ждал вас с 3-х до 4-х, а затем ушел. 13. Мы сели на скамейку. Рядом с нами два мальчика о чем-то громко разговаривали. Один из них задавал вопросы, а другой отвечал. Под деревом играли две девочки. Несколько студентов гуляли по дорожкам парка. На деревьях пели птицы. Становилось жарко, и мы решили искупаться. Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. Он писал упражнения, когда я вошел в комнату. 2. Шел дождь, когда я вышел из дома. 3. Что он делал, когда вы зашли к нему? 4. Он ушиб ногу в то время, как играл в фут- бол. 5. Когда я шел сюда, я встретил вашего брата. 6. Был вечер. Моя жена читала книгу, а я писал письмо. Вдруг дверь открылась, и вошел мой брат. 7. Было 10 ча- сов утра, когда я вошел в контору. Несколько посетителей ждали заведующего. Секретарь говорил с кем-то по теле- фону. 8. Я обедал, когда он мне позвонил. 9. Я возвращал- ся домой довольно поздно. Становилось уже темно, и шел дождь. Я шел быстро, так как у меня не было зонтика и я боялся промокнуть. 10. Дети играли в шахматы, в то вре- 162
мя, как мать готовила обед. 11. Куда вы спешили, когда я вас встретил? 12. Пожар начался ночью, когда все спали. 13. Пока он готовил чай, она наблюдала за ним. 14. Когда он вошел, я просматривала книгу его ранних набросков. Compare the Past Continuous and the Past Simple: The Past Continuous is used to say that someone was doing something at a certain time While mother was cooking dinner, the phone rang. The Past Simple is used to talk about actions and situations in the past She passed her exams well last year. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Use the Past Simple or the Past Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. When I (to come) into the hall, the students (to discuss) the first report. 2. The secretary (to type) a report when the postman (to come in) and (to put) the latest mail on the table. 3. When I (to leave) the university, it (to rain) heavily. 4. When John (to return) home, he (to see) his younger brother who (to do) his lessons. 5. What you (to do) when I (to come in)? 6. I (to write) a letter to my friend, and now I (to take) it the letter-box. 7. Last year at the same hour of the day our family (to sit) in our grandfather’s room. Father (to read) an article about my grandfather’s new invention. 8. When I (to come) home from school, my little brother (to sit) on the floor with all his toys around him. He (to play) with them. I (to tell) him the put all his toys in the box as he (to make) too much noise. 9. All night long the stars (to glitter). 10. She (to look up) to see if we (to listen). 11. For the first time she (to notice) her sister (to wear) a new dress. 12. It so (to happen) that she (to have dinner) that very evening at her aunt’s. 13. Ann (to come) to the sitting-room where we all (to sit) reading the papers after breakfast. 14. Near her a small boy (to play) silently. 15. She (to go) to the back door, and as she (to raise) her hand to knock, the young man (to open) the door suddenly. 163
Exercise II Use the Past Simple or the Past Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. And soon she (to laugh) when he (to tell) her about some funny things. 2. Through the open door (to come) the voice of his father. The old man (to sing). 3. And I (to go) softly into the room. She (to sit) by the fire. 4. She (to weep), her whole body (to tremble). 5. I (to write) a letter when you (to enter) the room. 6. We (to do) our room when our neighbour (to knock) at the door. 7. He (to write) his report when the bell (to ring) and his friend (to enter) the room. 8. He (to play) football when the ball (to hit) his head. 9. It (to grow) dark, so we (to decide) to return. 10. Kate (to dance), but when she (to see) a newcomer she (to stop). 11. He (to clean) the car when the phone (to ring), so he (not to answer) it. 12. She (to look) tired. She (to type) letters all morning. Exercise III Translate into English using the Past Simple or the Past Continuous. 1. Ты можешь вспомнить, что ты делал в то время? 2. Ког- да мы вышли из кино, все еще шел сильный снег. 3. Она что-то писала, когда я вошел. 4. Он работал с утра до ночи, так ему хотелось накопить нужную сумму и уехать отсюда. 5. Все время, пока Петр рассказывал свою исто- рию, она пристально смотрела на него. Она пыталась понять, что он за человек. 6. Поезд приближался к стан- ции, делегаты стояли у окон и махали шляпами. По пер- рону бежали дети с цветами. 7. Пассажиры так и не уви- дели Байкал. Когда поезд проезжал Байкал, была ночь. 8. Охотники замолчали, красивый олень медленно при- ближался к ним. 9. Пока директор разговаривал с пред- ставителями иностранных фирм, секретарь сортировала утреннюю почту. 10. В то время, как он пробирался сквозь толпу, он услышал, как кто-то позвал его. 11. Мы вышли на привокзальную площадь. Толпы народа спешили на вокзал и с вокзала; подъезжали и отъезжали машины, кто- то покупал цветы. 12. Пока носильщик и шофер уклады- вали его вещи в машину, Джек увидел своего брата. Он стоял за стеклянными дверями. 164
Exercise IV Translate into English using the Past Simple or the Past Con- tinuous. 1. В три часа его не было дома. Он в это время работал в библиотеке. Когда я пришла в библиотеку, он все еще там работал. 2. Я плохо слышал докладчика, так как сидел далеко, а он говорил довольно тихо. 3. Было поздно, темнело, и мы решили вернуться домой. Пока мы шли, все время шел дождь и дул холодный ветер. 4. День был солнечный. Мы катались на лыжах все утро. Когда мы катались на лыжах, начал идти снег. 5. Когда пароход отошел, пассажиры стояли на палубе и махали платками друзьям, которые оставались на пристани. 6. Начался салют, к набережной Невы шли толпы народа. 7. Когда Том вышел на улицу, все ребята играли в мяч. 8. Было уже темно, когда мы подошли к дому; дул силь- ный ветер, и становилось все холоднее и холоднее. 9. Юноши очень подружились, когда вместе путешество- вали по горам Кавказа. 10. Шел сильный снег, когда мы вышли из дома. 11. Она переводила статью в то время, когда мы смотре- ли телевизор. 12. Мы купались в реке, когда пошел дождь. Exercise V Translate into English using the Past Simple or the Past Con- tinuous. 1. Я встретил его, когда он шел домой. 2. Мы стояли на платформе, когда прибыл поезд. 3. Сестра пришла, когда мы обедали. 4. Вчера целый день шел снег. 5. Где вы были в 11 часов? - Я катался на лыжах. 6. Вы ведь путешество- вали в это время в прошлом году, да? 7. Женщина что-то сказала мальчику, который шел рядом с ней. 8. Когда я вошел в зал, студенты все еще обсуждали первый доклад. 9. Секретарь печатала доклад, когда вошел директор и положил на стол еще какие-то бумаги. 10. Поезд прибли- жался к станции. Много людей спешили на вокзал. 11. Когда мальчик заснул, он все еще держал новую иг- рушку. 12. Он проснулся, так как возле его кровати звонил 165
телефон. 13. Молодая девушка напевала веселую песенку, когда она шла наверх. 14. Ее рука дрожала, когда она ве- шала телефонную трубку. The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I shall/will be speaking Shall/will I be speaking? I shall/will not be speaking (shan’t/won’t) He will be speaking Will he be speaking? He will not be speaking She will be speaking Will she be speaking? She will not be speaking It will be speaking Will it be speaking? It will not be speaking We shall/will be speaking Shall/will we be speaking? We shall/will not be speaking You will be speaking Will you be speaking? You will not be speaking They will be speaking Will they be speaking? They will not be speaking The Future Continuous is formed with the Future Simple of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. It is used to denote an action in progress at a certain mo- ment of time or during a certain period of time in the future: A18 о "clock she will be having her early morning cup of coffee. When she comes, I think Г11 be sleeping. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Put the following sentences in the interrogative and negative forms. 1. He’ll be waiting for you at seven in the evening tomorrow. 2. They’ll be having dinner at that time. 3. We’ll be discussing this question tomorrow morning. 4. They’ll be packing at 10 o’clock tomorrow. 5. They’ll be coming to see us from 7 till 8 tomorrow evening. 6. When I come to Kiev tomorrow at 12 o’clock, my old friends’ll be waiting for me at the station. 166
7. He’ll be still working when I come. 8. She’ll be studying English at three o’clock tomorrow. 9. I’ll be preparing for my report tomorrow at 2 o’clock. 10. We’ll be taking an English exam from 12 till 2 tomorrow. Exercise II Ask yes/no and wh-questions to the words in bold type. 1. We will be working hard this time tomorrow. 2. She will be taking a music lesson at this time tomorrow. 3. They will be building a new club when you are in the coun- try in summer. 4. I will be sleeping if you come so late. 5. The English students will be writing their examination pa- per at 3 o’clock tomorrow. 6. The doctors will be examining their patients from 12 to 2 tomorrow. 7. They will be rehearsing the second act when you come. 8. They will be listening to one of my favourite symphonies at 8 o’clock tomorrow. Exercise III Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Future Simple or Future Continuous. 1. I (to stay) with my family over the weekend. 2. Tomorrow we (to ski) in the forest the whole day. 3. What you (to do) tomorrow at 12 o’clock? 4. They will (to have) an English class from 10 till 11.30. 5. There (to be) a lot of people in the dining- room during the dinner-break. 6. The children (to play) while I go shopping. 7. When you (to come) back? - I think, I (to be) back on Monday. 8. It (to take) you half an hour if you go there by metro. 9. She (to work) at the report from early morning till late at night tomorrow. 10. We (to wait) for you from 9 till 3 o’clock in the afternoon tomorrow. Exercise IV Join the following pairs of sentences with if, when or while. Mind the use of tenses in the subordinate clause. 1. You will be packing our things. I will be making arrangements over the telephone. 2. We will come at 12 o’clock. They will be rehearsing the second act. 3. You will ring up at 3 o’clock. I am afraid I will be having a long-distance call and the line will be engaged. 4. The German students will be having their oral test. 167
The English students will be writing their examination paper. 5. The ward doctors will be examining their patients. The professor will make his daily round. Exercise V Complete the following dialogue using the Future Siniple or the Future Continuous. Pete: Can I phone you tomorrow, Ann? Ann: What time? Pete: Well, I’m not working tomorrow so I... (phone) you at 9 o’clock in the morning. Ann: Oh no! I... (sleep) then. Pete: OK. I... (call) you at noon. Ann: Well, I... (tidy up) the room. Pete: Perhaps I... (come) and visit you in the afternoon then. What... (you/do) at 3 o’clock? Ann: I... (get) ready for my aerobics class. Pete: Well, if I... (phone) you at 5 ... (you/be) at home? Ann: No, I am afraid not. I... (visit) my aunt. Pete: When can I see you, Ann? Ann: Phone me tomorrow evening at 7 o’clock. I ... (not/do) anything then. Exercise VI Translate the Russian sentences into English making them the logical continuation of the English ones. 1. We will be playing chess in half an hour. - А они будут играть в шашки. 2. What will you be doing when I come? - Я буду, очевидно, писать доклад. 3. What will the coach be doing at this time tomorrow? - Он будет тренировать юно- шескую команду. 4. I will be listening to my favourite songs at 8 o’clock tomorrow. - А я буду в это время писать сочине- ние о творчестве Чехова. 5. Tomorrow at this time we will be taking leave of each other at the station. - Вы вдвоем поедете на север, чтобы присоединиться к своей экспедиции, а я поеду на Урал. 6. Tomorrow at this time I will be working in the library. - А вы в это время будете готовиться к экзаме- ну. 7. Tomorrow in an hour you will be packing your things. - А мы в это время будем уезжать. 168
Exercise VII Translate the following sentences using the Future Continuous where required. 1. Завтра в это время вы будете слушать прекрасную оперу. 2. Вот увидите, через минуту он будет рассказывать о своей встрече с чемпионом. 3. Когда мы придем домой, мама еще будет готовить обед, и нам придется подождать. 4. Если вы хотите увидеть их, вы должны поторопиться, иначе, боюсь, вы придете в тот момент, когда они будут уходить. 5. Не звоните мне с 3-х до 5-ти: я буду работать в лаборатории. 6. Ровно в 5 часов завтра многие астрономы будут наблю- дать солнечное затмение. 7. Спускайтесь, я вас сейчас дого- ню. 8. Ровно в шесть часов я буду ждать тебя на'троллейбус- ной остановке. 9. Он будет учить английский язык, когда ты придешь. 10. Завтра в 10 часов утра я буду сдавать экза- мен по истории. 11. Не приходи ко мне завтра в 2 часа дня, я буду готовиться к докладу. 12. Вы все еще будете работать, если я приду в девять? Perfect Tenses to have + Participle II The Present Perfect Tense Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I have (I’ve) spoken Have I spoken? I have not (haven’t) spoken He has (he’s) spoken Has he spoken? He has not (hasn’t) spoken She has spoken Has she spoken? She has not spoken It has spoken Has it spoken? It has not spoken We have spoken Have we spoken? We have not spoken You have spoken Have you spoken? You have not spoken They have spoken Have they spoken? They have not spoken The Present Perfect is formed with the Present Simple of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. 169
It is used 1) to denote a completed action which is connected with the present, no definite time is mentioned: I have been to the Hermitage. 2) to denote an action which is over, but a period of time is not completed. The Present Perfect is used with adverbial modifiers today, this week, this month, this year etc.: He has been to Moscow this week. 3) It is used with the adverbs just, yet, never, ever, lately, recently, already, often, seldom, generally, rarely. These adverbs are usually placed before the main verb: He has just come from London. 4) It is used with since (a preposition, an adverb or a conjunction introducing a subordinate clause); since denotes from a certain moment in the past up to now: I have read three English books since the beginning of the term. (a preposition) She called on me last Sunday, but I have not seen her since. (an adverb) We have not had a single rainy day since we came here, (a con- junction) 5) Instead of Present Perfect Continuous with the verbs having no continuous forms before for and since'. I have been here since 8 о "clock. He has known him for ten years. 6) In subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition to denote a future action taking place before a certain moment in the future: I’ll stay with you until you’ve finished everything. Note. In special questions with when the Past Simple is used: When did you come? EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect. 1. I don’t know this man. I (never) met him. 2. Let’s go to the cinema. A new film is on. - My friend already (to see) it. 3. Where is Nick? - He just (to go) out. 4. Don’t you know what the story is about? - No, I (not to read) it. 5. Don’t 170
worry about the letter. I already (to post) it. 6. Is he a good boy? - Oh, yes he (to help) me a lot”. 7.1 know Kiev perfectly well. I (be) there several times. 8.1 can’t find my bag. I think somebody (to take) it by mistake. 9. Where is the key? -1 (to put) it on the table. 10. Do you speak Japanese? - No, I never (to study) it. 11. Do you know where he lives? - No, he recently (to move) to a new flat I (not to be) there yet. Exercise II Put the verb in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Perfect. 1. I see the snow (to stop). 2. As a rule I (to have) eggs for breakfast, but this time I (to order) porridge. 3. This is the house where I (to live). I (to live) here since childhood. 4. Once in a week I (to write) letters home, but I (not to write) one this week, so my next letter must be very long. 5. She just (to ask) a porter to carry her bags as they (to be) too heavy for her. 6. I regularly (to see) him every morning at the bus-stop, but I (not to see) him these days. 7. You (to be) the first guest I (to have) since my return. 8. It (to be) afternoon. It (to stop) raining, and the sun (to come) out. 9. Thank you for everything you (to do). I (to learn) a great deal from you. 10.1 (to believe) Mr Smith (to pay) you a visit this afternoon. - Yes, he just (to go). 11.1 (to know) her for fifteen years, but I never (to hear) you speak like that before. 12. How long she (to be) away? It (to seem) ages. Exercise III Use the words in brackets to make questions according to a model. Model: (you/ever/bee/to the Tretyakov Gallery?) Have you ever been to the Tretyakov Gallery? 1. (father/come back/today?)... 2. (you/see/a new film/recently?)... 3. (how long/he/be/here?)... 4. (you/read/this book/already?)... 5. (you/ever/visit/the Kremlin?)... 6. (you/ever/be/the Bolshoi Theatre?)... 7. (you/be ill/this week?)... 8. (she/live/this house/all her live?)... 171
Exercise IV Insert the adverbs where necessary. 1. We have passed our examination, (just) 2. They have finished their research work, (already) 3. My sister has been a good pupil, (always) 4. She has been late for classes, (never) 5. We have not taken our exams, (yet) 6. I have met my friend, (already) 7. This student has told us about his scientific work, (never) 8.1 haven’t done my morning exercises, (yet) 9.1 have had my dinner, (already) 10. Have you been very busy? (lately) 11. My father has left for his native town, (just) 12. I have been to France, (never) 12. Has she graduated from the university? (already) 13. Have they written poems? (ever) Exercise V Make sentences using yet and just. Model: I haven’t read this novel yet. I have just seen the film. To accept the invitation, to make the report, to graduate from the university, to get a letter, to change the time of our meeting, to paint the portrait, to go to bed, to make up a plan, to discuss a question, to answer the letter, to do one’s work, to hear the news, to finish one’s drawing, to send a telegram. Exercise VI Ask yes/no and wh-questions to the following sentences. 1. We have already written our term test papers. 2. She has forgotten to bring you the book. 3. They have accepted our proposal this week. 4. They have been to the Hermitage lately. 5. They have got much work this year. 6. We have just bought a new dictionary. 7. He hasn’t passed his examination. 8. She hasn’t finished her work. 9. We have invited our friend to our place. 10. The meeting has just begun. Exercise VII Translate into English using the Present Perfect. 1. Я никогда не был в этом театре. 2. Мы только что гово- рили с ним об этом. 3. Он только что ушел. 4. Собрание еще не началось. 5. Мы уже просмотрели новые газеты. 6. Она всегда присутствовала на наших собраниях в этом году. 7. Я уже показал ему дорогу на станцию. 8. Я не был в кино с сентября. 9. Мы никогда не катались на лыжах в 172
лесу зимой. 10. Они не видели его в последнее время. 11. На этой неделе она не посещала занятий. 12. Мой сын только что приехал из Англии. 13. Мы еще не обсуждали этот вопрос на собрании. 14. Она несколько раз приходи- ла сюда в последнее время. 15. Моя мама уже ответила на это письмо. 16. Мы никогда не изучали испанский язык. 17. Мы не получали от них никаких известий с тех пор, как они уехали в США. 18. Недавно они устроили прекрасную художественную выставку. Exercise VIII Translate into English. 1. Где Петров? Почему он не пришел в университет? Я его сегодня не видела. Боюсь, что он заболел. - Вы ошибае- тесь. Петров здесь. Он только что пошел на лекцию. Но вы не можете сейчас с ним поговорить, так как лекция уже началась. 2. В этом году мы много читали. Мы прочитали несколько английских книг в оригинале. Я всегда любила англий- скую литературу. Вы хорошо знаете английскую литера- туру XX века? Я прочла все произведения Голсуорси (Galsworthy), Моэма (Maugham) и Кронина (Cronin). Не- которые романы я прочла на русском языке. 3. Вы были на выставке картин Шишкина? - Да, я была там несколько раз. Я всегда интересовалась творчеством этого художника. Я никогда не видела ничего прекраснее его пейзажей. 4. Я очень люблю путешествовать. Я уже побывала во мно- гих городах нашей страны. Я не была в Новгороде с тех пор, как мы переехали в Санкт-Петербург. Я очень люблю этот древний город. Exercise IX Translate this dialogue into English. - Привет, Борис! - Здравствуй, Николай! - Не видел тебя сто лет. Где ты был все это время? - Видишь ли, я только что приехал из Крыма. - Ты видел много красивых мест, не так ли? - О, да. Между прочим, ты когда-нибудь был в Алупке? - К сожалению, я никогда там не был, но я много слышал об этом месте. 173
- О, это замечательное место. -Ты ездил туда один? - Нет, вместе с Виктором. Ты помнишь его, да? - Конечно. Он уже окончил университет? - Да, он стал журналистом. - А как ты? Я давно о тебе ничего не знаю. - Спасибо. Все в порядке. Заходи ко мне. Я всегда рад тебя видеть. Exercise X Translate into English. 1. Я еще не слыхал об этом. 2. Кто пришел? Наконец-то вы пришли! 3. Можно мне прочитать ваше сочинение или вы его уже отдали учителю? 4. Вы нашли зонтик? - Да, на- шла. - А где вы его нашли? - Я нашла его в собственной комнате. 5. Я дам вам эту книгу, после того, как я прочту ее. 6. За последнее время я не получал от него писем. 7. Я не получал от него известий с тех пор, как он уехал из Моск- вы. 8. Он уехал из Москвы три года тому назад, и я не ви- дел его с тех пор. 9. Почему вы надели пальто? Сегодня совсем тепло. 10. Он положил документы на стол и вышел из комнаты. 11. Я не знаю, который сейчас час, так как мои часы остановились. 12. Я не видел его с лета. 13. Я уже говорил вам об этом два раза. Разве вы не помните? 14. Наконец такси остановилось у подъезда большого дома. 15. Ваш друг пришел. Он ждет вас внизу. Compare the Present Perfect and the Past Simple The Present Perfect A completed action connected with the present I have just posted my letter. The Past Simple An action performed in the past I posted my letter yesterday. EXERCISES Exercise I Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Present Perfect or the Past Simple. 1. You ever (to be) to this picture gallery? - Yes, I (to visit) it once when a youth, and the pictures (to make) a great 174
impression on me. Since then I (not to be) here. 2. You already (to see) the new film? - Yes, I (to manage) to see it yesterday. I (to go) to the cinema in the evening and (to get) two tickets quite easily. 3. You always (to draw) books from our library? - Yes, as a rule I (to draw). Last year I (to go) to another library but I (not to find) it as good as this one. I (to draw) books from here for some 6 months already. 4.1 (not to see) anything of Helen lately. When you (to see) her last? - I (to meet) her two days ago. I (to think) that she (to change) very much. 5. You (to have dinner) already? - No, not yet. The waiter (to take) my order 15 minutes ago and (not to bring) me anything yet. - You ever (to hear) Lemeshev sing? - Oh, yes. He (to be) a splendid singer and a very good actor as well. 7. Where you (to get) this fine new bag from? - My parents (to give) it to me as a birthday present. 8. She just (to remind) me that we (to be) at school together. 9.1 (to meet) Nick this morning at the station. 10. She (to finish) tidying up the flat, then she (to begin) cooking dinner. 11. I (to see) his name in the papers very often of late. 12. They (to leave) just a week ago. 13. Most of the children here (to have) the flu already. 14. I (to love) you since I (to see) you at the party. Exercise II Use the Present Perfect or the Past Simple instead of the in- finitives in brackets. 1. You (to write) a letter to your friend at last? - Yes, I (to have). - When you (to write) it? - I (to write) it last night. - And why you (not to send) it yet? -1 (to leave) it at home in the morning, and I (to be) busy since I (to return) home. 2. Jane (to come) home? - Not yet. I am very anxious about her. When she (to leave)? - She (to leave) home at 6 o’clock and she (to go) straight to the dentist. - Don’t worry. I am sure the doctor (to detain) her. - But it’s 9 o’clock now, so she (to be) away from home for three hours already. 3. Look! What letter I just (to receive)from Mother. - Anything (to happen)? - Father (to fall) ill. - Ill again! He (to be) ill in September - Yes. At first the doctors (to say) it was the flu. But then he (to feel) worse and they (to take) him to the hospital. Mother writes he (to be) ill for more than a week already. 175
Exercise III Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect and the Past Simple. 1. - You ever (to be) to the Hermitage? - Yes, I (to be) there several times. - Yes, I (to be) there a few days ago. 2. - You (to be) to the Kremlin recently? - Yes, I... - Yes, I (to go) there last Sunday. 3. - You (to see) Mike this morning? -Yes, I... - No, I (not to see) him since last Monday. 4. - You (to be) to the theatre this week? - Yes, I... I (to go) to the Mariinsky Theatre. 5. - You ever (to play) football? -Yes, I... -1 (to play) when I (to be) a schoolboy. 6. -1 (to lose) my woollen gloves. You (not to see) them any- where? - No, I am afraid, I... . When you last (to wear) them? -1 (to wear) them last night. 7. - You (to hear) him speak on the radio last night? -Yes, I... 8. - You (to be) here long? - Yes, I (to be) here two months. - You (to come) to see John? - Yes, I (not to see) him since last summer. 9. - How long you (to know) Pete? -1 (to know) him for 15 years. 10. - Where you (to be)? - 1 (to be) to the dentist. - He (to take) out your tooth? - Yes, he.... 176
Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Я закончила доклад. Взгляните на него, пожалуйста. 2. Вы читали сегодняшние газеты? - Конечно! 3. Вы посла- ли за доктором? - Да. Он скоро придет. 4. Вы давно знаете Елену? - Я знаю ее уже шесть лет. 5. Сегодня мне звонил мой друг. 6. В прошлом году он уехал на север, и с тех пор я его не видела. 7. Я встретилась с Аней у своих друзей три года тому назад, и с тех пор я о ней ничего не слышала. 8. Вы хорошо знаете этот город? - Нет, я никогда здесь раньше не была. 9. За последнее время он сильно изменил- ся, не правда ли? - Я не заметила. 10. Вы не навещали нас с тех пор, как приехали. 11. Я не могу идти с вами в кино, потому что я еще не сделала домашнее задание. 12. Рада вас видеть. Я так много о вас слышала. 13. Когда вы при- нимали участие в спортивных соревнованиях? 14. Мой друг никогда не был за границей. Недавно он уехал в США. Exercise V Translate into English. 1. Когда они уехали? - Точно не знаю. Меня не было дома. 2. Я вам очень благодарна за все, что вы для меня сделали. 3. Мы только что продали последний экземпляр этой кни- ги. Жаль, что вы раньше нам не сказали, что она вам нуж- на. 4. Дождь уже прекратился, и люди идут без плащей и зонтов. 5. Когда мы были студентами, мы всегда помога- ли друг другу. 6. Очень рад с вами познакомиться. Я столько слышал о вас и давно хотел с вами встретиться. 7. Я знаю его много лет; он всегда мне был хорошим дру- гом. 8. Экзаменаторы уже пришли и вызвали трех студен- тов. 9. Где вы достали этот чудесный ковер? - Он у меня с тех пор, как я переехал на эту квартиру. 10. Куда она ухо- дила сегодня утром? - Она ходила в библиотеку, потом заш- ла к своей подруге. 11. Она написала несколько писем на этой неделе. 12. Куда ушел Том? Я не вижу его здесь. - Он ушел домой пять минут тому назад. 13. Я не видел свою старую учительницу в течение двух месяцев. 14. Новый учитель по истории приехал в понедельник. 15. В прошлом году у нас было пять уроков английского языка в неделю. 16. Разве ты не получил мое письмо? - Твое письмо? Нет. Да, конечно, ты еще не мог его получить. Оно было от- правлено только сегодня утром. 177
The Past Perfect Tense Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I had (I’d) written Had I written? I had not (hadn’t) written He had written Had he written? He had not written She had written Had she written? She had not written It had written Had it written? It had not written We had written Had we written? We had not written You had written Had you written? You had not written They had written Had they written? They had not written The Past Perfect is formed with the Past Simple of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. It is used 1) to denote a past action which took place before another ac- tion or before a given past time: We had finished our work by 5 о "clock. I had seen him before I came here. 2) to denote a complete past action which had visible results in the past: She was sad because she had failed the exam. 3) The Past Prefect is used with the adverbs: hardly... when scarcely... when no sooner... than With these words the inversion is used: Hardly had we returned home when our friends came to see us. Scarcely had I finished my composition when the bell rang. No sooner had they arrived than the thunderstorm began. The Past Perfect is used with the following time expressions: after, before, by, by the time etc. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Use the Past Perfect of the verbs given in brackets to com- plete the sentences. 1. My brother went to Moscow after he. (pass the exams) 178
2. He understood the rule after he. (learn it) 3. She entered the university after she. (finish/the secondary school) 4. We wrote our compositions. We gave them to the teacher, (after) 5. She was very tired because she. (work a lot/that day) 6. The sun set. They finished their work, (before) 7. The boys decided to make a sea voyage. They travelled in the Caucasus, (after) 8. They finished their work. They went on an excursion, (when) 9. They came home. Their friends rang them up. (hardly) 10. They came home. It rained heavily, (after) Exercise II Ask wh-questions to the words in bold type. 1. The people went home after they had finished their work. 2. The lecture had begun by the time I entered the room. 3. The children had fallen asleep before we returned home. 4. The meeting had begun when he came into the room. 5. They had finished the construction of the stadium by last year. 6. These students had taken their examination by the time you arrived. 7. The speaker had made his report by this time yesterday. 8. You had studied English before you came to study here. Exercise III Complete the sentences using the words in brackets. Model: These was nobody in the classroom, (as/everybody/ already/go out) There was nobody in the classroom as everybody had already gone out. 1. The children went straight home, (after/they/finish/their classes) 2. The teacher came into the classroom, (by the time/the chil- dren/take/their seats) 3. We left the house, (after/the rain/stop) 4. You rang up. (when/the guests/not come/yet) 5. You entered the university. (after/you/study/English) 6. I came into the room, (by the time/the lecture/begin) 7. The house was empty, (as everybody/go/to the party) 179
8. They went home, (after/they/finish/their work) 9. I met you in the street, (after/you/see/a new film) 10. He couldn’t take part in the competition, (because/he/ break/his arm) Exercise IV Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Past Simple or the Past Perfect. 1. They (to complete) all the preparations for the ball by 6 o’clock. 2. On leaving the hospital the man (to thank) the doctor who (to cure) him of his disease. 3. In the morning all the passengers (to feel) good after the night they (to spend) in the comfortable sleeper. 4. During my last visit to the picture gallery I (to find) that I no longer (to like) the pictures which (to impress) me when I first (to see) them. 5. Last night he (to complete) the experiment which he (to begin) some months before. 6. No sooner she (to open) the drawer than she (to find) the photo which she (to think) she (to lose) long before. 7. They (to be) friends for some ten years before I (to meet) them. 8.1 (to refuse) to give a definite answer before I (to receive) a letter from him. 9. Hardly he (to touch) the pillow when he (to fall) asleep. 10. Everybody (to be) already at the bus station, but the guide (not to come) yet. 11. He (to find) the landscape even more beautiful than he (to expect) it to be. 12. She (to read) in his eyes what he (to want) to say before he (to say) it. Exercise V Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Past Simple or the Past Perfect. 1. Their friends (to call) for them before they (to be) ready. 2. We (to have) to stay at the station for the night because we (to miss) the last train. 3. She (to slip) the letter into her pocket when her friend (to enter) the room. 4. He (to finish) his work before you (to come). 5. Our grandfather (to show) us the office when he (to work). 6. After we (to have) supper my sister (to wash up) the dishes. 7. The engineer (to finish) his experiments by the end of the last week. 8. By the first of September all the students (to come) to the city. 9. I (not to want) to go to the cinema as I (to see) this film. 10. It (to be) nine o’clock and we (to come) to her room two hours before, as we (to do) often on those winter evenings. 11. No sooner we (to put down) our 180
glasses than the waiter (to refill) them. 12. Hardly she (to come) home when her friends (to ring) her up. 13.1 (to meet) my friend before I (to be) a fortnight in Paris. 14. He could not meet me. He (not to be) well for a few weeks. 15. Paying for what he (not to eat) he (to leave) the cafe. 16. She (to fall) ill and her friend (to work) for her. 17. The other children who (to grow) with him (to be) still the same. Exercise VI Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Past Simple or the Past Perfect. 1. He (to ask) me if I (to have) breakfast. 2. At last she (to show) me the letter he (to write). 3. She (to be) sure that he never (to lie) to her before. 4. He (to know) him for ten years, and they (to play) tennis together in Paris. 5. They (to be married) only a few months when they (to give up) living in London. 6. He (to glance) up and down the beach to see if he (to leave) anything. 7. When she (to enter) the house at dinner- time and (to find) Pete gone she (to know) what (to happen). 8. He (to take) a room at the hotel where Ann and he (to stay) on their first visit to London. 9. He (to feel) that he (to write) a good report. 10.1 (to understand) they (to know) each other since the war. 11. Talking to him (to be) very easy; just like talking to someone you (to know) all your life. 12. When he (to come back), to his seat his manner (to change). He (to be) gentle and kindly. 13. George (to make) no answer, and we (to find) that he (to be asleep) for some time. 14. Hardly he (to enter) the room when he (to switch on) the TV set. 15. Just as we (to leave) the phone (to ring). Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. Телеграмма пришла десять минут спустя после того, как ты уехала. 2. К 7 часам все уже прибыли на вокзал. 3. Ког- да вы пришли, я уже написал доклад. 4. К тому времени, когда вы позвонили, гости еще не собрались. 5. Вы изуча- ли английский язык перед тем, как поступили на эти кур- сы? 6. Сколько страниц этой книги они перевели к концу прошлой недели? 7. Что вы уже подготовили к тому вре- мени? 8. Кто уже сдал экзамены к тому моменту? 9. После того как Петр перевел предложение неправильно, Аня по- пыталась перевести его правильно. 10. Когда он вошел в 181
комнату на урок английского языка, он обнаружил, что забыл не только учебник, но и тетради тоже, 11. Он не- рвничал, так как не выучил все слова, которые учительни- ца задала. 12. Придя в театр, я обнаружила, что спектакль еще не начался. 13. Она приехала в наш город три года тому назад. К этому времени она уже окончила универси- тет. 14. Когда я пришел домой, мой брат уже ушел в кино. 15. Он ушел до того, как мы получили телеграмму. 16. Мой брат сказал, что он уже посетил эту выставку. Exercise VIII Translate into English. 1. Она дала мне письмо только после того, как я сказал свое имя. 2. Придя утром в лабораторию, он с удовлетво- рением отметил, что лаборантка ничего не трогала на его столе, и он мог сразу приступить к работе. 3. Я видел мно- го репродукций этой картины до того, как я увидел ориги- нал. 4. Вопрос оказался гораздо проще, чем мы думали. 5. Солнце еще не поднялось над горизонтом, когда мы от- правились в путь. 6. Когда я пришел, все гости уже собра- лись. 7. Радио сообщило, что самолет прилетел в Новоси- бирск. 8. Его произношение значительно улучшилось после того, как он несколько раз позанимался в лингафонном кабинете. 9. Строитель показал своим иностранным дру- зьям мост, в строительстве которого он сам принимал уча- стие. 10. Никто не говорил ей, как тяжело она была боль- на. 11. Он не мог принять участие в экспедиции, т.к. он сломал ногу. 12. Едва певец закончил пение, публика раз- разилась аплодисментами. The Future Perfect Tense Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I shall/will (I’ll) spoken Shall/will I have spoken? I shall/will (shan’t) not (won’t) have spoken He will have spoken Will he have spoken? He will not have spoken She will have spoken Will she have spoken? She will not have spoken It will have spoken Will it have spoken? It will not have spoken 182
Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form We shall/will have spoken Shall/will we have spoken? We shall/will not have spoken You will have spoken Will you have spoken? You will not have spoken They will have spoken Will they have spoken? They will not have spoken The Future Perfect is formed with the Future Simple of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of the notional verb. It is used to denote an action which will be finished before a given future time. The Future Perfect is used with the following time expres- sions: before, by, by then, by the time, until, till. Until/till are normally used with the Future Perfect only in negative sen- tences. By the end of the term we will have learnt many new words and expressions. She wont have finished her work until 8 o'clock. The Future Perfect is rarely used either in conversation or in writing. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verb in brackets into the Future Perfect. 1. I (to leave) the university by this time tomorrow. 2. We (to go away) before you come. 3. He (to pass) his examinations before you return from the south. 4. She (to return) the book to the library before you come. 5. He (to give) the final answer by this time tomorrow. 6. The expedition (to leave) for the north by April. 7. We (to go) by five o’clock tomorrow. 8. I (to finish) my report by Monday. 9. He (to post) the letter by the time we come. 10. She (to do) her homework by that time. 183
Exercise II Put the work in brackets in the required future tense form. Mind the Future Perfect. 1. The librarian (to register) all the books by the end of the week. 2.1 am afraid we (not to discuss) all the questions by the time they (to come). 3. The secretary (to look through) all the papers by the time the director (to come). 4. I hope that they (to receive) my letter by Saturday and (not to expect) me on Sunday. 5. I am sure he (to throw) some light upon this matter before I (to learn) about it from my sister’s letter. 6. Don’t start arguing until you (to hear) what I have to say. 7. I suppose that when my letter (to reach) you, you (to return) from your voyage. 8. Our plant (to fulfil) its plan by the 5th of December. 9. He (to go) by the time I arrive. 10. Don’t worry I (to write) a letter by the time you (to come) back. 11. Do please hurry or they (to close) the door by the time we get there. 12. By the end of the month the delegation (to come). Exercise III Translate into English using the Future Simple, the Future Continuous and the Future Perfect or the Present Simple. 1. Я буду очень занят в начале июня. Я буду сдавать эк- замены. 2. К семи часам я закончу эту работу и смогу отдохнуть. 3. Я все еще буду работать, когда ты вернешь- ся. 4. Через год он приедет в Санкт-Петербург. 5. Поезд уже уйдет к тому времени, когда мы приедем на станцию. 6. Не приходите ко мне в пять часов завтра, у меня будет урок английского языка. 7. Мы выполним эту работу к 3 часам, а потом все вместе пойдем гулять. 8. К 15 мая мы уже сдадим все зачеты. 9. Строители построят эту школу к 1 сентября. 10. Я напишу мое сочинение к тому времени, как она придет ко мне. 11. Ровно в 5 часов я буду ждать тебя на автобусной остановке. 12. Не звони- те мне от трех до пяти: я буду работать. 13. Завтра к это- му времени мы уже пообедаем. 14. Если Петр приедет в Москву, я покажу ему Красную площадь и Кремль. 15. Она не будет с нами разговаривать до тех пор, пока он не извинится. 184
Exercise IV Translate into English giving special attention to the future tenses. 1. Боюсь, к тому времени, как вы вернетесь с деньгами, они уже распродадут все книги. 2. Мы сделаем все упражнения к его приходу, и затем все вместе пойдем на каток. 3. Я напишу ему после того, как увижусь с его родителями. 4. Я позвоню вам, как только закончу переводить статью. 5. Мы сделаем большую часть работы, когда вы обратитесь к профессору за помощью. 6. Я уверен, что все гости уйдут к 10 часам. 7. Я боюсь, что он уже отправит телеграмму к тому времени, когда мы придем. 8. К тому времени, когда ты освободишься, я уже закончу работу. 9. Что вы будете делать завтра в 8 часов вечера? - Завтра к 8 часам я уже закончу свои уроки и в 8 часов буду играть на пианино. 10. Я окончу свой перевод к концу недели. 11. Когда я на- пишу письмо, я сейчас же пойду и отправлю его, но я не знаю, когда она его получит. 12. Я с ним поговорю, когда он придет, но я не уверена, придет ли он сегодня. 13. Мне бы хотелось знать, когда она вернется в Москву. Если она вернется после 1-го июля, я ее не увижу, так как я уже уеду на юг к этому времени. 14. Она обещала дать мне эту кни- гу при условии, что я верну ее в воскресенье. Если она не получит книгу в воскресенье, она не сможет подготовить- ся к докладу. Perfect Continuous Tenses have been + Participle I (-ing) The Present Perfect Continuous Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I have (I’ve) been speaking Have I been speaking? I have not (haven’t) been speaking He has (he’s) been speaking Has he been speaking? He has not (hasn’t) been speaking She has been speaking Has she been speaking? She has not been speaking It has been speaking Has it been speaking? It has not been speaking 185
Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form We have been speaking Have we been speaking? We have not been speaking You have been speaking Have you been speaking? You have not been speaking They have been speaking Have they been speaking? They have not been speaking The Present Perfect Continuous is formed with the Present Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the no- tional verb. It is used 1) to denote an action in progress which began at a certain moment in the past and is still going on at the present moment: He has been writing a composition for two hours. The Present Perfect Continuous is translated into Russian by the present. 2) to denote a past action of certain duration having visible results in the present: She ’s been crying. Her eyes are red. 3) to denote an action expressing anger, irritation, annoyance or crticism: / suppose, you have been telling tales again. The Present Perfect Continuous is usually used with for, since, how long. Note: Live, feel and work can be used either in the Present Perfect or the Present Prefect Continuous with no dif- ference in meaning. I’ve been living/I’ve lived in Paris for a year. The verbs not used in continuous forms are not used in the Perfect Continuous either. In this case the Present Perfect is used: We have known him since 2001. 186
a к _ EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect Conti- nuous. 1. You see, I (to do) this kind of thing for the last thirty years. 2. She (to tell) you this long story all this time? 3. Do you want to dance? - No, thank you. I (to dance) so much all evening, that my feet are ready to fall. 4. How is your poor friend? - He says he (not to feel) well for the past week. 5. You look so pale. Kate (to feed) you in my absence? 6.1 (to try) to get you all day, Mike! 7.1 (not to sleep) for over a day. 8..We (to write letters) to one another for a couple of years now. 9. Why is he here now? - I don’t know. - You (to correspond) with him? - No. 10. I (to translate) an article for an hour since we came home. 11. He (to take) English lessons for some time since last year. Exercise II Complete the following sentences adding adverbials as in the model. (Give all possible variants.) Model: I have been listening in ... I have been listening in for an hour. I have been listening in since I came home. I have been listening in since 7 o’clock. 1. They have been working in the garden ... 2. I have been waiting for you ... 3. The baby has been crying ... 4. The tourists have been doing the town ... 5. The students have been reading for the examination ... 6. He has been training his dog ... 7. They have been building the new bridge ... 8. The gardener has been sorting the apples ... 9. They have been playing golf... 10. We have been gathering mushrooms ... 11. She has been suffering from a headache ... 12. I have been writing a composition ... 13. They have been studying at the university ... Exercise П1 Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous. 1.1 (to do) my homework for two hours and I (not to finish) yet. 2. Helen (to read) this book since Monday and she (not 187
to read) it yet. 3. My brother (to collect) stamps ever since he left school. Now he (to collect) so many that he doesn’t know where to put them. 4. That boy already (to stand) at the bus stop for the last half an hour. Shall I tell him that the last bus already (to go)? 5. Something (to happen) to Nick. I (to wait) for him long and he (not to come) yet. 6. There are a lot of things I (to do) for a long time, and I (not to do) them. 7. There is the car. Pete (to come) back. I must go and wash my eyes. I don’t want him to see I (to cry). 8. Father already (to arrive). We just (to speak) of him. 9. You are old enough to begin to learn. - I (to learn) all my life. 10. What you (to do) with my bag? I (to look) for it for an hour and I can’t find it. - I think, Mary (to go) off with it. Exercise IV Use the Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect in the following sentences. 1. I (to be) busy since we last met. 2. I am very fond of Alice but I (not to see) much of her lately. 3. You look very tired. - I (to walk) around all day. I (to have) a few drinks and nothing to eat. 4.1 (to cook, to clean) and (to wash) the linen for three days and I am very tired. 5.1 imagine how much they (to learn) since they (to be) here. 6. I don’t think your mother expects you to become a driver. - What she (to say) to you? - Nothing. 7.1 found him waiting downstairs at the house door to let me in. “I’m sorry”, I said “I hope you (not to stand) here long”. 8. There (to be) no guests at all since I left? 9. He is an old friend. I (to know) him for ages. 10. You (to see) anything of Mary lately? 11.1 know the names of everyone in the village. I (to live) here all my life. Exercise V Use the Present Perfect Continuous, say what has just been happening to cause the state of things expressed in the fol- lowing sentences. 1. His clothes are wet. (to walk in the rain) 2. You look upset, (to say terrible things about ...) 3. I’ll soon finish, (to write a composition since morning) 4. Why do you think I ought to give up my work (to talk to the doctor)? 5. He is very tired, (to overwork) 6. The streets are wet. (to rain) 7.1 can’t write a letter to my friend now. (to write too many official papers) 7. You seem to know a lot about your neighbours. 188
(to live) 8. You look very pale, (not to sleep) 9. He is about to get up. (to rest for a long time) 10. Oh, I am really hot. (to run) Exercise VI Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. I (to try) all the afternoon to get a minute alone with you. 2. You (to wait) long? - Yes, I (to stand) here for more than half an hour. 3. You (to see) Ann lately? 4. I (to try) to get a good job for many months now. 5. He (to give) Kate dancing lessons or he (to pretend) to? 6.1 (to think) about nothing else since then. 7. He (to amuse) himself that way all his life. 8.1 (to look) forward to it all the week. 9. What you (to do) to yourself since I (to be) away? 10.1 just (to wash) my hair and I (to try) to dry it by the radiator. 11. I (to think) of your decision since we parted. 12. He (to complain) of pains in his chest and head for a long time. 13. She (to nurse) the hardest patients for four years. 14.1 am afraid, I (to promise) to wait for Mr Watkins. 15.1 (to wish) to speak to you ever since you returned. 16. She (to clean) all day, and I (to cook). Exercise VII v Translate into English using the Present Perfect Continuous. 1. Я жду своего друга уже час. 2. Сколько времени вы пере- водите эту статью? - Я перевожу ее уже 2 часа. 3. Мы по- вторяем этот материал вторую неделю. 4. Анна учится в консерватории уже 3 года. 5. Мой друг работает над док- ладом уже неделю. 6. Я пишу это сочинение со вторника. 7. Я учусь в университете с сентября. 8. Он учит англий- ский язык с пятого класса. 9. Сколько лет вы работаете над английским языком? 10. Что ты делала все это время? 11. Мы уже много лет проводим исследования в этой обла- сти. 12. Я давно с интересом слежу за вашими исследова- ниями. 13. Могу я видеть Николая? - Нет, он обедает. - А давно он обедает? - Да, он обедает уже полчаса. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the Present Perfect Continuous. 1. Те мальчики играют в футбол уже два часа. Я смотрю на них с тех пор, как сижу здесь. 2. «Вы давно здесь сиди- те?» - спросила учительница. «Около десяти минут.» 3. Я 189
думаю о вас со вчерашнего дня. 4. Ник, я ищу вас повсю- ду уже в течение нескольких часов. 5. Они с утра ждут телефонного звонка от Петра. 6. Марина работает в чи- тальном зале уже два часа. 7. Это такая интересная кни- га. Я ее читаю с раннего утра. 8. Я знаю, что она пишет эту статью месяца два или три. 9. Погода очень плохая, так как дождь идет уже в течение недели. 10. Мы слушали тебя все это время, теперь мы тоже хотим сказать что-то тебе. 11. Я изучаю английский язык в течение нескольких лет. 12. Я жду вас уже целый час. 13. Здание нового теат- ра строят уже два месяца. 14. Я все время думаю о вас с тех пор, как я видел вас последний раз. 15. Мы уже целый час говорим о вас. 16. Вы такой усталый. Очевидно, вы сегодня работали весь день. Revision of All the Present Tenses 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verb in brackets into the Present Continuous and the Present Simple. 1. Who (to knock) at the door? 2. We (to drink) coffee every morning. 3. What this word (to mean)? 4. It (to rain), take your umbrella. 4. Don’t bother me, please, I (to work). 5. You (to know) that boy over there? 6. What you (to do) Nick)? - I (to draw). 7. You (to see) anything? 8.1 (not to remember) his name exactly. 9. Run downstairs, your sister (to wait) for you. 10.1 (to hope) you (to know) where he (to live). 11. Let’s have some tea. It (to get) chilly. 12. You (to read), dear? - Yes”. - What (to be) the book about? - Don’t talk to him while he (to read). 13. How long it (to take) you to get to the university, usually? 14. You (to like) what you (to do) now? 15. Keep quiet, we (to listen) to the music. Exercise II Put the verb in brackets into Present Simple and the Present Perfect. 1. Ann (to want) to see you. You (not to be) here for ages! 2. I (not to be) to the zoo before. 3. You know Ann? - Yes. How long you (to know) her? - I (to know) her for 10 years. 4. You (to know) the girl who just (to leave) the shop? - Yes, 190
that (to be) Helen. 5. I (not to see) your pictures for a long time. Can I look round? 6. You (to be) the first guest I (to have) since my return. 7. He (to be) in the bathroom. He (to shave) just. 8. As a rule I (to have) ham and eggs for breakfast, but this time I (to order) an omelette. 9.1 (to be) cold in winter in Moscow, as a rule? - Yes, generally it (to be), but this winter it (to be) exceptionally warm. 10. No wonder he (to look) tired after the strain under which he (to be) lately. 11. Let me look at you. You (not to change) much. 12. I (to come) to ask you what you (to think) of the situation. Exercise III Put the verb in brackets into the Present Perfect dr the Present Perfect Continuous. 1. He (to try) to open this box for the last forty minutes but in vain. 2. It (to snow) for the whole day: the garden is covered with snow. 3. Who (to break) the window? 4. It’s the best book I (ever to read). 5. I (to listen) to you for the past half an hour, but I can’t understand what you are speaking about. 6. How long your aunt (to be ill)? 7. Somebody (to drink) my coffee! My cup was full. 8. I don’t think I (ever to see) her looking so upset before. 9. I (to sit) here in the park for an hour, and I (to meet) three friends of mine. 10. How much money you (to save) for the holidays? 11. I (to wait for) you since two o’clock. I have something urgent to tell you. 12. She (to take) guitar lessons this year. 13. This team (to lose) only one game this season. 14. My parents (to work) for this company since 1995. Exercise IV Make up a compound or complex sentence using the given clause in the Present Tenses. Model: ... she is teaching literature ... She knows literature so well because she has read a lot of books and she is teaching literature at school. Or: She has graduated from the Pedagogical Uni- versity and now she is teaching literature at school. 1. ... she and I have lived in the same house ... 2. ... he knows two foreign languages ... 3. ... winter has set in ... 4. ... our team has won ... 191
5. ... they have been playing tennis ... 6. ... she always loses her gloves ... 7. ... he is doing the sums ... 8. ... they have been writing an exercise ... 9. ... the leaves are falling off the trees ... 10. ... the weather has changed ... Exercise V Replace the infinitives by the Present Simple, the Present Continuous, the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Con- tinuous. 1. He (to solve) the crossword puzzle for half an hour and he (to say) he (to be) about to finish it as he (to think) over the last word. 2. The actors (to rehearse) since early morning; now they (to go over) the first scene as they (not to be) satisfied with their acting. 3. Here you (to be) at last! I (to wait) for you for an hour. You (not to be) ashamed? 4. She (to speak) over the telephone long enough, it (to be) time for her to stop talking. 5. You (to keep) late hours this week that’s why you (to look) tired and worn out. 6. It (to snow) steadily the whole week and it still (to snow). If it (to go on) like this, nobody will be able to reach the camp. 7. At last you (to open) the door! I (to ring) for an hour at least, it (to seem) to me. 8. My watch (to keep) good time ever since the first repair. 9. They (to discuss) this question ever since I (to be) here and they (not to come) to any definite conclusion yet. 10. The secretary (to miss) several words as she (to talk) all the time. 11. The lecturer (to mention) this name several times but I cannot remember it. I’ll write it down as soon as he (to mention) it again. 12. He (to work) at the language all the time and (to make) great progress. Exercise VI Use the required present tense instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. I (to be) here too long. I (to want) to get away. 2. What he (to do) for a living? - He (to sing) and (to play) the guitar. - He (to play) for his friends or just for money? -1 (not to know)... - He (to have) a concert soon? - Yes, on Saturday. 3. Where you (to be), Tommy? Look at your face! - Mammy, you al- ways (to grumble)! 4. Everybody (to be) here? - No, Mr Smith (not to come) yet. I (to think) he (not to return) from abroad 192
yet. He (to arrive) on Saturday. 5. The old man (to sit) in front of the fire since dinner-time. 6.1 (not to have) a holiday for two years. 7.1 (to try) all the afternoon to get a minute alone with you. 8. We (to take) two rooms in Dabney Street and we (to furnish) them now. 9. “What you (to write) him about?” she asked looking over my shoulder. 10. I (to read) the book you (to hold). 11. You always (to forget) something. 12.1 (to grow) too fat. 13. You (to wait) long? - Yes, I (to stand) here for more than half an hour. 14. I (to try) to get a good job for many months now. 15. I want you to understand that every- thing he just (to say) to you is pure imagination. Exercise VII Translate the sentences into English using the Present Sim- ple, the Present Continuous, the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous. 1. Ты понимаешь, что ты наделал? - Ничего особенного. 2. Где же ты был все это время? Мы искали тебя повсюду. 3. О чем ты думаешь, Катя? 4. Ты с ними переписываешь- ся? - Да, конечно. - Но что-то давно от них не было пи- сем. - А где они сейчас? 5. Мы работаем вместе уже пят- надцать лет и привыкли понимать друг друга. 6. Что вы здесь делаете? Разве вы не знаете, что здесь опасно сидеть? 7. Ты не слушаешь, что я говорю? Что с тобой случилось? 8. Я хочу поговорить с тобой с тех пор, как ты вернулась домой. 9. Я думаю о твоем решении с тех пор, как мы рас- стались. 10. Я жду с нетерпением твоего письма всю неде- лю. 11. Я ищу Ника. Вы видели его? 12. Пдчему ты не но- сишь новую одежду? 13. Студенты сдают экзамен с девяти часов утра. 14. Что ты слушаешь? - Мне кажется, я слы- шу какой-то странный звук. 15. Неужели ты не понима- ешь, что он смеется над тобой? Exercise VIII Translate into English using the required present tense. 1. Дирижер еще не вышел, а оркестранты уже на своих ме- стах и настраивают инструменты. 2. Неужели эта книга все еще у него? Сколько времени он ее читает? 4. Он закончил первую главу диссертации и пишет вторую. Он работает над диссертацией уже 2 года. 5. Они уже приняли резолю- цию по первому вопросу? - Нет. Они все еще спорят. Они обсуждают этот вопрос уже два часа и еще не пришли ни к 7 Н. Утевская 193
какому соглашению. 6. Уже двадцать лет, как я живу в этом городе. 7. Студенты пишут контрольную работу уже по- чти два часа. Время подходит к концу, а пока только двое сдали работы. 8. Художники работают с утра, так как мы хотим выпустить новый номер журнала еще сегодня вече- ром. 9. Сергей приехал? - Да, он здесь уже два дня. 10. Мы работаем над этой проблемой уже год. 11. Я пытаюсь свя- заться с ним в течение долгого времени, но я вижу, что это бесполезно. 12. Они помирились? - Я не знаю. Я только знаю, что они не разговаривают в течение нескольких дней. 13. Я работаю над этим переводом уже десять дней и сде- лала больше половины. 14. Вы нашли ключ? - Да, нашла. Я нашла его в собственном кармане. Exercise IX Translate into English using the required present tense. 1. Сколько времени вы занимаетесь музыкой? 2. Я не люб- лю таких людей, как он. Он всегда мечтает, но ничего не делает, чтобы осуществить свои мечты. 3. Что ты слуша- ешь? - Я слушаю концерт из филармонии. 4. Вы кажется очень интересуетесь медициной? - Да, я прочел много книг по медицине. 5. Какой журнал вы сейчас просматриваете? 6. Не входите в комнату, она разговаривает с врачом. 7. Я только что нашел ответ на этот трудный вопрос. 8. Я пре- подаю в этом университете уже двадцать лет. 9. Теперь, когда мы проработали столько времени и приобрели дос- таточный опыт и знание, мы видим, чему нам еще нужно научиться. 10. Как вы написали ваше упражнение? Пока- жите его мне. 11. Почему вы открыли окно? В комнате до- вольно холодно. Лучше закройте его опять. The Past Perfect Continuous Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I had (I’d) been speaking Had I been speaking? I had not (hadn’t) been speaking He had been speaking Had he been speaking? He had not been speaking She had been speaking Had she been speaking? She had not been speaking It had been speaking Had it been speaking? It had not been speaking 194
Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form We had been speaking Had we been speaking? We had not been speaking You had been speaking Had you been speaking? You had not been speaking They had been speaking Had they been speaking? They had not been speaking The Past Perfect Continuous is formed with the Past Perfect of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb. The Past Perfect Continuous is used: 1) to denote an action in progress which began before a certain moment in the past and continued up to a certain period of time in the past: She had been living in the country for a fortnight when a letter came from her sister. 2) to denote a past action of certain duration which had visible results in the past: They were wet because they had been walking in the rain. The Past Perfect Continuous is usually used with the prepo- sitions for and since. EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verb in brackets into the Past Perfect Continuous. 1. You (to wait) for half an hour before the taxi came. 2. I (to have a rest) at the sanatorium for two weeks when the doctor arrived. 3. We (to work) in the garden for some hours when it begartto rain. 4. She (to live) in the mountains for a month when a telegram came from her mother. 5. We (to walk) for two hours when we saw a lake in the distance. 6. I (to work) at my English for about two hours when my friend came. 7. By the time she (to study) English for three years. 8. She rose from the bench where she (to sit) for half an hour. 9. The wind which (to blow) harder than ever from the south all day, dropped at sunset. 10. They (to walk) quickly and now they are approaching the place. 195
Exercise II Make up sentences according to the model. Model: We began playing volleyball. After an hour it be- gan raining. We had been playing volleyball for an hour when it began raining. 1. The scientist worked at the experiment. After a year the prob- lem was solved. The scientist.........for a year..........when......... 2. We packed up our things. After two hours it was time to go to the railway station. We...............when it............... 3. The young man worked at the laboratory. After two years he decided to enter the university. The young man...............when he............. 4. The members of the expedition made preparations. After some month they started for the North. The members.................when they............ Exercise III Answer the questions. Model: Did you write a composition yesterday? - Yes, I did. How long had you been writing a composition be- fore you went for a walk? (for two hours) - I had been writing a composition for two hours. 1. Did it snow yesterday? How long have it been snowing when you left home? (for 2 hours) 2. Did you stay at the hotel when you lived in Paris? How long had you been staying at the hotel when you lived in Paris? (for 10 days) 3. Did you study English before you went to England? How long had you been studying English before you went to England? (for a year) 4. Did you watch TV yesterday? How long had you been watching TV before I came home? (for an hour) 5. Did your friend play chess? How long had he been playing chess before he took part in the competition (for 3 years) 196
Exercise IV Use the Past Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect in the fol- lowing sentences. 1. Her name was Helen. She (to be) a widow for fifteen years and had no children. 2. We talked about what we (to do) since we left school. 3. We told them that in our absence the garden (to be) looked after by an old man who (to live) in the area since the war. 4. Now they were floating in the little green boat upon the perfectly calm sea in which they (to swim) lately. 5. Jack was half an hour late and he asked what we (to eat) because he wanted to order the same. 6. Nick said that he (to write) all day and (not to eat) anything. 7. It was cold and dark in the small room because it (to rain) for five days. 8.1 went into the kitchen. Nothing (to be) touched in it since the morning before. 9. He said he (not to write) to me because he (to work) on the new play for some months. 10. It (to freeze) for the last few days, but it (not to snow). 11.1 was sure they (to know) each other since the war and now (to correspond) for years. 12.1 told him I (to be) in all evening. I (to wait) to talk with him for. an hour. Exercise V Translate into English using the required past tenses. 1. Мальчики уже больше двух часов собирали велоси- пед, когда пришел отец и сказал, что им придется все снова разобрать, так как они неправильно его собрали. 2. Я уже долго работал, когда пришел мой брат. 3. Дождь шел уже два часа, когда я вышел из дома. 4. Хотя солнце светило, было еще холодно, так как в течение двух ча- сов шел сильный снег. 5. Она спала уже три часа, когда мы вернулись домой. 6. Его сестра уже жила там три года, когда началась война. 7. Она работала на заводе без от- дыха в течение долгого времени. 8. Он выглядел очень усталым, когда я пришел к нему, потому что он гото- вился к экзаменам в течение нескольких дней. 9. Они плыли десять дней, когда, наконец, увидели землю. 10. К 12 часам он уже говорил больше часа; это было очень длинное выступление. 11. Когда я пришел в биб- лиотеку, он работал над докладом более двух часов. 12. Она работала полтора часа, когда Ник сказал, что он больше работать не может. 197
Exercise VI Translate into English using the Past Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous. 1. Он несколько лет работал в школе, прежде чем стал пре- подавать в университете. 2. Когда я уехала на дачу, мой брат все еще работал. 3. Когда пошел дождь, мы бродили по лесу. 4. Мы долго бродили по лесу, прежде чем увиде- ли озеро. 5. Они три года жили в Луге, прежде чем пере- ехали в Санкт-Петербург. 6. Когда разразилась война, они жили в Новгороде. 7. Какие журналы вы просматривали, когда я пришел в читальный зал? 8. Я просматривал жур- налы около 2-х часов, прежде чем нашел нужную мне ста- тью. 9. Дети спали, когда мы вернулись домой. 10. Дети уже давно спали, когда мы вернулись домой. 11. Мы об- суждали новый сборник стихотворений, когда он пришел на собрание нашего литературного кружка. 12. Мы об- суждали новый сборник стихотворений уже более часа, когда он пришел. 13. Моя сестра говорила по телефону, когда я решила лечь спать. 14. Она говорила по телефону уже около получаса, когда я легла спать. Exercise VII Translate into English using the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect Continuous or the Past Simple. 1. Был вечер. Моя мама читала книгу, а я писал письмо. Вдруг вошел мамин брат. Мы разговаривали около часа, когда позвонила его жена и напомнила ему о театре. 2. Что ты делала вчера в это время? - Я писала доклад в библио- теке. Я писала его час, когда в библиотеку пришли мои друзья. - Когда ты вернулась домой? - Поздно. 3. С кем ты вчера разговаривал, когда я встретил тебя на улице? - С другом. Он два дня назад приехал из Киева. Мы говорили уже 15 минут, когда ты вчера нас увидел. 4. Что ты делал вчера в 10 часов утра? - Я был в больнице. Я осматривал больных. Я осматривал их уже час, когда приехал профес- сор Сергеев. 198
Revision of All the Past Tenses a к_ Exercise I Use the Past Simple or the Past Continuous instead of the in- finitives in brackets. 1. Around us people (to talk) German, Italian and English. 2. Robert (to talk) to some of the other guests when Nick (to come in). 3. Michael (to look) constantly at his watch. 4. All night long the stars (to glitter). 5. Lizzie (to eat) busily and (not to raise) her head. 6.1 (to see) Irene yesterday at the Stores: she and Mr Smith (to have) a nice little chat. 7. A few minutes later he (to hurry) through the streets to the bus stop. 8. She (to try) to open her bag as she (to walk) along the corridor, talking. 9. He (to drink) some of the wine and (to eat) several pieces of bread while he (to wait) for his dinner to come up. 10. Andrew (to write) a letter when the bell (to ring) and presently a short man (to enter). A dog (to follow) him. There (to be) silence while the man (to look) Andrew up and down. 11. Pete, turning from the door, noticed that he (to stand) upon a letter which (to lie) on the mat. 12. They (to move) into the shelter. The rain (to come) down swiftly. Exercise II Use the Past Simple or the Past Perfect instead of the infini- tives in brackets. 1. It (to be) perfectly true that he never (to take) the slightest interest in his clothes. 2. At once Helen (to smile) at me; yet I (to see) that it (to be) an effort for her to clear her mind of what (to go) before. 3. He (to learn) already that when he (to want) anything it was better to ask his mother first. 4. He (not to be) well for a few weeks that’s why he (not to meet) her. 5. Inquiring for her at tea-time he (to learn) that she (to be out) in the car since two. 6. He (to wake) early that morning possibly because the ringing of the fire alarm (to be) in his mind most of the night. 7. Their friends (to call) for them before they (to be) ready. 8. He (to recognize) me only after I (to recollect) him where we (to meet) with him. 9. It was ten o’clock in the evening but the twilight (not to come) yet. 10. He (to come) into the room and (to say) that he (to win) the competitions. 11 . He said that he (not to remember) many 199
details in the novel as he (to read) it in his childhood. 12. They (to complete) all the preparation for the meeting by 4 o’clock. Exercise III Use the Past Simple, the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets. 1. When we (to leave) home, the rain already (to stop). 2. He (to sit) in his room with two letters before him, one that he just (to write) to Michael, and one that he just (to receive) from him. 3. Not a word (to be spoken) till they (to be) out in the lane, and (to walk) four or five yards, when Ann, who (to look) straight before her all the while, (to turn) again to walk back. 4. I (to ask) to tell me the way to the British Museum, and I (to explain) that I (to look) for it for the last two hours. 5. The bell (to stop) ringing and they (to guess) that Betty (to go away). 6. He (to think) he (to stay) in the water for a long time. 7. She (to realize) that she (not to hear) her laugh like that since before her illness. 8. All her anger (to go), the last traces of hysteria (to disappear). Her mind (to be) clear as it (not to be) clear in many weeks. 9. The doctor (to examine) Jane’s throat. “Nothing wrong there”. He (to attend) her before and it always (to be) the same, whenever he (to come) into the room, his easy manner (to give) her comfort. 10. Suddenly when he (to work) six months his wife (to fall) ill and (to write) asking him to come. Exercise IV Make up a compound or complex sentence using the given clause in the past tenses. Model: ... you left the town ... He had been working at the laboratory for several months by October last and when you left the town he was still working there. Or: I had heard the news before you left the town, but I couldn’t let you know. 1. ... she had been speaking over the telephone ... 2. ... he was reading a newspaper ... 3. ... they did not answer the letter ... 4. ... he had consulted the doctor ... 5. ... the ship was nearing land ... 200
6. ... they came to an agreement... 7. ... he missed the train ... 8. ... we had met... 9. ... it had been snowing ... 10. ... they had lost their way ... Exercise V Translate into English using the Past Simple, the Past Con- tinuous, the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous. 1. Когда я пришел, доктор был занят: он осматривал боль- ного. Я сначала собирался обратиться к другому врачу, но затем решил подождать. Я ждал около 20 минут, прежде чем вошел в кабинет. К двум часам доктор осмотрел меня и разрешил на следующий день идти на работу. 2. Дети катались на коньках, когда мать позвала их до- мой. Хотя они гуляли с самого утра, им не хотелось идти домой. Но мать сказала, что они слишком долго были на улице. После того как они отдохнули дома и пообедали, они снова пошли на каток. 3. Денни работал у себя в кабинете до восьми часов. По- том они поужинали и почти до полуночи говорили о сво- их планах на будущее. 4. Анна, которая жила в соседнем доме и, которая оста- лась с детьми, когда ее сестра уехала, сидела в гостиной и что-то шила. Exercise VI Translate into English using the required past tenses. 1. Это случилось так давно, что я забыла об этом. 2. Сто- яла поздняя осень. Почти все листья уже опали, и после- дние птицы улетели на юг. 3. Едва только она начала го- ворить об этом, как неожиданно заплакала. 4. Она выключила свет и сидела в полной темноте. 5. Он уехал год тому назад и с тех пор не написал нам ни одного пись- ма. 6. Письмо пришло десять минут спустя после того, как ты уехала. 7. Она взглянула на часы. Было уже около пяти. Она прождала более получаса. 8. Тучи собирались целый день, и наконец полил дождь. 9. Том, который громко сме- ялся, вдруг замолчал. 10. Не отъехали они и трех километ- ров, как погода изменилась. 11. Почему вы так поздно вер- нулись домой вчера? 12. Когда вы были здесь в последний раз? 201
Exercise VII Translate into English using the required past tenses. 1. Вчера, когда я пришла в кино, мои друзья ждали там уже 15 минут. 2. Когда мы приехали на практику, студен- ты нашей группы работали там уже неделю. 3. Придя в те- атр, Миша обнаружил, что спектакль начался и что акте- ры играют на сцене уже несколько минут. 4. Петр жил в университетском общежитии почти полгода, когда его двоюродный брат Николай приехал навестить его. 5. Пос- ле того как доктор ушел, она еще долго сидела у кроватки девочки. 6. За стеной кто-то смеялся. Смех был такой весе- лый, какого она давно не слышала. 7. К счастью, он не за- метил ее красных глаз и не догадался, что она плакала. 8. Не успела она добежать до станции метро, как хлынул дождь. 9. Он позвонил четверть часа тому назад и сказал, что выезжает. 10. Мы выехали рано утром, надеясь доб- раться до станции к полудню. Но не успели мы проехать два километра, как у нас лопнула шина (tyre), и мы потра- тили около часа на ее починку. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the required past tenses. 1. Когда я пришел, она уже вернулась и сидела у камина. 2. Часы только что пробили семь, когда я проснулся. 3. Едва успели мы убрать комнату, как пришли гости. 4. Он не знал, как долго он шел, но было уже поздно. 5. Ветер, дувший с самого утра, прекратился, и стало опять тепло. 6. Прошлым летом я посетил места, где жил в детстве. 7. Вы пообедали прежде чем пошли в институт? 8. Я встретил своего друга, когда он шел из университета. 9. Мы прожили в деревне два месяца, когда моя сестра приехала навестить нас. 10. Мы ехали часа два, когда, наконец, увидели озеро. 11. Я бродил по лесу около часа, когда я увидел маленький домик. 12. Дом стоял среди деревьев, и тропинка, по кото- рой я шел, вела к нему. 202
The Future Perfect Continuous Person Number Affirmative Form Interrogative Form Negative Form I shall/will (I’ll) have been speaking Shall/will I have been speaking? I will not (won’t)/ shall not (shan’t) have been speaking He will have been speaking Will he have been speaking? He will not have been speaking She will have been speaking Will she have been speaking? She will not have been speaking It will have been speaking Will it have been speaking? It will not have been speaking We shall/will have been speaking Shall/will we have been speaking? We shall/will not have been speaking You will have been speaking Will you have been speaking? You will not have been speaking They will have been speaking Will they have been speaking? They will not have been speaking The Future Perfect Continuous denotes an action which be- gins before a certain moment of time in the future and goes on up to that moment or into it: I will have been living in this house for five years next February. The Future Perfect Continuous is used with the following time expressions: by ...for. By next year he will have been working here for two years. The Future Perfect Continuous is used rather seldom. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Put the verb in brackets into the Future Perfect Continuous. 1. At three o’clock I (to write) for six hours. 2. I (to work) for three hours by five o’clock tomorrow. 3. He (to listen in) for some time before you come home. 4. We (to travel) by sea for several hours already by this time tomorrow. 5. She (to skate) for more than an hour when you come home. 6. They (to play) the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto for about twenty minutes by the time I get home. 7. He (to work) at this plant for twenty years by the first of June. 8. When you return home at five o’clock 203
I (to work) for seven hours. 9. By next May I (to live) here for ten years. 10. How long you (to write) a test before you give it to the teacher? Exercise II Translate into English. 1. Я начну работать в десять часов утра. Когда вы вернетесь домой в пять часов, я буду уже работать семь часов. 2. На будущий год к этому времени они будут изучать англий- ский язык уже четыре года. 3. Мы уже будем обедать полча- са, когда вы заедете за нами. 4. Он будет писать статью уже два часа, когда ты придешь. 5. Я буду учить новые слова уже час, когда ты позвонишь мне. 6. На будущий год к это- му времени она уже будет работать над диссертацией два года. 7. К следующему сентябрю она будет преподавать французский язык уже десять лет. 8. Я буду играть на скрипке шесть лет, когда мне будет двадцать один год. 9. В будущем июне будет шесть месяцев, как я живу в этом доме. 10. К 1 де- кабря будет уже 15 лет, как я работаю здесь. Revision of All the Future Tenses 1И EXERCISES Exercise I Use the correct tenses: Future Simple, Future Continuous and Future Perfect. A: (you - to come) for a picnic with me tomorrow, Kate? K: Yes. A: If I come to your house at 7, (you - to have) your breakfast already? K: No, I (probably still - to eat). And my parents (still - to sleep) so don’t make a noise. A: All right, I (to come) at 7.15 and I (not to make) any noise. K: Good. Where (you - to take) me? A: To Zvenigorod. We (to walk) through the woods and up the hill, and by 1 o’clock we (to become) very hungry, so we (to eat) our sandwiches then. If we are lucky, the clouds which are in the sky now (to disappear) by then and the sun (to shine). K: Yes, if the weather is good, we (to have) a lovely time. 204
A: Do you know, I have already been to Zvenigorod 24 times, so after tomorrow, I (to be) there 25 times! K: That (to be) fine. At what time (we - to come) home? A: Five. K: That’s good. My mother (already to finish) her housework by then, and she (probably to listen) to the radio, but my father (still - to work) in his office. A: My parents (to return) from the cinema by then and (to wait) for me to have supper with them. Exercise II Put the verb in brackets into the Future Simple, the Future Continuous and the Present Simple. 1. We (to come) at 5 o’clock. - Good, I (to wait) for you. 2. When I (to get) home, my dog (to sit) at the door waiting for me. 3. It (to be) the middle of June. They (to come) soon. 4. If you (to want) to see us, come to Tom’s on Sunday. We (to wait) for you there at midday. 5. At this time next week they (to sit) in the train on their way to Moscow. 5. Don’t leave, we (to have) supper in twenty minutes. 6. They (to have) English from nine to ten in this room. Don’t let anyone disturb them then. 7.1 (to wait) for you when you (to come). 8.1 (to call) for her at eight. - No, don’t, she still (to have) breakfast then. 9. It’s beginning to get dark, the street lights (to go) on in a few minutes. Exercise III Use the required future tense and the Present Simple. 1. We (to work) hard this time tomorrow. 2. He (to pass) his examinations before you (to return) from Moscow. 3. They (to learn) Spanish for ten months by the first of July. 4. The expedition (to leave) for the North by April. 5. She (to take) a music lesson at this time tomorrow. 6. By 6 o’clock she (to take) her lesson. 7. She (to take) two lessons this week. 8. At 5.30 she (to take) her lesson for forty minutes. 9. They (to build) a new theatre in our street. 10. They (to build) it when you (to be) in the country in summer. Exercise IV Put the verb in brackets into the Present Simple, the Future Simple and the Future Perfect. 1.1 (to suppose) when I (to come) back in two years time they (to build) all these new houses. 2. You have just missed the last 205
train. - Never mind, I (to walk). 3. When we (to take) our exams we (to have) a holiday. 4. You (know) the way to the Mariinsky Theatre? - No. - Then I (to show) you. 5. By the time you (to finish) cooking they (to do) their work. 6. By the time he (to come) they (to go). 7.1 still (to be) here next summer but Tom (to leave). 8.1 hope it (to stop) snowing by tomorrow morning. 9. If you (to think) it over you (to see) I am right. 10. I’m going to Hyde Park to hear the people making speeches. - You (to be) late. By the end of the day they (to finish) their speeches and everybody (to go) home. Exercise V Translate the following sentences into English giving special attention to the future tenses. 1. Давно ваш брат учится в медицинском университете? - В июне уже будет пять лет, как он там учится. А к июлю следующего года он уже закончит университет и будет ра- ботать врачом уже около шести месяцев. 2. В будущем году, когда профессор уйдет на пенсию, будет 46 лет, как он про- работает в университете. 3. Весной уже будет десять лет, как мы учимся в этой школе. К маю мы закончим занятия и начнем сдавать экзамены. 4. Он отлично играет в волей- бол. - Ничего удивительного. В мае будет пять лет, как он играет. 5. Вы знаете, в следующем месяце будет 25 лет, как наша семья живет в этом доме. - Да, значит, будет 25 лет, как мы соседи. 6. Ты скоро сделаешь уроки? Ведь через де- сять минут уже будет три часа, как ты пишешь. - Не беспо- койся. К тому времени, когда начнут показывать матч по телевизору, я уже сделаю все уроки. Exercise VI Translate the text into English giving special attention to the future tenses. Родители Коли навестят своего сына в санатории. К тому времени, когда они приедут туда, он уже позавтракает и будет, вероятно, играть в волейбол. Сначала они пого- ворят с врачом. К этому времени Коля уже кончит иг- рать в волейбол и будет готов провести с родителями целый день. Они будут гулять в лесу, а в 2 часа Коля вер- нется в санаторий к обеду. К трем часам все уже пообе- дают. Потом ребята немного отдохнут. К тому времени, как Коля проснется, его родители уже выкупаются в реке 206
и наберут ягод. Коля проводит родителей на станцию. Они уверены, что Коля отдохнет хорошо и, когда он вер- нется домой, он будет здоровым, загорелым и посвежев- шим. The Sequence of Tenses The sequence of tenses is a dependence of the tense form of the predicate of a subordinate clause on the tense form of the predicate of its main clause. The rule mainly concern object clauses. The rules are as follows: 1. If the verb in the main clause is in the present or future tense the verb in the subordinate clause may be in any tense (according to the sense). I know that he always makes mistakes in spelling. I know that he made a mistake. I know that he has made two bad mistakes in his dictation. I know that he will make mistakes in the use of tenses. 2. If the verb in the main clause is in the past tense, the verb in the subordinate clauses must also be in one of the past tenses. a) If the actions in the main and in the subordinate clauses take place at the same time the Past Simple or the Past Con- tinuous is used. I thought that you corresponded with your penfriends regu- larly. I supposed that she was playing the piano in the next room. b) If the action of the subordinate clause took place before the action of the main clause, the Past Perfect or the Past Per- fect Continuous is used in the subordinate clause. I thought that the young man had worked as a teacher in that town. I imagined that the students had been travelling by train. c) If the action of the subordinate clause follows the action of the main clause the Future in the Past is used in the subordi- nate clause. He knew she would read the book the next weekend. Remember how the.tenses are changed according to the rule of the sequence of tenses. 207
Present Simple I work Present Continuous He is working Present Perfect I have worked Past Simple I worked Past Continuous I was working Past Perfect I had worked Future Simple will can may must Past Simple I worked Past Continuous He was working Past Perfect I had worked Past Perfect (or stays the same) I had worked/worked Past Perfect Continuous I had been working does not change Future in the Past would could might must or had to The rules of the sequence of tenses may not be observed in the following cases: 1. where the subordinate clause describes a general truth, or something which the speaker thinks to be one. The other day I read in a book that everything alive consists mostly of water. 2. where the verb of the subordinate clause is one of the modal verbs having no past tense forms. She said I must come at once. He said I needn’t try it again. 3. when the subordinate clause is an attributive one. Then its verb may be in any tense (according to the sense). Yesterday I saw the man who will deliver us lectures in chemistry. 4. when the action of the subordinate clause refers to a definite past moment (in 1935, two years ago, when he rang me up). He told me that his youngest son was born in 1950. 208
Igf EXERCISES Exercise I Say whether the action of the object clause precedes, follows or is simultaneous with the action of the principal clause in the following sentences. 1. He asked me if I was going to study at the university. 2. She said that she had met her friend on her way to school. 3. She asked if I would come to the conference. 4. He made sure that the child was provided for. 5. They heard that he would be quite well again. 6. She knew it would happen one day. 7. He did not know what he was talking about. 8. I wrote and said I was coming. 9.1 replied that I was very well, and that I hoped she was the same. 10. Pete telephoned from the office to say that he had agreed to our proposal. 11. It was strange that she didn’t speak to you. Exercise II Make the actions in the following object clauses simulta- neous with those of their principal clauses. 1.1 was surprised you (to know) my telephone number. 2. She cannot understand what he (to do) in the room. 3.1 could not remember what he (to look) like. 4. Soon he will be asking if all the doors (to be) locked for the night. 5. We saw that the lecturer (to come). 6. Everybody knew that he (to attend) evening classes. 7. Father said he (to work) hard the whole day. 8.1 was sure that he (to wait) for me in the library. 9. He admitted that he (to speak) French very well. 10. He asked me where my brother (to work). Exercise III Make the actions in the following object clauses precede those of their principal clauses. 1. He said that he (to ask) permission to go home earlier. 2. Nobody knew where he (to spend) his holidays. 3. I was sure that he (to leave) Moscow. 4. They informed us that they (to send) the books by parcel post. 5. He said that he (to go) to the theatre the day before. 6. One day I’ll tell you why I never (to marry). 7. I wondered what she (to do) there so late at night. 8. I didn’t know what (to go) wrong between them. 9. She was glad I (to coihe) early. 10.1 thought that he (to graduate) from the university two years before. 209
Exercise IV Make the actions in the following object clauses follow those of their principal clauses. 1. He decided that he (to go) to London as soon as possible. 2. They said they (to work) seven hours a day. 3. He promised that he (to give) a lecture in near future. 4. Did they decide that they (to leave) for Paris? 5. They wondered if he (to come) back. 6. It is impossible that they (to make) any considerable progress in so short a time. 7.1 think you (to stay) in town for a night at least. 8. Before leaving the house, she told her mother she (to work) in the hospital that afternoon. 9.1 sent them a telegram to say I (to go) to England and that I (to write). 10. It was understood that he (to invite) us to lunch on Saturday. Exercise V Use the required tense-aspect forms in the following sentences, observing the rules of the sequence of tenses. 1. He hastened back home in the hope that the guests (not to go) all yet. 2.1 don’t think I ever (to see) you before. 3. She felt that her friend (not to want) to disturb her. 4. He telephoned his wife to the office to say that her brother (to return) from abroad. 5. An old friend rang up to ask her brother if he (to have) a good time in the USA. 6. She knew that he (to be worried) by the letter. 7. He knew that his mother (to speak) to the teacher. 8. The question was why he (to do) it at all. 9. She couldn’t understand why he (to tell) her such a lie. 10. She said that her sister (to go) to Washington too. Exercise VI Use the required tense-aspect forms in the following sentences, observing the rules of the sequence of tenses. 1.1 thought that you (to arrive) at some decision. 2. He believed that a fine memory (to be) absolutely necessary for that work. 3.1 did not know if you (to apply) for this job. 4. He promised that he (to give) a lecture in the nearest future. 5.1 did not know how my bag (to disappear). 6. The teacher said he (to call on) the students in alphabetical order. 7. Did she say that there (to be) a lot of mistakes in your composition? 8. Did she find out that he (to come) late at night? 9. She asked me if I (to get on) well with my classmates. 10. I was sure that his brother (to go) home. 11. Did they decide that they (to leave) for Moscow? 12. She didn’t know why she (to invent) suddenly the story. 210
Exercise VII Translate the following into English observing the rules of the sequence of tenses. 1. Я был уверен, что он уже жалеет, что был невежлив с ней. 2. Он еще не знал, что будет делать в Нью-Йорке. 3. Я был уверен, что вы дадите мне телеграмму, когда приедете в Москву. 4. Вы знали, что я ее жду вечером? 5. Мы еще не решили, кто пойдет на конференцию. 6. Все полагали, что у него есть братья и сестры. 7. Он ответил, что он еще не обедал. 8. Елена не была уверена, что она подготовится к докладу завтра. 9. Учитель спросил, кто хочет отвечать. 10. Ему сказали, что все студенты пошли в зал. 11. Кто-то спросил, кто будет жить с ним в этой комнате. Exercise VIII Translate the following into English observing the rules of the sequence of tenses. 1. Я не заметила, что идет снег. 2. Я не знала, что снег идет с самого утра. 3. Он надеялся, что погода будет хорошая. 4. Она не знала, что в Англии зимой редко идет снег. 5. Я знала, что в Африке температура почти никогда не бывает ниже нуля. 6. Нам сказали, что в Африке выпал снег. 7. Я была уверена, что вы пойдете на эту выставку. 8. Я дума- ла, что вам понравится эта выставка картин. 9. Я не слы- шала, что говорил экскурсовод, когда мы вошли в зал. 10. Она сказала, что провела в музее около трех часов. 11. Она сказала, что все это время она осматривала кол- лекцию старинных монет. 12. Я была уверена, что она сно- ва пойдет в музей, как только у нее будет свободное время. Exercise IX Translate the following into English observing the rules of the sequence of tenses. 1. Я подумал, что он устал, и спросил его, что он делал все это время. 2. У меня было впечатление, что он находится там уже некоторое время. 3. Я кивнул и сказал «да», чув- ствуя, что это именно то, чего ей хочется. 4. Я понял, что он ничего не сделает, чтобы помочь мне. 5. У меня было подозрение, что она забыла упомянуть, что я жду. 6. Он знал, о чем она думает. 7. Я не имею понятия, знает ли она, что ее мать будет здесь. 8. Кстати, Аня знает, что мой брат приезжает завтра? 9. Он еще не знал, что будет делать в 211
Нью-Йорке. 10. Он сказал, что читает лекции в универси- тете. 11. Петр сказал другу, что его отец летом болел. 12. Он сказал, что был в театре два дня тому назад. 13. Он напомнил, что знает ее с 1995 года. 14. Он повторил, что занимался уже два часа, когда вы ему позвонила. Exercise X Translate the following into English observing the rules of the sequence of tenses. В прошлом году я встретил одного из студентов нашего кур- са. Я спросил его, что он сейчас делает. Он ответил, что учит- ся в аспирантуре. Я спросил его, когда он поступил и кто его научный руководитель. Он сказал, что учится в аспирантуре уже год и его научный руководитель заведующий кафедрой. Меня интересовало, сдал ли он какие-либо экзамены и опуб- ликованы ли у него статьи по теме диссертации. Он ответил, что одна статья напечатана, две другие печатаются сейчас, и он надеется, что они будут напечатаны к концу года. Он до- бавил, что уже сдал два экзамена по языку и философии. Он сказал, что давно мечтает о преподавательской карьере и хочет читать лекции после окончания аспирантуры. Direct and Reported Speech Direct Speech is the exact words someone said. We use in- verted commas in Direct Speech. “I play football for my school team, ” he said. Reported Speech is the exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. We do not use inverted commas in Reported Speech. He said he played football for his school team. Changing from Direct into Reported Speech Statements Direct Speech We work hard,” he said. We are working hard,” they said. Reported Speech They said (that) they worked hard. They said (that) they were working hard. 212
We have worked hard,” they said. We worked hard,” they said. We will work hard,” they said. We have been working hard,” they said. We are going to work harder,” they said. We can work harder,” they said. We may work harder,” they said. We must work harder,” they said. We should work harder,” they said. We ought to work harder,” they said. They said (that) they had worked hard. They said (that) they had worked hard. They said (that) they would work hard. They said (that) they had been working hard. They said (that) they were going to work harder. They said (that) they could work harder. They said (that) they might work harder. They said (that) they had to/ must work harder. They said (that) they should work harder. They said (that) they ought to work harder. L Say is used in Direct Speech. It is also used in Reported Speech when say is not followed by the person the words were spoken to. “I can play chess, ’’ he said. He said he could play chess. Tell is used in Reported Speech when it is followed by the person the words were spoken to. “I can speak English, ” he said to me. He told me he could speak English. IL Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the context. I said, ‘7 am busy. ” He said that he was busy. *7 will show you my new dress, ” she said. She said she would show me her new dress. III. The conjunction that is introduced before indirect sentences. He said (that) he was happy. Certain words change as follows depending on the context. Direct Speech this these here now now that Reported Speech that those there then since 213
today that day tomorrow the next day, the following day yesterday the day before, the previous day ago before last night the previous night tonight that night hence thence thus so Time words and tenses can change or remain the same de- pending on the time reference. If the reported sentence is out of date, the tenses change. If the reported sentence is up to date, the tenses can remain the same. “They are leaving next week, ” he said. He said they were leav- ing the following week, (speech reported after they had left - out of date). “They are leaving next week, ” he said. He said they are leav- ing next week, (speech reported before they have left - up to date). When the reporting verb is in the past Reported Speech is formed according to the rules of the sequence of tenses. “I like music, ” she said. She said she liked music. The Tense Shift when Changing from Direct Speech to Reported Speech DirectSpeech Ф Reported Speech Present Simple ф Present Continuous ф Present Perfect ф Past Simple ф Past Continuous ф Future Simple ф Future Continuous ф Future Perfect Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future in the Past Future Continuous in the Past Future Perfect in the Past Direct Speech The student said, “I do my homework in the evening.” Mother said, “Nick is reading for his exam.” Reported Speech The student said that he did his homework in the evening. Mother said that Nick was reading for his exam. 214
Tom said to me, “I have finished my course paper.” Tom said to me, “I finished my course paper yesterday. ” The old man said, “It was snowing hard this week.” The girls said, “We will be free after the classes.” The pupils said, “We will be writing our test-paper for two hours.” The graduate said, “I will have finished my report by the end of the week.” Tom told me that he had finished his course paper. Tom said me that he had finished his course paper the day before. The old man said that it had been snowing hard that week. The girls said that they would be free after the classes. The pupils said that they would be writing their test- paper for two'hours. The graduate said that he would have finished his report by the end of the week. The tenses do not change in Reported Speech when: a. the reporting verb (said, told etc) is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect Tense. “The post office is near here, ” he says. He says the post office is near here. b. the speaker expresses general truths, permanent states and conditions. “Water turns into ice, ” he said. He said water turns into ice. c. the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said (up to date). “I will ring you up, ” he said. He said he will ring me up. L If the speaker expresses something which is believed to be true, the tenses may change or remain unchanged. If something untrue is expressed, then the tenses definitely change. “She likes cherries very much, ” she said. She said she likes/ liked cherries very much. “Latvia is a poor country, ” he said. He said Latvia was a poor country. The Past Simple changes into the Past Perfect or can remain the same. IL When the reported sentence contains a time clause, the tenses do not change. “When I was staying in London I met Ann twice, ” she said. She said she had met/met Ann twice when she was staying in London. 215
III. The Past Perfect and the Past Continuous usually remain the same in Reported Speech. ‘7 was doing my homework while my mother was cooking, ” he said. He said he was doing his homework while his mother was cooking. IV. If the reported sentence deals with unreal past, conditional sentences or wishes, the tenses remain the same. ‘7/7 were you, I would apologize, ” he said. He said that if he were me, he would apologize. Reported Questions/ Indirect Questions Direct Questions Reported Questions Indirect Questions He asked me, “Did He asked me if/ He wonders whe- you enjoy the whether I had en- ther I enjoyed party?” joyed the party. the party. He asked me, He asked me what Do you know what “What time is time it was. time it is? it?” He asked me, He asked me what I He wants to know “What are you was doing. what I am do- doing?” ing. In reported questions we use the word order of an affirma- tive sentence and the question mark becomes a full stop. To report a question we use: a. ask + wh-word (who, where etc) when the direct question begins with a wh-word (a wh-question). b. ask + if/whether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (do, have, can etc) (a yes/no question). Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions etc. change as in statements. He said, “What are you reading?” He asked what I was reading. He said, “Do you like sports?” He asked if/whether I liked sports. We use indirect questions to ask for information/advice and reported questions to report someone else’s questions, sugges- tions, offers or requests. Indirect questions are introduced with: Could you tell me ...?, Do you know ...?, I wonder ...?, I want to know ...?, I doubt...? etc. 216
If the indirect question starts with: I wonder I want to know I doubt ... Then the ques- tion mark is omitted. Reported Commands/Requests/ Suggestions Direct Commands, Requests, Suggestions_ “Go to bed,” father said to me. “Don’t make such a noise,” the teacher said. “Please, stay with us tonight,” she said to her. “Can I go for a walk?” he asked. “Let’s play hockey,” they said. Reported Commands, Requests, Suggestions_______ Father told me to go to bed. (command) The teacher ordered not to make such a noise, (command) She asked her to stay with them that night, (request) He asked to go for a walk, (re- quest) They suggested playing hockey, (suggestion) To report commands, requests, suggestions, we use an in- troductory verb (to advise, to ask, to beg, to offer, to order, to suggest, to tell etc.) followed by a to-infinitive, an -ing form or a that - clause according to the introductory verb. When we report a speaker’s words we don’t just use rules mechanically, we interpret what we hear or read, so we use proper introductory verbs like the following. Introductory Verbs Introductory Verb agree to + inf соглашаться demand требовать offer предлагать promise обещать refuse отказываться threaten угрожать Direct Speech Yes, I’ll go to the shop.” Tell me the truth.” Would you like me to help you?” I will ring you up.” No, I won’t come to see you.” I punish you.” Reported Speech He agreed to go to the shop. He demanded to be told the truth. He offered to help me. He promised to ring me up. He refused to come to see me. He threatened to punish me. 217
claim утверждать advise +sb+ to-inf советовать allow разрешать ask просить beg просить, умолять command приказы- вать encourage вооду- шевлять forbid запрещать instruct обучать invite sb приглашать order приказывать permit разрешать remind напоминать urge убеждать warn предупреж- дать want хотеть accuse sb of + ing form обвинять apologize for извиняться admit (to) призна- вать boast about хвас- таться complain to sb about жаловаться “I witnessed the crime.” “You should consult a doctor.” “You can take my dictionary.” “Please, open the win- dow.” “Please, please don’t hit the dog.” “Stand up.” “Tell me everything.” “You mustn’t come home late.” “Mix the eggs with the flour.” “I’d like you to come to the party.” “Don’t forget to tell Ann.” “You may speak to the doctor.” “Don’t forget to turn the gas off.” “Try to be patient.” “Don’t leave your room.” “I’d like you to be polite.” “You behaved as if you were guilty.” “I’m sorry I offended you.” “Yes, I was wrong.” “I’m the best football player.” “You are always dis- pleased.” He claimed to have witnessed the crime. He advised me to con- sult a doctor. He allowed me to take his dictionary. He asked me to open the window. He begged me not to hit the dog. He commanded me to stand up. He encouraged me to tell him everything. He forbade us to come home late. He instructed me to mix the eggs with the flour. He invited me (to go) to his party. He ordered me not to forget to tell Ann. He permitted/allowed me to speak to the doctor. He reminded me to turn the gas off. He urged me to try to be patient. He warned me not to leave my room. He wanted me to be polite. He accused me of be- having as if I were guilty. He apologized for of- fending me. He admitted (to) be- ing wrong. He boasted about be- ing the best foot- ball player. He complained to me about my being displeased. 218
deny отрицать insist on настаивать suggest предлагать agree + that clause соглашаться claim заявлять complain жаловаться deny отрицать exclaim восклицать explain объяснять inform sb сообщать promise обещать explain to sb + how объяснять wonder where/what why/how + clause (when the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the indirect question) wonder + whether + to-inf or clause wonder where/what/ how + to-inf (when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the “No, I didn’t tell a lie.” “You must buy that coat.” “Let’s go to the thea- tre.” “Yes, she’s very cle- ver.” “I saw the accident.” “You don’t think about me.” “I have never heard about it.” “It’s a problem.” “It’s your mistake.” “Pete is sick.” “I won’t be late.” “That’s how I got a prize.” He asked himself, “How old is she?” He asked himself, “Where is my um- brella?” He asked himself, “Why is she so nervous?” He asked himself, “What is the right answer?” He asked himself, “Shall I invite them?” He asked himself, “Where shall I go?” He asked himself, “What shall I do ” first?” He denied telling/hav- ing told a lie. He insisted on my buying that coat. He suggested going to the theatre. He agreed that she was very clever. He claimed that he had seen the accident. He complained that I didn’t think about him. He denied that he had ever heard about it. He exclaimed that it was a problem. He explained that it was my mistake. He informed that Pete was sick. He promised that he wouldn’t be late. He explained to me how he had got a prize. He wondered how old she was. He wondered where his umbrella was. He wondered why she was so nervous. He wondered what the right answer was. He wondered whether to invite them. He wondered whether he should invite them. He wondered where to go. He wondered what to do first. 219
subject of the verb) He asked himself, He wondered how to “How shall I tell tell her. her?” 1И EXERCISES Exercise I Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech. 1. “I am busy,” he said. 2. “I saw the film you recommended last night,” she said to her. 3. “I didn’t agree with you,” Lucy said. 4. “I invited some boys to my birthday party,” Nick said. 5. “I’m going to Spain next week,” he said. 6. “Water freezes below 0 °C,” he said. 7. “I have saved enough money to buy a present for my mother,” she said. 8. “I will come to see you tomorrow,” Lucy said to me. 9. “If I finish my work this evening, I’ll go out,” he said to her. 10. “I have brought some fruit,” she said. 11. “I will reach the top of the mountain,” the traveller said. 12. “I saw him yesterday but he didn’t recognize me,” she said to her. Exercise II Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech. 1. “I won’t go to the party,” she said to her friend. 2. “Ann has gone away,” Tom said. 3. “I’m hungry,” he said to his mother. 4. “I’m working tomorrow,” Mike said. 5. “He’s never written home before,” Kate said to her friend. 6. “The sun is a big star,” the teacher explained. 7. “Your spelling has become better,” the teacher said. 8. “This place is not vacant,” the passenger said. 9. “I have changed my mind and I intend to spend the evening at home,” she said to me over the telephone. 10. “This song is not popular any longer,” the young man said. 11. “I liked this play very much,” my friend said after return- ing from the theatre. 220
12. “We will settle this question tomorrow,” Mary said to her mother. Exercise III Report the following using a proper introductory verb from the list bellow. promise, apologize, remind, complain, deny, inform, order, al- low, forbid, encourage 1. “I haven’t marked the exam papers,” the teacher said to me. 2. “I’ll tidy up when I return home,” Nick said to his mother. 3. “Don’t forget to thank your father,” she said to her daugh- ter. 4. “You mustn’t come home so late,” she said to her son. 5. “I’m sorry I forgot to send a letter,” she said. 6. “You may take my dictionary,” Mike said to his brother. 7. “I didn’t hit him,” Helen said. 8. “Get off the grass at once,” he said to the kids. 9. “Try it again,” she said to me. 10. “You’re always forgetting to shut the door,” she said to her husband. Exercise IV Turn the following into indirect questions. 1. Where is the post office? (Do you know ...) 2. What have you done? (I wonder ...) 3. Are we going for a walk? (I want to know ...) 4. Have I made a mistake? (I doubt...) 5. Whose umbrella is this? (I wonder ...) 6. Does the bus stop here? (Could you tell me ...) 7. What time is it? (Do you know ...) 8. Will you come with me? (I want to know ...) 9. When do you have your dinner? (Could you tell me ...) 10. Where does your sister live? (I want to know ...) Exercise V Change the following from Direct into Reported Speech. 1. “Open the parcel, please,” she said to me. 2. “Go to your room and stay there,” his father said. 3. “Don’t walk on the grass,” she said to us. 221
4. “Where will you show me your stamps?” Boris asked me. 5. “Where did you gather these plants?” the teacher asked. 6. “Do you like to read English books?” Kate asked me. 7. “What size shoes do you take?” the shop assistant said to him. 8. “Did you pay the electricity bill?” he said to his wife. 9. “Do it at once,” father said to the boy. 10. “Will you dine with us?” she said to me. 11. “We bought this thing a week ago,” mother said to me. 12. “Don’t stay up reading too late,” my father said to me. 13. “Let’s paint the walls blue,” my little sister said. 14. “I’ll phone you at seven o’clock tonight,” she said to him. Exercise VI Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech. 1. “She will come tomorrow,” he said. 2. “I am busy,” she said to me. 3. “Do you speak French?” they asked me. 4. “When did you leave home yesterday?” my father asked me. 5. “Will you come to see us tomorrow?” I asked her. 6. “I will apply for this post,” the doctor said. 7. “He shares the room with his brother,” I answered. 8. “Wait for me at the school entrance,” Jane said. 9. “When did you have lunch today?” he asked. 10. “Are you ready to listen to the lecture?” the professor asked the students. 11. “Will you get off the bus at the next stop?” she asked me. 12. “I have never eaten such a dish in my life,” the boy said. 13. “You can buy a new coat next year,” my father said. Exercise VII Supply the principal clauses using as predicates verbs best suited to the sense of each sentence. 1..........(that) he had never seen the white nights before. 2..........(that) he was delighted. 3..........(that) he would miss us greatly. 4..........(that) they would be able to take the tickets before- hand. 5..........(that) he had never expected to see such a beautiful city. 6..........whether I had ever been to Kiev. 222
7.........if I should like to go down the Volga with them. 8.........whether we would meet. 9.........which I preferred: travelling by land or by sea. 10 what kind of sport I was keen on. 11 which of the players would win. 12 how many records I had got. 13 in what direction we intended to go. 14 (that) they would have left already by the next Sun- day. 15 (that) I should have to see them off. 16 if I had ever taken part in a boat-race. Exercise VIII Turn the following into Reported Speech; use different in- troductory verbs. Model: Do you ever work in the garden? She asked me if I ever worked in the garden. 1. What sort of flowers do you like? 2. Do you like pansies? 3. Where will you plant those lovely poppies? 4. Are these garden or wild flowers? 5. Do you water the flowers in the morning or in the evening? 6. Are tulips shade-loving flowers? 7. Who has broken the boughs of the lime-tree? 8. Why have these flowers opened so soon? 9. Have you ever seen a cherry orchard in blossom? 10. Will you grow vegetables in your kitchen garden next year? Exercise IX Complete the following sentences. A 1. She asked if...... 2. She wondered when......... 3. She wanted to know where......... 4. She was interested to know how....... 5. She inquired for what purpose....... 6. She would like to know how much......... В 1. He told them to....... 2. My mother asked me to........ 3. My brother advised me to....... 223
4. The doctor forbade her to.... 5. The guide warned us not to..... 6. The nurse persuaded the patient not to... C 1.........not to worry about me. 2.........to do physical exercises regularly. 3.........not to go skating on such thin ice. 4.........to pay more attention to his health. 5.........not to allow her children to play on the road. 6.........to keep up correspondence with him. Modal Verbs in Reported Speech The forms of some modal verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported sentence is out of date. will/shall i=> would can may shall must needn’t i=> could/would be able to t=> might Ф should (asking for advice) would (asking for information) offer (expressing offers) Ф must/had to (obligation) i=> didn’t need to, didn’t have to/wouldn’t have to Would, could, need to, mustn 7, should, might, ought to, had better remain the same. Direct Speech He said, “I’ll see you later.” He said, “I can run fast.” He said, “I can ring you up tomorrow.” He said, “I may see Pete.” He said, “How should I repair the tap?” He said, “When shall we come back?” He said, “Shall I tidy up the room?” Reported Speech He said (that) he would see me later. He said (that) he could run fast. He said (that) he would be able to ring me up the next day. He said (that) he might see Pete. He asked how he should repair the tap. He asked how to repair the tap. He asked when they would come back. He offered to tidy up the room. 224
He said, “You must return the book.” He said, “You must be kind.” He said, “You should rest more.” He said, “You had better help __ _ 99 me. He said, “You needn’t do it now.” He said, “You needn’t come tomorrow.” He said (that) I must/had to re- turn the book. He said (that) I must be kind. He said (that) I should rest more. He said (that) I had better help him. He said (that) I didn’t need to/ I didn’t have to do it then. He said (that) I wouldn’t have to go the next day. Reporting a Dialogue or a Conversation In conversations or dialogues we use statements, commands and questions. When we report dialogues or conversations, we use: and, as, adding that, and he/she added that, explaining that, because, but, since, so, and then he/she went on to say, while, then etc or the introductory verb in the present partici- ple form. Exclamations such as: Oh! Oh dear! Well! etc are omitted in Reported Speech. Direct Speech “Oh, that is a very nice dress!” she said. “Where did you buy it?” “It is so difficult for you,” she said. “Shall I help you?” “Why don’t you come over for dinner on Friday?” she said. “We could discuss your problem then.” Reported Speech She remarked/exclaimed that it was a very nice dress and she asked where I had bought it. She said it was so difficult for me offering to help. She invited me to dinner on Friday suggesting that we could discuss my problem then. Exclamations/Yes/No Short Answers/ Question Tags Exclamations are introduced in Reported Speech with ex- claim, thank, wish, say, cry out in pain, give an exclamation of surprise/horror/disgust/delight, scream with pain/surprise etc. 8 H. Утевская 225
The exclamation mark becomes a full stop. Exclamatory words such as Oh!, Eee!, Wow! etc are omitted in the reported sentence. “Oh dear! I’ve torn my dress!” She exclaimed that she had torn her dress. Yes/no short answers are expressed in Reported Speech with the subject + a proper auxiliary verb or the subject + a proper introductory verb. “Can you come to see me?” he said. - “No, ” she said. He asked her if she could come to see him and said she couldn 't. or He asked her if she could come to see him, but she refused. Question tags are omitted in Reported Speech. We can use a proper introductory verb. “He isn't lying, is he?” she said. She wondered if he was lying. Conversational Formulas Direct Speech “Pete,” said Kate, “meet my friend, Mike.” The teacher said, “Hello. (Good morning, good after- noon).” “Hello, Ann,” said Nick. - “Hello, Nick,” said Ann. “Good morning, darling,” said mother. Alice said, “Many happy re- turns of the day, Kate.” “Congratulations,” said mother. “I am so glad you passed your finals!” Mary said, “Excuse my ring- ing up so early (late).” “You’re always welcome to our home,” said Ann’s mother to Nell. Reported Speech Kate introduced Mike to Pete. The teacher greeted her pupils. Ann and Nick exchanged greetings. Mother wished good morning to me. Alice greeted Kate on her birthday. Alice wished Kate many happy returns of the day. Mother congratulated me on passing my finals. Mary apologized to me for ringing up so early (late). Ann’s mother expressed a warm welcome to Nell. 226
3 EXERCISES Exercise I Rewrite the following conversations in Reported Speech. A. “How can I lose weight?” Nick said. “You mustn’t eat sweets. But you can eat vegetables and fruit. You should also get plenty of exercise,” said the doctor. “Shall I go in for gymnastics?” said Nick. “No, you needn’t. You can go jogging every day,” said the doctor. B. “Are you English?” Jane said. “Yes, I am. I come from Manchester,” said Mr Kelly. “Is it your first visit to Moscow?” said Jane. “No, I’ve been here once before. I visited Moscow and St Petersburg two years ago,” said Mr Kelly. “Are you here on holiday?” said Jane. “No, I have come to Moscow on business,” said Mr Kelly. “How long are you staying?” said Jane. “I shall be here for three weeks,” said Mr Kelly. “Are you going to visit St Petersburg again?” said Jane. “No, I’m afraid not. I’ve been very busy. And we are flying to England from Moscow,” said Mr Kelly. С. “I don’t want to go to the canteen alone. Will you join me for lunch?” Mary said. “I’d love to,” Ann said. “When will you be free?” Mary said. “In a quarter of an hour,” Ann said. “All right, then, we’ll go together,” Mary said. D. On entering the old lady’s room he said, “I hope I haven’t interrupted your work!” “Of course not. Sit down, please. Have a cup of tea?” “Thanks, I’ve had my tea.” She said, “I haven’t seen you for ages. How is your wife?” “She is all right now!” he answered. “Don’t you want to come and see our baby? My wife says she is a darling.” “Don’t you think so?” “Of course, I do. But I think I’ll love her more when she grows up,” he added. The old lady smiled. “That’s a tender father!” 227
Exercise II Turn the following into Reported Speech. 1. “Ouch!” he said, as the nurse gave him the injection. 2. “You’ll try to do it as quick as possible, won’t you?” he said to her. 3. “Wow!” she said when she first saw the Pyramids. 4. “You’ll try not to be late, won’t you?” he said to his mother. 5. “Would you like another cup of tea?” she asked. “Yes, please,” he replied. 6. “Will you leave your dictionary?” she asked. “Of course,” he said. 7. “You rang me up yesterday, didn’t you?” he asked. 8. “You could lend me some money, couldn’t you?” he asked me. 9. “Ugh!” she said, as she stepped into the mud. 10. “Damn! I’ve twisted my thumb,” she said. 11. “Oh dear! I never travel on trains that leave from plat- form 13! It’s an unlucky number,” she cried. 12. “The teacher gave me the wrong mark, didn’t she?” he said. Exercise III Translate into English. 1. Мы хотели знать, кто будет нашим классным руково- дителем на следующий год. 2. Учитель спросил Аню, по- чему она пропустила первый урок. 3. Я спросил Лену, пошла бы она со мной в кино, если бы я пригласил ее. 4. Я спросил Колю, сколько ему было лет, когда он на- чал играть в хоккей. 5. Мама хотела знать, следует Нине принимать лекарство два или три раза в день. 6. Я спро- сил женщину, сколько лет было ее сыну, когда она нача- ла учить его кататься на коньках. 7. Мать надеялась, что сын вернется через неделю. 8. Директор сказал, что не разрешает менять расписание. 9. Мама сказала, что гос- ти приедут в субботу, а сейчас только пятница. 10. Учи- тельница сказала, что мы можем провалиться на экза- мене, если не повторим все правила. 11. Олег не мог понять, что говорит учитель. 12. Она сказала полчаса назад, что ее сын приезжает ровно в три. Значит, он бу- дет здесь через час. 13. Мне хотелось бы знать, кто рас- сказал вам об этом замечательном романе. 14. Пассажи- 228
рам велели пристегнуть ремни. 15. Мальчику велели не перебивать взрослых. 16. Учитель предупредил учащих- ся, чтобы они не засиживались поздно накануне экзаме- нов. 17. Пассажиров просят не курить в автобусе. 18. Тре- нер предложил, чтобы все приняли участие в соревнованиях. 19. Я спросил Лену, пригласили ли ее на вечер. Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. В нашем классе новый мальчик. Он сказал, что он бол- гарин по национальности. Он сказал, что в Болгарии по- чти не бывает снега и поэтому он не умеет кататься на конь- ках. Неля сказала, что она его научит. 2. Когда мама уходила, она сказала, что вернется позднее, чем обычно, потому что у нее много работы. Папа сказал, что он, возможно, тоже вернется позднее, так как у них будет собрание и, потом, он слишком занят, чтобы прихо- дить вовремя. Я сказал, что я приду позднее всех, потому что у нас сорев- нования по шахматам, но, если я приду раньше их, я при- готовлю ужин. Мама вздохнула и сказала, что она постарается прийти пораньше. Exercise V Translate into English. 1. Знаете ли вы, что мы не пришли ни к какому решению? 2. Я был уверен, что он может повторить эти предложения слово в слово. 3. Отец не думал, что он выберет эту комна- ту. 4. Все знали, что мы не приедем в воскресенье. 5. Наш учитель сказал, что для успешного изучения иностранных языков нужна хорошая память. 6. Мальчик надеялся, что его возьмут в цирк. 7. Я не была уверена, что подготов- люсь к докладу завтра. 8. Он ответил, что еще не обедал. 9. Учитель спросил, кто хочет отвечать. 10. Он сообщил, что взял билет на самолет в Адлер. 11. Он заявил, что не поедет с ним. 12. Он обещал сыну, что они проведут лето на юге. 13. Она напомнила мне, что я собиралась навес- тить тетушку. 14. Она заметила, что ремонт квартиры сле- дует делать летом. 15. Он уверял нас, что езда на мотоцик- ле совсем не опасна. 229
Exercise VI Translate into English. 1. Мы решили, что в следующее воскресенье мы поката- емся на лодке. 2. Он признал, что его брат гребет лучше, чем он. 3. Он думал, что в воскресенье он сможет посе- тить больную. 4. Мы предполагали, что скоро встретим- ся. 5. Он утверждал, что я ошибаюсь. 6. Они сказали, что никогда здесь раньше не бывали. 7. Она спросила меня, нравятся ли мне эти песни. 8. Она спросила, где и когда я купила этот журнал. 9. Она спросила, слышала ли я этот романс раньше. 10. Он сказал, что предпочитает послу- шать что-нибудь классическое. 11. Командир приказал солдатам строиться. 12. Председатель призвал собрав- шихся соблюдать тишину. 13. Секретарша попросила нас немного подождать. 14. Мы ответили, что никогда не со- гласимся на изменение программы соревнований. 15. Он попросил ее повторить адрес. 16. Я очень просил их не делать этого. 17. Он воскликнул, что целую вечность не видел нас. The Voice There are two voices in English: the active voice and the pas- sive voice. If the subject is the doer of the action, the verb is in the ac- tive voice: She speaks German. I always repeat the words aloud. If the subject is the receiver of the action, the verb is in the passive voice: The exercise was written by the pupil very quickly. The picture is painted by a famous artist. 230
The Formation of the Passive Voice to be + Participle II Tense Passive Present am is asked & s are Past was , j asked were Future will be asked Present am is being asked о s are Contin Past was being asked were & Future — Q Present have , , j u been asked has ,Ф> £ Past had been asked Future will have been asked The passive is formed by using the proper tense of the verb to be + Participle II. The Present Perfect Continuous, the Past Perfect Continuous, the Future Continuous are not used in the passive. Active Voice Passive Voice Present Simple They ask questions at the lesson. Questions are asked at the lesson. Present Continuous They are asking questions now. Questions are being asked now. Past Simple They asked questions at the lesson. Questions were asked at the lesson. 231
Active Voice Passive Voice Past Continuous They were asking questions at the lesson. Questions were being asked at the lesson. Future Simple They will ask questions at the lesson. Questions will be asked at the lesson. Present Perfect They have asked questions at the lesson. Questions have been asked at the lesson. Past Perfect They had asked questions at the lesson. Questions had been asked at the lesson. Future Perfect They will have asked questions at the lesson. Questions will have been asked at the lesson. Present Infinitive They should ask questions at the lesson. Questions should be asked at the lesson. Perfect Infinitive They should have asked questions at the lesson. Questions should have been asked at the lesson. -ing form He likes people asking questions at the lesson. He likes questions being asked at the lesson. Perfect -ing form Having asked questions... Questions having been asked... Modals + be + participle П You must ask questions at the lesson. Questions must be asked at the lesson. The Use of the Passive Voice The passive is used: a) when the person who does the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context: The door had been locked (unknown doer of the action). b) when we are interested more in the action than in the doer of the action, such as in news reports, instructions, processes, headlines, advertisements etc. Breakfast is served from 8.00 to 10.00. c) to make statements more formal or polite: My new coat has been ruined. (More polite than saying “You ruined my coat”). 232
d) to put emphasis on the doer of the action: The Pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians. Sometimes to get is used in colloquial English instead of be in the passive to say that something happens to someone or something, by chance: The dog got run over by a car. Changing from Active into Passive: Subject Verb Object Doer of the action Active W. Shakespeare wrote “Hamlet” Passive “Hamlet” was written by W. Shakespeare When the verb is changed from the active voice into the pas- sive voice, the whole sentence changes: 1) the object of the active verb becomes the subject in the new sentence. The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of the active verb becomes the doer of the action which is either introduced with “by” or is omitted. The passive can be used only with transitive verbs (verbs which take an object as give, write, take, open etc). Verbs such as: happen, sleep, come, go, seem etc are not used in the passive. 2) In the passive we use by + the doer of the action to say who or what did the action. We use with + instrument or material to say what the doer of the action used: The paper was cut with a knife. 3) If the active verb has two objects (i.e., direct and indirect), it is more usual to begin the passive sentence with the person: He gave me some apples. I was given some apples. Some apples were given to me. 4) Make, hear, help, see are followed by a to-infinitive in the passive: He helped her tidy up the room. -» She was helped to tidy up the room. Note that hear, see, watch can be followed by a participle I in the active and passive: I heard her playing the piano. She was heard playing the piano. 233
5) The verbs believe, expect, feel, hope, know, report, say, think etc are used in the following passive patterns in personal and impersonal constructions: a) subject (person) + passive + to-infinitive (personal con- struction) b) it + passive + that-clause (impersonal construction) People think he is a boaster. He is thought to be a boaster. It is thought that he is a boaster. 6) Verbs followed by a preposition (to look after, to laugh at etc) take the preposition immediately after them when turned into the passive: They sent for the doctor. -» The doctor was sent for. 7) In passive questions with who/whom/which we do not omit by. Who gave you this book? -» Who were you given this book by? Here are some of the most important prepositional verbs which can be used passively: to account for объяснять что-нибудь to agree upon договориться о • to allude to намекать на, касаться чего-нибудь to arrive at достигать чего-нибудь to call for/on зайти за to comment upon комментировать что-нибудь to count on надеяться, рассчитывать на кого-либо to hear of слышать о to insist on/upon настаивать на to interfere with мешать чему-нибудь, кому-нибудь to laugh at смеяться над to listen to слушать кого-нибудь, что-нибудь to look after ухаживать за to look at смотреть на to look for искать to provide for предусматривать что-нибудь to put up with примиряться с to refer to ссылаться на to rely on/upon полагаться на to send for посылать за to speak of/about, to говорить о/с to talk about говорить о to think of думать о to take care of заботиться о to lose sight of потерять из виду кого-нибудь, что-нибудь 234
to pay attention to to make fun of to make a full of to make use of to put an end to to take (no) notice of обращать внимание на насмехаться над дурачить использовать положить конец (не) замечать The decision was arrived at. He only spoke when he was spoken to. The film was much talked about. The agreement was widely commented on. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Change from the active into the passive. 1. Tchaikovsky used many folk-tunes in his compositions. 2. The agronomist has introduced new methods of work in agriculture. 3. The lecturer showed his students a recently devised apparatus. 4. We all must look after the children. 5. The population of France gave the Russian delegation a hearty welcome. 6. The gardener asked me to help him in the garden. 7. The students of this group are translating the English text. 8. They finished their work earlier than usual. 9. We have sent him a telegram. 10. The students were discussing the problem at 6 o’clock yesterday. 11. You must buy a new English dictionary. Exercise II Change from the active into the passive. 1. The guide met the tourists at the station. 2.1 have just read his letter. 3. Our students are discussing an interesting subject. 4. They will finish their work in time. 5. They had already translated the article when I gave them my dictionary. 6. Will they have planted the trees by the beginning of May? 7. When did they erect the monument? 8. They build many beautiful houses in our city every year. 9. She was writing a letter when I came in. 10. Russian scientists have made many wonderful discoveries. 11. Who answered the phone? 12. Who did they give the prize? 13. Two teachers asked us at the examination last year. 14. The police are questioning him now. 15. We have already done the work. 16. Who discovered America? 235
Exercise III Change the sentences as in the model using the Passive Voice of the verbs. Give two passive constructions. Model: They offered him interesting work. He was offered interesting work. Interesting work was offered to him. 1. The guide showed us all the beautiful pictures in the picture gallery. 2. They give us six lessons a day. 3.1 paid him the money yesterday. 4. The jury awarded a premium to the young sportsman. 5. The doctor prescribed a new medicine to the sick man. 6. They will give you the answer next week. 7. They promised him immediate help. 8. The parents forgave the boy his mistakes. 9. The director offered the young man a good situation. 10. They told him the news. 11. The doctor recommended the patient a severe diet. 12 They paid her the money at once. Exercise IV Change the sentences into the Passive Voice. Give two pas- sive constructions. 1. The coach gave the boxer some instructions. 2. They will grant me a leave in July if there is no urgent work. 3. His friends never forgave him his dishonesty. 4. The management offered me several jobs and I can’t decide which to take. 5. The commander charged him with a very responsible mission. 6. They will promise you much, but don’t imagine they will give you everything. 7. His parents regularly sent him parcels with fruit from their garden. 8. The doctor ordered him a long rest. 9. They usually sent the children to camp in summer. 10.1 gave him an English magazine. 11. The teacher showed us some interesting diagrams. 12. They gave us a ticket to the concert. Exercise V Put the verb in brackets into the correct passive form. 1. At the publishing house I (to tell) that the book (to publish) by the end of the year. 2. A new metro line (to construct) now. 3. A second talk on how to handle the new machine (to give) tomorrow at the same time by one of the inventors. 4. Everybody was busy as a welcoming party (to prepare) in honour of the distinguished visitors. 5. Probably the tea (to sweeten) before I put sugar into it. 6. The Reconstruction Plan 236
of Moscow (to draw up) with an eye to the city’s future growth and work. 7. It (to carry out) on a giant scale. 8. No objections to the plan (to offer) so far, but it (not to introduce) until it (to put) to vote. 9. Some final touches (to put) to the picture; it (to complete) in a quarter of an hour. 10. A great number of new houses for the residents of our city (to erect) by the new year. Exercise VI Put the verbs in brackets into the correct active or passive forms. 1. Some kind of public demonstration (to plan) to take place at the airport tonight. 2. The flight (not to announce) yet. 3. The message, as Ann (to dictate) it, (to type) by a girl clerk. 4. It (to be) an old house that (to divide) into flats. 5. Each apartment usually (to share) by two or three girls. 6. When we (to come) to the seashore, the ship (to lose) sight of. 7. In our country children (to take care of). 8. A new Metro line (to construct) now. One of its stations (to build) in our street. 9.1 am sure this event (to comment upon) in newspapers. 10. Little children (to look after) always. 11. His suggestions never (to object to). 12. These lines of poetry often (to refer to). Exercise VII State the kind of the passive construction in the following sentences. Translate into Russian. 1. The question was often put to me but I never answered it. 2. I noticed at once that the room had been recently tidied. 3. Small feet were heard running in the hall. 4. Mike is not in the room, and his bed hasn’t been slept in. 5. The driver was mysteriously silent. Tom was silent, too, wondering uneasily where he was being taken. 6. I had been given a card to the Club and in the afternoon I used to go to play billiards. 7. The outstanding violinist was much spoken of. 8. Has the doctor been called for? 9. The scientific articles of this specialist are often referred to. 10. This cellar has never been lived in. 11. Little children are always looked after. 12. Everybody is sure that an agreement will be arrived at. 13. He does not like to be interfered with. 14. Will this material be made use of? 15. Why is he always made fun of? 16. When we came to the seashore, the ship had been lost sight of. 17. Can his words be relied on? 18. His proposal may be objected to. 237
Exercise VIII Put questions to the parts of the sentences given in bold type. 1. When I entered the pavilion of the exhibition, a new model of an airport was being looked at by everybody. 2. Our reading English books in the original is always insisted upon. 3. English spelling must be paid attention to. 4. His plan has been much spoken of. 5. The secretary will be sent for. 6. This apparatus must be checked from time to time. 7. The young musician had been taken notice of long before he entered the conservatoire. 8. This idea can be put in practice only by an experienced specialist. 9. This old country-house has not been lived in these ten years. 10. The poem was written by an unknown author. 11. A new railway line is being constructed across the desert. 12. The flowers will be planted next week. 13. A place where people go skating is called a skating-rink. 14. The plant had been run by the head engineer for a fortnight before a new director was appointed. Exercise IX Translate the sentences into English using the Passive Voice. 1. За ним послали двадцать минут назад. 2. Этот вопрос се- годня обсуждаться не будет. 3. В прошлом году на нашей улице построили новый магазин. 4. Эта книга еще не пере- ведена. 5. Я чувствую, что готовится какой-то опасный план. 6. Если за вами пришлют, не отказывайтесь прийти. 7. По- чему на эту статью нигде не ссылаются? 8. Как только вещи были уложены, послали за машиной. 9. Этого лектора все- гда слушали с интересом. 10. Ему еще ничего об этом не го- ворили. 11. Книги этого автора часто спрашивают. 12. Вам задавали дополнительные вопросы на экзамене? 13. Девоч- ку бранят, вот почему она плачет. 14. Я почувствовала, что на меня смотрят. 15. Эта книга уже переведена. 16. Не вхо- дите, там экзаменуют последнего студента. 17. Мне сказа- ли, что уже ничего нельзя изменить, так как решение приня- то. 18. Какой вопрос обсуждали, когда вы вошли? Exercise X Translate the sentences into English using Passive Voice. 1. Эта книга скоро будет переиздана. 2. Его всегда люби- ли и ему всегда доверяли. 3. О ней заботятся ее друзья. 4. Об этом фильме много говорят. 5. Пока готовился зав- трак, мать пошла к постели ребенка. 6. Ей дадут кварти- 238
ру в этом доме. 7. «Где врач?» - прошептал он. «За ним послали.» 8. К концу недели его имя будет известно всем. 9. Лене сказали, что около железнодорожного моста стро- ятся два новых дома. 10. По радио было объявлено, что погода меняется к худшему. 11. Я сомневаюсь, что сейчас что-либо может быть объяснено. 12. Ожидалось, что он вернется как раз к собранию. 13. Ему объяснили, почему он не прав. 14. Почему здесь так холодно? - Зал только что проветрили. 15. Надеюсь, что об этом факте больше не будут упоминать. 16. Этот вопрос все еще обсуждает- ся? - Да, его обсуждают уже два часа. 17. Интересно, бу- дет ли опубликована эта статья до того, как откроется конференция? 18. К тому времени когда мы вернулись, ворота уже были закрыты. 19. Как жаль, что булочная закрыта. Сколько времени осталось до того, как она сно- ва откроется? 20. Сколько времени обсуждался этот воп- рос до того, как вы попросили слово? 21. Не входите в комнату. Ее убирают. 22. Ваши бумаги печатают. Подож- дите немного. 23. Вас ждут внизу. 24. В будущем году здесь будет построена станция метро. 25. Его часто посылают за границу. Exercise XI Translate the sentences into English using Passive Voice. 1. На этой улице строится новый квартал домов. 2. Тебя интересует работа, которую тебе предложили? 3. Со мной так никогда не разговаривали. 4. На день рождения ей подарили коробку шоколадных конфет. 5. Тебе скажут, когда отправляется поезд. 6. Я почувствовал, что ему уже задавали этот вопрос раньше. 7. Ему дали первоклас- сное образование. 8. Советую вам пойти на этот концерт: будут исполнены ваши любимые произведения. 9. Об этой картине много говорят. Я сам не был на выставке, но мне ее так живо описали, что мне кажется, что я ее видел собственными глазами. 10. Нам объяснили новое правило, затем продиктовали несколько примеров и дали упражнения для домашней работы. 11. Проект был одобрен, но инженеру указали на отдельные недостат- ки. 12. Телеграмма была принята поздно ночью, и, так как она была очень важной, капитана тут же разбудили и передали ему ее. 239
Exercise XII Translate the sentences into English using Passive Voice. 1. В прошлом году на нашей улице построили новый ресто- ран. 2. Этого учителя всегда слушают с интересом. 3. Эти новости были только что переданы по радио. 4. Это и есть человек, о котором так много говорят. 5. За книгу уже упла- чено. Можете взять ее. 6. Новая библиотека была построе- на до того, как вы поступили в институт? 7. Книги, которые хорошо читаются, редко найдешь на полках библиотеки. 8. К сожалению, этот словарь уже распродан. 9. Эти новости будут опубликованы в вечерних газетах. 10. Послы- шался выстрел, но ничего не было видно. 11. Он награжден многими медалями и орденами. 12. Когда я приехал в этот город, этот дом строился. 13. Все телеграммы отправлены? - Нет еще. Половина телеграмм отправлена вчера. Осталь- ные, кроме трех, напечатаны. Последние сейчас печатают. Их напечатают к часу дня. Modal Verbs Modal verbs do not denote actions, but only show the atti- tude of the speaker towards the action. Modal verbs are used. only with the infinitive. There are 12 modal verbs in English. They are: can, may, must, should, ought to, shall, will, would, need, dare, to be, to have/to have got. The latter two are modal only in one of their meanings. Ten of them (that is all but to be and to have) are also called defective verbs as they lack some features characteristic of other verbs, that is 1) they do not take -s in the third person singular; 2) they have no verbals (infinitive, participle or gerund); 3) they cannot be used in compound tenses (no future tense, no perfect tenses); 4) they have (except for can and may) only one form and no past tense; 5) they are followed (except for ought) by a bare infinitive (that is by the infinitive without particle to)', 240
6) they need no auxiliary to build up the interrogative and negative forms. All modal verbs have 2 negative forms, full and contracted. Full Form Contracted Form may not must not cannot would not should not shall not will not need not mayn’t mustn’t can’t wouldn’t shouldn’t shan’t won’t needn’t We use modal verbs to express: ability, advice, criticism, ne- cessity, offers, obligation/duty, permission, possibility, proba- bility, prohibition, requests or suggestions. Can The modal verb has two forms: can for the present tense and could for the past tense: I can 7 dance now but I could when I was young. The negative forms are: Present - cannot (can 7), Past - could not (couldn’t). All the other tenses are expressed by the construction to be able to which has all the tenses: You will be able to finish your work in so short a time. I have been able to do this exercise today. There is a slight difference in usage between can and be able in the Past Simple Tense. You can’t always have one for the other. If you speak about something you could do because of skill or knowledge, you can use either could or was (were) able: I could (was able to) read and write when I was six. But if you mean something you managed to do, it is wrong to say could. In this case was (were) able is the correct expres- sion. Though he was ill and missed classes, he was able to do his examinations well. Can expresses: 1) physical and mental ability: She can lift this heavy box. She could not solve the problem. 241
2) possibility (or permission) depending on circumstances: You can have my dictionary (because I don’t need it now). Can I see your brother? -1 am afraid not, he is ill. 3) prohibition (only in the negative form of the modal verb): You can’t cross the street here. Здесь нельзя переходить улицу. 4) request: Can I have some water? Could suggests a greater degree of politeness: Could you come again tomorrow? 5) Can (could) is also used to express doubt or astonishment: Can it be so late as all that? - Неужели уже так поздно? Не сап 7 be/couldn 7 be so old. - He может быть, что он так стар. As you see, in these meanings can (could) is used only in interrogative and negative sentences; astonishment is expressed only in interrogative sentences. If the action refers to the present or future, the Present Infinitive is used: He can 7 be late. He can 7 be as angry as that. If the action refers to the past, the perfect infinitive is used after can (could): Can she have known her before? - Неужели она знала ее раньше? Could they have seen us there? They could not have seen us there. In the above sentences can and cow/Jhave the same meaning but could shows that we feel less certain about the subject. 6) Could is used to express the Subjunctive Mood (мог бы): If I had a dictionary, I could translate this article. You really could do it without my help. Note some set expressions with the modal verb can\ Cannot/can 7 help doing smth. - He могу не делать что-то. When I saw him I couldn 7 help laughing. - Когда я увидел его, я не мог не смеяться. ' Cannot/can 7 but do smth. - He могу не ... I cannot but suggest...- Я не могу не предложить... We cannot but hope he is right. - Нам остается только надеяться, что ... (не можем не надеяться ...). One cannot but wonder. - Нельзя не задуматься. as can be - an intensifying expression They are as pleased as can be. - Они очень (страшно) довольны. 242
It's as ugly as can be. - Это необычайно уродливо (трудно себе представить что-либо более отвра- тительное). EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of the modal verb can (could). Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. He can’t walk so quickly. 2. I can memorize many words at once. 3. I could not go to your place yesterday, as I was busy. 4. We can choose our profession according to our taste. 5. Could you give me your notes on phonetics for a day or two? 6. I don’t believe him. It can’t be so! 7. . She can take her examination next June. 8. He cannot be in the street now: it’s pouring! 9. You cannot have done it. I don’t believe it. 10. I wonder where she is. She cannot have been sleeping all this time! 11. Could you let me know about the meeting? 12. I am anxious about her. She cannot be taking a walk so late. Exercise II Replace the words was (were) able by could where possible. 1. The ship was badly damaged in the storm, but the captain was able to bring her safely to land. 2. Helen was a bright girl and she was able to do the scholarship examination well. 3. Wolfgang Mozart, the famous Austrian composer, was able to play the piano at the age of three. 4. When a boy Mike was able to do things with his left hand as easily as with his right hand. 5. The firemen were able to put the fire out in less than ten minutes. 6. After I had studied the new words, I was able to write the dictation without a single mistake. 7. There was not a single cloud in the sky, and we were able to see the stars. 8. He was able to finish all the preparatory work without any help. 9. My mother was able to make her own clothes when a girl in her teens. 10. The citizens of Leningrad were able to defend their city against the Nazi hordes. 243
Exercise III Use the verb can in the correct form followed by the required form of the infinitive. 1. He....(to recite) long poems when he was six. 2. You....... not (to take) the books out of the reading hall. 3. If you meet him in the street you....(to pass) him without taking notice. 4. He hated himself for his behaviour, but...(to do) nothing to alter it. 5..I (to come) in for a moment? 6. You......not (to do) it. I don’t believe it. 7. I wonder where she is. She. (not to stay) at her friend’s all this time. 8.1 .(to help) him but I didn’t know he needed help. 9. Such problems ........... (to solve) easily. 10. He..(to see) that everything in the flat was in full order. 11. How...she (to work) in the garden now? It is already dark. 12. Of course, there were many things I... (to answer) to this. But I kept silent. 13. I simply .... not (to refuse). They would have been hurt. 14. He wasn’t old. He ...(not to be) more than forty. 15..you (to work) all this time without any break? 16. She.....(not to forget) what had happened the day before. Exercise IV Use the verb can in the correct form followed by the required form of the infinitive. 1.....you (to call) a little later? I’m afraid I shall be busy till seven. 2.....it (to be) a joke? 3. You....(not to see) him at the meeting. He was ill. 4...we (to cover) fifteen kilometers? The village is not yet seen. 5. He .... (not to forget) your address; he has visited you several times. 6. If you let us know, we....(to send) our car for you. 7. I should be very much obliged to you if you....(to lend) me your dictionary for a couple of days. 8. I don’t believe her, she ........ (to fail) to recognize me. 9. He said he......(to manage) the task by himself. 10. Why didn’t you ask me? I.....(to do) it for you. 11. I think you .. (to do) it if you tried. 12....this old woman (to be) Kate? She ........ not (to change) like that. 13. Somebody drew a pair of spectacles on the face of the portrait. “Who do you think.....(to do) it?” 14. He was quite young. He......(not to be) much over twenty. 244
Exercise V Use the required form of the infinitive after can (could) in the following sentences. 1. Her face was quite unlined and she could (to be) more than thirty. 2. I’m wondering if something can (to do) about it. 3. It is impossible. He can’t (to do) it. 4. There wasn’t anything wrong with tea. There couldn’t (to be). 5. He couldn’t (to hear) the news at dinner because his sister hadn’t arrived yet. 6.1 can easily (to walk) to the railway station. 7. For several seconds he stared at her, terrified. “I can’t (to stand) it any longer,” he said. 8. She can’t (to tell) you that I don’t believe you. 9. What is not done today, could (to do) tomorrow. 10. There was nothing he could (to do) about it at the moment. 11. Can she (to be) so cold to this little creature? 12. The windows were open, and the scent of roses could (to smell). 13. Ann tried to imagine what an unserious talk could (to be) like. 14. She was so tired, she couldn’t (to make) herself to go upstairs to dress. Exercise VI Rewrite the following sentences using cannot (can't). Model: I don’t believe it is his fault. - It can’t be his fault. 1. It is impossible that he has changed his mind. 2.1 can’t believe that they have known it before. 3. I don’t think she is good at languages. She has always had a bad ear and no memory for words. 4.1 don’t believe it is a joke. 5. It is impossible that she is fifteen. She looks much older. 6. I can’t believe that he has left without saying good-bye to us. 7. I can’t believe that he has forgotten to post your letter. 8. He doesn’t believe that his two friends have betrayed him. 9.1 don’t think she was angry with a sick child. 10. It is impossible that she has told a lie. Exercise VII Paraphrase the following sentences using can’t. 1.1 don’t believe that he had done the work carelessly. 2.1 don’t believe it is true. 3. I don’t believe he is as old as that, he looks much younger. 4. It is impossible that the ship sank in the harbour. 5.1 don’t believe that you suggested such a silly thing. 6.1 don’t believe that the teacher was satisfied with our work. 7. I don’t believe I lost my suitcase, it was here a minute ago. 8.1 don’t believe this medicine is a good cure for a cough. 9. It is impossible that she has wrongly interpreted у our words. 10.1 don’t believe they will postpone such an important meeting. 245
Exercise VIII Translate into English using the verb can (could). 1. Эту книгу можно купить в любом магазине. 2. В комнате темно, я не могу найти свои вещи. 3. Не может быть, чтобы она ошиблась. 4. Неужели они ждали нас все это время? 5. Не может быть, чтобы вас послали ко мне. 6. Он сказал, что мы можем идти. 7. Я мог бы вернуться на автобусе. 8. «Не может быть, чтобы она тебя поняла,» - повторял он. 9. «Не может быть, чтобы они об этом забыли.» 10. Неужели он уже уехал? 11. Неужели она все еще работает? 12. Не мо- жет быть, что она все еще нас ждет. 13. Неужели она заболе- ла? 14. Неужели вам нравится такая музыка? 15. Ты можешь взять словарь. Мне он больше не нужен. 16. Неужели они опоздали на поезд? Они же вышли из дома очень рано. Exercise IX Translate into English using the verb can (could). 1. Я думаю, что я смогу помочь вам. 2. Не может быть, что он забыл об этом. 3. Неужели он отказался помочь вам? 4. Неужели это правда? Не может быть, чтобы это была прав- да. 5. Неужели он учится в девятом классе? Он такой ма- ленький на вид. 6. Не может быть, чтобы они уже переехали на новую квартиру. 7. Неужели ты старше меня на целых пять лет? 8. Прочтите эти статьи. Вы могли бы сослаться на них в докладе. 9. На лестнице нет света. Вы не могли бы посветить мне, пока я спущусь вниз? 10. Я думаю, что мы могли бы попытаться еще раз убедить его в том, что он не- прав. 11. Не может быть, чтобы сейчас было лишь три часа. Ваши часы остановились. 12. Нет, малыш, зимой мороже- ное на улице есть нельзя. 13. Неужели он был прав? 14. Вы не могли бы продиктовать мне эту страницу? 15. Неужели они ждут нас у другого выхода? Exercise X Translate into English using the verb can (could). 1. He может быть, чтобы он опоздал. Он всегда такой пунк- туальный. 2. Неужели он произвел на вас впечатление рассе- янного человека? 3. Не может быть, чтобы я неправильно вас понял. 4. Он не мог прочитать эту книгу так быстро; она труд- на для него. 5. Не может быть, чтобы она не нашла вашего дома. 6. Вряд ли она забыла об этом; я об этом напоминала ей только вчера. 7. Вы не могли бы привести свой пример? 246
Нельзя давать примеры только из учебника. 8. Неужели она и сейчас думает обо мне? 9. Я могла бы вам это сразу сказать, но мне не хотелось расстраивать вас. 10. Не может быть, что- бы вы этому действительно поверили. 11. Не мог он принять вас за другого. 12. Разве мог кто-нибудь подумать, что эта команда займет первое место? 13. Неужели вы не нашли мою книгу? 14. Вряд ли они приедут сегодня. Уже поздно. Exercise XI Translate into English using the verb can (could). 1. He может быть, чтобы они об этом забыли. 2. Неужели он уже уехал? 3. Неужели она забыла сообщить вам о моем отъезде? 4. Неужели она все еще работает? 5. Не может быть, чтобы они приехали в понедельник! 6. Я думаю, что вы смо- жете уговорить его, если попытаетесь. 7. Сможет ли ваша сестра купить нам завтра билеты? 8. Мы не могли добрать- ся до университета к 9 часам. 9. Неужели он обманул вас? 10. Неужели вам нравится такая музыка? 11. Не может быть, что они слышали наш разговор. 12. Неужели она заболела? 13. Можно мы возьмем Джека с собой? 14. У детей богатое воображение. Они могут легко придумывать разные исто- рии. 15. Не может быть, что он ещё спит. Уже поздно. Exercise XII Translate into English using the verb can (could). 1. He может быть, чтобы он вам сказал такую вещь. Вы его не поняли. 2. Когда мы сможем сделать это? 3. Она не смо- жет научиться хорошо петь. 4. Она не могла окончить шко- лу в прошлом году. 5. Неужели она все еще читает? Пора спать. 6. Никто не смог бы произвести на меня большее впечатление, чем это сделал ты. 7. Он сказал, что мы мо- жем идти. 8. Он мог бы сделать это на прошлой неделе. 9. Он был настолько неграмотным, что он просто не мог написать ни одного слова этого доклада. 10. Уже темнеет. Сколько же сейчас может быть времени? 11. Ему не могло быть больше тридцати лет, когда мы с ним познакомились впервые. 12. Не может быть, чтобы она ошиблась. 13. Не может быть, что она тебя поняла. 14. В комнате темно. Я не смогу найти свои вещи. 15. Неужели они ждали нас все это время. 16. Не может быть, что вас послали ко мне. 247
May The modal verb may has two tenses: may for the present tense and might for the past. The negatives forms are: present - may not past - might not All the other tenses are expressed by to be allowed to, to be permitted to. The form might is used in indirect speech according to the rules of the sequence of tenses: He told me that I might go home. Might is used only in object clauses, if the main clause refers to the past. May expresses: 1) permission You may go now (you are allowed to go). 2) possibility of the fact You may find all the books you want in this library. 3) prohibition (only with the negative form of the modal verb): You may not go swimming ( You are not allowed to ....) - He смей. 4) May (and might, as well) is also used to express supposition and uncertainty in affirmative sentences. In this case it is translated into Russian as «может быть», «возможно». Don 7 worry! The children may be on their way home already. Why is Lena absent today? - I don 7 know. She might be ill. (Perhaps she is ill). Might does not refer to the past here. It only makes the un- certainty somewhat stronger. To give the idea of past time may is used with the Perfect Infinitive. He may have arrived already, let ’s go and find out. To give the idea of the present moment, the Continuous In- finitive is used after may (or might). Where is Nick? He may be working in the garden. 5) Might (and only might) is used to express reproach. Yow might help me with this heavy suitcase. You might have called on me last week. I was ill. 6) May and might are used to form the Subjunctive Mood: a) in simple sentences to express a wish: May you be happy! 248
b) in subordinate clauses: Speak louder so that everybody may hear you. She hurried home so that she might help her mother with the dinner. Here are some expressions with the modal verb may/might\ Imay/might as well + infinitive expresses intention. I may as well take you with me. Might just as well means “it would be equally good to” and it is used to suggest some other actions. Til go on Monday by a slow train. - You might just as well wait till Tuesday and go by the fast one. a к_ Exercise I Comment upon the meaning of the verb may (might). 1.1 think we may have a fire some distance away from the trees. 2. He may arrive on the next train. 3. You might have got to know your friends better by this time. 4. Be careful not to miss the turning, in this mist you might easily pass it by. 5. You may ring me up at any hour in the afternoon. 6. Where are Kate and Jane? - Oh, they may be crossing the river by the bridge. 7. You might at least take your younger brother for a walk sometimes. 8. We had a feeling that we might have seen that man before. 9.1 wondered whether I might ask for a second helping. 10. Make your handwriting legible so that everybody may read what you wrote down. 11. She was so good a nurse that everybody thought she might have already had experience with children. 12. You might have come to see me when I was ill. Exercise II Rewrite the sentences using may (might). 1. Perhaps the tide will come in very soon. Look out! 2. Perhaps the problem was too difficult for them. 3. Try this medicine, perhaps it will cure you. 4.1 had better take my raincoat, perhaps it will rain. 5. Why didn’t you remind Ann of her promise? It is possible that she forgot all about it. 6. Perhaps you are right, but I am not sure you are. 7. It is possible we live in the same street, but I doubt whether I have seen him before. 8. Perhaps she was proud of her daughter, but she never showed it to her neighbours. 9. It is possible your letter has never reached him, otherwise he 249
would have answered it immediately. 10. Perhaps they tried to get in touch with us, but failed. 11. It is possible you got into’ the wrong carriage, that’s why you did not find your friend there. 12. Perhaps they will arrive here by the next train. Exercise III Paraphrase the following sentences using may (might). 1. Perhaps, you changed at the wrong station, that’s why it took you so long to get here. 2. Perhaps, he has already arrived, let’s go and find out. 3. Perhaps it was true, I am not sure. 4. It is possible that they have refused to help you. 5. Perhaps they knew everything about it. 6. Perhaps the driver got a fright. 7. Perhaps the lorry overturned while going round the bend. 8. Perhaps they have already left. 9. Perhaps the performance was over as many people were leaving the theatre. 10. Perhaps it was all prepared beforehand. 11. Perhaps this old man is your brother. 12. Perhaps the message was delivered in time as we received an immediate answer. Exercise IV Fill in the blanks with may (might) or to be allowed to, to be permitted to in the required tense. 1. He asked if he make some suggestions. 2. After the new year tree had been decorated, the children...enter the hall. 3. He.....join the yacht club as soon as he is through with his last exam. 4. The teacher said that everybody..take part in the discussion. 5. He....go his own way if he likes. 6. No sooner.....the children.....leave the room, than they sprang to their feet and rushed out of the playground. 7. The doctor says Nick is much better. He.....walk in the open already. 8......I ask you to explain the rule once more? 9. She asked me if she....to switch off the radio. 10. No matter how bad the weather.....be she never missed her everyday stroll after dinner. 11. Tell him he..have warned me and not to put me in such an awkward position. 12. Don’t be angry with her. She ....have done it by mistake. Exercise V Use the required form of the infinitive after may (might) in the following sentences. 1. On the whole there was less said than might (to expect). 2. You’ve acquired a great deal of experience. You might (to 250
write) a book. 3. There was no sign of John in the street. Of course, I said to myself, he might (to detain) at his office. 4. Who said Mr Smith has gone to America? - He might (to tell) it himself. 5. But what you tell me may not (to be) true. 6. What’s happened to the dog? - It isn’t here. Dan may (to take) it with him. 7. She longed for a letter from John. It might (to contain) an explanation of why he had gone away. 8. Harry might often (to see) sitting on the porch with a book in his hands. 9. Oh, Tom, she exclaimed, your boots are muddy! You might (to go) by the side door. 10. He was very ill. He may (to die). 11. Then why on earth all this secrecy? - One never knows who may (to listen). 12. Of course I’m too young to be a really good writer yet, but I try hard, arid one day I may (to achieve) something. Exercise VI Translate into English using may in all of its possible mean- ings. 1. Ты не был так уж сильно занят. Ты мог бы нам помочь. 2. Она, может быть, опоздает. 3. Они, возможно, работа- ют над этой же проблемой. 4. К вечеру может пойти дождь. 5. Они, возможно, были вчера в городе. 6. Я согласен, что разрешить Анне поехать за границу, возможно, было ошибкой. 7. Они, может быть, подумали, что мы не при- едем в такую погоду. 8. Может быть, он сейчас в гостини- це и ждет меня. 9. Вы, возможно, слышали его имя. 10. У него большая семья. Я могу себе представить, что он, воз- можно, ищет себе работу получше. 11. Хотя похоже на то, что будет дождь, но кто знает, может быть, завтра будет хорошая погода. 12. Возможно, он знал обо всем, но не показывал вида. 13. Позвоните ей. Она, возможно, дома сейчас. 14. Телеграмма, возможно, была послана вчера. Exercise VII Translate into English using may in all of its possible mean- ing. 1. Сегодня очень пасмурно. Возможно, будет дождь. 2. Можете не отвечать на этот вопрос, если не хотите. 3. Вы могли бы дать мне об этом знать заранее. 4. Нам мож- но пользоваться словарем? - Нет, нельзя. 5. Возможно, он и знает обо всем, да не желает нам сказать. 6. Возможно, они 251
все еще сдают экзамен. 7. Почему Кати еще нет? - Она, воз- можно, придет позже. - Она могла бы предупредить нас о том, что она опаздывает. 8. Я уже целый час ищу свою за- писную книжку. Не может быть, чтобы я ее потерял. - Воз- можно, ты оставил ее у телефона-автомата. Я видел, как ты вынимал ее. - Ты мог бы давно уже сказать мне об этом. 9. Не беспокойся! Они не опоздают. Возможно, они уже едут сюда и будут здесь через несколько минут. 10. Брат сказал, что не поедет кататься на лыжах. Но может быть, он пере- думал. 11. Я звоню им уже второй раз, но никто не отвечает. Не может быть, чтобы все ушли. - Возможно, он уехали за город. Они всегда уезжают на выходные дни. 12. Лектор, возможно, и ссылался на эту статью, но я этого не помню. 13. Возможно, я уже бывал в этих краях. Мне кажется, я даже могу узнать многие дома и улицы. 14. Может быть, мы от- ложим нашу поездку за город: погода неважная. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the verb may. 1. Можете зайти к нам после семи, если захотите. 2. Ты могла бы по крайней мере посоветоваться с сестрой! 3. Где же мой паспорт? - Возможно, ты забыл его дома. 4. Спро- си их, можно ли нам тоже пойти с ними в поход. 5. Вы, возможно, заметили, что он дважды повторил эти слова. 6. Ты мог бы купить мне эту книгу! Ты знал, что она мне очень нужна. 7. Вы, возможно, слышали его имя. Он изве- стный ученый. 8. Возможно, телеграмма придет завтра. 9. Он, возможно, хотел мне об этом сказать, но не нашел времени. 10. Она, возможно, забыла позвонить, поэтому он не пришел. 11. Она спешила в школу, чтобы она могла принять участие в олимпиаде. Exercise IX Translate into English using the verb may. 1. Больному стало лучше. Вы можете навестить его завтра. 2. Ты мог бы быть посерьезнее. Ты уже почти взрослый. 3. Возможно, его не было на лекции. - Он говорит, что он там был. 4. Она не была англичанкой, но ее можно было принять за нее. 5. Ты мог бы по крайней мере посовето- ваться с учителем! 6. Доктор, можно мне купаться в море? - Нет нельзя; вы можете опять заболеть. 7. Почему он не пришел? - Он, может быть, не получил вашего письма. 252
8. Вы, может быть найдете эту книгу в библиотеке; они, возможно, получили несколько экземпляров. 9. Почему он не позвонил мне вчера? - Он, может быть, потерял номер вашего телефона. 10. Почему он не отвечает? - Он, может быть, не расслышал вашего вопроса, повторите ваш воп- рос немного громче. 11. Почему она не пришла? - Может быть, она передумала. Must The modal verb must has only one form for the present tense. The negative form is must not (mustn't). All the other tenses are expressed by have to. Must followed by the Present Infinitive may express: 1. Obligation or necessity Pupils must obey their teachers. Obligations expressed by must refer to the present or future but in reported speech they may refer to the past: She said she must invite her friend to dinner. If we want to say that there is no necessity to do something, we use needn't. The verb need expresses necessity but is mostly used in the negative sentences: You needn't wait for him. You may ring him up. 2. Must + not expresses prohibition: Pupils must not prompt each other. 3. Must expresses supposition in affirmative sentences. Then it is equivalent to probably, evidently. In this case it is translated into Russian as: должно быть, вероятно, очевидно'. Nick must be at home now. Ring him up. To give the idea of the present moment, the Continuous In- finitive is used after must. Where is Lena? - In the library; she must be working on her report. If we speak about the past, we use the Perfect Infinitive after must. You must have broken the telephone. It is out of order. If you speak about the future must expressing supposition is not used. We use another expression to be likely '. He is likely to come on Sunday. Must expressing supposition is not used in negative sentences. 253
There are several ways of expressing the negative meaning: You must have misunderstood me. They must have been inattentive. You must have failed to recognize you. You must have had no chance to warn you. The letter must have never reached them. The letter must have been left unanswered. No one must have seen him there. He must be quite unaware of the circumstances. 4. Emphasis. In this case must is not translated into Russian, it merely emphasizes some action or idea: Just when we were ready to go away for the holidays, the baby must catch measles. - Как раз когда мы уже уезжали в отпуск, ребенок вдруг заболел корью. (... возьми да и заболей ...). Of course after I gave her my advice she must go and do the opposites. - Ну конечно, после того, как я ей посоветовала, она вдруг пойди и сделай наоборот. As we were starting what must he do but cut his finger. - Мы уже выходили, когда он вдруг порезал себе палец (... возьми да и порежь ...). At a time when everybody is in bed he must turn on the wire- less. - Именно, когда уже все спят, он вдруг включает приемник. EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of the verb must. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1.1 suppose one must be serious sometimes. 2. It must be seven. 3. Pete, you are horrible! You mustn’t say these dreadful things. 4. Nothing must be done in a hurry. 5. You and I are friends, Nick, and we must always remain so. 6. I’ve always thought he must be quite clever in his way. 7.1 must be getting sentimental. 8. “I am afraid I must be going,” he murmured. 9. You mustn’t say that, you mustn’t think that. 10. He looked sixty, but I knew he must be much less than that. 11. She must be found and brought here at once. 12. Her life must have been very unhappy. 13. “You mustn’t talk so much,” the doctor said. 14. She must have been a very stupid woman. 15. You must be telling another lie. 254
Exercise II Refer the sentences to the past and the future. Make all the necessary changes. 1. She must do these exercises again. 2. You must speak louder to make yourself heard. 3. You must take the 8.30 train if you want to arrive in time. 4. While mother is absent, I must cook our meals and do all the routine work in our little household. 5. You must answer his letter without any delay. 6. We must buy the tickets for the Sunday show a week in advance. 7. You must refer to Pavlov’s work in your report. 8. She must follow the doctor’s advice. 9. Having nobody to provide for him, John must earn his living by working in a shop. 10. He must pay more attention to his spelling. It is very faulty indeed. Exercise III Rewrite the sentences using the verb must. 1.1 am sure he has got all he needed. 2. The boy was evidently reading something funny. He was smiling all the time. 3. I shan’t bother you any longer; no doubt you are tired of my talking. 4. It was clear the family were expecting some guests: the mother was tidying up the rooms. 5. She was probably upset by something. 6. He surely did not find out the real reason for their silence. 7. The air was damp, and it was getting dark. Probably it was rather late already. 8. You are too poorly dressed for a frosty day. I am almost sure you feel cold. 9. Where is the 9th form now? - They at the stadium. I am sure they are having their lesson of PE in the open. 10. She has probably worked very hard to win the scholarship. 11. He is a very experienced worker. I am sure he has been working in the plant for some years. 12. Look! There is light in Mary’s windows. I feel sure she is at home. 13. The Browns have never been early rises. I am sure they are still sleeping. 14. Probably they have changed the program. The pianist is playing a piece which hasn’t been announced. Exercise IV Rewrite the sentences using the verb must. 1. It is probably a very complicated machine. 2.1 am sure it is pleasant to live in such beautiful surroundings. 3. You have probably heard the story before. 4.1 feel sure there is a bend in the road right ahead of us. 5. These ancient buildings were probably erected about five hundred years ago. 6. Probably 255
that tower on the cliff is a lighthouse. 7. Probably you left youi bathing things on the beach. 8. You look so pale and work out. Probably you are tired. 9. I’m sure you are hungry, you’ve had nothing to eat but a sandwich since morning. 10.1 am sure it’s a delightful place, especially in summer. 11.1 am sure they knew everything about it. 12. My students are certainly at a lecture now. 13. What wretched weather! You are wet to the skin, I am sure. 14. Probably you have been travelling for a month already. 15.1 am sure you have heard the news. Exercise V Use the verb must with the proper form of the infinitive. 1. Look! People are hurrying along the street with umbrellas up. It must (to rain) hard. 2. You must (to follow) my advice. There is no other way out for you. 3. She must (to be angry) with you. She doesn’t even look in your direction. 4. She must (to get) angry with me. She left without saying good-bye. 5. Mary must (to be) ill. She looked so pale and tired last night. 6. She speaks English much better than she did last year. She must (to practice) a lot. 8. Where is Peter? He is neither at home, nor at school. - Oh, he must (to train) at the stadium. He is always training there at this time. 9. You must (to train) for some months already. Your results are brilliant. 10. There are many puddles in the street. It must (to rain) in the morning. 11. Look! There is not a single human being in the street. It must (to rain) fast. 12. What a shower! The water is streaming down the street. It must (to rain) for some hours already. 13. You look fine! You must (to have) a good rest in summer. Exercise VI Use the verb must with the proper form of the infinitive. 1. “You must (to be) right,” I said. 2. They must (to hear) that the fellow was in London. 3.1 must (to sit) there for a quarter of an hour waiting and thinking about it before I saw the letter. 4. He took us round the yacht. There was no doubt that it must (to cost) him a lot of money. 5. At half past two I heard Mike put down the book and switch out the light. He must (to read) since midnight. 6. “I must (to get) old,” she said. 7. There were a lot of mirrors that must (to buy) at the sale of some old restaurant. 8. They must (to forget) my address. 9. Poor animal! How it must (to suffer). 10. Haven’t you finished your work yet? You must (to work) for more than an hour. 11. Where is 256
Ann? - She must (to work) in the next room. 12. Is he in? - He was in 10 minutes ago, but he must (to leave). Exercise VII Translate into English using the verb must. 1. Она, должно быть, ждет нас в университете. 2. Она дол- жна ждать нас в университете. 3. Он, должно быть, живет на юге. 4. Она, должно быть, гостит у своих друзей, так как она писала, что проведет свой отпуск у них. 5. Они, должно быть, ждут меня, а я никак не могу дать им знать о себе. 6. Он, по всей вероятности, забыл, что обещал прий- ти. 7. Они, наверное, пишут сочинение и скоро должны закончить. 8. Вероятно, вы уже догадались, что я об этом думаю. 9. Они, должно быть, сейчас готовятся к экзаме- нам. 10. Она, должно быть, уже месяца два работает мед- сестрой. 11. Я не видел Аню, но я знал, что она, вероятно, ждет меня где-то здесь. 12. Я подождал с полчаса, и когда я уже думал, что-то, должно быть, случилось с Катей, она приехала на такси. 13. «Я должен для него что-нибудь сде- лать,» - подумал Джон. 14. Вы, наверное, ничего не знали об этом. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the verb must. 1. Это, очевидно, очень древняя церковь. Должно быть, она построена в XIII веке. 2. Надо спешить: мы можем опоздать на концерт. 3. Она такая бледная. Очевидно, она была больна. 4. Там, в твоей книжке было какое-то пись- мо. Ты, наверное, забыл его. 5. «А, это ты!» - сказал он, взглянув с удивлением. Он, должно быть, забыл, как меня зовут. 6. Юные пассажиры были немного взволнованы. Вероятно, они впервые ехали морем. 7. Он говорил очень хорошо, его речь, надо полагать, произвела большое впе- чатление на слушателей. 8. Он искал билет в карманах, но ничего не находил. Должно быть, он забыл его дома. 9. Эта книга, очевидно, пользуется большим успехом у читателей. Она выходит в пятый раз. 10. Вам, должно быть, уже сообщили о том, что расписание будет измене- но. 11. Он, надо полагать, узнал меня сразу, хотя мы не виделись много лет. 12. Вы, вероятно, располагаете боль- шим количеством свободного времени: вы все делаете очень медленно. 9 Н. Утевская 257
Exercise IX Remembering that must in the meaning of supposition is not used if we speak about the future or in the negative form, find a suitable way of translating the following sentences into English. 1. Я не буду сдавать экзамен. Меня, вероятно, не будет в Москве в это время. 2. Очевидно, в его распоряжении ни- когда раньше не было так много денег. 3. Он, должно быть, не уговорил его поехать с нами. 4. У него, очевидно, пока просто не нашлось времени для вас. 5. Они, должно быть, не встретили его на станции. 6. Преподаватель, видимо, по ошибке не упомянул твоей фамилии. 7. Она, должно быть, не знает, что вы здесь. 8. Мы, вероятно, не видели ее с лета. 9. Могу я поговорить с тобой завтра утром? - Я, наверное, буду занят утром. 10. Он, вероятно, не захочет говорить по-английски. 11. Дома, должно быть, нет нико- го сейчас. 12. Кто этот человек? - Новый президент компа- нии. - Не шути со мной. - Я не шучу. Ты, должно быть, не читал газет. Revision of Modal Verbs Can, May, Must 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Rewrite the given sentences using can, may, must. 1. Probably that tower on the hill is an old palace. 2.1 don’t believe I lost my ticket, it was here a minute ago. 3. Perhaps you lost your way. 4. Probably you left your things on the bench in the park. 5.1 don’t believe they will postpone such an important meeting. 6. You look so pale and work out. Probably you overworked yourself. 7. I don’t believe this medicine is a good cure for the flu. 8. I am sure you are hungry, you’ve had nothing to eat but some porridge since morning. 9. Perhaps the car overturned going round the bend. 10. I am sure it’s a delightful place, especially in summer. 11. Perhaps you are right. 12.1 don’t believe he did it all by himself. 13. It is possible that he forgot his bag in the car. 14. Most probably he did not see you, otherwise he would have come up to you. 258
Exercise II Rewrite the given sentences using can, may, must. 1.1 don’t believe he has been meaning to do it. 2. It’s impossible that he should have refused your request. 3. Probably he has not read the book. 4. I’m certain that he has heard the gong. 5. I’m sure, it was some special occasion. 6. He looks wet and muddy. I’m sure he has been fishing. 7. It’s possible that he doesn’t know we are here. 8. Is it possible that the news is being broadcast on all the channels? 9. Is it possible that we are out of wrapping paper? 10. “I don’t see him driving his car. Is it possible that something has happened?” “Evidently his car is undergoing repairs.” 11. Let’s give her a call again. It is possible that she was asleep and didn’t hear the telephone. 12. You have used up all the money I gave you, I suppose. 13. I don’t believe that he had done the work carelessly. 14.1 suppose they were unable to get in touch with you. 15. It is impossible that she has wrongly interpreted your words. Exercise III Fill in the blanks with can, may, must. 1. “Will you know where to go?” “Yes, thank you. I ....always ask my brother.” 2. What......he have meant when he said it? He hesitated and said, “I .... go to South America. As a tea planter.” I said, “I .... be wrong, Pete, but I don’t think they grow tea in South America.” 4. “I’d give anything to meet that fellow.” “We.....see what......be done.” 5. You.......hardly have been more surprised than I was. 6. The old man cupped his ear in his palm. “I think I..be getting deaf. I...hear you.” 7. It’s a most interesting story. He.not possibly have invented it. 8. You .... have told him something. 9. I admire your mother’s looks. She....have been a lovely girl. 10. The apples are very good. You.....eat them all. 11. My wife....leave the hospital in a few days. 12. I’m trying to think where he.... have gone. 13. “I don’t know why he did it.” “It have amused him.” 14. The man danced very well. “He.....have spent hours taking lessons,” Jack thought. 15. You never..tell, everything ....turn out quite all right. Exercise IV Pay attention to the negative meaning of the verbs must and can. Translate sentences into Russian. 1. You must have misunderstood him. 2. You can’t have understood him. 3. She must have failed to understand the rule. 259
4. The telegram can’t have failed to reach them. 5. The telegram must have reached them. 6. They can’t have had much opportunity of warning you. 7. They must have had little opportunity of warning you. 8. He must have entered the hall unseen. 9. Nobody can have seen him enter the hall. 10. He can’t have answered the letter. 11. He must have left the letter unanswered. Exercise V Change the following sentences, making them opposite in meaning in every way possible, (see Exercise IV) 1. Everybody must have noticed that he was not used to speaking in public. 2. He must have written to them of his arrival in due time. 3. She must have locked the door forgetting that I was to come later. 4. He must have a fair chance of winning, he is in good form. 5. The man must have understood me for he nodded his head. 6. She must have been quite conscious of having made a mistake. 7. They must have given us the correct information about the road. 8. The telegram must have certainly come in time. 9. She must have been very careful. She did not spill a drop of milk. 10. He must have done something about it. I see some changes in the design. 11. The dog must have recognized his master. It did not bark as we approached the house. 12. He must have been very experienced in navigation. 13. He must be well aware of his clumsiness. Exercise VI Translate into English using the modal verbs can, may or must. v 1. Вы могли бы сделать это для меня. 2. Скажи ему, что он мог бы быть более внимательным к своим старым дру- зьям. 3. Вы можете встретить это выражение в любой кни- ге. 4. Я думаю, что вы сможете уговорить его, если вы попытаетесь. 5. Я должен сделать это сегодня, - а) Нет, вы можете сделать это завтра, если хотите. - Ь) Да, это нужно сделать сегодня. 6. Можно мне посмотреть вашу работу? - а) Пожалуйста. Ь) Нет, она еще не готова. 7. Мне нужно, переписать всю работу или я могу испра- вить только ошибки? 8. Не можете ли вы зайти ко мне вечером? 9. Не могли бы вы зайти ко мне вечером? 10. Он должен быть там завтра. 11. Он может быть там завтра. 260
12. Он, возможно, будет там завтра. 13. Он, возможно, был там вчера. 14. Он, по всей вероятности, был там вче- ра. 15. Он должен был быть там вчера. 16. Не может быть, чтобы он был там вчера. 17. Неужели это правда? 18. Это, должно быть, правда. 19 Возможно, это правда. 20. Вы, вероятно, ошиблись. 21. Вы, должно быть, ошибаетесь. 22. Не может быть, чтобы вы ошиблись. 23. Неужели вы ошиблись? Exercise VII Translate into English using the modal verbs can, may or must. 1. Они должны делать, как им сказано. 2. Я не могу уйти, не расплатившись. 3. Ты мог бы им позвонить и сказать, что не придешь. 4. Ты смог закончить работу? 5. Неуже- ли ты сам это написал? 6. Она никогда не рассказывала о своем детстве, и тому, должно быть, была какая-то при- чина. 7. Я смогу написать им завтра. 8. Она, должно быть, серьезно больна.. 9. Где мои очки? Нет, их здесь нет. Я должно быть, оставил их дома. 10. Когда ребенок так болен, вы, должно быть, чувствуете себя ужасно. 11. Он не может быть старше вас более, чем на три или четыре года. 12. Не может быть, чтобы она этого не знала. 13. В понедельник я еще не смогу дать вам определенный от- вет. 14. Возможно, они еще не приехали. 15. И кто это мог зажечь свет в моей комнате? 16. Уже совсем темно. Я, дол- жно быть, очень долго спал. 17. Он, вероятно, скоро по- звонит нам. 18. Неужели он велел прийти вам сюда? 19. Где мой ключ? - Ты, наверное, его потерял. - Не мо- жет быть, чтобы я его потерял. Я, возможно, оставил его в кармане пальто. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the modal verbs can, may or must. 1. Можете не отвечать на этот вопрос, если не хотите. 2. Право же, вы могли бы дать мне об этом знать заранее. 3. Вы врач, и вам следует знать симптомы этой болезни. 4. Нам можно пользоваться словарями? - Нет, нельзя. 5. Ваши часы, должно быть, спешат. 6. Официант, долж- но быть, неправильно понял иностранца и принес не то блюдо. 7. Не может быть, чтобы он подвел нас. 8. Разве 261
мог кто-нибудь подумать, что эта команда выиграет? 9. Он давно у нас не был. Ему, вероятно, не сказали, что мы уже в Москве. 10. Они, должно быть, не опоздали на поезд. Иначе они бы уже вернулись. 11. Их, очевидно, не- правильно информировали. Они должны были прийти сегодня. 12. Не могли бы вы дать мне консультацию се- годня? 13. Неужели вы им поверили? Они, очевидно, по- шутили над вами. 14. Вы бы лучше послали ему письмо: он может не догадаться, что вас задерживают дела, и бу- дет волноваться. 15. Не мог бы я попросить вас зайти ко мне немного позже? Exercise IX Translate into English using the modal verbs can, may or must. В воскресенье утром я должна была пойти в библиотеку, чтобы готовиться к докладу, который я должна была сде- лать на уроке английского языка. Но я не смогла получить нужные мне книги, так как пришла поздно. Очевидно, ка- кой-то другой студент взял их до меня. Мне следовало прийти пораньше. Было досадно, что теперь мне придется прийти еще раз. Когда я уже собиралась уходить, ко мне подошла высокая женщина лет тридцати и сказала: «Ваше лицо кажется мне знакомым. Должно быть, мы с вами встречались, но я не помню где.» «Я тоже не помню, - ска- зал я. - Возможно, мы встречались летом в каком-нибудь доме отдыха.» «Возможно. Не может быть, чтобы мы ра- ботали или учились вместе. Тогда бы мы должны были по- мнить друг друга лучше.» Have to - Have Got to Have to is used to express the necessity which comes from outside the speaker or when others decide for the speaker what it is necessary to do. It is similar in its meaning to must. It cor- responds to the Russian приходится, вынужден'. She has to go by air because she is short of time. He has to be at work at 9 о "clock. In the past tense have to expresses a fulfilled obligation: We had to do a lot of things during the week we stayed in the country. 262
Have to replaces must where must cannot be used: a) to ex- press past necessity or obligation, b) to express absence of ne- cessity, because must not means prohibition and c) to express a future obligation: a) They had to do what they were told. b) You don’t have to make another copy of the document. c) You’ll have to take a taxi if you mean to catch the train. Have got to has the same meaning as have to. It is more usual in spoken English especially in the negative and interrogative forms: Have you got to get up early tomorrow morning? Both have to and have got to are possible, the former being more common in American English and the latter in British English. Ig| EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of have to and have got to. Tran- slate the sentences into Russian. 1. You saw me, and I had to tell you what had happened. 2. Something - he did not know what - had to be done at once. 3. I shall have to get some things from the laboratory. 4. She will have to see a doctor. 5.1 am sorry to have had to wake you up. 6. All we have to do is walk now. We don’t have to worry. 7. “Guess what!” “I can’t guess. You’ll have to tell me.” 8. “What do you have to do to earn so much money?” he asked. 9.1 didn’t have to turn around to know they were coming down the street. 10. Look, John, you can just see where I’ve got to cross the river. 11. I’ve got to see her first. 12. You’ve got to think about me now. 13. You’ve got to be careful. 14. If I’ve got to listen to more of your long stories I shall have to have a rest. 15. “Will you bring me aspirin and water?” - “You’ve got to get up,” she said. “It’s noon. You’ve slept five hours later than usual.” Exercise II Turn the following affirmative sentences containing have to into negative and interrogative ones. 1. He has to light a fire. 2. They had to change their shoes. 3. I shall have to buy a new pair of gloves. 4. She has to go 263
home early. 5. He had to give it back. 6. She’ll have to come again. 7. I have to change my plans. 8. You will have to ring her up again. 9. He had to put off his visit to the doctor. 10. She had to go to the meeting. 11. Mother has to cook dinner after work. 12. He had to sit up late with this work. 13. You will have to get up early tomorrow. 14. The girl had to take care of her younger sister and brothers. 15. She will have to do it once over again. 16. They had to cover the whole distance on foot. 17. We will have to speak to him about it. Exercise III Fill in the blanks with must or had (to). 1. When I asked him why he was so late, he told me that he had missed an earlier train and........wait for another one. 2. The man warned us that the place was dangerous to bathe in and we....look for a safer spot. 3. His wife kept telling him that he ...not sit up so late. 4. The doctor told him he..give up smoking. 5. The father said to the children that they..be careful while crossing the street. 6. The bus was not going that direction, so he..change. 7. It was not that the work..be finished soon, but we ourselves wanted to be through with it as soon as possible. 8.1 had no special desire to do it, but as I felt it....be done this way or another. 9. I saw that I..speak louder to make myself heard. 10. Telling himself that he.. control himself, he did not answer anything. 11. For a moment she felt her heart..break. 12. Do you realize that you.... mention it to anybody? 13. I knew it was a secret and I... keep it. 14. It is getting late. I.leave, or I shall be late for the last bus. Exercise IV Translate into English using the verb to have in its modal meaning. 1. Мне сейчас приходится много работать, так как я болела и отстала от группы. 2. Вам придется поговорить с ним лич- но. 3. Нам пришлось переждать дождь на станции. 4. Я вы- нужден был извиниться, хотя мне это и было непросто. 5. Книгу необходимо переплести, иначе некоторые страни- цы могут потеряться. 6. Вам приходится очень рано вста- вать, не так ли? 7. Он вынужден сделать вам замечание, не правда ли? 8. Ему не нужно было сдавать вступительные эк- замены. 9. Нам не пришлось провожать их в гостиницу, так 264
как они сами хорошо знали дорогу. 10. Работу придется сде- лать сегодня. 11. Он сказал, что вам придется ехать туда од- ному. 12. Всю страницу пришлось перепечатать из-за одной опечатки. 13. Ей пришлось выпить чай без сахара. 14. Мне нет необходимости быть там раньше трех чесов. 15. Один из гостей сел около меня. Мне не нужно было говорить, кто он. 16. У тебя короткие волосы, и они вьются. - Я болела скар- латиной, и волосы пришлось обрезать. 17. Он должен был пододвинуться поближе, чтобы услышать ее. То Be to То be to as a modal verb is used in the Present and Past Simple. 1. The modal expression to be + infinitive is used to express obligation arising out of an arrangement or agreement. It is used in statements and questions. We are to complete this work by tomorrow. I was to meet Mother at the dentist’s at 11 o’clock. Who is to be the first? To show that the action did not take place the Perfect Infini- tive is used after the Past Simple of the verb to be to: She was to have graduated in June, but unfortunately fell ill. 2. To be to expresses a purpose, a plan. The prize was to honour him for his great discoveries. 3. A strict order or an instruction: He is to return to Moscow tomorrow. 4. Strict prohibition (only in the negative form): You are not to tell anybody about it. 5. Something that is destined to happen. It corresponds to the Russian суждено, предстоит. Asa young man he didn ’t know that he was to become a famous scientist. (Ему суждено было стать знаменитым ученым.) Sometimes it may be translated by the Russian verb хотеть, especially after the conjunction if: If we are to get there on time, we must start at once. (Если мы хотим прийти вовремя, надо сразу отправляться.) 6. Possibility. In this case the passive form of the infinitive is used. Then its meaning*is close to that of can: He was nowhere to be found. 265
Неге аге some set expressions with the verb to be to: What am I to do? Что мне делать? Как мне быть? What is to become of me? Что co мной будет? Where am I to go? Куда же мне деваться? 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of to be + infinitive in the follow- ing sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. We are to see her tonight, if that boy doesn’t forget his appointment. 2. We were to have gone away together this morning at dawn. 3. She reminded him that they were to meet at eight fifteen that evening. 4. Where am I to turn? 5. Jane was to go home with her sister. 6. Some of them were to dine with us the next day. 7. They reached the hotel where they were to stay for a few days. 8. They drew near the appointed place where the rest of the party were to meet them. 9. You must know how milking is to be done. 10. He is a strange person, I admit, but it does not mean that he is to be laughed at. 11. What we are to talk about next. I cannot imagine. 12. This time he is not in the least to blame. 13. He reminded her of what she was to expect in her new position. 14. No excellence in music is to be acquired without constant practice. 15. “If we are to guide our guests about the town, we have at least to do it competently,” Nina said. Exercise II Explain the difference in meaning between the two sentences in the following pairs. 1) a) The plane was not to take off at night as the weather was too bad. b) The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad. 2) a) There was to be an interesting concert last night, but I didn’t feel well and had to stay at home, b) There was to have been an interesting concert last night, but the singer fell ill and the concert had to be postponed. 3) a) The order came that we were not to leave the village before dawn, b) We were not to have left the village before dawn, but by the time the order came we were two miles away from it. 266
Exercise III Use the modal verb to be to with the proper form of the in- finitive in brackets. 1. I stood at the window, looking at them disappear, and my heart kept repeating “Good-bye, good-bye!” I was not (to see) them for nearly five years. 2. Nobody met me when I came. I was (to arrive) by the ten o’clock train, but I couldn’t get a ticket for it. 3. Remember that we are (to be) at this place not later than eight. 4. Why are you so late? Didn’t you get my letter saying that we were (to meet) at 4? 5. There was a violent storm that night and the Albatross which was (to arrive) at the port in the morning had to drop anchor near an island a hundred miles off the port. 6. Large sums are now being spent on educational development and still larger sums are (to spend) in the near future. 7. We were (to play) a duet together. 8. He was (to have) a music lesson in the morning but the teacher called up to cancel it. Exercise IV Insert the verb to be to or to have to in the necessary tense form. 1.1 wondered what to happen to us. 2. It looks like raining. You.....to take your raincoats. 3. We agreed that the one who came first...to reserve seats for the rest of us. 4. Nobody met me at the airfield as I.to have arrived a day later and could not warn any of my friends of the change. 5. He always puts off doing what he.....to do until it....to be done. 6. We...... to leave on Monday but because of a two days’ delay with the visas we to book tickets for Wednesday. 7. There is nothing strange in what he did. It..to be expected. 8. It was too late to change the plan, and it..to remain as it was. 9. You.... not to tell him about it if you don’t want to. 10. You.not to tell him anything about it before you get further instructions. 11. They hoped to spend the summer together, but that not to be. 12....I to do it all by myself? 13. The headmaster arranged that the children..be taken home by bus. Exercise V Translate into English using to be to or to have to. 1. Собрание должно было начаться сразу после уроков. 2. Мы должны были отложить собрание, так как доклад- чик заболел. 3. Если вы хотите занять первое место в со- 267
ревнованиях по бегу, вы должны значительно больше тре- нироваться. 4. По новому расписанию вы должны трени- роваться на спортплощадке с двух до четырех. 5. Мы ре- шили, что в августе все должны принять участие в уборке урожая. 6. В будущем году наш завод должен начать вы- пуск новых радиоприемников. 7. Вы должны приготовить эту работу к четвергу. 8. Я должен был приготовить эту работу к четвергу. (Два варианта.) 9. Вы не должны пре- кращать работу, пока не закончите ее. Завтра уже чет- верг. 10. Мне пришлось приготовить эту работу к четвер- гу. 11. Мне придется приготовить эту работу к четвергу. 12.Так как он приготовил все заранее, ему не нужно де- лать этого теперь. 13. Выбора не было; ему пришлось со- гласиться. Exercise VI Translate into English using to be to or to have to. 1. Я был несколько удивлен, обнаружив так много народа в зале, где я должен был выступать. 2. Мне нет необходи- мости идти туда раньше пяти часов. 3. Его пригласили на обед домой к другу. После обеда они должны были пойти в кино. 4. По радио объявили, что вечером должен высту- пить президент. 5. На следующий день он взял меня на дол- гую автомобильную прогулку. А в семь часов мы должны были обедать у друзей. 6. Когда я узнал, что поезд уже при- был, мне пришлось взять такси и поспешить домой, так как у сестры не было ключа от квартиры. 7. Он давно ушел и к пяти часам должен вернуться. 8. Я должна была там быть час тому назад. 9. Почему им пришлось уехать из это- го дома? 10. Он сказал мне, что я должен ждать его здесь. 11. Согласно контракту, товары должны прибыть в порт в конце недели. 12. Он должен был прийти сюда на прошлой неделе, но он не пришел. 13. Его нигде нельзя найти. Need The verb need may be either a modal or a regular verb. Need is a regular verb, when it means to be in need of something, to want something. As a regular verb it has -s in the 3rd person singular in the Present Simple - needs. It forms its negative and interrogative forms with do, does, did: 268
Do I need to show my pass every time? You don 7 need to say it every time you see me. Need as a modal verb is used in negative and interrogative sentences only. It expresses necessity. As a modal verb it has no past tense form; it is used without -s in the third person singu- lar. It is followed by the infinitive without the particle to. It corresponds to the Russian нужно'. You needn 7 do it now. Need she come tomorrow? In negative sentences need followed by the Perfect Infinitive shows that the action expressed by the infinitive was performed but was not necessary. In this case it is translated by зря, незачем, не к чему было'. You needn 7 have spent all the money. Now we ’ve got nothing left. In reported speech need remains unchanged: The teacher said that we needn 7 t ranslate the text. 1И EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of the modal verb need. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. I was rather afraid that he might act as though we were intimate friends. But I needn’t have worried. 2. You needn’t be afraid of telling me everything. 3. If you don’t like the dress, you needn’t take it. 4. You needn’t have walked there. You could have taken a bus. 5. Need we continue working by this plan? 6. I needn’t bother about your sister anymore. 7. “I’ve got lots of time. I needn’t go home for hours,” she said. 8. “You rest,” she said. “I’ll certainly make the tea. You needn’t have asked me.” 9. Everything is packed, except my shirts, so you needn’t trouble. 10. Our friendship needn’t stop, need it? 11. Need we insist upon the date? 12. Need he study more at home? 13. Need you bring your girl-friend with you? 14. “Do you remember what you did when you were twenty-five?” “You need not have reminded me of it.” 15. If you don’t like the cocktail, you needn’t drink it. 269
Exercise II Paraphrase the following using the modal verb need. 1.1 see no reason why we should argue. 2. It was not necessary for her to carry the bags all by herself: there were porters at the station. 3. Is it so very necessary that you should go there at all? 4. There is no use worrying about her; she is quite able to take care of herself. 5. What’s the use of reproaching yourself? 6.1 don’t think there is any need to bother them. 7. It was quite unnecessary for you to do the work instead of him. Exercise III Translate into English using need. 1. To, что она сделала, так глупо, что нам незачем обсуж- дать это. 2. Это было так близко, что все согласились, что им не нужно брать машину. 3. Нам не к чему варить всю картошку. 4. Нам нужно переодеться к обеду? 5. У нас еще масса времени. Мы зря спешим. 6. А вам обязательно туда идти? 7. Тебе незачем тратить на них все деньги. 8. Ты на- прасно беспокоился. Я пообещал своим родителям побыть здесь еще немного. 9. Он положил конверт на стол. «День- ги все там, - сказал он. - Можешь не пересчитывать их.» 10. Ты знаешь детей. Они все ломают. Мне не нужно гово- рить тебе об этом. 11. Он знал, что ему не надо никому ничего объяснять. 12. Я думаю, что нам незачем уделять ей столько внимания. 13. Тебе незачем бояться меня. 14. Нам необязательно слушать всех ораторов. 15. Тебе не нужно было заказывать номер в гостинице. У нас есть сво- бодная спальня. Exercise IV Translate into English using don't have to, needn't. 1. У нас поставили телефон, и нам теперь не нужно хо- дить к соседям. 2. Вам незачем идти на улицу; у соседей есть телефон. 3. У нас теперь построили стадион, и детям не приходится ездить далеко. 4. Им незачем ездить так далеко, можно заниматься в нашем читальном зале. 5. Не нужно отвечать на этот вопрос, если ты не хочешь. 6. Не- обязательно вам приходить самому. Можете прислать кого-нибудь. 7. Ему незачем беспокоиться. Все будет в порядке. 8. Нам не нужно было ходить в библиотеку. Все необходимые книги были у меня дома. 9. К вечеру зуб перестал болеть, и он решил, что ему не надо идти к вра- 270
чу. 10. Много ли времени пришлось вам потратить на эту работу? 11. Мне не пришлось покупать новый словарь, так как у меня был такой словарь дома. 12. Вам не нужно было покупать этот словарь, у меня есть лишний экземп- ляр дома. 13. Разговор наш продолжался недолго, все было достаточно ясно, и нам не к чему было вдаваться в излишние подробности. 14. Ему не к чему было вдавать- ся в подробности. Это все равно не помогло. 15. Все сло- ва в тексте были хорошо знакомы, и мне даже незачем было пользоваться словарем. Exercise V Translate into English using the verbs must, to be (to), to have (to), or need. 1. Сказал ли преподаватель, что мы должны выучить этот текст наизусть? 2. Я не знал, что этот текст не надо учить наизусть. 3. Зря вы учили этот текст наизусть, его надо было просто читать. 4. Не шумите, дети, должно быть, спят. 5. Никто, наверно, не сказал ему об этом. 6. Они дол- жны были прийти в 5, а уже 6 часов. 7. Они, наверно, за- были, что должны были прийти в 5 часов. 8. Надеюсь, вам не пришлось долго ждать, да? 9. Надеюсь, нам не придет- ся ждать. 10. Эту книгу можно найти в любой библиотеке. 11. Стоит ли волноваться из-за таких пустяков? 12. Тебе не нужно беспокоиться. Ты сдашь экзамены хорошо. Ought to The modal verb ought to has only one form. It is used with the to-infinitive. It can indicate present or future time: Drivers ought to be very careful on this dangerous road. Ought to with the Perfect Infinitive is used to indicate a past action that was not fulfilled: You ought to have postponed your trip until your mother got well. Ought expresses: 1. moral duty, moral obligation. It corresponds to the Russian следует'. You ought to look after your children better. 2. advice: You ought to see a doctor. 271
3. probability, something that can be naturally expected. I corresponds to the Russian должно быть, наверное: You ought to be hungry. Ought to is not changed in reported speech: She told him he ought not to go away. EXERCISES Exercise I Analyse the meaning of the verb ought (to) and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. The young ought to respect old age. 2. You ought not tc show to him that you notice his stammer, he feels it very keenly. 3. Where is Tom? - He ought to be in his study. 4. I think I ought to let your parents know we are here. 5. Oughtn’t you to be more careful? 6. “How can you know what his feelings are?” “I ought to know, for he’s always telling me about them.” 7. When he saw Ann playing tennis, he came up and said, “Are you sure you ought to be doing that?” 8. You ought not to have touched those instruments. 9. You ought to be more careful in the future. 10. You ought to have reserved tickets in advance. 11. I feel I ought to help her. 12.1 ought to have told the truth long ago. 13.1 ought to say a word or two about myself. 14. You ought to be more attentive to other people’s feelings. 15. You ought to have done it yesterday. Exercise II Fill in the blanks with ought (to), to be (to), to have (to). 1. Don’t argue with her, you...to respect her age. 2. She is not a bad girl, if somewhat capricious; so you sometimes... to put up with her whims. 3. The situation grew awkward. He felt that something....to be done, or else the party would break up. 4. I thought I...to do something to return their hospitality. 5. Not a living thing..to be seen. 6. Why do you ask my opinion? You have been in the business much longer, you....to know better. 7. You are a father, you.... not to neglect your duties to your children. 8. According to the rules of the game a football player...not to touch the ball with his hands. 9. Ring me up at 6 o’clock. The situation ...to clear up by then. 272
Exercise III Use the required form of the infinitive after ought to. 1. But we ought (to have) you brother here, to tell us exactly how far we can go. 2. He couldn’t see anything. He thought that he ought (to bring) a torch. 3. If you’re in love it ought (to make) you happy. 4. The doctor said it was appendicitis and she ought (to operate) on. 5. Oughtn’t you (to answer) that letter now? 6. Well, I’m very glad to know at last what it was all about. - You ought (to tell) before. 7. Anything we can do to clear up this miserable affair ought (to do). 8. You ought (to come) first and get the place ready for you. 9. She ought (to guess) that she couldn’t go far in London without being recognized. 10.1 confess I ought (to think) about that. 11. He had been wrong to let the boy get away with that letter; he ought (to keep) him under his eyes from the start! Exercise IV Translate into English using ought (to). 1. Вам следовало быть более внимательным. 2. Вам следо- вало отложить вашу поездку до тех пор, пока ваша мама не поправится. 3. Вам бы следовало посоветоваться с врачом. Может быть, вы не здоровы. 4. Вам следовало попытаться уговорить его, а не спорить с ним. 5. Он не понял вас. Вам следовало бы подробно объяснить свою точку зрения. 6. Вам следует быть более внимательным, так как вы допускаете много ошибок в тексте. 7. Вам следовало сказать правду. Это избавило бы вас от многих неприятностей. 8. Вам не следует набирать номер телефона, пока вы не уверены, что он правильный. 9. Вам следовало послать телеграмму вче- ра, сразу по приезде. 10. Ему следует быть дома и ухажи- вать за больной матерью. 11. Я расскажу вам что-то, что вам следует знать, по моему мнению. 12. Мне не следовало разрешать вам делать мне такие подарки. Should The modal verb should is unchangeable. It may refer to the present and it is not changed in reported speech. It corresponds to the Russian следует'. You should be more careful. I told him he should be more careful. 273
Should is nearly always interchangeable with ought to, as their meaning coincide. It expresses: 1) moral obligation or duty You should never break a promise you have given. Should + Perfect Infinitive refers the action to the past and shows that a desirable action was carried out. It has the addi- tional meaning of reproach or regret: You should have told me the truth. A negative sentence shows that something wrong has been done: You shouldn 7 have done that. It was stupid. 2) advice You should stay in bed. Й EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of the verb should. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. You shouldn’t go out without an overcoat. 2. If you are interested in pictures you should look in at the British Museum. 3. You shouldn’t have said that. 4. Perhaps she said things that should have been left unsaid. 5. I suppose he shouldn’t have touched anything at all. 6. You should read a receipt carefully before you sign it. 7. Now she told me exactly what I should say. 8. One shouldn’t go from one place to another. 9. While you are in our city you should use every opportunity to see its wonders. 10. You should be working now and not talking with your friend. 11. We should go to the zoo more often, and watch the monkeys. 12. Why should you be different from other men? Exercise II Fill in the blanks in the following sentences choosing between ought to and should. Remember that although ought to and should are very close in the meaning of obligation and are often interchangeable, the former tends to express moral obligation and is not frequent in negative sentences whereas the latter is common in instructions and corrections. 274
1. He looked more than ever out of place; he..have stayed at home. 2. I don’t think people....gossip like that about other people. 3. She said, “You know, I think I.get across to the station and see what goes on.” 4. I want him to do what’s right. It..(not) persuade a man to do that. 5. My mother frowned at him and shook her head in a way that meant that he.....(not) say things like that in front of me. 6. “Strange,” said the boy, “how, when people are either very old or very young, they always want to do something they ...(not) do.” 7. “It is very wicked of you,” she said. “You ...be ashamed of yourself.” 8. I’ll see and speak to him. He ... (not) behave like that. 9. After she had gone I found myself wondering whether I......do anything for her. 10. She is a clever girl and her French.be perfect. 11. The children were out dancing when they ...... have been learning their lessons. 12. “I’m not very well, I’m having trouble with my leg.” “I see. Well, I think you.... go and see a doctor.” 13. He was very sad and I thought I ....do all I could to cheer him up. Exercise III Use the required form of the infinitive after should. 1. Tea is between half past five and six, and it should (to be) ready now. 2. Should the baby (to play) with the box of matches? 3. You should (to see) him yesterday on horseback. 4. “Your father and I should (to arrange) everything before I came here,” he said. 5. Where is the car? He shouldn’t (to leave) it unattended. 6. He drove at great speed. He knew that about this hour the guests should (to arrive) at his house. 7. Then he should (to laugh), but instead he heard himself saying, “Everything you say is quite true.” 8. “I don’t think he had the least idea of what I meant.” “You should (to be) more sincere, my dear.” 9. You should (to go) to the concert. Why should (to miss) the music? 10. It was surprising that they should (to meet) at all. 11. He did not see why he should not (to discuss) the matter with his chief. 12. She is in town shopping. She should (to be) back at any moment. 13. I am very shocked indeed that you should (to feel) it necessary to lie to me. 14. I’m sorry that you should (to have) a quarrel with your friend. 275
Exercise IV Fill in the blanks with either should or must. Translate into Russian. 1. a) You ...have spoken to him already. I see you know everything, b) You....have spoken to him of the matter. Why keep him in the dark? 2. a) They...have studied the subject more thoroughly, they will regret it later on. b) They.have studied the subject thoroughly, they answered every question. 3. a) You....have ignored the traffic regulations. That’s why you were fined, b) You...have followed the traffic regulations, then you would not have been fined. 4. a) He have forgotten to send them a telegram, b) He....have remembered to send them a telegram. 5. a) I have taken grandfather’s spectacles. I cannot see anything through them, b) I....have taken my opera-glasses. I don’t see anything. Exercise V Translate the following sentences into English, using ought to and should wherever possible. 1. Я прошу извинения. Мне не следовало этого говорить. 2. Мне думается, что вам надо проявлять уважение к стар- шим. 3. Я подумал, что тебе нужно бы знать об этом. 4. Теперь я огорчил ее. Мне не нужно было это делать. 5. «Я сказал что-нибудь такое, чего мне не следовало гово- рить?» - спросил он у матери. 6. Не стоит задавать таких вопросов. 7. Ну что же, вы были правы. Мне не так надо было делать это. 8. Как ты думаешь, чем мне следовало бы заняться? 9. Я был с тобой более откровенен, чем мне сле- довало бы. 10. Я сказал, что ей совсем не следовало бы приходить с ним. 11. Не стоит быть столь критичным в твоем возрасте, Михаил. 12. Аня - моя сестра. - Мне сле- довало бы догадаться. Вы похожи на нее. 13. Ей надо было бы раньше об этом вспомнить. 14. Мне хочется сделать то, что не следует делать. 276
Shall In present day English shall is not a purely modal verb. It always combines its modal meaning of obligation with the func- tion of an auxiliary verb in the future tense. As a modal verb shall expresses: 1. promise or strong intention. In this meaning shall is used with the 2nd or 3rd person: It shall be done as you wish. 2. threat or warning {shall is used in this meaning in the 2nd and 3rd person): She shall pay for it. 3. a suggestion. It is used in questions in the 1st person singular and plural. Shall I read? - Please, do. Мне читать? - Читайте, пожалуйста. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Analyse the modal meaning of shall and translate the sen- tences into Russian. 1. The victory of peace can and shall be won. There shall be no war. 2. He shall do it whether he wants it or not. 3. You shall answer for it! 4. You shall sit by me, and amuse me. 5. At what time shall I be back? 6. You shall do as you are told. 7. Shall I leave the things here? 8. If I come here, you shall know about it. 9. “You shall see the portrait yourself,” he cried, seizing a lamp from the table. 10. I give you my word, you shall hear from me soon. 11.1 made a mistake this afternoon. It shall not happen again. 12. I’ll tell you the story of my life and you shall tell me all about yours. Exercise II Translate the following sentences into English using shall wherever possible. 1. Сколько мне заплатить носильщику? 2. Когда мы узна- ем что-нибудь, вы непременно услышите об этом. 3. Пере- вести весь текст? - Нет, не нужно, переведите только под- черкнутые предложения. 4. Это можно сделать и это будет сделано, если ты только поможешь мне. 5. «Тебе поиграть?» 277
- спросила она. - «Да, пожалуйста.» 6. У тебя не будет при- чины жаловаться на меня. 7. Вы получите книгу в поне- дельник. 8. Когда ему прийти? 9. Закрыть дверь? 10. Обо- рудование для нашей экспедиции должно быть отгружено в мае. 11. Если вы будете сидеть на сквозняке, вы просту- дитесь. 12. Что нужно сделать с этими письмами? 13. Она позвонит вам? 14. Вам следует сделать это немедленно. Will/Would I. Will is not a purely modal verb. It almost always combines its modal meaning with its functioning as an auxiliary verb in the future tense. Will has two forms: will for the present tense and would for the past tense. Thus will and would are looked upon as forms of the same verb, although in a few cases their meaning differ. Will expresses: 1. willingness, intention. It corresponds to the Russian непре- менно, обязательно, охотно'. I will write as soon as I can. When used in the negative it denotes a refusal to do something: I won 7 accept your offer (I refuse to.). 2. a polite request or an offer (only in questions): Will you pass the salt, please? In comparison with will the form would shows a greater de- gree of politeness: Would you please lend me your pencil? It is still more polite to use the combinations: Would you mind (+ -ing form)? Would you mind waiting a little longer? Would you be so kind as to.? Would you be so kind as to lend me your book? 3. a command: You will do exactly as I say. An impatient command can begin with will you'. Will you be quiet! - Замолчишь ли ты наконец? Will you in the tag after a negative command is pronounced with the falling tone: Don 7 be late, will you? But after a positive command will you has a rising intonation: Sit down, will you? 278
4. insistence, resistance. Will and would used with inanimate objects show that a thing fails to perform its function. They are used in negative sen- tences and correspond to the Russian никак не: The door will not open. - Дверь никак не открывается. The orange won't peel. - Апельсин никак не очистить. The engine wouldn 7 start. - Мотор никак не заводился. The wound wouldn 7 heal. - Рана никак не заживала. 5. inevitability or something naturally expected: What will be will be. - Чему быть, того не миновать. Accidents will happen. - Несчастные случаи неизбежны. 6. characteristic behaviour or quality. This car will hold six people comfortably. Oil will float on water. This meaning is not expressed in Russian. 7. disapproval of something expected. In this meaning only would is used. It is mainly in responses. It corresponds to the Russian этого и следовало ожидать, на него это похоже. “I know she attended the place. ” “Oh, yes, she would. Конечно, что еще можно ожидать. “Не refused to help.” “Не would.” - На него похоже. П. Will/would with different forms of the infinitive can express a certainty about the present or the future, something that is expected: This will be just what she wants. - Это, очевидно, то, чего она хочет. That would be he! - Это, наверное, он. That would be in 1910, I think. - Я думаю, это, наверное, было в 1910 году. Note the expression: You would, would you? - Ax, ты так! QI EXERCISES Exercise I Comment on the meaning of will and would. Translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Though the work is difficult, I will do it, and it will be done well. 2. Will you kindly.pass me the salt? 3.1 will do it whether you like it or not! 4.1 gave her book to read, but after a page or 279
two she would put the book down. 5.1 asked her but she would not tell me her address. 6. Would you be so kind as to shut the window? 7.1 asked him not to switch on the radio early in the morning but he would do it. 8. She pushed the door, but it would not open. 9. Shut the door, would you? 10. When he returned I repeated my offer of food, but he would take nothing. 11. He had a wound that wouldn’t heal. Exercise II Fill in the blanks with will or would. 1. Though the work is difficult, I do it, and it be done well. 2....you kindly pass me the salt? 3.1 asked her but she ...not tell me her address. 4. I...do it whether you like it or not! 5..........................you be so kind as to shut the window? 6. We waited till afternoon but the rain.not stop. 7. I asked him not to switch on the radio early in the morning but he.do it. 8. She pushed the door, but it.not open. 9. Each time we went out together he.....show me something new. 10. I ...say it again and again. 11.1 know there is a theory that a book, if it is any good, .always find a publisher. 12. When he returned I repeated my offer of food, but he .... take nothing. 13.....you really do it for me? 14. Shut the door, ...you? 15. He.....read a book before going to bed. 16.... come round tomorrow? Exercise III Fill in the blanks with should or would. 1.1 swore that I forgave her everything, but she.not listen! 2. She clenched her teeth so that she..not cry. 3. Why.... the people be operated on without an anaesthetic? 4. For a long time sleep...not come. 5. Sometimes we.....simply drink tea and talk like friends. 6.1 asked him one or two questions but he ...not answer. 7 we talk Italian? you mind very much? 8. I be very much obliged if you have a talk to him. 9..you really do it for me? 10. Shut the door, you? “Where is Ann?” “Where......she be if not in school?” 11. He was very sorry that Philip..be disturbed. 12. People tried to be kind to her and asked her to stay with them, but she... 13....you kindly show me that lovely vase? 14. I’d be very glad if you..stay and have a bit of dinner with me. 15. You ...never neglect a chance, however small it may seem. 280
Exercise IV Translate into English the following sentences using will or would. 1. Ну, пожалуйста, расскажи мне, что случилось. 2. Он по- пытался открыть крышку, но она никак не поддавалась. 3. Я бы все сделал, чтобы помочь ему. 4. Он попытался объяснить, но я не стал его слушать. 5. Он не согласился со мной. - Естественно. 6. Сегодня воскресенье, и все магази- ны будут закрыты. 7. Он сделал две или три попытки за- жечь зажигалку, но она никак не зажигалась. 8. Я спросил его жену, что с ним, но она мне не ответила. 9. Он выклю- чил лампу, но сон к нему не шел. 10. Я думаю, что я пойду и посмотрю телевизор, если вы извините меня. 11. Я хотел посмотреть только одну картину, но они меня не впусти- ли, так как было поздно. 12. «Папа, - позвал мальчик. - Ты обещал мне помочь с моим игрушечным поездом. Он никак не двигается.» 13. Я предложил ей сходить к докто- ру, но она и слышать не хотела об этом. 14. После работы он обычно дожидался нас у моста. Exercise V Translate into English the following sentences using shall, will, should or would. 1. Вы этого не сделаете. Запомните это! 2. Я сделаю эту работу, хотя бы мне и пришлось не спать всю ночь. 3. Ма- газин, вероятно, еще открыт. Если вы поторопитесь, вы успеете купить хлеб. 4. Он сказал, что ему придется уехать через несколько дней, но мы и слушать не хотели. 5. Беспо- лезно доказывать ему, что вы правы; его никогда нельзя убедить. Он очень упрямый. 6. Это его не касается. Неза- чем было ему вмешиваться. 7. Вы должны прочесть эту интересную статью. 8. Вам придется держать экзамен еще раз. Вам надо обратить больше внимания на грамматику. 9. Вам бы следовало предупредить нас, что вы не придете. Мы бы не ждали вас. 10. Вы прекрасно знали, что это бес- полезно, но все же это сделали. 11. Он не понял вас. Вам следовало бы подробно объяснить свою точку зрения. 12. Вам давно следовало бы побывать в этом древнем го- роде. 13. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано. 14. Замок никак не запирается! Я просила тебя много раз починить его. 15. Ты никуда не пойдешь, пока не сделаешь уроки! 281
Dare Dare is used both as a regular verb and as a modal one. As a regular verb dare has two forms: dare for the present tense and dared for the past tense. As a regular verb it is used with the auxiliary verb to do in the interrogative and with -s in the third person singular, the Present Simple. It is also used with the particle to in the infinitive. It expresses to venture and to challenge. He didn7 dare to stop me. (He didn7 have the courage.) I dared him to jump. (I challenged him to do it.) As a modal verb it is used chiefly in interrogative and nega- tive sentences. It expresses to have the courage to do something. How dare he speak to you like that? Dare you ask him? Note the following combinations with the modal verb dare\ I dare say. - I suppose, no doubt. I dare say you are right. - Очень возможно, что вы правы. I dare say he will come late. - Полагаю, он придет позже. Exercise I Analyse the verb dare. State whether it is an ordinary or a modal verb and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. He felt he dare not reply. 2. Her face bore an expression of such anger that no one dared come near to speak with her. 3.1 dare say you are a little tired after your walk. 4. He dared not look into her face. 5.1 did not dare to ask him to postpone his trip. 6. She was aware that anyone was watching her, but she dared not move. 7. Who dares to jump over the stream? 8. She did not dare to leave the house in case he telephoned. Revision of All the Modal Verbs EXERCISES Exercise I Fill in the blanks with the necessary modal verbs noticing carefully the Russian equivalents given in brackets. 1. Somebody has been talking, ..(кто бы это мог быть)? 2. That book was one of those that one.(должен был бы прочитать). 3...., everything has turned out all right. (Неза- 282
чем было волноваться) 4. Frequently he...in the garden bent over his flowers, (можно было застать) 5.1 believe he was always afraid they ...at him. (могут посмеяться) 6. It had been arranged between them that whichever woke up first, before six ...the other by knocking on the wall, (должен был позвать) 7. He opened his eyes and looked at the smiling young woman who leaned over him......he thought. (Это, вероятно, Аня) 8. He came out of the water, smiling. “You........have come earlier,” he said. “We ..have swum together. The water is great.” (зря не пришел, могли бы) 9. “Last night, you know, he suddenly began to speak to me about what my future was going to be like.” “What...it have meant?” “How.........I know?” (и что это могло означать, откуда мне знать) 10. There was an old apple tree beside the path. I said, “I bet I..climb that.” “No, you....not,” said Jack, (могу, не надо) 11. “Well, then ...you hold the line while I find the letter?” “I.not, I’m in a telephone box.” “Then.........................I ring you back?” “I’m not on the telephone.” “Then I think perhaps you..ring me back in half an hour. By then I...have some idea what this is all about.” (можешь ли, не могу, можно мне, тебе лучше, может быть) 12. “Monday will be my last day in London,” he said. “I.. stay down here rather late.” (может быть придется) 13. It’s too bad she...stay with us. We....have learned a great deal about the theatre tonight, (не могла, могли бы) 14. If you help me now.....help you later, (смогу) 15. “I shall wait to hear what Lily has to say about it?” “You.wait a long time.” (придет- ся) 16.1 think you..............certainly have told us the truth, and we ...have decided what was the best thing to do. (следовало бы, могли бы) 17. If your mother calls, tell her I.be a little late, (возможно) 18. On Saturday Charles broke the news to his father. He began to grumble, “You.....have chosen a more suitable time to tell me. You.have known that hearing this would make me nervous.” (следовало бы, мог бы) Exercise II Translate into English the parts of the sentence given in brackets using modal verbs. 1. Do you think we (смогли бы добраться) home by nine? 2.1 had never stopped writing to my cousin, but (должно быть прошло) seven years since we had met. 3. (Могу ли я сделать) as I like or (я должна сделать) as you like? 4. “Now listen to me!” he said, “I’ll tell you a few things that you (должен был 283
бы спросить) before starting out.” 5. “I’m sorry about Kate,” he said. “I suppose it (должно было случиться),” his sister answered. 6. When you came here I told you you were free to come and go as you please, but you (не должна была наве- щать) our old friend. 7. He (должен был заехать) for me in the morning at ten o’clock, but he (должно быть, забыл) about it. 8. That film was one of those that one (должен был бы посмотреть). 9. She protested but he (не хотел и слушать) to her protests. 10.1 think he (мог бы подождать) till I came back. 11. The girl (должно быть, поняла) me as she nodded her head. 12. You (зря написал) to him about it. 13. You (зря был) with her so rude. She is crying now. Exercise III Fill in the blanks with the verb can, may, must, should, ought to, need, have to, be to. 1. All this time he.have been nearly forty-seven. 2. Surely he....have stayed with her on her birthday. 3. She...never have married him! 4. You......not bother with these things here for you are among friends. 5. If anything...happen to me, my wife will be left quite alone. 6. Tell him I’d wait twenty years for him if I..to. 7. This...be the very last dinner he would ever eat at his friend’s. 8. You.not be afraid, I never cry. 9. Why....you and I talk about it? 10. He told me that I ... stay with him for a few days so that he ..... show me something of the surrounding country. 11. My mother says that I (not) be out after eleven o’clock. 12. It was of himself and of his own future, that he...................think. 13. It is absurd to have a hard and fast rule about what one....read and what one.....not. 14. You.....read a document carefully before you sign it. 15. You know, you....to see a doctor. Exercise IV Translate the sentences into English using modal verbs. 1. Неужели он действительно отказался вам помочь? 2. С какой стати я буду ему первая звонить? 3. Наверное, он ис- пугал вас своими угрозами. 4. Не нужно беспокоиться. Я обещаю, что все будет сделано. 5. Вам придется согласиться на их условия. 6. Вся жизнь мальчика может быть исковер- кана, если вы не уведете его отсюда. 7. Ах, если бы только я могла предвидеть это! 8. Он предложил, чтобы соревнова- ния назначили на пять часов. 9. Мне пойти и узнать, сделал 284
ли он работу? Он должен был закончить ее вчера. 10. Тебе долго пришлось дожидаться его? 11. Зря ты пришел. Собра- ние отменено. 12. Ты должен был сказать нам об этом. 13. Она, должно быть, забыла передать им нашу записку. Exercise V Translate the following sentences into English using suitable modal verbs. 1. He может быть, чтобы она совершила такой плохой по- ступок. 2. Он должен был прийти к нам вечером. Неуже- ли он забыл? 3. Ты должен был нам сказать, что он нездо- ров. 4. К сожалению, мне не пришлось поговорить с врачом. 5. Ты бы мог мне сказать, что опоздаешь. 6. Вче- ра я не смогла проверить тетради своих студентов, так как мне пришлось заменять другого преподавателя. 7. Вам незачем было приходить. Мы могли закончить перевод без вас. 8. Он сказал, что должен спешить, и ушел, не дож- давшись, чтобы она что-нибудь ответила. 9. Вы можете не звонить мне завтра. Я буду завтра работать. 10. Земля сырая. Здесь, должно быть, только что шел дождь. 11. Ты напрасно искал ключи. Они лежали на столе. 12. Тебе пришлось остаться до конца собрания, да? 13. Вечером она должна была пойти на вечеринку. Поэтому ей при- шлось купить новое платье. 14. Мы, возможно, поедем на дачу на выходные дни. Exercise VI Translate the following sentences into English using suitable modal verbs. 1. Вы можете не приносить доклад сегодня. Но завтра ут- ром он должен быть у меня. 2. Он бы мог сходить туда сам; ему незачем было посылать вас, вы все же постарше его. 3. Где я могу найти товарища Иванова? - Он, должно быть, в соседней комнате. 4. Не может быть, что он был искре- нен, когда отказался ехать с вами на юг. Возможно, роди- тели не разрешили ему ехать. 5. Ему не нужно было назы- вать свою фамилию так громко, это привлекло внимание. 6. Она не такая застенчивая. Возможно, ваш вопрос был неожиданным для нее. 7. Тебе не нужно было спрашивать у отца: я нашел журнал на твоем письменном столе. 8. Не- ужели он действительно так растерялся? - Конечно, и даже покраснел. 9. Вы бы могли предупредить его об этом и не 285
ставить его в такое неловкое положение. 10. Почему ее нет? Неужели она обиделась и решила не приходить? 11. Поче- му ты так рано? - Нам не пришлось долго заседать: все вопросы решили быстро. 12. Билеты можно было заказать по телефону. Мне не нужно было ехать на вокзал. 13. Я был в Москве, поэтому мне пришлось осмотреть весь город. 14. Вам не нужно было бросать эту работу. Ведь вы были так близко к цели. 15. Я смогу выполнить эту работу завт- ра. Я должен был сказать вам об этом вчера, но я не мог позвонить вам, так как у меня не было времени. Exercise VII Translate into English using modal verbs. 1. Все, даже его недруги, должны признать, что он посту- пил благородно. 2. Я не могу объяснить этого странного явления, придется почитать об этом или спросить кого- нибудь. 3. Оказывается, нам вовсе не надо было заказы- вать билеты заранее, их можно было купить в день отъез- да. 4. Неужели вы не читали эту чудесную книгу? Вам следует ее прочесть, вы получите огромное удовольствие. 5. Мне не надо было делать ему замечание, должно быть, мои слова оскорбили его. 6. У меня не было выбора, и мне пришлось согласиться на их предложение. 7. Я надеюсь, нам не придется долго ждать? 8. В воскресенье мне не надо было делать уроки, потому что я все сделал накануне. 9. Всем нужно бы посмотреть этот научно-популярный фильм. 10. Он очень знающий человек; нам надо было спро- сить его совета, когда мы были у него. Теперь придется ждать случая, когда мы сможем увидеть его. 11. Он окон- чил школу с медалью, и ему не нужно было сдавать экза- мены. 12. К сожалению, у меня не хватило времени осмот- реть все достопримечательности города: я должен был уехать. 13. По-моему, ты не должен был скрывать этого от родителей. 14. Не надо было откладывать репетицию, те- перь мы не успеем подготовиться к выступлению. Exercise VIII Translate into English using modal verbs. 1. Вот видите, вам незачем было так волноваться: все обо- шлось благополучно. 2. «Вы должны регулярно заниматься спортом, если хотите выздороветь,» - сказал доктор. 3. «Бо- юсь, что нам придется переделать всю работу.» «А я думаю, 286
что первую часть можно не переделывать.» 4. Вам бы сле- довало посоветоваться с врачом. Может быть, вы нездоро- вы. 5. Должно быть, он очень энергичный человек. 6. Нам обязательно сегодня сдавать сочинения? - Можете не сда- вать их сегодня, но вы должны обязательно сдать их завтра. 7. Вам давно следовало бы побывать в этом восхититель- ном месте. 8. Мы могли бы не брать купальных костюмов: там негде было купаться. 9. Вам следовало, попытаться убе- дить его, а не ссориться с ним. 10. Капитан сказал, что шторм может разразиться в любую минуту. 11. Как вы думаете, мне надо извиниться за свое поведение? 12. Мы должны пото- ропиться, если мы хотим послушать его выступление. Exercise VIII Translate into English using modal verbs. 1. Вы несете такой тяжелый чемодан! Не помочь ли вам? Может быть, хотите, чтобы мой сын помог вам? - Благода- рю вас, не стоит беспокоиться. - Но почему же? Молодые должны помогать старшим. 2. Как мне быть? Я потеряла би- лет на концерт. Возможно, я уронила его в автобусе. - Как вы могли потерять билет? Нельзя быть такой рассеянной. Билеты на концерт следует держать в сумочке. Их не нужно вынимать из сумочки в автобусе. Может быть, ваш билет дома. Вы могли оставить его дома. Вам следовало бы позво- нить домой. - Да, может быть, мой билет лежит дома, на сто- лике в передней. Я всегда прошу брата не задерживать меня, когда я тороплюсь, а он все-таки это делает! Теперь я должна звонить по телефону и, может быть, мне придется ехать до- мой. Как неприятно, я могу опоздать на концерт. Exercise X Translate into English using modal verbs. 1. Вам следовало бы принять во внимание все подробности, когда вы обсуждали этот вопрос. 2. Не может быть, чтобы он придумал это сам. 3. Дети пытались открыть дверь, но она никак не открывалась. 4. Вы, должно быть, многое по- видали в жизни, хотя вы и гораздо моложе меня. 5. Окно никак не закрывается! Ты мог бы починить его, в конце кон- цов. 6. Лжецу следовало бы иметь хорошую память. 7. Не могу ли я попросить вас сделать это сегодня? - Даже не про- сите. У меня очень много работы. Я думаю, что я не сумею сделать даже то, что я должен сделать в первую очередь. 287
8. Он мог бы сделать это сам, ему незачем было просить вас, вы же постарше его. 9. Не могу понять, что могло с ним случиться; он всегда такой аккуратный. 10. Почему мы дол- жны ждать одного человека так долго? Он должен был прий- ти в пять, а теперь уже шесть. 11. Не может быть, чтобы он забыл о нашей встрече: он сам назначил день и время. The Mood The mood shows the attitude of the speaker towards the ac- tion expressed by the verb. There are three moods: the indicative, the imperative and the subjunctive. The Indicative Mood The indicative mood is used to make statements of facts, and to ask questions: We are building a new life. Will he come tomorrow? He does not speak French. The Imperative Mood The imperative mood is used to express a command, a re- quest or advice: Come to me, please! Don’t touch the electric wire! Be careful with the fire in the forest! The imperative mood has only one form for the second per- son singular and plural. Hurry! Leave the door open. In the 1st and 3rd person let + infinitive, the equivalent of the imperative is used: Let him do this work. Let us leave the place. 288
The negative imperative is formed by means of the auxiliary to do: Don ’t be late. Don’t be so noisy. The emphatic imperative is formed with the help of the aux- iliary verb to do, followed by the infinitive: Do tell me what he said. Will you very often follows the imperative. It is a kind of request. Bring me my spectacles, will you? The Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive mood is used to express doubt, wish, condition. I wish it were summer now! If I had time, he would come. If we had hurried, we would have caught the train. It is strange that he should have proposed such a thing. In these examples there are various types of the subjunctive mood in English. The Subjunctive Mood after the Verb Wish The subjunctive mood is used in object clauses after I wish. If the wish refers to present or future time, the Past Simple is used. For a wish that was not realized in the past, the Past Per- fect Tense is used. I wish I knew severalforeign languages. (Гт sorry that I don ’t know them.) I wish he had come earlier. (But he didn’t, he came late.) It can be translated into Russian as follows: Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он пришел раньше. Жаль, что он не пришел раньше. Мне хотелось бы, чтобы он пришел раньше. Note. То be is the only verb in modem English that has a special form for the subjunctive mood - were (for all persons). After I wish we can use were instead of was in all persons. I wish he were here now. I wish it were not so cold. 10 Н.Утевская 289
Was is mainly used in spoken English. If I were/was you, I wouldn’t buy such an expensive dress. If only means the same as I wish but it is more dramatic. If only I were richer. If wish expresses a future change unlikely to happen, dissatis- faction, lack of hope or disappointment would + infinitive is used. It is possible only when the subject of the main clause (I wish) is not the same as the subject clause. I wish he would study for his exams. (But I don’t think he will wish for a future change unlikely to happen.) I wish Ann would go to the university. (She has refused to do so and I’m unhappy about it - dissatisfaction.) I wish you would be quiet. (Please be quiet, but I don’t expect you will - request expressing lack of hope.) I wish it would stop raining. (But I’m afraid it won’t stop raining - wish expressing disappointment.) EXERCISES Exercise I Use I wish instead of It s a pity. Make all the necessary changes. Model: It’s a pity I am so busy today. I wish I were not so busy today. 1. It’s a pity I have no one to advise me what to do under the circumstances. 2. It’s a pity we cannot book seats a week ahead. 3. It’s a pity there is no inquiry office near by. 4. It’s a pity we have to postpone our tour. 5. It’s a pity you don’t know the language well enough to understand the author’s sense of humour. 6. It’s a pity he is not in town at present. 7. It’s a pity you are not acquainted with this charming person. 8. It’s a pity she is at work at this moment. 9. It’s a pity you are so sad. Exercise II Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use the subjunc- tive mood after the verb to wish. 1. He was sorry he couldn’t join us. 2. It’s a pity you were absent yesterday. 3. I’d like him to be more polite. 4. They are sorry 290
they didn’t invite her. 5. He was disappointed that he wouldn’t be able to see the film. 6. I regret now not having told her all the truth then. 7. What a pity you can’t swim. 8. I’m awfully sorry I kept you waiting so long. 9. It’s a pity I couldn’t go to the theatre with you. 10. I’m very sorry that I have disturbed you. 11. It’s a pity you are leaving so soon. 12. I’d like to see the film again. 13. It was a pity we could not see the stage well. 14. They were sorry they hadn’t taken a taxi and had missed their train. Exercise III Use the correct form of the subjunctive mood of the verbs in brackets. 1. Oh, I wish I (not to send) him that letter. I’d give anything to take it back. 2.1 wish I (to be) as sure as you. 3. But he wished that there (to be) some way in which he could help the young lawyer. 4. “I wish I (not to cry) so much,” said Alice trying to find her way out. 5. And here I wish I (can) tell you half of the things Alice used to say. 6.1 wish I (to know) it was your friend. 7. He wished he (to come) by air. 8.1 wish I (to learn) what to do now. 9.1 wish I (to be sure) it was your birthday. 10.1 wish they (to be) back. 11.1 wish I never (to hear) of it. 12.1 wish I (to know) where we are going. 13. I wish I (to be) with my relatives. 14. You are looking wonderful, I wish I (to have) your health and vitality. 15.1 wish I (can be) at the meeting yesterday. 16. They wish you (to read) more in future. 17. Do you wish he (to take) care of by an experienced doctor? Exercise IV Answer the following questions using the subjunctive mood after the verb wish according to the model. Model: Are you a teacher? -1 wish I were. 1. Are you a third-year student? 2. Can you speak English? 3. Did he speak at the meeting yesterday? 4. Will she come to the party? 5. Have you got a raincoat with you? 6. Is dinner ready? 7. Do you know where she is now? 8. Will they take part in the coming competitions? 9. Is her hair naturally wavy? 10. Has he returned from the business trip? 11. Shall we go there together? 12. Are you an interpreter? 13. Have you got a dictionary with you? 14. Have you seen this wonderful 291
programme? 15. Is your report ready? 16. Will she come to your birthday party? 17. Did you get a good mark in English? Exercise V Use the correct form of the subjunctive mood of the verbs in brackets. 1. I wish I (to know) all the circumstances. 2. I wish I (not to eat) so much ice-cream; I have a stomachache. 3. I wish I (to be) at yesterday’s performance. It must have been very interesting. 4. Don’t you wish you (to come) earlier? 5. The unfortunate sailor wished he (not to set) foot on board the ship. 6. I wish I (to consult) the doctor when I first felt the pain. 7. She wished she (to be) back home instead of walking about the city. 8.1 hate the cold, I wish it (to be) warm and sunny all the year round. 9. He wished he (to have) two dollars to buy a ticket. 10. I wish I (not to have) to get up early every day. 11. We wished he (not to know) it. 12. I wish you (to try) to find some topic of conversation in which these people might take some interest. Exercise VI Translate into English using the subjunctive mood after the verb wish. I. 1. а) Жаль, что вы пришли так поздно. Ь) Жаль, что вы не пришли пораньше. 2. а) Жаль, что мы ушли до его при- хода. Ь) Жаль, что мы не дождались его прихода. 3. а) К сожалению, они еще ничего не знают. Ь) К сожалению, они уже знают об этом. 4. а) Жаль, что он такой легкомыслен- ный. Ь) Жаль, что он не очень серьезный. 5. а) Я теперь жалею, что не послушался его совета. Ь) Я теперь жалею, что последовал его совету. II. 1. Мне бы хотелось посмотреть этот фильм еще раз. 2. Я очень сожалею, что не смогу пойти завтра на вашу лек- цию. 3. Жаль, что я еще не могу прочесть эту книгу в ори- гинале. 4. Я бы хотел, чтобы вы все-таки прочли эту кни- гу. 5. Напрасно вы попросили его выполнить эту работу. 6. Мой брат жалел, что не присутствовал на этом собра- нии. 7. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы вы еще раз продумали мое предложение. 8. Жаль, что мы так и не встретились перед отъездом. 9. Жаль, что мы не обсудили пьесу сразу, после того как ее посмотрели. 10. Жаль, что вы не воспользова- лись такой возможностью. 292
Exercise VIII Translate into English using the subjunctive mood after the verb wish. 1. Как жаль, что вы были так неосторожны. 2. Как жаль, что это произошло в ваше отсутствие. 3. Жаль, что вы не интересуетесь искусством. 4. Я теперь жалею, что не захва- тила с собой таблетки от головной боли. 5. Жаль, что ты не пошел со мной на концерт. 6. Жаль, что вы не сохрани- ли письмо. 7. Жаль, что ей никто не сказал, что это невеж- ливо. 8. Хорошо, если бы вы всегда приходили вовремя. 9. Жаль, что вы не смогли посмотреть этот матч. 10. Жаль, что преподаватель обращает мало внимания на ваше про- изношение. 11. Хотелось бы мне, чтобы вы были осторож- нее в следующий раз. 12. Хорошо бы сейчас была весна! 13. Хорошо бы на земле не было никаких болезней! 14. Жаль, что я не спросила у доктора, когда принимать лекарство. 15. Жаль, что я не знаю французского языка. Exercise VIII Translate into English using the subjunctive mood after the verb wish. 1. Жаль, что мы не знаем его адреса. Мы бы могли сходить к нему сегодня. 2. Жаль, что в детстве меня не учили ника- кому иностранному языку. 3. Жаль, что он не посвятил свою жизнь математике. Это его любимый предмет с дет- ства. 4. Хорошо бы у нас была лодка для прогулок по морю. 5. Я очень жалею, что дала обещание быть на вечере, я себя плохо чувствую. 6. Она жалела, что приехала на юг. 7. Жаль, что вы не успели прочесть эту интересную ста- тью. 8. Жаль, что я не знакома с семьей Петровых. 9. Хо- рошо, если бы я мог достать эту редкую марку для своей коллекции. 10. Он жалел, что ему не было слышно, о чем говорили внизу. 11. Ей очень хотелось, чтобы кто-нибудь заметил ее и спросил, что она тут делает. 12. Я бы хотел знать, куда мы сейчас идем. 13. Жаль, что я не знаю, как ты достиг таких хороших результатов. Exercise IX Translate into English using the subjunctive mood after the verb wish. 1. Как бы я хотел, чтобы твоя дочь была немножко похо- жа на тебя. 2. Я бы хотел, чтобы ты пришел к тому или 293
иному решению. 3. Он очень хотел, чтобы этот вечер кон- чился. 4. Я иногда жалею, что решил написать эту книгу. 5. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы у нас был настоящий сад. 6. Как я жалею, что я сделал это. 7. Я бы хотел, чтобы ты снова начал писать стихи. 8. Я бы хотел, чтобы он перестал мне писать. 9. Как жаль, что я не застал его дома. 10. Я пожале- ла, что рассказала им о себе. 11. Жаль, что я не сказала правды. 12. Как жаль, что я не знала, что тебе нужен этот журнал. 13. Я пожалел, что не принял участия в экскурсии. 14. Жаль, что вы не послушались совета врача. Exercise X Translate into English using the subjunctive mood after the verb wish. 1. Желательно, чтобы студенты говорили друг с другом по- английски. 2. Как жаль, что идет дождь. 3. Как бы я хотела быть сейчас дома. 4. Как жаль, что его нет с нами. 5. Жаль, что вы не пошли с нами на лекцию вчера. 6. Жаль, что ты мне мешаешь работать. 7. Жаль, что вы не поверили мое- му рассказу. 8. Жаль, что вы отвергли это предложение. На вашем месте я бы принял его. 9. Жаль, что они вмеши- ваются в чужие дела. 10. Жаль, что вы мне не верите. 11. Жаль, что вы не известили меня заранее. Я, конечно, встретил бы вас. 12. Жаль, что мы не заказали билеты по телефону. 13. Жаль, что я не сказала правды. 14. Как бы я хотела, чтобы он был с нами! 15. Жаль, что мы не застали никого дома. 16. Я бы хотел знать, что этот словарь уже вышел. 17. Жаль, что я не посоветовался с врачом. Я бы чувствовал себя лучше сейчас. The Subjunctive Mood in Conditional Sentences Unreal Conditions in the Present If you work hard, you will succeed. The sentence simply means that you may work hard, then you will succeed. It is quite probable that you will work hard and succeed. This is what we call a real condition. In the conditional clause we use the Present Simple. In the main clause we have the Future Simple. 294
But there is another kind of conditional sentence. For example, If you worked hard, you would succeed. It means that you don’t work hard, so you won’t succeed. This is what we call an unreal condition. Here are some more examples of unreal conditions: If the weather were fine, we would go boating. If I had a motorcycle, I would go for a ride in the country every week. In sentences with unreal conditions the subjunctive mood is used. In the conditional clause we use the Past Simple or Past Continuous. In the main clause we have another type of the subjunctive mood would/could/might + infinitive. If I knew his address, I would write to him. If I were a bird, I could fly. We do not normally use will, would in an //-clause. However, we can use will, would, should in conditional sen- tences to make a request or express insistence, annoyance, doubt or uncertainty. If you will/would calm down for a minute, I will be able to help you. (request) If you will make a noise, I'll send you out. (insistence) If you should need any help, ask me. (uncertainty) Unreal Conditions in the Past If you had worked hard before the examination, you would have succeeded. (This sentence shows that you did not work hard in the past, that is why you did not succeed). This is what we call an unreal condition in the past. In sen- tences with unreal conditions in the past in the conditional clause we use the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous. In the main clause we use would/could/might + Perfect Infinitive (have + Participle II). If we hadn't left so early, we would have missed the plane. If we had been working for a long time, we could have finished our work quicker. When the //-clause precedes the main clause, we separate the two clauses with a comma. If he had locked his car, it wouldn't have been stolen. 295
Mixed Conditionals There are two mixed types of sentences of unreal condition: 1) //’-clause refers to the present and the main clause refers to the past. If he were a fast runner, he would have won the race. 2) //’-clause refers to the past and the main clause refers to the present. If he had found a job, he wouldn’t be searching for one now. Inversion in Conditionals Adverbial clauses of condition having the verbs had, were, could, should are often introduced without if. In these cases there is inversion. When we omit if should, were, had, could come before the subject. Had I time, I would go to the museum. Were he here, he would help us. Could he come tonight, we would be very glad. Had I seen him yesterday, I would have asked him about it. The Subjunctive Mood after but for in Conditionals Unreal conditions may also be expressed after but for (если бы не). But for the rain, we would go for a walk now. But for the rain, they would have gone to the country yester- day. Implied Conditionals An //-clause is not always given; it is often implied and the rules for the verb usage are followed in the main clause. E.g. I wouldn’t have been late. The implied condition here is: If I hadn’t missed the early train, I wouldn’t have been late. The director wouldn’t have won an Oscar. The implied condi- tion here is: If the film hadn’t been very popular, the director wouldn’t have won an Oscar. 296
a к__ EXERCISES Exercise I Supply the correct form of the subjunctive mood of the verbs in brackets. 1. If I (not to work) so hard, I never (to make) progress. 2. I (to finish) the whole job in time if you (not to disturb) me. 3. If we (to have) enough petrol, we (can) cover another hun- dred miles today. 4. If I (to leave) earlier, I (to catch) the train. 5. If I (not to follow) your advice, I (to get) into trouble. 6. We (to prevent) the accident if we (to be) there at that time. 7. If men (to have) no radio, space flight (to be possible)? 8. You never (to succeed) if you (to have) no confidence in yourself. 9. The photographs (to be) much better if it (to be) lighter in the room. 10. People (to become) hardened to cold if they (to take) cold baths regularly. 11. If ice (to be) heavier than water, it (not to float). Exercise II Supply the correct forms of the subjunctive mood of the verbs in brackets. 1. If you (to be allowed) to stay in London, what you (to do)? 2. If I (to be) you I (to do) my hair rather differently. 3.1 (not to mind) if he (to say) my stories were bad, but he said nothing. 4. After all, if he (to have) any talent I (to be) the first to encourage him. 5.1 (not to go) if you (not to say) you’d come with me. 6. If only I (to feel) that somebody wanted me, I (to become) a different person. 7. Your manners are all right. I (not to bring) you here if they (not to be). Don’t be uneasy. 8. He believed that his mother never (to say) the things she did if she (to know) that her son could hear her. 9. They (to enjoy) themselves much more if they (to have) a party of their own. 10.1 (not to sleep) a wink all night if I (not to know) you were safe. 11. If I (to be) John I (not to tell) that to his parents. 12. I thought that if I (to tell) you the circumstances you (to understand) afterwards that I wanted your help. 13. If I (not to have) a dictionary, I (cannot) translate the article. 14. Nick (not to fall) of his bicycle yesterday if he (not to drive) too fast. 297
Exercise III Replace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the subjunctive mood. 1. We (to come) back by all means even if it (to be) as late as midnight. 2. You hardly (to believe) it even though you (to see) it with your own eyes. 3. Even though you (to come) earlier you (not to find) me in. 4. Even if you (to know) him well, you (not to recognize) him, he has so greatly changed. 5. He is a sound sleeper and you (not to wake) him up even if your voice (to be) as loud as a train whistle. 6. Even if the work (to be) twice as difficult I (not to refuse) to do it. 7. You (to do) as you please even if I (to give) you advice. 8. Even though the way (to be) twice as short we (to miss) the train all the same, for I got the schedule mixed up. 9. She (cannot join) our excursion even if you (to invite) her; she was ill. 10. If you (to stir) the tea, it (to be) sweeter. 11. If you (to postpone) doing the job now, you (to regret) it later. 12. If you (not to waste) your time like that, you (to be able) to do a great deal more. 13. If I (to be) you, I (not to worry) 14. If you (to strain) your ears, you (to hear) a slight noise in the bushes. 15. If it (to be) winter vacation, I (to go) to Moscow. 16. If I (to go) to Moscow, I (to stay) with my friends. Exercise IV Rewrite the following sentences beginning each of the sen- tences with if. Model: I refused his offer but later regretted it. - If I hadn’t refused his offer, I wouldn’t have regret- ted it afterwards. 1. You didn’t inform me of the state of things, so I didn’t know you needed help. 2. You left the knife in water, so it got rusty. 3. They spent a year in England, so they learned to speak English quite well. 4. It rained, so we were obliged to stay indoors. 5. Why didn’t you watch the milk? It boiled over. 6. A huge rock blocked the path, so we had to go all the way round. 7. The explorers had no radio with them, so they could not signal for help when the storm broke out. 8. There wasn’t even the slightest wind, so the sail boat lay motionless on the smooth sea. 298
9. I forgot to wind up my watch. It stopped. 10. Sedov’s expedition was very scarcely supplied and that is why it ended so tragically. 11. Meresyev was extremely strong willed. Being seriously wounded he crawled for eighteen days to reach the front line. 12. I did not invite them, so they didn’t come. Exercise V Complete the following sentences using the required subjunc- tive mood. 1. We couldn’t have started yesterday even though......... 2. Even if we had posted the letter two days before....... 3. You would have to accept his proposal even if.......... 4. They would have hardly won this match even though 5. Even though he had never heard it......... 6. The dog is well trained; he would never leave his place even if............. 7. If it had not been for you........ 8. If it were not for the bad weather....... 9. If it had not been for your sympathy and help........ 10. If it were not for his courage....... 11. If it hadn’t been for his remarkable talent...... 12. If it hadn’t been for his experience and skill..... 13. If you had been at home........... 14. If I were not so busy......... Exercise VI Complete the following sentences using the required subjunc- tive mood. 1. She wouldn’t have done it if......... 2. What would you answer if...........? 3. You wouldn’t have fallen ill if....... 4. If he had sent a telegram......... 5. The watch wouldn’t have stopped if.......... 6. If it were not raining........ 7. You would get excellent marks if......... 8. If I had known everything.......... 9. If it were not so cold........ 10. I’d have got there long ago if....... 11. He would study much better if......... 299
12. She wouldn’t say so if......... 13. If we knew him better.......... 14. The child wouldn’t be crying if........ 15. If you had managed to escape........... Exercise VII Paraphrase the following into complex sentences with subor- dinate clauses of condition using the subjunctive mood. 1. It’s a pity the weather was so bad. Otherwise we should have spent the whole day out in the country. 2. He does not have much time to spare, or he would show you around the exhibition himself. 3. Why didn’t you ask him about it? He wouldn’t have refused to advise you on the matter. 4. Come and stay with us for a week. We should be only too glad! 5. There would have sent us information, but there was none to send. 6. The bird was throwing itself against the cage and would have opened the small door, but it was safely locked from outside. 7. Chapayev could not reach the other bank of the Urals as he was badly wounded. 8. I was very busy that day and I could not go shopping with you. 9. I recognized you at once, for your brother described you to me. 10. Why didn’t you follow the doctor’s advice? You are down with quinsy again. 11. The river was not frozen. We could not go skating. 12. Eliza managed to escape and thus saved her child from slavery. 13. The shoes pinch. I won’t buy the pair though I like it. Exercise VIII Answer the following questions. 1. Where do you think your brother would go if he were on leave? 2. Would you have made the mistake if you knew the rule? 3. What would you reply if somebody apologized to you? 4. What would he answer if somebody had thanked him? 5. What would you say if you wanted to interrupt somebody? 6. What would one do if he wanted somebody to hold his parcel for a moment? 7. What language would you like your son to know? And your daughter, if you had one? 8. How much time would he spend doing this work if he were asked to do it? 9. What museum would you choose to go on an excursion to if you were to organize one? 10. Would you have answered the questions in the same way if you were in my place? 11. What would you do if it began to rain hard when you were a long 300
way from home? 12. What would you do if the postman dropped someone else’s letter into your letter-box? Exercise IX Replace the infinitives by the correct form of the subjunctive mood. 1. But for the toothache I (to enjoy) the concert. 2. But for him we still (to sit) here waiting for the car. 3. But for my smile he (to believe) me. 4. The children (to sleep) in the open air but for the rain. 5. Nobody (to recognize) him but for the scar on his left cheek. 6. But for his severe look the child (not to begin) crying. 7. But for the accent with which he speaks nobody (to say) he is not Russian. 8. But for the late hour I (to stay) here longer. 9. But for the darkness they (not to lose) their way. 10. But for the fog we (to continue) our way. 11. But for the heavy bag she (to go) there also on foot. 12. I (to read) the book sooner but for the small print. 13. But for his assistance it (to be) impossible to do the work in time. 14. But for the hot climate he (to go) there together with us. 15. One (may take) him for a Russian but for the accent with which he speaks. Exercise X Complete the following sentences. 1. But for the rain the tourists..2. But for the late hour we .....3. I ......but for you. 4. The plane.......but for the sudden change of weather. 5. But for the fact that we did not know the language...............................6. But for your being so careless. 7. The Gadfly ...... from prison but for the fit of sickness. 8. But for his mother’s unhappy marriage to Mr Murdstone David’s life..... Exercise XI What conditions are implied in the following? 1. Her life might have been saved. 2.1 could tell you what that means. 3. The swimmer would undoubtedly have been drowned. 4. All this trouble might have been avoided. 5. The story would be much more amusing. 6. Nobody would recognize you. 7. We might have had a glorious time. 8.1 wouldn’t like to be interrupted. 9. You would have easily found the way. 10.1 dare not think what might have happened. 11. How wonderful it would have been! 12. I am sure you would have liked the play. 301
Exercise XII Translate into English. 1. Если бы не важность этого дела, я бы остался дома. 2. Если бы не гроза, мы бы уже подходили к вершине. 3. Я бы присоединился к вашей компании, если бы не неожи- данный приезд моего знакомого. 4. Если бы не этот весе- лый и интересный человек, мы бы чувствовали себя не- ловко среди незнакомых людей. 5. Мы бы так и не узнали, что он за человек, если бы не этот случай. 6. Мы бы все время работали точно по плану, если бы не эта малень- кая задержка. Exercise XIII Translate into English. 1. Жаль, что вы не знакомы с ним. Если бы вы были знако- мы, вы бы знали, какой это замечательный человек. 2. Я уверен, что все огорчились бы, если бы поездку отложили. 3. Он так изменился! Если бы вы его встретили, вы бы его не узнали. 4. Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы не коле- бался. 5. Если бы шофер остановил машину, мы бы выш- ли. 6. Если бы он действительно сожалел о том, что сделал, он бы вел себя иначе. 7. Если бы вы могли одолжить мне свой словарь, я был бы вам очень благодарен. 8. Если бы он не обладал такой замечательной памятью, он не мог бы помнить такое невероятное количество фактов. 9. Если бы ты предупредил меня раньше, я бы давно все сделал. 10. Если бы не помощь профессора, результаты опыта были бы далеко не такими удовлетворительными. 11. Если бы ты регулярно посещал спортивную школу, тебя бы не ис- ключили. 12. Если бы наши ученые не решили важнейшие проблемы, связанные с полетом, то полет первого корабля в космос был бы невозможен. 13. Будь я на вашем месте, я бы пришел пораньше, чтобы застать его. 14. Если бы я был художником, я бы обязательно нарисовал портрет этого человека. 15. Что бы вы сказали, если бы я обратился к вам за советом? Exercise XIV Translate into English. 1. Если бы вы пришли на заседание научного кружка, вы бы услышали интересный доклад одного из наших студен- тов. 2. Вы были бы недовольны, если бы я не пришел? 302
3. Если бы он поступил в университет четыре года назад, он в будущем году окончил бы его. 4. Если бы мы знали, что вам нужна эта книга, мы бы захватили ее с собой. 5. Они бы заметили эту ошибку, если бы были более вни- мательны. 6. Если бы он не был таким опытным хирургом, он не смог бы спасти столько жизней. 7. Вы бы пошли куда- нибудь вечером, если бы я пригласил вас? 8. Если бы вы не были таким рассеянным, вы бы не сделали так много ор- фографических ошибок. 9. Если бы вы занимались систе- матически, у вас не было бы таких пробелов. 10. Если бы не его лукавая улыбка, я бы искренне поверил ему. 11. Если бы вы выполнили все советы врача, вы давно бы выздоро- вели. 12. Если бы поезд вышел вовремя, он прибыл бы в место назначения завтра рано утром. 13. Я бы отложил свою работу и поехал бы с вами на экскурсию, если бы я знал об этом заранее. 14. Если бы не метро, я бы тратил на дорогу около часа. 15. Я бы на вашем месте не колебался ни минуты и принял бы это предложение. 16. Я не смог бы поговорить с ним на эту тему, даже если бы я его видел вчера. Exercise XV Translate into English. 1. Если бы я не знал его так хорошо, я бы не поверил тому, что он мне только что рассказал. 2. Если бы ты положила книгу на место, она была бы сейчас здесь. 3. Если бы они начали эту работу сразу, они смогли бы закончить ее во- время. 4. Я бы давно ей написала, если бы знала ее адрес. 5. Если бы сейчас было потеплее, я надела бы новое летнее пальто. 6. Если бы вы были внимательнее на прошлом уро- ке, вы бы сейчас лучше знали материал. 7. Где бы ты меня ждал, если бы мы условились встретиться? 8. Если бы он не был болен тогда, он мог бы оказаться в гораздо боль- шей опасности. 9. Кто знает, как бы он поступил, если бы услышал об этом раньше? 10. Я бы давно ответила на воп- рос, если бы могла. 11. Все были бы рады, если бы вы заш- ли к нам еще раз до вашего отъезда. 12. Вы бы чувствова- ли себя лучше, если бы больше гуляли. 13. Ты бы не разбил вазу, если бы был осторожнее. 14. О, если бы я была тогда достаточно взрослой, чтобы понять всю серьезность по- ложения! 303
Exercise XVI Translate into English. 1. Если бы вы погуляли вчера вечером, вы бы сразу усну- ли. 2. Если бы я была завтра свободна, я обязательно погу- ляла бы с вами. 3. Если бы я сейчас была свободна, я бы гуляла в Летнем саду. 4. Вы встретили бы мою сестру, если бы сейчас гуляли в Летнем саду. 5. Вы бы чувствовали себя сегодня очень хорошо, если бы вы с нами вчера перед сном гуляли весь вечер. 6. Если бы вы любили прогулки, вы бы чаще с нами гуляли. 7. Вы бы погуляли с нами вчера вече- ром, если бы знали, как красивы здесь белые ночи. 8. Если бы вы не были так заняты, мы с вами ездили бы за город каждое воскресенье. 9. Если бы вы вчера были на футболь- ном матче, вы бы видели лучших футболистов. 10. Я была бы очень рада, если бы вы пришли на следующий футболь- ный матч. 11. Если бы вы любили математику, вы бы боль- ше ею занимались. 12. Если бы вы были завтра свободны, я с удовольствием пошла бы с вами на выставку. 13. Вы давно побывали бы на этой выставке картин, если бы ин- тересовались искусством. The Subjunctive Mood after the Conjunctions as if (as though) The Subjunctive Mood is used after the conjunction as if (as though): You talk as if you had a bad cold. I feel as if I were one of the family. He was quite calm as if nothing had happened. It looks as though you had heard the news already. When the actions of the main and the subordinate clauses take place at the same time the Past Simple is used in the subor- dinate clause. Any tense can be used in the main clause. He spoke (speaks, will speak) as if he knew everything. She behaves (behaved, will behave) as if she were angry. The form of the Past Perfect is used to show that the action of the subordinate clause took place before the action of the main clause. Any tense can be used in the main clause. 304
She cries (cried, will cry) bitterly as if she had lost all hope. You look (looked, will look) as if you had done something extraordinary. a к__ EXERCISES Exercise I Supply the necessary forms of the subjunctive mood in clauses introduced by as if and as though. 1. You look as if you (to want) to ask something. 2.1 feel as if I (to eat) too much. 3. He looked at me as if he (not approve) of my suggestion. 4. There was horror in her eyes as if she (to see) something frightful. 5. He speaks French as if it (to be) his mother tongue. 6. He looked ashamed as if he (to regret) having been rude. 7. There was an awkward silence as if I (to say) something that I ought not to have said. 8. He looked at us suspiciously as if he (not to trust) us. 9. Look at that crowd: it looks as if there (to be) an accident. 10. The wounded beast went bounding up the hill as if the bullet (not to hit) it. 11. Whenever I saw them it looked as though they (to be) on very good terms with one another. 12. The knife shone as though it just (to come) out of the workshop. 13. As I opened my door I seemed to hear a changing sound as if a mass of metal (to fall). Exercise II Supply the necessary forms of the subjunctive mood in clauses introduced by as if and as though. 1. You look as though you (not to have) much sleep the last night or two. 2. He felt as if he (to catch) cold. 3. She always smelled as though she just (to come) from a long walk in a forest. 4. He looked as if he (not to have) a meal for a week. 5. He frowned as she (to be puzzled). 6. He looked as if he (not to sleep) much lately. 7. It looked as though he (to be) filled with an overwhelming joy. 8. The sky looked as though it (to be) grey for months. 9. She greeted me as though I (to be) an old school friend whom she had not seen for years. 10. Her eyes were sparkling as though she (to laugh) at us. 11. She was breathing fast and deep, as though she (to run). 12. He looked as though he (not to move) since I left him the previous night. 13. Our life goes on as if nothing (to happen). 14. He felt as if he (to be reprimanded). 305
Exercise III Complete the following sentences. 1. He always makes wonderful speeches as if 2. He looked tired as though ;.3. She knows these parts well as though ....4. It seemed as though...5. Why are you looking at me as if........................6.as if he had never heard it before. 7. He was pale as if..8. We met as though.....9. You look as though .... 10.....as though he did not notice anything around him. 11. He often looked at his watch as if.12. She spoke about he as though..... 13. The man turned pale as if... 14. It was as if.. 15.....as though the whole world had gone to sleep. 16. You treat me as though.. 17. He behaves as if...18. Why are you staring at me as though...19. He smiled cunningly as though...20. We felt at home with her at once as though.... Exercise IV Translate into English. 1. Он говорил co мной так, как будто он знал меня много лет. 2. Она так благодарила меня, как будто я сделал что-то нео- быкновенное. 3. Он бежал не оглядываясь, как будто за ним кто-то гнался. 4. Он с таким важным видом говорил о книге, как будто он ее читал. 5. Зверь вдруг страшно зарычал, как будто его ранили. 6. Мне казалось, будто я уже видел этого человека где-то. 7. Вы так загорели, как будто провели на юге не месяц, а все лето. 8. Он выглядит усталым, как будто давно не отдыхал. 9. Прохожий не остановился, как будто не слышал, что его зовут. 10. Она знала эти места, как будто жила здесь. 11. Казалось, будто ничего и не произошло. 12. У него было такое чувство, словно его обманули. 13. У него был такой вид, как будто он прождал очень долго. Exercise V Translate into English. 1. Он выглядел так, будто не его ученик, а он сам - победи- тель соревнований. 2. Небо покрылось темными тучами. Стало темно, будто наступила ночь. 3. Он смотрел на де- вушку с таким удивлением, как будто видел ее впервые. 4. Он сидел за столом, словно он писал, но он не писал и не читал. 5. Он смотрел на меня так, словно он не понимал, что я ему говорила. 6. Она чувствовала себя очень уста- лой, как будто она была на долгой прогулке. 7. Она про- 306
должала оглядывать комнату, как будто искала кого-то. 8. Они разговаривали друг с другом тихими голосами, как будто они были в церкви. 9. Он застегнул пальто, как буд- то ему было холодно. 10. У нее обычно был такой вид, слов- но она только что плакала. 11. У меня такое чувство, как будто я знаю тебя годы. 12. Собака приветствовала своего хозяина, как будто они не виделись год. 13. Они не разго- варивали, как будто они были так счастливы быть вместе, что им было не нужно никакого разговора. Exercise VI Translate into English. 1. Он сидел за столом, словно он писал, но он не писал и не читал. 2. Он сидел не шевелясь, словно он не расслышал слова друга. 3. Ты смотришь, словно ничего не понима- ешь. 4. Она посмотрела на меня так, как будто я говорил неправду. 5. Она выглядела так, будто ей только что сооб- щили неприятную новость. 6. Что с вами? У вас такой вид, как будто вам нехорошо. 7. Она обращалась с ним так, словно он был ребенком. 8. Ты так загорел, как будто толь- ко что приехал с юга. 9. Он выглядел усталым, как будто не спал всю ночь. 10. Она дышала так тяжело, как будто бежала всю дорогу. 11. У меня было такое чувство, будто мы говорим с ним на разных языках. 12. Минуту, другую он стоял посреди комнаты, как будто не знал, что делать. 13. Он говорит так, как будто повторяет чьи-то слова. Exercise VII Translate into English. 1. У вас такой вид, словно вы не знаете, куда идти. 2. Она говорила и смеялась, словно играла на сцене. 3. Я помню все так четко, словно это произошло вчера. 4. Почему у тебя такой вид, будто ты мне не веришь? 5. У меня такое чувство, будто меня обманули. 6. Похоже, что все уже ушли. 7. Вы сделали так много ошибок, словно вы никогда не слышали эти правила. 8. Почему вы на меня так смотрите, словно я говорю неправду? 9. Он говорил о вас так, как будто хорошо вас знает. 10. Он говорил о вас так, как будто ему не 17 лет, а 70.11. Взгляните, он ведет себя так, как будто ничего особенного не произошло. 12. У меня такое чувство, словно вы никуда не уезжали. 13. Он рассуждал так, как будто уже много лет хорошо знаком с этим вопросом. 307
The Subjunctive Mood after the Verbs Expressing Orders, Commands, Suggestions In object clauses after the verbs to order, to demand, to in- sist, to propose, to suggest, to recommend the form of the sub- junctive mood should (for all persons) + infinitive is used. The officer ordered that the soldiers should open fire. He suggested that they should go to the party. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Read and translate the following sentences. 1. He suggested that we should discuss the problem again. 2. The principal ordered that everything should be ready by Monday. 3. The scientists demanded that the experiment should go on. 4. We insisted that the meeting should be postponed. 5. It was recommended by the committee that a new pro- gramme should be worked out. 6. The doctor demanded that the patient should be taken to hospital immediately. 7. The chairman proposed that the question should be in- cluded in the agenda. 8. The chief engineer suggested that the new method should be introduced without delay. Exercise II Paraphrase the sentences using the subjunctive mood (should + infinitive) 1. The captain ordered the passengers to leave the deck. 2. I suggest postponing the party till next Sunday. 3. Mother insisted on our taking some sandwiches with us. 4. “He must be expelled from school,” the principal de- manded. 5. A relative of mine suggested my staying with him in summer. 308
6. Under the circumstances I proposed to wait. 7. “You must work more in the laboratory,” the teacher sug- gested. 8. The present law must continue to operate. The Congress insisted on that. 9. “Do not tire yourself,” the doctor recommended. 10. The strikers wanted their economic and political demands to be satisfied. They insisted on that. 11. “Let us hold a meeting as soon as possible,” suggested the students. 12. “Let us change the route,” suggested one of the hikers. Exercise III Paraphrase the sentences using the subjunctive mood (should + infinitive). 1. The doctor strongly recommended the woman to keep to the prescribed diet. 2. The demonstrators demanded freedom for the arrested people. 3. Who was the first to suggest my taking this very theme for my research I cannot well remember. 4. The majority insisted on the matter being turned over to a special committee for further consideration. 5. The chief of staff ordered the mechanized battalions to be sent to the advancing regiment. 6. It was demanded that anyone leaving last lock the room and leave the key with the night warder. 7. His father strongly recommended him to join the navy. 8. The teacher advised the students not to start on the new assignment before they had corrected their mistakes. Exercise IV Rewrite the sentences putting the verbs in brackets in the subjunctive mood. 1. Members of the rescue party suggested that they (set out) in spite of the thick fog. 2. Columbus insisted that ships sailing for India (go) westward from Spain, not eastward. 3. The passengers demanded that the driver (stop) the car at once. 4. The doctor demanded that every drop of water (be boiled). 5. The principal ordered that everybody (be ready) by 6. 6.1 propose that we (try) our new method. 7.1 insist that you (give) your opinion frankly. 8. He suggested that the meeting (appoint) at 5 o’clock. 9. The chairman proposed that the question (be included) in the agenda. 10. The committee recommended that a new programme (work out). 309
Exercise V Translate into English. 1. Я предлагаю, чтобы мы выехали вечерним поездом. 2. Она предложила, чтобы мы спали с открытым окном, но я боялась простудиться. 3. Я настаиваю, чтобы ты по- шла сегодня на концерт. 4. Наша учительница по литера- туре предложила, чтобы мы все пошли в музей А.С. Пуш- кина. 5. Он настаивал, чтобы я подписалась на этот журнал. 6. Он предложил, чтобы мы снова обсудили эту проблему. 7. Ученые требовали, чтобы эксперимент продолжался. 8. Учитель настаивал, чтобы мы больше работали в лабо- ратории. 9. Они требовали, чтобы мы отложили собрание. 10. Директор приказал, чтобы отчет был готов к понедель- нику. 11. Студенты предложили, чтобы собрание было проведено как можно скорее. 12. Доктор настаивал, что- бы она не утомляла себя. 13. Офицер приказал, чтобы сол- даты открыли огонь. 14. Учитель требовал, чтобы мы уде- ляли особое внимание произношению. Exercise VI Translate into English. 1. Комиссия потребовала, чтобы этот вопрос обсудили на открытом собрании. 2. Я предлагаю прекратить обсужде- ние вопроса и вернуться к нему после доклада экспертов. 3. Руководитель лаборатории порекомендовал студентам проводить опыты. 4. Пассажиры потребовали, чтобы шо- фер остановил машину. 5. Я настаиваю, чтобы ты откро- венно выразила свое мнение. 6. Члены спасательной груп- пы настаивали, чтобы они покинули лагерь, несмотря на сильный туман. 7. Комиссия предложила, чтобы в отчет было включено больше фактов. 8. Режиссер потребовал, чтобы во время репетиции в зал никого не впускали. 9. Они предлагали, чтобы участники самодеятельности получи- ли право участвовать в заключительном концерте. 10. Он предложил, чтобы дело было отложено. 11. Доктор наста- ивает, чтобы он поехал на юг. 12. Продавцы требовали, чтобы платеж был произведен в течение пяти дней. 13. Он рекомендовал, чтобы товары были отправлены немедлен- но. 14. Он настаивает на том, чтобы план был обсужден на следующей неделе. 310
The Subjunctive Mood after It is Necessary; It is Natural etc. In object clauses after It is necessary ..., It is important..., It is impossible ..., It is unbelievable ..., It is strange..., It is improbable..., It is natural..., It is desirable... should (for all persons) + infinitive is used (the subjunctive mood). It is important that he should be present at the lecture. When the action of the subordinate clause took place be- fore the action of the main clause should + Perfect Infinitive is used. It is unbelievable that he should have learnt the language in six months. a к_ Exercise I Read and translate the following sentences. Make up your own sentences following the same patterns. 1. It is necessary that they should report to us on the progress of their work. 2. It is important that Russia and the USA should cooperate in dealing with global problems. 3. It is impossible that human beings should exist without air. 4. It is natural that men should love freedom. 5. It is important that the experiment should be a success. 6. It is necessary that this method should be tested in practice. 7. It is important that the committee should consult public opinion before working out their new programme. 8. It is necessary that every child should have the same educational opportunities. 9. It is necessary that the conflict should be solved peacefully. 10. It is natural that parents should be anxious about their children’s future. 11. It is important that mass media should immediately reflect the current events and comment on them. Exercise II Replace the following sentences using should + infinitive. Make the necessary changes. 1. It is natural for children to be fond of games. 2. It is important for all of you to attend the lecture. 311
3. It is impossible for engines to work without fuel. 4. Isn’t it strange for trees to blossom at this time of the year? 5. It was necessary for the expedition to turn back before the store of water ran out. 6. It is important for all of us to form good habits while we are young. 7. It is most important for man to learn to use atomic power in everyday life. 8. It seems almost impossible for men to have built such great cities thousands of years ago. 9. It is natural for men to have settled in warm countries where life was easier than in the cold north. 10. It was very unusual for him to have made such a mistake. 11. It is advisable for everybody to consult a doctor before going to the south. 12. It is unbelievable for the tourists to have crossed the river at this time of the year. Exercise III Replace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the subjunctive mood. 1. It is necessary that students (to take interest) in public life. 2. It was suggested that we (to start) at dawn. 3. It is requested that the ticket (to retain) till the end of the performance. 4. It is desirable that you (to keep) us regularly informed of your life. 5. Was it so important that he (to be) present? 6. It is not advisable that the children (to leave) alone. 7. It is recommended that the medicine (to keep) in a dark and cool place. 8. It’s doubtful that anything (to change) before you come back. 9. It is strange that he (to say) such a thing; it’s not like him. 10. It is possible that the weather continues good for another couple of days, but it is hardly probable that it (to remain) as fine during the whole month. 11. It was unbelievable that the tourists (to cover) this distance in so short a time. 12. It is not unnatural she (to be) so upset. Exercise IV Use its impossible, its unbelievable or its improbable in each of the following sentences instead of can't. Make all the ne- cessary changes. Model: This lake can’t be deep. It’s impossible that this lake should be deep. 312
1. He can’t have failed. 2. It can’t be very hot in Scandinavian countries. 3. She can’t have succeeded. 4. They can’t have accepted your offer. 5. He can’t have given you the right information. 6. The story can’t be true; it sounds fantastic. 7. This method of yours can’t have many advantages over ours. 8. Fresh air and exercise can’t do anybody any harm. 9. The accident can’t have happened through any fault of mine. Exercise V Finish the following sentences. 1. It is natural that 2. It is strange that 3. It is impossible that ..4. It is absolutely necessary that .. 5. It is very important that...6. It sounds improbable that..7. It really is unbelievable that.8. Isn’t it strange that.? 9. Why do you think it is improbable that.? 10. Why is it so important that...? 11. It seems almost impossible that..12. It sounds fantastic that..13. Isn’t it doubtful that.? Exercise VI Translate into English. 1. Очень важно, чтобы вы использовали каждую возмож- ность говорить друг с другом по-английски. 2. Странно, что вы не поняли лекцию; она была очень проста. 3. Его поразило, что такие вещи еще возможны в наше время. 4. Перед тем как переводить текст, рекомендуется снача- ла ознакомиться с ним. 5. Удивительно, что она забыла о таком важном деле. 6. Разве не удивительно, чтобы люди в таком возрасте показывали такие высокие спортивные результаты? 7. Желательно, чтобы ваш док- лад обсудили на кафедре, перед тем как вы его сделаете на конференции. 8. Необходимо, чтобы студенты пере- шли к практическому применению своих знаний. 9. Очень важно, чтобы вы обратили внимание на свое здоровье. 10. Невероятно, что он выучил иностранный язык так быстро. 11. Удивительно, что вы уделяете внимание та- ким несущественным вопросам. 12. Сомнительно, чтобы был закончен весь словарь. 313
The Subjunctive Mood after It’s (about) Time; It’s high Time After the main clause expressing time -Its (about) time (пора), Its high time (давно пора) the Past Simple is used (the subjunc- tive mood). It's about time you visited your sick friend. It's high time you were washed and dressed. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Read and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Don’t you think it’s time you got a job? 2. Come along. It’s time we had lunch. 3. It’s high time we started putting our own house in order. 4. They were saying in the office that it was about time he retired. 5. “It’s high time you were punished, boy,” father said angrily. 6. It’s high time Pete were back home. 7. It’s about time we heard from him. 8. It’s time you went to bed, it’s late. 9. It’s time you knew the rule. 10. It’s time he stopped behaving like that. Exercise II Replace the infinitives in brackets by the subjunctive mood in subject clauses after the expression it is (about, high) time. 1. It is time you (to understand) it is no joking matter. 2. It is high time that you (to get down) to business. 3. It’s about time we (to be leaving). 4. It’s high time you (to change) your opinion of him. 5. Isn’t it time the rain (to be stopping)? 6. It is about time he (to express) his own point of you. 7. You are still sleeping, aren’t you? It’s high time you (to have) breakfast. 8. You are not a child. It’s time you (to feel) some responsibility. 9. Look, the flowers have dropped their heads. Isn’t it high time they (to water)? 10. Dinner is ready. It is time we (to sit down) to table. 11. Why are they not back yet? Isn’t it high time they (to return)? 12. It is about time fine weather (to set in). 13. It’s high time for the team (to win) the competition. 314
Exercise III Answer the following questions using the subjunctive mood after it is (high, about) time. 1. What would the teacher say on learning that one of the students has not begun reviewing the material when there is little time left before the examination? 2. What would you say if one of your friends still missed up the expression “to pay attention to something” and “to call somebody’s attention to something”, the difference between which has been explained more than once? 3. What would you say if looking at the watch you realized that there was not much time left before the beginning of the performance and you were still at home? 4. What would you say if the question was clear and the people were still discussing it? 5. What would the librarian say if someone were still keeping the book which he should have returned a long time before? Exercise IV Translate the following into English. 1. Нам пора бы идти. 2. Ему давно пора бы объяснить, что он задумал. 3. Его давно пора проучить. 4. Когда я про- снулся, я почувствовал, что мне самое время вызвать док- тора. 5. Нам пора бы обедать. 6. Ему было сказано, что пора бы ему научиться делать так, как ему велят. 7. Тебе бы давно пора выбросить эту старую мебель. 8. Как ты думаешь, не пора ли нам вернуться домой? 9. Давно пора вам решить, на какую тему вы будете писать доклад. 10. Вам пора идти спать. 11. Вам давно пора быть более серьезным. 12. Вам пора бы прочесть этот роман. Exercise V Translate the following into English. 1. Вам давно пора знать это правило. 2. Вам пора пере- стать вести себя таким образом. 3. Вам пора бросить ку- рить. 4. Вам пора подумать серьезно о своем поведении. 5. Давно пора зажечь свет. Зачем портить зрение? 6. Ребен- ку давно пора спать. 7. Вы водите машину не первый год. Пора знать правила уличного движения. 8. Не пора ли об- ратить серьезное внимание на этот вопрос? 9. Вам давно пора обратиться к зубному врачу. 10. Скоро зима. Давно пора закончить ремонт. 11. Чего мы ждем? Нам пора уже быть в пути. 12. Не пора ли им прекратить эти шутки? 315
The Subjunctive Mood in Adverbial Clauses of Purpose I. In clauses of purpose after the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, so the subjunctive forms may (might) + infinitive or can (could) + infinitive are used. Only might or could are used if the action in the subordinate clause, following the action in the main clause, refers to the past. But when the action refers to the present or future both forms of each verb are possible (may or might, can or could). I tell you this so that you may understand the situation. She left the lamp on the window-sill so that he might see it from afar. She gave him the book that he might have something to read on the journey. IL After the conjunction lest should + infinitive is used. The girl whispered these words lest somebody should over- hear her. Shut the window lest he should catch cold. 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Read and translate the following sentences. Explain the use of the verb forms in the clauses of purpose. 1. “I like to be close to the stage,” said Ann, “so that I can see the actors’ faces.” 2. He asked Teddy to stop the car so that he and Julia could get out. 3. Once or twice he gave his brother considerable sums in order that he might make a new start. 4. She usually bore her head high so that men could not see her double chin. 5. Take your umbrella with you lest you should get wet to the skin. 6. Repeat the rules lest you should make mistakes in your test-paper. 7. She knew that Billy preferred to go and stand at the gate so that he could be the first to board the plane. Exercise II Replace the infinitives in brackets by the correct form of the subjunctive mood. 1. She stirred on her sofa so that she (to look) down at the playing cat. 2. He gave Stella another glance, from the corner 316
of his eye, so that she (not to see) he was looking at her. 3. Then she went over to the captain and leaned over him so that she (to speak) into his ear. 4. She put the coat back and placed some other clothes on it so that it (to look) as though it had not been disturbed. 5.1 like to know what new books are being published so that I (to ask) for them at the public library. 6. You ought to hear it from his own lips so that you (to judge). 7. I went to mother and asked for my key so that I (to go) straight up to my room. 8. The mother put some sugar into the medicine that the child (to swallow) it easily. 9. I had a book hidden in the barn so that I (to read) without fear of being caught. 10. I took her to the theatre, so that we (to get) back home late enough. 11. Tell them to make haste lest they (to be late). 12. Ring them up lest they (to forget) about the meeting. 13. The students gave their test-papers to the teacher so that he (to correct) them. 14. He has told you all this so that you (to understand) his intention. Exercise III Paraphrase the following so as to use the subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of purpose. 1. A car will be sent down to your place tonight to take you straight to the station. 2. Copy out the examples and study them thoroughly so as not to make mistakes in the construction. 3. They wrote her a letter to remind her of her promise. 4. You will have to close either the door or the window otherwise there will be a draught. 5. We shall start earlier so as not to miss the train. 6. I have repeated this for you not to misunderstand. 7. The guide marked the path carefully for the party not to get lost on their way back. 8. They spoke in a whisper so as not to wake anyone in the room. 9. How is the picture to be packed not to be spoiled on the way? Exercise IV Translate into English using the conjunctions lest or that (so that). 1. Запишите мой номер телефона, чтобы не забыть его. 2. Посоветуйте ей одеться потеплее, чтобы она не просту- дилась. 3. Позвоните ей, пожалуйста, по телефону, чтобы она не забыла взять с собой мою книгу. 4. Объясните ему, как пройти к нашей даче, чтобы он мог когда-нибудь нас навестить. 5. Примите таблетку, чтобы у вас не болела го- 317
лова. 6. Попросите ее говорить тише, чтобы она не разбу- дила ребенка. 7. Здесь нужно идти очень осторожно, что- бы не упасть. 8. Почините свою ручку, чтобы можно было ею пользоваться. 9. Вы должны завтра утром встать по- раньше, чтобы не опоздать на поезд. 10. Он положил свой багаж под скамейку, чтобы пассажиры могли пройти на свои места. 11. Поставьте лесенку, чтобы пассажир мог под- няться на верхнюю полку. Exercise IV Translate into English using the conjunctions lest or that (so that). 1. Придерживайте шляпу рукой, чтобы она не слетела. 2. Скажи мне еще раз твой точный адрес, чтобы я больше не ошибался. 3. Он изложил план очень подробно, чтобы все было ясно и не вызывало сомнений. 4. Зажгите еще одну лампу, чтобы в комнате было светлее. 5. После смерти по- эта в его квартире ничего не переставлялось, чтобы все выг- лядело так, как было при его жизни. 6. Она сделала вид, будто ищет что-то в бумагах, чтобы никто не заметил ее волнения. 7. Напишите ему сразу же, чтобы он мог знать наши планы. 8. Пришлите ему телеграмму, чтобы он мог знать о нашем приезде. 9. Скажите ему, чтобы он положил деньги в кошелек, чтобы он не потерял их. 10. Попросите их поторопиться, чтобы они не опоздали на собрание. 11. Я дам тебе эту книгу, чтобы ты мог выписать из нее не- сколько отрывков. 12. Я сообщаю тебе обо всех этих вещах, чтобы мы могли понять друг друга. 13. Девочка не закры- вала окно ни днем, ни ночью, чтобы кошка могла прихо- дить к ней в комнату. 14. Мы пошли погулять, чтобы я мог увидеть лес до того, как стемнеет. 15. Позвони мне, когда ты будешь выезжать, чтобы я знал, когда ждать тебя. Revision of the Use of the Subjunctive Mood 0 EXERCISES Exercise I Change the following sentences so as to use wish in each of them. 1. I am sorry I am short of money at the moment, I’d gladly lend you some. 2. It’s a pity that he won’t come. 3.1 am sorry 318
that you declined our invitation. 4. It’s a pity you did not hear his comments. 5. It’s a pity we didn’t grasp your idea at once. It would have saved a lot of trouble. 6. It was a pity that we had to row against the current. 7. During the night the river rose; we regretted having settled only a few yards from the water edge. 8. It’s a pity you are so busy these days. 9. My friend regrets not having told you this at once. 10. She was sorry not to have had time enough to make the experiments. 11. It’s a pity we shan’t be able to reach the destination before sunset. 12. I’m sorry I made you angry by disturbing you at such an early hour. 13. What a pity you are leaving us so soon! 14. Unfortunately, you will not receive an answer before the New Year. Exercise II Supply the necessary forms for the verbs given in brackets after the verb to wish. 1. Pete, you’re up to something. I wish I (to know) what it is. 2. Ann wished he (to know) earlier what Tom had just told him. 3. He wished that it all never (to happen) at all and that things (to be) as they once had been. 4.1 wished I (can) settle down to something. 5. I wish (to be) quite sure that she is altogether honest. 6. I wished he (not to ask) that question. 7. “Have you got my letter?” “Yes. I wish you (not to write) it.” 8. She almost wished it (to be) an ordinary day and that there (to be) no such things as holidays. 9. I wish I (can) go round the world. 10. I wish you (to ask) her a question or two about her parents. 11. At the first sight of his host Andrew almost wished he (not to come). 12. I wish you (to bring) your sister with you. 13.1 wish it (to happen) to anyone but you. Exercise III Supply the necessary forms for the verbs given in brackets in the following conditional sentences: 1. If his mother (not to go) out, the boy (to turn) off the TV set and (to go) to bed. 2.1 (to wait) if I (to be) you. 3. She (to fall) if he suddenly (not to put) out a hand to steady her. 4. If it (to be) not for the journalists, everything (to be) perfectly easy. 5. If your father (to be) here, he (to give) you a piece of his mind. 6. “She is only twenty.” “She (to know) better if she (to be) twenty-five?” 7.1 do not know what (to happen) if this 319
(to go) on much longer. 8. Don’t you see that if things like that (to happen) life (to be) quite different. 9. You really (to follow) me if I (to go) away? 10. I believe you (to make) her stay if it (to be) not so late. 11. It (to be) better if you (to take) things coolly, as I do. 12. It was so dark that he (to lose) his way if she (not to take) him by the hand. Exercise IV Complete the following conditional sentences. 1. The cake wouldn’t have got burnt if...2. You wouldn’t have got into trouble if..3. Your dress would look nicer if ....4.1 would have come earlier if.....5. He would have got wet through if.......................6. He would drive straight home if. 7. It would be better for all of us if.8. If it hadn’t been for the rain....9. If it hadn’t been for his advice... 10. If it hadn’t been for his departure.... 11. If it were not for his family 12. If it were not for his scholarship 13. If it hadn’t been for the announcement on the radio 14. If it were not for the message that he received .... 15. If your mother were to ask you about me.....16. If I had known you were here..... 17. If the play had not been so long. 18. If we could afford it.... 19. If the car had not broken down .... 20. If I were you....21. If you had left unexpectedly ..........................22. If it hadn’t been raining.23. If my son were not making progress in his English.......................... Exercise V Turn the words expressing an unreal condition into an z/-clause like in the model below. Model: I would prefer you to put it in your own words. - I would prefer it if you put it in your own words. 1. He did not answer her. She would not have heard him. 2. I’d ask you to have dinner with me, but unfortunately I have a previous engagement. 3. Why didn’t you tell me? It would have been only fair to give me a chance of judging for myself. 4. He knew his father was not among the audience. He would not have known what music to play for him. 5. She would have liked to be an adventuress, but somehow she hadn’t managed it. 6. You really could get a cat, Helen. Think how happy it would be here! 7. A few years ago, in a storm like this, an airport would have been closed completely. 320
8. I tried to explain that if it hadn’t been me the children might have been lost. Exercise VI Paraphrase the following sentences using but for ... Remem- ber that the situation refers to the past. Follow the model. Add a sentence of your own. Model: He didn’t let me leave the party yesterday. - But for him I would have left the party yesterday. The people were boring. 1. The spell of bad weather didn’t let me skate much during the winter holidays. 2. The film shown on TV didn’t let them feel dull in the evening. 3. His father didn’t let him watch the football match yesterday. 4. My relatives in Moscow did not let me stay at the hotel. 5. The slight cough didn’t let me feel quite well. 6. The fall didn’t let the skater win the prize. 7. His help during her illness didn’t let her fall behind the group. Exercise VII Supply the necessary forms of the subjunctive mood in clauses introduced by as if and as though. 1. Whenever I saw them it looked as though they (to be) on very good terms with one another. 2. The knife shone as though it just (to come) out of the workshop. 3. He wasn’t shy, and he talked to Kate’s parents as though he (to know) them all his life. 4. His tanned, smooth skin looked as though a razor never (to touch) it. 5. She clutched the letter to her heart as though she (to think) I would take it from her. 6. For a moment or two she remained by the desk, one hand touching the telephone, as if a thread of contact still (to remain). 7. He looked at me as though he (to want) to ask me something. 8. It was Sunday, and there was a feeling of quietness, a silence as though nature (to be) at rest. 9. He looked fresh and clean as though nothing (to happen) to her that night. 10. He was not so well dressed as his friend, who always looked as though he (to step) out of a shop-window. 11. “I am glad you could come, gentlemen,” he informed them, as if this meeting (to plan) weeks ahead. 11 Н.Утевская 321
Exercise VIII Paraphrase the sentences using the subjunctive mood (should + infinitive). 1. He insisted that people in plays (to talk) as they talked in real life. 2. I suggested that she (to arrive) at my office on Monday. 3. They proposed that they (to give) a dinner party to the new- comers. 4. I suggest that you (to come) back with me. 5. I suggest that this exercise (to do) orally. 6. They proposed that they (to present) their plans in a fortnight. 7. I suggest that she (to join) our circle. 8. My brother insists that I (to play) the violin. Exercise IX Paraphrase the sentences using the subjunctive mood after the expression it is (about, high) time. 1. It is necessary to put an end to this pointless talk. 2. You do not seem to realize the importance of the matter. 3. Why can’t you express such simple things in English as yet? 4. If you do not want your illness to be more serious, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. 5. You must begin reading books in the original no matter how difficult it may seem to you. 6. Isn’t it time to be moving up front? We are getting off the next stop. 7. It is high time for everybody to come. 8. It is high time for the second course to be served. 9. It is about time for you to start on a research. 10. It’s time for her to understand that she is no longer a child and to seriously think of her future. 11. It is about time for the team to start practicing. Exercise X Answer the following questions using the subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of purpose. 1. What do you do when the room is stuffy in order that it should not be? 2. What do they wrap in shops every piece of crockery for? 3. Why do you often take a taxi when we have little time left? 4. Is there any special reason why we took the precautious? 5. What is the point of keeping a notebook if your memory has not failed you so far? 6. For what purpose is the sign of danger put up in some places? 7. For what purpose must you ring them up? 8. Why did the doctor tell him all about the state of his health? 322
Exercise XI Translate into English using the subjunctive mood. 1. Необходимо, чтобы вы приняли во внимание все детали. 2. Невозможно, чтобы он это сказал. 3. Я требую, чтобы вы были здесь ровно в восемь часов. 4. Она настаивала на том, чтобы ему помогли. 5. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он был более внимательным на уроках. 6. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы он присутствовал на нашем собрании. 7. Мы закрыли окна, чтобы в комнате не было холодно. 8. Я это все говорю, что- бы не было недоразумений. 9. Мы спешили, чтобы добрать- ся домой до наступления темноты. 10. Я предлагаю, чтобы мы выехали с вечерним поездом. 11. Вы так загорели, как будто вы провели все лето на юге. 12. Странно, что он не мог ответить на такой простой вопрос. 13. Она предложи- ла, чтобы мы спали с открытым окном, а я боялась просту- диться. 14. Нам необходимо немного отдохнуть, прежде чем начать эту работу. 15. Я предлагаю, чтобы мы пошли се- годня на концерт. 16. Говорите медленно, чтобы мне не про- пустить какое-нибудь слово. 17. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы вы прочли эту книгу; я уверена, что она вам понравиться. 18. Я приду рано, чтобы мы могли все приготовить до при- хода гостей. Exercise XII Translate into English using the subjunctive mood. 1. Если бы не было так поздно, мы продолжали бы нашу работу. 2. Мы перевели бы эту статью вчера, если бы у нас был словарь. 3. Если бы мы вышли из дому на десять минут раньше, мы не опоздали бы на поезд. 4. Если бы я могла, я бы достала вам билеты на завтрашний концерт, но мне сказали, что все билеты уже распроданы. 5. Если бы не было так холодно, мы бы пошли кататься на конь- ках, это мой любимый спорт. 6. Если бы вы были осто- рожнее, вы не разбили бы чашку. 7. Будь я снова в этих местах, обязательно сходил бы на рыбалку. 8. Если бы вам задали этот вопрос, сумели бы вы на него ответить? 9. Он посмотрел на меня, будто никогда прежде меня не видел. 10. Если бы вы действительно любили читать, вы бы всегда нашли время для чтения. 11. Необходимо, что- бы ты взял отпуск на месяц. 12. О, если бы она тогда зна- ла, куда написать ему! 13. Я настаиваю, чтобы мы оста- лись здесь. 323
Exercise XIII Translate into English using the subjunctive mood. 1. Если бы автомобиль не ехал с такой скоростью, несчаст- ного случая не произошло бы. 2. Если бы у меня не болела голова, я бы не ушла домой так рано. 3. Он говорил так, как будто ему не 12 лет, а 20. 4. Я хотел бы, чтобы всегда было тепло. 5. Он скомандовал, чтобы все подошли к нему. 6. Прочитайте все правила, чтобы не делать ошибок в уп- ражнениях. 7. Желательно, чтобы вы нарисовали все, что увидите. 8. Если бы вы регулярно тренировались, вы бы не проиграли игру. 9. Я пошел к себе в комнату, чтобы меня никто не беспокоил. 10. Как жаль, что ты не видел письма. Оно бы тебе все объяснило. 11. Я предложил, чтобы он при- ехал и погостил у меня несколько дней. 12. Мне бы хоте- лось, чтобы он был более трудолюбивым. 13. Я был бы очень рад, если бы вы зашли к нам завтра. 14. Если бы мы не шли так быстро, мы бы не были такими усталыми. 15. Если бы ваше предложение было получено на прошлой неделе, мы бы приняли его. 16. Если бы я был моложе! Exercise XIV Translate into English using the subjunctive mood. 1. Он улыбался, как будто не верил тому, что я говорил. 2. Девочка сидела тихо, словно она смотрела телевизор. 3. Для нас было бы лучше, если бы мы никогда не встреча- лись. 4. Он говорил о книге, как будто он ее читал. 5. По- весь объявление повыше, чтобы всем было видно. 6. Он не сказал ни слова, как будто бы он не слышал, что мы разго- варивали о нем. 7. Он сказал то, что другие тоже могли бы сказать, если бы они были откровенны. 8. Пора бы ему начать работать самостоятельно. 9. Цель нашей экскурсии была в том, чтобы студенты ознакомились с искусством Болгарии. 10. Если бы станция не была так далеко, мы бы донесли вещи сами. 11. Жаль, что мы так и не встретились перед отъездом. 12. Он велел нам сесть на заднее сиденье машины, чтобы мы могли поговорить. Exercise XV Translate into English using the subjunctive mood. 1. Если бы ты положила книгу на место, она была бы сейчас здесь. 2. Жаль, что вы не подождали меня. Мы поехали бы осматривать город вместе. 3. Вам давно пора знать эти пра- 324
вила. Мы их повторяли на каждом уроке. 4. Он настаивал, чтобы я поехала отдохнуть. 5. Мы поторопились, чтобы не опоздать на поезд. 6. Она дала мне ключ, чтобы я мог от- крыть дверь. 7. Я настаивала, чтобы мы остались здесь. 8. Пора бы вам его будить. 9. Желательно, чтобы вы больше читали. 10. Жаль, что ты не был с нами в театре. Если бы ты был, ты бы мог принять участие в обсуждении пьесы. 11. Будь я помоложе, я бы занялся парусным спортом. 12. Запишите мой адрес, чтобы не забыть его. 13. Отправте им телеграм- му, чтобы они знали о нашем приезде. 14. Он настаивает, чтобы все присутствовали на этом собрании. 15. Если бы я был свободен завтра вечером, я бы пошел на концерт. The Verbals (The Non-Finite Forms of the Verb) There are four non-finite forms of the verb in English: the infinitive (to take), the gerund (taking), the participle I (tak- ing ), the participle II (taken). The non-finite forms of the verb do not express person, number or mood as the finite forms do. The non-finite forms of the verb have a double nature, the ver- bal and the nominal. The infinitive and the gerund have the character of a verb and of a noun. The participle has the char- acter of a verb and of an adjective. The infinitive and the parti- ciple are used to form the tenses. The Infinitive In modern English the infinitive has the following forms: Active Voice Passive Voice Present to ask to be asked Continuous to be asking — Perfect to have asked to have been asked Perfect Continuous to have been asking — 325
The Use of the Infinitive 1. The Present Infinitive shows a simultaneous action with that of the main verb. We like to watch TV. 2. The Continuous Infinitive is used to describe an action happening now. He must be working in the garden now. 3. The Perfect Infinitive is used to show that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the main verb. He was sorry to have asked him to come. 4. The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is used to show the duration of the action of the infinitive which happened before the action of the main verb. She looks tired. She seems to have been working all morning. The Use of the Infinitive without the Particle to (The Bare Infinitive) In modem English the infinitive is usually preceded by the particle to: To study is a delight. I went to the library to read. To is used without a verb if the verb has been used before. He translated all the text I asked him to. Still there are cases when the particle to is not used. 1) After all auxiliary and modal verbs (except ought) We will go early in the morning. He may come in the evening. 2) In a complex object after the verbs of sense perception (to see, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice) I saw them climb the tree. The teacher heard Mary answer the examination first. Note: But after these verbs in the passive form the Zo-infini- tive is used. They were seen to climb the tree. Mary was heard to answer the examination first. 3) After the verbs to let, to make, (to force), need, dare (in the modal meaning) Let him read. How dare you do such a thing? 326
You needn 7 go there. I made him apologize. 4) After the expressions had better (лучше бы), would rather, would sooner (предпочел бы), cannot but (не могу не ...), does nothing but ... You had better go home. They would rather walk than go by train. I cannot but be surprised at what you say. She does nothing but grumble. 5) In wh-questions beginning with why (not) Why not start earlier? Why pay more at this shop? 6) After the words than, rather than, but, except. Гll do anything but wash the dishes. Rather than go on foot for an hour, I'll take a bus. 7) If two infinitives are joined by and or or, the to of the second infinitive can be omitted. I want to call Mr Jones and fax or post him a letter. Note: Know and help are followed by a zo-infinitive or an infinitive without to. She helped me (to) wash the dishes. I've never known him (to) be so mean. But in the passive: be known, be helped + zo-infinitive. She was known to have worked as a teacher. The Functions of the Infinitive in the Sentence The infinitive may be used as 1) the subject of a sentence: To obey the laws is everyone's duty. It is simple to translate these sentences. 2) part of a compound nominal predicate (a predicative) His dream was to become an artist. 3) part of a compound verbal predicate (a predicative) Now I begin to understand you. They continuedto whisper. We have to go there immediately. He cannot read French. 4) an object I want to be invited to the conference. We are glad to have seen you. 327
5) an adverbial modifier of purpose I think I will go to England to improve my English. They have entered the university to study history. 6) an adverbial modifier of result Mary knew English well enough to understand the text. The problem is too far complicated to be solved in a hurry. 7) an adverbial modifier of comparison Soon she realized that it was much more pleasant to give than to be given. 8) an adverbial modifier of condition To touch it one would believe that it was the best of furs. (If one touched it, one would believe...) 9) an attribute It was a difficult problem to solve. This is the article to be published in our magazine. Here is a good house to live in. 10) parenthesis to begin with начнем с того, что to tell the truth сказать по правде to cut a long story short короче говоря to say nothing of не говоря уже о to put it mildly мягко выражаясь to say the least of it по меныпей мере to be (quite) frank чтобы быть (совершенно) откро- венным needless to say бесполезно говорить To begin with, you have been lying to me all the time. To be frank with you, it was my fault. To put it mildly, you are not very polite. Q EXERCISES Exercise I State the form of the given infinitives. to be mentioned, to have known, to have been given, to be shouting, to have been writing, to smile, to be dancing, to have been told, to have been travelling, to be asked, to shut, to have said. 328
Exercise II Supply forms according to the task. a) Give the perfect form of the following infinitives (active voice): to say, to grow, to get, to have, to prefer, to continue, to sing, to see, to be, to cry, to sleep, to stop. b) Give the continuous form of the following infinitives (per- fect and non-perfect, active voice): to go, to run, to arrive, to study, to cut, to live, to come, to copy, to tie, to swim, to listen, to work. c) Give the passive form of the following infinitives (perfect and non-perfect): to write, to give, to prove, to buy, to look for, to bring, to attack, to forget, to take care of, to play, to beat, to ring. d) Give all the possible forms of the following infinitives: to work, to lie, to carry, to choose, to stand, to show, to lay, to laugh, to like, to break, to ask, to offer. e) Give all the missing forms of the following infinitives: to be done, to have been talking, to have made, to be held, to have been tried, to be leaving, to be spoken of, to have risen, to have been spending, to be selling, to be raised, to ski. Exercise III Comment on the form of the infinitive. 1. You must be careful with a child. 2. “Come along, Ann,” said Tom, “we must be getting back.” 3. You must have noticed her there. 4. The whole thing must have been going on under her eyes! 5. She’s like a beautiful exotic flower that must be sheltered from bitter winds. 6. This meeting, Helen realized, must have been planned several hours ago. 7.1 want to know how long we are expected to wait. 8. He seemed to be weighing something in his mind. 9. You know how I hate to interfere in other people’s business. 10. He seemed to have taken his defeat quietly. 11. I rang the bell, and the man answered with remarkable quickness, he seemed to have been waiting for it to ring... 329
Exercise IV a) Use the Present Infinitive of the active or passive voice. 1.1 hate (to bother) you, but the man is still waiting (to give) a definite answer. 2. He hated (to bother) with trifling matters when he had many more important questions (to decide). 3. She would never miss a chance (to show) her efficiency she was so anxious (to like) and (to praise). 4. The idea was too complicated (to express) in just one paragraph. It seemed it would take not less than a page (to put) it into words. 5. Is there anything else (to tell) him? I believe he deserves (to know) how the matter stands and (to tell) all about it. 6. The book is likely (to publish) and (to appear) on sale pretty soon. It is sure (to sell) well and (to sell) out in no time. 7. What he took to writing for was not (to earn) a living but a name. All he wanted was (to read) and not (to forget). b) Use the infinitive in the required form of the active voice. 1. How fortunate he is (to travel) all over the world and (to see) so much of it. 2. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he is said (to learn) them while travelling. 3. The river was reported (to overflow) the banks and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city. 4. The girl pretended (to read) a book and not (to notice) me. 5. You seem (to look) for trouble. 6. It seems (to rain) ever since we came here. 7. It is so thoughtful of you (to book) the tickets well in advance. 8. The committee is said (to revise) the programme and (to work out) a plan of its realization. Exercise V Use the required form of the infinitive. 1. The man seemed (to study) me and I felt uneasy in his presence. 2. Perhaps it would bother him (to speak) about the quarrel. 3. He is supposed (to work) at the translation of the book for two years. 4. The only sound (to hear) was the ticking of the grandfather’s clock downstairs. 5. The book was believed (to lose) until the librarian happened (to find) it during the inventory. It turned out (to misplace). 6. We seem (to fly) over the sea for quite a time and there is yet no land (to see). 7. Not (to answer) would have been a wrong step. 8. We don’t seem (to acquaint), at least I can’t remember ever (to meet) him. 9. The third key remained (to test). 330
Exercise VI Use either of the infinitives in brackets, give two variants where possible and explain the difference. 1. We intended (to return, to have returned) by the end of the month. 2. They intend (to revise, to have revised) the draft. 3. a) The sportsmen are expected (to arrive, to have arrived) some days before the competition, b) The sportsmen were expected (to arrive, to have arrived) some days before the competition. 4. a) They were (to come, to have come) by the time, b) Did we not agree that they were (to come, to have come) by the time? 5.1 meant (to help, to have helped) him, no offence was meant. 6.1 meant (to remind, to have reminded) you of it earlier. 7. You ought (to remember, to have remembered) the date. 8. He should (to spare, to have spared) her feelings. 9. According to the schedule the plane was (to land, to have landed) long ago. 10. It was (to be, to have been) a non-stop flight, but the plane had to make a forced landing. Exercise VII Insert the particle to where necessary. 1. The brave boy helped the partisans.....find the way to the railway line in the dead of night. 2. He would sooner....die than.....betray his friends. 3. Suvorov was never known..... retreat. 4. Why not....start out now? We cannot wait for the weather......change. 5. He was never heard......complain of difficulties. 6. You’ll be lonely tomorrow, you’d better.... come and.......dine with us. 7. Don’t let us....waste time. There are a hundred things......be done. 8.1 know him....... have been an actor once. 9. We had better.......make haste. 10. You ought not......sit up so late. 11. What made you.... think so? 12. “Thanks,” Andrew answered, “I’d rather........ see the cases myself.” 13. He was made ........ do his work independently. 14. She seems ....... know a great deal about music. 15.1 thought I would rather....get to the gallery alone, but I was obliged.....accept his company. 16. All I have now time...... do is...send them a telegram. 17. There is hardly anything.....do but.......work out an alternative plan. Exercise VIII Insert the infinitive with the particle to before it where necessary. 1. She began (to talk) of Moscow. 2. It was a command from her mother, and there was nothing for her (to do) but (to obey) 331
it. 3. You must (to take) care not (to offend) her. 4. I’d rather not (to go) home that way. 5. “I think we’d better (to go) and (to get) dry,” he said. 6. Do you want (to write)? - Of course. - Then why not (to write) it? 7. How dare you (to interfere) with my private concerns? No, don’t speak. Don’t try (to excuse) yourself. 8. She rose (to help) her (to lay) the cloth. 9. Why not (to make) him a doctor like his father? 10. He would never cease (to regret) his lost opportunities. 11.1 want (to begin) (to earn) my living. 12. I used (to spend) a lot of time in my friend’s rooms. 13. He never let himself (to be) angry. 14. At that hour she was unaccustomed (to disturb) by anyone. 15. She could not let herself (to cry). 16. The question is, what had I better (to do) with this house? 17. They do nothing but (to talk) about it all day long. 18. But he dared not (to ask) what was in her mind. 19. He wants (to congratulate) you in person. 20. He doesn’t like (to keep) waiting. Exercise IX State the syntactic function of the infinitive. 1. He began to describe in detail the beauties of the picture. 2. She did not trouble to put on a hat. 3. To dine there on a June evening was a delight. 4. The only thing she could do was to give advice. 5. We used to spend a lot of time in a Greek club. 6. They planned to spend their two weeks summer holiday in London. 7. I’d better come round and see what I can do for you. 8. He had other things to think of. 9. His boots stood in front of the fire to warm. 10. She was silent as they continued to walk. 11. You’d better go home and talk it over with your husband. 12. He was not the man to take back the offer he had made. 13. I knew I ought not to have come here. 14. He was too timid to speak. 15. Our aim was to find Pete’s house. 16. I don’t want to quarrel with you. 17. I nodded and tried to look pleased. 18. To swim in the Black Sea was a real pleasure. 19. We had to change the time of our meeting. 20. This is the problem to be solved as soon as possible. Exercise X State the syntactic function of the infinitive. 1. To see is to believe. 2. He wants to be accepted to the university. 3. To produce a great number of excellent consumer 332
goods is the task of our light industry. 4. I am sorry to have interrupted you. 5. That was a nice seaside place to spend the holidays. 6. Russia was the first to conquer space. 7. She was the last to speak at the meeting. 8. He told us nothing about his plan of research work to be carried out next year. 9. I have something interesting to tell you. 10. There was nothing interesting at the exhibition to attract our attention. 11. To master his speciality one must work hard. 12. In order to improve the drawing skill one must draw every day. 13. A certain temperature must be kept in picture galleries to preserve paintings. 14. To come to my office in time I must leave at 7.30. 15. To greet the teacher the students stand up when the teacher enters the classroom. 16. Lomonosov was the first to use the Russian language in scientific books. 17. I am waiting to be told the results. 18. His dream was to become an artist. 19. To fulfil the plan is not an easy task. Exercise XI Use the infinitive from following list and translate the sen- tences into Russian. a) the subject to repair, to hear, to speak, to wait, to search 1. He went off......for him now was a torture. 2. It was impossible....the bicycle. 3. It took us twelve days....the island. 4. At this moment, ...required more effort than she could make. 5. It is such a comfort...you say so, doctor. b) a predicative to go on, to try, to tell, to return, to keep 1. My next plan was to the house, avoiding father if possible. 2. My advice to you is....a coach tour. 3. The only thing she could do was ....the truth. 4. The greatest thing is ...our heads up. 5. There was no water nearby and the only thing was ...to find it somewhere. c) an object to air, to see, to show, to join, to be surprised 1. He promised.....us all of the island. 2.1 must tell Ellen. the drawing room very well tomorrow. 3. I was so relieved that I forgot .... by her speaking. 4. He asked me .... his party. 5. Mike was not sorry....him off. 333
d) an attribute to do, to say, to waste, to make, to arrive 1. There’s nothing else..2. They had very little..3. There were no objections ... that you could put your finger on. 4. He was nearly the last..5. You see I have no time.... e) an adverbial modifier of result to give, to believe, to go, to shut, to waste 1. You’re too young...the door on life. 2. She was well enough ..to visit Henry in the sanatorium. 3. It’s too good a story ..4. The very names of the chapters were enough.......one a headache. 5. You’re too good.........................me. f) an adverbial modifier of purpose to spend, to visit, to fetch, to have, to see 1. Jennie had driven off next day the twins from a swimming- pool nearby. 2. “Hallo, Kate,” I said. “Have you come.me?” 3. I arrived on a Saturday afternoon...a week there. 4. He invited them to the flat one evening...coffee. 5. Sometimes people came to London especially...the British Museum. Exercise XII Complete the following using the infinitive as the subject with the introductory it, 1. It gives me pleasure..2. It will take you ten minutes.. 3. It is wise of him.4. It does people a lot of good..5. It won’t do you any harm .....6. It was natural ..... 7. It has become his habit.....8. It surprised me..9. It would never do .... 10. It must be very nice .... 11. It made me feel awkward...... 12. It is difficult. Exercise XIII Complete the following. a) Use the infinitive as the subject without the introductory it (take the infinitive phrases from the following list). to forget the past, to be humming a tune, to say such a thing to a child, to have gone out on that rainy day, to know the map well 1....means to be able to show any country or town on it. 2....would have been the death of me. 3.....is a usual thing for her. 4...would be ridiculous. 5....was impossible. 334
b) Use the infinitive as a predicative. 1. Our plan was 2. To act like this meant 3. The first thing he did was 4. The main problem is 5. Our next step must be....6. What I want is .................................7. Our only chance to see him is...8. To ask him a straight question means................ c) Use the infinitive as an object. 1. The children were anxious 2. We were not afraid 3.1 pretended not.....4. They have not decided whether......or not. 5. The boys agreed never..6. Do you care.....? 7.1 was very careful not..8.1 wish we had not forgotten.....9. They thought....10. He proposed.....11. When did you learn..................? 12. I’ll try to remember... 13. The tourists were lucky................ 14..The father promised 15. They offer 16. He attempted 17. We are sorry...18. The boy asked...... d) Use the infinitive as an attribute (take the infinitives from the following list). to remember, not to be contradicted, to desire, to speak (to, about), to do, to be done, to follow, to worry about, to be erected, to read, to laugh at, to be answered, to answer 1. This is just the man..2. Packing was the first thing................ 3. Here are some instructions..4. The monument......on this square will add beauty to the place. 5. The book leaves much ...6. There was nothing....7. These are the letters..8. His was the tone.........................................9. Have you got anything.? 10. She will always find something.... e) Use the infinitive as an adverbial modifier. 1) of purpose: 1. I read the story the second time (so as)...2. He had to work hard (in order) ..... 3. We must hurry (as not) .................. 4. After classes we stayed at the university.5. Has he come ...? 6.....you should read more out loud. 7.1 called on him yesterday .... 8. We stopped ...... 9......we must begin preparing for the exams immediately. 2) of result: 1. I was too astonished....2. The boy is clever enough................. 3. The storm was such as......4. He was gentleman enough ...5. The wind was so strong as.....6. The ship was too far ....................................7.1 don’t know him well enough.8. The slopes of the hill were too steep....................9. You have only to see it once. 335
10. The problem was too complicated....11. His illness was not such as ... 12. She was woman enough ....... 13. The impression was such as never...14. You have only to reach out your hand....15. He was so fortunate as... Exercise XIV Translate into English. Use the infinitive in the function of: a) the subject 1. Идти в кино было слишком поздно. 2. Тщетно было пытаться сделать это за один день. 3. Моей обязанностью было готовить чай по утрам и вечерам. 4. Из моей комна- ты было невозможно не слышать все то, что происходило на улице. 5. Было очень приятно надеть еще раз новую ру- башку. b) an object 1. Не забудьте принять таблетки от головной боли. 2. Они надеялись встретить брата в бассейне, а его там не оказа- лось. 3. Он пригласил своих друзей прийти посмотреть его новую картину. 4. Он дал Филиппу свой адрес, и Филипп обещал пообедать с ним в следующее воскресенье. 5. Я ре- шил поехать в Москву вместе с родителями. с) an attribute 1. Я тебе должен что-то показать. 2. Он работал хорошо и легко. У него было много дел. 3. Ничего не оставалось де- лать, как только ждать прихода родителей. 4. У него были дети, о которых он должен был заботиться. 5. Кто-то дол- жен первым начать говорить. 6. Они первыми приехали, следовательно, первыми и уедут. 7. У него было много но- востей, которые он должен был немедленно сообщить ро- дителям. 8. У него был небольшой багаж, который следо- вало упаковать. 9. Вы выглядите очень больным. Есть кто-нибудь, кто бы мог за вами ухаживать здесь? 10. Ей нечего было сказать. d) an adverbial modifier of result 1. Она была слишком удивлена, чтобы говорить об этом. 2. Он достаточно умен, чтобы понять вашу шутку. 3. Ему достаточно много лет, чтобы быть моим дедушкой. 4. Я слишком слаба, чтобы идти туда одной. 5. Он достаточно 336
здоров, чтобы кататься на лыжах. 6. Он достаточно опы- тен, чтобы выполнить эту работу в срок. е) an adverbial modifier of purpose 1. Я пришел, чтобы убедиться, смогу ли я помочь вам. 2. Он встал, чтобы уйти. 3. Она отошла назад, чтобы по- смотреть на свою работу. 4. Пойдите и найдите кого-ни- будь еще, кто мог бы помочь вам. 5. Понадобилось пят- надцать минут, чтобы исследовать второй тоннель. 6. Что вы здесь делаете? - Я пришел искать вас. 7. Он подошел к детям, чтобы попрощаться. 8. Он улыбнулся ей и пошел помогать отцу упаковывать вещи. 9. Мы ушли в другую комнату, чтобы посмотреть их библиотеку. 10. Она вошла в комнату, чтобы сказать, что Джейн уже приехала. 11. Он подошел достаточно близко, чтобы увидеть ее лицо. 12. Спустя десять дней она была достаточно здорова, что- бы выписаться из больницы. 13. На следующий день она встала рано, чтобы приготовить комнату к приезду сына. The Infinitive Constructions The Objective-with-the Infinitive Construction (The Complex Object) The complex object (the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Con- struction) consists of a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case (see p. 88) and the infinitive. It is translated into Russian by means of a subordinate ob- ject clause. I heard the bell ring. - Я слышал, как зазвонил звонок. I want him to come as soon as possible. - Я хочу, чтобы он пришел как можно скорее. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive is used: 1. after verbs denoting wish and intension: to want, to wish, to desire, to mean, to intend. We want the students to make good progress. He only wished you to be near him. 2. after verbs denoting feeling: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot bear. She can 7 bear you to be unhappy. I hate you to speak in this way. 337
3. after verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to know, to consider, to suppose, to believe, to expect, to find, to trust. I know him to be an honest man. I believe her to be knitting in the next room. Note: With the verbs to think, to consider, to find the same idea can be expressed without the infinitive.