Unit 1. There is no frigate like a book
Real reading! real books!
Books and readers
The English-Speaking World
Men of literature
Grammar Study
The English-Speaking World
Walt Whitman
Frank O'Connor. The Idealist
Unit 2. Reality, dreams and fantasies
Expressing a wish or a dream about the present or future
Talking about our fantasies
We read and discuss
Unit 3. A strange and exclusive word is 'City'
Going in the right direction
The language of a city
Public signs
Places to visit and things to see
Entertainments, recreations and leisure
The English-Speaking World
Washington, D.C.
John Updike. The Lucid Eye in Silver Town
Unit 4. Reality, dreams and fantasies
Expressing a wish about the past
We read and discuss
Unit 5. A nation talking to itself
Shaping opinions
Effective advertising
The power and dangers of television
Grammar Study
The English-Speaking World
Ray Bradbury. The Pedestrian
Unit 6. Facing the unknown
Science is discovery
Finding out the truth
Makers of the modern world
Thomas Alva Edison
Arthur Conan Doyle. The Lost World
Unit 7. If you do not think about the future, you cannot have one
Factors to be considered when choosing a career
Creating tomorrow today
The English-Speaking World
William Saroyan. Out of Order
Unit 8. Speak to the Earth
You are a part of the environment
What can be done?
Preserving the planet for the future generations
The English-Speaking World
Art Buchwald. Fresh Air Will Kill You
Conversational formulas
Modal Verbs
Subjunctive Mood
Irregular verbs

Л. В. ХРУСТАЛЕВА В. Н. БОГОРОДИЦКАЯ УЧЕБНИК АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ДЛЯ IX КЛАССА школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей Рекомендовано Министерством образования Российской Федерации 2-е издание доработанное Москва 'Издательство "ВЕРСИЯ' 1997
UNIT 1 "THERE IS NO FRIGATE READING IN YOUR LIFE 1 a) Look and say whether you can call these people bookworms. Bookworms Why do you think they are buried in books? Give your ideas. b) What kind of people can you call bookworms ? Do you usually use the word "bookworm "seriously or ironically? 2 Read these lines from a poem by Emily Dickinson (1830 — 1886), America's most famous woman poet: There is no frigate1 like a book To take us lands away, Nor any coursers2 like a page Of prancing poetry. What does the author compare a book and a page with ? How do you understand these comparisons? 3 Work in pairs. Discuss the following: Does reading play an important role in your life? • How much time do you devote to it? Do you read for pleasure or for information, or both? 4 I There are books which have been I Why do you think this happens ? our great favourites since child- Give examples of books which you keep in your hood. We grow up with them, and memory. they stay in our memory for ever. 5 Say what role you think books play in our lives and how they form our moral values. 1 frigate [Tngat] — корабль 2 courser ['kaisa] — поэт, конь (боевой) 3 prancing ['pramsirj] — скачущий, гарцующий
LIKE A BOOK" (Emily Dickinson) 6 a) Listen to the poem Unfolding Bud', then read it. Answer the question: How does the author show that a poem "at a first glance" is like a tiny bud? Ом iq 0/}>vave>d D(j 0> UQ/toi-$b&U bcod QtujotdUbg QlAttv e>ck>fv ptbQQbug dcoy, Та/Ь'мд btv со AbokbA oofloorA And MM dbtH/mQbOVbQ9. Ом bQ fbOt Q/ln/Q&&d, At Ct/ {jbAQt фО/№Ъ iBq л pom, 4/\flvbCik bQ qa tbg/vt-aioQ&d {\q Q/ tbng bu/d. Q^&t OM bQ QtoAp/bbQ&d To Qe>e> the/ рош QACbdu/Q/Щ frthfrofldbng *&ша4ыьд btQ Abah ьпмл g&ty, As om A&adQ bt Q/gQ/bib And OVbA Q/gO/blb. Naoshi Koriyama b) How do you understand the author's words about the poem "gradually unfolding "? What do you think makes a poem unfold? How are the bud and the poem alike after they unfolded? c) Express the idea of the poem in your own words. Love for reading gives those who are great readers of books an advantage over those who have not read so much. Do you agree with these words? In what way do you think they are true ? Develop this idea. 1 bud — бутон, почка 2 dimension [dai'menjbn] — размер 1 gradually ['grasdjuali] — постепенно
WE LEARN i REAL READING! REAL BOOKS! 8 Read and remember how to use the words: emotion [I'moujh], emotional: an emotional person. Love, hate, joy, fear and anger are emotions. Chopin [^oupaen] aroused very deep emotions in her. I think the Welsh are a much more emotional people than the English. to arouse [a'rauz]: to arouse emotions; to arouse feelings of sympathy; to arouse admiration. Their terrible sufferings aroused our pity. to express [iks'pres]: to express an idea or feeling; to express an opinion. A child's feelings are often expressed by crying. Her eyes expressed joy. She expressed herself through art. The writer expresses his views and ideas in clear simple words. expression [iks'prejan], expressive [iks'presrv]: expressions of joy; slang expressions; an expressive language. When I saw the expression on his face, I realised how angry he was. I couldn't see Helen's expression, because her head was turned away. Their playing of Beethoven ['beithouvn] was full of expression. She gave me an expressive look. to entertain [.enta'tem], entertaining, entertainment [.ents'temmant]: to entertain friends. We were all entertained by his jokes. The circus clown showed amusing tricks, much to the entertainment of the audience. We entertained the guests with a detailed description of the party. He is full of entertaining stories. to depict [di'pikt]: The author depicts his characters very convincingly, as he experienced the same joys and troubles. Realistic writing often depicts the everyday life and speech of ordinary people. to portray [po:'trei]: to portray life truthfully. The artist portrayed the sunny field in brilliant colour. The author portrayed the village as a delightful place. lack [laek], to lack: a lack of knowledge; a lack of information; lack of emotion; lack of discipline; to lack words; to lack wisdom; lacking of generosity. Lack of time prevented me from writing to you. He is clever but he lacks experience. appeal [э'рЫ], to appeal: to appeal to somebody's interests. Books bring people pleasure and delight, and appeal to the readers' own interests. Do these paintings appeal to you? Bright colours appeal to small children. That sort of music hasn't much appeal for me. It is a love story in great appeal. episode ['episoud]: Will you please describe the most powerful episode from the chapter? The novel, episode by episode, shows how the hero was making his own way of life. passage ['paesid3]: Do you remember any powerful passage that you came across in your reading? 9 a) Read these lines from the old Japanese Moral Code. Find out what used to be one of the most highly-valued qualities for the Japanese. Why did they appreciate it? "Patience means holding back your inclination to the seven emotions: hate, adoration, joy, anxiety, anger, grief, fear. If you do not give way to the seven, if you are patient, then you will soon understand all manner of things and be in harmony with Eternity." Japanese Moral Code 10 Some people show their emotions, such as sadness, delight, happiness, anger and so on. Others try not to show their feelings. b) Have our values changed in the twentieth century? Which do you value more: holding back your emotions or giving way to your feelings and being free in expressing yourself? Why? a) Describe what different people do or how they act when they feel different emotions. b) Say: what you do and how you act when you feel various emotions; whether you express your feelings emotionally and let others know what you feel; or whether you hold back your emotions, trying not to show them.
11 Say what emotions you feel when reading different kinds of books and how these emotions are determined by the contents of the book, its problems, its language and the way the characters are depicted. 12 Recall an episode or a passage from a book which aroused emotions in you such as sympathy, admiration, delight, horror and so on. 13 Give a character sketch' of the person who most appealed to you in the books you read. Say what emotions his or her actions, behaviour, manners and words aroused in you. 14 Work in pairs. a) Find out whether your classmates change their views about the plot and the characters while reading a book. If they do, what makes them change their opinions? b) Tell the others in the group what you have found out. 15 Read this quotation and comment on it. There is an art of reading as well as an art of thinking and an art of writing. Isaac Disraeli Why do you think the author considers reading, thinking and writing to be an art? Do you agree? Why or why not? 16 a) Study the meaning of the words with the suffix -ize. Noun/Adj + -ize = Verb central centralize critic criticize "^ popular — popularize sympathy — sympathize special — specialize drama — dramatize memory — memorize character — characterize b) Read and translate these phrases: to criticize some works of art to sympathize with a person's feelings to dramatize a popular story to characterize a situation to memorize a dialogue to popularize classical music c) Read and translate these sentences: 1 The teacher asked the students to learn the dialogue by heart. Within ten minutes they all memorized it. 2 Your work is characterized by lack of attention to detail. 3 His parents do not sympathize with his wish to be an actor. 4 The new novel of a young and promising writer was dramatized by one of London's theatres. 5 Specialized knowledge is something more valuable than general knowledge. 6 I consider it wiser not to criticize the report. 1 character sketch — характеристика, описание действующего лица
Vocabulary Study (2) BOOKS AND READERS 17 Read and remember how to use the words: to quote [kwout], quotation [kwou'teijh]: quotations from Shakespeare. Which book is this phrase quoted from? Can you quote any famous man or woman of literature? familiar [fa'milja]: familiar quotations; the familiar voice of an old friend. These facts may be familiar to you. humour ['hjuima], humorous ['hjuimaras]: to have a good sense of humour; a humorous writer; a humorous remark; a humorous character. The story is full of humour. I don't see much humour in his remarks. Which of the humorous writers do you appreciate most of all? vivid [Vivid]: a vivid imagination; a vivid description. There are perhaps several faults in this book but we can't help admiring its vivid descriptions. The character of the hero is vividly drawn in the book. There are lots of things of interest at the exhibition which vividly demonstrate the latest achievements in medicine. Do you think that vivid descriptions add interest to a book? similar ['simib]: words with a similar meaning; to write in a similar manner. Pink and rose are similar colours. How are these authors similar? remark [n'ma:k], to remark: to make remarks. He made a few remarks about the weather and then said goodbye. Did he make a remark about my coming late? Did you remark the similarity between them? He remarked that he would be absent the next day. influence ['influans], to influence: to influence the readers; an influence on character. What is the influence of literature on young people? Our literary tastes are influenced by classical writers. We are influenced by good examples. I didn't want him to influence me in my choice. entire [m'taia]: to be in entire ignorance of what happened; entirely forgotten. I disagree entirely. I entirely agree with you. He ate the entire cake. keen: a keen gardener; to be keen on literature; a keen, enthusiastic boy; a keen emotion; a keen sense of humour. He took a keen interest in domestic affairs. Boys are less keen on cooking than girls. I was still keenly interested in outdoor activities. Molly was very keen on music. to adapt [a'daept], adaptation [.asdap'teifon]: to adapt to a new situation; to adapt a book or a play for television; a screen adaptation; a stage adaptation. This book is about change and how we adapt to it. He cannot adapt himself to the new conditions. They are adapting one of Arthur Hailey's novels for television. The new television adaptation of "A Tale of Two Cities" was a great success. well-read: Her brother was very companionable, active, intelligent, and very well-read. She was well-read in the literary classics. to possess [pa'zes]: to possess some qualities; to possess courage; to possess a talent for writing poetry. Can you name a poet who possesses a powerful imagination? 18 Here are some qualities that good writers and poets possess. • an ability to portray life very truthfully; • an ability to describe nature (wildlife) with love and understanding; • an ability to make people laugh or cry; • an ability to depict characters so vividly that people immediately recognize themselves; • an ability to amuse the readers; • an ability to arouse a feeling of admiration; • a sense of humour; • a skill with language; • a great lyrical power; • a rich and vivid imagination. a) You can continue the list. What would you add to it? b) Name writers and poets who, in your opinion, possess these qualities.
19 There are these different kinds of books: Мекнсг fiction novels short stories detective, stories adventure, stories fantasy stories humorous stories spy stories thrillers non-fiction • popular science • biographies • autobiographies ' documentaries ' diaries • memoirs ['memwa:z] science fiction • space, adventures • aliens • Monsters • timetravel drama poetry • verses - rhymes • odes folklore, r'foukbil • folk tales • fairy tales ' myths • ballads essay ['esei] • various subjects a) Say: what you can enjoy in each kind of book and why; what kind of people these books appeal to. b) Would a non-fiction book be of interest to a general reader or only to a reader interested in a particular subject? Express your opinion. Give reasons. c) Say why a book can disappoint you sometimes or leave you indifferent. 20 Agree or disagree. Give reasons for your opinion. 1 It is very good when a book has colourful and attractive illustrations. A nicely illustrated book adds to a better understanding of the characters. A book without illustrations is boring to read. 2 It is important to find out something about the author of the book chosen for reading. The author's life gives explanations of his characters' behaviour and actions. 3 It is clear at first sight whether the book is interesting to read. 4 The classics are boring. 5 The classics never die. 6 There are books that delight all ages. 21 Work in groups. Discuss book illustrations and their role in getting the "feeling" of the book. Report back to the class on your discussions.
22 a) Look at the pictures and say how the readers and their tastes differ. Readers Differ You may use the following: make somebody think over be deep in thought most humorous enthusiastic be well-read fall asleep entertain a serious reader be curious about can hardly read for laughing (for tears) be delighted arouse feelings of curiosity be keen on appeal to b) How can the choice of books characterize the reader, his interests and education ?
23 Speak about different kinds of readers. Say what different readers appreciate in different kinds of books. You may find the following words helpful. develop a literary taste arouse interest (curiosity, admiration) develop somebody's imagination possess an ability to show enjoy new ideas portray life in its richness can't help admiring be filled with wonder appeal to the reader's interests entertain the reader be delighted with humour bring pleasure and delight 24 Work in groups. What do you think is most important in a book? Things tor mention: • fresh And original ideas • the rich W interesting Ымдилде- • the- Author's sense- of humour • the book's realism And truthfulness • An intriguing plot • some- shocking situations And events • detailed descriptions • the- power of the- Author's imagination b) Name three or four things which you think make a book powerful reading. 25 Speak about: the most memorable or powerful passage or episode that you came across in your reading; a passage which appealed to you because of the author's skill with language. Things taspeak About: • An exciting happening • ли unusual view • a remarkable- deed • a natural wonder • something faiMiliar 26 Work in groups. a) Devise a questionnaire and interview people of different ages (your schoolmates, teachers, friends and parents) to find out what kind of readers they are. You may use the following questions as examples and think of others: • Do you sometimes read the same book again and again? What is the reason for this? Is it true that you often choose a book because a friend of yours has read it and has told you how much he or she enjoyed it? What are the other reasons why you choose a book? What books do you read in your spare time? What books do you take on trips, for study or discussion? Do you think that books help you to learn how to express your thoughts and feelings more exactly? b) Tell the class what you have found out. c) Write a summary of your findings.
27 "Rabbit Is Rich" by John Updike and "The Catcher in the Rye" by J. D. Salinger became a sensation when they came out in the USA. J. D. SALINGER THE Catcher in the Rye a) Here are some opinions about the two books. Read them and say how the press responded to the publication of these books. "SUPERLATIVE!" Time Magazine " No other novelist now writing evokes the complex texture of everyday life more powerfully, more shimmeringly than Updike... A WONDERFUL BOOK." Los Angeles Herald Examiner i " A VERY FINE NOVEL INDEED!" The Atlantic t "UPDIKE'S TRIUMPH!" The Houston Post 'MASTERFUL... GRACEFUL PROSE AND VIVID IMAGINATION." The Dallas Morning News A Literary Sensation "This is one of the most remarkable books published in years. It is the story of sixteen-year-old Holden Caulfield, who wants desperately to find himself, but who goes underground in New York for forty eight hours when he is overwhelmed by the perplexing circumstances of his life. Read the first page - and you will not be able to stop until you have completed this wild and magic adventure with him." This unusual book may shock you, will make you laugh, and may break your heart— but you will never forget it "... One reads it hardly knowing whether to chuckle or cry... that rare miracle of fiction has again come to pass: a human being has been created out of ink, paper and the imagination." Clifton Fadiman b) How can similar opinions about a book, a film, or a play influence those who come across the words of praise and admiration ? c) Try and express your delight with one of the books you highly appreciate and enjoy.
looks on the Screen and on Stage 28 Many popular novels and stories have been adapted for the theatre, television, and film. In new screen splendor... Hie most magnificent picture erer! DAVID QSaZWICkS-roeraAwMM» иижш "G0№ WITH ШЕ ОДМГ С1Ж(ЖЕ VIVIEN \Ш LKSLIE HOWARD OIJVlVdrlLVVllJANI) a) What do you think of this practice ? Are all screen and stage adaptations successful? Do they add to the popularity of the book, or can they only spoil your impressions of it? Give your opinions. Margaret Mitchell's "Gone with the Wind", published in 1936, became an immediate bestseller and in 1937 won the Pulitzer Prize. A film version of the novel, made in 1939, with Vivien Leigh and Clark Gable in the roles of Scarlett O'Hara and Rhett Butler, equaled or surpassed the book in popularity. "Gone with the Wind" is a romance that includes strong elements of realism: it depicts the horrors of war (one of the movie's most memorable scenes is the burning of Atlanta by the Union army), deep conflicts in personal relationships, and themes of rebellion and alienation. b) Name some novels or stories which, in your opinion, have been successfully turned into films or plays and appealed to different audiences. 29 Brilliant actors and actresses have appeared in films based on the classic works of literature. Can you give any examples? John Gielgud ['gr.lgud] in Othello [ои'веЬи] Vivien Leigh f'vrvwn'hj in Titus Andronicus ['taitas een'dromkas]
Either Neither 30 Read and remember: ither "Come on Tuesday or Wednesday. Either day is all right There were flowers on either side of the street. I can't agree in either case. Neither Either usually means one or the other. Sometimes it can mean both. Neither statement is true Neither of the books is of any interest to^me. Neither means not either, not the one and not the other. 31 Read and translate these sentences. Pay attention to the use of either (of) and neither (of). 1 Neither parent realized what was happening. 2 Neither of the girls understood why they had been refused to participate in the expedition. 3 Neither of the books is exactly what I want. 4 Neither of the answers is correct. 5 Either kind of literature is interesting. 6 Either of the children is quite capable of learning foreign languages. 32 Complete the sentences: 1 Neither place .... 2 Neither story in this publication ... 3 Neither quotation... 4 Either of my brothers ... 5 Neither of the authors tries. 6 Either of you could ... 33 Read and remember: You can either come with me or walk home alone. Either... or... I should like to live either in the country or in a small, quiet town. This structure is used to talk about two possibilities. Neither... nor... Neither James nor Virginia was at home. If you can neither visit nor telephone your friend, write him or her a letter. This structure is used to join together two negative ideas.
So am I Neither am I So were they Neither were they So do we Neither do we 34 Read and remember: So and neither can be used to introduce sentences in which we say that people (or things or situations) are the same as others that have just been mentioned. Ann is fond of detective stories. So am I. I was delighted with the story, and so were the others. Tom likes classics. So do I. I can't speak English so fluently. Neither can my friend Mike. John did not like to play. Neither did we. I don't really like football. Neither does Andrew. 35 Say that you are (or somebody else is) in agreement with others. Explain your preference or lack of preference. a) Example: Tom likes listening to music. — So do I. Listening to music is a wonderful pastime, I think. 1 I prefer to go on a trip in July rather than in October. — ... 2 I am always delighted with the sight of an ancient castle or a building associated with some historical event. — .... 3 I try to visit each new exhibition which is talked about a lot. — ... 4 I decided to stay in town in July. — ... 5 I was trying to persuade Mary to change her mind. — ... 6 Nature, a simple life, that's what I need. — ... 7 John congratulated Tony on having won the race. — ... b) Example: I wasn't disappointed by the trip. — Neither were my companions. The trip was really enjoyable! 1 My brother does not like it when it rains. — ... 2 I can't work when somebody interrupts me. — ... 3 I can't read serious books on journeys. — ... 4 I can't be so frank with unfamiliar people. — ... 5 I simply couldn't believe that John had failed his examinations. — ... 6 He is never on time. — ... 7 My friend didn't feel like talking. — ... 8 She never forgets to book the tickets in advance. — ... c) 1 John hasn't arrived yet. — ... 2 Ann was feeling sad and didn't want to show it. — ... 3 I was indifferent to the news. — ... 4 George would be furious if he discovered the truth. — ... 5 Tom and Rosy were tired. — ... 6 Unfortunately, I can't have a holiday this year. — ... 7 She never gave up hope. — ... 8 I could come on Sunday. — ... 36 Work in pairs. Practise expressing the same preferences or lack of preferences in discussions about books, authors, plots and characters in books.
Vocabulary Study (3) MEN OF LITERATURE 37 Read and remember how to use the words: genius ['d3i:nj3s]: men of genius. A genius is a person with unusually great powers of mind or imagination. There have been many brilliant women scientists, but very few women have been mathematical geniuses. peculiarity [pi.kjudi'aenti]: peculiarities of speech and behaviour. Have you ever noticed any peculiarities of his habits or character? to reveal [rivhl]: to reveal the truth; to reveal a character's personality; to reveal human nature. Which episodes of the book best revealed the characters' personalities? The fog cleared and revealed the distant hills. His works reveal his high view of courage. style: a particular style of painting, writing, composing music; to be democratic in style; a simple and clear style of writing; the style and vocabulary of new writers; the latest spring styles. Drama schools nowadays prefer a more realistic acting style. The whole passage has a colourful style. Black is not my style. demand [di'mamd], to demand: It is impossible to satisfy all demands. He is always in great demand as a speaker at public meetings. This sort of work demands great patience. He has most of the qualities demanded of a leader. contemporary [kan'temparan]: a contemporary writer; contemporary records of events. This is the language of contemporary Britain. The collection presents good examples of contemporary short stories. favour [Terva], to favour, favourable ['fervarablj: to win a person's favour; a favourable impression; to be favourably impressed by someone. The singer won the favour of the audience. Fortune favours the brave. Will you do me a favour? The weather favoured our voyage. The teacher made a favourable report on the boy's work at school. The new book of a young writer made a favourable impression on the readers. enrich [irintfl: to enrich the mind with knowledge. Reading good books enriches the mind and life. Space explorations enrich our minds with new, important knowledge about our universe. literary [litaran]: a literary work; literary success; a literary critic; a literary style. A book which is well-known and thought to be of a very high literary standard is a classic. 38 Answer the questions: How, in your opinion, can the characters' personalities be revealed in a book? Do you think that every writer or poet is capable of revealing human nature in a powerful way? What men of literature, in your opinion, possess this quality? What are the main reasons for your choice? • What kind of knowledge can books enrich your mind with? How can you characterize a man of genius? What remarkable and outstanding qualities does he possess? What literary work can make a favourable impression on the readers and meet all their demands? 39 Work in pairs. Act out dialogues. One of you is looking for a good book to read. The other one has just read a book which he would like to recommend. One of you has just read a book which disappointed him. The other one asks what caused his partner's disappoinment. One of you has been greatly impressed by the book he has just read and he expresses his delight with it. The other one asks what aroused his partner's admiration. 40 Work in groups. Discuss how to interest people in a book and to persuade them that it is worth reading. Tell the class about your decisions.
41 Read these quotations. Which one do you find most amusing? In what way do they characterize their authors, their hobbies and habits? .the tOOiS i need for my _ work , _ are paper, tobacco, fOOd. and a little whiskey. William Faulkner best time for planning book is while you're doing the dishes. Agatha Christie it book Is Яке а . garden! ^-'curried in the pocket. 1 put things down on sheets of piipCT • and Stuff them 111 my pockets. when 1 nave enough ._ i have a book. John Lemon, i think i did pretty well considering i started out with nothing hut a bunch of blank paper. William Faulkner [Тэ:1кпэ] Agatha ['зедэвэ] Christie ['knsti 42 a) Read and say how the two prominent modern fiction writers are characterized in these notes: Ernest Hemingway ['ainist 'hemirjwei] (1898 - 1961) "Hemingway's style of writing is striking. His sentences are short, his words simple, yet they are often filled with emotion. A careful reading can show us that he is a master of the pause. That is, if we look closely, we see how the action of his stories continues during the silences, during the times his characters say nothing.This action is often full of meaning. There are times when the most powerful effect comes from restraint. Such times occur often in Hemingway's fiction. He perfected the art of conveying emotion with few words." (from Highlights of American Literature) Graham Greene ['greiam 'gn:n] (1904-1991) "... Much of Greene's early working life was spent as a journalist and travel writer. His training in these areas helped him develop the powers of keen observation, sensitivity to atmosphere, and simplicity of language that have become hallmarks of his fictional style. His journey to Mexico in 1938 provided the setting for his best-known novel The Power and the Glory (1940). His trips to Africa resulted in travelogues as well as two novels, The Heart of the Matter (1944) and A Burnt-Out Case (1961). Greene is also the author of books for children, an essayist, and an editor, and has enjoyed considerable success writing films and adapting his own stories for the screen. His cinematic work is tied to yet another outlet for his creativity, which Greene has called "entertainments". These are adventure stories and spy thrillers, often dealing with the secret service and with pursuit. Among these are Our Man in Havana (1958) and The Human Factor (1978). .... Greene focuses more on the psychology of human character than on a plot. Many of his protagonists are people without roots or beliefs - people in pain. They come across as real and believable individuals in whom good and evil, weakness and strength are intermingled.... They almost always excite the reader's curiosity and pity - and, almost always, their author treats them with compassion. (from Prentice Hall Literature. The English Tradition) b) Make up similar characteristics of writers or poets whom you consider to be interesting authors. c) Say how the language of contemporary writers differs from the language of the 19th century or earlier writers. What peculiarities does the language of every generation possess? 43 Work in groups. Discuss the following: • What does the reputation of the authors rest upon? What is appreciated in every literary work?
44 a) Read the interview with Valentin Kataev, a well-known Russian writer. Say what the writer appreciated in books most of all and why he considered them one of the greatest wonders in the world. Use a dictionary when necessary. Q: The rise of television has been coupled' with the death of books. What can be done to rescue2 them? A: I don't think books need to be rescued. A book is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives us a unique [ju:'ni:k] chance to link up with authors who lived hundreds and thousands of years ago. Thanks to books, we can talk to people who lived in different ages and countries. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. Books are the surest way to bring nations together. They give us an insight not only into the past, but also into the future. A book is a faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. Q: When and how did you take to reading? A: I became very keen on literature early in life. This probably happened because we had a very good and widely-read library at home. Books stirred3 my imagination, expanded the boundaries4 of the familiar world, and filled my life with great expectations of joy and happiness. Since childhood, I have been enchanted5 by Pushkin and Gogol. Chekhov was one of the highest authorities [o:'9oritiz] to me. I also was delighted with Blok. Later my heart was won by Mayakovsky's, Pasternak's and Yesenin's poetry. Luckily, this country is rich in remarkable authors. Q: How do you read? A: As far as an interesting author is concerned, I study rather than read his or her book. For example, after reading Dante's "Divine Comedy"6 I came to the conclusion that this rich work demands great erudition on the part of the reader. One must know Ancient Greece's mythology and legends, the history and literature of Ancient Rome, the peculiarities of Italy's philosophy and early French literature. Dante was a highly educated person and we modern people may find it hard to keep up with him7. Similarly, I spent two years reading Pushkin and studying all the footnotes8 and commentaries to his texts to appreciate his real depth. A: I believe in brevity10. Real talent and mastery can make even the shortest stories rich. It is my firm belief that the author's true task is self-expression. Good literature always expresses the author's position. And no real art can be achieved without the truth of life. b) How would you answer the questions which were asked in the interview? c) Say what you think careful and serious reading demands on the part of the reader. 1 to couple [' клр1] — связывать, ассоциировать 2 to rescue [' reskju:] — спасать 3 to stir [sta:] — волновать, возбуждать 4 to expand the boundaries [' bauncbnz] — расширять границы 5 to enchant [in' tfaint] — очаровывать, приводить в восторг 6 Dante's ['daentiz] "Divine [di'vam] Comedy" — «Божественная комедия» Данте 7 to keep up with — не отставать 8 footnotes — сноски, примечания ' hallmark ['ho:lma:k] — признак, критерий 10 brevity [' brevsti] — краткость
45 a) Look at this advertisement and find out where it is placed and who the advertisers are. T.'ff, .48» V0*,\ IWia, 1:И;\>ЛУ,Ц11УЦ, tm Have ж got 150,000 titles? \fo we say yes we do Ъ. JUST ARRIVED! The Lessons of Love by Melody Beattie This moving narrative about a woman's recovery from grief carries a heartfelt and inspiring message, Drawing on personal experience, the author emphasizes the importance of both patience and the willingness to forgive. (HarperCollins) El Also Available in Audio Pub. Price $10.Q0$/\()O B&N Price У To Renew America Newt Gingrich T° Renew America by Newt Gingrich In this controversial new book, the Speaker of the House proposes to restore the nation by reviving five key elements that have been lost from American life- personal strength, commitment to quality, the spirit of invention, free enterprise and the lessons of American history. (HarperCollins) E3 Also Available in Audio Pub. Price $24.00 B&N Price ЩОШЕЫ RULES.. ТШТМВПЯСЛ1. Vaiub Ми /J NseTPTlACM (A THInCMUW Г ПЫМ DOHEX Golden Rules by Wayne Dosick More than just an amusing collection of stories, this book introduces ten important ethical values through compelling tales and real-life examples that children will love to read. (HarperCollins) Pub. Price $16.00 B&N Price STOP rVGING NOW! Jean Carper Stop Aging Now! by Jean Carper Learn how to combat aging and resist disease! Based on hundreds of studies, this book shows how vitamin deficiencies cause needless aging, Included is an easy-to-use guide explaining which supplements improve brain or body functions, and in what quantities they should be taken. (HarperCollins) 0 Also Available in Audio Pub. Price $24.00 B&N Price Mutant Message Down Under by Mario Morgan While traveling barefoot across 1,400 miles of the Outback with a nomadic tribe of Aboriginals called the "Real People," an American woman is introduced to a new way of life. This powerful novel reveals the tribe's message—all living things share a common unity (HarperPerennial) \П1 Also Available in Audio Pub. Price $10.00 B&N Price MM HO moiGanI One Man Tango by Anthony Quinn Take a fascinating inside look at this celebrated actor's life. Following Self-Portrail, this new autobiography focuses on his life in Hollywood— from his award-winning performances to his friendships and affairs with legendary stars. (HarperCollins) El Also Available in Audio Pub. Price $25.00 B&N Price b) Read this advertisement carefully and say how the new books are advertised and how the advertisers draw the reader's attention to the most precious and most valuable ideas revealed in these books. Cultural Note: Barnes & Noble (B&N) are a big American company which sells books. Pub. Price — Publisher's price
46 a) Read the text Poor Richard Says and say which of the quotations from Benjamin Franklin are familiar to you. Poor Richard Says (From the book "Scenes of America") The great American scientist, philosopher and statesman of the 18th century Benjamin Franklin was also a publisher. Benjamin Franklin published and edited an almanac ['oilimnaek] known as "Poor Richard's Almanac" from 1733 to 1758 under the name of Richard Saunders fsomdaz]; and "Poor Richard" became a well-known pen-name in American literature. The sayings of "Poor Richard" which appeared in the almanacs were based on the common sense proverbs and expressions of all ages and nations. These practical words of advice to the people, improved by Franklin's talent for simple, humorous writing, had universal appeal. Many of them, in one form or another, are still quoted today. The almanacs achieved world-wide fame and were published in many languages. A word to the wise is enough. Wise men /earn by the mistakes of others, fools hardly by their own. m m ■ A little carelessness may cause great trouble. Poor Richard, 173- an ;. Almanack For the Year of Chrift Being the tMafter I.R'AP YE-AR Jed nuAts ji**r the CrtMim \tjr By the Account of the Baftpff) Gr&h' 7241 By the Latin Church, v-htn Q еги, f (,^\г Bv the Con fniufcion o/ №,№. 574л By the Ятьт Chronology рЛа By (be Jtvjt 8«bbfts 5404 Whtrtin U t&tiaimcf "The Lunation"*, Edipfea, luc|ffm?ot ol the Weathet, Sprint Tides, Р1а*п*ч Ио('1аа< 8c nmruai Afpefh, 8йо льА Моап'л Rifintt ond'Soi- tinn. Length of Days, Ttmfc ©f High Water, Fair*, O^rti, tiid oMcrvaolc. pjys Fitted to the Laritude of Fortr Degrees, and a Meridian or Kivr Hours Wert ''mrr /•mfor, hut may without ГсмьЫс Enor, fi-iv» t), th** »{■ jacriit Places, even from Ыпфтивап! то South Carolha. ЪуШСНЖ DS/UNDERS, Phiiom. PHlLADRLPHtA: i агй ГоМ by S. f&XHKllV, « the New Faatbip Office near rite Mjikci Th: Third Imprclficn, Industriousness is the mother of good luck. There are no gains' without pains. At the workingman 's house hunger looks in, but does not enter. Have you something to do tomorrow? do it today. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. Ь) Comment on the quotations. Say how you understand them and in what situations you can use them. Explain why some quotations have universal appeal. 47 Some phrases, poems or passages from books are memorized and often quoted by people in talks, speeches and reports. Г gains [geinz] — доходы, заработок
48 Read and remember: How to Ask for and Give an Opinion What do you think of...? How do you find ...? What's your opinion of...? How do you feel about...? What would you say to ...? Well, in my opinion ... As far as I'm concerned ... If you want my opinion ... As I see it, ... In my view... 49 a) Read the dialogue: M — Mary; J — John M: What do you think of the book, John? J: Well, in my opinion, it's a book about nothing. The author tries very hard to convince us that the young people nowadays are not interested in serious problems of society. I disagree entirely. M: Well, possibly, but there are several interesting characters in the book who are depicted very vividly. Besides, the writing is simple and clear. J: Yes, perhaps, but I still think that the book won't appeal to the young. b) Practise asking for and giving your own opinion about an author (a character, a book's contents, an interview, or any other topic). Words to remember: Men of Literature BOOKS and Keaoers contemporary genius demand v, п literary either neither enrich v peculiarity favour v, n reveal v favourable style adapt v adaptation entire familiar humour humorous influence v, n well-read keen quote v quotation remark v, n similar possess v vivid Real Reading! Real Books! appeal v, n arouse v depict v emotion emotional entertain v entertaining entertainment episode express v expression expressive lack v, n passage portray v portrait
Gramm3r Study MODAL VERBS 50 Read and remember: CERTAINTLY PROBABILITY POSSIBILITY MUST BE \. The phone's ringing. It must be Ann. Mary and her friends go camping every weekend. That must be fun. MUST HAVE BEEN MUST can be used to say that we are sure about something because it is logically necessary. Mary and her friends went camping last weekend That must have been fun. Look! There is a crowd of people near the office. Something must have happened. I waited for some time but nobody answered the phone call. Bob must have left already. MUST is used with the Perfect Infinitive for deductions about the past. 51 Choose the correct form of the verb. 1 Look! Here's the letter John wrote yesterday. He must forget/must have forgotten to post it. 2 Jane is coughing all the time. She must catch / must have caught a cold. 3 He never visits such exhibitions. He must think/must have thought it's a waste of time. 4 The boy looks so excited. Something must happen/ must have happened. 5 All the students must be/must have been at the meeting. Important problems are being discussed. 6 She speaks English with a strong American accent. She must live/must have lived in the USA for a long time. 8 Why is Peter so irritable this morning? He must get out of bed/ must have got out of bed on the wrong side again. 9 She didn't congratulate me on my birthday. She must forget/must have forgotten about it. 52 Answer the following questions with suitable suggestions using must (do) or must have (done). Example: Why is Jane so angry? — She must have quarrelled with her younger sister. Why is Peter so pale? — He must be ill. 1 Why does Bill never join his classmates when they go camping? 2 Why is Alice in such a bad mood today? 3 Why isn't Susan at school today? 4 Why didn't Michael come to the party last night? 5 Why does Andrew look so excited? 6 Why is Sheila looking under the desk? 7 Why did they leave so early?
53 Read and remember: CAN BE Can it be John? That can't be John. He' is at school now. CAN is sometimes used to express doubt, astonishment or present possibility, but only in questions and negative sentences. CAN HAVE BEEN COULD HAVE BEEN They can't have gone hiking. The day was rainy and awfully cold. Tom can't have behaved so rudely. I could have done it for you last Saturday. I couldn't have done it for you yesterday. Could she really have been so unfriendly ? CAN and COULD are both used with the Perfect Infinitive for speculating or guessing about the past, for saying something was a possibility but did not happen. They are also used to doubt a past action (in questions). 54 Match the two halves of these sentences and translate them. 1 Jack can't be tired. 2 The boys couldn't have crossed the lake in this boat. 3 They couldn't have spent the whole day at home. 4 I could have gone with you, 5 Can David have won the competition? 6 Can she be so ill-mannered? 7 Can he have refused to help you? 8 We could have gone on a hike, He is a very generous and kind-hearted man. He has been absolutely idle this weekend. but it was raining . It leaks. The weather was so pleasant and sunny. but I didn't want to. He didn't train much. She makes an impression of a very friendly and polite girl. 55 Express doubt or astonishment. Example: Can this custom be so old? It is difficult to believe that this custom is so old. This custom can't be so old. 1 We can't believe that he expressed such absurd ideas. 2 I can't believe that she changes her mind three or four times a day. 3 It is difficult to believe that they have persuaded the girls to join a sports club. 4 It is impossible that she didn't do her job in time. She is a very responsible person. 5 I don't believe that they enjoyed the performance. It seemed pretty boring.
56 Read and remember: ( MAYBE I wonder where Nell is. — She may be with Mary, I suppose. — She might be with Mary. MAY and MIGHT are both used when we say that something is possible and we get some suggestions. There is no important difference between may and might. ( MAY/MIGHT HAVE BEEN^ I wonder why Mary didn't answer my letter. — Well, I suppose she may have been very busy. — She might have been busy. MAY and MIGHT can be used with the Perfect Infinitive when we say what was possible in the past. MIGHT HAVE BEEN You might have told me about your plans Why didn't you? MIGHT with the Perfect Infinitive expresses criticism, or reproach. 57 Give your suggestions in order to explain the situation. Example: Jane didn't ring me up. She might have forgotten my phone number. 1 John left the office without even saying 'good-bye'. 2 Why is Nelly so upset? 3 I can't remember where I have put my textbook. 4 I recognize that picture. 5 He seems to know this man. 6 I wonder where Bill is. 58 Read the poem Spring Rain. Pay attention to the use of the modal verbs. Spjtitvg <r4a*n, ~Tki> StOAhv OQ/Ш U>p 80 0Щ qU/ЬС/Ь It oocbidtb 'i> hcwb Ььт дсьЬоЬм. I Qk/Otoid k/Q/Vb bWU/Qki ni/Cj hO/b Q/I/CMQ, I QhOtoid kQ/Ub блОСодЫ hv(j sl/lC/bi/Hi 1. Qfltj hQ/i/Л i/8 ые/t, m>(j fawt> M& №t, I aou/lldnj 4 be/ hvu,c>k ыШ&а, I {jM ЬпЛо си Ше>л on&e> U>U/b thi/8 i/8 ШИ Ь&ШЛ. Marchette Chute у slicker (амер.) — непромокаемый плащ
59 Read and remember: SHOULD BE OUGHT TO BE The child shouldn't eat so much icecream. He may get a sore throat. You ought not to drive now. You are too tired. You should be more careful when you drive in town. SHOULD HAVE BEEN OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN SHOULD and OUGHT can often be used when we say what we think is the right (not right) thing to do, or to say that we expect something. He should have devoted more time to his studies. It's a pity he didn't. They ought to have been more attentive to their friends But they were not. SHOULD and OUGHT can be used with the Perfect Infinitive when we say that somebody did the wrong thing. 60 Give an appropriate ending or add some extra information to these sentences. Example: \ You ought to go home. You ought to go home because your parents are worrying about you. 2 You should have stayed at home. It was raining. You should have stayed at home not to get wet. 1 You should go to bed now. 2 You should try to open the lock. 3 I feel I ought to treat my schoolmates in a different way. 4 You should work harder before your exams. 5 You shouldn't have eaten so many cream cakes. 6 You ought to have supported him. 7 They ought to have kept the secret. 8 They should have trained more regularly. 9 You ought to visit John. 10 You ought not to have shouted so angrily at her. 61 Supply all the missing forms of the modal verbs. certainty possibility probability reproach must can could may might should ought might must be could be maybe ought to be must have been can have been might have been _
ШШ ШШШ ШШ Ш1©(УШ FAMOUS ENGLISH AND AMERICAN POETS William Shakespeare 62 a) Read the text He Was Not of an Age but for All Time. Use a dictionary when necessary. "He Was Not of an Age but for All Time' Benjamin Jonson ' Who was that William Shakespeare ['Jeikspia] of Stratford? More has been written about him than about any writer that ever lived. And yet, although we know more about him than most of his contemporaries, there are certain things that historians cannot say with a firm: "This, then, is the final, the absolute truth". While reading any biographical book about Shakespeare, we may be surprised at a large number of such sentences as "It is possible that...", "We have no trace of what Shakespeare did during these years ...", or "We don't know why Shakespeare left Stratford", or "History doesn't help us to break the silence of the seven years he spent in London", and so on. The facts are very few. Shakespeare was probably born on the 23rd of April, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon [.strsedfad эрэп 'eivan]. His father was a respectable shopkeeper, and dealt in wool, skins, leather and gloves. His mother, Mary Arden, was a farmer's daughter. William was the eldest of eight children. We know that when Shakespeare was 18, he married Anne Hathaway ['aen 'hasGawei], a woman eight years older than himself, that in 1583 Susanna, their first child, was born, and that twins Hamnet and Judith followed in 1585. At the age of 22 Shakespeare left (1564-1616) 1 These words were said by Benjamin Jonson (1573—1637), a playwright and player, and a good friend of Shakespeare. Stratford alone, for London. He is reputed to have been all manner of things, from sailor and soldier to lawyer's clerk and horseholder outside an early London playhouse. We know that in 1593 and 1594 he wrote two early poems, Venus and Adonis2 and Lucrece3. Later, he became a member of the company known as "Chamberlain's Men" which played at the "Theatre"; and he wrote for the company. He was already reaching the height of his fame when the Globe Theatre was built in 1593. He often acted at court, and retired, about 1611, to Stratford. The day of his death was the 23rd of April, 1616, fifty-two years exactly after the supposed day of his birth. That is all we know about William Shakespeare. There has been a good deal of debate about the extent of Shakespeare's learning. It is true that he never went to university or travelled abroad. Some romantics have made him out to be an unlettered man of the people. They declared that an illiterate could never have written such poetry — therefore someone else must have done it instead. Such reactions are unnecessary. Shakespeare learned grammar, logic and Latin at the grammar school, and he had enough education to develop his literary skill. 2 Venus [Viinas] and Adonis [a'dounis] — «Венера и Адонис» 3 Lucrece [lu:'kri:s] — «Лукреция»
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD We do not know whether Shakespeare went to London with the intention of becoming an actor. He may have done so; there would have been plenty of opportunity for him to be attracted to the stage in his youth, quite apart from any natural inclinations towards poetry. Theatre was very popular at that time. Classical plays were acted at schools, with educational purposes in view; travelling companies of professional actors often visited Stratford and performed there. We cannot prove anything for certain, but it is highly possible that William Shakespeare joined one of these companies when they passed through Stratford. The London to which young Shakespeare came was a splendid place where painters, musicians and poets shone. Theatre was the most exciting entertainment. If genius could be accounted for, it might perhaps be said that Shakespeare's acquaintance with the art of the actor helped him in an understanding of the art of the playwright. But this explanation is not enough. To it must be added an observing mind, a profound sympathetic understanding of life, an acquaintance with all classes of men and women, and above all an ability to see human nature. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays, among them comedies (The Taming of the Shrew, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, etc.), tragedies (Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, Othello and others), historical plays (Henry VI, Richard III, Henry IV, etc.) and sonnets. Shakespeare's genius did not lie in his ability to originate plays (for almost all of the stories were borrowed from chronicle, biography, prose tale, or earlier play), but rather in his capacity for revealing life in its full richness and movement. Shakespeare's plays and sonnets are masterpieces. Shakespeare expressed in them the variety of human nature. All human life is there in his plays, its greatness and its imperfections alike. Shakespeare possesses some special merit for every generation, and almost every person in turn. Whether he is writing of history, or love, or tragedy, or comedy, things have meaning and value. It was his genius that gave the world poetry of a deathless beauty. b) Say what made Shakespeare the greatest of all poets.
63 Read these quotations from Shakespeare. Say how you understand them. Express your opinion about the quotations. Say in what way they are true and in what situations you can use them. SHAKESPEARE' A Midsummer NighADrtum Brevity is the soul ofwif. 0 shame! Where is thy blush2? We know what we are, but we know Ш, what we may be. (Hamlet3) What is done can't be undone. (Macbeth4) Better a witty fool than a foolish wit. (Twelfth Night) Time is the nurse and breeder5 of aft good. (The Two Gentlemen of Verona6) I 1 wit — ум, разум, остроумие 2 thy [dai] blush [bUJ] — твоя стыдливость 3 Hamlet ['haemlit] — Гамлет 4 Macbeth [тэк'ЬеВ] — Макбет 5 breeder [ЪгЫэ] — производитель 6 Verona [va'rouna] — г. Верона
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 64 a) Listen to Shakespeare's poem Age and Youth, then read it. Answer the questions: • What words does Shakespeare choose to describe youth and age? • What thoughts and feelings does he express most exactly? b) Speak about the theme of the poem. Say how you understand it. 65 Read these lines about age and youth and say in what way they are true. The old believe everything; the middle-aged suspect everything; the young know everything. Youth without ambition is tike iron without steel. 1 crabbed ['kraebid] — ворчливый, сварливый 2 morn = morning 5 nimble ['nimbi] — проворный, ловкий 4 adore [э'сЬ:] — обожать s thee = you поэт, ты
Walt Whitman 66 Read the text The Spirit of a Poet and say what Americans appreciate in Walt Whitman's poetry. Use a dictionary when necessary. The Spirit of a Poet "For you these from me, 0 democracy, to serve you ma femme'! For you, for you I am thrilling these songs." These are the words of Walt Whitman [wo:lt 'witman], often called the poet of America and American democracy. They reflect one of the major2 concerns of his life as expressed in his poetry — the equality of Man in a democracy. Whitman felt that the strength of the United States was found most in the common people. He believed that the spirit of a poet should respond to the spirit of his country. Whitman's life and writing showed the growing importance of the city and of science and industry in American life. Although he had great faith in the equality found in a democratic society, he also believed in the right of the free individual to rebel3 against the restrictions of any society. He found subjects for his poetry in all kinds and conditions of men. In a way, his poems picture America as a nation of free individuals. This is his story. Walter Whitman was born on May 31, 1819, on a farm at West Hills, Long Island4, New York, and grew up in Brooklyn. As a boy he attended public school, read constantly, and attended church regularly. He was a Quaker5, following the religion of his mother and her family. (1819-1892) 1 ma femme [fern] — моя женщина/жена 2 major ['meid39] — главный 3 to rebel [n'bel] — восстать 4 Long Island — Лонг-Айленд — остров, на котором расположен Бруклин, один из пяти районов Нью-Йорк 5 Quaker ['kweiks] — квакер, член христианской религиозной группы "Общество друзей" As a young man, Whitman worked as a printer, a newspaper reporter, and a school teacher. From 1839 to 1848 he served as the editor of various newspapers in Brooklyn and New York City. Most of his writing during this period was prose. During these early years, Whitman was observing life around him and developing his philosophy. He also enjoyed the theatre, concerts, and operas. Late in the 1840's, something changed Whitman's way of thinking, feeling and writing. The change made him a different poet — a great one. Evidence of the new Whitman showed clearly in the first edition of his book, Leaves of Grass. This book, still considered to be his major work, appeared in 1855. The new Whitman also had a new name — Walt Whitman! The poems of Leaves of Grass were very different from Whitman's earlier poems. Rhyme had disappeared and the rhythm was not in the old tradition. The poet talked about life as he knew it in the simple language of the people. When Leaves of Grass first appeared, literary critics did not like it at all. Many people laughed at the "queer" poetry. Today, however, readers of the book see that it demonstrates the birth of Whitman's poetic powers and a new way of writing poetry. Leaves of Grass traces the life of a man, the maturing of a young nation, and the passing of man from youth to old age. One of Walt Whitman's most famous poems, "Song of Myself, is often considered the most thoroughly democratic poem ever written. In it he proclaims the worth of every
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD individual and identifies himself with each and every possible human creature. "Song of Myself gives the impression of reflecting the personal love and concern of the poet for all mankind. It moves from interest in the present to the more ultimate' matters of life, death, eternity2, and God. Whitman imagines himself as speaking through the poem for all Americans as he says: "I celebrate myself, and sing myself, and what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. " Walt Whitman possessed an extraordinary ability to identify3 himself with all sorts and conditions of men. He associated with all types of people and their needs and interests became his. For example, after a trip to the West in 1848, his interest was awakened to the problems of western farmers and workmen. As a result, upon his return to Brooklyn he became a laborer to show his sympathy with laboring people. Whitman's journey to the West also inspired him to write a number of poems about the frontier, the best known being "The Song of the Broad Axe"'and "Pioneers; О Pioneers!" The latter celebrated the westward movement of America. Whitman was deeply affected by the American Civil War (1861-1865), and beginning in 1862 he served in various hospitals and army camps as a male nurse. Some of Whitman's best poems came out of his wartime experiences. A very famous poem "0 Captain! My Captain!" was written about the death of President Abraham Lincoln, for whom Whitman had special admiration. In 1873, while working in Washington, Whitman suffered an illness which left him partially lame4. He left the city for Camden, New Jersey5, where he lived during the final years of his life, dying there in 1892 at the age of 73. In his last years, another change took place in Walt Whitman. He developed new themes in his poetry: idealism, nationalism, and internationalism. His writing became more thoughtful and serene6. The interdependence of man filled his thinking and is especially reflected in his poem, "Passage to India". The poem presents hope for the renewing of the human race by uniting the spiritual wisdom of the East with the materialism of the West. In effect it is a call for the physical, intellectual, and spiritual unity of all nations of the world. Another theme new to Whitman in his later years was that of death and immortality7. No doubt his experiences during the war and his own suffering helped to form his thinking. He came to see that death was a part of the total plan of life. The only true life, he said, must be life and death. Critics still differ today concerning the greatness of Walt Whitman as a poet. Yet there can be no doubt about his power or his influence on later generations of poets. His verse has a certain magnetic force and a passionate quality that excite the imagination and earn either strong enthusiasm or strong dislike. Whitman had more influence than any other poet on the directions taken by American poetry after the middle of the nineteenth century. "The proof of a poet," Whitman said, "is that his country absorbs him as affectionately as he has absorbed it." One can say that Whitman's country is still in the process of absorbing him and accepting Whitman's work with understanding and affection. Out of the problems of the twentieth century it is possible that Americans are moving to a new understanding of the value of "simple separate persons" in a democratic society. 67 Name the themes of Whitman's poetry. 68 Find the lines which characterize Walt Whitman as a poet and as a personality. 69 Say why Whitman is called the poet of America and American democracy. 1 ultimate [41tim3t] — зд. глобальный 2 eternity [I'tainiti] — вечность 3 to identify [ai'denti,fai] — отождествлять 4 lame — хромой 5 New Jersey ['nju: 'd33:zi] — Нью Джерси, штат США 6 serene [si'nm] — умиротворенный immortality [.imoi'teeliti] — бессмертие
70 The appearance of Whitman's book of poems called "Leaves of Grass" marked a turning point in American literature. Say what new way of writing poetry Walt Whitman demonstrated in his book. 71 Walt Whitman believed that the spirit of a poet should respond to the spirit of his country. How did he respond to his country's life and ideals? 72 a) Listen to the poem I Hear America Singing, then read it and answer the question: What is the theme of the poem? b) One of the strongest themes in Whitman's poetry is the celebration of work, because work is the universal lot of ordinary people. ' carol ['kaerel] — зд. песня, мелодия 2 blithe [blaifl] — веселый, жизнерадостный 3 plank [plaenk] or beam — доска или брус 4 mason ['meissn] — каменщик, каменотёс s intermission [.mta'mifan] — перерыв I6 robust [ra'bAst] — здоровый, крепкий How is this theme revealed in "I Hear America Singing"? How does the poet celebrate the spirit of the American workers and what does he write of their contributions?
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 73 a) Read these lines about poetry and comment on them: Poetry is language that tells us, through a more or less emotional reaction, something that cannot be said, Edwin Arlington Robinson I have nothing to say and I am saying it and that is poetry. John Cage I Genuine poetry can communicate before it is understood, T. S. Eliot] A poem should not mean But be. Archibald MacLeish Poetry is the opening and closing of a door, leaving those who look through to guess about what is seen during a moment. Carl Sandburg] Poetry is either something that lives like fire inside you - tike music to the musician... - or else it is nothing, an empty, formalized bore,., F. Scott Fitzgeralc b) How do you respond to poetry ?
Frank O'Connor is the pseudonym ['sjuidsnim] of Michael O'Donovan, born in Cork, Ireland, in 1903. He grew up in an Irish provincial town, and his stories preserve amused, and sometimes tender observations of Irish customs, loves and hates. His published works include poems, plays, novels, translations, criticism, political and biographical studies, autobiographical travel books, and, above all, stories. Frank O'Connor was a real master of the short story. He could draw his countless readers into Irish life showing his sense of humour, and his compassion for human beings in their loneliness and their confusions.' His most popular books are An Only Child and My Father's Son. He wrote very successful stories about English public schools. The Idealist is among them. FRANK O'CONNOR 74 Read the words and guess their meanings. Pay attention to the suffixes: -ism, -ist: real — realism — realist, ideal — idealism — idealist; -er: climb — climber, murder — murderer, boil — boiler; -ness: busy — business, unfriendly — unfriendliness, lively — liveliness; -ly: natural — naturally, firm — firmly, proper — properly, innocent — innocently, threaten — threatening — threateningly; -y: hair — hairy, wool — woolly, grass — grassy, mud — muddy, ice — icy, milk — milky. 75 Read the sentences and translate them. Pay attention to the words formed by conversion: knot: Can you help me to knot my tie? Will you tie it in a tight knot? cane: The master caned the boy for breaking rules. The boy was punished with a cane. sob: The boy began to sob all over. He tried to speak through his sobs. fight: Who were you fighting? The boy tried to start a fight. step: Somebody stepped out of the darkness. Now the boy had to watch his step at school. blame: You have only yourself to blame. Don't put the blame on somebody else. excuse: I can't excuse you for coming so late. There is no excuse for such behaviour. respect: We all respected him. Everybody looked at the boy with respect. 76 Read these proper names which you will come across in the story The Idealist: O'Connor [ои'кзпэ], Moloney [ma'loum], Delaney [ds'lemi], Gorman ['до:тэп], Flanagan ['Аэепэдэп], Spillane ['spilem]. 77 Read Part I of the story The Idealist and answer the questions: Why was Delaney never happy about saying that he had been at Mass after he started reading school stories? What did the boys think of Delaney after he had been punished a second time? The Idealisl I don't know how it is about education, but it never seemed to do anything for me but get me into trouble. Adventure stories weren't so bad, but as a kid I was very serious and preferred realism ['riahzm] to romance [rou'masns]. School stories were what I liked best. The schools were English, and according to the pictures, they were all clock-towers and spires2. The fellows in the stories were all good climbers, and got in and out of school at night on ropes made of knotted sheets3. Whenever they did anything wrong they were given "lines" in Latin4. When 1 confusion [кэп'^изп] — смущение, замешательство 2 spire ['spais] — шпиль 1 ropes made of knotted sheets — веревки, сделанные из связанных узлом простыни 4 "lines" in Latin — латинские стихи, переписываемые в виде наказания Parti they were caned for breaking the rules of the school, they never showed any sign of pain. Most of them were great at football and cricket. They never told lies and wouldn't talk to anyone who did. If they were caught doing something wrong, they always told the truth, unless someone else was with them, and even if they were to be expelled for it, they wouldn't give his name, even if he was a thief. I worked hard at football and cricket, though of course we never had either a proper football or a proper cricket team. Our school was a red brick5 building without tower or spires a fellow could climb; we had no football or cricket team, so a fellow, no matter how hard he worked, could never play for the school, and instead of giving you "lines" in Latin, Murderer Moloney either lifted you by the ears or punished you with a cane. brick — кирпич
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD But these things were not so important. What was really important was ourselves. The fellows talked to the masters, told them all that went on and got others into trouble. If they were caught doing something wrong, they tried to put the blame on someone else, even if it meant telling lies. When they were caned, they cried and said it wasn't fair. I mean you couldn't help feeling ashamed, imagining what boys from a decent school would think if they saw it. My own way to school led me past the gate of the military barracks. You could have a look at the boys marching at the barrack square; if you came past at dinner-time, they even called you in and gave you pudding and tea. Naturally, I was often late. The only excuse was to say you were at early Mass'. But after I started reading those school stories, I was never happy about saying I had been at Mass. It was a lie, and I knew that the boys in the stories would have died sooner than2 tell a lie. One morning I came in very late and rather frightened. "What kept you till this hour, Delaney?" Murderer Moloney asked, looking at the clock. I wanted to say I had been at Mass, but I couldn't. "I was at the barracks, sir," I replied in panic. "I was watching the soldiers marching, sir." There was soft laughter from the class, and Moloney raised his brows3 in mild surprise, "Oh, I never knew you were such a military man. Hold out your hand!" Compared with the laughter from the class, the caning was nothing. I returned to my desk slowly and quietly, and the Murderer looked after me in surprise as if to show that this was something new for him. The others looked at me in surprise too and whispered as if I were4 some strange animal. At playtime, they gathered about me, full of curiosity and excitement. "Delaney, why did you say that about the barrack?" "Because it was true." I replied firmly. "I wasn't going to tell him a lie." "What lie?" "That I was at Mass." "Then couldn't you say you had to go on a message5?" "That would be a lie too." "My Goodness!6" they said. 'You'd better mind yourself. The murderer will kill you." I knew that and for the rest of the day was on my best behaviour. But my best wasn't good enough. Though he pretended to be reading, he was watching me the whole time. "Delaney," he said at last without raising his head from his book, "was that you talking?" "It was, sir," I replied. The whole class laughed. "Oh," he said, throwing down his book, "we'll soon stop that." This time he punished me more cruelly. I got through it without moving a muscle [Wsal], and returned to my desk with my hands by my sides. After school some of the boys followed me down the school yard. "Go on!7" they shouted. "Boasting, as usual! You are always boasting. Trying to pretend he didn't hurt you — a cry-baby like you!" "I wasn't boasting! I wasn't trying to pretend," I shouted. "Only decent fellows don't cry over every little pain like kids." "Go on!" they shouted after me. "You old idiot ['idiat]!" And as I went down the school lane8,1 heard them laughing behind me. 1 Mass [maes] — месса 2 would have died sooner than — скорее бы умерли, чем 5 to raise one's brows — (удивленно) поднимать брови 4 as if I were — как если бы я был s to go on a message — пойти с поручением 6 My Goodness — О боже! 78 Read and translate: 1 They never told lies and wouldn't talk to anyone who did. 2 We had no football or cricket team, so a fellow, no matter how hard he worked, could never play for the school. 3 But after I started reading those school stories I was never happy about saying I had been at Mass. 4 For the rest of the day I was on my best behaviour. But my best wasn't good enough. 79 Answer the questions: 1 What kind of books did young Delaney like best? 2 What did he like about the boys in stories about English school life? 3 What did he not like about the school he went to in Ireland? 4 What did he think was really wrong, the boys themselves or the school itself? 5 What was the only excuse that those who were late for school could give? 6 Why do you think the boys laughed when they heard Delaney say he had told the truth? 7 How do you understand the words, "compared with the laughter from the class, the caning was nothing"? 8 Why did the master and the boys look at Delaney in surprise? 7 Go on! — Продолжай! Давай дальше! 8 lane — узкая дорога, переулок
80 Read Part II of the story Ihe Idealist and answer the questions: • Why did Delaney take all that punishment rather than give Gorman away? Did the master learn the truth about the shilling? The Idealist Part II I realized that I should have to watch my step at school. So I did, all through that year. But one day an awful thing happened. I was coming in from the yard, and in the porch1 outside our classroom I saw a fellow called Gorman taking something from a coat hanging there. He was a fellow I disliked and feared. "Who are you looking at?" Gorman asked threateningly. "I wasn't looking at anyone," I replied. "I was only getting a pencil out of the pocket of my coat," he added. 'Nobody said you weren't," I replied. "You'd better not, either," he added. "You'd better mind your own business." 'You mind yours!" I said. "I never spoke to you at all." And that was the end of it. But after the playtime the Murderer said, "Everyone who left the classroom this morning, stand out!" I stood out with the others, so did Gorman. "Did you take anything from a coat hanging in the porch this morning?" the Murderer asked, laying a heavy, hairy paw2 on Gorman's shoulder and looking into his eyes. "Me, sir?" Gorman exclaimed innocently. "No, sir." 'You?" he asked another boy, but even before he reached me at all I realized why Gorman had told the lie and wondered what I should do. 'You?" he asked me, and his big red face was close to mine. My panic made me say the wrong thing as though I had planned it. "I didn't take anything, sir," I said in a low voice. "Did you see someone else do it?" he asked. "Have you a tongue in your head?" he shouted suddenly, and the whole class looked at me. "You?" he added to the next boy as though he had lost interest in me. "No, sir." "Back to your desks, the rest of you!" he ordered. "Delaney, you stay here. Turn out your pockets!" I1 in the porch — в подъезде 2 paw [рэ:]— лапа I did. Even for a small boy I had pockets that were museums in themselves; why I kept half the things I couldn't have explained myself. Among them was a school story borrowed from a boy. "Oh," he said, "so this is how you waste your time! Is that what you did with the money!" he asked quickly. "Money?" I repeated. "What money?" "The shilling that was taken from Flanagan's overcoat this morning." "I never took Flanagan's shilling," I said, beginning to cry, "and you have no right to say I did." "I have the right to say you're the most impudent puppy in the school," he replied. And he tore my school story in halves and threw them to the furthest corner of the classroom. "Now hold out your hand!" This time the Murderer went mad. Even the other fellows were frightened. "But why didn't you say you didn't see anyone?" asked the eldest, a fellow called Spillane. "Because I did," I said, beginning to sob all over again. "I saw Gorman." "Gorman? Was it Gorman who took Flanagan's money? And why didn't you say so?" "Because it wouldn't be right." I sobbed. "Why wouldn't it be right?" "Because Gorman should have told4 the truth himself," I said. "And if this were a proper school no one would ever speak to him again." Suddenly Gorman came up, red and angry. "Delaney," he shouted threateningly, "Did you say I took Flanagan's money?" He had come at a moment when I didn't care for him at all6.1 didn't even bother to reply, I hit7 with all my strength at his face. This was the last thing he expected. At the same moment a door opened and a teacher 3 I couldn't have explained myself — я сам бы не смог объяснить 4 should have told — следовало бы сказать 5 I didn't care for him at all — я о нем вообще не беспокоился 6 to hit — ударить
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD appeared. We all ran like mad and the fight was forgotten. It didn't remain forgotten, though. Next morning the Murderer looked at me. "Delaney, were you fighting in the yard after school yesterday?" For a second I didn't reply. I couldn't help feeling that it wasn't worth it. But before I answered I made another effort. "I was, sir," I said, and this time nobody laug-hed. I was out of my mind. The whole class knew it. "Who were you fighting?" "I prefer not to say, sir," I replied. "Who was he fighting with?" he asked. "Gorman, sir," replied three or four voices — as easy as that!' "Did Gorman hit him first?" "No, sir. He hit Gorman first." "Stand out," he said, taking up the cane. "Now," he added, going up to Gorman, "you take this and hit him. He thinks he is a great fellow. You show him what we think of him." "Hold out you hand, hold out your hand, I say," he shouted. "I will not," I shouted back losing all control of myself. "You what?" he cried. "What's that you said, you dirty little thief?" "I'm not a thief, I'm not a thief," I shouted. "And if he comes near me I'll put him in his place. You have no right to give him that cane, and you have no right to call me a thief either. If you do it again, I'll go down to the police and then we'll see who the thief is." 'You refused to answer my questions," he said. "No," I said through my sobs, "and I won't answer them now either. I'm not a spy." "That's enough now, that's enough! Go back to your seat now and I'll talk to you another time." I obeyed, but I did no work. No one else did much either. After that I was the hero of the school for the whole afternoon. Gorman tried to start the fight again, but Spillane ordered him away. Next morning I was in such a state of panic that I didn't know how I should go to school at all. I had made myself late as well. "What kept you, Delaney?" the Murderer asked quietly. "I was at Mass, sir." "All right. Take your seat." He seemed a bit surprised. What I had not realized was the advantage of our school over the English one. By this time half a dozen of his pets had brought the Murderer the true story of Flanagan's shilling. But by that time I didn't care. In my school bag I had another story. Not a school story this time, though. 81 Answer the questions: 1 What did Delaney see in the porch outside the classroom one day? 2 Delaney had seen Gorman taking something from a coat, hadn't he? Why didn't he say so? Why did he think it wouldn't be right to tell the truth in this case? 3 Do you think Delaney was right in saying that Gorman should have told the truth himself? 4 Why did the master think that it was Delaney who had stolen a shilling? 5 How did the master learn the truth about the shilling? 82 Read the sentences and translate them. 1 "Did you take anything from a coat hanging in the porch this morning?" The Murderer asked, laying a heavy, hairy paw on Gorman's shoulder and looking into his eyes.— "Me, sir?" Gorman exclaimed innocently. 2 "I have the right to say you're the most impudent puppy in the school", he replied. 3 "Gorman should have told the truth himself," I said. "And if this were a proper school no one would ever speak to him again." 4 For a second I didn't reply. I couldn't help feeling that it wasn't worth it. But before I answered I made another effort. 1 as easy as that — само собой разумеется, зд. а кто же еще?
Discussing the Characters 81 The following sentences describe things that Delaney, the schoolmaster, and Gorman, one of Delaney's classmates, said or did. How does each item characterize them? Gorman ♦ In the porch outside the classroom Delaney saw a j fellow called Gorman taking something from a coat hanging there. ♦ "Did you take anything from a coat hanging in the porch this morning?" the Murderer asked looking into Gorman's eyes. — "Me, sir?" Gorman exclaimed innocently. "No, sir." You may find the following words helpful in describing \ Gorman: I Moloney ♦ Murderer Moloney either lifted someone by the ears or punished him with a cane. ♦ He punished Delaney cruelly. ♦ "I have the right to say you're the most impudent puppy in the school," Moloney replied. And he tore Delaney's school story in halves and threw them to the furthest corner of the classroom. "Now hold out your hand." This time the Murderer went mad. Even the other fellows were frightened. You may find the following words helpful in describing Moloney: [Delaney ♦ Delaney wanted to say he had been at Mass, but he couldn't. ♦ "I wasn't boasting! I wasn't trying to pretend," Delaney shouted. "Only decent fellows don't cry over every little pain like kids." ♦ "Gorman should have told the truth himself," Delaney said. ♦ Delaney hit with all his strength at Gorman's face. ♦ "I'm not a thief, I'm not a thief," Delaney shouted. "And if he comes near me I'll put him in his place. You have no right to give him that cane, and you have no right to call me a thief, either." You may find the following words helpful in describing Delaney: mean cowardly indecent dishonest unpleasant cruel indifferent unpleasant rude hateful unjust truthful frank conscientious romantic decisive firm serious fair 82 How did Delaney show his anger, his indignation with the master's unjust attitude towards himself? What do you think caused Delaney's stormy emotions? What qualities of character were needed to speak to the master in such a manner? 83 Which episodes show that Delaney had a determined character? 84 Quote the lines of the story which show Delaney's character. 85 Delaney mentioned In the story that he disliked and feared Gorman. What do you think the reasons could be? 86 Say how the author depicts Moloney. 87 What feelings does each character of the story arouse In you ? Give reasons. 88 Role play. Delaney's classmates are discussing the incident in class after school. They are exchanging opinions about the teacher's behaviour and Delaney's reaction. Some boys are greatly surprised at Delaney's fearless manner, some think he is showing off and some are greatly impressed by Delaney's behaviour. Act out a conversation in which different opinions are expressed and different attitudes are shown about this.
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Discussing the Theme of the Story and the Author's Attitude 91 Discuss the following: How did books make Delaney create his own world of things, people and ideas? What characters did he admire? How did he try to imitate them? The real world turned out to differ greatly from the imaginary world which Delaney had created in his mind. Find the proof of this in the story. Explain the title of the story. Do you think it fits the story? Why or why not? Whom does the author sympathize with? What makes you think so? The Greatest of the World's Wonders 92 Comment on these quotations: Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. Choose an author as you choose a friend. Books and friends should be few but good. All books are divisible into two classes; the books of the hour and the books of all time. 93 Develop these ideas: Books awaken the young reader's imagination and cause laughter as well as tears. They help him/her to understand and to love his/her fellow men. A person's ideas, attitudes, or activities are often influenced by the time and place, customs, or conditions in which s/he lives, and by books s/he reads. 94 Speak about the aim of literature and its influence upon minds, tastes, opinions, interests and characters. 95 How can this quotation be referred to literature ? 96 What do you consider great literature ? Give your opinion. 1 Pablo ['paeblou] Picasso [pi'kaesou] art washes away from the SOUl the dust Mof everyday Pablo Picasso
97 Look through these names of British and American writers and their books and arrange them properly into two lists: "British Literature"and "American Literature". You may continue the lists given below. Prepare a quiz on English literature. American Literature John Galsworthy (1867-1933) Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) Charles Dickens (1812-1870) Mark Twain (1835-1910) Theodor Dreiser (1871-1945) John Steinbeck (1902-1968) William Makepeace Thackeray (1811—1863) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) John Updike (1932-) Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) Charlotte Bronte (1816 - 1855) Emily Bronte (1818 —1848) Dame Agatha Christie (1890— 1976) The Old Man and the Sea A Farewell to Arms Robinson Crusoe The Forsyte Saga The Financier Vanity Fair Rabbit, Run David Copperfield The Winter of Our Discontent The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Mousetrap Jane Eyre Wuthering Heights
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD British Literature A Literary Club Work in groups. 1 Devise a questionnaire in order to find out how much students know about the literature of English-speaking countries, its most significant figures and its popularity in this country. 2 Make lists of interesting authors representing different English-speaking countries. Consult your teachers of Literature and librarians, literary encyclopedias and other reference books. 3 Form groups to explore the works of some authors in which you have expressed an interest. It is desirable that authors of several English- speaking countries should be chosen. 4 Make written notes about the authors chosen and their books. Prepare reviews of the authors' works. Include photographs (photocopies), annotations and opinions which can be found in the press and in books. If possible, find materials about the places which are associated with these men of literature. 5 Give presentations of each group's part of the research at the meetings of your literary club. 6 Discuss a programme of events which could be held at the club during the term (year): arranging meetings, marking the anniversaries of great authors from English-speaking countries, arranging parties and performances dedicated to the great men and women of literature, organising competitions of the best illustrations to the works of some writers and poets and the best translations of some literary pieces. 7 Decide who will be responsible for the organisational aspects of the events. Prepare the events included in the programme of the club activities and conduct them.
UNIT 2 REALITY, DREAMS AND EXCHANGING IDEAS AND OPINIONS MAKING SUGGESTIONS IF I HAVE ENOUGH TIME 1 Read these famous lines and remember them. I WILL DO... If we begin with certainties', We shall end in doubts, But if we begin with doubts, And are patient in them. We shall end in certainties. Francis Bacon b) Answer the questions: 1 What two things does the author compare? 2 Which of these two things does the author prefer? 3 What advice do you think the author gives to young people? 4 Do you agree with what Francis Bacon said? Why or why not? c) Re-state Francis Bacon's words in your own words. 2 a) Read and say if you agree with these ideas about how you can make your class/school wall newspaper more interesting. Our school wall newspaper will be more interesting... if more students take part in making it; if we write articles about things we are really concerned about; if we select good pictures for it. You can continue the list of ideas and opinions. b) Work in groups. Discuss your school life with your classmates. Say how in your opinion each of you can make it more interesting. Compare different opinions and suggestions on how to make: your lessons in different subjects more interesting and useful; sports events more successful; your trips and excursions more enjoyable; meetings and discussions more important and interesting. c) Say what you would like to do to make things better. 1 certainties ['saitntiz]— уверенность
FANTASIES (Subjunctive I) 3 Work in groups. Your family is going to receive guests or give a party. You are discussing what should be done to make the house look better. Everyone is giving his/her suggestions. Act out a conversation. Have as many suggestions as possible. These are some of the possible ideas: If we paint the house, it will look better. If we remove the furniture, the room will look bigger. b) Say what you would like to do to help your family. 4 Work in groups. Discuss your plans for the weekend. Say what you will do if something unexpected happens: if you miss the early train; if it starts raining; if you don't get tickets for the theatre. You may continue the list. 5 Read these lines and say in what way they are true: Those who never retract their opinions iove themselves more than they love truth. Joseph Joubert So many men, so many opinions. Terence < 6 a) Listen to the poem Dreams, then read it. Say what the poem compares a life without dreams with. b) Does the theme of the poem have a universal appeal? Give your reasons. c) Do you agree with the advice the poet gives "to holdfast to dreams"? Why or why not? 1 barren [Ъаегэп] — бесплодный, неплодородный
Grammar Study (1) EXPRESSING A WISH ABOUT THE PRESENT OR FUTURE I WISH I WERE... I WISH I HAD... Read these lines and say in -what way they are true: I WISH I DID... I WISH I COULD... I Desire is the very essence of man. Benedict de Spinoza As long as I have a want, I have a reason for living. Satisfaction is death. George Bernard Shaw. 8 Look at the pictures, read and translate the sentences. Pay attention to the words in bold. It's a pity I'm not a pilot. I wish I were a pilot. It's a pity I don't understand the joke. , I wish I knew French. It's a pity I don't know how to dance. I wish I knew how to dance. It's a pity I can't skate well. I wish I could skate better.
9 Study the table. Observe the form of the verb after wish. Remember how to express a wish about the present or future. 1 The True Situation I don't have a tape recorder. I have to take a bus to school. We are not good chess players. I don't know how to dance. He cannot speak French. Expressing a Wish I wish I had a tape recorder. I wish I didn't have to take a bus to school. We wish we were good chess players. I wish I knew how to dance. He wishes he could speak French. When a speaker expresses_a_wjsh about the present/future situation, he uses a past verb form — had, were, could, knew. 2 I'm not a good chess player. It's cold today. He isn't at school today. I wish I were a good chess player. I wish it were not cold today. I wish he were at school today. Notice that after the verb wish. were is used for all persons: I you c^, he, she, it we they I wish were... 10 Read what the true situation is and complete the sentences expressing a wish: The True Situation Example: My younger brother doesn't have a bicycle. 1 I don't have a camera. 2 Ann's sister doesn't know how to swim. 3 My friend doesn't have a good library. 4 We don't have a lot of time. 5 I can't go to the cinema tonight. 6 I'm not a good cook. 7 He always makes mistakes. 8 He often misses classes. Expressing a Wish He wishes he had a bicycle. I wish... She wishes... He wishes... We wish... I wish... My mother wishes... The teacher wishes... The teacher wishes...
11 Complete the sentences expressing a wish, as in the examples. Pay attention to the use of auxiliary verbs. Examples: We don't have a colour TV, but we wish we did. My parents can't speak English, but they wish they could. 1 Sometimes we are not polite, .... 2 We don't always return library books in time, ... 3 There are people who are always in a hurry, ... 4 He doesn't get along with his friends, ... 5 Some people are always late,... 12 Work in pairs. Act out the following dialogues expressing wishes. Use auxiliary verbs as in the example: Example: A: Can you go to Tim's party tonight? B: No, I can't, but I wish I could. 1 Can you play a musical instrument? 2 Does your sister (or brother) know how to play a musical instrument? 3 Do you have to take a bus to school? 4 Do your classmates always come to school in time? 5 Is there an art museum in your district? 1 j Here is a letter from an eight- year-old daughter to her mother. Read it, then say what the girl wishes her mother would not do. 14 Think of real life situations and say what you (your friends, parents) wish you or someone else would or would not do.
Everyone has problems. You might have problems at school or at home, with your schoolmates or parents. a) Work in pairs. Read the dialogues about relationships with people and say what problems they have. A— Ann; В—Ben A: How do you get along with your sister? B: We get along well. She's easy to work and play with. A: You are lucky. Mine is always giving me advice. I wish she weren't. It really gets on my nerves. B: I can see why. A- Alex; B- Bill A: I just can't seem to have a conversation with my father. The problem is he's always interrupting me. He never lets me finish a sentence. B: Oh, I've got it... A: And to make matters worse, he never listens to my point of view. B: Well, what can I say? Cheer up! b) Learn the dialogues. 16 Work in groups. Choose a partner and discuss some real or imaginary problems at home or at school. Talk about your relationship with a member of your family, your classmate, a friend or anyone else you know. Express your wishes. You may discuss if it is easy to get along with people ... who are always complaining; who are always criticizing someone; who are always giving advice to everybody; who are always interrupting; who never listen to someone else's point of view; • who are always changing their mind (first they want one thing, then they want something completely different). The following may help you: We get along well with each other. He is easy/difficult to work with. We agree on everything. He gets on my nerves. It hurts my feelings. We can't stand each other.
Grammar Study (2) 17 a) Read these lines and remember them: TALKING ABOUT OUR DREAMS AND FANTASIES IF I HAD ENOUGH TIME I WOULD DO... If all good people were clever, And all clever people were good, The world would be nicer than ever... William Wordsworthi b) Discuss these lines. Say what in the author's opinion would make the world nicer. 18 Look at the pictures, then read and translate the sentences. Pay attention to the parts of the sentences in bold. If I were a pilot, I would fly to the North Pole. Compare: It's a pity I'm not a pilot. I wish I were a pilot. If I knew French, I would understand the joke. Compare: It's a pity I don't understand the joke. I wish I knew French. If I knew how to dance, I wouldn't stand here alone. Compare: It's a pity I don't know how to dance. I wish I knew how to dance. If I could skate better, they wouldn't laugh at me. Compare: It's a pity I can't skate well. I wish I could skate better.
19 Study the table. Observe the form of the verb in the if-clause and in the main clause. Remember how to express a fantasy or how to speak about an imaginary situation. The True Situation Facts I don't have a tape recorder. I wish I had one. I have to take a bus to school. I wish I didn't have to. We are not good chess players. We wish we were. Imaginary Situation Contrary-to-fact in the Present/Future If I had a tape recorder, I would listen to my favourite music at any time of the day. If I didn't have to take a bus to school, I wouldn't get up so early. If we were good chess players, we would play in our school team. When we talk about an imaginary situation which is contrary-to- fact in the present or in the future, we use the past verb form in the if-clause (had, knew, were, could) and the form would + Infinitive in the main clause. If-clause If it were not raining, If the weather were nice, If Mary were here, If I were you, Main clause I would go swimming. we would go for a walk. she would help us. I wouldn't accept the invitation. In an if-clause were is used for all persons. 20 Read these lines and say in what way they are true: If there were dreams to sell. What would you buy? Thomas Lovell Beddoes In dreams begins responsibility. W. B. Yeats Nothing happens unless first a dream. Carl Sandburg
Talking About People Critically 21 Dan's parents are talking about their son. They are worried about him. a) Work in pairs. Read the dialogue. Say what the parents are worried about. M— Mother; F— Father F: I'm so worried about Dan. What are we going to do about him? M: I don't know He doesn't lift a finger to help. F: When did he get up this morning? Does he ever get up early enough to get to school in time? M: I'd be happier if he got up earlier. F: And does he ever iron his shirts? M: I'd be happier if he ironed his shirts sometimes. b) These are some other problems Dan has that his parents are worried about. Continue the conversation. Say what could make his parents happier. Dan never goes shopping; he often complains that he has nothing to do; he often changes his mind; he does not talk about his problems and keeps everything inside himself; he helps about the house unwillingly; he often complains that he is tired; he has problems with his teachers. 22 Dan's mother is talking with Bob. her elder son. a) Work in pairs. Read the dialogue. -( M- Mother; B- Bob~>)- B: Dan talks on the telephone too long. He takes too much time. M: Yes, if he didn't talk on the telephone so long, I wouldn't mind. B: And besides, he watches TV till late at night. M: Yes, if he didn't watch TV till late at night, I wouldn't mind. b) These are some other problems Bob is discussing with his mother. Continue the conversation. • Dan complains too often; he criticizes everybody and everything; he interrupts people; he is indifferent to other people's problems.
Reacting to Criticism 23 a) Work in pairs. Read the conversation between Dan and his father. F— Father; D— Dan F: Turn off that music, Dan. Do you really like to listen to those loud songs? D: Of course I do. I wouldn't listen to them if I didn't. F: You don't mean to say that you like that sort of music, do you? D: Of course I do. I wouldn't buy so many records if I didn't. F: What's this? You don't mean to say that you are going to wear these things? D: Of course I am. F: Do you really like them? D: Of course I do. I wouldn't wear them if I didn't. b) Imagine a similar conversation and make up a dialogue. Speak about: books you read; TV programmes you watch; music you listen to; songs you sing; clothes you wear. Discussing Some Problems About People Imagine what they would say. Complete the sentences as in the example: 24 Boys and girls are discussing the problems they have with some of their classmates. Example: He would be easier to get along with if he were more reliable. He would be a better friend She would be easier to get along with The following may help you: always criticizes everything is always complaining is always boastful is ambitious and unreliable never listens to other people's point of view if he were ... if she didn't... if she were more if she were less ... is always in a hurry pretends not to notice people isn't easy to talk to never looks happy is very stubborn
25 The parents are talking to the teachers about some of the problems their children have. Imagine what the teachers would say to the parents. Try to follow this pattern as an example: Teacher: I am sure your son would be a better student if he were more attentive during lessons and if he worked harder at home. It would be easier to get along with him if he tried to see things from a different point of view. The following may be helpful: They don't do well in some subjects. They often come late. • They are not responsible. They do not get along with their classmates. They sometimes miss classes. 26 a) Work in pairs. Read the dialogues and compare them. Observe how people express their opinions when they are not very sympathetic. A— Ann; B— Betty A: I'm always late for work. B: If you got up earlier, you wouldn't be late. A— Andrew: B— Bob A: My marks this week are terrible. B: If you worked harder, your marks would be better. b) Make up similar dialogues. One speaks about a problem he/she has. The other one expresses an opinion which shows that he/she isn 't very sympathetic. You may use the following list of problems and opinions to begin. Then add ideas of your own. Opinions You never call them. You don't write to your friends. You don't communicate with them He wastes a lot of time. She is not very reliable. Problems • My friends never call me. • I never get any interesting letters. • My parents don't understand me. • My son never gets his work done in time. • My daughter doesn't have many friends. 27 Imagine what people with different jobs (a postman, milkman, driver, etc.) would say about themselves. Try to follow this pattern as an example: Postman: If I didn't bring those people letters and papers, I guess they wouldn't know about anything that is going on in the world.
Reacting to Criticism 28 Imagine what people say when they want to make a polite request. a) Make up sentences. It would be nice Life would be happier The neighbours would be pleased if you didn't play too noisily quarrel and fight talk too loud tease each other say rude things fight and shout every day. so often, so much, all the time. b) Paraphrase the following orders to make them polite requests. Which of these forms do you think is most effective? Stop playing so noisily! Don't say such rude things! Stop quarrelling and shouting! Don't fight and shout! Stop playing your loud music every night! c) Imagine a situation in which people usually make polite requests. What would you say if you saw or heard younger boys or girls do something wrong (dangerous, rude, impolite) ? Expressing Regret a) What would you say to show that you are sorry? Complete the sentences. 29 You are going on a trip, but a friend of yours cannot join you for some reasons. You are both sorry that you won't enjoy a lot of things together: If you went with us, we would enjoy watching .. If you joined us, we would enjoy listening ... If we were together, we would enjoy gathering .. b) Work in pairs. Think of similar situations, act out a dialogue with your classmate and express sympathy. 30 Work in pairs. A friend of yours is unwilling to go on an excursion (a trip or a hike) because s/he thinks it is a waste of time. You would find it helpful in learning Trying to Convince People and Giving Arguments Try to convince your partner that the trip will be helpful in getting a lot of knowledge. Complete the sentences giving arguments: geography botany history if you explored. if you collected if you watched. if you visited...
Trying to Convince People and Giving Advice 31 Work in pairs. A person has been ill for a long time and he does not feel fit. S/he wants the doctor's advice. S/he goes to see the doctor. The doctor asks his patient some questions, then he gives him/her advice. Act out a conversation between a patient and the doctor. Try to follow this pattern as an example in giving advice. Patient: I just sit at home and watch television all day. Doctor: It would do you good if you did a lot of regular exercise. The following may be helpful: not to stay away from PE lessons to walk a lot to join a gym club to spend a lot of time in the fresh air 32 Very often people need advice. Work in pairs. Give advice to a friend of yours and try to convince him/her that life would change and become more interesting ifs/he took up a hobby, or ifs/he chose an interesting occupation. Try to use this pattern as an example: If you took up photography, you would find it a pleasure. If you took up metalwork, you wouldn't think it boring. If you took up making radio sets, you would find it interesting. If you took up gardening, you wouldn't waste your time. 33 a) Work in pairs. You ask your classmate (or someone else) to join you or advise him/her to go somewhere or do something. Try to convince him/her that the place is worth visiting or the thing is worth doing. Give reasons. Say: • what would impress him/her, what s/he would enjoy, admire or appreciate; why s/he would be delighted if s/he accepted your invitation or followed your advice. Try to use this pattern as an example: Why not join us and see this new performance? It's worth seeing. They say it's delightful. I'm sure you would admire the music and I think you would be impressed by the scenery. Imaginary situations: The game is worth watching. The excursion is worth taking part in. • The performance is worth seeing. The story is worth reading. The exhibition is worth visiting. b) Think of similar and real situations. Give your classmates advice and try to convince them, giving your reasons.
Criticizing and Discussing Ideas for Improving Something 34 You are feeling dissatisfied with some of the things at your school or in your class. You haven't got any authority, but you think you and your classmates can do something to improve the situation. Try to use this pattern as an example: a) Discuss your ideas for improving some situations or solving some problems you have at your school or in your class. The new library that is being built in our district is too far from school and it is difficult to get there. If I had the authority, I would build a library at a place which is more convenient for people. Imaginary situations: There are not enough books in foreign languages in your school library. The stadium that is being built not far from your school is not big enough. There are not enough rooms for play and rest for younger children at school. There are not enough clubs at school for students. Sports competitions with other schools are held too seldom. There are too few places for school students to go to in the evening. b) Think of the real problems you have at your school and in your class and discuss your ideas for solving them. 35 You are complaining about the new district library- You have a lot of complaints. a) Work in pairs. Act out a conversation with your classmates. These are your complaints: The library is too far from school. The reading-room for schoolchildren is not big enough. There are too few books in foreign languages. Not all the librarians know foreign languages. Try to follow this pattern as an example: It wouldn't be so bad if the new district library weren't so far away. b) Think of a similar situation. Express your critical remarks about something and your ideas for improving the situation.
36 Read the following opinions and say: who the speakers are; what the problem in each case is; • what each speaker wishes. ♦ I can't figure my parents out. First they want me to do one thing, then they want something completely different. They are always changing their minds. ♦ My son is a complete mystery to me. He is always complaining that he has nothing to do. Then, when his friend calls him to go to the cinema, he says he is too tired. ♦ We re worried about Susie. She isn t doing well at school. She doesn't get along with her classmates. She doesn't talk to us about her problems. She keeps everything inside. ♦ I've got a real problem with my neighbours. They play their stereo at all hours of the day and night. They keep all their windows open, too. They aren't thoughtful about others. 37 Read these lines and say in what way they are true: The world is not run by thought, nor by imagination, but by opinion, Elizabeth Drew The only sin which we never forgive in each other is difference of opinion, Ralph Waldo Emerson All progress is precarious1, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1 precarious [pn'kegrres] — ненадежный, сомнительный, случайный
Talking About Possible Reactions 38 a) Ask your partner the questions. Then each of you say what you yourself would do and what you think a friend of yours would do in these situations. Personality Quiz 1 If a friend bought some new clothes which you didn't like and she/he asked you for your honest opinion, would you: a tell her/him that you didn't like it? b mention some part of the clothing that you liked? с change the conversation? 2 If the people living next door to you always made a lot of noise late at night and at weekends, would you: a telephone them and complain? b start making noise yourself? с say nothing but look for somewhere else to live? 3 If your classmates asked you to do something for a boy or a girl who was leaving and whom you didn't like very much, would you: a do nothing? b do only a little? с do as much as the others? 4 If you suddenly saw a friend whom you had not invited to your birthday party and whom you were not going to invite, would you: a say hello and invite him/her to come to your birthday party? b say hello and make an excuse to rush off immediately? с pretend not to notice him/her and walk straight past? 5 If you noticed a friend cheating in a game, would you: a ask your friend why s/he was cheating? b start cheating yourself? с pretend not to notice? 6 If you saw a friend in a bus pushing a younger boy for no reason, would you: a tell him/her that you didn't like it? b pretend not to notice him/her doing it? с say nothing but take the younger boy away from him/her? b) Now check (each other's answers) and tell each other what sort of person you think s/he is. Mostly a's. You say what you mean and you mean what you say. You are honest and frank about your opinions. You tend to be either very popular or very unpopular. Mostly b's. You feel strongly about certain things but you do not always say what you feel as you are too frightened of what others might think of you. You are an easy-going sort of person and you have a lot of friends. Mostly c's. You are a quiet person. You like keeping the peace and you don't like making a fuss. You prefer to follow rather than to lead. As you tend to hide your emotions, you sometimes find it difficult to form a lasting relationship.
JOKES AND FUNNY STORIES 39 Read Jokes and Funny Stories (Part I) and do the tasks after them. Plans for the Future Father: What will you become, my child, when you are a grown-up? Child: When I am as big as you are, I'll become an honest merchant. Father: An honest merchant! That's a good idea! If you ever become an honest merchant, you won't have any competitors, for you will be the only one. Parti a) Answer the question: • Why does the father say that his son won't have any competitors if he becomes an honest merchant? b) Read these paraphrases of the child's answer and say which one best expresses the idea of the text: 1 I am going to become an honest merchant, when I am a grown-up. 2 I wish to become an honest merchant. Lucky Fisherman Husband (to his wife): I don't see why you are so cross with me. Haven't I been really lucky in my fishing this time? Wife: You have, I am sure. But when you go fishing next time, let me buy all the fish for you to bring home. If I choose it myself, it will at least be fresh. a) Answer the question: • Why is the man's wife cross with him? b) Read these paraphrases of the wife's words and say which of them best express the idea of the text: 1 I shall buy all the fish for you to bring home. 2 I wish I had bought all the fish you brought home. 3 I shall choose the fish myself next time. 4 I wish I had chosen the fish myself this time.
When going to Boston, Conan Doyle engaged a cab. The cab driver recognized at once the famous author of detective stories. When Conan Doyle was about to pay his fare, the cab driver said: "If you give me a ticket to your lecture, sir, I'll prefer it to any fare." "Certainly, my brave man!" exclaimed Conan Doyle. "I'll give you tickets for all members of your family if you tell me how you got to know my name." "Thanks, sir," answered the cab driver, highly pleased. "You'll find the answer when you look at the side of your suitcase, for the name "Conan Doyle" is written on it." a) Answer the question: What did the cab driver prefer to get from Conan Doyle when he was about to pay his fare? b) Read these paraphrases of the cab driver's request and Conan Doyle's answer and compare them with the form of their request and answer given in the text. Cab driver: If you gave me a ticket to your lecture, sir, I would prefer it to any fare. Conan Doyle: I wish you would tell me how you got to know my name. Asking for Instructions Father: Now, Patrick, if Uncle James calls, tell him that I'll be back at five o'clock. Patrick: I see, Pa! But what shall I tell him if he doesn't call? a) Join the next two sentences together to make Father's request sound more exact: Father: Uncle James is going to call. Tell him that I'll be back at five o'clock. b) Do you think that the boy always gets good instructions from his parents ? Explain how this idea is supported by the text.
Presently Uncle: When do you intend to pay back the money you have borrowed? Nephew: Oh, presently, dear uncle! I will do it as soon as I get the money from the publishing house. Uncle: When will you get it, I would like to know? Nephew: I will certainly get it as soon as the publisher accepts my novel. Uncle: Do you think he will accept your novel, my boy? Nephew: No doubt he will when I finish it. Uncle: Are you going to finish it soon, my boy? Nephew: Of course I am. I will begin to write it the moment I К have found a suitable subject and the necessary inspiration. a) Join the following sentences together to make the nephew's words sound better and express the idea in a more exact way: 1 I will certainly pay back the money I have borrowed. I hope to get the money from the publishing house. 2 I hope the publisher will accept my novel. Then I will get the money. 3 I'm sure I'll finish the novel. The publisher will accept it. 4 I shall find a suitable subject. Then I shall write my novel. A Square Deal1 A man with a little dog in his arms enters a restaurant and calls the bell boy. This is what he tells him: "Take this dog, boy, and carry it to my wife. Here is my wife's address. When she answers the bell, you will show her the dog. When she sees the dog, she will be beside herself with joy and will certainly give you a tip. As soon as you get the tip, come back here and we shall share it. If you act as I am telling you to, we'll be able to repeat the deal. If you don't, I'll show you what's what.2" a) Enumerate the conditions of the deal as told by the man. Use direct speech: 1 You will show her the dog when ... 2 She will give you the tip when ... 3 We shall share the tip if... 4 We'll be able to repeat the deal if... 5 I'll show you what's what if... b) Speak about the conditions of the deal as reported by the boy to his friends. 1 A Square Deal — честная сделка 2 "I'll show you what's what." — «Я тебе покажу.»
Indecision Mr. Brown is going to do some shopping. Mr. Brown (to his wife): Do you think I should take my umbrella? Mrs. Brown: As you like, my dear. Mr. Brown: If it begins to rain, I'll certainly need it. Mrs. Brown: No doubt, if it rains, you will need it. Mr. Brown: But if it doesn't, the umbrella will be in my way. Mrs. Brown: Certainly, leave it then. Mr. Brown: But supposing it rains, then I'll get drenched1 and my hat will be no longer fit to wear. Mrs. Brown: Well, take it then. Mr. Brown: What a nuisance2 you are, my dear. You never know your own mind. Do I take it? Or do I leave it? Which should I do? Mrs. Brown: Take it then, and put an end to it. Mr. Brown: So I'll take it. But the barometer [ba'romita] is rising, the sky is clear. If the L weather stays fine, I'll certainly forget all about my umbrella and, more likely than not, I'll lose it. So I won't take it. Mr. Brown goes into the anteroom, sees his umbrella in the umbrella stand, picks it up, and goes out. In the street he drops in at the nearest shop and asks the shopkeeper to keep his umbrella till he returns home. a) Answer the question: What were Mr. Brown's reasons for and against taking his umbrella? b) Explain why Mr. Brown took his umbrella and then asked the shopkeeper to keep it till he returned home ? A Polite Request If you park your car in the wrong place, a traffic policeman will soon fine it. You will be very lucky if he lets you go without a ticket3. However, this does not always happen. Traffic police are sometimes very polite. During a holiday in Sweden, I found this note on my car: "Sir, we welcome you to our city. This is a 'No Parking' area. You will enjoy your stay here if you pay attention to our street signs. This note is only a reminder." If you receive a request like this, you cannot fail to obey it! a) Answer the question: How did the traffic police remind travellers not to park their cars in the wrong place? b) Read the following ways of expressing requests, and try to formulate them in a polite way: 1 Don't park your car here. 'No Parking.' 2 Don't walk on the grass. 'Keep off the grass.' c) Think of different requests and express them in a polite way. 40 Read Jokes and Funny Stories (Part I) again. Choose the one you like best, act it out and then restate it in reported speech. 1 to get drenched — промокнуть насквозь 2 nuisance ['njuisans] — зд.: раздражающий, надоедливый (человек) 3 ticket — зд.: штраф
41 Read Jokes and Funny Stories (Part II) and do the tasks after them. Part II Mr. X.: If I were you, I wouldn't see too much of young Z. His daughter: Why shouldn't I? What's wrong with him? Mr. X.: Well, if you were older, you'd understand. His daughter: And if you were younger, perhaps you might like him. Mr. X.: You're just starting a new job. If I were in your place, I'd be very careful in choosing my friends. His daughter: If you were in my place, you wouldn't choose differently. Mr. X.: Young people aren't what we were. If I were the Minister of Education, I should do something about it. His daughter: If I were Prime Minister, I would have a young Minister of Education. Paraphrase the next sentences to express the way the father gave advice to his daughter: I wish you wouldn't see too much of young Z. I wish you would be very careful in choosing your friends. If It Were Really Your Tooth Dentist: Well, if it were my tooth, I should have it pulled out immediately. Patient: Oh, if it were really your tooth, I shouldn't object to it. Choose (a) or (b) to express what the patient thought: a It would be a good idea to have my tooth pulled out. b Having my tooth pulled out wouldn't be a good idea. Polite Ways Mother: What would you say to me, Betty, if I came to breakfast with my hands as dirty as yours? Betty: If you came to breakfast with dirty hands, I shouldn't tell you anything. I should be more polite. Choose (a), (b) or (c), to express what Betty meant to say: a I wish I always washed my hands before breakfast. b I wish my hands were not so dirty. с I wish you hadn't noticed my dirty hands. an Mothers See Faults in Their Children? Mrs. Smith: It's extraordinary that Mrs. Jenkin can never see faults in her children. Mr. Smith: Mothers never can. Mrs. Smith: What an absurd idea! So like a man! I'm sure I would see faults in our children — if they had any. Choose (a) or (b) to express the idea of the joke: a Mrs. Smith would see faults in her children. b Mrs. Smith would never see faults in her children.
I Would Write Better If ... A man of practically no education was writing a letter to his friend. He made mistakes in almost every word he wrote. "What terrible spelling you have got!" exclaimed his neighbour. "Well, how can one write well with a pen like that," said the man. "If I had a better pen, I would certainly write better." Paraphrase and join the next sentences: I wish I had a better pen. I'd write better if I had. If You Were a Gentleman An Irishman was sitting in a station smoking, when a woman came in, and sitting beside him, remarked: "If you were a gentleman, you wouldn't smoke in the presence of a lady." "Madam," he answered, "if you were a lady, you would sit further away." "If you were my husband, I would give you poison!" she replied. "Well, Madam," returned the Irishman, 'if you were my wife, I would accept it." Paraphrase the words of the lady and the Irishman: I wish you wouldn't smoke in the presence of a lady. I wish you would sit further away. Food and Talk Last week at a dinner-party, the hostess asked me to sit next to Mrs. Rumbold. Mrs. Rumbold was a large, unsmiling lady in a tight black dress. She didn't even look up when I took my seat beside her. Her eyes were fixed on her plate and in a short time, she was busy eating. I tried to make conversation. "A new play is coming to 'The Globe' soon," I said. "Will you be seeing it?" "No," she answered. "Will you be spending your holidays abroad this year?" I asked. "No," she answered. "Will you be staying in England?" I asked. "No," she answered. In despair, I asked her whether she was enjoying her dinner. "Young man," she answered, "if you ate more and talked less, we would both enjoy our dinner!" Paraphrase and join the sentences: I wish you would eat more and talk less. We would both enjoy our dinner if you did so. 42 Read Jokes and Funny Stories (Part II) again. Choose the one you like best, act it out and then restate it in reported speech.
The great English writer Charles Dickens (1812—1870) is an author who has evoked devotion and love in quite extraordinary measure. His books are read by millions of people everywhere. His energy, vividness, imaginative sweep, and tender concern have made his characters unforgettable. He is tragic, humorous, dramatic, funny, melodramatic, delicate by turns. He was able to raise a smile or a laugh and bring a tear to the eye. His characters cannot be forgotten. Such is the power of Dickens's imagination, which is seen in his style, in his striking originality and variety. His novels form a world which is seen sharply. He showed a great moving picture of everyday life and wrote about the common people with sympathy We must admire the noble feeling that filled Dickens in the writing of many of his novels—the desire to show up some wrong and put it right. He attacked poverty, greed, cruelty, terrible labour conditions, children's labour, the system of education, all the social conditions of his time. His most important novels are Dawd Copperfield, The Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, Dombey and Son, Hard Times, Little Dorrit, Great Expectations, Our Mutual Friend, Bleak House and Nicholas Nickleby. His novels and stories are adapted for the theatre, for radio, television, and film, for solo performance, and for both musicals and modern opera. FRANK O'CONNOR 45 Read the words and guess their meaning: colour — colourless; expression — expressionless; education — educational; mathematics — mathematical; paper — to paper; sound — to sound; step — to step. 44 Read these word combinations and translate them: colourless eyes; expressionless face; to paper a wall; to sound disappointed; to step forward; mathematical figures; educational factory. 45 Read the proper names: Charles [tfailz] Dickens ['dikmz], Thomas ['tomas] Gradgrind ['grasd'gramd], Cecilia [si'siljs] Yupe [ju:p], Mr. Choacumchild ['tjoukam'tfaild]. 46 Read the story Only facts from Hard Times. Answer the question: • Which words made the visitors to the class angry? ONLY FACTS "I want Facts, Sir," said Mr. Thomas Gradgrind. "Teach these children nothing that cannot be proved. Only Facts will ever be any use to them. That is how I bring up my own children, and these children too. Stick to the Facts, Sir!" The scene was a high, plain1 schoolroom. Mr. Gradgrind was a square man with hard dark eyes and a wide, thin mouth. "In this life," he said firmly, "we want nothing but Facts, Sir; nothing but Facts." The other men listened. In front of them sat forty children, all ready to have Facts poured into them until they were full. Mr. Gradgrind pointed to a girl. "Girl number twenty. Who are you?" "Sissy Jupe, Sir," said the child, curtseying2. "Sissy is not a name. Say Cecilia." "Father calls me Sissy, Sir," replied the girl shyly, curtseying again. "Then he is wrong. Cecilia Jupe, what does your father do?" "He works with horses, Sir." "Very well. What is a horse?" 1 plain [plem] — простой 2 to curtsey ['ksitsi] — приседать, делать реверанс Cecilia Jupe said nothing. "There!" said Mr. Gradgrind. "Girl number twenty knows nothing about one of the commonest animals. Bitzer! What is a horse?" A boy stood up. He looked at Mr. Gradgrind with colourless, expressionless eyes. "Four legs. Eats grass... thirty teeth..." He went on and on. "Now, girl number twenty," said Mr. Gradgrind. "You know what a horse is." She went red, curtseyed, and sat down again. The third gentleman stepped forward: he was a government education officer. "Now, children," he said. "That is a horse. Would you have wallpaper with horses on it?" 'Yes, Sir!" said all the children except one. "Why wouldn't you do that?" the officer asked this child. "Please, Sir, I wouldn't paper a wall, I would paint it." 'You must use paper," said Mr. Gradgrind. "Now, children, I will explain why you would not paper a wall with pictures of horses. Do you ever see horses walking up and down your walls?" "No, Sir." They sounded disappointed.
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD "Of course not," said the officer. "You must stick to Facts." Thomas Gradgrind looked pleased. "This is an important thing," the officer continued. "I will try again. Would you have a carpet with pictures of flowers on it?" The children knew what he expected now. Most said, "No," and only a few said, "Yes". Sissy Jupe was one. "Girl number twenty!" Sissy stood up and curtseyed again. "So you'd have a carpet with flowers on it? Why?" "Please, Sir, I like flowers." "So you want to put tables and chairs on them, and let people walk on them?" "Please, Sir, it wouldn't hurt them. They'd only be pictures; pictures of something very pretty and pleasant. And I'd imagine..." "Imagine!" cried the gentleman. "You must not do that. You must stick to the Facts, Cecilia Jupe, and forget Imagination. You don't walk on flowers in Fact; so you must not walk on them on carpets. You do not find fruit and birds on your cups and plates in real life, so you must not have pictures of them on your cups and plates. You must have, in simple colours, pictures of mathematical figures which can be proved. That is Fact. This is Taste." The girl curtseyed again and sat down. She looked troubled. "Now," said the education officer, "would Mr. Choacumchild give his first lesson ... ?" Mr. Gradgrind looked pleased. "We are ready for you, Mr. Choacumchild." And the schoolmaster began. He was one of a hundred and forty schoolmasters. They had all been produced at the same educational factory, like a hundred and forty piano legs. They all knew all the Facts about everything. And now Mr. Choacumchild was ready to deliver1 all these Facts to the children who sat before him. 47 Answer the questions: 1 Who was Mr. Thomas Grandgrind? 2 How did he address the schoolchildren when he wanted their response? 3 Whose answer did he appreciate? Why was he satisfied with it? 4 What were Mr. Gradgrind's main teaching principles? 5 Did the girl understand why the visitors were so much disappointed with her? How did she feel when they talked to her? Discussing the Theme of the Story 48 ♦ What impression did the school in the story make on you? What kind of teacher-pupil relationships existed in it? ♦ In your opinion, did the children have an opportunity to develop their abilities, their imagination? What kind of education do you suppose they could get? ♦ One of the boys with colourless, expressionless eyes answered the teacher. Was it surprising or was it quite a normal thing at that school? Express your opinion. ♦ Why do you think the education officer looked so frightened when he heard Sissy's words, "I'd imagine..."? ♦ Could you call this kind of school and teaching ugly? Give your reasons. ♦ How can you explain the sentence, "They (the schoolmasters) had all been produced at the same educational factory, like a hundred and forty piano legs"? 49 Read these quotations and say in what way they are true. What is now proved was once only imagin 'd. William Blake, \ Imagination is more important than knowledge. Albert Einstein 1 to deliver [di'lrvs] — зд. передавать
UNIT 3 "A STRANGE AND EXCLUSIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES / Do you have a favourite city? A place that you know and enjoy? Is it the city where you live or a city you have only visited once but which you would like to go back to again ? Speak about your favourite city (town). Try to illustrate your story with pictures or photographs if you have some. 2 a) Look at the picture and describe it. Say what feelings the scene may cause. Traffic Jam1 b) What thoughts do you think might go through your mind at the sight of this traffic jam ? What are some of the feelings of a person who has experienced a traffic jam ? Imagine you complain about the problem and offer some of your own solutions. c) What are some other problems of a big city ? 3 Work in groups. Make a list of things which are real attractions of a big city. Give your reasons. 1 traffic jam [d3aem] — "пробка", затор (в уличном движении)
WORD IS 'CITY' ( John Steinbeck) 4 Look at the pictures of an old town and a modem city. Compare them. Then say what changes modern city civilization has brought about and how these changes determine the modern life style in a big city. 5 Read these lines and comment on them: All cities are mad: but the madness is gallant. All cities are beautiful: but the beauty is grim. Christopher Morley I Clearly, then, the city is not a concrete jungle, it is a human zoo. Desmond Morris If you would be known, and not know, vegetate in a village; if you would know, and not be known, live in a city. Charles Caleb Colton In Rome you long for the country; in the country - oh inconstant! - you praise the distant city to the stars. Horace 6 Speak about some of the advantages and disadvantages of a big city, of a small town, and of life in the countryside. Say where you would prefer to live. Explain your preferences.
GOING IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION 7 Read and remember how to use the words: sign [sain], to sign: road signs; to sign a letter. A common traffic sign reads "dangerous corner". The policeman made a sign for the driver to stop. How do you sign a business letter? The petition was signed by the entire class. opposite ['opszit]: the house opposite to ours; the opposite side of the road; in the opposite direction. Who lives in the house opposite to yours? Darkness and daylight are opposites. The monument stands directly opposite the theatre. I thought quite the opposite. to direct [di'rekt], direct, direction [di'rekjh]: Which is the most direct way? I want a direct answer: 'Yes" or "No". Can you direct me to the post office? He directed me wrongly. Improvements are needed in many directions. storey fstom], storeyed ['stoind]: a multi- storeyed building; a six-storeyed house; two- storeyed houses. Can you imagine a modern city without multi-storeyed buildings? Visitors to the museum can first look at the entrance hall, three storeys high, with its beautifully decorated ceilings. The gallery is situated in a beautiful two-storeyed house remarkable for its architecture. suburb ['sAbaib]: the immediate suburbs of the city; to live in a suburb and work in town; a newly built area in the suburbs. Factories have moved from the central part of the city to the suburbs. to extend [iks'tend]: Our garden extends as far as the river. The road extends for miles and miles. Can't you extend your visit for a few days more? The bus route was extended to connect the neighbouring village with the city. to inquire [m'kwaia], inquiry [in'kwaian]: to inquire about a person's name; to inquire what a person's name is; to inquire where to stay; to inquire for a book at a shop; to make inquiries about the town. The visitors to a strange town go to an information desk to make inquiries about hotels at which they can stay. facility [fa'siliti]: facilities for study (leisure, travel); facilities for sports (sporting facilities); to provide the facilities; educational facilities; modern facilities; excellent shopping facilities. Are there good sporting facilities in your city? Yes, there are very good sporting facilities — tennis courts, children's playgrounds, and swimming pools in various parts of the city. accident ['seksidant], accidental [.aeksi'dental]: a railway accident; a traffic accident; an accidental discovery. What was the reason for the accident? All the newspapers wrote about that traffic accident. We met accidentally. There have been many railway accidents this year. pedestrian [pi'destnan]: pedestrian crossing. When pedestrians cross a street on a pedestrian crossing, drivers must stop to let them cross. 8 a) Say what kind of inquiries one can make at an information desk and how quickly it can provide the necessary information. b) Can we do without an Information Service in a big city? Give reasons for your answer. c) What would you do if you failed to find the Information Service ? 9 Read and remember: How to Ask for and Give Directions Asking for directions Excuse me, could you tell me ..., please? Excuse me, do you know ..., please? Excuse me, where is ..., please? Excuse me, how can I get to ..., please? Replies Certainly (Yes, of course). No, I'm sorry, I've no idea. Well, I'm sorry, I'm not absolutely certain. Sorry, I'm not (really) sure. 10 Work in pairs. Act out a conversation between a person who wants to make inquiries about some place of historic interest and a person from the Information Service.
11 a) Listen to the dialogue, then read it. Comment on the situation, explaining why a visitor to a strange city had to inquire about the Picture Gallery. V — Visitor; P — Passer-by "Л. V: Excuse me. Could you tell me where the Picture Gallery is, please? P: It's just around the corner, on the opposite side of the road. Let me show you. V: Thank you yery much. That's very kind of you. P: Are you a stranger in town? V: Yes, I've just arrived this morning. P: Where are you from? V: Newport. P: That's a nice town. I've been there. Oh, there's the Picture Gallery there. V: Thank you for your help. P: You're quite welcome. I hope you'll enjoy your visit. b) Work in pairs. You are a stranger to a city or a town and you do not know how to reach some place. You meet a passerby. Practice asking for and giving directions. Act out a dialogue. 12 a) Listen to the dialogue, then read it. Comment on the situation. Explain why the passer-by failed to give directions at first. V — Visitor; P — Passer-by V: Excuse me, could you tell me the way to Whisting Street, please? I believe it's around here somewhere, isn't it? P: Well, I'm sorry, but I'm afraid I've never heard of it. Are you quite sure you got the name right? V: Well, I believe so, but, I'm not absolutely certain. P: I know Wishing Street. It's the next turning to the left. V: Wishing Street. Oh, I see. Thank you. b) Restate the dialogue in reported speech. 13 Work in pairs. You have gone to see an exhibition at the Town Library. You know that the exhibition attracts lots of lovers of literature and that new publications of both well-known and young writers and poets are on display. You only know the name of the street but you do not know which building the library is in. Act out a dialogue for this situation. You stop a boy (or a girl) and ask him (her) the way. Unfortunately he (she) is unable to help. Then you ask someone else. Fortunately, the person knows the way and gives you the right directions. You thank him (her).
THE LANGUAGE OF A CITY 14 With the growth of traffic, road signs become important. They may be warning signs, traffic lights, arrows and stripes that show you where you can cross the street. These signs have to be understood at a glance. a) Here are some examples of international road signs. Comment on them. River-bank Swing bridge Except for access Beware — children! No passing. No overtaking. b) Find or draw some other road signs you know and show them to the class. Explain what they mean. c) Say how road signs are helpful to drivers and to pedestrians. d) What would you do if you were driving a car and saw a school sign ? e) Are traffic laws and regulations necessary? Why or why not? 15 Look at the picture and describe it. Is it a typical street scene ? In what part of a city can you observe a similar scene ? You may use the following: street signs extend multi-storeyed buildings the opposite side of the road go in the direction of shop-windows heavy traffic attract people excellent shopping facilities pedestrian
16 PUBLIC SIGNS In every city you can come across a lot of different public signs in the streets, in the underground, in department stores, on different buildings. They are signs of orientation (O), instructions (I), warnings (W), bans and restrictions (B). Read these signs and say which groups they belong to. Example: Group О (orientation sign): "SmokingArea", ... Group В (bans): "Do not litter etc", ... Don't leave your things unattended Keep your dog on the lead] We respectfully ask you not to smoke Yes, we are open No cycling No parking Books must not be marked or defaced in any way Open. Come in. ilt is hot and dry out in the trails. \Be sure to carry water with you. iBe sure not to drink from the stream. Please no smoking, food or beverages in our galleries PLEASE USE OTHER DOOR. Stay back from the edge of the platform Keep off grass — area reseeded No bikes, no skateboarding. No ballplaying, etc. allowed in the plaza area Recycle Here Remember to protect your valuables Caution. Stairs No smoking, eating, drinking Press bar to open door I Low ceiling Save energy, keep doors closed Form two lines Smoking Area No pets allowed Exit by centre door Open Sunday Don't leave your possessions unattended Fittings Rooms b) Do you think that public signs are necessary ? Give your reasons.
Vocabulary Study (2) 17 Read and remember how to use the words: note [nout], to note: to be noted for (the remarkable architecture); to take notes; to be worthy of note; a matter worthy of note. He spoke for an hour without notes. There was a note of selfsatisfaction in his speech. There is a note of sadness in her voice. He took little note of what was going on. The town is noted for its historic buildings. considerable [kan'sidarabl]: a considerable distance. The city has been considerably extended during the last ten years. It's considerably colder this morning. magnificent [masg'niftsant], magnificence [mseg'mfisans]: a magnificent building; magnificent generosity; to be impressed by the magnificence of some place. The house stands amid magnificent parks and gardens. There is a magnificent view from the highest point of the building. to associate [a'soujieit], association [a.sousi'eijh]: historic associations. We associate the name of Nelson with the battle of Trafalgar. What associations do you have when you hear the word "grand"? Lots of PLACES TO VISIT AND THINGS TO SEE buildings in this part of the city have some associations with famous names of the past. The students belong to the Youth Association. to commemorate [ka'memareit]: to commemorate a victory (a great event). The names of many cities commemorate men who brilliantly served their country. to erect [i'rekt]: to erect a monument. The memorial was erected to commemorate the victory in the great battle. to date back to, to date from: The castle dates back to the 14th century. The old church dates from the 12th century. outstanding [aut'staendin]: an outstanding fact (person). George Washington is among the outstanding men in American history. diverse [dai'va:s], diversity [dai'vaisiti]: to have diverse views; a man of diverse talents; a diversity of opinion; a diversity of colour; diversity of nature. She had a great love of literature in all its diverse forms. The USA is a country of enormous size and diversity. His writing displays the diversity of human character. 18 Look and say what these buildings are remarkable for. London. The new National Theatre (1977) 19 Say why it is important to preserve buildings of great historic or architectural interest and how your city cares for its places of interest. New York. Saint Patrick's Cathedral (1879)
20 Every sightseeing tour of a big city includes visits to places of historic interest. What can excite the visitors' interest: the magnificent architecture, the associations with great events, or the lives of outstanding men ? Explain the attraction of places of historic interest. 21 Speak about one of the places of historic interest in your city. Say: • what it is noted for; what time it dates back to; * what it looks like; • why you think it is worth visiting. 22 Firsttime visitors to a city usually want to see the famous places they have read or heard about. This is natural. But there are many more attractions which it would be a pity to miss. Name some places in your city which are not so famous but you think are worth visiting. Explain why you would advise visitors to see them. 23 There are streets or shopping areas in some big cities that are intended mainly for pedestrians, and where cars are not usually allowed. Is there such an area in your city? Describe it. 24 Work in pairs. There are, of course, facilities which enable the shortstay visitor to go quickly round the most remarkable places of interest in your city. a) Make a list of facilities people need for leisure, sports, education, sightseeing. b) Say how your city provides its people with these facilities. 25 a) Read the text. Make a list of different advantages of a shopping centre. For thousands of years man has found the market place to be the centre of community life, the place around which much of the activity of the social and economic life turns. Now the market place has adopted a new name: shopping centre. The old market square has moved under a roof and been organized. The attraction of the shopping centre is its concentration of diversity. Customers may expect to find many different kinds of stores and services in it. b) Do you prefer to go shopping in different stores, small shops, or in a giant shopping centre? Give reasons for your preferences. c) Do you think that big shopping centres will be soon replaced by something better? Give your ideas.
Vocabulary Study (3) 26 Read and remember how to use the words: to include [m'kluid], including: They offer light entertainment including light music, dancing and so on. The collection includes some excellent examples of English paintings. to contain [kan'tein]: to contain collections of pictures and objects of art. The book contains so much useful information. The atlas contains forty maps, including three of Great Britain. The newspaper contained comments on the latest events. recreation [,rekn'eijh]: recreation facilities. Some people look upon gardening as a recreation. Baseball was his favourite recreation. exhibit [ig'zibit], to exhibit: an interesting exhibit in a museum; to exhibit paintings in an art gallery; to exhibit flowers at a flower show. The exhibits contained glass, silver and artistic ironwork. masterpiece ['maistapiis]: Many consider this statue ['staetju:] a masterpiece. "Huckleberry Finn" is considered Mark Twain's masterpiece. It is one of the great masterpieces of European art. sculpture ['skAlptfa], sculptor ['stadpta]: There is probably a greater interest in ENTERTAINMENTS, RECREATIONS AND LEISURE painting and sculpture today than ever before. He is now accepted as one of the world's greatest sculptors, but he shocked people when he first exhibited his sculptures. genuine ['dsenjumj: genuine art; genuine sorrow; to show genuine affection. His work displays a wonderful feeling for nature, it is a genuine masterpiece. precious ['pre/as]: precious stones; the precious metals. Human freedom is our most precious possession. concert ['konsat]: programmes of classical and popular concerts; pop concerts; a magnificent concert hall. The concert was given in one of the best concert halls in the city. The enthusiastic audience greeted the participants in the concert very warmly. range [remd3], to range: The range of topics for discussion was very wide. The Art Gallery is a real treasurehouse of fine arts ranging from the 14th century paintings to the works of modern painters and sculptors. unique [nii'mik]: I'd recognise your handwriting anywhere — it's unique. Do not miss this unique opportunity to visit Iceland. 27 Say what various recreations, entertainments and leisure interests a city can provide. 28 a) Look at the picture and describe it. Say what the visitors can see and enjoy in this picture gallery. You may use the following: a rich variety of works a genuine piece of art be rich in colours possess a magnificent collection range include be on display be a delight to the eye depict vividly reveal a painting that appeals to keep looking at the painting (sculpture) make an impression b) Make up a story about the picture.
29 a) Read these descriptions and match them with the names of museums: (National (Portraitgallery This museum gives people a sense of participation in the evolution of air and space technology. Featured are special films, shown on a five-storey high screen, and insights into the workings of our universe, with presentations in the planetarium. Twenty-three exhibit areas house dozens of airplanes and spacecraft, missiles and rockets, and other flightrelated artifacts. The museum is devoted to research in and to the collection and exhibition of African art. The facility serves as an art museum and a research and reference centre, housing a photographic archives and research library, as well as exhibition galleries and public education facilities. The museum's collection of 7,000 works of art includes objects in wood, metal, ceramics, cloth, and ivory. Museum cfoNaturai llistory (Nationalc/far andSf>ace Museum Visitors can trace the country's history through representations of the men and women who contributed to its cultural, political, scientific and military development. Portraits ranging in time from the 15th century to our days are on display. With more than 120 million objects in its research collections, the museum is a fascinating resource on people and their natural surroundings. Visitors can learn about humankind's earliest history and the development of world cultures and see thousands of specimens of mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, sea life and fossils. Museum of: African cdrt b) Say how each museum is interesting and unique. 30 a) Say what emotions, thoughts and ideas every contact with a genuine work of art awakens in you. b) Describe your visit to a museum (a picture gallery, a concert hall, a theatre). Say what emotions you experienced and what aroused these emotions.
31 a) Look at the picture and describe the scene. Tired Madonna and Child You may use the following: a tiring day be seated directly in front of the famous painting look exhausted (very tired) carry a child a genuine masterpiece a marvellous painting be exhibited be charmed by be impressed by the magnificence of a diversity of colours b) Make up a story about the picture.
32 a) Read the text Why Be a Tourist?, then comment on it. Say whether you agree with the opinion which is expressed in the text. What is your point of view on tourism and sightseeing? Why Be a Tourist? (From "BBCEnglish") In many countries of the world when the time for holidays comes, people want to get away from home. I agree it's nice to have a change, but I do think being a tourist is a silly occupation. Have you ever asked yourself what you really learn from going abroad just for two or three weeks? Not much, I suspect. You wander around looking at buildings and people in different clothes with eyes wide open. You eat different food and sit in the sun but you don't really get to know the people. And the local people don't really like you — you are spoiling their normal way of life. Well, you don't agree with me? All right, count up all the advantages for you and the country you visit. Now, what about the disadvantages? Do you know any places in your country that have been spoilt by too many hotels, too many cars, too many souvenir shops, and too many people with cameras and icecreams? Tell about these places. I can think of plenty of places like this in Britain. If you were a Minister for Tourism in your government how would you prevent places from being spoilt? 33 Read this advertisement carefully. Find out from what modern and busy city you can easily get to a sleepy and peaceful place — a museum where time stands still. What is this place famous for? How can you travel there? What can charm a visitor to this place? You get on at 38th Street. You get off in the 1600's. There's a place north of midtown where lime slands still. It's called Sleepy Hollow Country and we can take you there on a short day trip by boat. You'll visit a working Dutch-Colonial farm, see the home of Washington Irving, author of "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," and picnic on grassy fields. No other getaway can make you feel like you've traveled not only to a different place, but a different time. Boats depart every day except Tuesday from Port Imperial, Weehawken, NJ and from W. 38th St. and 12th Ave. in Manhattan. For reservations and information on our other sightseeing cruises call 1-800-53-FERRY NY WATERWAY The NY Waterway Sleepy Hollow Cruise. 1 local ['louksl] — местный Cultural Note: 1600's (=the sixteen hundreds) — the seventeenth century. Washington Irving [givin] (1783-1859) an American writer remembered mostly for his stories set in New England, including Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Dutch-Colonial farm — the Dutch colonized the area around New York (called New Amsterdam) before the British.
34 Read the magazine article Goodbye Country, Hello City. Find out what problems the author raises in it, how he looks at urban evolution and how cities have changed the way we live and think. Use a dictionary when necessary. Goodbye country, hello city By the year 2000 at the latest, more people will be living in urban areas than in the countryside. This has never happened before in human history. THE FIRST CITIES APPEARED ONLY ABOUT 7,000 years ago, in the Middle East and in China. Against several million years of human evolution, the city is just a few seconds old. Yet in its brief existence it has changed all the ground rules of human behaviour. We are still living through a major transformation which in a way is so immense that we are hardly aware of its implications. To understand what the city means we have to think hard about what it is. In the 18th century a Huron Indian from what was then French Canada — devoid of cities — visited Paris and was amazed by what he saw as an abundance of strange, cavelike structures and by how well these natural phenomena had been adapted for human life. What he missed was the fundamental point of the city: that it is an environment constructed by humans for humans as an alternative to nature. In the words of Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, author of an ambitious new history of the world over the past millennium: "The city is one of man's blows against nature, the essence of a city consists of an act of defiance of nature by man". Today the scale of modern cities, especially in the developing world, makes some wonder if we humans have taken our defiance of nature too far. Tension between city and country is as old as the idea of the city itself. Romans 2,000 years ago dreamt of the good life in their rural villas, removed from the corrupting luxuries, temptations and squalor of the city. But the idea of Arcadia — of a calm, tranquil and, above all, innocent countryside — is an invention of the city, as artificial as the city itself. But what would a world without cities be like? Why do so many of us apparently find cities so attractive, even to the point of giving up village life for a teeming shanty town on the edge of a Bombay, Sao Paulo or a Jakarta? The past again gives helpful clues. Until the middle of the 19th century big cities were collective consumers of people. London, for example, had become the biggest city in Europe by the mid-18th century, with a million inhabitants. But none of this growth came from within the city itself. By contemporary standards the London of the recent past was an unimaginably filthy and dangerous place, where the number of deaths year on year exceeded the birth rate. It grew only because people flocked in from provincial England and the Continent. The dream of streets paved with gold was a big pull. But long before real political freedom was available in Britain, a great city like London offered a degree of personal freedom almost entirely absent from the countryside, except for the very rich. And this was true for cities outside the mainstream of western society. An immigrant from the plains of Anatolia to Constantinople in the 18th century would, says the author of a new history of that city, Philip Mansel, have found greater freedom I from family, the freedom not to be watched. Essentially a city is a place where different human beings and human activities are concentrated, and where specialisation becomes possible. If you wanted to insure a ship in the England of 1400 you had to go to London. So for the big city to flourish it had to be more open to different kinds of people than the town or the village. From this over time there emerged another big idea: tolerance. Freedom and tolerance, two of the most cherished values of our time, are a condition of civilised urban life. Would they have emerged as human values without cities? b) How do you understand the following statements: The city is one of man's blows against nature. Freedom and tolerance are a condition of civilised urban life. c) Work in groups. Discuss the following: Can we regard a city just as a concentration of people and buildings? What new opportunities and new way of life do cities offer? • What is the major impact of urban life on human behaviour and human values? • Have cities fostered freedom and tolerance? Are they really necessary for those who live in big cities? Do you believe that there will soon be more people in the world living in cities than in the countryside? Do you think that cities may disappear in the future? Or is the world moving towards a global megalopolis [.mega'lopahs]?
35 a) How do you understand the following words: The purpose of an ideal city is to make possible a rich and biologically satisfying life for all the city s people. b) Work in groups. Exchange your ideas on the subject of "The Ideal City" with the others in the group. Find out which of your classmates share your ideas, and whose ideas are different from yours. Words to remember: Entertainments, Recreations and Leisure concert contain v exhibit v, n genuine include v including unique masterpiece precious range v, n recreation sculptor sculpture Places to Visit and Things to See associate v association commemorate v considerable date back to v diverse diversity erect v magnificence magnificent note v, n outstanding Going in the Right Direction accident accidental direct v, a direction extend v facility suburb inquire v inquiry opposite pedestrian sign v, n storey
LONDON THE CAPITALS OF THE UK AND THE USA 36 Read the text Sights of London. Use a dictionary when necessary. Sights of London London is one of the world's most enjoyable cities. Visited by tourists in the millions, the city offers them an astonishing variety of scenes. In this historic city the modern rubs shoulders with the old, the present is ever conscious of the past, the great and the small live side by side in mutual tolerance and respect and in every part of London's busy and complex life there is to be found a very genuine affection for her traditions, and her fortunes. London survived the Plague [pleig], which killed nearly 100,000 people, and the Great Fire which followed. Little damage occurred during World War I, but World War II brought tremendous destruction. Many buildings of great historic value were laid in ruins and today the face of London is changed. Yet much was spared, including the Tower, St. Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. London has buildings that express all the different areas of its history, for London manages in a unique way to reflect its past and at the same time to fulfil the functions of a modern city. There is always something new to be discovered, some fresh approach to a familiar scene, some curious piece of history to be investigated. The Houses of Parliamen From the centre of Westminster Bridge, one can have a splendid view of the Houses of Parliament which spread magnificently on the north bank of the Thames. This structure is a remarkable example of Gothic architecture. The Clock Tower, which contains the hour-bell called "Big Ben", is known the world over. Royal Palaces and houses were built along the banks of the Thames in medieval days. The Houses of Parliament, called officially the Palace of Westminster, were formerly a palace for kings and queens. The palace was used both as a royal residence and also as a parliament house until the sixteenth century. In the course of the sixteenth century when the royal family moved to the new palace within half a mile of Westminster — Whitehall Palace, the Palace of Westminster was occupied by the Parliament and became its home. So the site of Westminster has been involved with the government of England for 500 years. Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050, the Abbey was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates largely from the time of Henry III who began to rebuild the church, a task which lasted nearly 300 years. The West towers were added in the eighteenth century. Since William I almost every English monarch has been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs [tu:mz] and memorials of many of Britain's most eminent citizens. One of the greatest treasures of the Abbey is the oaken Coronation Chair made in 1300. Near the West Door of the Abbey the Unknown Warrior lies in a simple grave commemorating the men who died in the First World War. The Abbey is also known for its Poets' Corner. Graves and memorials to many English poets and writers are clustered round about.
St. Paul's Cathedral St. Paul's Cathedral has always dominated the centre of London. It stands on the site of former Saxon and Norman churches. The latter were destroyed in the Great Fire and the present building, completed in 1710, is the work of the eminent architect Sir Christopher Wren. It is an architectural masterpiece. Londoners have a particular affection for St. Paul's, which is the largest Protestant Church in England. Its high dome, containing the remarkable Whispering Gallery, is a prominent landmark towering above the multi-storeyed buildings which line the river-bank. Trafalgar Square Trafalgar Square is the natural centre of London. The square was so named to commemorate Nelson's victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, and the monument in the centre, known as Nelson's Column, is surmounted with a Statue of Nelson 16 feet high. The pedestal of the Column is decorated with bas-reliefs [baesnlhf] representing Nelson's most familiar victories. At the base of Nelson's Column are four lions. The square has now become a huge traffic island, the statues and fountains have enlivened the space so that it remains a place of pilgrimage for visitors. When the square is not used for demonstrations, it is full of visitors feeding the pigeons or watching the traffic. On the north side of the square are the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. The National Gallery has an outstanding varied collection of paintings from British, Italian, Spanish, French, Dutch and other famous schools. It is an international, rather than, as it is named, a National Gallery. The Tower of London The River is the main approach to London from the east. 1000 years ago William the Conqueror decided to build a strong fortress to protect the City of London, which he had just conquered. The Tower of London was one of the first and most impressive castles after the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Since the times of William I various kings have built and extended the Tower of London and used it for many purposes. The Tower has been used as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal, a state prison, and many famous and infamous people have been executed within its walls. It is now a museum. For many visitors the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation. A fine collection of armour is exhibited in the Keep. The security of the Tower is ensured by a military garrison and by the Yeoman Warders or "Beefeaters" who still wear their picturesque Tudor uniform. 37 Name the most impressive places of interest in London. Say what they are noted for. 38 Say what makes London one of the world's most enjoyable cities.
39 Here are some extracts from a sightseeing programme for a group of Russian tourists visiting London for a week. When they arrived at Heathrow Airport they were met by a Russian representative of the Russian Tourist Agency which organised their trip, who acted as their guide. Of course, the guide spoke fluent English. a) Read the programme which the guide gave to the tourists. The original was in Russian. We have translated it into English. Please translate it back into Russian! b) Which of the visits do you think would be the most interesting for you. Why? Programme for a Visit to London Monday 1st July 17.30 Arrive Heathrow. Transfer to Wellington Hotel, Kensington. 20.00 Dinner at hotel. Evening free. Tuesday 2nd July 07.30 — 08.30 Breakfast. 09.00 Depart from hotel by coach for sightseeing tour of the City of London, including the Tower of London (and Crown Jewels) and St. Paul's Cathedral. 13.30 Lunch in a typical English Pub. After lunch, visit to the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square. 19.30 Dinner at the hotel. 21.00 London by night. Coach tour of illuminated places of interest. Wednesday 3rd July ??????????? Thursday 4th July 07.30 — 08.30 Breakfast. 09.00 Depart from hotel by coach for Windsor. Visit the Palace. 13.30 Lunch in Windsor. After lunch, atrip around the English countryside. 18.00 Dinner at the hotel. 18.45 Depart from the hotel and travel by Underground to Covent Garden Station to visit the Drury Lane Theatre. 19.30 Performance of The Great Waltz, a musical romance based on the lives of the Johann Strausses, father and son. Return to the hotel by Underground. Friday 5th July 07.30 — 09.00 Breakfast. 09.30 Depart from the hotel by coach to see the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, followed by a visit to Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parliament. 13.00 Lunch at the Quality Inn. Coach back to the hotel for those who wish. Afternoon free. 19.30 Dinner at the hotel. Evening free. Saturday 6th July ?????????? Sunday 7th July 08.00 — 09.00 Breakfast. Check out of the hotel. Leave luggage with the porter. 09.15 Coach departs for Greenwich. Visits to the Royal Observatory and the National Maritime Museum. Pub lunch in Blackheath. 14.30 Depart from Greenwich Pier to go by boat to Westminster. Underground to Marble Arch. Visit to Speakers' Corner in Hyde Park. 16.00 Coach to hotel to collect luggage. Then to Heathrow to check in for flight back to Moscow. Cultural Note: Maritime ['maentaim] Museum — Морской музей. Madame Tussaud's [.maedsm tu'so:dz] Museum of Waxworks ['waekswsiks] — Музей восковых фигур мадам Тюссо. c) Discuss what you think the tourists did on the Wednesday and the Saturday. Work out a programme for these days. Some ideas: Wembley Stadium, Wimbledon, cinema, theatre, night club, disco, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery, Madame Tussaud's (waxwork museum), Stratford-on-Avon (Shakespeare's birthplace) — and so on. Scotland? Wales? d) Discuss the programme and express your opinion of it. Would you be satisfied with this programme if you were in the group ?
LONDON TRANSPORT 40 a) Look at these symbols and match them with the texts: Request — Buses will only stop if you put out your arm in good time. Just look for the London Transport Service sign in the front of buses which are not red — it tells you our Travelcards are accepted. The Buses lOHOONKIMS London Transport Service Night Buses London's famous buses now come in all shapes and sizes, many are still red but other companies run buses for us too, in their own colours. Compulsory — Buses will automatically stop, unless they are full. London's Underground serves most of the city and links it with its suburbs. Frequent and reliable it runs 20 hous a day with trains every few minutes on most lines Travel Information Centres London Transport Travel Information Centres offer all the travel advice you'll need and the widest range of free maps, leaflets, guide books, souvenirs and sightseeing tours. Connections with British Rail. All British Rail Terminals in London are linked to the underground system. Late at night special 'N' numbered Night Buses run. Please note all bus stops become Request stops at night. Night Bus maps and timetables are available from Travel Information Centres. b) Say how they can be helpful to a visitor to London. 41 Work in pairs. This is a map of the London Underground (called "the tube"). Each of the lines has a different name and a different colour. a) Study the map and see if you can find the Central Line and the Circle Line. On which of these lines is: • Marble Arch • St. Paul's Aldgate • Westminster
WASHINGTON, D.C. 42 Read the text Washington, D. C. and say what makes Washington unique among American cities. Use a dictionary when necessary. Washington, D.C. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Washington, D.C, is the capital of the United States. It is one of the few national capitals founded solely as a seat of government. The original plan of the city anticipated its future growth. As the new republic increased in size and wealth, Washington grew to become one of the most important and beautiful cities in the world. It is the site of impressive government buildings, magnificent monuments, important historical landmarks, fine museums, and broad, tree-shaded avenues and malls. Every year Washington is visited by millions of tourists from all parts of the United States and from many other countries of the world. But the city is also home to a large number of people — the place where they live, work, and raise families. As such, it is confronted by the same problems facing most large cities. Washington, District of Columbia, was named after George Washington and Christopher Columbus. Washington lies on the Potomac [pa'toumaek] River between Maryland and Virginia. The city's site was selected by President Washington in 1791. A French engineer and architect was commissioned to plan the future capital. In 1800 the still unfinished city replaced Philadelphia [.fib'delfta] as the nation's capital. The Capitol Because of its great size, central location, and elevated position on Capitol ['kaepital] Hill, the Capitol dominates the Washington skyline. The US Congress meets in this building. Visitors may attend congressional sessions to watch legislators in action. The Capitol is one of Washington's most magnificent buildings. It is constructed of white sandstone and marble and crowned by an impressive dome. On top of the dome stands a bronze Statue of Freedom. Public rooms include the Rotunda [rou'Unda], decorated with paintings and statues of events and people in American history, and Statuary Hall, which contains statues of distinguished citizens from every state. The Capitol is set in a small park around which are a number of impressive government buildings, among which are the Supreme Court Building, modeled after a Greek temple and the Library of Congress, one of the largest libraries in the world. The White House stands northwest of the Capitol at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue. Every four years the parade for the newly inaugurated president travels the historic route along Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House. The White House, whose foundation was laid in 1792, has been the home of every president with the exception of George Washington. The 132-room White House, which has been renovated and enlarged several times, is a white sandstone building in neoclassical style. Tourists may visit portions of the ground floor and first floor, including the Blue Room, the State Dining Room, and the East Room, which is used for many of the president's public receptions. The White House grounds are open to the public only once a year — for the annual Egg Roll held on Easter Monday. The White House has been the official residence of the President of the U.S. since it was first occupied by President John Adams in 1800.
Monuments and Memorials Monuments to three presidents — George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln — are among the most popular sights in the city. They stand in a vast green triangular area, within full sight of one another. The Washington Monument is a white marble obelisk about 555 feet (169 meters) high. Its interior is hollow, and visitors may climb the stairs or ride the elavator to the top for a panoramic view of the city and its surrounding area. The Washington Monument stands at the edge of the Mall [moil], a long, narrow park extending from the Capitol. Beyond the Washington Monument is the Lincoln Memorial, a monumental structure resembling a classic Greek temple. Dominating the interior is an impressive seated statue of Lincoln. The texts of Lincoln's most famous speeches are inscribed on the walls. South of the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial is the Jefferson Memorial, standing amid the famed cherry trees on the shore of the Tidal Basin. The Jefferson Memorial is a circular, colonnaded marble structure topped by a beautiful dome. Inside stands a heroic statue of Jefferson which can be seen through the Memorial's four openings. Quotations from Jefferson's most famous writings are inscribed in bronze on panels on the walls. Museums and Galleries Washington's museums and art galleries are among the finest in the world. The Smithsonian [smiG'sounian] Institution, a scientific and cultural organization sponsored by the U.S. government, consists of museums or similar units in the areas of science, technology, history, and art. Several of its museums are on the Mall. The Smithsonian's best-known scientific bodies include the National Museum of Natural History and the National Air and Space Museum. The Museum of History and Technology has one of the city's most popular exhibits — the collection of First Ladies' gowns. The National Gallery of Art, Washington's principal art gallery, houses a wonderful collection of American and European art. The Smithsonian Institution is lovingly called "the nation's attic". It was founded in 1846 under the terms of the will of James Smithson, an English scientist who had never crossed the Atlantic. Smithson bequeathed [bi'kwnd] his entire fortune to the United States of America "to found at Washington under the name of the Smithsonian Institution an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men". 43 Explain the meaning of the letters D. С which go along with the name of the American capital. 44 Washington is richly endowed1 with American history. Name the most impressive places which have important historic associations. ' to be endowed [m'daud] — быть наделенным, одаренным
45 a) Read the text Cherry Blossoms and say whose gift the cherry trees near the Washington Monument were. Use a dictionary when necessary. Cherry Blossoms Spring has come to Washington, D.C.! This season is welcomed in by the Cherry Blossom Festival every spring. The pink and white blossoms of the Japanese cherry trees near the Washington Monument create a wonderfully delicate fairyland of nature. Their breathtaking loveliness is reflected in the shining waters of the Tidal Basin and forms an enchanting archway that stretches over the curving paths along the Potomac River. Originally, these trees were a gift from the City of Tokyo to the City of Washington in 1912. Their buds were carefully selected from the descendants of an original species in the Japanese Imperial Horticulture Section. The trees planted around the Basin in the West Potomac Park are single-flowering, pale pink or white in color; they bloom first and when their petals begin to flutter to the ground, the double-flowering, deeper pink blossoms of the trees in the East Potomac Park are ready to bloom. All during the month of April throngs of tourists walk through the parks, past the polo field and memorials, along the riverbank, under the giant weeping willows near the seawall, just to catch a glimpse of the famous trees in bloom. No one who has ever seen them forgets their beauty. Many have photographed or painted the scene, others have been inspired to write poetry, such as these Japanese-style haiku1 poems. Cherry Blossoms Their snowy petals fall slowly, one by one until next year's April. Petals Fragile as snow, first harbinger2 of spring fleeting as a swallow's wing. b) What does the area near the Washington Monument look like in spring when the cherry trees blossom ? What mood does the scene create? c) Describe some lovely corner in your city which evokes similar emotions in you. 46 Read, compare and remember these words: Br. E. lift underground coach lorry crossroads pavement Am. E. elevator subway bus truck intersection sidewalk 1 haiku ['haiku:] — хййку (хбкку), жанр и форма японской поэзии; трехстишие, состоящее из 17-ти слогов. I2 harbinger [ТииЬгпёзэ] — предвестник
47 Study the map of the area in which the Smithsonian National Museums are situated. Say what kinds of museums the largest museum complex includes. How is this complex valuable "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge"? SMITHSONIAN NATIONAL MUSEUMS ON AND NEAR THE MALL 48 Work in groups. Plan a programme for visitors to Washington. What most remarkable places of interest would you include in it? Give reasons for your choice. 49 Role play. Act as a guide around Washington. How would you present it so that the listeners could see, feel and understand its beauty and magnificence? 50 I There is never a dull moment in your city for those who like to see things happen. Each city has its own peculiarities, its own history and character. Say in what way this is true. 51 Read, compare and remember these words: Smithsonian Institution A Free Guide to rhc World's Largest Museum and Research Complex Br. E. [city centre flat block of flats shopping centre chemists call box Directory Enquiries Am. E. 1 downtown apartment apartment house mall drug store telephone booth Directory Assistance
JOHN UPDIKE John Updike (1932), a well-known American novelist and short-story writer, whose rich language creates a vivid picture of the world as he explores the problems of contemporary American society. The son of a high-school mathematics teacher, John Updike attended Harvard University and graduated in 1954. From 1955 to 1957 he was on the staff of The New Yorker, which published his first story when he was 22 and contin-ued to publish much of his work. Updike's successful first novel, The Poorhouse Fair (1959), tells of elderly people who live in an old folks' home, fighting for dignity. Rabbit, Run (1960) has as its hero a man whose youthful ideas conflict with the realities of the 1950's. Rabbit's story is continued in Rabbit Is Rich (1981). The Centaur' (1963), a National Book Award winner, uses the Greek myth of Chiron ['kairen] to explore the relationship of a boy and his father, who, like Updike's, was a high-school teacher. His other novels Couples (1968), A Month of Sundays (1972), The Coup (1978), The Witches of Eastwick comment on many cultural and personal crises of the modernday world. Updike's short stories tend to reveal deep human emotions. Collections of his stories include The Same Door, Pigeon Feathers, A Book and Problems. John Updike also writes essays, poetry and children's books. Cultural Note: Empire State Building, also Empire State (the) — an office building in New York City which has 102 floors (over 1,000 feet high), built in the 1930s and was for many years the tallest in the world. The Chrysler [kraizb] Building — a sky scraper in New York; (Chrysler — one of the three largest American car makers); The Woolworth fwulwaO] Building — a skyscraper in New York (Woolworth's — one of a group of shops, found in many British and American towns, selling many different kinds of goods at low prices). Broadway ['bro:dwei] — a street in Manhatten, in New York City, which is known for its theatres. Chicago [fi'kargou] — a city in the US state of lllinoise [,ilmoi] located on Lake Michigan ['mijigan]. 52 Read the story The Lucid2 Eye in Silver Town and answer the following question: • Was the boy's first visit to New York successful or did it turn out to be a disappointment? The Lucid Eye in Silver Town The first time I visited New York City, I was thirteen and went with my father. I went to meet my Uncle Quin and to buy a book about Vermeer3 The Vermeer book was my idea, and my mother's; meeting Uncle Quin was my father's. A generation ago my uncle had vanished4 in the direction of Chicago and become rich; in the last week he had come east on business and I had finished the eighth grade with perfect marks. My father felt that now was the time for us to meet. New York in those days was seven dollars away; we measured5 everything, distance and time, in money then. World War II was almost over but we were still living in the Depression. My father and I set off with the return tickets and a five dollar bill6 in his pocket. The five dollars were for a book. My mother, on the railway platform, suddenly exclaimed, "I hate the Augusts7." This sur-prised me, because we were all Augusts — I was an August, my father was an August, Uncle Quincy was an August, and she, I had thought, was an August. My father said, 'You have every reason to. I wouldn't blame you if you took a gun and shot us all. Except for Quin and your son." Nothing was more unpleasant about my father than this way of agreeing. Uncle Quin didn't meet us at Pennsylvania Station. If my father was disappointed, he didn't reveal it to me. By walking what seemed to me a very long way on pavements8 only a little broader than those of my home town, and not so clean, we reached the hotel. After the clerk had phoned Quincy August that a man who said he was his brother was at the desk, an elevator took us to the twentieth floor. Inside the room sat three men. "Gentlemen, I'd like you to meet my brother Marty and his young son," Uncle Quin said. "The kid's name is Jay," my father added, shaking hands with each of the two men. I imitated my father, and one of the men not expecting my firm handshake, said, "Why, hello there, Jay!" "Marty, would you and the boy like to freshen up9? The facilities are through the door and to the left." "Thank you, Quin. I believe we will. Excuse me, gentlemen." "Certainly." 1 Centaur ['sento:] — миф. Кентавр 2 lucid ['luisid] — ясный, светлый 3 Jan Vermeer [jasn vs'mis] — Ян Вермеер, знаменитый голландский художник (1632—1675) 4 to vanish [VasniJ] — исчезать s to measure ['тезэ] — измерять, мерить 6 bill — амер. банкнота; a five dollar bill — банкнота в пять долларов, пять баксов 7 the Augusts — все члены семьи Аугустов 8 pavement — тротуар 9 to freshen up — освежиться
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD "Certainly." My father and I went to the bedroom. The furniture was new. On the bed was an open suit-case, also new. The clean expensive smells of leather1 were beautiful to me. I washed my face and hands and wanted to make for the living room, to rejoin Uncle Quin and his friends. "Hold it," my father said. "Let's wait in here." "Won't that look rude?" "No, it's what Quin wants." "Now, Daddy, don't be ridiculous2. He'll think we've died in here." "No, he won't, not my brother. He's working. He does not want to be bothered3.1 know how my brother works: he got us in here so we'd stay in here." I looked around the room for something to read. There was nothing, not even a newspaper, except a shiny little pamphlet4 about the hotel itself. I wondered when we would get a chance to look for the Vermeer book. I wondered what the men in the next room were talking about. I wondered why Uncle Quin was so short when my father was so tall. By leaning out of the window, I could see taxi-cabs which looked like toys. My father came and stood beside me. "Don't lean out too far." "Look at the green cab cut in front of the yellow," I said. "Should they be making U- turns5 on that street?" "In New York it's OK. Survival of the fittest6 is the only law here." "Isn't that the Chrysler Building?" "Yes, isn't it graceful though? It always reminds me of the queen of the chessboard." "What's the one beside it?" "I don't know. The one deep on back, from the window, is the Woolworth Building. For years it was the tallest building in the world. As, side by side at the window, we talked, I was surprised that my father could answer so many of my questions. As a young man, before I was born, he had travelled, looking for work; this was not his first trip to New York. Excited by my new respect, I wanted to say something to please him. "Do you really think he meant for us to stay out here?" I asked. ' leather [Чебэ] — кожа (в предметах мебели, одежды и т.п. изделиях) 1 ridiculous [n'dikjulas] — смешной 3 to bother [Ъэбэ] — надоедать, беспокоить 4 pamphlet ['paemflit] — брошюра s U-turn ['ju:t3:n] — разворот (автомобильный термин) 6 survival [ss'vaivsl] of the fittest — выживание наиболее приспособленных, сильнейших "Quin is a go-getter7," he said. "I admire him. Anything he wanted, from little on up, he went after it. Slam. Bang. His thinking is miles ahead of mine." "Sure, sure." I was irritated8 that he consid-ered Uncle Quin so smart9. At that point in my life I was sure that only stupid people took an interest in money. When Uncle Quin entered the bedroom, he said, "Martin, I hoped you and the boy would come and join us." "Hell, I didn't want to bother you. You and those men were talking business." "Now, Marty, it was nothing that my own brother couldn't hear. Both these men are fine men. Very important in their own fields. I'm dis-appointed that you couldn't see more of them. Believe me, I hadn't meant for you to hide here." As I remember it, I asked if we were going to spend all afternoon in this room. Uncle Quin didn't seem to hear, but five minutes later he suggested that the boy might like to take a look around the city. My father said that that would be a once-in-a-lifetime treat10 for the kid. He always called me "the kid" when I was sick or had lost something or was angry — when he felt sorry for me, in short. The three of us went down in the elevator and took a taxi ride from Broadway, or up Broadway — I wasn't sure. The trip didn't seem so much designed" for sightseeing as for getting Uncle Quin to a small restaurant. I remember we stepped down into it and it was dark inside. A waiter in a red coat came up. "Mr. August! Back from the West? How are you, Mr. August?" "Getting by, Jerome, getting by. Jerome, I'd like you to meet my kid brother, Martin." "How do you do, Mr. Martin. Are you paying New York a visit? Or do you live here?" "I'm just up for this afternoon, thank you. I live in a small town in Pennsylvania you never heard of." "I see, sir. A quick visit." "This is the first time in six years that I've had a chance to see my brother." 'Yes, we've seen very little of him these past years. He's a man we can never see too much of, isn't that right?" Uncle Quin interrupted. "This is my nephew Jay." "How do you like the big city, Jay?" "Fine." "Why, Jerome," Uncle Quin said. "My 7 go-getter fgou'geta] — предприимчивый делец, энергичный и удачливый человек 8 to irritate ['mteit] —раздражать 9 smart — ловкий 10 treat [tri:t] — зд.: удовольствие, наслаждение " designed [di'zamd] — зд.: предназначенный
brother and I would like to have a Scotch1. And the boy would like ice-cream." When their Scotch and my ice-cream came, Uncle Quin asked, "Is there anything especially you'd like to do?" "The kid'd like to get into a bookstore," my father said. "A bookstore. What sort of book, Jay?" I said, "I'd like to look for a good book of Vermeer." "Vermeer," Uncle Quin pronounced slowly. "Dutch School.2" "He's Dutch, yes." "For my own money, Jay, the French are the people to beat. We have four Degas ballet dancers3 in our living room in Chicago, and I could sit and look at one of them for hours. I think it's wonderful, the feeling for balance the man had." 'Yes, but don't Degas' paintings always remind you of coloured drawings? For actually looking at things in terms of paint, for the lucid eye, I think Vermeer makes Degas look sick." Uncle Quin said nothing, and my father, after an anxious look across the table, said, "That's the way he and his mother talk all the time. It's all beyond me4.1 can't understand a thing they say." "Your mother is encouraging you to be a painter, is she, Jay?" "Sure, I suppose she is." 'Your mother is a very wonderful woman, Jay," Uncle Quin said. When we left, Uncle Quin signed the check with his name and the name of some company. It was close to five o'clock. My uncle didn't know much about the location5 of book-stores in New-York — his last fifteen years had been spent in Chicago — but he thought that we should find something. "If you stand here," my father said, "you can see the Empire State Building." I went and stood beneath my father's arm and followed with my eyes the direction of it. Something sharp and hard fell into my right eye. I bobbed6 my head and blinked7; it was painful. "What's the trouble?" Uncle Quin's voice asked. My father said, "The poor kid's got something in his eye. He has the worst luck that way of anybody I ever knew." 1 Scotch — разг. шотландское виски 2 Dutch School — голландская школа (живописи) 3 Degas ballet dancers — картина Дега, изображающая балерин 4 It's all beyond me — это выше моего понимания 5 location [lou'keifn] — местонахождение 6 to bob — делать резкое движение, зд.: встряхнуть 7 to blink — мигать The thing seemed to have life. It bit. "Ow," I said, angry enough to cry. "If we can get him off of the wind," my father's voice said, "maybe I can see it." "No, no, Marty, use your head. Never fool with the eyes or ears. The hotel is within two blocks. Can you walk two blocks, Jay?" "I'm blind, not lame," I said. "He has a ready wit," Uncle Quin said. We walked fast to the hotel. "Poor kid got something in the eye," Uncle Quin said to the man at the desk when we came into the hotel, and called, "Send up a doctor to Twenty-eleven." 'You shouldn't have done that, Quin," my father said in the elevator. "I can get it out, now that he's out of the wind. This is happening all the time. The kid's eyes are too far front." "Never fool with the eyes, Martin. They are the most precious tool in life." Up in the room, Uncle Quin made me lie down on the bed. The doctor came soon. He rolled my lower eyelid8 on a thin stick and showed me an eyelash9. He dropped three drops of yellow fluid10 into the eye to remove any chance of infection. I shut my eye, glad it was over. When I opened them, my father was passing a bill into the doctor's hand. The doctor thanked him and left. Uncle Quin came out of the bathroom. "Well, young man, how are you feeling now?" he asked. "Fine." "It was just an eyelash," my father said. "Just an eyelash! Well I know an eyelash can feel like a razor blade" in there. But, now that the young invalid is recovered, we can think of dinner." "No, I really appreciate your kindness, Quin, but we must be getting back." "I'm really sorry to hear that." "Could you possibly come over one some day?" my father asked. "It would be a pleasure to see you again." Uncle Quin put his arm around his younger brother's shoulders. "Martin, I'd like that better than anything in the world. But I have a lot of appointments12, and I have to go West this Thursday. They don't let me have a minute's rest. Nothing would please my heart better than to share a quiet day with you and your wife in your home. Please give her my " He rolled my lower eyelid — он завернул мое нижнее веко ' eyelash — ресница 10 fluid ['flimd] — жидкость " razor ['reiza] blade — лезвие бритвы 12 appointment [s'pointmant] — условленная встреча, свидание
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD love, and tell her what a wonderful boy she is raising. The two of you are raising." My father promised, "I'll do that." And after a little more fuss , we left. When we got outside, I wondered if there were any book stores still open. "We have no money." "None at all?" "The doctor took five dollars. That's how much it costs in New York to get something in your eye." "I didn't do it on purpose. Do you think I pulled out the eyelash and stuck it in there myself? I didn't tell you to call the doctor." "I know that." "Couldn't we just go into a bookstore and look for a minute?" "We haven't time, Jay." But when we reached Pennsylvania Station, it was over thirty minutes until the next train left. As we sat on a bench, my father smiled. "Boy, he's smart, isn't he? His thinking is sixty light-years ahead of mine." "Whose?" "My brother. Notice the way he hid in the bathroom until the doctor was gone? That's how to make money. The rich man collects dollar bills like the stamp collector collects stamps. I knew he'd do it. I knew it when he told the clerk to send up a doctor that I've to pay for it." "Well, why should he pay for it? You were the person to pay for it." "That's right. Why should he? That's why he's where he is now, and that's why I am where I am." "Well, why'd you bring along only five dollars? You might have known something would happen." 'You're right, Jay. I should have brought more." "Look. Right over there is an open bookstore. Now if you had brought ten dollars "Is it open? I don't think so. They just left lights in the window on." "What if it isn't? What does it matter to us? Anyway, what kind of art book can you get for five dollars? Colour plates' cost money. How much do you think a good book on Vermeer costs? It'd be cheap at fifteen dollars, even second-hand." Only when we were on the homeward train, my anger ended. Years passed before I needed to go to New York again. 53 Read and translate: 1 My father said, "You have every reason to. I wouldn't blame you if you took a gun and shot us all." 2 By walking what seemed to me a very long way on pavements only a little broader than those of my home town, and not so clean, we reached the hotel. 3 "Quin is a go-getter," my father said. "I admire him. Anything he wanted, from little on up, he went after it. His thinking is miles ahead of mine." 4 My father said that that would be a once-in-a-lifetime treat for the kid. 5 The trip didn't seem so much designed for sightseeing as for getting Uncle Quin to a small restaurant. I remember we stepped down into it and it was dark inside. 6 "For my own money, Jay, the French are the people to beat." 7 "Actually looking at things in terms of paint, for the lucid eye, I think Vermeer makes Degas look sick." 8 The doctor rolled my lower eyelid on a thin stick and showed me an eyelash. He dropped three drops of yellow fluid into the eye to remove any chance of infection. 9 "You might have known something would happen." — 'You're right, Jay. I should have brought more." 54 Answer the questions: 1 Did Jay and his father often have an opportunity to visit New York? What plans did they have once they made up their minds to go there? 2 What was the first disappointment they met with when they arrived in New York? 3 How did the two brothers meet? Did they show much affection for each other? 4 What surprised Jay in his father's behaviour? 5 When did Jay suddenly begin to feel a new respect for his father? 6 How did Jay's father speak about his brother Quin? 7 How much of New York did Jay see? Could their trip be called a sightseeing trip? 8 What happening finally spoilt Jay's visit to New York? 9 How much did the doctor's visit cost? 10 What emotions was Jay experiencing when he was leaving New York? 1 colour plate — цветная иллюстрация
Discussing the Characters 35 The following sentences describe things that Jay, his father and his uncle Quin said, felt or did. How does each item characterize them? Jay ♦ It was Jay's idea to go to New York to buy a book about Vermeer. ♦ Jay finished the eighth grade with perfect marks. ♦ Jay was surprised that his father could answer so many questions. Excited by his new respect for his father, he wanted to say something to please him. ♦ Jay was irritated that his father considered Uncle Quin smart. At that point in his life he was sure that only stupid people took an interest in money. ♦ When Uncle Quin mentioned Degas, the topic immediately found an appeal in Jay's heart. He was impatient to express his point of view saying," Yes, but don't Degas's paintings always remind you of coloured drawings? For actually looking at things in terms of paint, for the lucid eye, I think Vermeer makes Degas look sick." ♦ "Couldn't we just go into a bookstore and look for a minute?" said Jay when he already knew that the last five dollars had gone to the doctor. You may find the following words helpful in describing Jay: Uncle Quin ♦ Uncle Quin did not meet Jay and his father at the station. ♦ "Vermeer," Uncle Quin pronounced slowly. "Dutch School." "We have four Degas ballet dancers in our living room in Chicago, and I could sit and look at one of them for hours. I think it's wonderful, the feeling for balance the man had." ♦ Uncle Quin came out of the bathroom only after the doctor had left. ♦ I have a lot of appointments. They don't let me have a minute's rest," Uncle Quin said apologising that he could not find an opportunity to come and see his brother's family. You may find the following words helpful in describing Uncle Quin: imaginative enthusiastic emotional modest intelligent open-hearted frank eager to learn having a lucid eye for things and people smart quick-witted money-making businessman interested in art energetic careful indifferent successful sincere modest common understanding reserved honest unsuccessful sensitive Jay's father ♦ It was Jay's father's idea to meet Uncle Quin in New York. ♦ If Jay's father was disappointed when he saw that Quin August had not come to meet them at the station, he did not reveal it to his son. ♦ When Jay was going to rejoin Uncle Quin and his friends in the living- room, his father stopped him. "Hold it," he said to his son. "Let's wait in here. My brother is working. He does not want to be bothered. I know how my brother works: he got us in here so we'd stay in here." ♦ Jay was surprised that his father could answer so many of his questions. As a young man Martin August had travelled, looking for work; this was not his first trip to New York. ♦ Jay's father admired his brother's ability to make money. Even in the episode with the doctor when he had to pay his only five dollars for the visit, he was not hurt by his brother's disappearance. "Notice the way he hid in the bathroom until the doctor was gone?" he asked Jay. "That's how to make money. I knew he'd do it. That's he's where he is now, and that's why I am where I am." You may find the following words helpful in describing Martin August: 56 Say how you imagine Jay. What were his interests and attitudes? 57 How do you think the two August brothers were different?
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Discussing the Theme of the Story 58 Express your opinion: 1 What do you think Jay knew about his Uncle Quin before that visit to New York? Do you think he was hurt by the way his uncle received them? 2 Making business was more important for Quin August than having a chance to spend more time with his brother and his nephew whom he had not seen for several years. Which episodes in the story characterise him as a man who only cared for business? 3 What do you think Jay's father meant when he said that anything his brother wanted, from little on up, he went after it? 4 Do you think Quin August was sincere when he said that it would be a pleasure for him to see his brother again and that nothing would please his heart better than to share a quiet day with his brother's family in his home? 5 What values do you think Quin August considered most important? 6 Quin certainly understood that it was the boy's first visit to New York and he might like to take a look around the city. Why do you think he was indifferent to the boy's plans? 7 Do you think Jay and his uncle would remain strangers to each other? 8 Was there anything that Jay didn't like in his father? Did Jay's attitude towards his father change in New York? What, in your opinion, was the reason? 9 Could Quin August pay for the doctor's visit? Was he rich enough for that, the more so because it was his initiative to call the doctor? Do you think Martin August wouldn't have allowed his brother to pay in a similar situation? 10 What do you think were the brothers' attitudes towards each other? 11 What do you think it was that made Jay's mother exclaim, "I hate the Augusts"? 12 Jay did not even get to the bookstore though his main aim was to buy a book he had been for so long dreaming about. Do you think it was the only reason for his anger and dissatisfaction? 13 What do you think Jay and his father expected from their visit to New York? Why did their visit turn out to be a failure? 59 The central episode of the story concerns Jay's getting something in his eye and consequently not being able to buy the Vermeer book. 60 John Updike's story is concerned with complex emotional relationships and with a "lucid eye", an eye that sees these relationships clearly. How does this episode reveal the characters' personalities? Which character do you think has the "lucid eye"? What scenes suggest that Jay feels he sees things clearly?
61 Маке 4 lists of the most populated cities in the UK, the USA, Canada and Australia. You may continue the list of cities given below. Consult different reference books and find out what these cities are remarkable for. Prepare a quiz "The Largest Cities in the World". Canada US Baltimore Canberra Toronto Belfast Chicago Melbourne Cardiff Montreal Sydney Ottawa Glasgow Los Angeles Edinburgh Vancouver
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD UK A Guide to Your City Work in groups. 1 Discuss the idea of producing an interesting guide-book or a booklet about your city. Obtain and comment on existing city guides and discuss how they might be improved for young visitors. 2 Suggest the contents of your guide. What sections should be included? Think of headings for the sections in your guide. 3 Discuss the guide format. 4 Divide tasks of writing texts; finding suitable visual materials; illustrating the guide with photographs, pictures and sketches; taking pictures, drawing maps and charts; selecting the material collected; making a design, etc. 5 Make written notes of all plans and decisions. 6 Display all material collected in the classroom. Discuss it and select the most useful and interesting material. 7 Combine the work of all students to produce a comprehensive guide. Australia
UNIT 4 REALITY, DREAMS TALKING ABOUT OUR DREAMS AND FANTASIES IF I HAD ENOUGH TIME I WOULD DO... / Have you ever heard someone say, "If I had the time, there are so many things I would like to do!" Most of us never have enough time to do all the things we want to. Say what you would like to do if you had the time. You may talk about: the places you've always wanted to go to; • the things you've always wanted to see or do; the experiences you've always wanted to have. 2 Tell each other what you would do if only you had the time and money. Are there: books you've always wanted to read? plays you've always wanted to see? TV programmes you've always wanted to watch? movies you've always wanted to go to? sports events you've always wanted to attend? famous artists you've always wanted to see perform? 3 Work in pairs. Act out a dialogue with your classmates. Discuss different ways you would like to spend your free time, if you only had some. 4 Read this dialogue and find out about the boy's dreams and fantasies. IF I HAD WINGS! F— Father; D— David R What would you do, David, if you had wings and could fly? D: If I had wings and could fly, I would soar above the house-tops and see what the world looked like to a bird in the air. Sometimes I would play pranks on people by suddenly appearing from nowhere and snatching off their hats. When I had tired of that, I would glide over the crest of the hill and see what lay beyond. Then I would fly out to sea and watch the ships sailing far below. If I could stay in the air long enough I would fly to foreign countries hundreds of miles away and see strange sights and people. If I had wings and could fly, I would have many adventures and lots of fun.
AND FANTASIES (Subjunctive II) 5 Make up sentences and say what you would do, see and watch if you had wings and couldfly. 1 stay in the air 2 glide over the hill 3 fly out to sea 4 fly to foreign countries miles away 5 soar above the house-tops 6 stay in the air long enough to a) watch the ships sailing far below b) play jokes on people by appearing from nowhere and snatching off their hats c) see what the world looked like to a bird in the air d) see what lay beyond e) see strange sights and people f) have many adventures and lots of fun 6 When David was asked the question "What would you do if you had wings and could fly?" he wrote a story 'If I had wings' in which he described an imaginary situation. Think of a similar story. The pictures may give you some ideas. 7 a) Think of another story. Say what you could see, watch and do if you could stay under water for hours. b) Write a story 'If I could stay under water for hours'.
vocabulary study (i) 8 Look at the pictures, read and translate the sentences. EXPRESSING A WISH ABOUT THE PAST I WISH I HAD BEEN... I WISH I HAD DONE... I'm sorry I ate so much ice-cream last night I wish I hadn't eaten so much ice-cream last night. We're sorry we came so late. We wish we had come earlier. I'm sorry I didn't go to school. I wish I had gone to school. I'm sorry I told a lie. I wish I had told the truth. 9 Look at the pictures, read and compare the sentences. Pay attention to the words in bold. a wish about the present I wish I were younger. a wish/regret about the past I wish I had caught him. I wish I were a better skater. I wish I hadn't fallen on the ice.
10 Study the table. Observe the form of the verb after wish. Remember how to express a wish or regret about the past. The True Situation I didn't call my friend last night. I didn't go to the meeting yesterday. He didn't watch TV last night. He talked on the telephone with his friends all evening. Expressing a Wish or Regret About the Past I wish I had called my friend last night. I wish I had gone to the meeting yesterday. He wishes he had watched TV last night. He wishes he hadn't talked on the telephone with his friends all evening. After the verb wish, when people express a wish or regret about a past situation, the form had done (had been, had gone, etc.) is used. // Read what the true situation is and express a wish or regret: 1 We did not go camping with our classmates. 2 They did not visit the picture gallery when they were in the city. 3 He did not help his younger brother with his maths. 4 She did not wash the dishes right after breakfast. 5 He did not catch many fish. 6 They did not take pictures when they visited the ancient place. 12 Work in pairs. Act out the following dialogues expressing a wish or regret. Use auxiliary verbs as in the example: Example: A: Did you go to the party last night? B: Yes, I did, but I wish I hadn't. It was boring. 1 Did you go to the movie last night? Yes,..., but I wish .... 2 Is it hard to learn a second language? Yes, ...,but I wish.... 3 Did you travel by bus? Yes,..., but I wish ... . 4 Do you exercise regularly? No,..., but I wish ... . 5 Did you study for the test? No,..., but I wish ... . 13 Think of a real life situation and say what you (your friends, parents) wish you or someone else had done or had not done.
14 Look at the six photographs of Martin. Then read the sentences below and decide which picture each sentence goes with. 1. In the river. Age 8. 2. My first long trousers. Age 12. 1 13. After my first driving lesson. Age 17 4. An early walk with Jill. Age 20 5. My first car. Age 21. 6. A fishing experience. Age 21. 1 I wish I had noticed that tree. 2 I wish I hadn't taken the dog. 3 I wish I had caught a fish. 4 I wish I had cleaned the car more carefully. 5 I wish I had tried not to cry. 6 I wish I had asked her to sit closer. 7 I wish I had bought a few more flowers. 8 I wish I had taken my hands out of my pockets. 9 I wish I had chosen a different instructor. 10 I wish I had stopped smoking for a minute.
15 a) The boy is envious of those who are good at underwater swimming, windsurfing, surfing, diving, playing beach volleyball, etc. What wishes and regrets do you think the boy can express, and why? Example: I wish I had joined a sports club where I could learn how to swim underwater. I could shoot a film with an underwater camera. b) The girl understands that she will not get a job as a secretary at present because her computer skills are rather poor, she knows only one foreign language and she is not fluent in it. She produces an impression of a person without good communication skills, and she does not have any secretarial experience such as sending a fax or photocopying documents. What wishes and regrets, in your opinion, can the girl express ?
Vocabulary Study (2) TALKING ABOUT OUR FANTASIES IF I HAD HAD ENOUGH TIME I WOULD HAVE DONE... 17 a) Read these lines from a song and remember them: It would have been much better If we had seen the signs, If we 'd listened to the warnings, If we hadn У closed our minds. b) Discuss these lines. Answer the questions: 1 What feelings does the author express in these lines? Do you hear the notes of sadness, regret and concern? 2 The author wishes that we had seen the signs. What signs do you think he speaks about? 3 The author wishes he had listened to the warnings. What warnings are meant? 4 The author wishes we had not closed our minds. What, in your opinion, does the author want to say? 5 What is the author's concern and what is he worried about? 17 Look at the pictures. Read and translate the sentences. Pay attention to the words in bold. If I hadn't eaten so much ice-cream last night, I wouldn't have fallen ill. Compare: I'm sorry I ate so much ice-cream last night. I wish I hadn't, because now I am ill. If we had come earlier, we wouldn't have missed the train. Compare: We are sorry we came so late. We wish we had come earlier, and not missed the train. If I had gone to school, my ears wouldn't have grown so big. Compare: I'm sorry I didn't go to school. I wish I had gone to school, because now my ears have grown so big. If I had told the truth, my nose wouldn't have grown so long. Compare: I'm sorry I told a lie. I wish I hadn't, because now my nose has grown longer.
18 Study the table. Observe the form of the verb in the if-clause and in the main clause. Remember how to express a fantasy or how to speak about an imaginary situation. The True Situation Facts I didn't call my friend last night. I wish I had called him, to tell him the news. I didn't go to the meeting yesterday. I wish I had gone to the meeting yesterday, to take part in the discussion. He didn't watch TV last night. He wishes he had watched TV last night, and not missed such an interesting interview. He talked on the telephone with his friends all evening. He wishes he hadn't talked on the telephone with his friends all evening, and that he had studied for the test. Imaginary Situation Contrary-to-fact in the Past^ If I had called my friend last night, I would have told him the news. If I had gone to the meeting yesterday, I would have taken part in the discussion. If he had watched TV last night, he wouldn't have missed such an interesting interview. If he hadn't talked on the telephone with his friends all evening, he would have studied for the test. When we talk about an imaginary situation which is contrary-to- fact in the past, we use the form had done (had been, had gone, etc.) in the if-clause and the form would have + Past Participle in the main clause. If-clause If the weather had been nice, we would have gone swimming Main clause 19 Read the statements. Then join the sentences using the if-clause. Say why you think these people failed to do something or what would have helped them. Example: He didn't learn much about the system of education. He would have learned more by visiting school board meetings. He would have learned a lot about the system of education if he had visited school board meetings. 1 He didn't learn much English. He would have learned more by practising. 2 He didn't see many plays. He would have seen a lot by watching television. 3 He didn't learn any songs. He would have learned several by going to activity hours. 4 He didn't learn much about the customs of this country. He would have learned a lot by borrowing my book. 5 I didn't help him very much. I would have helped him by giving him my books. 6 I didn't discuss the subject very intelligently. I would have discussed it better by reading more articles on this problem. 7 He never understood people. He would have understood them better by talking to them. 8 He didn't notice the customs and traditions of the people. He would have learned them by observing people. 9 He didn't do well at the examination. He would have done better by working harder. 10 He didn't arrive in time. He would have arrived earlier by taking a plane. 11 I didn't find his house. I would have found it by looking harder.
20 Read the sentences and think about what each of them implies. Choose (a) or (b). 1 The boys would have liked to visit their friend in the summer if it had been possible. a The boys and their friend live in the same town. b The boys and their friend live far away. 2 We would not have been so happy if we hadn't met our friend. a We aren't happy that we met our friend. b We are glad that we met our friend. 3 You wouldn't have learned any more if you had attended the last meeting. a The meeting was interesting and important. b They didn't like the meeting. 4 If this were Thursday, I would watch my favourite TV programmes tonight. a My favourite TV programmes are on Thursday nights. b Today must be Thursday. 5 If I didn't like what I am doing now, I'd get a different job. a I'm happy with what I'm doing now. b I wish I were doing a different job. 21 a) Read the following situations. Then say what would have happened or how things would have been different if people had acted differently or if they had done otherwise. J The movie critics did not like the film И but Alice did not read the reviews. She И went to see the movie with a friend, ■ and neither of them enjoyed it. I Jane went away on vacation without check- ing to see when she was to return her library I books. When she returned, she had to pay a ge sum of money. ie boys were late to the airport because I they missed the bus. So they did not see their friends off. My elder sister always wanted to study architecture. Our parents told her it was a man's profession, so she became a teacher instead. Think of similar situations and do the same task. 22 a) Recall the story "Uncle Podger at Work". Imagine what Uncle Podger said to the members of the family when he was going to put up the picture. Example: If you brought me my hammer, I would put up the picture. b) If the whole family had not helped Uncle Podger, he would not have put up the picture. Say what each member of the family did to help him. Example: Uncle Podger would not have put up the picture if the nails had not been brought.
23 a) Recall the story "How We Kept Mother's Day" and speak about the ideas of celebrating Mother's Day the family had. You may use the following: Example: If we decorated the house with flowers, it would be a day just like Christmas or any big holiday. if father took a holiday from his office. if Stephen and Anne stayed home from college classes, if Mary and Will stayed home from High School, if we dressed in our best.if father bought silk ties for himself and the boys, if we hired a motor car. if we took her for a beautiful drive away into the country, if we took mother fishing. b) Say what the members of the family thought they would do if they stayed at home. We would help in celebrating Mother's Day It would be a nice thing It would be a surprise for Mother Mother would have a treat It would be even better You may use the following: work in the garden and do a lot of rough dirty work not be of any use help the maid to get the dinner have a lovely restful day around the home c) Speak about your ideas of celebrating some holiday. 24 The stories you have read tell you what really happened to the characters. If they had acted differently, other things might have occurred. a) Recall the stories you have read and say what you think would have happened if the characters had acted differently. Example: Delaney would not have been punished if he had told a lie. If Gorman had told the truth, the teacher would not have asked Delaney to turn out his pockets ("The Idealist"). b) Ask your classmates what they think would have happened to characters of other stories if they had acted differently. 25 Think of different discoveries and inventions. Suppose these discoveries and inventions had never been made. Say what you think would have happened or how things would have been different in each of the following cases: suppose the printing press had never been invented; suppose electricity had never been discovered; suppose the automobile had never been invented. Example: Suppose America had never been discovered. If Columbus had not discovered America, somebody else would have found it.
JOKES AND FUNNY STORIES 26 Read the Jokes and Funny Stories and do the tasks after them. Natural Conclusions Mother: You see, Sonny, if the little lamb had obeyed his mother, he wouldn't have run away into the forest. And if he hadn't run away into the forest, the wolf wouldn't have eaten him up. Son: Certainly, Mummy. But if the little lamb had obeyed his I mother, and if he hadn't run away into the forest, and if the wolf hadn't eaten him up, then we should have eaten him. Choose (a), (b) or (c). Mother: If the little lamb had obeyed his mother, the wolf a would not eat him. b would have eaten him. с would not have eaten him. If You Had Been Good Mother: You never do what you are told to, you naughty boy. If you were good, my hair wouldn't turn grey so early. Son: Now I see you never did what you were told to. For if you had been good, granny wouldn't have had such a grey head. Choose (a) or (b). Mother: If you were good, a my hair wouldn't have turned grey so early. b my hair wouldn't turn grey so early. Son: a If you were good, granny wouldn't have had such a grey head. b If you had been good, granny wouldn't have had such a grey head. How to Save Money Son: Father, I saved two pence today. I ran all the way to school behind a tram. Father: But if you had run behind a taxi, you would have saved 3 shillings. I wish you had done that. Choose (a) or (b). Father thinks that: a running behind a taxi wouldn't be a good way of saving money. b it would be a good idea to save money by running behind a taxi. Which one, (a) or (b), expresses advice, and which expresses reproach: a If you ran behind a taxi, you would save 3 shillings. b If you had run behind a taxi, you would have saved more money.
Not the Toughest Customer: This chicken here is the toughest piece of meat I have ever tasted. Waiter: You wouldn't have said so if you had tried our beefsteak. Choose (a) or (b) to express what the waiter meant to say: a The chicken was not the toughest piece of meat. b The beefsteak was much better. Customer: I have been staying in your town for a fortnight. I'm sorry I didn't come to your restaurant on the very day of my arrival here. Owner of the restaurant: Really? You don't say so! You are flattering me, sir. Customer: You see, if I had come here a fortnight ago, I would have eaten that fish fresh Choose (a) or (b) to express the customer's idea: a If I had come a fortnight ago, I would have eaten that fish fresh. b If I come to your restaurant next time, I am sure I shall have fresh fish. If You Had Told Her Friend: Why haven't you told Margaret about your rich uncle? She wouldn't have refused to marry you, if you had told her what a rich uncle you have. Fred: But I have told her about him. And now she is my aunt. Choose (a) or (b) to express what Fred's friend thought: a Margaret would have married Fred if he had not told her that he had a rich uncle. b Margaret would have married Fred if he had told her that he had a rich uncle. 27 Read the text Л Serious Misunderstanding and say what caused the misunderstanding. A Serious Misunderstanding (From the book "English by Stages") There was once a king who sent a message to the king of a neighbouring country, saying, "Send me a brown monkey with a black tail, or else —." To this the other king replied: "I have not got one, and if I had —." When the first king got this answer, he became terribly angry and made war on the other. The fighting went on for many months, but at last the two kings arranged a meeting. "What did you mean," said one king, "by the words 'or else —' in your message?" "I meant simply 'or else some other colour'." "And I thought you meant, 'If you don't send me a brown monkey with a black tail, I will fight you'." "You were wrong. But let me ask you what you meant by your message, 'I have not got one, and if I had—.'" "My meaning was plain enough, for, of course, if I had had such a monkey, I would have sent it to you." "And I thought you meant, 'If I had, I would not send it to you.'" "Dear me, how foolish we have been! Let us make peace and be friends." So peace was made, and the story was written in the history books of both countries to serve as a warning to those who should come after, to avoid such misunderstanding between nations.
ROSELEE ROCKMAN Read the text Erst Prize and say why Jean was ashamed that her kid brother had won. First Prize "I don't know what has come over you lately, Jean," Mother complained. "You are either picking on Willie or ignoring him, and you used to be so good to your little brother." Unfortunately, Willie, stepping into the room just then, heard this speech. He made a face. He hates to be called "little" now that he is thirteen and a freshman in high school. My little brother! At this moment I hated him not only because he had turned into a liar and a cheat1, but because actually I was even more guilty than he was. It all happened so quickly, so unexpectedly. I know I should have confessed when the prize was announced, the arrangements for the assembly made. But it would have meant not only exposing myself and my brother but also bringing disgrace on Mother and Dad, and I just didn't have the courage. It hadn't occurred to me that it wouldn't stop there — with his winning the prize — that it would mount and mount, that it would become a citywide occasion; and that if I spoke up now, I should involve not only myself and my brother and my parents but our teachers and principal as well, and maybe even the radio station. "I know, Jean," Mother was saying now, "that in your heart you are as proud of your brother as your father and I are." Proud! If she only knew! She turned to Willie and reminded him it was time for him to get to bed so he could be bright and rested for his big moment tomorrow. I just stood there looking at him. Maybe if he had said something even now, if he confessed the whole thing, we could still do something. Tomorrow would be too late. Tomorrow everything would be over, and he and I and Mother and Dad too would be disgraced before the entire school and the whole city. But no. He wasn't saying anything. He was only giving Mother a break this once, suffering himself to be kissed goodnight, and off he went to his room. "You didn't even say good night to him," Mother reprimanded after Willie had gone. "You've been so sullen2 lately, so unlike yourself, dear," she went on. "Daddy and I understand. But after all, Willie is still such a little boy and you are three years older and a senior, so you can't possibly be jealous of him. In your heart I'm sure you feel the way your father and I do — awfully proud that out of all those thousands of pupils in the school our Willie's composition won the first prize." 1 cheat — обманщик 2 sullen [sAlan] — мрачный, замкнутый That ring of pride in her voice as she said, "Our Willie!" His composition! If only I hadn't — but how could I possibly have guessed where it would lead? It had started so innocently. Mother had given a tea for her bridge club and her literary circle, a combined affair. It meant twice as many guests as usual, and so she had borrowed some silver from her friend, Mrs. Brooks. After the guests had gone and the dishes were washed, Mom asked me to return the silver. It is only a few blocks to Mrs. Brooks' house and it would have taken me only a few minutes. But the gang was going to the first show at the Grand, so I asked Willie to take the stuff. Sure, he said, he'd take it for a nickel, only he didn't have time because he had homework to do. "What homework?" I asked him. "Some dopey3 composition." "I can fix that in a moment," I said. I opened my notebook, took out an essay I had written that week on "If I Had My Wish" and handed it to him. I don't usually bother much with compositions, but I had gone to town with this one because the topic is right up my alley. It must have turned out all right, too, for my English teacher actually marked it as excellent and asked me to read it to the class. "Be sure to copy it in your own handwriting," I told Willie when I handed him the paper and the nickel. "Leave out some sentences and misspell a few words." Although homework is passed around all the time, I know it is not an ethical thing to do. You bet I'll never, never do it again. I learned my lesson all right, the hard way. I probably thought Willie's teacher wouldn't even look at the old paper. How was I to know that she would not only read it but would enter it in the citywide contest, that it would win the first prize? And tomorrow morning Willie was to read it in the assembly, and the entire programme would be broadcast over the municipal radio station as part of the celebration of Our Borough Day! The fatal morning arrived at last. We all saluted the flag; they played "The Star-Spangled Banner"; then the programme started, and went on and on like something in a dream that I couldn't believe was really happening. But there was Willie, sitting on the platform, looking shiny and wearing a white shirt, a tie and his blue Sunday suit — embarrassed and shy as any kid would be — but more happy than anything else. The principal, teachers, school officials, and people from the radio station were all over the platform. There were a lot of speeches, the school 3 dopey ['doupi] — глупый
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD orchestra played, the students sang, but I kept looking into the palms of my hands, and breathing hard as if I'd been running. Now Willie was standing in the centre of the platform. The man had lowered the microphone for him. He seemed very small standing there alone. I could hear Father clear his throat and I could feel Mom stiffen1 a bit in her seat. As for me, I lowered my head, my cheeks, burning with shame. For the moment Willie opened his mouth, they would all recognize the words I had read in the classroom only a few weeks before. Oh, the disgrace of it! I shut my eyes tight when Willie began to speak. His voice was loud and clear as he proclaimed the title: "If I Had My Wish." "If I had my wish, I'd want our team to win every game this season because they are fine players and deserve it. They are also a great bunch of fellows and a regular United Nations so far as race, colour, religion, and all that goes. If I had my wish, there would be teams like ours all over the world; then the H and A bombs would never get out of the comic books. Joe Vitale is the best pitcher we ever had." Willie went on talking about each player for maybe two or three minutes. As far as I was concerned, it might have been a second or forever. Slowly my hands unclenched. I slumped further into my seat, and suddenly I was sobbing. Mother placed a firm, steadying arm around me. When I dared look up, I noticed her eyes were shining with tears and even Dad's eyes looked a bit misty2. If I live to be a hundred, I don't think I'll ever be happier than I was for the rest of that day. I confessed everything to Mother and Dad, and although they scolded me, I felt it was well deserved. I had learned my lesson and all that was behind me. Nothing could mar the joy I felt. It was as if I had found my brother all over again. That evening I was so happy, I couldn't help doing it although I knew he didn't like it — I asked Willie what he had done with my composition. His face turned red. "I stuck it in my pocket," he explained, "but I must have lost it somewhere because it wasn't there when I got to school in the morning. Miss Farnum made me stay after school and write one. I remembered your title, so I put that down. If I'd had your paper, I might have copied the whole thing," he admitted ruefully3. "I'm lucky I lost it." My composition was about an imaginary trip to Hollywood. In spite of Willie's protests I kissed him, and then I apologized to him, and congratulated him on being honest and doing his own thinking. "I'm so ashamed," I said, "I don't know what I was thinking of to suggest such a thing. A fine example I am." "Forget it, Sis," he said. I'm just crazy about my kid brother. 29 Discuss Jean's point of view: 1 How did Jean get herself into the situation that she described here? 2 Was Jean more ashamed of herself or of her brother? Why didn't she confess when Willie won the prize? What did she do? 3 What did Jean's parents think was the matter with her? Were they unfair? 4 At the programme, why did Jean turn to look at her English teacher and classmates? 5 Why did Jean sob when she heard Willie read his composition? 6 Even though things turned out all right, Jean told her parents the whole story. Why do you suppose she did this? 7 What responsibilities do older brothers and sisters have for the conduct and standards of the younger members of the family? 8 The author told this story in the first person, from Jean's point of view. Did this make it seem more or less realistic to you? How would the story be different if the author had chosen to tell it from Willie's point of view? From the mother's? 30 If you had been in Jean's place, how would you have felt when Willie got up to make his speech ? Express your opinion. Is there a question of ethics involved? Is it ethical to copy homework? If Willie had copied Jean's composition, which of them would have been more responsible ? Is it ethical to use cribs4 in examinations? 31 At one place in the story Jean said, "Although homework is passed around all the time, I know it is not an ethical thing to do." Ethical conduct is, of course, right conduct. In this story Jean is concerned with ethics, the study of questions of right and wrong. 1 to stiffen ['stifn] — делаться жестким, негибким, костенеть 2 misty ['misti]— затуманенный (слезами) 3 ruefully ['ru:fuli] — с сожалением, печально 4 crib — шпаргалка
UNIT 5 ieA. NATION TALKING INFORMATION IS GOING AROUND 1 a) Comment on the scene. You may use the following: look through the news items be curious about get a picture of keep informed be extremely interesting be important at the moment sensational news contain information about recent events advertisements full coverage of the topical issues of the day interesting items leading daily newspapers b) Can you imagine what kind of people these newspaper lovers are ? What are your ideas? 2 Work in groups. Talk about different kinds of newspapers or magazines you and your classmates read, and decide how they are similar and how they are different. 3 Read the quotation. How do you understand these words ? In what way do you think they are true ? Do you think they can also be referred to radio and television ? "A good newspaper, I suppose, is a nation talking to itself." Arthur Miller
TO itSELF" (Arthur Miller) 4 Work in groups. Look through the news items in current newspapers. Find the articles which cover the latest events. Name the topical issues of the day. 5 a) lind some news items with catchy headlines and ask the class to guess the subject of the item. b) Examine: the headlines; the contents of each item; the importance given to each item. Which one seems the most interesting to you ? Speak about it. 6 Role play. Imagine you are a commentator of a television or a radio programme which gives information about the latest events and discusses the most topical problems. Imagine you are TV viewers or radio listeners. What questions will you ask to find out more about the most important (sensational, troublesome) events? 7 Read these opinions about the press and journalism. Do you agree with them ? Why or why not? Literature is the art of writing something that will be read twice; journalism what will be grasped at once, Cyril Connolly Г A free press can of course be good or bad, but, most certainty, without freedom it will never be anything but bad. Albert Camus People everywhere confuse what they read in newspapers with news. A. J. Liebling
Vocabulary Study (1) SHAPING OPINIONS 8 Read and remember how to use the words: mass media (the): The mass media have done and continue doing much to excite an interest in every aspect of the country's life. The mass media are the various ways by which information and news is given to large numbers of people, especially television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. The mass media now play an important role in shaping our opinions. to reflect [n'flekt], reflection [n'flekfn]: to reflect life. Important events often reflect themselves quickly in the literature of a country. How does the book reflect present- day problems? The trees which grew on the lakeshore were reflected in the water. Ought plays to be a reflection of society and present life as we see it? vital [Vaitl]: vital problems; a vital necessity; to be of vital importance. Nature protection is considered to be a problem of vital importance nowadays. principal ['pnnsapal]: principal newspapers. The speech was reported in all of the principal newspapers. The lecture gave an outline of the principal points of his report. Illness was the principal cause of the girl's absence during the school year. to affect [a'fekt]: to affect various spheres of life. The unusually hot weather affected his health. Are plants quickly affected by cold? The news of the catastrophe affected him deeply. We always tried to persuade him to work better, but our words did not even seem to affect him. recent ['riisant]: recent publications; the most recent issues of the magazine; recently. The most recent news is excellent. They came to live here quite recently. Recent events or fresh information are always reported in the newspapers, over the radio or television. broad [bro:d]: broad roads; in broad daylight; a broad mind; broadminded. If a man has a broad mind, he can understand the opinions of other people even when they do not agree with him. amount [a'maunt]: a great amount of (information, work, energy). Your information is large in amount but poor in quality. A great amount of work was done in order to restore the pictures destroyed by the fire. Children spend a frightful amount of energy running about. to raise [reiz]: to raise a problem; to raise a cloud of dust; to raise one's voice; to raise a question (a point) in discussion; to raise crops; to raise a family. The theatre is raising an important question of responsibility to the public. to feel like doing: I don't feel like going out because the weather is so dull. Tom did not feel like speaking on the topic because the subject was of no interest to him. 9 Say what kind of news (information, events, stories, books) affects people (you personally) deeply. 10 Work in pairs. Find out which of the most recent events (news) your classmates were affected by. Tell the others what you have found out. 11 Work in groups. Make a list of the recent publications which have interested the readers most of all. Explain why. 12 Name some vital problems of our day (in the present-day world, in our country). Say how these vital problems are reflected in the press and how people try to solve them. 13 Every newspaper and magazine offers its readers a wide range | of topics. Bring a recent issue of some newspaper or magazine to class, then discuss the contents of this issue with your classmates. Exchange your opinions about the topics offered.
14 a) Study the meaning of the words with the suffix -en: adj + -en = verb JThe verb with -en usually means to make or Ito become, e. g. to soften means make soft or ■become soft. black — blacken bright — brighten weak — weaken wide — widen short — shorten deep — deepen dark — darken sharp — sharpen broad — broaden hard — harden b) Read and translate these word combinations: widen a path shorten a text brighten shop windows deepen one's knowledge sharpen a knife deepen a canal broaden cooperation widen international trade c) Use these verbs with the suffix -en in the proper form: to darken, to broaden, to brighten, to widen, to deepen. Example: This coffee is too strong. Please put in a little water to weaken it. 1 This street is very narrow. I understand there are plans to ... it. 2 The room does not look very cheerful. I think some flowers would ... it considerably. 3 A storm was coming and the sky began to .... 4 They suggested that the range of topics for discussion should be ... . 5 The anxiety ... as time passes without news of the missing plane. 15 Explain why it is often difficult to make a choice of which newspaper to buy or to subscribe to. Say what helps you to make a choice. You may use the following: a great choice of great diversity of appeal to excite an interest in various newspapers and magazines for all tastes look attractive a wide range of topics and problems serious, entertaining reading 16 Read these adverts. What are they trying to get people to do and how is it done ? START YOUR DAY WITH THE DAILY NEWS reakfast and the Daily News, it's the perfect way to start your day. And now it's even easier with convenient home delivery of New York's Hometown Paper delivered right to your door every day. Don't delay! Start your day the right way, can: ЫЮ0-692-639 TJ1 E HOIMK шахт Enjoy the convenience and time-saving efficiency of having The New York Times delivered to your home seven days a week. Give yourself the home advantage, and get the informative, entertaining head Mart on each day that only The Times can provide. Call toll-free 1 -800- NYTIMES (1-800-698-4637). Or use the coupon below. Already getting home delivery? We applaud your good sense and wise investment. And we thank you for reading SbeJfrUriJorkSimc* f READ WHAT YOU UKE™
17 Readers may write to a newspaper or a magazine to get advice about problems they face or decisions they have to make. The newspaper publishes both the reader's letter and the advice given. It, in turn, receives comments from other readers with similar problems who agree (do not agree) with the way they found a solution. a) Read the letters below. Cultural Note: take the mick to make someone feel foolish by copying them or laughing at them. Mick Jagger [Узаедэ] — an English popular music singer and song writer, part of the group The Rolling Stones. &j^ub pzcess 1 wholeheartedly agree with $ Mass's letter on over f>ackayina of Products (Уои cAndme, z6 February), so today iholitely refused a fdastic hay for my already jdastic-wrafyed bread. Unfortunately, the checbut operator then screwed uf> this unused hay and threw it away! b) What kind of problems do people write about to newspapers or magazines ? Do you think advice from a newspaper (magazine) is helpful? c) Think of a problem you could write about in a letter to a newspaper or magazine.
18 Read and remember: Making Suggestions Suggestions Do you feel like going to the cinema tonight? How about buying some new records? What about getting out of town? Replies Expressing Likes, Dislikes, Preferences a Yes, a good idea. Yes, that's a splendid idea. Yes, that sounds like a good idea. b Well, I can't say I feel like it really. No, I don't think that's such a good idea, really. No, thanks. с 1 think I'd rather .... 19 Listen to the dialogues, then read them. Say what suggestions were made in them, how these suggestions were accepted and why. T— Tom; A— Andrew T: Do you feel like going to the new exhibition of modern art this Saturday? It opened two days ago and it's now the talk of the town. A: No, thanks. I'm not all that keen, actually. I'd prefer classical paintings. A— Ann; J—John A: My cousin is coming to stay with us at the weekend. Can you suggest anything to do, John? Any idea for what I can do with her? J: What about getting out of town for the weekend? It's worth going to the birthplace of some famous person, a writer or an artist. A: That's a splendid idea. I quite like it. Listen, John, are you doing anything this weekend? J: No, I don't think so, Ann. Why? A: Well, if not, I was wondering if you felt like coming to the country with us? Yes, I'd love to. Thank you. b) Restate the dialogues in reported speech. 20 Work in pairs. Act out conversations making suggestions and giving replies expressing likes, dislikes and preferences. One of your friends suggests subscribing to a magazine for lovers of music. One of your friends suggests writing a letter to a newspaper to get advice about the problems you face at school. The other one either accepts or turns down the suggestion with a reason. The other one turns down the suggestion and makes a counter suggestion.
21 Some special magazines for teenagers are very popular with British and American boys and girls, "Teen" (USA), "Seventeen" (USA), "Mizz" (Britain) among them. a) Look at the cover of a popular magazine for teenagers. What is the name of the magazine? What topics does this issue of the magazine cover? MAJOR BABES! BRAETOITT & KEANU TEEN are you too nice? what makes you hdppy? spring things • hair • clothes • makeup "I just wanted todie" b) Do you find these topics appealing? Which of these articles would you like to read most? Which articles would you begin with? 22 a) Give your opinion about newspapers and magazines for young people. Say if they reflect the young people's hopes and worries, their leisure and education, their attitudes and opinions. b) Say what kind of articles appeal to you most and why. find out! don't be shy! IMPROVE YOUR SOCIAL SKILLS
23 I Here is one of the problems which the magazine "Teen" raises on its pages. a) Read and find out what kind of emotion shyness is and how frequently people experience it. howto lovercome Л1JL V J. J.CU51 f shyness; making' It ficult for ycu to шке friends1, express yourself'and get-the lost out of your» life? П Asking a question or speaking up In class D Walking by, a group of students in the hallway П Starting up at a new school U Meeting new people at a party or dance U Asking for directions, information or help П Telling a saiesclerk you were overcharged for a purchase П Standing before a crowd to receive recognition or an award U Calling about a job or going on an interview DO YOU TEND TO: U Play down your accomplishments or your intelligence П Avoid taking risks or trying new things П Put yourself down D Remain quiet and non-assertive in group situations G Dress to avoid standing out U Stay home most weekends and rarely invite friends over what is shyness? Shyness involves the way you feel in social situations. It usually involves feeling J uncomfortable or uneasy with J others. Dictionaries offer | many definitions, from being | reserved, modest, cautious or withdrawn to more intense ; feelings of being fearful, distrustful or suspicious. I isn't everyone I shy? r Dr. Philip Zimbardo and a team of researchers at i Stanford University have I done extensive studies on shyness. Their conclusion? | Shyness is almost a univer- I sal normal human emotion. j Only 7 percent of the people they questioned claimed that I they never experienced shy- I ness. Eighty percent of people admitted feeling shy at | some time in their lives. Shyness is equally common ! among males and females, | with adolescents experiencing the greatest shvness. Would you feel shy in the situations mentioned? Do you think the problem is worth discussing on the pages of youth magazines? Why or why not? DID YOU CHECK OFF EIGHT OR MORE BOXES? 1 walk by — проходить мимо 2 stand out — выделяться
Vocabulary Study (2) 24 Read and remember how to use the words: actual ['aektfual]: actually. It is an actual fact. I haven't invented or imagined it. He not only ran in the race, he actually won it! poster ['pousta]: cinema posters; posters for political parties; colourful posters; an eyecatching poster. Posters can portray all kinds of topics. ordinary ['oidmn], extraordinary [iks'troidnn]: an ordinary day's work; an ordinary dress; in an ordinary manner; an ordinary speech; a man of extraordinary genius; an extraordinary appearance. He knows English much better than an ordinary student does. effective [ifektiv]: an effective picture; effective advertisements; to take effective actions; an effective medicine. The speech was very effective and made a deep impression on all the listeners. EFFECTIVE ADVERTISING means: by means of; by all means. Thoughts are expressed by means of words. Do it by all means. to fascinate [Taesmeit], fascinating: a fascinating piece of news; a fascinating book. I love history, it fascinates me. It's a truly fascinating country. I was fascinated by Bill's stories of his travels. It was fascinating to watch the glass being made. marvellous ['ma:valas]: a marvellous place; a marvellous name; a marvellous feeling; marvellous news. It took me ages to get it right, but it was a marvellous feeling when I did. Jill is a marvellous person to work with. That's marvellous! Ann, you are marvellous. 25 Mass media offer so much advertizing that there is something for everyone. Music is usually well-advertised in the press and by posters. a) Do you think there is a need to advertise music ? b) Say what sort of music you like and explain why. Classical? • Rock? • Rock "n" Roll? • Folk? • Jazz? • Pop? Country? c) Name several things which, in your opinion, must be well-advertised. Why? 26 Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer, the USA, once told a New York World editor that a newspaper should contain "what is new, what is original, distinctive, dramatic, romantic, thrilling, unique, curious, humorous, odd, apt to be talked about without shocking good taste..." Do you think the newspaper publisher was right? Why or why not? Give your opinion about what a newspaper should contain.
27 a) Read the text Posters and say what role posters played in different periods of society's development. Posters A poster is a printed sign, usually a large one, which is shown in a public place. Its purpose may be to announce an event or to advertise something. There are travel posters, posters for art exhibitions and political posters. Posters developed from printed notices which were stuck on walls. As printing methods developed, it became possible to produce colour prints. This was the beginning of the poster as we know it today. Posters became more colourful and pictures were used to express the idea. The text grew less important. The first modern colour prints began to be produced around the year 1850. In the second half of the 19th century poster art became a powerful medium. It was used to advertise the amusements of the day and the new products that poured from the factories. Posters reflected the social changes of the industrial age. Humorous posters have always been very popular. The unusual, the astonishing catches the attention of the passer-by. Advertising experts say that if people do not take in a poster in two seconds, it is not a good one. Posters are often used as means of propaganda [,ргэрэ'даепс1э]. They can be a vivid commentary on different events in the history of the country. Some of the most effective political posters have been designed to protest against the atomic bomb. One of them had a single word: No! and a great mushroom cloud of skulls. (From the magazine "Say it in English ") ighty percent of the damage that will ever be done to a person's skin by the sun occurs before ag GET SMART. GET SCARED. GET OUT OF THE SUN Ф It's worse than you tliiiik. As the ozone layer thins, as Americans s/jciuI more ana" more time in tlie sun, as new research leads inertical science to recognize exactly what ultraviolet rays can do, it has Iwcome clear that the sun is deadly. Worst of all, it s our children who are in greatest danger. О b) Look at the poster and say what message it conveys. 28 Speak about the role of different kinds of posters. Say what ideas (events) they reflect and when they become effective. You may use the following words: make people think about the future reflect vividly announce an event express the idea clearly and understandably educate people an image of depict catch the attention of 29 A poster's strength lies in an unexpected and fresh rendering of the most important issues of the day. Do you agree? Give your opinion.
30 a) Look at the texts for advertisements and match them with the pictures. Then say what the advertisements are trying to get people to do. KIPLING. All the baggage you need Whether it's a mini-pack for club- hopping, a backpack on a bike ride, a tote at the gym, or a handbag for all around town, Kipling is the hottest name in bags. Lots of great details like strong snaps, big zippers, cute monkeys, and colors that go with every look. With back-to-school just around the corner, Kipling will hold a ton of texts. Another Day. Another Chance To Feel Healthy
The answer is blowing in the wind Listen, my friend. Listen to the wind and let yourself be carried away by it. It's charged with light and sun, taking you towards new horizons along one of a million pathways offered by the sea. The coast speeds past in a haze while the prow of your boat throws up a fine spray of foam around you. Nothing, nobody can break the magic of this moment. You and the air are one. Where are you? The answer is blowing in the wind: Spain. The Special К Breakfast that fits so many modern diets built around the low-fat, protein cereal tastes good, too. "The best to you each morning" b) Do advertisemets sometimes get you to make your decision or to change it? When do they? What does it depend on ? c) Try to analyse the appeal of each advertisement.
Ecabulary Study (3) 31 Read and remember how to use the words: documentary [dokju'mentari]: There will be a documentary on wildlife on the educational programme. channel ['tfaenl]: What channels of information does he have? What's on tonight on Channel I? frequent [friikwant]: frequent trips; frequent rains. Strong winds are frequent here during early autumn. He is a frequent visitor. This magazine has been frequently criticized in recent years. strain, eyestrain, nervous strain: be under heavy strain; be under the strain of.... The students could not cope with the strain caused by all the extra work. to relax [n'laeks], relaxed, relaxing: a relaxed atmosphere. Some people can't even relax when they are at home. He saw that nothing was wrong, and relaxed. It was a relaxed and quiet informal discussion. It is a delightful, relaxing place for a short holiday break. THE POWER AND DANGERS OF TELEVISION schedule ['Jedjuil]: according to the schedule. Will you show me the television schedule, please? The schedule for spring basketball practice was printed in the school newspaper. variety [va'raiati], variety show: The new variety show was a really wonderful entertainment which consisted of dancing, singing, short plays and music. sociable ['soufabl]: a sociable person; a pleasant sociable evening with friends. Why do you spend so much time in front of the television screen instead of visiting friends and being sociable? to concentrate ['konsantreit]: You must concentrate your attention on what you are reading. If you concentrate upon a problem, you will solve it, I'm sure. It is hard to concentrate on television because you may talk or carry on some other activity. 32 Here is a list of different TV programmes. a) Give a brief description of each kind of programme. Current Affairs Documentary Sport Film Play The Arts News Educational Variety Show Example: Current Affairs. These programmes deal with political and social problems of modern society. Their aim is to give an analysis [a'naehsis] of the problems and to show different viewpoints. They are concerned with the country's nationals events, festivals and public gatherings. They also include news commentaries. b) Say which programmes you have watched this week. 33 Work in groups. a) Say how many television channels there are in your country; whether there are any differences in the programmes shown on the different channels. b) Describe a TV programme which appeals to you most. c) Give your ideas about a new TV channel. What kind of programmes would you like to show and at what time ?
34 a) Read the text Announcer and find the answers to the question: What is the right personality for a TV announcer? Use a dictionary when necessary. Announcer (From the book "Twenty Texts for Discussion ") Announcing in television is part of what is called "Presentation", the department which presents programmes. Announcers are necessary because without them television would proceed in a series of disconnected jerks. What is the right personality? There are several obvious answers. A good appearance is naturally of the first importance. This does not mean good looks alone. The first assets are an attractive face and a reasonably good figure in a woman, and, in a man, the ability to hold himself well. Next comes intelligence. It includes first a good understanding of the language, and a very large measure of common sense. You must also have a good memory. Next to appearance and intelligence you should have a friendly, likeable manner, not over- friendly or with any hint of that detestable chumminess which is the stamp of insincerity. The right kind of voice is important. It must be pleasant, yet have sufficient quiet authority to make the viewer listen to what is being said. You are there as an announcer to convey information and to get the viewer to listen to it. "Confidence" is perhaps a better word than "authority" in this connection and it is linked with the most important thing of all — the ability to be posed and at ease before the cameras. If you have this gift by nature, you are fortunate: not too many possess it. The majority of people are self- conscious or become so when they face a microphone or a camera. b) Say: • whether you agree with the way the right personality of a TV announcer is described in the text; which of the qualities mentioned you consider really very important and which ones, in your opinion, do not matter a lot (are less important). c) Do you think there are other qualities to be considered in addition to those mentioned in the text? What are they? 35 Work in groups. Make a list of qualities which, in your opinion, a good TV announcer should possess. Give reasons. 36 The success of some programmes in which TV viewers take part (competitions, contests, shows) depends very much on the personality of the talk-show host1. a) Name a successful host of some television programme. Explain your choice. b) Express your opinion about the role of the talk-show host. 37 Televison created many popular personalities. a) Name: a well-known TV newsreader/announcer; a famous singer who often appears on TV; a TV sporting reporter who enjoys popularity; a popular TV journalist. b) Say what, in your opinion, made these people so popular. What fascinates the TV- viewers ? He's seen it. He's done «. He's been then ф. Watch and you'll understand why he's #L 1 talk-show host [houst] — ведущий программу
38 a) Look and say how well you know these TV channels and whether you have opportunities to watch them. KOSMOS TV Satellite TV Without a "Dish" I. BBC Prime 2.TV5 3.MTV 4. NBC Super Channel 5. PRO 7 6. EuroSport 7.EuroNews 8. Country Music Television 9. Cine Plus 10. Cartoon Network II. TNT 12. CNN International 13. The Discovery Channel 14. The Travel Channel .15. Cine Ruse b) Suppose you want: to watch some sporting events; to listen to your favourite music group; to plan an interesting tour abroad; to be informed about the latest European and World News. Which channel will you switch on ? 39 Comment on the picture. "Good evening. Nothing happened today. Here with that story is Jim Fulton in Moscow, Ginny Cooper in Washington and Fred Weidner in London."
40 Look at the picture and comment on it. What do you think these people's interests and hobbies are? What, in your opinion, makes the scene humorous? "From now until October, he'll be quiet as a pussycat." 41 Listen to the conversation. Say what arguments for and against televisions are offered in it and with which opinions you agree (disagree). Mr. Lacey: Television is doing a lot of harm, I think. We begin to forget how to occupy our spare time. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to meet our friends, we used to go outside for our amusements, to the theatres, cinemas and sporting events. We used to read books and listen to music. Now all our free time is given to television. Mr. Mason: Well, nobody makes you watch TV. If you don't like it, switch off your TV set. But why do you forget what a great amount of information we get! I think we must watch TV to be well informed. It gives wonderful possibilities for education. Besides, there is a considerable variety of programmes. We can choose what we want to see. Mr. Lacey: Yes, I agree. But I'm always under the impression that little by little television cuts us off from the real world. It is so easy to sit in our armchair watching others working. We get too lazy, we choose to spend a fine day glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself. Television may be a splendid medium of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. Only when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, far away from civilisation, we quickly discover how little we miss television. Mr. Mason: No, I disagree entirely. It's an absurd idea that television makes you its slave. It enriches our intellect, gives us opportunities to see the best actors and performances, to hear the latest news, to listen to political discussions. In my opinion TV is a great force in the world. 42 a) Look at the picture and say how the statistics show people's leisure preferences. Compare the amount of time adult women and men, teenagers and children spend before the television screen. b) Do you agree that TV shapes our life? How does it? Statistics Shape Our Lives Cultural Note: couch [kautj] potato — a person who takes little or no exercise, but spends most or the time sitting around, esp. watching television. U.S. couch potatoes American households watch TV an average total of 7 hours, 42 minutes per day. Average daily viewing by: Adult women 5 hrs., 1 min. Adult men 4 hrs., 17 min. Teens (12-17) 3 hrs., 14 min. .Children (2-11) 3 hrs., 26 min. 1 to glue [glu:] — приклеиваться, прилипать, зд.: не отрывать взгляда
43 Read and remember: How to Exchange Opinions That may be so, but... Why do you think ...? I can see your point of view ... Well, I'm not entirely convinced that 44 Work in pairs. Act out a conversation in which you can use some of these common arguments for and against television: For 1 Television brings the world to our livingroom. We see people in our country and in other lands, and learn of their customs, occupations, opinions and problems. 2 We become better informed by watching documentaries, science programmes, discussions and by learning about the most important economic, social and political issues of the day. 3 We see great events which will pass into history. We can see famous people. 4 We become more cultured people by learning more of the arts. 5 Television helps us to relax after a hard day's work. We can then cope better with the next day's work. 6 Television programmes gather big audiences. Apart from their entertainment value, they provide useful topics of conversation. Against 1 Some pupils do their homework in front of the television screen. Others rush' their homework so they can watch television. In either case, the quality of the work is affected. Some pupils are so attracted by television that they do not do their homework at all. 2 Many people do not concentrate when viewing — so their time is largely wasted. 3 Many boys and girls watch television on Sunday afternoon, when outside activities would do them so much good. 4 Some children have made watching TV their main leisure activity and they are not enriching their personalities by developing hobbies and belonging to clubs. 5 Television may lead to poor health, through rushed meals, lack of sleep, lack of exercise and eyestrain. 6 People begin to forget the art of conversation. They sit glued to the television screen instead of visiting their friends and relations. 7 Many children no longer read books. This will seriously affect their performance in higher forms, for reading is the key to all higher study, and needs constant practice. 45 a) Read these opinions about television and say which of them you agree or disagree with. Give your reasons. When television is good, nothing... is better. But when television is bad, nothing is worse. Newton Minow Some television programs are so much chewing gum for the eyes. John Mason Brown I I hate television. I hate it as much as peanuts. | But I can't stop eating peanuts. Orson Welles] b) Express your own opinion about television. 46 We are all subject to influences from the mass media. Do you agree ? In what way do you think this is true? 47 Work in groups. Decide how to appreciate the power and dangers of the mass media. 1 to rush — выполнять слишком поспешно
48 Work in pairs. Suppose you were impressed by yesterday's radio or television news broadcast. You try to persuade your classmates to see a programme which you think is worth seeing. Your neighbour tells you he thinks it is a waste of time watching TV. Your classmates ask you a lot of questions to find out what kind of programme it was and what interesting news it offered. You agree on the whole but you think that there are several good points about television. Act out conversations. 49 Work in groups. a) Exchange opinions about the latest musical or educational TV programme. Make sure you can give reasons for your opinions. b) Discuss a new kind of TV (radio) programme which you think is interesting for teenagers. Try to interest your friends and to persuade them that your idea is very attractive and should be accepted. Words to remember Dangers of Television channel concentrate v documentary frequent relax v relaxed relaxing schedule sociable strain variety show щщжга actual effective extraordinary fascinate v fascinating feel like doing marvellous means (by means of) ordinary poster Shaping Opinions affect v amount broad mass media principal raise v recent reflect v reflection vital
ItH^liilnM^HIMJ UNREAL OR PROBLEMATIC ACTIONS AFTER THE VERBS: To Suggest To Order To Demand To Insist To Recommend 50 Read and translate. Observe the form of the verb in bold. 1 He suggested that we should discuss the problem again. "^и" 2 The principal ordered that everything should be ready by Monday. 3 The scientists demanded that the experiment should go on. 4 We insisted that the meeting should be postponed. In object clauses after verbs expressing orders, commands, suggestions, should*Infinitive (without "to") is used. 51 Translate the following sentences: 1 The captain ordered that the anchor should be raised when he heard that the boy had been lost. 2 The trainer demanded that all the members of the team should never miss any training. 3 She insisted that Jim should leave immediately. 4 The opposition have demanded that all the facts should be made public. 5 Library rules demand that books should be returned in due time. 6 The doctor recommended that she should stop smoking immediately. 52 Paraphrase using should*Infinitive. 1 "You must work more in the laboratory," the teacher said. 2 The present law must continue to operate. The Congress insisted on that. 3 "Do not tire yourself," the doctor recommended. 4 "Let us hold a meeting as soon as possible," suggested the students. 5 "Let us change the route," suggested one of the hikers.
UNREAL OR PROBLEMATIC ACTIONS AFTER: It Is Necessary... It Is Important... It Is Possible ... It Is Natural... 53 Read and translate. Observe the forms of the verb in bold. 1 It is necessary that they should report to us on the progress of their work. 2 It is important that all countries should cooperate in dealing with global problems. 3 It is natural that people should love freedom. In object clauses after It is necessary..., It is important..., etc. should-^Infinitive is used. ~ Note the form of the verb which is sometimes used in newspapers and official documents after the verbs expressing orders, commands and suggestions and after It is necessary ..., It is important..., It is impossible ..., It is natural..., etc. They suggest(ed) that the issue be discussed in a week. It is (was) necessary that they report to us on the progress of their work. 54 a) Translate the following sentences: 1 It is important that this method should be tested in practice. 2 It is necessary that the committee should consult public opinion before working out their new programme. 3 It is necessary that every child should have the same educational opportunities. 4 It is necessary that the conflict should be solved peacefully. 5 It is natural that parents should be anxious about their children's future. 6 It is important that mass media should immediately reflect current events and comment on them. b) Make up your own sentences following the same pattern.
TELEVISION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IN THE USA 55 Read the texts about television in Great Britain and in the USA. Find out what television stations are the most popular in these countries, how they are financed and how they are trying to attract TV viewers. TV in Great Britain The ВВС World Service Magazine ~ with full Radio and TV guide Whichever way you look at it, TV has become a part of daily life, providing information and entertainment at the touch of a button. Statistics of recent years have revealed that around 38 million of the British people watch television for an average of two to three hours every day (some people watch television for as many as five) and that the television news alone is watched by 20 million people daily. There are four channels to choose from: BBC1 and BBC2 (the British Broadcasting Corporation), ITV (Independent Television) and Channel Four, which specializes in minority interest programmes, but is very successful. BBC television derives its income from the annual licence fee for television, while ITV and Channel Four are financed solely through advertising. Coronation Street, ITVs Cultural Note: Coronation Street — one of the most popular and longest running British television programme ever, first broadcast in 1960. It is a soap opera set in Lancashire in the N of England and tells events in the lives of the working class people who live in a street named Coronation Street. most watched show, attracts advertising worth ten times the cost of making the programme. If asked about TV as an information source most people in Britain single out news and current affairs programmes, but this is just part of the overall factual output. TV is used regularly to give information on everything from weather conditions to wildlife. There are programmes on the arts, history, archaeology, technical inventions, and all the hobby-type subjects like gardening, steam engines and sailing barges. Much school broadcasting and many children's programmes also have a high factual content. Television is a very important sector in the continuous contest for the public's favour between the political parties. Each channel provides time for each of the main political parties for party-political broadcasts, and during an election campaign much time is provided for the parties' election broadcasts, always on an equal basis. The strength of British television lies in its high quality, its willingness to experiment and its ability to please most tastes and preferences. Some quiz-shows and 'soap- operas ', or long-running sagas, attract large numbers of viewers. Television viewing in recent years has been influenced by the rapid ownership of video recorders. Further changes are likely with the public growth of cable television stations and international broadcasting by satellites. Small computers have also been very readily accepted for entertainment and educational purposes.
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD TV in the USA The problem of describing American television is simply this: there is so much of it, so many different types, and so much variety. For the most part, the American broadcasting system has always been a commercial system. It is supported by money from businesses that pay to advertise goods or services to the audience. Most commercial TV stations are affiliated with one of the three major networks, ABC (American Broadcasting Company), CBS (Columbia Broadcasting Service), and NBC (National Broadcasting Company). These networks are not television stations or channels or programs: they are not licensed to broadcast. Rather, they sell programs and news to individual television stations which choose those they want to broadcast. These affiliated stations, of course, also create some of their own state and local news programs, purchase films from other sources, and so on. Because networks are commercial systems dependent on advertising, they compete with each other for viewers and are intent on choosing programs that will win high audience ratings. Programs that aim at mass entertainment are preferred over educational and news programs. The largest television network is not CBS, NBC, or ABC. Nor is it one of the cable networks such as CNN( Cable News Network), which carries only news and news stories. The largest network is PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) with its over 280 nonprofit, non commercial stations which are educational in nature and allowing no commercials and advertising. These TV stations are supported by individual donations, grants from foundations and private organizations, and funds from city, state, and federal sources. There are similar types of stations, but no one station is exactly the same as another. Their level of quality, whether in national and international news, entertainment or education, is excellent. TV viewers in many parts of the world are familiar with Sesame ['sesami] Street, Holocaust, Roots, Dallas, or Dynasty, which enjoy a great popularity everywhere. All of the networks have nationwide news programs. All have regularly scheduled news series. Among the most popular are CBS's Sixty Minutes and PBS's The MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour. The world's most durable TV show is NBC's Meet the Press. In this show, important political figures and leaders are interviewed by journalists. As the aim of television is to attract as many viewers as possible, there is no escape from the dictates of popular tastes. The result is rather monotonous, with many variety shows. But it is not only the triviality that brings complaints. There is no formal censorship, and the portrayal of crime and violence for entertainment and thrills goes on without restriction. Danger and excitement attract big audiences, and night after night gangsters go through their routines of fighting, shooting, menacing, deceiving and robbing. The wrong-doers may be caught in the end, but they are shown as having qualities worthy of imitation, and their crimes bring them luxurious homes, swimming- pools, cars and boats. As the effects of television violence on children and adults can be very strong, and a link between the amount of violence on television and the amount of violence in society is possible, many people's protest has led to the introduction of "family viewing time" from seven to nine o'clock in the evening. During these hours, programs containing violence and sexual suggestiveness are kept to a minimum. 56 I Children are the nation's future. How they view their country, its problems and prospects is vitally important to the nation's well-being. How do you think the mass media help teenagers develop a broader understanding of the world around them ? 57 Say how all the mass media (newspapers, radio, television and the graphic arts, etc.) show their concern with the problems of young people nowadays. What important problems do they raise ? 58 The mass media are a reflection of society. Say in what way this is true.
59 Look through this TV Guide, Find out what BBC Prime and the BBC World Channel focus on and in what countries their programmes are shown. What is the difference in programme content between these BBC channels? Which channel would you prefer to watch and why? TV Guide WORLD The international news and information channel is now available in Europe. It features news every hour, a range of current affairs series, documentaries |k and, in the Time Out slot, topical factual I magazines. All listings for BBC World are A given in GMT. for EUROPE Times: 24 hours. (Central European Time = GMT + 1 hour) for CANADA PRIME The new 24-hour entertainment channel for Europe fetuses on drama, comedy, light entertainment/ natural history and children's programmes,, as vyeilas newsand business news from London. AH listings for BBC Prime are given in Centra! European Time (CET). for EUROPE Times: 24 hours. Bleak House A multi-award-winning eight-part adaptation of Charles Dickens' novel which centres around the circumlocutions and frustrations of the British law courts. EastEnders Set in Walford, an imaginary borough of London, the regular series EastEnders centres around the lives of a close-knit, multi-racial community. Young Charlie Chaplin The last of a six-part series in which Joe Geary plays the great silent screen star during his early years, while Twiggy takes the role of his alcoholic mother. Direct to home daily on CBC Newsworld. for ASIA/MIDDLE EAST Times: 24 hours. (Middle East * GMT+3 hours) for AFRICA ; Times: Sat 0700-0800; Sun 1700-1900; Mon-Fri 0300-1100, 1400-1600, 2000-2100 Central African Time (CAT - GMT + 2 hours) for JAPAN Panorama Investigative series presenting documentary-style film reports covering the most important current affairs issues and stories from around the world. Question Time David Dimbleby chairs the debate in which members of the public put a panel of public figures, ranging from politicians to top business people, 'on the spot'. Naked Hollywood The concluding part of the documentary series which analyses the mystery and magic of the world's showbusiness capital, Hollywood. I Times: 24 hours, including four hours a day with Japanese audio between ; 2000-2400 Japanese Standard Time. (JST = GMT + 9 hours) World News The complete international news, a I business update, analysis and i comment, interviews, features, I regional news and the world's weather Britain In View | Documentary series which studies I British life, region by region. Topics covered include health, law and order, education and the family. The World Today A two-hour programme which looks at developments in the news around the world. It has a wide agenda ranging from international politics to foreign affairs; from business and finance to developments in science, technology and medicine and from international newspaper reviews to sports and arts reporting. Presented by Donald McCormack and Nici Marx. The Clothes Show Jeff Banks, Caryn Franklin and Brenda Emmanus look at spring and summer fashions and preview the autumn and winter couture collections in Paris, Milan, London and New York.They also present a guide to careers in the clothing industry. Cracking The Code David Suzuki, Professor of Zoology at the University of British Columbia, presents this series which explains how nature can be changed for good and ill and what this means for mankind. | March 1995 I ШЩВ WORLDWIDE
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 60 a) Look through this television schedule for Late Movies. Say whether you think it can attract different kinds of viewers. THE NEW YORK TIMES TELEVISION FRIDAY, JULY21, 1995 88957 Edition 83686 56044 *53 Paid £2L rotee '95 43976 Alio, 'Alio ЛШ (See Late Movjgtj 78624 1986). Judge RelnhoW. IS— UfMovf) (11:05) nas Howel. Tie Carrere. hotel. 813247 FIMfSMUt» >) 891131 gee In Mender* Sunny SKI—372315 von Sydow. Maine re. 6 mint.) 5301334 •rder Man who strangles blames therapist 469315 хйса |Ш1 (fee Late Movteej NEWS 848334 (1984). John HurtTer- з. (See Late Movies) nel |O.J. Simpson light MoneyWr» Kids In Hall Literary Vision Pirates 741421 Howard Stern tsf(CC)821131 421 1911 Designing Women 914315 d (11:15) 7298957 MTV Sports [Mary T. Moore me iTelee/Derkelde The House of Blues 904044 It World 302082 *. Fairly iuepeneeful idlo Moxy Plrste ЛШ(8е*Ше L Л '1' К MOVIES 11 P.M. (BRV) * THE -HIT (1984). Terence Stamp, John Hurt. Twisty, colorful crime drama. (R) (2 hrs.) 887518 11:06 P.M. (DIS) OFF BEAT (1986). Judge Reinhold, Meg Tilly. Low-keyed but ineffectual comedy about library clerk covering for cop friend. (PG) (1 hr. 55 mins.) 77237082 11:30 P.M. (55) HIGHLANDER 2: THE QUICKENING (1991). Christopher Lambert, Virginia Madsen. Immortal Scottish swordsmen from another planet return, with environmental terrorist. (R) (2 hrs.) 78624 11:30 P.M. (AMC) SUN VALLEY SERENADE I (1941). Sonja Henie, John Payne, Milton Berle, Glenn Miller. Formula ice-slicer. Some nice songs. (1 hr. 30 mins.) 520709 11:30 P.M. (MAX) SECRET QAMES 2: THE ESCORT (1993). Martin Hewitt, Marie Leroux. An artist unwisely tries an escort agency while wife's away. (1 hr. 30 mins.) 891131 11:30 P.U (USA) ILLICIT BEHAVIOR (1992) Jack Scaiia, Joan Severance. Wife plots revenge on abusive spouse. (2 hrs.) 356402 MIDNIGHT (CUNY) LAS CARTAS DE ALOU (1990). Mulie Jarju, Eulalia Ramon. Immigrants look to start new lives in Spain. (2 hrs. 10 mins.) 60784280 12:05 A.M. (7) A NIGHTMARE ON ELM STREET (1984). John Saxon, Ronee Blakley. Killer of L.A. children. Gore galore. (R) (1 hr. 55 mins.) 21725087 12:15 A.M. (TNT) AROUND THE WORLD.* UNDER THE SEA (1966). Lloyd Bridges. Shirley Eaton. Standard package for TV names. (G) (2 hrs. 30 mins.) 39864396 12:30 A.M. (8HO) STONE COLD (1991). Brian Bosworth, Lance Henriksen. Unorthodox cop joins biker gang for the F.B.I. (R) (1 hr. 40 mins.) 9271209 12:35 A.M. (TBS) • BUSTIN' LOOSE (1981). Richard Pryor, Cicely Tyson. Ex-convict, teacher and handicapped students. Most appealing. (R) (2 hrs.) 9257629 1 A.M. (AMC) CAPTAIN LrGHTFOOT (See 8 P.M.) 190803 1 A.M. (DIS) LEONARD PART • (1987). Bill Cosby, Tom Courtenay Bill's banana peel. (PG) (1 hr. 30 mins ) 687700 1 a.m. (HBO) SLIVER (1993). Sharon Stone, William Baldwin, Tom Berenger. High-rise lowdown, and smutty, phony baloney. (R) (1 hr. 50 mins.) 5472445 1:30 A.M. (MAX) MOLLY A GINA (1994). Frances Fisher. Peter Fonda, Natasha Greg| son Wagner. Sleuth's secretary probes his murder with another victim's girlfriend. (R) (i hr. 35 mins.) 6854629 1:45 A.M. (21) * GULLIVER'S TRAVELS (1939) Cute, frisky animation, all but obliterated back when by "Snow White." The spies are a riot. (1 hr. 15 mins.) 39019087 2 A.M. (BRV) THE ADVENTURES OF BARON MUNCHAUSEN (See 8 P.M.) 20204551 2:10 A.M. (SHO) CRISIS IN THE KREMLIN (1992). Robert Rusler, Theodore Bikel. C.I.A. rookie and K.G.B. vet thwart plot to kill Gorbachev. (R) (1 hr. 30 mins.) 6683777 2:30 AM. (DIS) THE THREE MUSKETEERS (See 7:30 P.M.) 2814880 2:45 A.M. (TNT) THE MONSTER THAT CHALLENGED THE WORLD (1957). Tim Holt, Audrey Dalton. Anyway, loose. (G) (1 hr. 4S1 mins.) 87059938 2:50 A.M. (HBO) CHAINED HEAT II (1993). Brigitte Nielsen, Paul Koslo. American tourist lands in strange Slavic prison. (R) (1 hr. 45 mins.) 92335984 3 А.М. (11) THE ADVENTURES OF BUCKA ROO BANZAI ACROSS THE 6TH DIMENSION (1984). Peter Weller, John Lithgow. inteM galactic doings. (PG) (2 hrs.) 797358 3 A.M. (55) ECHOES OF PARADISE (See 2 P.M.) 793532 3 A.M. (AMC) * SULLIVAN'S TRAVELS (See 10 P.M) 687754 3:05 A.M. (MAX) SCORNED (1994). Andrew Stevens, Shannon Tweed. Revenge drives wife of man passed over for promotion. (R) (1hr. 40 mins.) 88125396 3:35 AM. (2) SOMETHING EVIL (1972). Sandy Dennis, Ralph Bellamy. Country witchcraft. Some good chills but no culmina- tive punch, (1 hr. 35 mins.) 89128483 3:40 A.M. (SHO) CARN08AUR (1993). Diane Ladd, Raphael Sbarge. Mad doctor crosses chicken eggs with Tyrannosaurus rex's. (R) (1 hr. 25 mins.) 43474782 4:30 A.M. (AMC) TELL ME THAT YOU LOVE ME, junie MOON (1970). Liza Minnelli. Ken Howard, Robert Moore, James Coco. Handicapped people braving the world. Theatrics take over. (PG) (2 hrs.) 137700 4:30 A.M. (TNT) GODZILLA (1956). Raymond Burr, Takashi Shimura. Makes Kong look like a runt, but not his picture. (1 hr. 45 mins.) 1489700 Programs of special note are indicated by these symbols: • CRITIC'S RECOMMENDATION (r) REBROADCA8T tr 6ERIE8 PREVIOUSLY RECOMMENDED (CC) CL08ED-CAPTIONED FOR THE • NEW OR NOTEWORTHY PROGRAM HEARING IMPAIRED Numbers that follow most listings and highlights araj)rogramming codes for VCR Plus+, a controller for recording programs automatically. Details are in the Television section on Sunday. For purchase information: 1-800-4321-VCR. b) Make a list of: films recommended by a film critic; films which have already been shown. c) In which films are these actresses the stars: Liza Minelli, Sharon Stone, Sonja Henie. d) Name any of the scheduled films which you have seen. Did you enjoy it/them ? Why? or Why not? 61 Plan your television schedule for Saturday or Sunday afternoon and give reasons for your choice of programmes and for the time at which you have decided to watch them.
Ray Bradbury ['brasdbari] (born in Illinois [.ili'noi], the USA, in 1920) is a famous American science fiction novelist, dramatist, poet, and writer of fiction for children, whose brilliant books and stories have brought new excitement to the field of imaginative writing. His stories display the remarkable variety and strength that have always characterised his work. He conducts a reader on a tour through time and space — into the future. Among Ray Bradbury's most celebrated1 works of science fiction and fantasy are The Maritime Chronicles (1950), The Machinery of Joy (1963), Tomorrow Midnight (1966), Long After Midnight (1976). Bradbury's most famous novel Fahrenheit 451 shows a future totalitarian state in which supertelevision presents all that people are to think or know, and the ownership of books is cause for the state to burn volumes and owners alike. Bradbury's story The Pedestrian was published in 1951 RAY BRADBURY 62 Read the words and word combinations and guess their meaning. Translate them paying attention to the suffixes and prefixes. -ic: metal — metallic, a metallic voice, a metallic whisper; scene — scenic, a scenic view; -less: wind — windless, a windless country; expression — expressionless, expressionless faces; -al: occasion — occasional, occasionally picked up a leaf; season — seasonal, a seasonal sport, seasonal activity; in-: frequent — infrequent, infrequent lamplights; capable — incapable, an incapable student 63 Translate these word combinations. Pay attention to the use of the past participle: the hidden sea; moonlit avenues; ill-lit by television light; brightly lit electric lights. 64 Read these sentences and translate them: 1 He would stand upon the corner of a street and look down long moonlit avenues in four directions deciding which way to go. 2 Sometimes he would walk for hours and miles and return only at midnight. He would pause, raise his head, listen, look, and march on. 65 Read the story The Pedestrian and say what seemed strange in the behaviour of the pedestrian from the point of view of the police. The Pedestrian To enter out into that silence that was the city at eight o'clock of a misty2 evening in November, to put your feet upon that concrete walk3 and make your way, hands in pockets, through the silence, that was what Mr. Leonard Mead most dearly loved to do. He would stand upon the corner of a crossing and look down long moonlit avenues of sidewalk4 in four directions, deciding which way to go, but it really made no difference; he was alone in his world of 2131. Sometimes he would walk for hours and miles and return only at midnight to his house. And on his way he would see the cottages and homes with their dark windows, and only the faintest glimmers5 of firefly light 1 celebrated ['selibreitid] —знаменитый, прославленный 2 misty ['misti] — туманный 3 concrete ['kDnkriit] walk — бетонная дорожка, тротуар 4 sidewalk ['saidwo:k] — тротуар 5 the faintest glimmers — самое слабое мерцание appeared in television screens behind the windows. Mr. Leonard Mead would pause, raise his head, listen, look, and march on, his feet making no noise on the walk. For a long while now the sidewalks had been vanishing6 under flowers and grass. In ten years of walking by night or day, for thousands of miles, he had never met another person walking, not one in all that time. He now wore soft shoes strolling7 at night because if he wore hard heels8, lights might click on and faces appear, and an entire street be startled by the passing of a lone figure, himself, in the early November evening. On this particular evening he began his journey in a westerly direction, towards the hidden sea. There was a good crystal frost in the air. You could feel the cold light going on 6 to vanish [VasniJ] — исчезать 7 to stroll [stroul] — прогуливаться 8 heel [hi:l] — каблук
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD and off, all the branches filled with invisible1 snow. He listened to the faint push of his soft shoes through autumn leaves with satisfaction, and whistled a cold quiet whistle between his teeth, occasionally picking up a leaf as he passed, examining it in the infrequent lamplights as he went on, smelling its rusty2 smell. "Hello, in there," he whispered to every house on every side as he moved. "What's on tonight on Channel 4, Channel 7, Channel 9? Where are the cowboys rushing? Is it time for a quiz? A review? A comedian [ka'mndian] falling off the stage?" The street was silent and long and empty, with only his shadow moving like the shadow of a flying bird. If he closed his eyes and stood very still, frozen, he imagined himself upon the centre of a plain, a cold windless Arizona [,аеп'гоипэ] country with no house in a thousand miles, and only dry riverbeds, the streets, for company. He turned back on a side street circling around toward his home. He was not far from it when the lone car turned a corner quite suddenly and flashed a fierce white cone of light upon him. He stood stunned3 by the illumination. A metallic voice called to him: "Stand still. Stay were you are! Don't move!" He stopped. "Put up your hands." "But -" he said. "Your hands up!" The police, of course, but what a rare, incredible4 thing; in a city of three million, there was only one police car left. Ever since a year ago, 2130, the election year5, the force had been cut down from three cars to one. Crime was ebbing6; there was no need now for the police; this one lone car was wandering7 and wandering the empty streets. "Your name?" said the police car in a metallic whisper. He couldn't see the men in it because of the bright light in his eyes. "Leonard Mead," he said. "Speak up!" 1 invisible [m'vizabl] — невидимый 2 rusty ['rAsti] — ржавый 3 to stun [sUn] — ошеломлять 4 incredible [in'kredsbl] — невероятный 5 election year — год выборов 6 to ebb — ослабевать 7 to wander ['wonds] — блуждать "Leonard Mead!" "Business or profession?" "I guess you'd call me a writer." "No profession," said the police car, as if talking to itself. "You might say that," said Mr. Mead. He hadn't written in years. Magazines and books didn't sell8 any more. Everything went on in the tomblike9 houses at night now, he thought, continuing his fancy10 The tombs, ill-lit by television light, where the people sat like dead, the multi-coloured lights touching their expressionless faces but never really touching them. "No profession," said the metallic voice. "What are you doing out?" "Walking," said Leonard Mead. "Walking!" "Just walking," he said, but his face felt cold. "Walking, just walking, walking?" "Yes, sir." "Walking where? For what?" "Walking for air. Walking to see." "Your address!" "Eleven South, St. James Street." "And there is air in your house, you have an air-conditioner, Mr. Mead?" "Yes." "And you have a viewing screen in your house to see with?" "No." "No?" There was a quiet that in itself was an accusation." "Are you married, Mr. Mead?" "No." "Not married," said the police car. The moon was high and clear among the stars and the houses were grey and silent. "Nobody wanted me," said Leonard Mead with a smile. "Don't speak unless you're told to!" Leonard Mead waited in the cold night. "Just walking, Mr. Mead?" "Yes." "But you haven't explained for what purpose." "I explained: for air and to see, and just to walk." "Have you done this often?" Every night for years." 8 books didn't sell — книги не распродавались ' tomblike ['tu:mlaik] — похожие на могилы 10 fancy [Taensi] —воображение, мысль " accusation [: eekju'zeijn] — обвинение
"Well, Mr. Mead," said the voice. There was a pause. Then the back door of the police car sprang wide. "Get in." "Wait a minute, I haven't done anything! I protest!" "Mr. Mead. Get in." "Where are you taking me?" The car hesitated1, then said, "To the Psychiatric Centre for Research on Regressive Tendencies2." Leonard Mead got in. The door shut with a soft dull sound. The police car rolled through the night avenues. They passed one 66 Read and translate the sentences. 1 On his way he would see the cottages and homes with their dark windows, and only the faintest glimmers of firefly light appeared in television screens behind the windows. 2 For a long while now the sidewalks had been vanishing under flowers and grass. 3 He now wore soft shoes strolling at night because if he wore hard heels, lights might click on and faces appear, and an entire street be startled by the passing of a lone figure, himself, in the early November evening. 4 All the branches were filled with invisible snow. 5 He listened to the faint push of his soft shoes through autumn leaves with satisfaction, and whistled, occasionally picking up a leaf, examining it in the infrequent lamplights, smelling its rusty smell. 6 Ever since a year ago the force had been cut down from three cars to one. 67 Answer the questions: 1 When and where did this episode take place? What was the world like at that time? 2 Who was Leonard Mead? What were his habits? 3 What thoughts were in his mind when he was strolling along the empty streets? 4 What was the common evening pastime of all the people of that time? 5 Which of Leonard Mead's answers do you think seemed the most surprising, and even shocking to the police? 6 How did the conversation with the police end? 68 Give an explanation of these facts from the story: The streets were silent and empty. The police were a rare, incredible thing; in a city of three million, there was only one police car left. The police did not consider writing to be a profession. The cold silence of the police after each of Leonard Mead's answers was in itself an accusation. Leonard Mead was taken to the Psychiatric Centre for Research on Regressive Tendencies. 1 to hesitate ['heziteit] — колебаться (в принятии решения). 2 the Psychiatric [,saiki'setnk] Centre for Research on Regressive [n'gresiv] Tendencies — Психиатрический Центр по Исследованию Регрессивных Тенденций house on one street a moment later, one in an electric city of houses that were dark, but this one particular house had all its electric lights brightly lit, every window a loud yellow illumination, square and warm in the cold darkness. "That's my house," said Leonard Mead. No one answered him. The car moved down the empty streets and off away, leaving the empty streets with the empty sidewalks, and no sound and no motion3 all the rest of the chill4 November night. 3 motion ['moujh] — движение 4 chill — неприятный холод
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Discussing the Main Character 69 The following sentences describe things that Leonard Mead said or did. How does each item characterise him? ♦ He would walk for hours and miles and return only at midnight to his house. On his way he would see the cottages and homes, listen, look, and march on. ♦ He occasionally picked up a leaf as he passed, examining it in the infrequent lamplights, smelling its rusty smell. ♦ When the police asked Leonard Mead whether he had a viewing screen in his house to see with, his answer was "No". ♦ The police were surprised to hear that Leonard Mead was just walking. "Just walking, Mr. Mead? But you haven't explained for what purpose." "I explained: for air and to see, and just to walk." You may find the following words helpful in describing Leonard Mead: romantic intelligent a keen observer poetic ironical gentle anxious frank be touched by feel the beauty of the world be in the habit of have a vivid imagination 70 Say how the author shows the reader what kind of person the main character is. 71 a) What do you think it was that distinguished Leonard Mead from the people of his generation ? b) Does Leonard Mead seem to be a man who differs greatly from the people of our day ? Say what impression he has made on you. Discussing the Theme of the Story 72 Describing the world of 2131 Ray Bradbury compares the city streets with a cold windless plain. He shows a world of tomblike houses in which people sit before their viewing screens. He mentions their expressionless faces which are never really touched by television programmes they watch every day. 73 Civilisation brings about a lot of new scientific discoveries. It makes people's living conditions much more comfortable. Nevertheless Bradbury is pessimistic in showing man's loneliness. Does the picture which Bradbury depicts in the story make a gloomy impression ? How does he make the readers feel the unattractiveness of the future world? How is this theme reflected in the story? 74 How do you imagine the human relationships which existed in Bradbury's fantastic world? Did the people care for each other? Did they show much affection for each other, any interest in the outside world? Express your opinion. 75 Would you like the future world to be like the one depicted in Bradbury's story ? Give r reasons for what you say. 76 Do you have any image of what the world will be like in some fifty years ? Will it be changed greatly? Give your idea of your native city or town, telling what you want to be changed, and commenting on the changes that you think will take place.
More daily newspapers are sold for every person in Britain than in almost any other country. National newspapers have a total circulation of 14.2 million on weekdays and 16.2 million on Sundays. The daily newspapers in the United States sell over 63 million copies a day. The Sunday papers are usually much larger than the regular editions. Reading the Sunday paper is an American tradition, for some people an alternative to going to church. Make 2 lists of major British and American newspapers and say how they differ. It is often said that there is no "nationalpress" in the US as there is in Great Britain. Why do you think these words are true? American newspapers
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD British newspapers Television Programme Work in groups. 1 Discuss the idea of producing a TV schedule for an educational (or entertainment) channel which would be of interest to students of different ages. Comment on existing educational (or entertainment) programmes, concentrating on the items and features which you feel are missing from existing programmes. Make suggestions on how they might be improved. 2 Decide whether you will work in groups on one of the programmes of the schedule, or different groups might prefer to produce the whole schedule. 3 Plan a day on the Educational (or Entertainment) Channel. What programmes should be included? 4 Compare different schedules. Then decide which schedule you consider the best one. Give reasons for your decision. 5 Introduce the idea of producing a page of a special TV magazine with a TV guide. Get the class to suggest ways in which they could advertise several items of the educational (or entertainment) programme so that the viewers could get interested. Mention: the name of the programme, the topic, • the peculiarities, the main attraction, the host, the time of the programme's broadcast. Think of headings and pictures which can accompany the text. 6 Arrange a contest of the best presentations of TV programmes for the Educational (or Entertainment) Channel.
UNIT 6 FACING CURIOSITY IS ONE OF THE DOORS TO THE WORLD 1 a) Listen to the poem, then read it. Answer the question: • What main idea does the poet express in this poem? John Moffitt b) Is it enough just to look at any thing, if you would know that thing? What must you do to know that thing? c) What must you be and do to have the right to say 'I have seen spring in these Woods'? d) Say how the poet conveys his main idea. Read the following statements and comment on them. If you never thought of asking a question, you are not interested in having the answer. Most people can question the uncertain, only a few can question the obvious. 1 would know — хотите знать, хотели бы знать 2 stem — ствол, стебель 3 ferny plume [plu:m] — оперение
тем; о'мжмшш 3 Give examples to prove how important it is to ask questions; why curiosity is "one of the doors to the world". 4 Read the statements and say whether you agree or disagree with them. 1 Some people spend their life working on a scientific problem because they are paid large sums of money 2 Great explorers went overseas because they were curious people. 3 Well-known writers were once unknown. They wrote books to become popular. 4 One can be a great scientist only in one field of knowledge. 5 It is the highest reward for your effort if you see you have made life for other people easier and more pleasant. 5 I Here are some reasons why we pay tribute to great scientists: because they devoted so- much time- fa their work; because, their Achievements helped fa glorify their country; becxuse it is unfair fa forget them; becxuse they advanced the development of civilization and helped us in our co-operation with nature. Think of other reasons. Say which of these reasons you consider more or less important. 6 Read the following quotation and say how you understand it: To see a World in a Grain of sand, And a Heaven in a Wild flower, Hold Infinity1 in the palm of your hand, And Eternity1 in an hour, William Blake 1 infinity — бесконечность 2 eternity — вечность
Vocabulary Study (1) SCIENCE IS DISCOVERY 7 Read and remember how to use the words: science ['saians]: the natural sciences; the physical sciences; social sciences. The word "science" comes from a Latin word "scire", meaning "to know".What are the physical sciences? Psychology [sai'kotad3i] and politics ['pohtiks] belong to social sciences. the humanities [hju:'maenitiz]: Literature, history and philosophy are called the humanities. to apply [s'plai]: to apply science for practical purposes; to apply one's knowledge (skill, experience, energy); applied mathematics (linguistics, art); to apply for a job; to apply for university. This rule cannot be applied in every case. Man must apply his skill and knowledge, his experience and energy to discovering the secrets of nature. He wants a job in which he can apply his knowledge of foreign languages. It was already too late to apply for the job advertised in the newspaper. research [n'saitf]: research work; a research laboratory; space research; to carry out research work. Modern research is carried out in such subjects as the use of computers. Are these projects based on scientific research? Are you still doing research into linguistics? to engage [т'декгз], to be engaged in: Many scientists are engaged in research to discover the cause of some dangerous diseases. to involve [m'volv], to be involved in: They continue to involve themselves deeply in community affairs. Did you have to involve me in this? More people should be involved in decision making. Do you have any idea of what is involved in making a television programme? The new system involves little new technology. to investigate [in'vestigeit], investigation: to carry on an investigation; to contribute to the investigation of something. Scientists of the world contribute to the investigation of the laws of the Universe. to succeed [sak'snd]: to succeed in something or in doing something. Scientists do not always succeed in their experiments. He succeeded as an architect. The results of research were disappointing — they did not succeed in discovering new facts and getting additional information. to support [sa'poit], support: to support a party (a government, a point of view, an idea); to be supported by facts; to support a family (parents); to have somebody's support; to give support; to turn to somebody for support; in support of something. No one supported his idea. His family refused to support him any longer. I hope to have your support. He didn't give me much support. We turned to him for support. The suggestion found support. He spoke in support of the plan. phenomenon [fi'nomman], phenomena [fi'nomma]: a city phenomenon; a rare phenomenon; natural phenomena. He was a phenomenon, a titanic force in the history of modern art. The Beatles were a phenomenon — nobody had heard anything like them before. technology [tek'nobd3i], technological [,tekn3'bd3ik9l]: to apply technology; modern scientific and technological knowledge; the world's richest and technologically advanced nations. We are living in an era of rapid technological change. Is modern technology capable of sending messages to other planets? What are the achievements of modern science and technology? 8 Read and remember the names of professions: Noun + -ist Noun + -ian science — scientist chemistry — chemist physics — physicist [Tizisist] biology — biologist linguistics — linguist ['hrjgwist] psychology — psychologist mathematics — mathematician [.maeGama'tiJbn] history — historian [his'toinan] politics — politician [.poh'tijbn] music — musician physics — physician [fi'zifon] The suffixes -ist, -ian form noun denoting professions dealing with different branches of learning, science or art. 9 Read these words about science, then say how you would continue this description: Science is discovery. Science is fun. Science is understanding what makes a clock tick and what makes a car purr, what makes the sun rise and what makes the moon look so large on the horizon sometimes during the year. Rita Colwell\
10 Read these definitions of different branches of science and match them with the names of sciences. It is the science of the stars. It deals with celestial bodies such as our earth, its moon, the sun, the other planets. It is the study of the way in which language works. It is the science of mental life which studies human and animal behaviour. astronomy biology linpistics psychology meteorology It is the science of life. It deals with the great diversity of life forms. It deals with the scientific observation and study of the phenomena of weather and climate. 11 Look at these drawings and say what branches of science you can match them with. 12 Say what subjects belong to various branches of science, such as the natural sciences, the physical sciences and social sciences; what subjects are called the humanities. 13 Say what outstanding scientists you know of in what field they work, and what they are famous for. 14 Work in pairs. a) Make a list of examples to show that you are able to apply the knowledge and skills you got at school in different situations. b) Speak about different situations in which it is necessary to apply one's energy. 15 Say how important it is to have life experience, so as to be able to apply it in different cases. 16 a) Work in pairs. Ask your partner the following questions: 1 Do you feel that you are willing to carry out research work and that you are ready for it? 2 Would you like to be engaged in scientific research in the field of different branches of science or in the humanities? 3 What qualities do you think are needed to succeed in scientific research? Do you think you will be able to carry out scientific research? 4 If you choose a scientific career, what would you like to become and why? b) Tell the others what you have found out.
Vocabulary Study (2) FINDING OUT THE TRUTH 17 Read and remember how to use the words: to decide [di'said]: to decide a question; to decide to do something. We cannot decide such a serious question so quickly. We decided the question by experiment. She decided to become an artist. I haven't yet decided where to go for summer. You must decide one way or the other. to conclude [kgn'khnd]: to conclude a speech (a lecture, a letter, a talk); to conclude an agreement (a treaty of peace). He concluded with a quotation from Shakespeare. It is of vital importance to conclude an agreement on international cooperation in the field of scientific research. access ['aekses], accessible [sk'sesabl], accessibility [3k,ses3'biliti]: to be easy (difficult) of access. I demanded access to a telephone. This computer is cheap enough to be accessible to everyone. The only access to the building is at the side. The system can give the user quick and easy access to the required information. Two new roads are being built to make the town centre easy of access. to inspire [m'spaia]: to inspire a person with hope; to inspire somebody to do something; to be inspired by; an inspired poet (artist). The news inspired us with hope. His first success inspired him to further attempts. The artist was inspired by the beauty of the scenery. The poet was inspired by music. to exaggerate [ig'zaed39reit], exaggerated: You are exaggerating the difficulties of your work. If you always exaggerate, people will no longer believe what you say. Some people have an exaggerated sense of their own importance. to contradict [.kontra'dikt]: to contradict a statement (a report, a fact); to contradict a person. The two reports contradicted each other. The results of the experiment contradicted his theory. Don't contradict me. to predict [pn'dikt], predictable [pn'diktabl], unpredictable [.Anpn'diktabl]: to predict an event or action. He predicted a brilliant future for the child. They can't predict what these people are going to do. The storms are predicted to reach the North of the country tomorrow morning. We are not yet able to predict when the next earthquake will happen. Comets appear at predictable times. He was unpredictable — you never really knew what he would be like from one day to the next. spectacular [spek'taekjab]: spectacular discoveries. Many scientists are remembered for their spectacular discoveries and inventions. The most spectacular exhibits of this extraordinary collection can be seen in the museum. The scenery in the Alps is spectacular. The view of the surrounding countryside seen from the top of the mountain was spectacular! 18 a) Read the words and guess their meaning. to decide — decision to conclude — conclusion to contradict — contradiction to inspire — inspiration Verb + -s(tion) = Noun to exaggerate — exaggeration to recognize — recognition to determine — determination to apply — application b) Read and translate: 1 decision: a final decision; a wise decision; to come to decisions; to take (to make) decisions; to influence decisions. It is not always easy to take correct and wise decisions. Are you interested in the decision of that question? We did not agree with the decision. Do you support the final decision taken at the meeting? What influenced your decision? 2 conclusion: the right conclusion; the wrong conclusion; to come to a conclusion; to support conclusions; to say a few words in conclusion. Are these conclusions based on scientific research? "After examining your work, I have come to the conclusion that you are a very intelligent boy," said the teacher. 3 contradiction: to be in contradiction with; full of contradictions; a spirit of contradiction. Your statements today are in contradiction with what you said yesterday. 4 inspiration: to draw one's inspiration from. Poets and artists often draw their inspiration from nature. His mother was a constant inspiration to him. 5 exaggeration [iqlza?d33'reifh]: The stories he tells are always full of exaggerations. 6 recognition [.rekag'nifn]: to win recognition; to deserve recognition; to receive recognition from the public; in recognition of his services. He received no recognition. 7 determination [di.taimi'neifn]: with determination; determination to do something. Your determination to learn English should not be weakened when you meet with difficulties. He carried out his plans with determination.
19 a) Read the passage Science and Scientists and find out what in the author's opinion the object of scientific work is. Use a dictionary when necessary. Science and Scientists The man in the street has a very faint idea of the meaning of the word science. It includes, he feels, such pursuits as astronomy, chemistry and biology. He is not so sure whether engineering or medicine is science, and he is quite sure that politics, history, art, religion, and the like are not. The scientist is more interested in doing scientific work than in defining it. He sometimes says that a piece of work or a book is 'unscientific' and he usually means by the phrase that it is inexact; that it is badly arranged; that it jumps to conclusions without evidence, or that the author has allowed his personal prejudices to influence his report. By scientific work, then, we mean that which is as exact as is possible, orderly in arrangement, and based on sound and sufficient evidence. Moreover, it must have no object except to find out the truth. Perhaps science is more clearly defined by saying that it is firstly a vast collection of facts expressed in exact and unambiguous language in such a manner that any one who cares to take the trouble can test their truth; and secondly a collection of rules or laws which express the connection between these facts. This does not sound very interesting, but it is extremely important. As long as men hunted for knowledge in a random sort of way and believed each other's assertions without testing them, knowledge made negligible progress. Once they began to make sure that their facts were right by doing experiments for themselves, science began to grow. (From "The World of Science") b) Write down: 1 a list of subjects coming under the heading of science, and 2 the characteristics of scientific work; 3 a list of subjects not coming under the heading of science, and 4 the features of work that may be called "unscientific", 5 the two main characteristics of science. c) Exchange your opinions about the ideas on science and scientific work expressed in the article. 20 Read these lines about science and comment on them: Science is organized knowledge. Science is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones; but accumulation of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house. Jules-Henri Poincare Scientific work must have no object except to find out the truth. True science teaches, above all, to doubt and to be ignorant. Miguel de UnamunoX
MAKERS OF THE MODERN WORLD 21 a) Read the words about these distinguished people of the world and say how mankind's recognition and gratitude for their great contribution to world progress is expressed. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) "Mortals! Rejoice at so great an ornament to the human race!" (the inscription on Newton's tomb) Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) .. whose masterpieces glorified man, life, nature. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) .. often called "the first American" because of his outstanding role in the birth of the United States, Franklin was truly a citizen of the world. Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) ... a pride of Russia, the national genius; the inspiring image of selfless service to one's Motherland ... Albert Einstein (1879-1955) "A new Copernicus has been born." 1 mortal ['mo:tl] — смертный
b) Read the words of these famous people and compare these words with what has been said about them. Say how you understand these quotations and how, in your opinion, they characterize "the world's great". I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore... whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. Isaac Newton ...the Russian land could give birth to its own Platos and quick minded Uewtons. Mikhail Lomonosov] Dost thou1 love life? Then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of. A long life may nozt be good enough but a good life is long enough. I would rather have it said, 'He lived useful' than 'He died rich'... Benjamin Franklin I think and think, for months, for years, ninety-nine times the conclusion is false. The hundredth time I am right. Forgive me, Newton... Albert Einstein 1 dost thou = Do you
22 a) Read the text Alfred Nobel — a Man of Contrasts and say why he is remembered by the whole of mankind. Alfred Nobel — a Man of Contrasts Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man of many contrasts. He was a scientist with a love of literature, and industrialist who managed to remain an idealist. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, and although cheerful in company he was often sad in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a wife or family to love him; a patriotic son of his native land, he died alone on foreign soil. He invented a new explosive, dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of mining and road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. During his useful life he often felt he was useless. "Alfred Nobel," he once wrote of himself, "ought to have been put to death by a kind doctor as soon as, with a cry, he entered life." World-famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoided publicity. "I do not see," he once said, "that I have deserved any fame and I have no taste for it." But since his death, his name has brought fame and glory to others. He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father made a strong position for himself in the engineering industry. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred rejoined them in 1863, beginning his own study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or university but had studied privately and by the time he was twenty was a skilful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive. He was quick to see industrial openings for his scientific inventions and built up over 80 companies in 20 different countries. Indeed his greatness lay in his outstanding ability to combine the qualities of an original scientist with those of a forward-looking industrialist. But Nobel's main concern was never with making money or even with making scientific discoveries. Seldom happy, he was always searching for a meaning to life, and from his youth he had taken a serious interest in literature and philosophy. Perhaps because he could not find ordinary human love he never married — he came to care deeply about the whole of mankind. He was always generous to the poor. "I'd rather take care of the stomachs of the living than the glory of the dead in the form of stone memorials," he once said. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus peace between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896. His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals. (From "Reading for Adults" by R. Lewis, McVincent, S. Weir) b) Say: how Alfred Nobel distinguished himself throughout his lifetime; what the Nobel Prizes are given for. 23 Read this quotation and comment on it: Scientific discovery and scientific know/edge have been achieved only by those who have gone in pursuit of it without any practical purpose whatsoever in view. Max Planck
24 Read the list of Nobel prizewinners. What achievements were the Nobel prizes given for? PHYSICS Pierre and Marie Curie (France) — the discoverers of radium 1903 Guglielmo Marconi (Italy) — inventor of wireless 1909 Max Planck (Germany) — discoverer that energy only exists in particular amounts, called quanta 1918 Albert Einstein (USA) — evolver of theory of relativity 1921 Niels Bohr (Denmark) — discoverer of the structure of the atom 1922 Klaus von Kitzing (Germany) — discoverer of an exact method for measuring electric resistance 1985 Richard Taylor (Canada), Jerome Triedman, Henry Kendall (USA) — for their work on quarks, the particles that make up protons, neutrons and electrons 1990 Ernest Rutherford (Britain) — for his work on radioactivity - 1908 Willard Libby (USA) — for developing radiocarbon dating 1960 Elias Corey (USA) — for his work in synthesizing chemical compounds 1990 PHYSIOLOGISTS AND DOCTORS Ivan Pavlov (Russia) — for his work on conditioned reflex 1908 Sir Frederick Banting (Canada) — for the discovery of the drug insulin 1923 Sir Alexander Fleming and Ernst Chain (Britain) and Lord Florey (Australia) — for discovering penicillin 1945 James Watson (USA) and Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins (Britain) — for discovering the molecular structure of DNA 1962 Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus (USA) — for their study of cancer-causing genes 1989 LITERATURE Rudyard Kipling (Britain) 1907 Rabindranath Tagore (India) 1913 W. B. Yeats (Ireland) 1923 George Bernard Shaw (Britain) 1925 Thomas Mann (Germany) 1929 Ivan Bunin (Russia) 1933 Luigi Pirandello (Italy) 1934 T. S. Eliot (Britain) 1948 Bertrand Russell (Britain) 1950 Winston Churchill (Britain) 1953 Ernest Hemingway (USA) 1954 Albert Camus (France) 1957 Boris Pasternak (USSR) 1958 Mikhail Sholokhov (USSR) 1965 Alexander Solzhenitsyn (USSR) 1970 Joseph Brodsky (USSR) 1987 FOR THE CAUSE OF PEACE Theodore Roosevelt (USA) 1906 Woodrow Wilson (USA) 1919 Austen Chamberlain (Britain) 1925 Albert Schweitzer (West Germany) 1952 Lester Pearson (Canada) 1957 Martin Luther King, Jr. (USA) 1964 Willy Brandt (West Germany) 1971 Andrey Sakharov (USSR) 1975 Mother Teresa of Calcutta (India) 1979 Lech Walesa (Poland) 1983 Mikhail Gorbachev (USSR) 1990
25 I WITH NEW SCIENTIST EVERY THING BECOMES CRYSTAL CLEAR. Focus your eyes on the future with a subscription to New Scientist. Every week, New Scientist takes you behind the issues that make the headlines, revealing all the latest developments from the world of science and technology. Look through the table of contents of the magazine "New Scientist". What problems are raised in the magazine articles? Can the magazine be of any interest to you ? Explain why or why not. NewScientist SCIENCE 15 Are we at the centre of the Universe?/Ants grow their own/ Species-hopping virus/Quark stars/ Bat-insect arms race/Towards a leishmaniasis vaccine/Emotions TECHNOLOGY 21 Shell records/Heroin detector/ Artificial blood/Long-distance wind tunnel/Brain tumour treatment/ Web growth/ COVER The rise and rise 28 of food poisoning John Maurice With more than a million people dying from food poisoning each year worldwide, public health officials are beginning to panic When the great bell broke 37 Mick Hamer Mending the clapper that gives the great bell of St Paul's Cathedral in London its distinctive sound has turned out to have interesting implications for nuclear power stations FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT SHATTERED EINSTEIN'S ULTIMATE BARRIER И FOCUS Thank heaven for little pills The French take far more drugs for depression than the British. Are people in France more unstable ? FEATURES 26 FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT: COVER STORY Einstein came up with the ultimate speed limit—nothing moves faster than light. But was he wrong? Julian Brown investigates 34 TV'S LOOSE CONNECTIONS Home shopping and video-on-demand are supposed to be delivering a cable revolution. Joe Flower looks at why we are still waiting
26 Read this article from the magazine "New Scientist". Find out what explanation for how the people of Easter Island moved their gigantic stone statues is given by scientists. Use a dictionary when necessary. Stone giants follow path of robots LEGEND has it that supernatural forces had a hand in raising the great statues of Easter Island onto their stone pedestals, where they have stood guard over the island for hundreds of years. Archaeologists have offered more prosaic explanations without ever settling the question of how the massive statues, or moai, arrived there. Two American scientists—one an archaeologist, Jo Anne Van Tilburg, the other a specialist in robotics, Zvi Shillers, have now come up with what many think is the most plausible explanation for how the people of Easter Island moved the moai from the inland quarry of Rano Raraku to their pedestals (ahu) around the coast. Shiller and his colleagues divided the island into grids and built up a detailed 3D computer model of the terrain. "To determine the optimal path, we calculated the amount of energy required to move the statue along every grid segment, taking into consideration weight, estimated coefficient of friction and the slope of the terrain," he says. From this information, they picked out three routes where the going was easiest. "Route 1" was the shortest of the three. "If the Rapa Nui did not use that path—they should have," he says. Returning to Easter Island with Shiller's projected routes, Van Tilburg found previously undiscovered fragments and some whole statues along Route 1. This suggests that it was almost certainly the route taken by the Easter Islanders centuries before. But how did the people move the gigantic stone figures across the island? The statues would have been moved on rollers, probably stabilised with the help of a V-shaped cradle made of two wooden beams. "The flat backs of the moai suggest that they were transported horizontally," says Van Tilburg. The model suggests that, depending on the size of the statue, it would have taken between 75 and 150 people between four and a half and nine days to haul it to its final destination, where it would have been hoisted and levered into position on its ahu. Although the island no longer has any trees, research by Chris Stevenson of the University of Pennsylvania, has shown that trees grew there in the 15th and 16th centuries when the statues were erected. Christopher Chippindale, editor of Antiquity magazine says: "The striking thing about the moving of huge stones at Rapa Nui and other prehistoric sites is that it was accomplished by using the most simple of techniques—sticks, rope and muscle—technology that we in modern times have totally forgotten. It's an interesting concept that fancy technologies such as robotics may help us to rediscover it." David Windle
27 a) Read these extracts and find out what problems some scientists are working at. DRINKING SMOKE Early explorers to America were surprised to see Indians "drinking smoke." They saw the Indians set fire to rolls of dried leaves and then inhale the smoke. The dried leaves were tobacco. Today, people set fire to cigarettes—a roll of dried tobacco leaves. It is no longer the strange or unusual sight that Christopher Columbus saw. In recent years scientists have discovered that "drinking smoke" is dangerous to one's health. As a result, doctors have made many studies to find out the effect of cigarette smoke on the human body. They have discovered that the most serious effects are hidden. How does the smoke of a cigarette affect a person's body? For one thing it interferes with the basic purpose of breathing. It prevents oxygen from getting into the blood by paralyzing the cells that clean the air in the lungs. The "dirty" air in the lungs then causes mucus to build up in the lungs and this, in turn, causes coughing. Smoking cigarettes also affects the heart because of a drug in cigarettes called nicotine Nicotine travels rapidly to the brain. Within a minute or two after a person "drinks smoke" from a cigarette, nicotine is present in the brain. From the brain, the nicotine travels to other important organs such as the liver and the kidneys. In the liver it causes the release of sugar into the blood. The increase of sugar in the blood makes one feel more energetic by giving the feeling of a "lift." Many experts feel that cigarette smoking is so common and so dangerous that it can be called an epidemic. EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes are probably one of the most frightening and destructive happenings of nature that man experiences. The effects of an earthquake often are most terrible. Earthquakes have caused the death of many human beings, much suffering, and great damage to property. Today, the study of earthquakes has grown greatly as scientists all over the world investigate the causes of earthquakes. Scientists hope that their studies will improve ways of predicting earthquakes and also develop ways to reduce their destructive effects. Currently, scientists are making studies to enable them to predict earthquakes. At the present time, the ability to predict the time, place, and size of earthquakes is very limited. However, a large group of scientists at the National Center for Earthquake Research in Menlo Park, California, has made considerable progress in predicting areas in which earthquakes might occur. Research at the Center about the physical and chemical nature of rocks and their behaviour under the force of an earthquake will help engineers in designing and building structures for areas that often suffer from earthquakes.
28 a) Read these lines about science and express your personal opinion. Science brings disasters. Science has a potential for both Good and Evil. Science is a little bit like literature, like the mass media - all those things have a very great creative potential to expand the human mind. Maurice Wilkins Modern civilization is everything that has been achieved thanks to science. t It is science that does us good, f Words to remember: Finding Out the Ihith access accessible accessibility conclude v contradict v decide v exaggerate v inspire v predict v predictable spectacular unpredictable apply v engage v humanities (the) investigate v investigation involve v phenomenon research science succeed v support v, n technological technology
FAMOUS BRITISH AND AMERICAN SCIENTISTS Michael Faraday 29 Read the text about Michael Faraday and find out in what branches of science he made a name for himself. Use a dictionary when necessary. Cultural Note: The Royal Institution — a British institution which encourages science. The Royal Society — Britain's oldest scientific society, whose members (fellows) are elected because of the high standard of their work in their particular fields. Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) British chemist, in 1802 became professor at the Royal Institution, London. Cultural Note: Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) — natural philosopher and mathematician who laid the foundation of physics as a modern discipline. In 1672 Newton was elected Fellow of the Royal Society. Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) — naturalist and explorer, introduced new plants into various parts of the world, and was President of the Royal Society. Michael Faraday — English Physicist and Chemist (1791-1867) The great British scientist Michael Faraday was born at Newington, now in south London. He was one of the ten children of a blacksmith. It is a rare labouring family with ten children that is affluent1, so there was no question of an education for young Faraday and he was apprenticed to a bookbinder2. This, as it happened, was a stroke of luck3, for he was exposed to books. Officially he was concerned only with the outside, but he could not help opening the pages as well. Faraday's second stroke of luck was that his employer was sympathetic to the young man's desire for learning and allowed him to read the books and to attend scientific lectures. In 1812 a customer gave Faraday tickets to attend the lectures of Sir Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution. Young Faraday took careful notes which he further elaborated4 with coloured diagrams ['daiagraemz] and these he sent to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society, in the hope of getting a job that would bring him into closer contact with science. Getting no answer he sent others to Davy himself, along with an application for a job as his assistant. Davy was enormously impressed, as much by the flattery implicit5 in the gesture as by the clear ability of the youngster. He did not oblige Faraday at once but when an opening as his assistant occurred, he offered the young man the job. Faraday took it in 1813, at the age of twenty-two — at a salary6 that was smaller than the one he had been earning as a book-binder. Almost, at once Davy left for his grand tour of Europe and took Faraday with him as secretary and valet7. Faraday became director of the laboratory in 1825, and in 1833 the one-time bookbinder's apprentice became professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution. Faraday's work in chemistry was quite important. In 1825 he discovered benzene [ben'znn]. This discovery was his greatest single contribution to organic chemistry. He made a special study of the gas chlorine; succeeded in changing several gases into liquids; invented new kinds of glass for optical instruments such as microscopes; and made the first stainless steel in Europe. Nevertheless it was his work on electricity and magnetism that made him famous. The Danish scientist Hans С Oersted 1 affluent ['aefluant] — роскошный, богатый 2 bookbinder ['buk.bamds] — переплетчик 3 stroke of luck — удача 4 to elaborate [I'kebareit] — тщательно разрабатывать implicit [im'phsit] — подразумеваемый, не выраженный прямо, имплицитный 6 salary [sae'bn] — жалованье 7 valet ['vaelit] — слуга, камердинер
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD had in 1820 shown that an electric current would produce a magnetic field, and Faraday thought about this and devised experiments to find out more. Then he had the idea that a magnetic field might produce an electric current, and in 1831 he proved that it could by moving a magnet near a wire. It was a discovery of the greatest importance because it opened the way for the producing of electric current on a much larger scale. Faraday carried on Davy's great work in electrochemistry. Davy had liberated a number of new metals by passing an electric current through molten ['moultan] compounds of those metals. Faraday named this process electrolysis [i.lek'troubsis]. He named a compound or solution that could carry an electric current an electrolyte [I'lektroulait]. All these names still exist unchanged and are used constantly in science. In 1832 Faraday further reduced the matter of electrolysis to quantitative1 terms by announcing what are now called Faraday's laws of electrolysis. Faraday's laws put electrochemistry on its modern basis. In his honour the quantity of electricity required to liberate 23 grams of sodium2, or 108 grams of silver or 32 grams of copper (that is, to liberate an "equivalent weight"of an element) is called a faraday. Also, the unit of electrostatic capacitance3 is the farad, in his honour. Faraday, at the time, was giving enormously popular lectures in science for the general public. His theory of the lines of force (which he published in 1844) was not taken too seriously at first. However, when Maxwell came to tackle4 the matter of electromagnetism [i.lektrou'maegnatizam] with precise mathematical tools, he was to end with the same picture, mathematically phrased, that Faraday had drawn in simple words. In later years Faraday made more discoveries in connection with electromagnetism and its interaction5 with light. Faraday received many honours for his work, but he remained a simple and modest man; he never bothered his head about the money that he might have made from his inventions and several times refused offers of employment from manufacturers. When he was eventually offered the presidency of the Society, however, he declined and he also declined an offer of knighthood6. He was intent on being plain7 Michael Faraday. Faraday was very fond of children though he had none of his own and he would sometimes take his nephews and nieces into the laboratory and show them exciting experiments. It was he who started the lectures for young people which are still held in the Christmas season at the Royal Institution. He requested during life that he be buried under "gravestone of the most ordinary kind" and this was done. 30 Answer the questions: 1 Did Michael Faraday owe his success to his talent, industry or ambition? 2 What traits of character did he begin to reveal in his youth? How did they enable him to become a scientist? 3 What important discoveries did Michael Faraday make? 4 What was his contribution to physics and chemistry? 5 Would you say that he lived a spectacular life? Why or why not? 1 quantitative ['kwontitstiv] — количественный 2 sodium ['soudism] — натрий 1 capacitance [ks'paesitsns] — емкость 4 to tackle f'taekl] — взяться за дело, за решение задачи interaction [ints'raskjgn] — взаимодействие 6 knighthood ['naithud] — рыцарское достоинство, дворянство plain — простой
Thomas Alva Edison 31 Read the text The Lights Still Burn and give your idea of the author's choice of the title. The Lights Still Burn (From "My Most Unforgettable Character" by Charles Edison) (1847-1931) Thomas Alva Edison never looked like a man whose inventions had changed the world. And he never acted like one either. Once, a visitor asked whether he had received many honours and medals, he repUed, "Oh, yes, Mom has baskets of them up at the house." "Mom" was his wife, my mother. He moved about his laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey, with a funny walk that was more of a shuffle1. His hair fell down over one side of his forehead. There were always chemical burns on his unpressed clothing. No, he didn't look like man who had changed our world. Yet every day, those of us who were close to him realized what a great man he was. His contributions to better living were 1093 inventions, but it is not for these that I remember him. It is for his courage, his imagination and determination, his humility2, his wit. Because he spent such long hours in the laboratory, he was at home very Uttle. But he did find time to go fishing and take short trips with the family. And when the children were young, he often played games with us. One thing I remember well was Independence Day at our home in New Jersey. This was Father's favourite holiday. He might start the day exploding a huge firecracker3 at dawn, awakening us and the neighbours, too. Then he would shoot off fireworks of different kinds all day long. "Mom's not going to like it," he would say, but let's put 20 together and see what happens." Always Father led us to experiment and explore for ourselves. He provided all sorts of material and got us to work with them laughing, joking, questioning. He had me washing bottles in his laboratory when I was six. When I was ten, he helped me start building a full-sized car. It never did get any seats, but it did have a fine engine4 by the time I finished with it. It worked, too. At home or at the laboratory, Father seemed to know how to get other people to do things. He could and did give orders, but he liked better to inspire people by his own example. This was one of the secrets of his success. He was not, as many people believe, a scientist working alone in his laboratory. After he sold his first successful inventions — for $40,000 - he began hiring chemists, mathematicians, engineers — any-one who knew things that he thought would help him solve a difficult problem. Often Father had money troubles and couldn't pay his men. But, as one of them said later, "It didn't matter. We wouldn't stay away." Father himself usually worked 18 or more hours a day. "Achievement provides the only real pleasure in life," he told us. He slept only four hours each night, with a few additional short naps5. "If you sleep too much," he said, "you get dopey6. You lose time and opportunities, too." His many successful inventions are well- known. Among them were the phonograph7, which he invented when he was 30; the incandescent bulb8, which lighted the world; and moving pictures. These are only three of hundreds. He also made the inventions of other people into practical things that could be bought and sold. Without his work, the telegraph and telephone, for example, might have remained unknown. It is sometimes asked, "Didn't he ever fail?" The answer is yes. He failed quite often. But he never hesitated to act because he was afraid of failing. 1 shuffle — шарканье 2 humility [hju:'mibti] — скромность, застенчивость 3 firecracker [Таю.кгэекэ]— фейерверк 4 engine ['end3in] — двигатель 5 nap — короткий сон днем 6 dopey ['doupi] — вялый, полусонный 7 phonograph ['founggraif] — фонограф, прообраз граммофона, но запись ведется на валик, и игла колеблется вверх-вниз (в граммофоне игла колеблется поперек дорожки) 8 incandescent [.inkasn'desnt] bulb — лампа накаливания
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD "We haven't failed," he told an unhappy worker during one set of disappointing experiments. "We now know 100 things that won't work. So we are that much closer to finding one that will." His feelings about money were somewhat the same. He never hesitated to spend every cent that he had. He considered money a material, like metal, to be used rather than kept. He put nearly all his money into his experiments. Several times he was almost completely without money, but that didn't stop him. I especially remember a freezing December night in 1914, when Father's experiments on another invention of his were still a great disappointment. Father had spent ten years and a lot of money on it. Only the money from his motion- picture machines and photographs was keeping the laboratory open and his family alive. On that December evening the cry "Fire!" was heard in the laboratory. Within moments everything was burning. Chemicals were exploding like fireworks. Firemen from eight nearby towns arrived, but the heat was so great and the water pressure2 so low that they could do nothing. When I couldn't find Father, I became worried. Was he safe? Would losing his laboratory make him losing his courage and determination? He was 67, too old to begin again, I thought. Then I saw him in the yard running toward me. "Where's Mom?" he shouted. "Go get her! Tell her to tell her friends! They'll never see a fire like this again." At 5:30 the next morning the fire was still burning but under control. He called his workmen together. "We are going to build again," he said. And he started giving orders. One man was to find a building in which they could work while the new laboratory was being built. Another was to get men and machines to clear away the burned building. Suddenly Father said, "Oh! Does anyone know where we can get some money?" "There is always some value," he told the men, "in every trouble, even the destruction of everything we own. The fire has cleaned out a lot of things that were really no good. We'll build bigger and better next time." Then he rolled up his coat, shuffled over to a table, climbed up on it and went to sleep. Because he was able to lose everything and start again, and because he invented so many practical machines both before and after the fire, he appeared to have a magic power. He was often called "The Wizard of Menlo Park". "Wizard?" he would say. "It's hard work that does it." And Father never changed his sense of values. It has often been said that Edison had no schooling. And it is true that he went to school for only six months. But his mother taught him at his boyhood home in Port Huron, Michigan. With her help, he was reading histories of the Roman Empire at the age of eight or nine. After he started selling newspapers on Michigan trains, he spent whole days reading in the Detroit Free Library. In our home he always had books, magazines and a half dozen daily newspapers. From childhood, this man who was to achieve so much was almost completely deaf. He could hear only the loudest noises, but this did not trouble him. "I haven't heard a bird sing since I was 12," he once said. "But being deaf probably helped me." He believed that it drove him to reading when he was young, provided silence in which he could think, and saved him from small talk3. People asked him why he didn't invent a machine to help him hear. Father always repUed, "How much have you heard in the last 24 hours that was important?" And he added: "A man who has to shout can never tell a lie." He enjoyed music, and he could "listen" by putting one end of a pencil between his teeth and the other end on the phonograph. The vibrations came through perfectly. The phonograph was his favourite of all his inventions. Father never stopped working. And he was not afraid of growing old. At the age of 80, he began to study botany, a science new to him. He wanted to find a North American plant which would produce rubber. He experimented with 17,000 kinds of plants and finally got rubber from an ordinary roadside plant, the goldenrod3. Finally, at 84, his health started to fail. Newspapermen arrived at our door to keep watch. Every hour the news was sent out to them: "The light still burns." But at 3:24 in the morning of October 18, 1931, word came: "The light is out." On the day he was buried, all electric lights in the nation were to be turned off for one minute in his honour. But this seemed too dangerous and costly. Instead, only certain lights were turned low for a minute. The work of the nation was not stopped, even for a second. Thomas Edison, I am sure, would have wanted it that way. 1 pressure ['prefo] — давление, напор 2 small talk — пустой разговор, болтовня 3 goldenrod — бот. золотая розга, золотарник
32 Answer the questions: 1 Who wrote the story about Thomas Alva Edison? 2 What does the author remember the great man for? 3 What episodes did the author choose to speak about Edison as a father? 4 What were the secrets of Edison's success and which of them did he prefer? 5 Which of Edison's inventions were most successful? 6 Which inventions of other scientists did Edison make into practical things? 7 What made people think that Edison had a magic power? 8 How many years and whose money had been spent on disappointing experiments by the time Edison lost his laboratory in a fire? 9 What made Edison's son feel worried about his father on the day of the fire? 10 What did the people do in Edison's honour on the day he was buried? 33 Suppose you are to write a film script about Edison's life. Say which facts you would choose for a documentary fdm and which episodes from Edison's life you would select for a feature fdm. 34 Say what evidence you can find in the story that: Edison was a true scientist; Edison was a great inventor; Edison was a great personality. 35 Say what circumstances might have prevented Edison from becoming a great scientist and inventor. Discussing Edison's Personality 36 The following sentences describe things that Thomas Edison did or said. How does each item characterize him? ♦ Always Edison led us to experiment and explore for ourselves. He provided all sorts of material and got us to work with them laughing, joking, questioning. ♦ After he sold his first successful inventions — for $40,000 — he began hiring chemists, mathematicians, engineers — anyone who knew things that he thought would help him solve a difficult problem. ♦ He put nearly all his money into his experiments. Several times he was almost completely without money, but that didn't stop him. ♦ Once, when a visitor asked whether he had received many honours and medals, he replied, "Oh, yes, Mom has baskets of them up at the house." ♦ "If you sleep too much, you get dopey. You lose time and opportunities, too." ♦ "We haven't failed," he told an unhappy worker during one set of disappointing experiments. "We now know 100 things that won't work. So we are that much closer to finding one that will." 37 Discuss the reasons for doing those things and the way Edison went about doing them.
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 38 Discuss the meaning of Edison's words "There is always some value in every trouble. "Say what, according to Edison, the value of these troubles was and express your personal point of view on Edison's ideas. 1 From childhood, this man was almost completely deaf. 2 He had a lot of disappointing experiments. 3 His laboratory was completely ruined by fire when he was 67. 39 Read the following sentences which say how other people characterized Thomas Edison. Discuss the reasons for these characteristics and express your personal point of view on each of them. He was often called "The Wizard of Menlo Park". It has been said that Edison had no schooling. Thomas Alva Edison never looked like a man whose inventions had changed the world. And he never acted like one either. He was not, as many people believe, a scientist working alone in a laboratory. 40 Comment on Edison's words: "education isn't foag and it can't he made to look iike jdag. 'It's hard work hut it can he made interesting work. "If дои do not (earn to think when дои are доищ, дои тад never learn. "orfchievement provides the onig real tyteasure in life. "genius is 7 for cent inspiration and 99 for cent forsforation'. 41 Say: • what made Edison world famous and worthy of respect; • what features essential to a scientist he possessed; • what lesson a young scientist can learn from Edison's life. 42 It is sometimes said that a true scientist cannot be a good teacher or instructor. What is your opinion ? Does Edison's life support this point of view? 43 Imagine that you are to explain "the secrets" of Edison's success. What would you say? 44 What inventions of our day do you think would be admired by Edison ? Give reasons for "his" choice. 1 perspiration [.psispa'reijn] — пот
Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) is chiefly remembered for his widely celebrated creation of the subtle, hawk-eyed private detective Sherlock Holmes, whose brilliant solutions to a wide variety of crimes began in A Study in Scarlet (1887), continued through a long line of stories, and were collected in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892), The memoirs of Sherlock Holmes (1894), The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902), and other works. His friend and foil, the solid Dr Watson with whom he shares rooms in Baker Street, attends him throughout most of his adventures. As well as his Holmes stories Doyle wrote a long series of historical and other romances. The most notable among them is The Lost World (1912), the first of a series of stories dominated by Professor Challenger. The book is about Edward Malone, a newspaper reporter, who was looking for adventure. He found it when he agreed to go to the Amazon jungle with the famous Professor Challenger. On his fantastic journey of adventure and danger, the travellers found a Lost World — a world of prehistoric animals and of danger. ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE 45 Read the words and word combinations and guess their meaning. Translate them paying attention to the suffixes and prefixes. -less: sleepless, homeless, fearless, tactless; sleepless nights, fearless explorers, tactless men. -ous: joyous, monstrous, famous, glorious, monotonous; to feel joyous, monstrous cruelty, a famous name, glorious victories, monotonous talks. -some: tiresome, lonesome, quarrelsome; a tiresome life, a lonesome highway, a quarrelsome person. un-: unbelievable, unprintable, uneasy, unaware; an unbelievable story, unprintable words, uneasy silence, be unaware of a difficulty, to take a person unawares. 46 Read the proper names which you will come across in the story. Arthur Conan Doyle ['а:9э 'коипэп 'doil], Gladys ['glaedis], McArdle [ma'kaidl], Arthur Malone ['а:0э ms'loun], Challenger ['tJaernKija] ,Wadley ['wodli]. 47 Read the chapter There Are Heroisms All Round Us from the book "The Lost World". Say what kind of man's character Gladys admired. There Are Heroisms All Round Us Mr. Hungerton, her father, really was the most tactless person upon earth — perfectly good-natured, but absolutely centred upon his own silly self. If anything could have driven me from Gladys, it would have been the thought of such a father-in-law. I am convinced that he really beUeved in his heart that I came round three days a week for the pleasure of his company. For an hour or more that evening I listened to his monotonous chirrup1. Finally he jumped from his chair and bounced off out of the room to dress for a meeting. At last I was alone with Gladys, and the moment of fate had come! She sat with that proud, delicate profile of hers outlined against the red curtain. How beautiful she was! And yet how aloof! Gladys was full of every womanly quality. Some judged her to be cold and hard, but such a thought was treason3. She could refuse me, I 1 chirrup ['tfirep] — щебетание 2 aloof — в стороне understood it, but I was fully determined to make a proposal. So far my thoughts had carried me, and I was about to break the long and uneasy silence, when two critical dark eyes looked round at me, and a smile appeared on her proud face. "I guess you are going to propose, Ned. I do wish you wouldn't, for things are so much nicer as they are." I drew my chair a litle nearer. "Now, how did you know that I was going to propose?" I asked, in genuine wonder. "Don't women always know? Do you suppose any woman in the world was ever taken unawares? But, oh, Ned, our friendship has been so good and so pleasant! What a pity to spoil it! Don't you feel how splendid it is that a young man should be able to talk face to face as we have talked?" "I don't know, Gladys. You see, I can talk face to face with — with the station — master. That doesn't satisfy me in the least. I want my 3 treason [tri:zn] — измена
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD arms round you, and, oh, Gladys, I want —". 'You've spoiled everything, Ned," she said. " Why can't you control yourself?" I didn't invent it, I said. "It's nature. It's love!" "Well, perhaps, if both love, it may be different. I have never felt it." "But you must — you, with your beauty, with your soul! Oh, Gladys, you were made for love! You must love!" "One must wait till it comes." "But why can't you love me, Gladys? Is it my appearance, or what?" "No, it's not that," she said. "It's deeper." "My character?" She nodded severely. "What can I do to mend it? Do sit down and talk it over." She sat down. "Now tell me what's wrong with me." "I'm in love with somebody else," said she. It was my turn to jump out of my chair. "It's nobody in particular," she explained, laughing at the expression of my face, "only an ideal. I've never met the kind of man I mean." "Tell me about him. What does he look like?" "Oh, he might look very much like you." "How dear of you to say that! Well, what is it that he does that I don't do? Just say the word — teetotal1, vegetarian, aeronaut, Superman — I'll have a try at it, Gladys, if you will only give me an idea what would please you." She laughed. "Well, in the first place, I don't think my ideal would speak like that," she said." He would be a harder, sterner man, not so ready to adapt himself to a silly girl's whim2. But above all he must be a man who could do, who could act, who would look death in the face and have no fear of it. It is never a man that I should love, but always the glories he had won, for they would be reflected upon me. These are the sort of men that a woman could worship3 with all her soul and yet be the greater, not the less, on account of her love, honoured by all the world as the inspirer of noble deeds." "But we can't be all heroes," said I. "Besides, we don't get the chance — at least, I never had the chance. If I did I should try to take it." "But chances are all around you. There are heroisms all round us waiting to be done. It's for men to do them, and for women to reserve their love as a reward for such men. I dare say I'm a foolish woman with a young girl's fancies. And yet it is so real with me, that if I marry, I do want to marry a famous man." "Give me a chance and see if I will take it! By George!4 I'll do something in the world yet." "Why not?" Gladys laughed. "You have everything a man could have — youth, health, strength, education, energy." And so it was that I found myself that foggy November evening on my way to the office of the Daily Gazette with the eager determination to find some deed which was worthy of my lady. But who in all this wide world could ever have imagined the incredible5 shape which that deed was to take, or the strange steps by which I was led to the doing of it? 48 Translate the sentences: 1 If anything could have driven me from Gladys, it would have been the thought of such a father-in-law. 2 " It's never a man that I should love, but always the glories he had won, for they would be reflected upon me." 3 But who in all this wide world could ever have imagined the incredible shape which that deed was to take, or the strange steps by which I was led to the doing of it? 49 Answer the questions: 1 Was Edward Malone, the story-teller, deep in love with Gladys? How did she respond to his feelings? 2 Did Gladys predict that Arthur Malone would propose to her? How did she explain to him why she felt sure he was going to propose? 3 What was Gladys's ideal of a real man? 4 What did she expect from Edward Malone ? Did she believe he could perform a great deed? 5 Was Edward Malone determined to find some deed worthy of his lady? 1 teetotal [tn'toutl] — трезвый, непьющий 2 whim [wim] — каприз, причуда 3 worship ['waifip] — обожать, почитать 4 By George! — честное слово 5 incredible [m'krecbbl] — невероятный
50 Read the chapter Try Your Luck with Professor Challenger from the book "The Lost World" and find out what opinion about Professor Challenger many of his colleagues had. Try Your Luck with Professor Challenger Mr. McArdle, our new editor, nodded as I entered his room, and he pushed his spectacles far up on his bald forehead. "Well, Mr. Malone, from all I hear, you seem to be doing very well," said he, in his kindly Scotch accent. I thanked him. "The colliery explosion was excellent. So was the Southwark fire1. You have the true descriptive touch. What did you want to see me about?" "To ask a favour." He looked alarmed and his eyes shunned2 mine. "Tut! tut! What is it?" "Do you think, sir, that you could possibly send me on some mission for the paper? I would do my best to put it through and get you some good copy" "What sort of mission had you in your mind, Mr. Malone?" "Well, sir, anything that had adventure and danger in it. I would really do my very best. The more difficult it was the better it would suit me." "You seem very anxious to lose your life." "To justify my life, sir." "Dear me, Mr. Malone, I'm afraid the day for this sort of thing is rather past. The big blank spaces in the map are all being filled in, and there's no room for romance anywhere. Wait a bit, though!" he added, with a sudden smile upon his face. "Talking of the blank spaces of the map gives me an idea. What about exposing a fraud3 — a modern Munchausen ['nuntfauzn] — and making him ridiculous ? You could show him up as the liar that he is! Eh, man, it would be fine. How does it appeal to you?" "Anything — anywhere — I care nothing." McArdle thought for some minutes. "I wonder whether you can get on friendly — or at least on talking terms with the fellow," 1 The editor praised Malone's articles which reported a terrible explosion in a colliery and a fire in Southwark. 2 to shun — избегать, остерегаться 3 to expose a fraud [fro:d] — разоблачать мошенника he said, at last. 'You seem to have a sort of genius for establishing relations with people." "You are very good, sir." "So why should you not try your luck with Professor Challenger?" "Challenger!" I cried. "Professor Challenger, the famous zoologist! Wasn't he the man who broke the skull4 of Blundell, of the Telegraph5?" The news editor smiled grimly. "Do you mind? Didn't you say it was adventures you were after? I'm thinking that Brundell got him at the wrong moment, maybe, or in the wrong fashion. You may have better luck." "I really know nothing about him," said I. "I have a few notes for your guidance, Mr. Malone." He took a paper from a drawer. "Here is a summary of his record. I give it you briefly: "'Challenger, George Edward. Born: Largs [la:gz], N.B.6, 1863. Educ: Largs Academy; Edinburgh ['edmbsrs] University. British Museum assistant, 1892. AssistantKeeper of Comparative Anthropology [.eenGrs'pobdsi] Department, 1893. Winner of Crayston Medal for Zoological Research. Foreign member of American Academy of Sciences, ExPresident Palaeontological [paehonta'bdsiksl] Society, British Association' so on, so on." "One moment, sir," Г said."I am not very clear yet why I am to interview this gentleman. What has he done?" "Went to South America on a solitary7 expedition two years ago. Came back last year. Had undoubtedly been to South America, but refused to say exactly where. Something wonderful happened — or the man's a champion liar, which is the more probable supposition. Had some damaged photographs, said to be fakes8. Got so touchy that he assaults9 anyone who asks questions, and heaves reporters down the stairs. That's 4 skull — скальп the Telegraph = the Daily Telegraph 6 N. B.=North Britain solitary ['solitsn] — один, обособленный 8 fake — подделка 9 to assault [s'soilt] — нападать
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD your man, Mr. Malone. Now, off you run, and see what you can make of him." I walked along the street thinking about Professor Challenger. As a Pressman, I felt sure from what I had been told that I could never hope to get into touch with him. The facts mentioned in his biography could only mean that he was a fanatic [fs'naetik] in science. Was there not a point upon which he might be accessible? I would try. When I entered my club, it was just after eleven, and the big room was full. I noticed a tall, thin man seated in an armchair by the fire. It was Tarp Henry of the staff of Nature1. I came up to him and immediately began to talk on my subject. "What do you know of Professor Challenger?" * "Challenger? " There was a sign of disapproval on his face. "Challenger was the man who came with some fantastic story from South America." "What story?" "Oh, it was nonsense about some queer2 animals he had discovered. He gave an interview to Reuter's3, and there was such a howl4 that he saw it wouldn't do. There were one or two people who took him seriously, but he soon disappointed them." "How?" "Well, by his rudeness and impossible behaviour. There was poor old Wadley, of the Zoological Institute. Wadley sent a message: 'The President of the Zoological Institute presents his compliments to Professor Challenger, and would take it as a personal favour if he would do them the honour to come to their next meeting.' The answer was unprintable." "You don't say?" "Well, a decent version of it would run: 'Professor Challenger presents his compliments to the President of the Zoological Institute, and would take it as a personal favour if he would go to the devil.'" "Good Lord!" "Yes, I expect that's what old Wadley said. I remember his wail at the meeting, which began: 'In fifty years' experience of 1 Nature — название журнала 2 queer [kwia] — странный 3 Reuter's ['roitsz]— агенство Рейтер (крупнейшее английское информационное агентство) 4 howl [haul] — вой, завывание scientific inter-course — 'It quite broke the old man up." "Anything more about Challenger?" "Well, I'm a bacteriologist [baek^ten'oba^ist], you know. I live in a nine- hundred-diameter microscope. I do not take serious notice of anything that I can see with my naked eye. I hate scandals, and yet I have heard something of Challenger, for he is one of those men whom nobody can ignore. He is very clever, full of force and vitality5, but very quarrelsome at the same time. I remember his having spoken about Evolution in Vienna [vi'ena]. There was some scandal caused by Challenger. Many newspapers wrote about it." "Can you tell me the point?6" "Not at the moment, but a translation of the proceedings exists. We have it filed at the office. Would you care to come?" "It's just what I want. I have to interview the fellow, and I need some lead up to him. I'll go with you now, if it is not too late." Half an hour later I was seated in the news-paper office with a file of newspapers in front of me, with the headings, "Spirited Protest in Vienna. Lively Proceedings7." My scientific education was very poor, and I was unable to follow the whole argument, but it was clear that the English Professor had behaved in a very aggressive manner, and had annoyed his Continental colleagues ['koliigz]. "Protests", "Uproar," and "General appeal to the Chairman" were three of the first brackets which caught my eye. Most of the matter might have been written in Chinese to my brain. "I wish you could translate it into English for me," I said to my helpmate. "Well, it is a translation." "Then I'd better try my luck with the original." " It is certainly rather difficult for you." "If I could get only one good sentence which seemed to have a clear idea, it would serve my plan. Ah, yes, this one will do. I seem to understand it. I'll copy it out. This shall be my link with the terrible Professor." "Nothing else I can do?" "Well, yes; I want to write to him. If I could write the letter here, and use your address, it would give atmosphere." ! vitality [vai'tseliti] — жизнеспособность 6 the point — главное, суть, смысл proceeding [pra'shdinz] — протоколы (ученого общества)
"Well, that's my chair and desk. You'll find paper there." Soon the letter was finished. "Dear Professor Challenger," it said. "As a student of Nature, I have always taken the most profound interest in your speculations over the theories of Darwin. I have recently had an opportunity to reread your masterly address at Vienna. That admirable statement seems to be the last word in the matter. There is one thing, however, which I would like to hear your comments on. With your permission, I would ask the favour of an interview, as I have certain suggestions which I could only express in a personal 51 Translate the sentences: 1 Most of the matter might have been written in Chinese to my brain, so I failed to understand. 2 You could show him up as the liar that he is! 3 I have to interview the fellow, and I need some lead up to him. 4 "Protests", "Uproar", "General Appeal to the Chairman" were three of the first brackets which caught my eye. 52 Answer the questions: 1 What was Edward Malone's occupation? 2 What opinion about him and the way he worked did the new editor have? 3 What was the aim of Malone's visit to the new editor? 4 Was the new editor surprised to hear that Malone was eager to perform a great deed and meet with dangerous adventures? 5 What idea did the editor suggest? 6 What did Malone find out about Professor Challenger as a scientist? 7 What did Edward Malone do in order to get acquainted with Professor Challenger and to make a favourable impression on him? 8 Why did nobody believe Professor Challenger's stories about the traces of queer animals in South America? 53 Say why the editor was surprised to hear that Malone wanted to experience adventure and danger. How did he explain his surprise? 54 Why do you think the editor called Professor Challenger a modern Munchausen ? 55 Say how Professor Challenger's message to a colleague added to his reputation as a rude trouble-maker. 56 Edward Malone wanted to find some lead up to Professor Challenger. How did he do it? conversation. I trust to have the honour of calling at eleven o'clock the day after tomorrow morning. I remain, Sir, with assurances of profound respect, yours very truly, Edward D. Malone." I showed the letter to Tarp Henry. "How's that?" I asked. He looked at me doubtfully. "I do not believe he will answer you. He is a violent, dangerous character, hated by everyone who comes across him. Perhaps it would be best for you if you never heard from the fellow at all."
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Discussing the Characters 57 The following sentences describe things that Edward Malone and Professor Challenger said or did. How does each item characterize them? Edward Malone ♦ "Well, what is it that he does that I don't do? Just say the word — I'll have a try at it, Gladys," Edward told the girl. ♦ "Give me a chance and see if I will take it!...By George! I'll do something in the world yet," said Edward. ♦ As a pressman Edward Malone was doing very well. His reports about the colliery explosion and the Southwark fire were excellent. ♦ "Well, sir," Edward said to the new editor when he asked to send him on some mission for the paper," anything that had adventure and danger in it... The more difficult it was the better it would suit me." You may find the following words helpful in describing Edward Malone: Professor Challenger ♦ Professor Challenger once broke the skull of Brundell, a reporter of the Telegraph. ♦ Professor Challenger was a winner of the Crayston Medal for Zoological I Research and a member of several foreign Academies of Sciences. ♦ Tarp Henry described Challenger's 1 behaviour with his colleagues as rude and impossible and the answer to his colleagues' message as unprintable. ♦ Professor Challenger went to South America on a solitary expedition. You may find the following words helpful in describing Professor Challenger: enthusiastic loving sincere passionate open-hearted easy to get along with ready to please unselfish easy-going tender skilful stupid firm violent fanatic quarrelsome impolite ill-mannered displaying stormy aggressive strange gifted argumentative rude eccentric emotions 58 Give your opinion about Edward Malone as a journalist. What qualities necessary for a journalist did he possess? • What helped him do well in his job? Do you think Malone will be able to win Challenger's favour? Why? 59 Say what reputation among his colleagues and among journalists Professor Challenger had. Was he a famous scientist? What was his scientific reputation based upon? • Why was the label of an aggressive, violent and dangerous maniac applied to him? How did he acquire his scandalous reputation? 60 Find something in Professor Challenger's behaviour, actions and attitudes which might excite your interest and curiosity.
61 Alfred Nobel was never personally well known but his name has brought fame and glory to others. Consult ex. 24, page 151 and other reference materials and continue the lists of Nobel Prizewinners given below. Canada 1 Richard Taylor USA 1 Albert Einstein
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Great Britain 1 Ernest Rutherford Nobel Prizewinners Work in groups. 1 Study the list of Nobel Prizewinners and choose one person from the list representing the field that interests you most. 2 Look through available materials in order to select some information about the Nobel prizewinner you have chosen. Use English-language publications or different publications in your own language which may be photocopied, e.g. newspapers, magazines, books, brochures, leaflets, etc. 3 Cut out or copy selected texts (articles). Make brief notes about each text and get ready for making reports. 4 Illustrate your reports by drawing maps, charts or pictures. 5 Display all work produced by individuals or groups in the classroom. Give short presentations on their part of the research. 6 Discuss the most interesting and important facts from the stories about the Nobel prizewinners. 7 Design and then produce your class wall newspaper or booklet on the topic "The Makers of the Modern World", containing the most interesting findings. 8 Organise a competition between two class teams: "How Much Do You Know about the Nobel Prizewinners?" Australia 1 Lord Florey
"IF YOU DO NOT THINK ABOUT UNIT 7 MATTERS OF CONCERN 1 a) Look at these two scenes which show a modern school and a school of the previous century. Give your comments. How do they differ? School Is Changing You may use the following: a relaxed atmosphere encourage friendly relationships be strict be firm with the children be under the strain of appeal to students' interests express oneself (one's thoughts and ideas) freely feel confident of success an orderly and disciplined class be obedient b) Work in groups. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both a relaxed and a strict atmosphere in the classroom. Decide what can make it possible to create an atmosphere in which teachers are able to teach effectively and the students enjoy learning. Then tell the other groups about your decisions.
2 a) Read these extracts from students'writings. What are their opinions of the school they go to? 9 did not think 9 would enjou, mu, put couple, tf ЬелтА kite., сЫеЩ, Ucaait 9 camt piom. a dtffrtent ichool to еоелиопе. die.. Rut 9 шал. in {ел a pleaiant iuMVdu! 9 had made, a couple o{ puendi, utitnin the pAit 2 uteefa., and alio the. шолк wai. not too difficult. Sominq, to 9длк Uouie, in tkt iecohd uea\, 9 wai immediately, made, welcome, by all the teacheM, ai. much io ai ащ new. pMt ueaA, would have. teen. Оке atmoipktte wai eaiy to utile into, the шииге diiciplined, and piiendi. waiiina to be. made eueAywhete. b) Work in pairs. Find out what your classmates appreciate in their school life. 9 aueu my fiMl impteUioni o$ 9алИ Uouie wete. a tia, icatey, place.. Olvioudu 9 wai wAona. 9a\k Uouie. Li a aAeat place, to ipend my iecondoAy education. 9 've, had ateat риг at the. ichool oocK the (but ueaA. and, although it can be. an uphill dAuaale. at timei, thete'i alwayi a UachtA, ptepated to help. Оке teacheM. ate aAeat. ttlail will tend a hand when needed, while. olheM will tend a hand anyway. £ute all ichooli. thete ate. teacheM. uau, don't want toad on the wAona iide of, tut uou ioon pad out who. 9 d iay that ?oaA Uouie'i pluiei outweighed iti minutei by {ok. 9 'd recommend the ichool to anyone. 3 Here is a list of ideas which can be suggested to improve the quality of education. Which of these suggestions are you for or against? Give your reasons. / Making the- school day Longer. I More modern equipment (suck as computers, film projectors). 3 More attention fa the- humanities or sciences. 4 Smaller cUsses. 5 More Attention by parents fa what their children are learning and how they art doing in school. 6 Better textbooks. f Making the. school year longer. 8 /Vane- 4 Have you already begun developing your plans for the future, when you finish school? Do you know what to be or do when you finish school? What is that? 5 Your parents (relations, teachers or other more experienced people) can guide you and help you to make a decision concerning your future plans, can't they? Do you think your parents' practical advice is helpful and valuable? Why?
Vocabulary Study (1) FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN CHOOSING A CAREER 6 Read and remember how to use the words: career [кэ'пэ]: to choose a career; to make a career. Many young men wish to make a career in science. Choosing a career is not a simple matter, is it? vocation [vou'keijh], vocational [vou'keijanl]: to have little or no vocation for something; a vocational school. She felt that teaching was her vocation in life. capable ['кегоэЫ]: be capable of something or doing something. John's tests show that he is capable of research work. Ann is a clever student and capable of doing much better work. to require [ri'kwais], requirement [n'kwaiamant]: to fulfil the requirements. He did all that was required of him. We require extra help. Good taste requires that he should make an apology immediately. Among a pupil's requirements are a book, a pencil, and paper. regret [n'gret], to regret: to regret a mistake; a person's regret for a mistake; to express regret for something. Please accept my regrets. I regret that 1 cannot do this. energy ['enad3i], energetic [епэУзеПк]: be full of energy; to devote one's energy to something. The boy was more energetic on the football field than in the classroom. The runner needed all his energy to win the race. He spoke with energy and enthusiasm. to suit [sju:t], suitable ['sjutabl]: to be suited for something; to be suited to one's abilities; to be suitable for a career in... Will that time suit? An impatient man is not suited to be a teacher. A television programme cannot suit every taste. accurate ['aekjurat], accuracy ['aekjurasi]: Nancy is always accurate in what she says or does. Clocks in railway stations must be accurate. I doubt the accuracy of this story. A capable typist does quick, accurate work. to hesitate ['heziteit], hesitation [.hezi'teifn]: Is he still hesitating about the expedition? The pilot hesitated to take such a big risk. She hesitated whether to accept the offer or not. After some hesitation the girl revealed the truth to us. prospect ['prospekt]: The parents tried to give a rosy picture of their son's prospects. Success or failure here would be very important for his future prospects. A failure in exams was a prospect which terrified him. ambition [aem'bifsn]: She's got a lot of ambition, so she'll be successful, I'm sure. He doubts whether he will be able to fulfil his ambition. Her lifelong ambition was to be an actress. I think that of all my ambitions, the greatest is to write a novel. ambitious [aem'bijbs]: This student has always seemed ambitious and diligent. He is extremely ambitious and thinks of running his own company by the time he is 30. His ambitious project needs a lot of hard work and skill for it to be carried out successfully. 7 Read and remember: r Occupation. Profession. Trade. 1 Occupation means an activity in which one engages; the state of being occupied; that which occupies one's time. Look for an occupation suited to your abilities. Which occupation will you choose for yourself? 2 Profession is an occupation in which special education or training is required, as the profession of an architect. Medicine, law, and architecture are professions. 3 Trade is a skilled occupation, especially in handicraft, an occupation requiring mechanical skill. Shoemaking is a useful trade. He is a carpenter (tailor, blacksmith) by trade.
8 a) Read the dialogue. Say how the father characterizes both his sons and how he sees their future careers. What makes him anxious about his younger son Edward? Career Prospects A - Andy; W - William W: How have your two sons been doing at school lately, Andy? A: Terrible! Edward never starts working, and James never stops working. W: You're joking, of course. I hear that James is likely to win all the prizes in the exams this year. A: Yes, so the teachers say. But he deserves to do well. He's always been so conscientious and hard-working, and he's been slaving at his books every evening for months on end recently. He wants to go to University next year. W: Maybe he'll become a university lecturer himself in the end. A: Maybe. But I think he studies too hard. I sometimes wish he'd go out and enjoy himself for a change. W: Yes. And what about the younger one? A: Well, Edward's teachers say that he is a capable boy but he rarely does his best. In other words, he's not serious, he's not bad when he makes an effort, but he's too idle. He couldn't care less about exams. He does his homework in ten minutes every evening and then rushes off to play tennis. W: He's crazy about tennis, isn't he? Perhaps his future is with sports. A: So I believe. But my wife always worries about the children's future. She wants Edward to give up tennis and study law, but he isn't cut out for it. I wonder how Edward'll develop in a couple of years' time! b) Say what prospects both boys have. c) Compare the parents' attitudes towards the choice of a career for Edward. How do their attitudes differ? 9 a) Read these lines about the road to education. Say how you understand them. The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet. Aristotle I Activity is the only road to knowledge, George Bernard Shaw\ There is no royal road to learning. a proverbX Pupils must not be encouraged to think that there are short cuts to knowledge. Bertrand Russel b) Compare the quotations and say what common idea they are united by. 1 to be cut out for something — быть словно созданным для чего-либо
10 Here is a list of subjects you study at school. a) Which do you feel are important for you personally to study and which are not? Why? Mathematics Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) Geography Literature Physical Education Foreign Languages History Art Music Social Studies Information Technology b) Do you believe that a young person can best approach the future when enriched with a knowledge of many different subjects? 11 Are you satisfied or not satisfied with the school you go to now; with the quality of education you receive; with your own participation in the school activities? Express your opinion. 12 Computer instruction is conducted in special computer classes. Its aims include an understanding of computers and their applications, familiarity with the keyboard1 and development of the skills necessary to communicate with computers; programming is taught, and students learn to design and change programmes. Say: how computer instruction is organized in your school; whether you think the right amount of attention is paid to developing computer skills or whether there is a lack of attention; whether you are interested in this subject and how good you are at it. 13 a) Study the meaning of the words with the suffix -ive: Verb + -ive =Adjective describe — descriptive imagine — imaginative communicate — communicative construct — constructive protect — protective co-operate — co-operative create — creative invent — inventive decide — decisive instruct — instructive b) Read and translate these word combinations: descriptive passages a co-operative character imaginative writing decisive steps a constructive idea creative abilities an inventive mind a communicative person a protective covering an instructive book 1 keyboard ['ki:bo:d] — клавиатура
14 a) Choose some personal characteristics out of those listed which best describe people who want to succeed in work or study. Explain your choice. truthful independent patient indifferent generous frank strong-willed accurate decisive broad-minded enthusiastic reliable persistent careful firm honest intelligent doubtful determined straightforward quick-minded responsible quiet reserved stubborn energetic conscientious diligent b) Are there differences in the career aspirations' of boys and girls? What are they? One Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words 15 a) Look at the picture. This young teacher is comforting one of her small pupils. What do you suppose has happened? Give your ideas. b) Make up a story about the picture. You may use the following: cry bitterly comfort a crying child be patient treat somebody with love and understanding express sympathy have perfect trust in the teacher show a true concern for c) Comment on the picture. Do you think this young teacher is cut out for her profession ? Give reasons. 16 Work in groups. Discuss what makes a good teacher. Here are some qualities a teacher should possess. Rearrange them to show which qualities you consider to be most important. strong-willed enthusiastic communicative firm reserved diligent broad-minded patient frank intelligent cheerful well-trained 1 aspiration [ ajspa'reijh] — стремление, страстное желание
/ 7 Read and remember: r Expressing Doubt Do you really think so? Is that what you honestly think? Are you really convinced? Well, that all depends, doesn't it? You can't be serious. 18 Discuss these statements which may seem rather doubtful to you. Too much knowledge is a dangerous thing. We have too much leisure. • We think teaching machines will replace teachers. School holidays are too long. The most important of all human qualities is a sense of humour. • All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 19 A friend of yours has made his/her mind up to choose arts (or medicine or science) as his/her future profession. You doubt that your friend will succeed. Try to persuade him/her that s/he is not suited for this career. What can you say to get him/her to change his/her mind? 20 Do you know people who put their life into their work ? Is it a quality to be admired? Say what you appreciate in a person's attitude towards work. 21 When deciding your future career you must be realistic about your interests and abilities. For example, if you want to choose medicine as your future profession, you must be good at science, be patient, be attentive to people and have a strong desire to serve them. Do your interests and abilities satisfy the requirements of the job you would like to do in the future? 22 a) Read the following, then say in which of these fields you would like to work in the future. Do you think you possess the qualities required for this job or do you believe you will be able to develop these qualities in yourself before making a final decision ? Medical care Science Computers Teaching Law Engineering Arts Journalism Architecture b) Say why you think you will be suited (will not be suited) for this or that job; which qualities you think you have or lack. c) Would you make a good doctor, teacher, journalist, researcher? Why or why not? Explain your reasons for and against.
23 a) Read this chart from a newspaper for young readers and try to discover which is the job for you. YT Special Report JUST THE JOB? Are people always asking you what you want to be when you leave school? It's a pretty tricky question to answer» especially when getting a Job seems such a long way off. Try our special chart, compiled by Jaqui Deevoy, to help you discover which is the Job for youl START HERE It It Important for you to be the tmt at things you ilka doing? Do'you Ok* being in tho company of people your own afe7 Can you work well without being told what to do7 Do you secretry hat* doing £avours for people Do you feel different in some way to other I An» look! important [Arsyou protective and- (oying by nature! T Are you outgoing and confident? Do you like to help - people you feel sorry for? If you do odd Job* at home, do you expect to be paid? Шттш-; DoyouBke '_,; getting up e*ay \n the то^цЬдо Do you I always get I your_..'Щ.. I Do you get good пыле fpr writing school? Do you cry during fOppy Akns and r;.1/* programmes! •j^ydu;,- sometimes Just want to hide owsy,.; Iny**"^: \# room? re^gtru*. stof^fyftction? Do some cofourir*;"^'. make you feel more" unhappy than others! Do you sometimes think that animals are nicer than Do you prefer to work and play with others rather than on your own?! Is your room neat «nd tidy? ITrai Do you read a lot {tnorm than | throe books pmr month)? ork out which Job you're suited to by answering *y«' or 'no' to the questions posed, and then following the right arrows to the next box. When you've completed the chart and reached the symbol which represents you, refer to the job panel below headed by your symbol. Please bear in mind that not all the jobs mentioned in that section are right for you; there'll probably be one - perhaps two - especially suited to you. Take your pick. I Good points: you're chatty, imaginative, lively, big hearted, artistic and loving. Bad points: you're moody, noiy. fussy and a bit touchy sometimes. The job for you: something creat:ve or artistic like a painter, poet, photographer, actor, singer, dancer, florist, journalist, architect, sculptor, hairdresser, beautician or chef. Good points: you're active, adventurous, 'green', udy. energetic, practical, and organised. Bad points: you're a bit 01 a loner, bossy, stubborn, and can be a bit of a bad lr»«»r The Job for you: something active, possibly Involving animals, like a vet, postperson, messenger, dog trainer, athlete, surveyor, police officer, zookeeper or mechanic. Good points: you're helpful, practical, caring, calm, patient, friendly, cheerful and outgoing. Bad points: you can be a bit self-satisfied and have a tendency to hide your true feelings. The job for you: something which involves helping people like an air steward, nurse, teacher, driving instructor, midwife, health visitor, GP, nanny, firefighter or dentist, Good points: you're level headed. sociable, reliable, helpful, a good communicator, and creative. Bad points: you can be crafty, insensitive, and a little cold. You like to get your own way. The job for you: something practical and creative like a jewellery maker, interior designer, tourist officer, customs officer, caterer, interpreter or market researcher. I Good points: you're clever, expressive, artistic, observant, and independent. I Bad points: you're secretive, a bit antisocial, and sometimes lost in your own world. The job for you: something which involves reading and writing such as a lawyer, novelist, museum curator, English teacher or librarian. I Good points: you're fast-thinking, logical, sensible, rational, cool-headed, ambitious and keen to learn. Bad points: you can be critical, calculating, slightly selfish and a little ruthless. The job for you: something analytical and fairly well paid like a computer specialist, politician, pilot, barrister, surgeon, advertising executive, stockbroker or entrepreneur.
Vocabulary Study (2) CREATING TOMORROW TODAY 24 Read and remember how to use the words: to design [di'zam], design, designer: a fashion designer; a flower design. This test is designed to find out what a person is best suited for. The design of the book is excellent but there are many small faults in it. The Japanese are clever at designing rock gardens. This is a machine of excellent design. to qualify ['kwohfai], qualification [kwolifi'keijh]: be a highly-qualified engineer. He is not qualified to teach English; he has not enough knowledge of the English language. A high qualification makes a person fit for a certain position. to realize ['nalaiz]: to realize the importance of study. Does he realize his mistake yet? She did not realize the danger until it was too late to call for help. He realized his wish to be a doctor. consequence ['konsikwans]: the consequences of the storm; to take the consequences. If you are determined to act so foolishly, you must be ready to take the consequences. She must suffer the consequences of her carelessness. to enable [i'neibl]: The school forms those intellectual and personal qualities that will enable the students to lead productive lives. to increase [m'kriis], increasing: an increasing interest. The driver increased speed suddenly. The audience listened to the speaker with increasing interest. His skill increased with practice. circumstance ['saikamstans]: under the circumstances; to depend on the circumstances; to know all the circumstances. Before we judge a person's acts, we must know all the circumstances. Under no circumstances must a soldier leave his post! proficient [pra'fijant], proficiency [pra'fijbnsi]: I can make myself understood in French, but I wouldn't say I'm really proficient in the language. It is said in the job advertisement that they wanted proficiency in at least two languages. Do you think that calculators stop children becoming proficient at arithmetic? You need some proficiency in book-keeping for this job. 25 Say: what can increase your interest in study, in a trade or a profession; what circumstances can influence your decision to follow some career (to take some course of training; to turn to somebody for advice; to change your mind). 26 A knowledge of foreign languages and foreign cultures is growing in importance nowadays. a) Try and explain why it is so. b) Name some occupations or professions for which a good knowledge of a foreign language is desirable. Give reasons for your answer. c) Do you think you will be able to use foreign languages in your career? Say how. 27 Read these quotations, then say whether you agree or disagree with them. Give your reasons. Every man is the maker of his own fortune. Richard Steelel Few things are impossible to diligence and skill. Samuel Johnson\
28 Some jobs are traditionally considered to be "women's jobs" and some "men's". a) Work in groups. Find out details of the work done by people in these occupations. b) Speak about these occupations and advertise them. c) Make two lists of job areas in which chiefly men or women work. Then name several jobs in which both men and women work successfully. d) Discuss the information you have found out in class, then decide whose presentation is the best advertisement for choosing this or that occupation as your future career.
29 Look at the pictures. Have these girls chosen traditional women 'sjobs ? What is unusual in the girls' choices ? Do you think girls can cope with many of the jobs which have always been considered men'sprivileges? They Are Happy with Their Choice A trained electrician, Karyl Keenan works at the famous Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering works in Barrow-in- Furness. The photograph shows her carrying out the kind of highly skilled job that is part of her normal working day - in this case connecting up a multi-core, low-power junction box, on board a ship being built in the yard Photo: Courtesy of Vickers Shipbuilding t'r Engineering Lid. Angela Hull achieved a distinction in her City & Guilds course at the Building Crafts Training School in London and now works as a stonemason for a firm of architectural craftsmen. She began stone carving as a hobby and previously restored pottery before taking her TOPS course. Her skill so impressed the master mason she works with that she was given the job of restoring the figures of Christ over the north transept door of Westminster Abbey. Photo: Bill Mackenzie, London. Sheila Edmundson was the first woman to get a foreign-going Master's Certificate in the Merchant Navy and is a second officer with Ellerman Lines, spending alternate months at sea art*! at home. "I like being at sea"she says, \ "because you have to pit your wits against the elements!' She studied at Portsmouth Technical College and joined the merchant navy as a cadet. A recent survey proves that the U.K. leads the world in the number of female Merchant Navy officers with a total of 255. Photo: Courtesy of Ellerman Lines. 30 I Magazines for teenagers often offer questionnaires, quizzes or surveys to help young people to see their interests and abilities more clearly and to make a decision concerning their future occupation. a) Here are some of the questions offered in a quiz. Read both the questions and the answers readers may choose from and say how they can give teenagers a nudge1 in the right direction. JUSTTHE JOB! Your school life is finally coming to an end and it's time to think of that four-letter word... WORK! Thing is, you're not sure which career to head for. We might not be able to cover every job, but try our quiz and see if we can give you a nudge in the right direction... 1. HOW IMPORTANT IS MONEY TO YOU? a. Not very — you'd much rather have a fulfilling, interesting job than earn loads of money and be bored. b. Quite important — you require enough to be independent and have a good social life. с Very — you like to have plenty of money to go out with your mates and have a good time. d. Fairly — you don't want to have to worry about where the next pound is coming from. e. Important but not really essential — enough for a basic lifestyle is sufficient. 2. YOU HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY FOR PROMOTION BUT IT WOULD MEAN GOING TO COLLEGE - WITHOUT SALARY - FOR A FEW MONTHS. WHAT WOULD YOU DO? a. Go for it. A few months struggle will be worth it in the end. b. If it meant a better standing in the company you'd do it. с Turn it down, it's not worth giving up a wage and your social life for. d. Depends if you'd be on your own — you wouldn't like to feel left out if no one else was up for it. e. You couldn't face sitting in a classroom again — you had enough of that at school. b) What answers would you choose ? c) Find out what answers your classmates would choose. 1 nudge — легкий толчок
31 Here are some professions which you may take an interest in. I 1. THE CARING PROFESSIONS (ie. nursing; veterinary surgeon; nanny; teacher). 2. THE CREATIVE PROFESSIONS (ie. journalist; designer; beautician; hairdresser). 3. THE OFFICE PROFESSIONS (ie. secretary; bank worker; receptionist). 4. THE FORCES (ie. Police; RAF'; Navy; Army). 5. THE OUTDOOR PROFESSIONS (ie. Horticulture; Agriculture; Conservation). II Pros The chance to meet lots of different people; Your services are greatly appreciated; Immense job satisfaction; Varied work. You're able to use your imagination; Money can be quite good; Varied work life; Can be a glamorous occupation. Good chance of promotion; Stable profession; Can transfer to other branches. Travel; There's a strong sense of comradeship; Good promotion opportunities. Rewarding; Work is never dull for long; Close to nature; Pleasant working environment. Ill Cons Training allowances and starting salary are low; Hours are often very unsocial; Emotional involvement can be a problem. This work is much sought after and hard to get into, it can also be unstable. Can get boring if your duties never change; Little chance of meeting different people. You're away from your family a lot; It may be hard to have a relationship; A strict way of life. Physical hard labour; Outside all year round, not just in the sunshine; Work is dictated by the seasons: busy in summer, monotonous in winter months; Can be a solitary occupation; Traditionally poorly paid. a) Read these characteristics (Column ГУ) and match them with the professions (Column I). IV A You love the fresh air and an uncomplicated, unhurried way of life. The idea of being stuck in an office would drive you mad. You like to be your own boss, doing things at your own pace. В You're well organised and have a tidy mind. You like routines which don't vary too much and enjoy knowing what you're doing from one day to the next. Your social life is very important, and therefore you require a good starting salary which can build slowly as you progress up the career ladder. С You've got artistic flair, yet you're also practical, organised and able to convey your ideas to other people. You are confident, outgoing and some may say, even pushy. You find communication with others very easy and people feel instantly at ease with you. D You're down-to-earth, full of common sense and sympathy. You're also unselfish, patient and thrive on mixing with all types of people. Money isn't a prime consideration in the short -term and you wouldn't mind studying for a few years to achieve your goals. E You are, on the whole, a follower and not a leader. You like your life to be well organised and love being with like-minded people. You are sporty and love a life that's constantly on the go. You wouldn't mind living away from home and find the idea of exploring new countries and ways of life a thrill. b) Which professions do you think you would or would not suit? Why ? c) What are the pros and cons of these professions ? 1 RAF — Royal Air Force — Королевский воздушный флот
32 a) Work in groups. Read these job adverts carefully in order to find out what qualities and experience are desirable for each job. We require dynamic men and women, with good spoken commercial French, to join our rapidly expanding property broking and marketing telesales team. Applicants will be computer literate and have selling experience. Please write, enclosing your CV, to: Managing Directors, Voulez-Vous Ltd 50 Highgate West Hill Highgate Village, London N6 6DA Florida Community College at Jacksonville , LIBRARIAN MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS: Master's degree in Library Science ' from an ALA accredited school or suitable Master's degree which in- , eludes specialization in Educational Media, as appropriate. SALARY: $30,823-$39,529 (Dependent upon education/experience.) • Review will begin 8/21/95, and continue until a sufficient applicant pool can be developed. j CONTACT: For an official Florida Community College at Jacksonville application, contact the Human Resources Department at 501W. { State St., Jacksonville, FL 32202, or call (904) 632-3210 days and (904) 632-3160 evenings/weekends. FCCJ does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age or disability in employment or the provision of serv- '■• ices ana is an equal access, equal opportunity, affirmative action col* J lege. Translators Two permanent posts for experienced, professionally trained translators. LONDON: French, Spanish and German into English. To £22K. GERMANY: German and another European language nto English. To £24K or over, aae. 071-106 3794 CAREERS IN TEACHING Places available пою for mature students with work experience on 2-year BEd courses in these subjects: Mathematics Chemistry Physics There is a national shortage of teachers in these subjects, so career prospects are excellent Students are eligible for a mandatory award and an additional bursary of £1,500 per year. If you are enthusiastic and motivated to teach in secondary schools, and have studied the subject you intend to teach to HNC/HND level or equivalent, find out more by contacting Sheffield City Polytechnic, Pond Street, Sheffield SI 1WB. Telephone: (0742) 532343. We are an internationally active, growing businesS'to- business advertising agency. If you are an energetic young graduate we have two opportunities for you. ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE Working with an Account Manager on demanding pan European campaigns, you will be put to the test both in terms of character and organisational skills. Languages and some advertising experience is desirable. MANAGEMENT ASSISTANT The challenging task of working for four directors waits for a person with the ability to self'Start, co-ordinate and run the office. For a bright applicant this could be the start of your agency career. ANDERSON & LEMBKE Sheffield City Polytechnic FOR THE 21ST CENTURY 1 ПТЧ»», Rssisf ANT EDITOR Leading independent, international monthly covering the container and intermodaJ transport industries seeks young, enthusiastic assistant editor. A background in the shipping/transport sectors would be an advantage, but the emphasis is on all ! round news and feature writing ability and the flair f to research original copy. Languages and knowledge 7 of DTP (PageMaker3) would be useful. Willingness to undertake international travel essential Salary range £15-ШК. Please apply in writing to: The Editor, Cargo Systems International, McMillan House, 54 Cheam Common Road, Worcester Park, Surrey ЮМ 8RJ
SALES AND PROMOTION ASSISTANT ELT Collins ELT wishes to appoint a Sales and Promotions Assistant with responsibility for helping to develop business in the UK and Eastern Europe. Reporting to ELT Sales Executive, UK and Eastern Europe, you will be responsible for helping to maximise sales of the Collins ELT list in these markets. This will involve extensive UK travel, promoting to language schools and educational institutes and attendance at ELT exhibitions, Summer Schools and launches. Overseas travel is not envisaged. The ideal candidate will have an ELT background and possibly a sales background but the post could suit a teacher currently in a position of responsibility who can demonstrate promotional skills. Initiative, energy and good organisational skills will be necesssary. Salary c.£13,000 per annum, plus attractive additional benefits. To apply, please write, enclosing a full CV, giving details of your present role and current remuneration, to: Mary McNerney, Personnel Officer, HarperCollins Publishers, 77-85 Fulham Palace Road, Hammersmith, London W6 8JB. SiCoUinsELT A division of the HarperCollins Publishing Group b) Decide: • what skills are necessary for each job; if these jobs need specific skills or training; what sort of activities people do in these jobs. c) Tell the others in the group which of the jobs advertised you would like to apply for 33 Say how you can get information about different trades and professions, about all kinds of jobs. 34 Role play. Job Adverts SECRETARY TO THE CENTRAL REGISTRY An enthusiastic person is required to provide secretarial and clerical support to the Central Registry, a busy public office dealing with all matters relating to student administration. The work is varied and requires a flexible approach and good communication skills. Bask; secretarial experience and a knowledge of word processing would be an advantage. Salary: £11.699 to £12,594 inclusive. Twenty days annual leave plus statutory holidays and College closure days. Contributory superannuation and season ticket loan schemes are available. Further details are available from Oarakshan Khan to whom written applications, full CV including the names and addresses of two referees should be sent Oarakshan Khan, Central Registry, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS. Tel: 071-973 2996. Closing date: August 29,1991. Interviews will be held on September 3 and 4,1991. Equality of employment opportunity is College ppllcy. It is very helpful to talk to someone who is following a career which interests you. COLLEGE LIBRARIAN Saint Anthony College of Nursing, a single purpose Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree granting institution, is seeking an energetic, motivated individual to direct its College Library. You will be expected to play a creative and knowledgeable role in the planning, development and implementation of a new technologically current library / learning resource center. Qualifications include: • Master's degree in Library Science. • Experience in academic, nursing or health science center library and electronic information delivery systems. e Strong written / oral communication and organizational skills. We provide an excellent salary and benefits. To apply, send resume with cover letter and names/addresses of 3 references to: Carolyn Dalen Human Resources OSF SAINT ANTHONY MEDICAL CENTER 5666 E. State Street Rockford, IL 6П08-2472 Equal Opportunity Employer M/F Imagine you are speaking with a person who works in the field which you may choose as your future career, for example, a translator, an account executive, an assistant editor, a librarian, etc. You can ask your partner: whether his/her job requires a lot of skill (knowledge, education, practice); where s/he has acquired the necessary skills (knowledge, education, practice); what s/he can advise you to do to become better acquainted with this trade or profession. Think of other questions for further details. Your partner answers your questions mentioning the advantages and disadvantages of his/her job. Act out a conversation. 35 Speak about the career you would like to follow. Say: what you know about it; why it attracts you; what qualifications you will need; why you think this kind of career will suit you.
36 a) Listen to the poem Mother to Son, then read it. What, in your opinion, is the main thought expressed by the author? b) What symbolic meaning is attached to "crystal stair"? c) What advice does the mother give her son ? d) What admirable human qualities do you think the mother possesses? 37 Role play. A reporter is interviewing a well- known architect (actor, scientist, musician, politician) to find out about his/her career. Act out an interview. A well-known architect (actor, scientist, musician, politician) answers the reporter's questions about how s/he began his/her career, present day activities and plans for the future. 38 Role play. One of the classmates is thinking of becoming a teacher. S/he asks his/her school teacher to find out all the sides of the teacher's work. The teacher answers her student's questions about the pros and cons2 of her profession. 1 I'se: ( dialect) I have 2 pros [prouz] and cons [konz] — "за" и "против" Act out an interview.
39 Read these quotations, then say whether you agree or disagree with them. Give your reasons. Future is purchased by the present. Samuel Johnson] The future... something which everyone reaches^ at the rate of sixty minutes an hour, whatever he does, whoever he is. C. S. Lewis] The future is made of the same stuff as the present. Simone Weill 40 It is an advantage to choose your future career while at school. It gives you a goal to work towards and enables you to choose a right, suitable course of study. 41 Choosing a career and getting a job are two of the most important things any person does in a lifetime. Develop this idea. Give your reasons. Speak on the topic "Choosing a Career". Words to remember: Creating Tomorrow Today Factors to Be Considered When Choosing a Career circumstance consequence design v, n designer enable v increase v increasing proficiency proficient qualification qualify v realize v accurate accuracy ambition ambitious capable career energetic energy hesitate v hesitation prospect regret v, n require v requirement suit v suitable vocation vocational
CAREERS GUIDANCE IN BRITISH AND AMERICAN SCHOOLS 42 Read the information about how Careers Education and Guidance is provided by some schools in Great Britain and in the USA. Compare the opportunities given to the students. Then discuss the role of Careers Education at school. How is it valuable? Careers Education in British schools Careers education and guidance in British schools is concerned with helping pupils acquire the skills and knowledge which will enable them to understand the structure of opportunities that face them, understand their own strengths and weaknesses in relation to that structure and learn the decision making and transition skills that will enable them to take charge of their own future. The Careers Room contains a comprehensive range of careers literature and very detailed information about courses of Higher and Further Education. It is available to pupils nearly every lunchtime and instruction in its use is given. Consultations involving pupils, parents and teachers are offered, as required, whenever a choice of subject is to be made, especially before selecting subjects for GCSE, and in the fifth year, before choice of subjects for A-Level. There are regular talks and films and visits to places of employment and higher education. In the fifth form all pupils are covered by a scheme of careers interviews or small seminars. In the sixth form conferences are held, which are attended by representatives from Higher Education, Industry and Commerce. The Latymer School] (from a Handbook) All pupils in Years 3, 4 and 5 receive Careers Education as an integral part of the core course. Whitstone is proud of its close links with employers, further education colleges and the community as a whole. Throughout the Careers Education Programme pupils are provided with opportunities to investigate their own strengths and weaknesses, interests and aptitudes, attitudes and values and to relate these to their ambitions and to the requirements of different occupations. During the year pupils will visit places of work and local colleges and will be counselled on their career choices. Pupils will also be given the opportunity to spend a week on Work Experience. Throughout the Careers Education Programme all pupils are encouraged to investigate all aspects of career opportunities open to them. Whitstone School (from a Handbook) Careers Education in the present economic climate is one of the most difficult tasks in any school. Do we spend time being despondent and pessimistic about the future or can we be positive and realistic? We aim to take the second course. At present Careers Education starts with tutor group-based work in the third year, before pupils choose their options. In the 4th year there are group interviews. During the 5th year pupils have individual interviews, group talks and lessons on a variety of work oriented topics. All pupils, teachers and tutors are encouraged to visit the library and careers room to become more informed and up to date. All children are encouraged to express their career ideas so that the Careers Officer and Careers teachers may deal positively but realistically with all their future hopes. Kingsland Schoolt (from a Handbook)]
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD CVE... A New Concept in American Schools 43 Co-operative Vocational Education is a work experience program in which the students receive instruction about the world of work, its opportunities and responsibilities. The course combines learning experience gained through regularly scheduled supervised employment in the community and vocationally oriented in-school instruction. Students receive two credits for each semester enrolled. The on-the-job phase of instruction is graded on a pass/fail basis. A letter grade is earned for the classroom portion of the course of instruction. The program includes on-the- job training, development of a training plan, career testing, and career and educational investigations via the Guidance Information System. The teacher will assist the student in finding approved employment. CVE IS RELEVANT- IT'S "IN" * Students have the opportunity to learn skills on real jobs under actual learning conditions. Students are placed in occupations that are in harmony with their abilities and interests. Students are able to identity with the world of work in a meaningful way. ' Students encounter daily situations in an adult environment which cause them to examine their values and reappraise their potential in occupational and social situations. Students make the transition from school to work gradually and under the skilled guidance of a teacher-coordinator who gives them time to comprehend the significance of the learning situation and the world of work. ' Students receive direct on-the-job contact with professionals whose responsibility it is to stay up-to-date in their professions. * Cooperative Vocational Education enables the student to relate education to his occupational interest in a period of life when it is natural for him to look outside the school for learning and earning. Cooperative Vocational Education in the Niles Township High Schools CVE PROVIDES "REAL LIFE' LEARNING * Students apply their learning in a variety of job situations and return to trie classroom for analysis and group discussions. * Students acquire a better understanding of problem solving and the scientific method. ' Well chosen training stations become rich learning resources and usually furnish more valid information than is available to learners through other means. Under guided experiences on their jobs and sometimes in unplanned sifuations, students are led to appreciate the values of general education. " As wage earners, students develop an appreciation and respect for work and are aided in obtaining worthwhile jobs. * Students are able to observe and assess the importance of persona/ traits so necessary for employment: punctuality, dress, regular attendance, and responsibility for completing an assigned task. * Cooperative Vocational Education helps students clarify relationships between education and employment and earnings. * Students who have the opportunities afforded in Cooperative Vocational Education are provided early occupational experiences which are vital in making immediate and long range career decisions ' Cooperative Vocational Education provides the student with a wider range of possibilities for employment after graduation Cooperative Vocational Education encourages students to finish high school and enter employment or continue in higher education.
44 Read and say how some careers are advertised in British and American booklets and magazines for young people. Police Officer DO YOU WANT A CAREER: and not just a job; with opportunities equal to and better than many in industry and commerce; where you will be fully trained to handle any challenge; where everyone joins at the same level — as a police constable; which offers responsibility, variety, security, attractive rates of pay, a pension, free housing or a generous rent allowance; which offers, above all else, genuine satisfaction... the satisfaction of interesting, challenging and worthwhile work. If so, you are obviously looking for something more than the nine-to-five routine of an office or factory job. A CAREER AS A POLICE OFFICER CAN CERTAINLY OFFER YOU MORE BUT... IT WILL DEMAND MORE OF YOU Are you: prepared to work shifts? prepared to spend at least two years as a constable in uniform? a British citizen, a Commonwealth citizen whose stay in the United Kingdom is not subject to restrictions, or a citizen of the Irish Republic? at least 5'8M tall if you are a man; at least 5'4M tall if you are a woman? physically fit with good eyesight? Can you: accept discipline? accept responsibility? show a willingness to learn? show personal integrity? take decisions on your own initiative? convince us that you have both intelligence and common sense? be tolerant of people from many different backgrounds? work as part of a team? COULD YOU COPE? A young police officer came across a fighting incident after four hours of his patrol — four hours during which nothing else had caused him the slightest concern. If you were in this officer's position would you... Try to use your authority to break-up the fight? Rush in and arrest as many of the youths as possible? Contact your station by radio and ask for assistance? Try to give medical aid to the injured youth? In fact, there are a number of things you could do, and, to be honest, we wouldn't expect you to know exactly what to do. But we would expect the officer in question to use his training and intelligence to make the right decision. CAREER OPPORTUNITIES The way to the top ... This rank structure relates to Provincial Forces in England and Wales. The City of London Police and the MetropelStan Police have a slightly different rank structure above the rank of Chief Superintendent. waiez ueattutt Chief Constable Assistant Chief Countable Chief Superintendent Superintendent Chief Iixsp&cto* Inspector 90,000 officer* approximately approximately approximately 2S0 officers This diagram shows you the career path that could be open to you. Promotion in the police is strictly on merit — every man or woman starts at the same level with the same basic training and the same opportunities.
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD In Four Years, You Won't Recognize Yourself CENTRAL H/Gh RWsha Johnsofr Hawaii/ Japan. teacher i computer toeration^ career counselor The woman you see in the mirror four years from now depends a lot on what the girl reading this ad does today. This year, over 23,000 ambitious young women, like Kiesha Johnson, will find the encouragement, opportunities, training and experience they need in the U.S. Armed Forces. Smart move. Because the military is opening more jobs to women, in more fields than ever before. Now you may be eligible for one of the new positions in aviation, or serve at sea aboard a carrier or cruiser. Over 50,000 new jobs have opened to women in the last year alone. Every one offers you training and travel benefits, career skills and education opportunities—including the Montgomery G.l. Bill, which can help you put aside over $14,000 for college, up to $30,000 in select career areas. In the next four years, Kiesha Johnson will serve her country in Hawaii and Japan, discovering her talent for teaching and helping others. what will you be doing? With over 200 job specialties to choose from, chances are the Armed Forces can help you get where you want to go. See your local recruiter, or call 1-800-893-LEAD for more information. Take a look at all you can do for yourself and your country. And get a glimpse of yourself four years from now. You'll like what you see. Make It Happen. US. Armed Forces ■ARMY -k NAVY ~k AIR FORCE ~k MARJNES -k COAST GUARDS b) What can attract young people to these jobs? What prospects for promotion are offered? 1 G. I. [,d3i:'ai] — солдат в американской армии
William Saroyan (1908—1981) first appeared on the literary scene of the United States in the mid-thirties. Highly original short stories made him one of the most talked-about writers in America. These were followed by plays and short stories that were even more enthusiastically received. Saroyan's stories are richly funny and humane. He is a very honest writer. He writes clearly, without pose, about what can happen to people — and does so often happen, both accidentally and purposefully. Saroyan has a real love and compassion for common people, and a deep understanding of their dignity. He always makes his reader sympathize with them and share in their sufferings. Saroyan had little schooling, but he was a keen observer of life, and almost all the episodes described in his works are taken either from his own life or from the life of the people who came in touch with him. Saroyan likes his characters, a rare thing in modern fiction, and he persuades his reader to accept them — and in some way to accept the comic and pathetic nature in us all. William Saroyan published more than thirty books and plays. His best-known novel is The Human Comedy. Among his most popular works are The Adventures of Wesley Jackson, Rock Wagram, The Laughing Matter, Boys and Girls Together, and One Day in the Afternoon of the World. WILLIAM SAROYAN 45 Read the words and word combinations and guess their meaning. Pay attention to the suffixes. -ness: aware — awareness; an awareness that here was a truly original mind. -en: threat — threaten; a brilliant man came and threatened the principal. -ly: frequent — frequently; she was frequently seen by students; honest — honestly; he was glad to say honestly; clear — clearly; he recalled quite clearly; safe — safely; the boy got out of the room safely. Cultural Note: Stonehenge [,stoun'hend3] a group of large, tall stones arranged in circles which stand on Salisbury Plain, South England. They were put there in pre-historic times (about 2500-1500 ВС), perhaps as a religious sign or perhaps as a way to study the sun, moon, and stars. Stonehenge is a popular tourist attraction. 46 Read the proper names which you will come across in the story Out of Order: William ['wiljam] Saroyan [scu'roujan], Miss Shenstone [jenstan], Mr. Monsoon ['тлшэп], Uncle Aleksander [selik'samda]. 47 Read the story Out of Order and answer the question: What was the cause of the conflict between William Saroyan and the teacher? Out of Order Longfellow High was not strictly speaking a high school at all. It was the seventh and eight grades of a grammar school, and its full name was Longfellow Junior High School. It was in Ancient History that I first astonished my class into an awareness that here was a truly original mind. It happened that this was the first class of the very first day. The teacher was a woman of forty or so. She smoked cigarettes, laughed loudly with other teachers during the lunch hour, and had frequently been seen by the students running suddenly, pushing, and acting gay. She was called Miss Shenstone by the students and Harriet or Harry by the other teachers. Ancient-history books were distributed to the class, and Miss Shenstone asked us to turn to page 192 for the first lesson. I remarked that it would seem more in order to turn to page one for the first lesson. I was asked my name, whereupon11 was only too glad to say honestly, "William Saroyan." "Well, William Saroyan," Miss Shenstone said, "I might say, Mister William Saroyan, just shut up and let me do the teaching of Ancient History in this class." Quite a blow.2 On page 192,1 recall quite clearly, was a photograph of two rather common-looking stones which Miss Shenstone said were called Stonehenge. She then said that these stones were twenty thousand years old. It was at this point that my school of thought and behaviour was started. "How do you know?" I said. This was a fresh twist1 to the old school: the school of thought in which the teachers asked the questions and students tried to 1 whereupon [, wesra'pon] — после чего 2 blow — зд.: удар
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD answer them. The entire class expressed approval of the new school. What happened might be accurately described as a demonstration. The truth of the matter is that neither Miss Shenstone, or Harry (as she enjoyed being called), nor Mr. Monsoon himself, the principal2, had anything like a satisfactory answer to any legitimate3 question of this sort, for they (and all the other teachers) had always accepted what they had found in the textbooks. Instead of trying to answer the question, Miss Shenstone compelled4 me to demonstrate the behaviour of the new school. That is, she compelled me to run. She flung5 herself at me with such speed that I was hardly able to get away. For half a moment she clung to my homeknit sweater, and damaged it before I got away. Instead of remaining in one's seat in a crisis, it was better to get up and go. The chase6 was an exciting one, but I got out of the room safely. Five minutes later, believing that the woman had calmed down, I opened the door to step in and return to my seat, but again she flung herself at me, and again I got away. Rather than wait for the consequences, I decided to present my case to Mr. Monsoon himself, but when I did so, I was amazed to find that his sympathies were with Miss Shenstone and that he looked upon me with loathing7. "She said the rocks were twenty thousand years old," I said. "All I said was, 'How do you know?' I didn't mean they weren't that old. I meant that maybe they were older, maybe thirty thousand years old. How old is the earth? Several million years old, isn't? If the book can say the rocks are twenty thousand years old, somebody ought to be able to say how the book got that figure. I came here to learn. I don't expect to be punished because I want to learn." "Your name again, please?" Mr. Monsoon said. "William Saroyan," I said as humbly8 as possible, although I must confess9 it was not easy to do. "You are?" Mr. Monsoon said. "Eleven," I said. ' twist — поворот 2 principal — зд.: директор школы ' legitimate [Ii'd3itim3t] — законный 4 to compel [kam'pel] — заставить, вынудить 5 to fling (flung, flung) — кидаться, бросаться 6 chase [tjeis] — погоня loathing floudin] — отвращение 8 humbly — смиренно, покорно 9 to confess [kan'fes] — признавать, признать "No. I don't mean that." "One hundred and three pounds." "No, no. The name, I'm thinking of." "And nationality," Mr. Monsoon said. "Armenian," I said proudly. "Just as I thought," the principal said. "Just as you thought what?" "Nobody but an Armenian would have asked a question like that." "How do you know?" I said, giving the new school another whirl10. "Nobody did," the principal said. "Does that answer your question?" "Only partly," I said. "How do you know somebody else would not have asked it if I hadn't?" "In all the years that I have been connected with the public school system of California," Mr. Monsoon said, "no one has ever asked such a question." "Yes," I said quickly, "and in all the years before Newton wanted to know what made the apple fall, nobody wanted to know what made it fall." I was brilliant. It's not my fault nobody else was. Mr. Monsoon chose not to continue the discussion. He just sat and looked at his shoes. "How about that?" I said. "Well," he said rather wearily". "I must give you a thrashing12. "How about that?" "For what?" I said. I got to my feet, watching the stenographer, whose desk was beside the door. This was a rather pretty girl, and I hoped to make a favourable impression on her, although I can't imagine what I expected to come of it." "Miss Slifo," Mr. Monsoon said, but that was all I needed to hear, and before Miss Slifo was able to block my way, I was at the door, out of the room, and just about halfway across the school grounds. Once again, the behaviour of the new school had been tested and found true. I went home and found my Uncle Aleksander who was studying law at the University of Southern California, on a visit at our house, drinking coffee. I told him the story. He invited me into his car and we took off for Longfellow High School. "That's the story, just as you've told it to me?" he said as we rode. "That's exactly how it happened." 10 whirl — оборот " wearily ['wianli] — утомленно, потеряв терпение 12 thrashing — палочные удары, взбучка
"All right," my Uncle Aleksander said. "You wait in the car." I don't know what my Uncle Aleksander and Mr. Monsoon said to one another, but after a few minutes Miss Slifo came out to the car and said, "Your uncle and Mr. Monsoon and Miss Shenstone would like to see you in the office." I went in and my uncle said, "There are men who know how to determine the approximate age of different things in the world and on the earth. Who these men are and how they determine these things, Mr. Monsoon does not know, and neither does Miss Shenstone. Miss Shenstone has promised to look into the matter. On your part, you may ask any questions you like, but in a more co-operative and polite tone of voice." He turned to the principal. "Is that in accordance with' our understanding?" "Quite," the principal said. "It was with admiration that Mr. Monsoon remarked that only an Armenian would have asked a question like that," my Uncle Aleksander went on. "Is that correct, Mr. Monsoon?" "It is," Mr. Monsoon said, "in a city with a population often or three thousand of them, I could hardly —" "With admiration, then," my Uncle Aleksander said. He turned to me. "You will spend the rest of this day away from school, but tomorrow you will return to classes as though nothing had happened." "Is that also in accordance with our understanding?" he asked the principal. "I was wondering if he might not be transferred2 to another school," the principal said, but my uncle said quickly, "He lives in this district. His friends come to this school. I shall be interested in his progress." "We all shall," the principal said. I could not have been more ill at ease3, or more angry at my uncle. The very thing I had always despised4 had just taken place, that is to say, a brilliant man had come to my defence, a circumstance I could hardly be expected to enjoy. A brilliant man, who happened to be my mother's younger brother, has stepped in among the great figures of the school, belittled5 and threatened them; and they, instead of fighting back, had let him get away with it. Well, I didn't want him to get away with it. The following day I presented myself to Mr. Monsoon, who, when he saw me, appeared to want to close his eyes and to go to sleep. "I've come to apologize," I said. "I don't want any special privileges." "Just ask your questions in a polite tone of voice," the man said. "You may go now." He refused to open his eyes. I went straight to the ancient-history class, where I found Miss Shenstone at her desk. "I'm sorry about the trouble I made," I said. "I won't do it again." For a moment I thought she was about to fling herself at me again, but without looking up from her work, she said very dryly, "They have a way of determining such things. You may go now." I felt sure the principal and the teacher would one day remember how wonderfully I behaved in this unfortunate affair, but as I've said, they didn't, and so I have had to. Miss Shenstone taught at Longfellow only another four days. A series of substitute teachers6 took over the teaching of the ancient-history class, but now the new school was in full operation throughout Longfellow High, and the substitutes were always eager to finish out a day or a week and be gone forever. Mr. Monsoon, too, left the school and was succeeded by a man who tried the method of brute7 force at first, thrashing as many as three dozen boys a day, and then he tried the method of taking the worst boys into his confidence8, going for walks with them through the schoolgrounds, being friendly and so on; but neither of these methods worked, and after the first semester, the man accepted a post at a small country school with only forty or fifty students. As for myself, I transferred to another school in order to learn typing. 1 in accordance with — в соответствии с 2 to transfer [traens'fa:] — переводить, переходить ' ill at ease — не по себе |4 to despise [di'spaiz] — презирать 5 to belittle — принижать 6 substitute teacher — заменяющий учитель 7 brute [bru:t] — грубый 8 to take into one's confidence — доверить (кому-то) свои тайны
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 48 Read the sentences and translate them. Pay attention to the use of the modal verbs. 1 What happened might be accurately described as a demonstration. 2 "Somebody ought to be able to say how the book got that figure." 3 "I might say, just shut up and let me do the teaching of Ancient History in this class." 4 "William Saroyan," I said as humbly as possible, although I must confess it was not easy to do. 49 Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the use of the grammar forms in bold. 1 I remarked that it would have seemed more in order to turn to page one for the first lesson. 2 "Nobody but an Armenian would have asked a question like that." 3 "How do you know somebody else would not have asked it if 1 hadn't?" 4 Tomorrow you will return to classes as though nothing had happened." 50 Read and translate: 1 I first astonished my class into an awareness that here was a truly original mind. 2 Rather than wait for the consequences, I decided to present my case to Mr. Monsoon himself, but when I did so, I was amazed to find that his sympathies were with Miss Shenstone and that he looked upon me with loathing. 3 I could not have been more ill at ease, or more angry at my uncle. 4 A brilliant man had come to my defence, a circumstance I could hardly be expected to enjoy. 5 The following day I presented myself to Mr. Monsoon. 6 Now the new school was in full operation, and the substitutes were always eager to finish out a day or a week and be gone forever. 7 He first tried the method of brute force, and then he tried the method of taking the worst boys into his confidence, going for walks with them, being friendly and so on. 51 Answer the questions: 1 What made the teacher of Ancient History angry when her first lesson of the school year began? 2 Did the class approve of Saroyan's curiosity and his eagerness to find out the accuracy of the teacher's words? How did they? 3 What did William Saroyan mean by "the old school of thought?" 4 In what way did the teacher behave? 5 Did Saroyan hope to find understanding and sympathy in Mr. Monsoon, the principal? What didn't he expect? 6 How did William escape punishment? 7 How did the conflict end? 8 What were William's arguments in support of his position? 9 Why did William feel ill at ease and angry with his uncle?
Discussing the Characters 52 The following sentences describe things that Miss Shenstone, Mr. Monsoon, the Uncle and William Saroyan said or did. How does each item characterize them? William Saroyan ♦ In reference to the age of Stonehenge , William asked Miss Shenstone, "How do you know?" ♦ He ran out of the room when Miss Shenstone flung herself at him. ♦ He went to present his case to Mr. Monsoon himself. ♦ He ran out of the principal's office when he was told he was going to get a thrashing. ♦ He told Mr. Monsoon, "I came here to learn. I don't expect to be punished because I want to learn.." ♦ The day after his uncle talked with Mr. Monsoon and Miss Shenstone he went in and apologized to them. You may find the following words helpful in describing William Saroyan: aggressive brave curious frank impolite intelligent proud straightforward disrespectful bold cowardly determined honest insistent polite reasonable wise foolish Miss Shenstone ♦ After William asked the question about the age of the stones, "she flung herself after him. When he returned, she did the same thing again. ♦ After the discussion with William's uncle, she agreed to look into finding out how the age of Stonehenge was determined. ♦ After the incident occurred, Miss Shenstone no longer looked at William in class nor asked him any questions. ♦ She left Longfellow School four days after the incident. You may find the following words helpful in describing Miss Shenstone: aggressive strange impulsive childish violent frightened co-operative cowardly ashamed upset incompetent compromising wild Mr. Monsoon ♦ When William said that he was an Armenian, the principal said, "Nobody but an Armenian would have asked a question like that." ♦ He told William that he must give him a thrashing. ♦ After the discussion with the uncle, he said that he had meant to make the comment with admiration that only an Armenian would ask a question like that. ♦ He suggested to the uncle that William might be transferred to another school. ♦ A month after the incident he left Longfellow School. You may find the following words helpful in describing Mr. Monsoon: cowardly unfair reasonable threatening unreasonable forgiving diplomatic, unforgiving strict The Uncle ♦ After hearing his nephew's story, he went to the school with him and talked with Mr. Monsoon and Miss Shenstone. ♦ He related the agreement they all had reached. ♦ He said that William should not be transferred to another school because he lived in this district and his friends went to this school. You may find the following words helpful in describing the Uncle: concerned protective insistent firm supportive frank diplomatic proud principled
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 53 Discuss these questions: 1 If you were a teacher, what would you have done if William Saroyan had asked you about how the age of the stones was determined? 2 What would you have done if you were the principal and William Saroyan had come to you with an account of what happened in Miss Shenstone's class? 3 What would you have done if you were William Saroyan's uncle and he had come to you with an account of what had happened at school? 4 As a student would you ever ask a teacher how she/he knows that something is a fact? 5 Do you think a teacher should know answers to all possible questions? Discussing the Theme of the Story 54 What do you think Saroyan means by the "old school" and the "new school" in the following sentences ? "This was a fresh twist to the old school: the school of thought in which the teachers asked questions and the students tried to answer them." "Instead of trying to answer the question, Miss Shenstone forced me to demonstrate the behaviour ofthe new school." 55 In the story William Saroyan gets in trouble because he breaks several accepted rules of classroom behaviour. Each of the following sentences describes something that he does which is not typically done in schools. Some of them also describe behaviour that is unusual for a teacher or principal. For each one, say what you think is the accepted way to behave in schools. Example: Miss Shenstone tells William,"... just shut up and let me do the teaching of Ancient History in this class." What rule does Miss Shenstone break? This type of language is not considered acceptable for teachers in a classroom. They might say a similar thing in a more polite manner. 1 Miss Shenstone asks the class to turn to page 192 in their history books for their first lesson. William remarks that it would seem more in order to start on page one for the first lesson. 2 In reference to the age of Stonehenge, William asks, "How do you know?" 3 William presents his own case to Mr. Monsoon before Miss Shenstone goes to him. 4 When Mr. Monsoon says that only an Armenian would ask a question like that, William asks the principal how he knows someone else would not have asked the same question. 5 After the principal says that he must give William a thrashing, William asks, "For what?" 6 William runs out of the office when he hears he is going to get a thrashing. 56 Choose a saying that, in your opinion, is best illustrated in the story. Better know nothing than half know many things. He who is afraid of asking, is ashamed of/earning. Better untaught than ill-taught. Though we study till old age, we cannot learn all.
57 The way the story is told reflects the author's attitude. In "Out of Order" as Saroyan is telling the story, he is also commenting on what happened. For each of the following statements, choose the words and phrases that show Saroyan's opinion about the incident and about himself as a school student. "It was in Ancient History that I first astonished my class into an awareness that here was a truly original mind." He told Mr. Monsoon his name "as humbly as possible, although I must confess it was not easy to do." After the discussion with Mr. Monsoon he thinks, "I was brilliant. It's not my fault nobody else was." After the incident, he comments, "I felt sure the principal and the teacher would one day remember how wonderfully I behaved in this unfortunate affair, but as I've said, they didn't, and so I have had to." 58 How do you think Saroyan felt about himself as eleven-year-old? What makes you think so? Did you ever do anything when you were young that you were later very proud of? 59 Saroyan comments on his uncle's talk with Miss Shenstone and Mr. Monsoon: "... a brilliant man had come to my defence, a circumstance I could hardly be expected to enjoy." Why do you think Saroyan did not enjoy the fact that his uncle helped him ? 60 Describe several characteristics that you think are the most important to being an effective teacher. Then, explain your reason for giving the characteristics you have chosen. Finally, evaluate the teacher in the story according to these characteristics. For example, if you believe that patience is one important quality of a good teacher, do you think the teacher in this story has or does not have this quality? 61 Say what you believe are the most important characteristics of a student and then evaluate the student in this story. 62 Express your opinion about: how well you and most of your teachers get along; how school and your family help you to become a good citizen and a socially-minded person; how your school is preparing its students to choose an occupation in future; what kind of atmosphere in class (in school) can make both teaching and learning successful. 63 You no doubt have formed an opinion about how good or bad the teacher and the student in the story is. Your opinion reflects your beliefs about what makes a good teacher or student. Speak on the topics: What makes a good teacher. What makes a good student.
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD 64 a) Listen to the poem The Road Not Taken, then read it. Say what the poet must decide. Does the author hesitate before making a decision ? How can you feel it in the poem ? Robert Frost b) Find and read aloud the lines which answer the following questions: 1 What was the poet's feeling when he had to make a choice between two roads? 2 The poet stood long and looked at one road, but he took the other one. How does he describe the road he has taken? 3 How does he show that he was going to travel the first road too? 4 Was he sure that he would ever come back to the same place? 5 Why did he take the road which "was grassy and wanted wear"? c) What is the theme of the poem ? Do you think that the two roads in the wood symbolize different roads we have to take in life? Discuss the idea. d) Do you think it was difficult for the poet to choose which road to take ? Why do you think he preferred "the one less travelled by"? Give your reasons. e) Do you think the poet might regret some day that he hadn 't taken the other road? Would it have made a difference if he had chosen the other way? 65 Say how choices in your own life can make a difference in the course it takes. Do you think that the choices we take in life always turn out to be the right ones? Give your reasons. 1 to diverge [dai'va:d3] — расходиться 2 to claim [kleim] — зд.: предъявлять претензии 3 to tread [tred] (trod, trodden) — ступать, шагать 4 hence [hens] — зд.: с этих пор
WE READ AND DISCUSS 66 lOver two thirds of the world's scientists write in English. Three quarters of the world's mail is written in English. Almost 85% of the information stored in computers around the world is in English. Look at the table and say why English is a world language. Write a list of jobs for which you have to be able to speak English. Englishas a native/first language UK USA Canada Australia New Zealand more than 350 mln Englishas a second/official language India Hong Kong South Africa (more than 60 countries) more than 160 mln Englishas a foreign language Russia China Japan (the rest of the world) more than 100 mln
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Work in groups. Job Adverts List of jobs 1 Collect different job adverts from all sources available. Look through newspapers, magazines, leaflets and advertisements. 2 Study all adverts collected carefully. Compare the texts, designs, prints, colours and pictures. Then decide which most important components every job advert should contain and what you should focus on while producing a job advert of your own. 3 Design your own adverts for different jobs. Discuss them, praising or criticising. Then suggest some possible improvements. 4 Remake designs or rewrite the texts if necessary. Then do the final work of producing job adverts. 5 Display the job adverts produced in the classroom. 6 Arrange a competition of the best job adverts.
UNIT 8 "SPEAK LOVELINESS TO BE FOUND / Beauty attracts lots of tourists and holiday- makers who love to get close to nature. People sometimes come from thousands of miles away to spend their holidays in the mountains or near a lake, and to enjoy the beautiful scenery and the peace and quiet of the countryside. a) Look at the picture and describe the scene. You may use the following: the bright blue of the sky a cold, crystal-clear mountain lake the rich green of the mountain slopes peace and quiet picturesque views add colour (beauty, charm) to the scenery be impressed (delighted) fresh air reflect wild flowers enthusiastic admire be filled with admiration feel inspired b) How do you think you would feel if you were sitting on the shore of the lake in the picture: peaceful, inspired, full of energy, poetic, delighted, eager to reach the peaks — or small and unimportant? Imagine what you might be thinking about as you look at the wonderful scenery. c) Would your feelings be different if the scene were in winter? How? d) Can you change this picture to a winter scene ? What would everything look like ? You may use the following: snow-capped frosty impressive snowy frozen grand snow-covered ice-covered powerful
TO THE ЖАЖТГНи/* (Bible) 2 Read these words from the Bible and say how you understand them: Speak to the earth, and it shaft teach thee, Bible 3 Describe your favourite place (the seaside, the mountains, a lake, a particular village). Why do you like it? What do you enjoy doing there? 4 Work in pairs. One of you asks questions to gather information about some place which you may choose for a successful trip. The other partner has travelled a lot and he gives his opinion about a place which he thinks to be really attractive and which he recommends for a trip. Act out a conversation. 5 Listen to the poem Swift Things Are Beautiful, then read it. a) Say what beauty the author sees in the surrounding world. Elizabeth Coatsworth b) What feelings and attitude towards nature does the author of the poem express ? 1 wheat [wi:t] — пшеница 2 strong-withered — зд.: выносливый 3 to spray — распылять, обрызгивать 4 the ember that crumbles — тлеющий уголек 5 ox [oks] — бык
Vocabulary Study (1) 6 Read and remember how to use the words: ecology [i'kDbd3i], ecological [,пкэ'кх1з1кэ1]: ecological problems. The term ecology was introduced into scientific language by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel. Ecology deals with the relationships of man and nature. All states ought to join efforts to save the Earth from an ecological catastrophe [ka'tsestrafi]. environment [m'vaiaranmant], environmental [invaiaran'mentl]: clean and healthy environment; the protection of the environment; to improve the environment; environmental protection. The protection of the environment is a task which requires great efforts by many public organizations. to pollute [pa'luit], pollution [pa'luifn]: to pollute air (water, soil); polluted water; soil (air, water, noise) pollution; the danger of pollution; to overcome the problem of pollution; to be polluted with (garbage, fumes, soot, industrial waste). Pollution of air and water is one of the problems millions of people are concerned about today. The stream was so polluted that the fish died. to breathe [bri:6], breath [breO]: to take a breath; to lose one's breath. If you run very fast, you may lose your breath. Halfway up the mountain, we stopped to take a breath. He was breathing hard when he finished the race. Spring breathed new life into the landscape. to pour [po:]: Water poured from the broken pipe. The rain is pouring down. pure [pjua], purity ['pjuarati]: pure water; pure air; to preserve the purity of air. The purity of air, YOU ARE A PART OF THE ENVIRONMENT water and soil largely depends on the preservation of forests. damage ['daemid3], to damage: ecological damage; to damage nature by changing the ecological conditions. Storms sometimes cause great damage. The accident did not do much damage to either of the motorcars. Several valuable pictures were damaged by fire. Was there much damage caused by the frost? resource [n'so:s]: natural resources; energy resources. Soil is our most important natural resource: without soil, plant life could not exist. Undoubtedly natural resources in general and energy resources in particular should be used economically. civilization [smlai'zeifn], civilized ['suvilaizd]: civilized people; the ancient civilizations. The civilization of mankind has taken thousands of years. release [n'liis], to release: to release dirt into the atmosphere; to release a trapped animal. The bird was released from its cage. We anxiously awaited the release of the new film. substance f'sAbstans]: harmful substances; poisonous substances; chemical substances; to be polluted with harmful substances. Some factories and plants release poisonous substances into the atmosphere. exhaust [ig'zoist], to exhaust: exhaust fume; to exhaust the subject; to be exhausted. The air was black from the exhaust of cars. Gone are the days when it seemed to man that nature's resources could not be exhausted. 7 a) Did you ever come across traces of holiday-makers (tins, egg-shells, yoghurt cartons, paper-bags, rubbish, bottles left lying about) when you happened to go hiking or camping? If so, what do you think of the people who were there before you? b) Do you always pick up your litter after a picnic ? Explain why we should always remember to do this. 8 a) Say how you think everyone can show his (her) concern with the cleanliness and the beauty of the place in which he (she) lives. You may use the following: plant greenery protect trees in parks and yards take care preserve a healthy and clean environment keep the greenery fresh not to pollute with keep clean collect rubbish b) What is your contribution ? What do you do to keep your city clean ?
9 This is an advertisement about a problem which exists in many big cities today — litter in city streets and highways, which spoils the view. a) Express your opinion about the advertisement. Do you think it is effective? Why or why not? What problems does it draw the attention of the public to? A lot of little litterers mate big; problems People start pollution. People can Stop it b) Work in groups. Discuss your ideas about advertisements concerning the problem of pollution and think of the texts for them. c) Say which terms for advertisements you choose as the most effective and explain why you have chosen them. 10 Read these words and say in what way they are, or are not true. The Nation that destroys its soil destroys itself. Franklin D.Roosevelt Civilization is being poisoned by its own waste products. William Ralph Inge
WHERE DOES THE POLLUTION COME FROM? Look at the pictures and comment on them. Say what ecological problems are matters of people's concern nowadays. You may use the following: air pollution smoke from chimneys' the release of harmful substances into the air be covered with soot and dirt smog over the city hard to breathe unhealthy environment smoke clouds preserve the purity of air ———^—ran mi— i i ■ noise and air pollution a great number of cars, lorries and buses exhaust fumes frequent traffic jams rush hour affect harmfully water pollution ugly rivers of dirty water pollute water with factory waste polluted fish influence harmfully dead rivers preserve the purity of water dead land a lifeless area exhaust turn the land into a desert stunted2 trees and plants pollute the sea with oil waste from chemical plants poison poisonous substances ' chimney ['tjimni] — труба (дымовая) 2 stunted — низкорослый, чахлый
12 a) Read the text The Baltic, a Sea of Waste. Say how the Baltic Sea was polluted and what actions should be constantly taken by the countries of the Baltic Sea area to improve the situation. The Baltic, a Sea of Waste Pollution is a serious problem. It affects everyone every day. Where does the pollution come from? Is it only factories, big ships and cars that pollute? No. It is you and me as well. If you drop litter, you pollute. That's how it begins. What happens when millions of people do the same thing? Most big cities pour their waste into seas and rivers. For a long time people did not realize the danger. The first alarm came from Japan. Some sixty people died because they had eaten polluted fish. And since 1967 it has not been possible to eat fish from many Swedish ['swndij] lakes. The Baltic is a special case. Because it is such a small sea it becomes dirty very easily. Its water changes slowly through the shallow straits. As many as 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are hundreds of factories on these rivers and millions of people live along them. Seven industrial countries surround the Baltic. Quite a lot of big cities lie on its coast. All of this combined with the active navigation of the sea naturally affects the state of the sea water and the shore line flora ['fb:re] and fauna [Тэ:пэ]. Once we have polluted a sea it is very difficult to clean it. Fortunately all the countries in the Baltic area have realized the problem. They cooperate actively in solving ecological problems of the Baltic basin. Both international law and the national laws of the coastal states define the regime [rei^hm] of environmental protection of the Baltic Sea. The aim of the agreements among these states is to prevent oil pollution of the sea, to organize rational fishing and the preservation of sea life. (from Say It in English) I b) Name the possible consequences of the pollution of seas and oceans. 13 Unhappily the story of man includes the careless killing of wildlife and the careless exploitation of natural resources, the pollution of rivers and streams and the destruction of forest lands. a) Say what damage people have done to nature by treating their environment so carelessly. b) Do you know about any places on the Earth that were destroyed, where life was killed as a result of man's interference? c) Say how forests and rivers, soil and natural resources are valuable to us. 14 Here are some newspaper headlines. Say what problems the articles deal with. Guess the contents of each article. "SEARCH FOR AWAY OUT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS CLEAN AIR FOR THE CITY NATURAL SIGHTS PROTECTED BY THE STATE BAIKAL'S "HEALTH" FOR A GLOBAL SYSTEM OF ECOLOGICAL SECURITY
Vocabulary Study (2) WHAT CAN BE DONE? 15 Read and remember how to use the words: measure ['тезэ], to measure: to take measures; to propose measures. What measures do you propose? Deeds are a better measure of character than words. The government takes measures to prevent the pollution of water resources. urgent ['aidsant]: urgent actions; urgent measures. "SOS" is an urgent signal. As the call was urgent, they started out without losing a moment. It is urgent to build purifying systems to avoid the pollution of rivers. to conserve [kan's9:v], conservation [.konsa'veifn]: to conserve fruit; water (forest) conservation; conservation of wild life. Scientific farming conserves the soil. How can we conserve our soil against further waste? to oblige [эЬЧакЗз], to be obliged to: The law obliges people to protect nature. I'm much obliged to you for your help. They were obliged to speak in whispers because everyone was asleep. campaign [kaem'pem]: to take part in public environmental campaigns; the clean air campaign. In a political campaign, the purpose is to get people to support a political party. to reduce [n'djuis]: to reduce speed; to reduce the price; to reduce the amount of waste in the air; to take measures to reduce the noise in big cities. Are there special effective systems which enable us to reduce the amount of harmful chemical waste in the air? consequence ['konsikwans]: the consequences of the storm, to take the consequences. If you are determined to act so foolishly, you must be ready to face the consequences. She must suffer the consequences of her carelessness. to avoid [a'void]: Try to avoid danger. They have just avoided an accident. Children should try to avoid crossing the road except when the traffic stops. to remove [n'muiv]: to remove factories and plants from the city. Many ecologically harmful plants have been removed from the city. to astonish [a'stomj], astonishment, astonishing: We were astonished at his courage. The acrobat performed astonishing tricks. Imagine our astonishment when the weaker team won the game! We must preserve a world that continues to astonish us with its diversity. to recycle [m'saikl]: recycled paper. Companies are now trying to recycle their waste. There is no point in recycling plastics if it does more harm than good. 16 a) Study the meaning of the verbs with the suffix -ify. Noun/Adj + -ify = Verb beauty — beautify class — classify clear — clarify glory — glorify simple — simplify false — falsify pure — purify intense — intensify The suffix -ify means to make or to become like the base word b) Read and translate these word combinations: simplify a question or a difficult explanation classify books by subjects simplify a design (a task, a style of architecture) purify the water of the rivers polluted by factory waste classify a collection of minerals according to shape, colour or size glorify heroic deeds beautify a yard with flowers intensify efforts falsify documents clarify thoughts
17 Look through the table of contents of this magazine and say what ecological issues are covered on its pages. Searching for a Sustainable future Environment The Next Frontier New Challenges 2 Thinking Like A Mountain Reflections on an essential new way of understanding nature. A Turning the Tide The fight to restore the huge Chesapeake Bay reveals the complexity of today's environmental issues and solutions. 11 The Green Heart of Texas In the Texas hill country, an experiment in what might be called the New Conservation treats people as part of the ecosystem. Debate, Consensus 12 The Democratic Environment This overview essay argues that the institutions of freedom are the essential tools of environmental protection. 1Д A Breath of Fresh Air The passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act is a model of how democracies can confront the most daunting environmental issues. 18 The U.S. Disposes of the Way It Disposes Expanded recycling programs are reducing waste and saving money. A Sustainable Future 20 Living on Planet Earth Global action requires science, innovation and freedom. 22 Waters of the World An international effort is under way to safeguard the Earth's oceans. 26 Protecting the Earth's Blanket of Ozone Government and industry are moving quickly to stem the depletion of this crucial atmospheric shield. 28 In Praise of Biodiversity Our planet is home to a dazzling variety of living things, each intrinsically valuable—and each holding potential benefits for humanity. ЗО Green News Environmental action from Alaska to Eastern Europe. A Wilderness Portfolio 33 "In Wildness Is the Preservation of the World" Leading nature photographers capture the richness and diversity of the United States" unspoiled wilderness. Say: how mass media draw public attention to ecological problems; how they reflect the ecological situation; whether discussions with broad public participation are held; in what way mass media influence public opinion on matters of environmental protection.
Look through the page of the magazine and what problems it raises. earth day What's one of the most important days on the planet — perhaps the most important day? We're talking Earth Day, which celebrates its 25th birthday this April 22. Earth Day is a great time for you to think about making the planet a better place. Here's the scoop on the hottest causes and the coolest things you can do every day. Did you know that the production of electricity causes not only air pollution, but acid rain and global warming? Sulfur dioxide, a major cause of acid rain, is produced when electricity is generated. So are massive quantities of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is the number one cause of global warming. Did you also know that your school is probably contributing to the problem by using energy-eating fluorescent lamps? You can reduce your school's energy consumption by up to 40 percent by persuading your school to change to a new kind of light called "T-8" lamps that greatly reduce the amount of energy being used. Most public schools, however, don't even know about them. If you're interested in getting your school to make the switch, contact YES! (Youth for Environmental Sanity). The address is listed at right. It can give you all the information you need as well as a step- by-step manual of how to implement the project at your school. Here are some terms you can use to prove you're right at home in the environmentally correct environment. BROWN: The opposite of| being green. Some-one not environmentally aware. ECO WARRIOR: Professional environmentalists. As in: "You'll never guess who came to the meeting. A whole pack of eco warriors" GREENWASH: When a corporation claims its products or services are more environmental than they really are. ORGANIC: (You may throw around this term, but do you know what it really means?) Produce and food products that are grown or made without pesticides or chemical fertilizers. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: Development that doesn't deprive future generations of the same types of opportunities we now have. SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY: A society where you don't use up more resources than are produced. TREEFREE PAPER: Paper made from hemp or some other fibrous plant. VEGAN: A person who goes one step further than a vegetarian and doesn't believe in consuming any animal products at all: dairy, eggs or meat.
earth day Every year the earth loses 20 million acres of tropical rain forests. Only half of the world's original tropical forests still stand. This is a disaster in the making! More than 200 million people depend on the tropical forests for shelter and food. The extinction of the rain forests also means the possible extinction of thousands of species that live there.The United States doesn't have tropical rain forests. However, our trees are also being cut down at an alarmingly high rate. Any tree cut down is a loss for all of us. You can help by doing the following: Reuse notebook paper and computer paper. Using paper again reduces our need for forest products. According to The Institute of Scrap Recycling, paper recycling saves the United States 200 million trees per year. Plant a tree. Or "adopt" a tree that needs a friend to water and protect it. Adopt a rain forest. You can personally save an acre or more of rain forest by writing to Adopt-A-Rain Forest Program, The Nature Conservancy, 1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209 or calling 709841-5300. Cut back on or avoid eating beef. Forests are often cut down or burned so that cattle can be brought in to graze. Cutting back on meat consumption cuts back on the cattle that need to be raised. Seventy percent of the earth is covered by oceans. Oceans are vital to life on earth. They provide homes for millions of plants and animals, provide people with food and help regulate the climate, just for starters. But the bummer thing is, our oceans are currently a big dumping ground for tons of toxic waste and sewage. If you don't live by a beach, you may think what you do doesn't affect the ocean. Not true. The United States is made up of rivers. All rivers end up in the sea. In fact, pollution that finds itself into any body of water will eventually make its way into the ocean. But don't despair. You can help keep our oceans clean: NEVER DUMP used motor oil on the ground or down a storm sewer. One quart of oil can pollute l million gallons of water. MAKE SURE you and your parents don't use chemicals on your lawn. When it rains, these poisons can wash from your yard into a waterway and into the ocean. DON'T FLUSH any household hazardous waste down the drain. It will eventually end up in the water. WHEN YOU PICNIC near a lake, river or ocean, pick up all your trash. Any litter left behind will be swept into the water. Which animals are most in clanger of becoming extinct? Read this and weep: Pandas Fewer than 1,000 giant pandas remain in the wild in their homeland, western China. Black rhinos Fewer than 2,000 of them remain in the wild. That's a 95 percent decline since 1970. Most are killed for their horns, which are ground into powder for medicinal purposes in Asia. Tigers Only 67,000 wild tigers remain. Tigers are hunted and killed for their body parts, which are used in oriental medicines. Chimpanzees Chimps and other primates are on the verge of becoming extinct, primarily due to the destruction of tropical rain forests, which are home to 90 percent of all primates. Elephants In the last 20 years, half the African elephants have been killed off. The Asian elephant population has shrunk even more. Elephants are killed for their ivory tusks, most of which are used for making lewelry. At the present rate of extinction, 20 to 50 percent of all known species existing today will have been lost by the year 2000. What can you do to help protect animals' lives as well as ensure their quality of life? NEVER PURCHASE PRODUCTS made from endangered animals, such as ivory jewelry or figurines. VOLUNTEER to work at your local zoo, aquarium or animal shelter. ONLY BUY tinned tuna and salmon that have "dolphin friendly" stamps on them. Some fishing companies use nets that catch dolphin along with the fish. When the dolphins become trapped in the nets, they drown. PURSUADE EVERYONE you know not to buy real fur. Fake fur looks just as good, is a lot cheaper and will win them brownie points for being considerate to animals. b) Say what response the vital problems raised in the magazine articles cause in the young people.
20 Look through this page from the magazine "Best". a) Find out what solutions to some ecological problems are offered in it. A GREENER WORLD Recharge your Every time you throw away a batteryy you're adding to the toxic waste that's spoiling our planet So why not buy recharge- able ones and help solve the problem? Have you ever thought about the number of battery-operated appliances you own? From radios and cameras to torches and toys, they quickly add up. But batteries contain mercury, lead and cadmium, all of which are known to be toxic. When they're dumped or incinerated, those heavy metals escape into the atmosphere and the ground. The making of batteries also uses aereat deal of energy - up to эО times as much as they'll ever give you in your cassette player or radio! So always plug things into the mains if you can. It's far less wasteful- and much cheaper. And when buying toys for children, try to avoid battery- operated varieties. Some 'green' batteries contain reduced amounts of mercury or cadmium, or even none at all, but still work just as well. You can find them in supermarkets and chemists. batteries! It's drfficuft to avoid this convenient power source altogether, but reusables will cause less damage to the environment and to your pocket too Water pollution has become a huge problem and water authorities are failing to enforce regulations. Friends of the Earth is now encouraging us to monitor local water quality to put pressure on authorities whose supplies don't meet the required standard Clean up our water Green tip f When you throw away an aluminium can, you waste as much energy as if you'd half filled it with petrol and poured it all away! So recy- i cle i nstead - can banks are everywhere now, including many Tesco stores.' A cheaper solution The greenest solution - and much cheaper - is to buy a battery recnarger, and start using rechargeables. These batteries can be re-used up to 50 times, and are juiced up ovemignt trom tne mams. Most manufacturers also run a recycling scheme for used rechargeables, to ensure they're safely disposed of when they reach the end of their life; These batteries have come to the end of their useful life, but will start to pollute the ground or the atmosphere with poisonous metals once they have been dumped or incinerated Next time you turn on the tap and pour yourself a lovely, cool glass of water, don't take it for granted. Our supplies of pure, clean water are running out because we are wasting it and polluting what's left. All kinds of chemicals are pouring into the rivers and streams which feed our reservoirs, including phosphates, nitrates, heavy metals, chloroform, agri- chemicals and sewage. Our water quality is scandalously low. There's a European directive on dan- §erous substances, which was reached at 148 locations within the 10 water areas of England and Wales. In 1990 the law wasn't being enforced by water authorities, so if you pink fines for dumping should beprohibitive, write ко your MP and your МЕР. People who live near Jrivers can also monitor water [quality and help to find out /no's to blame for pollution rith the help of Friends of be Earth's Sleuth Kit, avail- ble (price £2) from 26-28 Underwood Street, Londoi N17JQ. It features instruc-l tions about how to find out| who is causing the pollution so that they can be reported to Friends of the Earth, who will then put pressure on the relevant water authority. And everyone can help by buying organic produce,' which is grown without unnecessary pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilisers. Cleaning with care You can also help the water pollution crisis bybeing careful about what you pour down the sink, put in the washing machine or flush down the loo at home, too. Never pour toxic chemicals such as paint-stripper down the sink, or oil down the drain - take them to your dump, instead. Switch to a phosphate-free washing powder and avoid bleach in the loo, opting instead for a/greener' alternative like Ecover's bleach-free loo cleaner. Elbow grease and a loo brush will do the trick, too! • b) How can each of us contribute to keeping the environment cleaner and healthier?
21 a) Study this newspaper section. Use a dictionary when necessary. EARTHWEEK: A DIARY OF THE PLANET By Steve Newman For the week ending July 28, 1995 . Global Warming I As waring summer be* caused further deaths and •puked forest fires in many areas of the Northern Hemisphere, scientists renewed their debate over whether the recent heat was further evidence that man- made global warming is in progress. British meteorologists even went as far as to predict that 1996 may go down ея the hottest year since global temperatures were first ; recorded, more than 100 years ago. This summer's heat and humidity are estimated to have killed more j than 700 people in the U.S., and ; scores more in southern Europe. Typhoon More than 50 people were reported missing or dead after typhoon Faye tore into the southern coast of South Korea, sending mountainous waves smashing into ships and ports. Eruptions i Minor eruptions continued | to worry residents of the British Caribbean colony of Monserrat one week after the activity began, Indonesia's Mount Serheru volcano, the tallest mountain on Java, sent clouds of steam soaring almost four miles high and blanketed Its western slops with ash. An eruption of Semeru in early 1994 Wiled seven people. Colombian officials advised roe- | idents around the Nevada del Ruiz | volcano to remain alert following an increase in seismic activity within J the 17,700-foot mountain. Tropical Storms Storm activity in the tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere increased | with typhoon Faye and hurricane Cosmo forming at opposite sides of the Pacific. Hurricane Chantai I briefly threatened the Bahamas and Bermuda before losing fores. Locust Invasion Albania was hit by a plague of locusts that devoured com and bean crops, and inremenedto migrate into cities. The worst infestation eeen in decades began in southern parts of the country, then spread into the key growing areas of Durres and Berat in the country's heartland. Migration A column of migrating toads more than 1,000 miles long snaked through northeastern China's Uaoning Province, stunning residents who had never teen such- an exodus. Residents in Benxi city watched in amazement as the toads traveled along the local Taize River, according to the official Xinhua news agency. The toads seemed disciplined ... once one tried to stop, the others would push him on," the agency quoted one witness as saying. While most of the toads were newly-born and no longer than a fingernail, larger ones were said to be •paced out every 30 feet, leading the others along. Floods Monsoon floods that have swept across almost half of Bangladesh since early July have kHed scores of people and destroyed nearly 10,000 homes. Swirling waters also carried away thousands of cattle and damaged approximately 1,000 bridges and culverts. In neighboring India, inundations covering almost all of the Kazkanga Notional Park have killed several one-homed rhinoceros and other threatened species. A large number of elephants have migrated to the nearby Karbi Anglong hills to escape the floods. At least two people were missing and about 12,000 others were evacuated from parts of northern and central Japan after heavy rains swept the region. Dozens of houses were swept away by the rains that also triggered landslides in Nagano, Niigata and Toyama prefectures. Overdose Three ravenous sheep and I a cow in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul died from an over- i doee of marijuana after a farmhand 1 fed them what he thought was dried alfalfa. Foreman Paulo Sergio} Goulart found bricks of plastic- wrapped marijuana hidden in a farm 1 pen near the southern city of Porto i Alegre and fed the beasts what he 1 thought was merely strong-smelling i alfalfa. The famished farm animals i devoured the cannabis and its packaging, then began fading down, § bleating and mooing for no apparent reason. "It was a good thing that the cow wasn't giving milk, or people would have gotten stoned by just drinking It," Goulart told reporters. The incident is being investigated by federal drug officials. Adtmtontl яОШОФШ! British MtttorofogtceJ от*. u.s. cansf» лпыушш с*т, u.s. Bsfs^sssss jr^vnuffwi pester ass1the workt ЛЛ ■ *■ III i Г ~— I !■!! *. ! II b) Answer the questions: What information is offered in this newspaper section? What picture of the Planet's natural life does it give? How can different natural phenomena be predicted? What are possible consequences of different natural disasters? What measures can be taken to avoid natural disasters?
Vocabulary Study (3) 22 Read and remember how to use the words: PRESERVING THE PLANET FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS threat [Gret], to threaten ['Qretn], threatening: He threatened that he would leave home. She felt threatened. The whole country is threatened with an ecological catastrophe. The world faces dangers greater and more threatening than any known in the past. to secure [si'kjus], secure, security [si'kjuarati]: to feel secure about something; European security. Do you feel secure about your future? By strengthening the river banks, the city secured itself against floods. The country's security depends on its government policy. Children count on their parents for love and security. This was regarded by the Government as a possible threat to national security. to avert [a'vait]: to avert danger; to avert catastrophe. People are becoming aware of an ecological catastrophe and are doing their best to avert it. to maintain [mein'tein], maintenance ['memtanans]: to maintain friendly relations (contacts); to maintain an opinion. The supplies of food were not enough to maintain life. Part of her job is to maintain good relations with our suppliers. to survive [sa'vaiv], survivor [sa'vaiva], survival [sa'vaival]: struggle for survival. Only two people survived the fire. These plants cannot survive in very cold conditions. They were very lucky to survive the accident. Few buildings survived the earthquake. They are fighting for the survival of their country. The crops survived in spite of the lack of rain. People of different nations can work together for mutual help and survival. to promote [pra'mout], promotion [pra'moujh]: Greenpeace works to promote awareness of the dangers that threaten our planet today. She took a computing course to improve her chances of promotion. What are your promotion prospects in this job? The meeting was held in order to promote better understanding between the two countries. The government was doing its best to promote economic growth. species ['spnjnz]: A species is a class of plants or animals. There are more than two hundred and fifty species of shark. This evergreen species will keep its berries until March. to endanger [in'demc&d], endangered: There can be no doubt that smoking endangers your health. Endangered species are animals or plants that are in danger of dying out completely, often because of exploitation by humans. The main aim is to return the endangered species to the wild. extinct [ik'stirjkt], extinction: The wolf is now nearly extinct. There is concern that the giant panda will soon become extinct. The extinction of dinosaurs ['damasoiz] occurred millions of years ago. Apes are in danger of extinction. 23 Here are some of the ways to solve ecological problems. Try and explain how they are helpful. 1Ы factories And plants must be- rtmoved frwn cities, tree* zoms must be- сгъаШ. The, greenery must be- protected And incrtAsed. Pollution control systems must be- introduced. Purifying systems for cleaning And trapping kxrvnfuL substances Must be widely used. Moise, must be- reduced. 24 Speak about the practical measures which must be taken in order to improve the ecological situation. 25 Characterize the ecological situation of the area in which you live. Does it need improvement? Give an example to show how man is affecting the ecology of the area in which you live.
26 a) Listen to the poem Barter', then read it. Say what things, both concrete and abstract, are lovely to the author. Sara Teasdale b) Say what emotions are expressed in the poem. What word images do you find that are particularly vivid? c) Express in your own words the idea of loveliness to be found in everyday life. d) Say what emotions nature evokes in you; what you value in the world outdoors. 27 Read this quotation and say how you understand it. One touch of nature makes the whole world km7, William Shakespeare 1 barter ['baits] — товарообмен 2 to sway — колебаться, качаться 3 curve [ka:v] — изгиб, дуга 4 scent [sent] — запах s holy ['houli] — священный, святой 6 strife — борьба, спор, раздор 7 kin — родственный
28 Today's boys and girls are not only concerned with the problems of their immediate environment, like the daily routine of getting along with one's family and friends and of meeting the demands of school life. They are increasingly concerned with the larger issues of society. They read newspapers, magazines and books, they attend theatres, museums and exhibitions. They become interested and involved, form opinions and participate in discussions about the critical issues of the times — issues that may well shape their own future as well as that of humanity in general. And they form their own ideas, they express their feelings and their awareness of the world around them, in their stories or essays which reflect their life involvement. Here is an essay entitled Plea\ It is written by Barbara Cohea, a 16-year-old American student. a) Read and say how the young author showed her deep respect for nature. Use a dictionary when necessary. Plea The plain is gone. The desert is gone. The mountain is gone. Gone. Gone from the earth. No more do they stretch endless before a wondering eye, but though they are gone and dead they still live in the shadows of my mind. In farthest corners they are still there and they will always be fresh, real... Once the land was free. The wind blew wild across the earth's face. Desert grass stirred in the breeze. The air was clean and crisp, so crisp in the cool early morning it hurt the lungs just to breathe it. The fresh summer winds flowed from the mountains to cool the burning desert. The clay hills shone bright red in the rising sun and when the sun set the sky was painted with a myriad of sunreds, pinks, yellows, oranges. Nature was the ruler, the queen. She was passive, splendid, tender, but still, she could be angered, and when she was she would summon the wind and together they would turn the desert upside down, driving huge tumbleweeds, hurling sand and dirt before them. There was nothing on earth like the roar of the wind sweeping down the desert, the spectacle of a calm, clear day turned into a swirling, ranging sea of endless blowing sand. No sky, no earth, just sand, everywhere sand. Then suddenly it was over; it ended just as quickly as it began. The sky still brown with dust began to turn pale blue, the wind ceased its roar and peace once again spread throughout the land. But the land is this way no longer. Man, his machines, his progress have seen to that and it will (From the magazine "Sun and Shadow") \ never be the same again. When the sun sets, it sets through a haze of smog. The new morning is interrupted by the clatter of garbage cans. Everywhere people are rushing from here to there, always busy, too busy to notice or even care about what is dying before their eyes. They are blind. They don't care. They don't care that the wind blows a little less hard, that the rain beats a little less free, that the thunder rolls a little less booming across the night sky. They conquered the land, stripped her of her pride and know she kneels conquered. New buildings close in upon the desert. Houses encroach on the foothills of the mountains and somehow the mountains aren't as high any more. Cans float down the river; the canyon becomes part of the city dump, the breeze kicks a copy of last night's newspaper down the noisy avenue. Broken bottles litter the mountain paths; papers cling to cactus flowers. Still the city spreads. Where will it end? Who will stand to say no? Nature bows her head in defeat. The battle lost, but who won the war? Man? He may turn his head, close his eyes, his ears, his mind, his heart, but sooner or later he'll have to look and when he does, he won't like what he sees. I just hope that he looks before it's too late. Even now if he will only listen, he will hear the wind echo the cries of better days gone by. b) Does the author succeed in awakening your interest in the problem of the destruction and defeat of nature ? c) Do you think, as the author seems to, that the wasteful ways of the city will destroy much of nature? Give reasons for your answer. d) Do you think that man is capable of correcting the damage he has done to the earth's ecological system before it is too late? Explain your answer. ' plea [pli:] — мольба
29 Look at the poster and say what idea, in your opinion, it reflects. Do you think this idea is expressed clearly and understandably? Give reasons for your opinion. Planet of the Year TIME Endangered Earth 30 Speak on the topic "Man's survival depends upon the way he treats his environment". 31 Suppose your pen-friend from another country is interested in your opinion of what may happen to the world in the next 10, 20, 30 years. The future may hold many differences of opinions from country to country, but he thinks people should try everything possible to preserve our planet for future generations. He wants to know your views and hopes that you are as concerned as he is. What would you write to your pen-friend? 32 Read these quotations about nature and comment on them. We are the children of our landscape; it dictates behavior and even thought in the measure to which we are responsive to it. Lawrence Durrell In nature there are neither rewards nor punishment - there are consequences. Robert G. Ingersoll
33 a) Read this extract from a magazine article. Find out what has been done in the USA to protect unspoiled wilderness '. Use a dictionary when necessary. A WILDERNESS PORTFOLIO "In Wildness Is the Preservation of the World" For more than lOO years, the United States has been working to protect unspoiled wilderness. In the pages that follow, leading nature photographers capture the richness of these wild areas Л Т 7H£N NATURALIST and author Henry %/%/ David Thoreau ['0o:rou] wrote the words T T quoted above, more than a century ago, he |was describing the moral responsibility we all share to [preserve and protect the natural world. For Thoreau, I to save the wilderness — powerful places of solitude and contemplation — was to save one's soul. But today, Thoreau's words have taken on another | meaning. Nature and its wilderness have become jessential to our very survival. Wilderness areas help | clean our water by protecting watersheds; they filter pollutants from our air. They are also "living |laboratories" for medical and scientific research. Many prescription drugs, for instance, are made from I natural substances which can be found on public lands. And, of course, wilderness areas provide j critical habitat for threatened species and offer humans havens of recreation and beauty. The United States established the world's first 'national park, Wyoming's2 Yellowstone, in 1872, and has steadily added land to national forests, parks and wildlife refuges throughout the 20th century. Today, the federal government manages some 290 million hectares of public land, some reserved for multiple uses such as forestry, mining and recreation, but much j of it preserved solely as parks and wilderness. States administer another 25 million hectares of parks and recreation areas (including the glowing desert landscape of California's Anza Borrego Desert State Park shown above) and localities control 3.5 million hectares. And in recent years, private organizations such as The Nature Conservancy have worked to purchase and protect valuable natural habitats throughout the country. Wilderness areas are forced to cope with the environmental pressures of development, pollution and even the over-eager embrace of too many hikers, ] campers and visitors. Preserving them will require government and private citizens to make a continuing commitment to heed Thoreau's words. b) Say in what way nature and its wilderness have become essential to our very survival. 1 wilderness ['wildsnss] — девственная природа 2 Wyoming [wai'oumin] — один из западных штатов США
34 Read these quotations about nature. Say how you understand them. In what way do you think they are true? You could cover the whole world with asphalt, but sooner or later green grass would break through, Ilya Ehrenburg Nature never did betray The heart that loved her. William Wordsworth Words to remember Г serving the Planet for Future Generations avert endanger v endangered extinct extinction maintain v maintenance promote v promotion secure v, n security species survival survive v survivor threat threaten v threatening What Can Be Done? You Are a Part of the Environment astonish v astonishing astonishment avoid v campaign consequence conservation conserve v measure v, n oblige v recycle v reduce v remove v urgent breath breathe v civilization civilized damage v, n ecological ecology environment exhaust v, n pollute v pollution pure purity pour v release v, n resource environmental substance
GREENPEACE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IN THE USA Survival Projects in Britain 35 a) Look at the photo and give your comments on it. How do the people show their concern with the problems of their environment? Cultural Note: The Green Party 'gn:n ,pa:ti] a British political party started in 1973 which wants a nuclear-free society and whose idea centres around caring for the environment. b) What do you think about the "green" movement ? Is it necessary ? How effective is it ? 36 a) Read the text The Changed Face of Sheffield. Say what environmental change the clean air campaign brought about in Sheffield. The Changed Face of Sheffield Sheffield is one of England's largest cities. It is an industrial city, a steel-making centre of the country with lots of plants and factories in it. For more than a century it was a smoky and dirty city, and the view of chimneys releasing smoke and dirt was very characteristic of it.Today, though the city is still proud to be one of the greatest industrial centres, the environment is entirely different. This is largely due to the city's clean air programme, which has made Sheffield smokeless, and probably one of the cleanest industrial cities in Europe.The city made great efforts to overcome the problem of pollution when it began the clean air campaign. Smoke Control Orders were introduced into various parts of the city. The factories and plants were redesigned and modified. Modern technology enabled the city to reduce the amount of waste in the air, to trap' harmful substances released into the air with smoke and to purify them by special filters. Massive redevelopment, widescale tree planting and rigid2 smoke control have changed the whole environment. Gone are the smoke and the dirt that once blackened the atmosphere.For city outdoor displays, a quarter of a million tulips are imported from Holland each year. Until recently only coloured tulips were ordered — the darker, the better. Today white tulips are also included and remain white during the three or four weeks in which their lovely blooms3 bring an additional charm to the centre of town. b) Say what measures were taken in Sheffield to improve the environment. 1 to trap — тех. задерживать 2 rigid ['nd3id] — жесткий, строгий, суровый 3 bloom [blu:m] — цвет, цветение
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD Wildlife Conservation 37 a) Look at these leaflets and say what opportunities to experience wildlife and to learn something of nature's problems zoos, wildlife parks and conservancy centres offer. The Trust is a non-profit making organisation, working for wildlife conservation in Montgomeryshire. Formed in 1982, it is now one of nearly fifty Wild-life Trust's in the UK affiliated to the Royal Society for Nature Conservation. The Conservancy offers educational facilities to schools and youth organisations, at no extra charge each weekday during term-time. This includes a short introductory lecture and worksheets for the children to complete. We feel it is very important that the children who visit the centre should learn about their own indigenous' species. b) How, in your opinion, are zoos, wildlife parks and conservancy centres important for the conservation of rare and endangered animals, plants and birds? 1 indigenous [in'did3in9s] — зд. местный The Welsh Mountain Zoo is a member of the Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland. We participate in cooperative worldwide species survival projects and we are dedicated to the conservation of rare and endangered wildlife.
Scientists believe that at least one unique life form disappears from our planet every day. The greatest task for conservationists is to educate people and change their destructive attitudes towards nature. Come Visit Оиг Twins Nqotna bTambo. 38 a) Look at this poster and the one opposite attentively and give your opinion about them. What catches the onlookers' attention at first sight? What makes you stop and read the text? b) What organizations published these posters ? c) Read the texts of the posters and find out: what is offered to amuse and to educate visitors to the Bronx Zoo; how people can contribute to improving their environment. Cultural Note: The Bronx [branks II bracks] a county and one of the five boroughs of New York City. It's not every day that twin gorillas are born in zoos. As a matter of fact, in the whole world, only five other pairs have ever been born. And now it has happened at the Bronx Zoo! Ngoma &Tambo,our baby twins, are making their public debut now through July23. There will be lots of Gorilla-themed games for you to enjoy; a "Find the Primate" scavenger hunt; live music from Annie & the Natural Wonder Band; magic shows from Dolly the Clown; and important information about the Wildlife Conservation Society's international gorilla conservation efforts. So don't miss this coming out party because it doesn't come around very often. For more information call us at 718-367-1010. BRONX ZOO Wildlife Conservation Park
Cultural Note: International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) an organization established by the United Nations to promote the conservation of wildlife and habitats in the national policies of member states. Nature Conservancy Council (NCC) a UK government agency established in 1973 to oversee nature conservation. It is responsible for designating and managing National Nature Reserves and other conservation areas (for example, Sites of Special Scientific Interest, SSSI) and for the enforcement of legislation that protects wildlife and habitats. World Wildlife Fund an international organization established in 1961 to raise funds for conservation by public appeal. Its headquarters are at Gland, Switzerland, but many countries have their own autonomous branches. Projects include conservation of particular species (for example, the tiger and giant panda) or special areas (for example, the Simen Mountains, Ethiopia). Greenpeace an international organization which actively works to protect the environment from harm. It is known especially for its direct non-violent actions and wants to stop damage to the environment caused by nuclear testing, the pouring of poisonous waste into the sea, and the killing of whales. All people, especially children, are defenseless against a toxic environment. But with the support of Greenpeace, a group of Califomian farm workers kept the biggest toxic waste company in the world from poisoning the air and water in their city. We have also succeeded in doing everything from stopping nuclear waste dumping into our oceans to exposing carcino-genic chemicals in our food. And with your help, we can continue to do more. Call Greenpeace on 1-800-430-4542. We're making a difference. c) Say what you know about Greenpeace or any other ecological organizations and their activities.
Art Buchwald (born 1925)a native New Yorker, first became known when he was a columnist for the newspaper New York Herald Tribune. When he settled in Washington, D.C., he started writing humorous articles about American politics. They appeared in over four hundred newspapers, and Buchwald became noted for his commentaries on politics and contemporary customs. Among his books are / Never Danced at the White House (1973) and I Am Not a Crook (1974). ART BUCHWALD 39 Read the sentences and translate them. Pay attention to the words formed by conversion: sense: His sense of humour is really remarkable. The man sensed that his guest felt very uncomfortable in a new environment. water: The water in the lake seemed crystal blue. My eyes are watering from the fresh mountain air. lecture: The lecture attracted lots of listeners as the topic was very interesting. The writer was lecturing in several states of the country. Cultural Note: California [.kasli'foinja] a state in the north-central United States. Los Angeles [bs'aend33li:z], LA [,el'ei], largest city in southern California; second most populated city in the United States. Los Angeles suffers from serious smog pollution created by industry and large numbers of automobiles. Montana [mon'taens] a state in the northwestern United States. Butte [bju:t] a city in Montana. Arizona [aen'zouna] a state in the south-western United States. Flagstaff ['fkegstaf] a city in Arizona. 40 Read the story Fresh Air Will Kill You and say how the author felt when he happened to lecture in Arizona. Fresh Air Will Kill You Smog, which was once the big attraction of Los Angeles, can now be found all over the country from Butte, Montana, to New York City, and people are getting so used to polluted air that it's very difficult for them to breathe anything else. I was lecturing recently, and one of my stops was Flagstaff, Arizona, which is about 7,000 feet above the sea level. As soon as I got out of the plane, I smelled something peculiar. "What's that smell?" I asked the man who met me at the plane. "I don't smell anything," he replied. "There is a definite odour1 that I'm not familiar with," I said. "Oh, you must be talking about the fresh air. A lot of people come out here who have never smelled fresh air before. It's supposed to be good for your lungs." "I've heard that story before," I said. "How come if it's air, my eyes aren't watering?" "Your eyes don't water with fresh air. That's the advantage of it." I looked around and everything appeared crystal clear. It was a strange sensation and made me feel very uncomfortable. My host, sensing this, tried to be reassuring2. "Please don't worry about it. Tests have proved that you can breathe fresh air day and night without its doing any harm to the body." 'You're just saying that because you don't want me to leave," I said. "Nobody who has lived in a big city can stand fresh air for a very long time. He has no tolerance for it." "Well, if the fresh air bothers you, why don't you put a handkerchief over your nose and breathe through your mouth?" "Okay, I'll try it. If I'd known I was coming to a place that had nothing but fresh air, I would have brought a surgicaPmask." We drove in silence. About fifteen minutes later he asked, "How do you feel now?" "Okay, I guess, but I sure miss sneezing." 'We don't sneeze4 too much here," the man admitted. "Do they sneeze a lot where you come from?" "All the time. There are some days when that's all you do." "Do you enjoy it?" "Not necessarily, but if you don't sneeze, you'll die. Let me ask you something. How come there's no air pollution around here?" 1 odour ['ouda] — запах, аромат, благоухание 2 to reassure [ п:э'/иэ] — убеждать 5 surgical ['S3:d3ik3l] — хирургический 4 to sneeze [sni:z] — чихать
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD "Flagstaff can't seem to attract industry. I guess we're really behind the times. The only smoke we get is when the Indians start signalling each other. But the wind seems to blow it away." The fresh air was making me feel dizzy.1 "Isn't there a diesel bus around here that I could breathe into a couple of hours?" "Not at this time of day. I might be able to find a truck2 for you." We found a truck driver, and slipped him a five-dollar bill, and he let me put my head near his exhaust pipe for half an hour. I was immediately revived3 and able to give my speech. Nobody was as happy to leave Flagstaff as I was. My next stop was Los Angeles, and when I got off the plane, I took one deep breath of the smog-filled air, my eyes started to water, I began to sneeze, and I felt like a new man again. 41 Read and translate these sentences: 1 "If I'd known I was coming to a place that had nothing but fresh air, I would have brought a surgical mask." 2 "I might be able to find a truck for you." 42 Answer the questions: 1 How did the author react when he felt fresh air? What made him worry? 2 Do you think that the man who met the author at the airport understood what was happening to him? How did he try to cheer the author up? 3 What did the author find out about the surroundings from the talk with his host? 4 What was the author's only desire? 5 How did the author's mood change when he got a chance to breathe polluted air again? 43 Describe the place where the author of the story had to stay when lecturing. 44 a) Describe the emotions that the author experienced from the moment when he got out off the plane till the moment when he left Flagstaff. b) How would you have felt if you had found yourself in a similar place ? Say what emotions you would have experienced. Discussing the Theme of the Story 45 Do you think "Fresh Air Will Kill You" is a good title ? Why or why not? Does it give readers clues to what the story is about? 46 What do you think is the author's purpose in writing the story ? 47 Give reasons to explain these facts from the story: The smell of fresh air was unfamiliar to the author. The author felt very uncomfortable in Flagstaff. It was a surprise for the author that there was no air pollution around there. The author found a truck driver, slipped him a five-dollar bill and put his head near the exhaust pipe for half an hour. The author was happy to leave Flagstaff. 48 Quote the words which indicate that the writer is treating the situation humorously. 49 The story was told from the author's point of view. How do you think the author's host might have told it? 50 Work in pairs. The author has returned home. He describes his impressions and his new experience of breathing fresh air. Act out a conversation between the author and a member of his family or a family friend. 1 to feel dizzy — чувствовать головокружение 2 truck — грузовик 3 to revive [n'varv] — оживать, приходить в себя
51 There have been National Parks in the United States for more than a century. At present there are 48 National Parks in the US. Nevertheless, it was not until 1949 that the first National Park was set up in England and Wales. Now there are 10 National Parks in England and Wales which cover 9 per cent of the total land area. Consult different reference books to find out some information about National Parks. You may continue the lists given below. Canada l The Wood Buffalo [Wfalou] National Park USA 1 The Yellowstone National Park 2 The Yosemite [jou'semrti] Valley 3 Rocky Mountains 4 The Grand Canyon ['kaenjan]
THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD England and Wales 1 Lake District 2 Peak District 3 Snowdonia 4 The Brecon Beacons Earth Day Poster Work in groups. 1 Discuss your ideas about how ecological education for people of different age groups can be organized. How can ecological education be organized at school? 2 Devise a questionnaire to interview school teachers (the members of the school administration, your schoolmates) in order to find out their views on the importance of environmental protection. 3 Interview your schoolmates and your teachers to collect suggestions on what practical steps the school can take in order to make the school environment clean, tidy and pleasant. 4 Discuss the suggestions made by the interviewees. Decide which of them can be effectively realized. 5 Design and produce posters to be placed in the school building which call upon the students to treat their environment with respect and care. 6 Arrange a display of the posters and select the best. Australia
Appendix REVIEWING TOPICS "There Is No Frigate Like a Book" 1 A person's ideas, attitudes or activities are often influenced by the time and place, customs or conditions in which he lives. Does literature also add to moulding a person's character, activities and forming his moral values? Say in what way this is true or not true. 2 Comment on the following: "The books which help us most are those which make us think most." "I need no company when I have a good book to read." 3 There are a lot of masterpieces in literature but only very few writers become your favourites. Why? 4 What is the most significant book you ever read? Say why it has influenced you so much. 5 Speak about the kinds of books you consider most attractive. Explain your preferences. 6 Do you agree that both classical and contemporary writers appeal to readers? Speak about the attraction of the classics and modern literature. 7 Are there any books that have left you indifferent? Why? Give your reasons. "A Strange And Exclusive Word Is 'City' " 1 What are the principal attractions of a big city? 2 Speak about an excursion or visit to an exhibit (concert hall, theatre, museum, gallery) you have been on recently. What were your impressions? 3 Do visits to picture galleries, art museums, different exhibits of crafts help you to appreciate real beauty? In what way? 4 Say which places of historical and architectural interest (museums and exhibits, theatres, newly-built districts or buildings) in your city you would advise a visitor to your city to see. Give reasons. 5 Are there any entertainments in the district in which you live? What recreation facilities does your district provide? Describe them. 6 Say how you imagine a city which can provide all the facilities which people need without spoiling the beauty of the city. 7 The face of every city is changing rapidly. What causes this? 8 Those who live in big cities often prefer to spend much of their leisure time in the surrounding countryside. Is it surprising? What are the reasons? 9 Speak about the problems of a big city. Do you think all these problems can be solved? How? "A Nation Talking To Itself " 1 Mass media play an important role in reflecting the life of society and in building opinions. Say in what way this is true. 2 Say how mass media draw the public's attention to the most serious political, economical, social and ecological problems. Express your opinion about the effectiveness of their influence on people. What does it depend on? 3 Express your opinion about a television programme (it may be a programme you like most or a programme which does not appeal to you). 4 Speak about advantages and disadvantages of television. 5 Say what important problems of young people are raised by mass media. 6 Speak about yourself as a TV viewer.
"Facing The Unknown" 1 Comment on the following words: "Modern civilization is everything that has been achieved thanks to science." Do you agree? In what way do you think these words are true? 2 Say why we pay tribute to great scientists of the world. 3 Say what outstanding scientists you know about, in what field they work (worked) and what they are famous for. 4 Try to explain why much attention is paid to the development of science nowadays. 5 What qualities, in your opinion, are needed to succeed in scientific work? Give your reasons. 6 Say what kind of education you should get to be able to work in some fields of science. "If You Do Not Think About The Future, You Cannot Have One" 1 It is not a simple matter at all to choose a future career at your age. Explain why it is so. 2 Is it an advantage to choose your future career while at school? It can give you a goal to work towards and enable you to choose a necessary course of study. Or it can force you into a career path before you really know what you will want to do in the future. Speak about the pros and cons of choosing a career at school. 3 Speak about what has to be considered when choosing a career. Give reasons for what you say. 4 Say how you think you create your tomorrow today. Do you think your ideas might change as you get older? 5 Say how a good knowledge of English can be helpful in your future career. 6 "If you don't think about the future, you don't have one." Say how you understand these words. 7 Say in which career, in your opinion, you can succeed and which career you think you are not suited for. Give your reasons. "Speak To The Earth" 1 Explain why so much attention is paid to ecological problems nowadays and why people are getting alarmed and demand urgent actions to protect nature. 2 We often hear the words " harmful effects of civilization on nature". What do they mean? Illustrate the results of harmful and helpful influences of human contacts with nature. 3 How do scientists, journalists, teachers, public and political leaders draw people's attention to the problems of environmental protection? 4 Explain how and why our attitude towards nature is changing together with the knowledge we are acquiring. 5 Speak about the practical steps which are being undertaken for protecting our environment. 6 Man's survival depends upon the way he treats his environment. Say in what way this is true. 7 It is our responsibility to preserve this planet for future generations. Say what must be done to achieve that.
CONVERSATIONAL FORMULAS How to Ask for and Give Directions Asking for Direction Excuse me, could you tell me ..., please? Excuse me, do you know ..., please? Excuse me, how do I get to ..., please? Excuse me, where is..., please Replies Certainly. (Yes, of course.) Yes, I know. No, I'm sorry, I've no idea. Well, I'm not (very) sure. Well, I'm sorry, I'm not absolutely certain. How to Express Agreement or Disagreement Agreement Certainly! Of course! You're quite right! I agree with you. I also think... I couldn't agree more. It's just what I was thinking. Disagreement Certainly not! Of course not! I don't think you're right! I don't quite agree with you. I think... Yes, that's quite true but... How to Express Opinions That was a wonderful performance! What a delightful place! The match is so exciting The book is really thrilling! I was impressed by his brilliant conversation. The way the actors play is really remarkable! We all felt bored when we listened to his report. I was disappointed at the trip. This game is boring. How to Congratulate and Wish Something on Different Occasions Congratulations! Many happy returns (of the day)! (A) Happy New Year! I wish you all the very best! Best wishes for... I wish you good luck in everything. A very enjoyable holiday to you! Have a good time! How to Show Surprise, Polite Interest, Pleasure, Regret on Hearing Some News Showing Surprise I'm surprised. Oh, really! I can't believe it. Showing Polite Interest How interesting. Oh, really! I see. Showing Pleasure Wonderful! That's good news! How nice! Showing Regret Oh, I'm sorry. Well, it's a pity. That's bad news. How to Give Advice and How to Accept It Giving Advice You had better.. You'd better.. You'd rather.. I think I would be good to.. Replies Good, I'll do that. You are right. That's an idea. Oh, I can't agree to that. I don't think you are right. No, I don't want to do that. How to Express Encouragement Giving Advice Cheer up! Make the best of it. Let's hope for the best. Replies Never give way to despair. Don't let it get you down. Why not give it another try?
APPENDIX How to Express Approval or Disapproval Approval It's a good thing. Sounds good to me. Fine! That'll do. That's just what I was going to say. I'm all for it. Disapproval I'm against it. That won't do. No go! That won't work. What's the use of...? What's the good of...? How to Invite and How to Accept or Reject an Invitation Invitations I'd like to invite you to the circus. How (What) about going hiking? Let's go to see the new exhibition. Would you like to go the theatre? Replies With pleasure. Yes. I'd like to. I'm afraid I can't, because... I'm sorry I can't. How to Make Requests Requests Please do... (Please don't...) Will you...? Would you...? Could you...? Replies Yes, certainly. Of course I will. With pleasure. (Willingly.) (I'm) Sorry I can't. How to Apologize Apologies (I'm)Sorry! Excuse me. I (do) apologize. Please forgive me. Replies Oh, that's all right. Never mind! How to Ask for and Give an Opinion What do you think of...? How do you find ...? What's your opinion of...? How do you feel about...? What would you say to ...? I think... I feel... If you want my opinion . Well, in my opinion ... In my view... As far as I'm concerned As I see it... I would say... Frankly speaking... Honestly... I suppose... How to Express Doubt Do you really think so? Is that what you honestly think? You are convinced of this, aren't you? I'm not so sure about that. Well, I don't know ... Well, it depends, doesn't it? You can't be serious. How to Make a Suggestion and How to Reply Expressing Likes, Dislikes and Preferences Suggestions Do you feel like going to the cinema tonight? How about buying some new records? What about going to the exhibition? How about watching the new programme? What do you say to camping? Replies 1 Yes, good idea. (Good idea!) Yes, that's a splendid idea. Yes, that sounds like a good idea. That's fine! Not a bad idea. 2 Well, I can't say I feel like it really. No, I don't think that's such a good idea, really. No, I don't think so. No, thanks. I don't care. 3 I think I'd rather ... I prefer... I think I'd rather...
MODAL VERBS CERTAINTLY PROBABILITY POSSIBILITY MUST BE The phone's ringing. It must be Ann. Mary and her friends go camping every weekend. That must be fun. MUST can be used to say that we are sure about something because it is logically necessary. MUST HAVE BEEN \ Mary and her friends went camping last weekend. That must have been fun. Look! There is a crowd of people near the office. Something must have happened. waited for some time but nobody answered the phone call. Bob must have left already. MUST is used with the Perfect Infinitive for deductions about the past. CAN BE Can it be John? That can't be John. He' is at school now. CAN is sometimes used to express doubt, astonishment or present possibility, but only in questions and negative sentences CAN HAVE BEEN COULD HAVE BEEN They can't have gone hiking. The day was rainy and awfully cold Tom can't have behaved so rudely. I could have done it for you last Saturday. I couldn't have done it for you yesterday. Could she really have been so unfriendly ? CAN and COULD are both used with the Perfect Infinitive for speculating or guessing about the past, for saying something was a possibility but did not happen. They are also used to doubt a past action (in questions).
APPENDIX MAY and MIGHT are both used when we say that something is possible and we get some suggestions. There is no important difference between may and might. MAYBE I wonder where Nell is. — She may be with Mary, I suppose. — She might be with Mary. MAY/MIGHT HAVE BEEN I wonder why Mary didn't answer my letter. — Well, I suppose she may have been very busy. — She might have been busy. MAY and MIGHT can be used with the Perfect Infinitive when we say what was possible in the past. MIGHT HAVE BEEN You might have told me about your plans Why didn't you? MIGHT with the Perfect Infinitive expresses criticism, or reproach. SHOULD BE OUGHT TO BE The child shouldn't eat so much icecream. He may get a sore throat. You ought not to drive now. You are too tired. You should be more careful when you drive in town. SHOULD and OUGHT can often be used when we say what we think is the right (not right) thing to do, or to say that we expect something. SHOULD HAVE BEEN OUGHT TO HAVE BEEN He should have devoted more time to his studies. It's a pity he didn't. They ought to have been more attentive to their friends But they were not. SHOULD and OUGHT can be used with the Perfect Infinitive when we say that somebody did the wrong thing.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Subjunctive I IF I HAD ENOUGH TIME I WOULD DO... I he True Situation Facts Imaginary Situation Contrary-to-fact in the Present/Future I don't have a tape recorder. I wish I had one. I have to take a bus to school. I wish I didn't have to. We are not good chess players. We wish we were. If I had a tape recorder, I would listen to my favourite music at any time of the day. If I didn't have to take a bus to school, I wouldn't get up so early. If we were good chess players, we would play in our school team. When we talk about an imaginary situation which is contrary-to- fact in the present or in the future, we use the past verb form in the if-clause (had, knew, were, could) and the form would + Infinitive in the main clause. If-clause Main clause If it were not raining, If the weather were nice, If Mary were here, If I were you, I would go swimming. we would go for a walk. she would help us. I wouldn't accept the invitation. In an if-clause were is used for all persons.
APPENDIX Subjunctive II IF I HAD HAD ENOUGH TIME I WOULD HAVE DONE... The True Situation Facts I didn't call my friend last night. I wish I had called him, to tell him the news. I didn't go to the meeting yesterday. I wish I had gone to the meeting yesterday, to take part in the discussion. He didn't watch TV last night. He wishes he had watched TV last night, and not missed such an interesting interview. He talked on the telephone with his friends all evening. He wishes he hadn't talked on the telephone with his friends all evening, and that he had studied for the test. Imaginary Situation Contrary-to-fact in the Past^ If I had called my friend last night, I would have told him the news. If I had gone to the meeting yesterday, I would have taken part in the discussion. If he had watched TV last night, he wouldn't have missed such an interesting interview. If he hadn't talked on the telephone with his friends all evening, he would have studied for the test. When we talk about an imaginary situation which is contrary-to- fact in the past, we use the form had done (had been, had gone, etc.) in the if-clause and the form would have + Past Participle in the main clause. If-clause Main clause If the weather had been nice, we would have gone swimming.
IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive be beat become begin bend blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come cut dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forget get give go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay Past Indefinite was , beat became began bent blew broke brought built burnt bought caught chose came cut dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forgot got gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid were Past Participle been beat become begun bent blown broken brought built burnt bought caught chosen come cut dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forgotten got given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid Meaning быть бить становиться, стать начинать наклонять(ся) дуть ломать(ся) приносить строить гореть, жечь покупать ловить, хватать выбирать приходить резать копать делать рисовать мечтать пить водить есть падать кормить чувствовать бороться находить летать забывать получать давать идти расти висеть иметь слышать прятать ударять держать причинять боль держать знать класть
APPENDIX Продолжение lead learn leave lie lose make mean meet overcome pay put read ride ring rise run say see set sew shake shine shoot show sing sit sleep speak spend stand steal strike sweep swim take teach tear tell think throw understand upset wake wear write led learnt left lay lost made meant met overcame paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw set sewed shook shone shot showed sang sat slept spoke spent stood stole struck swept swam took taught tore told thought threw understood upset woke wore wrote led learnt left lain lost made meant met overcome paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen set sewn shaken shone shot shown sung sat slept spoken spent stood stolen struck swept swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood upset woken worn written вести учить оставлять лежать терять делать означать встречать преодолевать платить класть читать ездить, ехать звенеть подниматься бежать говорить видеть заходить шить трясти сиять, блестеть стрелять показывать петь сидеть спать говорить тратить стоять красть ударять, бить мести плавать брать учить рвать говорить думать бросать понимать опрокидывать будить носить (одежду) писать
Vocabulary* а — adjective — прилагательное adv — adverb — наречие cj — conjunction — союз int — interjection — междометие л — noun — существительное пит — numeral — числительное part — particle — частица pi — plural — множественное число prn — proper noun — собственное имя prep — preposition — предлог pron — pronoun — местоимение v — verb — глагол ability* [a'biliti] л способность, умение able ['eibl]: be able (to do something) уметь, мочь, быть в состоянии (сделать что-то) about [s'baut] adv около, приблизительно above [э'Ьлу] prep над abroad [a'brad] adv за границей, за границу go abroad поехать за границу absent ['aebssnt]: be absent отсутствовать absent-minded рассеянный access ['aekses] n 6доступ accessible [a;k'ses3bl] а 6 доступный accessibility [aek,sesi'biliti] n б доступность accept[3k'sept] v принимать accept an invitation принимать приглашение accept an offer принимать предложение accident fasksidsnt] n 3 несчастный случай accidental [.aeksi'dental] a 3 случайный according [a'koxlin] to prep в соответствии с, согласно, по accuracy ['aekjuresi] л 7точность, правильность, тщательность accurate [cekjuret] а 7точный, правильный, тщательный ache [eik] л боль; v болеть achieve [a'tjliv] v достигать achievement [s'tfrvmsnt] л достижение acquaint [s'kwemt] v знакомить be acquainted (with) быть знакомым (с) get acquainted (with) познакомиться (с) acquire [a'kwaia] v приобрести (навыки, знания) across [s'kros] prep через act [aekt] v действовать, поступать action['aekfn] л действие active ['aektiv] а активный activity [sek'tiviti] л деятельность, активность actor ['aekts] n актер actual ['aektjusl] а 5действительный, подлинный adapt [a'daspt] v / приспособлять; адаптировать, переделывать; инсценировать (роман) adaptation [,sedaep'teij(3)n] n 1 адаптация; инсценировка (романа); экранизация литературного произведения add [aed] v прибавлять, складывать; добавить addition [a'difn] n сложение address [s'dres] л адрес; v обращаться (к кому-либо) receiver's address адрес получателя return address адрес отправителя admire [ad'maia] v восхищаться adopt [s'dopt] v принимать adult ['aedAlt] л взрослый advance [ad'vans] л продвижение, успех, прогресс, улучшение in advance вперед, заранее advantage [sd'vainticfc] л преимущество adventure [gd'ventfa] л приключение advertise ['aedvataiz] v рекламировать advertisement [ad'vsitismant] л реклама, объявление advice [ad'vais] л совет follow somebody's advice следовать чьему-либо совету advise [ad'vaiz] v советовать affair [эТеэ] л дело affect [s'fekt] v 5 воздействовать, влиять; волновать affection[3'fek|h] «любовь afford [s'fbid] v позволить себе afraid [a'freid]: be afraid (of) бояться after ['cufts] prep после afternoon [,йэ'пи:п] п время после полудня in the afternoon днем against [a'gemst] prep против age [eid3] л возраст at the age (of) в возрасте ago [э'дои] adv тому назад long ago давно agree [a'gri:] v соглашаться ahead [a'hed] adv впереди, вперед aim [eim] л цель air [еэ] л воздух; v проветривать alarm* [э'1а:т] л тревога, смятение in alarm в тревоге, страхе alarming [a'laimirj] а тревожный alike [s'laik] а похожий alive [a'laiv] а живой, в живых become alive оживать allow [a'lau] v разрешать, позволять almost ['o:lmoust] adv почти, едва не alone [a'loun] а один, одинокий also['o:lsou] adv тоже, также altogether [pdte'geOe] adv совсем, совершенно; в общем, в целом; вместе not altogether bad неплохой ambassador* [asm'baesada] л посол ambition [a;m'bif(3)n] л 7честолюбие; стремление, цель; мечта * Слова, отмеченные звездочкой (*), не входят в лексический минимум IX класса.
ambitious [aem'bijas] а /честолюбивый, стремящийся, мечтающий сделать что-либо America [э'тепкэ] pr л Америка the United States of America Соединенные Штаты Америки among [э'тлп] prep среди, между amount [a'maunt] я 5 количество a large amount of (work) много (работы) amuse [a'mjuiz] v забавлять, развлекать amusing [s'mjuizin] а забавный, смешной analyse ['asnalaiz] v анализировать ancient ['em/ant] а древний anniversary [,aeni'v3:s3n] я годовщина announce [s'nauns] v объявлять announcement [s'naunsnwnt] л заявление announcer [s'naunss] л диктор another [э'плбэ] ргоп другой, еще один anthem* ['аепвэт] л гимн anxious ['aenkfas] а беспокоящийся apologize [a'pDlac&aiz] v извиняться appeal [a'piil] n обращение с призывом; v обращаться с призывом appeal [s'pi:l] я привлекательность; v привлекать appear [э'рю] v появляться, показываться applaud [s'pb:d] v аплодировать apply [a'plai] v 6 применяться; касаться, относиться appreciate [a'prirjieit] v оценивать approval [э'рга:уз1] п одобрение approve [s'pruiv] v одобрять approximate* [a'proksimat] а приблизительный architectural [ki'tektfarel] а архитектурный architecture ['aikitektfa] л архитектура area ['еэпэ] л район, округ argue ['a:gju:] v спорить argument ['agjumsnt] л аргументы, доводы around [s'raund] adv, prep вокруг, крутом arouse [a'rauz] v 1 вызывать, пробуждать arrange [э'гетф] v приводить в порядок, располагать arrive [s'raiv] v прибывать arrow ['aerou] л стрелка art [at] n искусство article ['ojtikl] n статья; статья (конституции) artist ['atist] n художник as [asz] cj как, в качестве, когда as...as такой же как... as if как будто as though как будто as soon as как только, не позже ashamed [aXeimd]: be ashamed of стыдиться Asia f'eifo] pr n Азия asleep [a'sliip] а спящий; be asleep спать Assembly [s'sembli] Hall актовый зал associate [s'soufieit] v^соединяться); связывать; ассоциировать(ся) association [3,sousi'eif(3)n] я J ассоциация, связь astonish [s'stonij] v ^удивлять, изумлять astonishing [s'stDni/in] a 8удивительный, изумительный astonishment [as'tonifmant] я 8удивление, изумление athlete ['as91i:t] я спортсмен attempt [s'tempt] я попытка; v пытаться attend [a'tend] v посещать attention [s'tenfn] n внимание pay attention (to) обращать внимание attentive [s'tentiv] а внимательный attitude ['a;titju:d] n отношение attract [s'traekt] v привлекать attraction [s'traekfn] я привлекательность attractive [a'traektiv] а привлекательный audience ['o:djans] я аудитория, публика Australia [ois'treilja]/v я Австралия author ['э:9э] я автор avert [a'v3:t] v 8 предотвращать (опасность) avoid [s'void] v избегать, сторониться aware ['awea]: be aware (oO знать, сознавать award [a'wo:d] я нафада; v нафаждать away [s'wei] adv прочь far away далеко go away уходить run away убегать awful ['o:ful] а ужасный awfully ['oifuli] adv ужасно; очень В back [bask] adv назад, обратно be (come, go) back возвращаться baker ['beika] л пекарь, булочник bakery* ['beiksn] я пекарня, булочная ballet ['beelei] я балет bank [baenk] я берег (реки) barber [Ъа:Ьэ] я парикмахер bark [bak] я лай; v лаять basic ['beisik] а основной, главный bathe [beid] v купаться battle ['baetl] я битва, сражение be [bi:] v (was/were, been) быть, находиться be going to do something собираться сделать что- либо be on идти (о фильме, спектакле); происходить be to do модальный глагол со значением долженствования beat [bi:t] v (beat, beaten) бить, ударять beauty ['bju:ti] я красота because [bi'koz] cj потому что; так как because of prep из-за, вследствие bedtime ['bedtaim] л время ложиться спать before [bi'fo:] prep перед; до; впереди beg [beg] v просить, умолять begin [bi'gin] v (began, begun) начинать(ся) beginning [bi'gmin] я начало at the beginning (of) в начале behave [bi'heiv] v вести себя behaviour [bi'heivja] я поведение behind [bi'hamd] prep сзади, позади believe [bi'li:v] v верить belong [bi'lon] (to) v принадлежать (кому-либо) bend* [bend] v (bent, bent) гнуть, сгибать beside [bi'said] prep рядом besides [bi'saidz] adv кроме того, помимо between [bi'twi:n] prep между beyond [bi'jond] prep по ту сторону blind* [blamd] а слепой blinds [blaindz] л шторы, затемнение
blow [blou] v (blew, blown) дуть board [bo:d] л доска, борт (судна) boast [boust] v хвастаться, хвалиться boastful ['boustful] а хвастливый boil ['boil] v кипятить, кипеть border [Ъэ:с1э] л граница; v граничить bore [Ьэ:] л скучное занятие, скучный человек; v надоедать, наскучить bored [bo:d] (with) а скучающий boredom* ['badsm] а скука boring [Ъэ:пп] а надоедливый born [bo:n]: be born родиться borrow ['barou]v занимать both [bouG] pron оба both... and... и... и... bow [bou] я лук, самострел brain [brem] л мозг; pi умственные способности branch [ЬпхщЛ л ветка, ветвь (дерева) brave [brew] а смелый, храбрый break [breik] л перерыв, перемена; v (broke, broken) разбить, сломать breath [breG] л вдыхание breathe [bn:5] v 8дышать bridge [bndj]л мост brief [bri:f]: in brief вкратце, кратко bright [brait] а яркий, блестящий; смышленный brilliant ['bnljant] а блестящий, сверкающий bring [bnn] v (brought, brought) приносить bring up воспитывать British [bntij] а (велико)британский the British Isles [ailz] Британские острова broad [brad] a 5 широкий broadcast ['bro:dka:st] я передача, трансляция (по радио); v вести радиопередачу, транслировать build [bild] v (built, built) строить, сооружать, создавать building ['bildin] л здание burn [Ьэ:п] v (burnt, burnt) гореть, сжигать bush [buf] л куст business ['biznis] л дело, занятие busy ['bizi] а занятой be busy быть занятым buy [bai] v (bought, bought) покупать by [bai] prep около С calculate ['kaelkjuleit] v расчитывать calculator ['kaslkjuleita] л калькулятор call [ko:l] л зов, призвание, влечение; называть calm [ka:m] а спокойный, тихий; v успокоить calm down успокаивать(ся), смягчать(ся) camera ['каетэгэ] л фото аппарат camera-man* л фоторепортер, кинооператор campaign [kaem'pem] л с? кампания Canada ['kaensds] prn Канада candle ['kaendl] л свеча canteen [kaen'tiin] я столовая capable [keipabl] а 7способный; одаренный care [кеэ] я забота; v (for) заботиться; интересоваться, иметь желание I don't care мне безразлично, мне все равно take care (of) заботиться career [кэ'пэ] и 7 карьера, успех; профессия, занятие careful ['keaful] а заботливый; осторожный carpenter ['kapmta] я плотник carry ['kaen] v нести carry out выполнять, доводить до конца cartoon [ka'tu:n] n карикатура, мультипликация animated ['aenimeitid] cartoon мультфильм case [keis]: in case of в случае catalogue ['ksetsbg] n каталог catch [kaetf] v (caught, caught) ловить, поймать catch up (with) догонять, догнать catch a cold простудиться cause [ko:z] n причина; дело; v быть причиной, причинять, вызывать in the cause of ради, во имя the cause of peace дело мира celebrate ['selibreit] v праздновать, отмечать праздник celebration [,seli'breijh] n празднование, торжество central ['sentrel] а центральный centre ['senta] n центр century ['sentfun] n столетие, век certainly ['saitnli] adv конечно chalk [tfo:k] n мел, мелок coloured chalk цветной мелок champion ['tfasmpjsn] n чемпион chance [tfains] n возможность, шанс change [tfemcfe] v менять(ся) channel ['tfaenl] n 5 канал; путь, источник chapter ['tfaspta] n глава character ['kaenkta] n действующее лицо; характер characteristic [.kaenkta'nstik] a (of) характерный, типичный characterize ['kaenktaraiz] v характеризовать charming ['tfamin] а очаровательный, прелестный cheap |tfi:p| а дешевый cheer [tjb] v ободрять cheerful ['tfiaful] а бодрый, веселый childhood ['tfaildhud] n детство choice [tjbis] n выбор choose [tju:z] v (chose, chosen) выбирать chore [tjb:]: household chores n домашняя работа circumstance fsaikamstans] n /обстоятельство, случай citizen ['sitizan]« гражданин city ['siti] я город (большой, промышленный) civilization [,sml(a)i'zeif(3)n] л # цивилизация civilized ['sivilaizd] a £ цивилизованный; воспитанный, культурный classical fklsesikl] а классический classmate ['klasmert] я одноклассник clear [klia] а ясный, чистый climate ['klaimit] л климат climb [klaim] v подниматься; взбираться, взлетать climb a mountain подниматься на гору close [klouz] v закрывать close [klous] adv близко cloud [klaud] я облако cloudy ['klaudi] а облачный cold [kould] а холодный be cold мерзнуть, замерзать I am cold. Мне холодно, я замерз. It is cold. Холодно. colony* ['кэ1эш] л колония
VOCABULARY column ['kolam] л колонка, колонна; раздел (в газете, газетный столбец) соте [клт] (came, come) v приходить, приезжать come across натолкнуться на (что-то), (случайно) встретиться с (кем-то) come true сбываться, осуществляться comfortable ['kAmfatabI] о удобный, уютный, комфортабельный command [ka'tnand] v приказывать commemorate [ka'memareit] v 3 праздновать, отмечать (годовщину какого-либо события) commemoration* [кэ,тетэ'ге1/(э)п] л 3 празднование comment ['koment] я комментарий; v комментировать commentary ['kamantan] л комментарий commentator ['komenteita] n комментатор common ['koman] а общий; простой, обыкновенный, обычный have much (something) in common иметь много общего have nothing in common не иметь ничего общего communicate [ka'mjumikeit] v общаться communication [ka^juini'keifn] n общение companion [kam'paenjan] я спутник, попутчик, товарищ company ['клтрэш] п общество, компания compare [кэт'реэ] v сравнивать comparison* [kam'psensn] я сравнение compete [kam'pi:t] v соревноваться competition [,kompi'tiJh] я соревнование complain [kam'plem] v жаловаться (на) complete* [kam'plkt] v заканчивать, завершать complex* ['kampleks] я комплекс; а сложный complex object "сложное дополнение" sport complex спортивный комплекс compose [kam'pouz] v сочинять composition [.kampa'zifn] n сочинение computer [kam'pju:ta] n компьютер concentrate ['kansantreit] v 5 сосредоточиться concern [kan'sa:n] я забота; v касаться (какого-либо вопроса, проблемы) be much concerned about быть сильно озабоченным concerning [kan'sa:nin] prep что касается concert ['kansat] n 3 концерт conclude [kan'klu:d] v 6 заключать, делать заключение condition [kan'dijh] n условие, обстоятельство confidence ['kanfidans] я уверенность confident ['konftdant] а уверенный confuse [kan'fju:z] v смешивать, спутывать congratulate [karigraetjuleit] v поздравлять congratulation [kan,gra;tju'leijh] n поздравление connect [ka'nekt] усоединять(ся), связывать(ся) conquer ['капка] v завоевывать, покорять conquest* ['kankwest] n завоевание, покорение conscience ['kanjans] n совесть conscientious [.kanji'enjas] а добросовестный, честный, сознательный consequence ['kansikwans] n #последствие conservation [.konsa'veifn] n <?сохранение, консервация conserve [ksn'ssiv] v <? сохранять, консервировать consider [ksn'sida] v считать(ся), полагать considerable [kan'sid(3)r3bl] a 3 значительный consideration [k3n,sid3'reijn] n внимание, уважение take into consideration принимать во внимание consist [kan'sist] (of) v состоять (из) constant* ['konstant] v постоянный constitution [,konsti'tju:/n] n конституция, основной закон construct [kan'strAkt] v строить, сооружать, создавать construction [ksn'strAkJh] n строительство, сооружение consult [kan'sAlt] v консультироваться contain [kan'tem] v 3 содержать в себе, вмещать contemporary [кэп'1етр(э)гэп] п 1 современник; а современный contents ['kontents] n содержание table of contents оглавление contest ['kontest] n соревнование, состязание, конкурс continent ['kontmsnt] я континент continue [kan'tinju:] v продолжать(ся) contradict [,kontra'dikt] v 6 противоречить contradiction [.kontra'dikfn] я 6 противоречие contrast ['kantrast] я З противоположность, контраст; [kan'trast] v сопоставлять, контрастировать contribute [kan'tnbju:t] v вносить вклад contribution [,kantn'bju:Jn] я вклад conversation [konva'seifn] л разговор, беседа convince [kan'vins] v убеждать convincing [kan'vinsin] а убедительный cool [ku:l] а прохладный, свежий; нежаркий co-operate [kou'opareit] v сотрудничать co-operation [kouppa'reijh] я сотрудничество, совместные действия соре [koup] v справлять(ся) copy ['kopi] v переписывать, списывать corner ['ko:na] л угол correct [ka'rekt] а правильный, верный; v исправлять correspondence [.kans'pandans] я корреспонденция, переписка, письма keep up correspondence вести переписку correspondent dkans'pDndant] я корреспондент cough [kaf] л кашель; v кашлять country ['kAntn] я страна; сельская местность, деревня in the country за городом countryside* ['kAntnsaid] л сельская местность courage ['клпсй] я мужество, смелость, храбрость courageous [ka'reid3as] а мужественный, храбрый, отважный course [ka:s]: in the course of в течение of course конечно cousin ['клгп] я двоюродный брат (сестра) cover ['клуэ] я обложка; v покрывать; освещать (события) coverage ['клуапф] я освещение (в газете) coward ['kauad] л трус cowardly ['kauadh] а трусливый create [kn'eit] v создавать creative [kn'eitiv] а созидательный, творческий crime [kraim] л преступление cross [kros] v пересекать, переходить cross * [kros] а сердитый, раздраженный crossing ['krasin] я перекресток crossing place переход crowd [kraud] я толпа cruel [krual] а жестокий
cruelty ['kruslti] л жестокость cry [krai] v кричать, плакать cultural ['Mtfarel] а культурный culture ['кли/э] л культура cure [kjus] v вылечивать curiosity [.kjuan'Dsiti] л любопытство curious ['kjuanas] а любопытный curly ['кэ:11] а кудрявый; вьющийся, волнистый current ['kArent] текущий (о событиях) custom ['kAStsm] л обычай, привычка customary* ['kAStamsn] а привычный, обычный cut [kAt] (cut, cut) v резать cut away срезать, отрезать cycle ['saikl] v кататься на велосипеде cyclist ['saiklist] n велосипедист D daily ['deih] л ежедневная газета; adv ежедневно damage ['daemid3] л <?вред, ущерб; v повреждать, портить, наносить ущерб danger ['dein^a] n опасность dangerous fdeincfcaras] а опасный dare [dea] v осмеливаться daring ['desnn] а отважный, бестрашный dark [dirk] а темный date [deit] л дата, число date back from 3 вести начало от, относиться к dawn* [do:n] л рассвет, заря dear [dia] о дорогой, милый dearly [diali] adv нежно, горячо; дорого love dearly нежно любить decent ['di:snt] а приличный, порядочный decide [di'said] v б решать decision [di'srjan] л б решение decorate ['dekareit] v украшать decoration [deka'reijh] л украшение dedicate ['dedikeit] v посвящать deed [di:d] л подвиг; поступок; действие; дело perform a deed совершить подвиг deep [di:p] а глубокий defeat [di'fi:t] л поражение; v сражать (врага), нанести поражение defend [di'fend] v защищать delight [di'lait] л восторг, восхищение be delighted (with) восхищаться (чем-либо) in delight в восторге demand [di'ma:nd] л /требование, потребность; v требовать, предъявлять требование depend [di'pend] (on, upon) v зависеть (от чего-либо) depict [di'pikt] v / изображать describe [dis'kraib] v описывать description [dis'knpjh] л описание, изображение desert* ['dezat] л пустыня design [di'zam] я 7замысел, план, проект, эскиз; v задумывать, конструировать, изображать designer [di'zama] л 7 конструктор desire [di'zaia] «желание; v желать despair [dis'pea] л отчаяние destroy [dis'troi] v разрушать, уничтожать I determination [di.taimi'neijh] л решительность determine [di'taimin] v определять, решаться determined [di'tsraind] а решительный be determined (to do) быть полным решимости develop [di'vebp] уразвивать(ся), совершенствовать devote [di'vout] v посвящать devote much time to studies уделять много времени занятиям devoted [di'voutid] а преданный devotion [di'voufn] n преданность; сильная привязанность dialogue fdaiabg] n диалог diary ['daian] n дневник dictate [dik'teit] v диктовать dictation [dik'teijh] n диктант dictionary ['dikfsnn] n словарь die [dai] v умирать differ ['difa] v различать different ['difrent] а разный, различный difficult ['difikalt] а трудный difficulty ['difikslti] n трудность dig [dig] v (dug, dug) рыть, копать dignity ['digniti] л честь, достоинство diligence ['dilid33ns] n прилежание, усердие, старание diligent ['dilicfcant] а прилежный, усердный, старательный direct [di'rekt] v 3 направлять; а прямой direction [di'rekfn] n 3 направление in the direction of в направлении dirt [da:t] n грязь, сор, мусор dirty ['da:ti] а грязный disadvantage [,dis3d'va:ntid3] n неудобство, невыгода disagree [.diss'gri:] v не соглашаться disappear ^diss'pia] v исчезать disappoint [.diss'pomt] v разочаровывать disappointed [.diss'pointid] а разочарованный disapprove [,dis3'pra:v] v осуждать, не одобрять discipline ['disiplm] и дисциплина, порядок discover [dis'kAvs] v обнаруживать, делать открытия discoverer [dis'kAvara] я первооткрыватель discovery [dis'lowsn] л открытие discuss [dis'k\s] v обсуждать discussion [dis'k\Jh] л обсуждение, дискуссия hold a discussion проводить обсуждение dish [dij] л блюдо, кушанье disobey [,dis3'bei] v ослушаться, не повиноваться display [dis'plei] n показ; v показывать distance ['distsns] л расстояние at a distance of на определенном расстояни distinguish [dis'tingwij] v отличать distinguished [dis'tingwijt] а выдающийся distinguishing [dis'tingwifirj] а отличительный, характерный distribute [di'stnbju(:)t] v распределять district fdistnkt] л район, округ diverse [dai'va:s] a 3 различный; разный, разнообразный diversity [dai'vatsiti] л З разнообразие; многообразие divide [di'vaid] уделить division [di'vi3n] л деление do [du:] v (did, done) делать, выполнять do good приносить пользу do one's best делать все возможное do one's duty выполнять долг do one's homework делать уроки
VOCABULARY documentary [.dakju'inentan] n 5 документальный фильм doubt [daut] n сомнение; v сомневаться down [daun] adv вниз dream [dri:m] n мечта, сон; v (dreamt, dreamt) мечтать, видеть сон dress [dres] n платье; v одеваться dressmaker ['dresmeika] n портниха drill [dnl] n дрель, сверло drink [dnnk] v (drank, drunk) пить drive [drav] v (drove, driven) водить машину, ехать (в автомобиле) drop [drop] v уронить, ронять; бросать dry [drai] а сухой dull [dAl] а скучный, грустный; тупой, глупый during ['djuann] prep в течение, во время dust [d\st] п пыль; v вытирать пыль duty ['dju:ti] и обязанность, долг be on duty дежурить, быть дежурным each [i:tf] pron каждый each other друг друга eager ['i:ga[: be eager to do something очень хотеть сделать что-то eagerly ['ixjali] adv с большим желанием ear [ю] п ухо early ['ah] дЛрано earn [э:п] v зарабатывать earth [э:9] я земля; земной шар east [i:st] п восток in the east на востоке eastern ['i:stan] а восточный easy ['i:zi[ а легкий ecological [,i:ka'bd3ikl] a 8 экологический ecology [i:'kobd3i] n 8 экология edit ['edit] v издавать edition [I'difn] n издание, выпуск editor ['edits] n редактор editorial [.editorial] n передовая статья education [,edju:'keifn] n образование effective [iTektrv] a 5 эффективный, производящий впечатление, эффектный effort fefat] n 6 усилие either ['aids] pron 1 один из двух, тот или другой either... or... cj 1 или... или eliminate [I'limineit] v ^уничтожать, ликвидировать elimination [i.limi'neijn] n ^уничтожение else [els] adv еще, кроме What else...? Что еще...? Where else...? Где еще...? Who else...? Кто еще...? emotion [I'moufn] n 1 чувство, эмоция emotional [I'moufanl] a 1 эмоциональный, волнующий enable [1'neibl] v 7давать возможность, делать возможным, создавать возможность, облегчать encourage [т'клпф] v ободрять, воодушевлять encouragement [in'kAndjmant] n ободрение, воодушевление; поощрение, поддержка encyclopedia [en.saiklou'piidjs] n энциклопедия end [end] n конец at the end в конце endanger [m'deind33] v 8подвергать опасности, ставить под угрозу endangered [in'deind33d] а с?находящийся под угрозой исчезновения energetic [,en3'd3etik] а 7энергичный energy ['ensd3i] n 7энергия engage [m'geid3] v 6 занимать (время), привлекать, вовлекать be engaged in быть занятым (чем-либо) enjoy [m'd33i] v получать удовольствие enjoy doing something наслаждаться чем-либо enjoy the rights пользоваться правами enjoyable [iridjoiabl] а приятный, доставляющий удовольствие enough [I'tuf] а достаточный; adv достаточно enrich [m'ntf] v / обогащать enter ['enta] v входить (в) enter a room входить в комнату enter (a university, an institute) поступать (в университет, институт) entertain ['enta.tein] v / развлекать entertaining [.enta'temmrj] a 1 занимательный, забавный entertainment [.enta'tammant] n /зрелище, представление, развлечение enthusiasm [in'OJuiziaszm] n энтузиазм enthusiast [m'8ju:ziaest] n энтузиаст enthusiastic [in,9ju:zi'a;stik] а восторженный, полный энтузиазма entire [in'taia] a 1 целый, весь entirely [in'taiahjadv / вполне, совершенно entry ['entn] n статья (в словаре, справочнике, энциклопедии) envelope ['enviloup] n конверт envious ['envias] а завистливый environment [m'vaiaranment] n 8 окружающая среда environmental [in.vaiarsn'mentl] a # относящийся к окружающей среде, обстановке envy ['envi] v завидовать episode ['episoud] n l эпизод equal ['i:kwal] а равный equality [i:'kwoliti] n равенство, равноправие equip [1'kwip] v оборудовать equipment [I'kwipmant] n оборудование erect [iVekt] v 3 воздвигать, сооружать, создавать especially[is'pej3li] adv особенно, главным образом essay ['esei] n 1 очерк, сочинение (школьное) establish [is'taebhj] v устанавливать eternal [i'ta:nl] а вечный Eternal Flame Вечный огонь Europe ['jusrap] prn Европа even ['i:van] adv даже event [iVent] n событие; важное явление ever ['eva] adv всегда; когда-либо everywhere ['evnwea] adv везде, всюду exact [ig'zaekt] а точный; пунктуальный, аккуратный exaggerate [ig'zaed3areit] v 6 преувеличивать exaggeration [ig,z8ed3a'reijn] n 6 преувеличение examination [ig.zasmi'neijh] n экзамен
examine [ig'zaemm] v рассматривать, исследовать; экзаменовать example [ig'zcumpl] n пример for example например give an example давать пример excellent ['eksabnt] а отличный except [ik'sept] prep за исключением exception [ik'sepjh] n исключение exchange [iks'tfeincfe] v обменивать(ся) excite [ik'sait] v возбуждать, волновать, пробуждать (интерес) excited [ik'saitid] а взволнованный, возбужденный excitement [ik'saitmsnt] n возбуждение, волнение exciting [ik'saitin] а волнующий, очень интересный exclaim* [iks'kleim] v восклицать excursion [iks'kajh] n экскурсия, поездка go on an excursion поехать на экскурсию excuse [iks'kju:z] v извинять, прощать Excuse me! Извините! exhaust [ig'zo:st] n # выхлоп, выхлопные газы; v истощать, исчерпывать exhibit [ig'zibit] n 3 экспонат, показ; v показывать, экспонировать, выставлять (на выставке) exhibition [.eksi'bifn] я выставка exist [ig'zist] v существовать expect [iks'pekt] v ожидать, предполагать expedition* [.ekspi'difn] я экспедиция expensive [iks'pensrv] а дорогой, дорогостоящий experience [iks'pianans] n опыт; v испытывать, узнать по опыту experiment [iks'penmsnt] я экперимент carry out an experiment проводить опыт explain [iks'plem] v объяснять explanation [.ekspb'neijh] я объяснение exploration [,ekspb:'reijh] я исследование explore [iks'pb:] v исследовать, разведывать explorer [iks'pbre] л исследователь express [iks'pres] v / выражать express an opinion выражать мнение expression [iks'prej(3)n] я 1 выражение; выразительность expressive [iks'presrv] а /выразительный; эмоциональный extinct [ik'stinkt] a 8 вымерший (о племени, виде животного); исчезнувший extinction [iks'tinkf(3)n] n 8 вымирание, исчезновение с земли extend [iks'tend] v 3простирать, протягиваться; продлевать, продолжать extraordinary [iks'tro:dnn] a 5 необычный, необычайный, исключительный extremely [iks'tri:mli] adv чрезвычайно eyesight ['aisait] я зрение F facility [fa'siliti] npl 3 благоприятные условия; удобства fable [Teibl] я басня fail [fed] v проваливаться, не удаваться; потерпеть неудачу fair [fes] а справедливый fairy [Теэп] я волшебница, фея familiar [fa'milja] a 1 знакомый fan [faen] n болельщик far [fa:] a далекий, дальний; adv далеко fascinate [Taesmeit] v 5 очаровывать, приводить в восхищение (восторг) fascinating [Taesmeitin] a 5 очаровательный favour [Terva] n 1 благосклонность, одобрение, одолжение, любезность; v благоволить, благоприятствовать win somebody's favour снискать чье-то расположение favourable [Teivarabl] a 1 благоприятный fault [fo:lt] n промах; ошибка; проступок; вина feature [Tiitfa] n черта характера feed [fi:d] v кормить feel [fid] v (felt, felt) чувствовать (себя) feel bad (well) чувствовать себя плохо (хорошо) feel like doing something J быть склонным сделать что-то feel at home чувствовать себя как дома feeling [Tiilirj] n чувство fellow [Telou] n товарищ, собрат; парень festival [festival] n фестиваль, праздник fetch* [fetf] v (сходить и) принести (что-либо) few [fju:] pron мало a few несколько fiction [Tikfn] л вымысел, выдумка; художественная литература science fiction научная фантастика field [fi:ld] n поле fight [fait] v (fought, fought) сражаться, драться figure-skating [Tiga.skeitirj] я фигурное катание file [fail] n подшивка (газет), картотека fill [fil] (in) v заполнять (пробелы), вставлять (слова) find [famd] v (found, found) найти, находить find fault with придираться к (кому- либо) find oneself оказаться (где-то) find out узнавать, выяснять fine [fain] а прекрасный, хороший, чудесный (о погоде) finish [Tiruf] укончать(ся), заканчивать(ся) fire [Таю] п огонь, костер make a fire зажечь костер firm [farm] а твердый (о характере) fit [fit] v годиться, быть впору; а здоровый, бодрый feel (keep) fit быть здоровым и бодрым flame* [fleim] n пламя, огонь flatter ['flaeta] v льстить flight [flait] n полет flow* [flou] v течь, литься fly [flai] v (flew, flown) летать fold [fould] v складывать folk [fouk] а народный folk-lore [fouk'b:] фольклор folk-song народная песня follow [Tolou] v следовать, идти за fond [fond]: be fond of любить food [fu:d] n пища, еда fool [fuil] n дурак, глупец foolish ['fu:hj] а глупый, безрассудный foot [fut] n (pi feet) нога, ступня
VOCABULARY at the foot of у подножия for [fo:] prep в течение; для; cj так как for a long time долго for a year (week) в течение года (недели) forbid [fo*bid] v (forbade, forbidden) запрещать forbidden [fo'bidn] а запрещенный force [fo:s] n сила; v заставлять силой foreign ['form] а иностранный foreign language иностранный язык forget [fo'get] v (forgot,forgotten) забывать form [fo:m] v формировать; образовывать; организовывать forward(s)* ['forwad(z)] adv вперед, дальше France [frans] prn Франция frank [frank] а откровенный free [fri:] а свободный; v освобождать freedom [fn:d3m] л свобода French [frentf] а французский fresh [frej] а свежий frequent ['frfckwant] a 5 частый, часто повторяющийся friendliness* [Trendlmis] n дружелюбие friendly [Trendli] а дружеский friendship [Trendjip] л дружба frightened [Traitnd] а испуганный be frightened испугаться, быть испуганным front [fiyvnt]: in front of перед frost [frost] л мороз frosty [Trosti] а морозный full [ful] (of) а полный fulfil [fulfil] v выполнять, исполнять fulfil the duties выполнять обязанности fun [£\n] л забава, веселье have a lot of fun весело проводить время fur* [fo:] л мех furniture ['fomtfa] л мебель further [Тэ:дэ]а, adv (сравнит, ст. от far) дальше furthest ['fo:5ist] a, adv (превосх. ст. от far) дальше всего fuss [fas] л суета, беспокойство из-за пустяков make a fuss суетиться, волноваться gallery ['gaebn] л галерея garden |'gu:dn] л сад gate* [geit] л ворота gather ['дагбэ] л собирать(ся) generation [.dsena'reijn] л поколение generosity [.cfeena'rositi] л щедрость, великодушие generous ['dsensras] а благородный, щедрый genius ['cfjirnjas] л 1 гений genuine ['djenjum] a J подлинный, истинный, настоящий geologist* [d3i'ofod3ist] л геолог German ['фэ:тэп] а немецкий get [get] v (got, got) получать; становиться get acquainted (with) знакомиться get along (with) ладить, относиться друг к другу хорошо get on делать успехи, преуспевать get ready (for) приготовиться get to know узнавать get up вставать get used (to) привыкнуть get over преодолеть get-together* ['деПэ'дебэ] л неофициальное совещание, встреча gift [gift] л подарок, дар give [giv] v (gave, given) давать give up v отказать(ся), оставить glad [glaed]: be glad радоваться, быть довольным glance [gla:ns] л взгляд; v взглянуть glass [glas] л стекло, стакан, стеклянная посуда globe* [gloub] л глобус; шар glorious ['gfonss] а славный glory ['gfo:n] л слава go [gou] v (went, gone) ходить, идти, ехать go for а walk пойти погулять, выйти на прогулку go in for sports заниматься спортом go on (doing something) продолжать (делать что- либо) goal [goul] л цель, гол goalkeeper ['goul.kiips] л вратарь gold [gould] л золото golden ['gouldn] а золотой good [gud] a (better, best) хороший be good (at) быть способным (к) good-natured [,gud'neitfod] а добродушный government ['gAvnmant] v правительство great [greit] а великий Great Britain ['greit 'bntn] Великобритания Greece [gri:s] prn Греция greedy ['gri:di] а жадный, скупой Greek [gri:k] а греческий greet [gri:t] v приветствовать greeting ['gri:tirj] n приветствие ground [graund] л земля, почва, участок земли; площадка; спортивная площадка sports ground спортивная площадка groundless* ['graundlis] а беспричинный, беспочвенный grow [grou] v (grew, grown) расти, выращивать grown-up ['дгоиплр] л взрослый человек; а взрослый guess [ges] v догадываться guest [gest] л гость guide [gaid] л гид; v руководить, вести за (собой) guide-book ['gaidbuk]fl путеводитель guilt [gilt] л вина guilty ['gilti] а виновный,виноватый gym [фт] л гимнастический зал gymnastics [dsim'nasstiks] л гимнастика Н habit ['haebit] л привычка hair [Иеэ] л волосы hairdresser ['headresa] л парикмахер hall [ho:l] л зал hammer [Ъэетэ] л молоток hand [hasnd] л рука; v передавать, вручать hand out выдавать, раздавать handkerchief ['haenkatfif] л носовой платок; шейный платок, косынка
hang [haen] v (hung, hung) вешать, развешивать; висеть happen [Ъаерэп] (to) v случаться, происходить (с) happiness ['haepinis] n счастье happy ['ha;pi]a счастливый Happy birthday! Поздравляю с днем рождения! Happy New Year! Поздравляю с Новым годом! hard [had] a трудный, тяжелый; adv много, упорно work hard много работать hardly ['hadli] adv с трудом, едва hardship ['haidfip] п трудность harm [hcum] п ущерб do harm вредить, наносить вред, ущерб harvest ['ha:vist] урожай hate [heit] v не любить, ненавидеть have [haev] v (had.had) иметь have a good time хорошо проводить время have to do модальный глагол со значением долженствования have got иметь headache ['hedeik] n головная боль heading ['hedin] n заглавие, заголовок; рубрика headline ['hedlam] n заголовок health [helO] n здоровье healthy ['helGi] а здоровый hear [his] v (heard, heard) слышать heart [ha:t] n сердце by heart наизусть heartache ['ha:teik] n боль в сердце heartless ['hatlis] а бессердечный heavy ['hevi] а тяжелый here [his] adv здесь, сюда hero [Ъюгои] п герой heroic [hi'rouik] а героический heroically [hi'rouikali] adv героически hesitate ['heziteit] v 7 колебаться (в принятии решения)\ не решаться hesitation [.hezi'teijh] n 7 колебание (в принятии решения), нерешительность hide [haid] v (hid, hidden) прятать(ся) hide-and-seek ['haidsnd'skk] n игра в прятки high [hai] а высокий highway ['harwei] n шоссе hike [haik] n длительная прогулка, путешествие пешком go on a hike отправляться в путешествие пешком, пойти в поход historian [his'to:nsn] n историк historic [his'tonk] а исторический, имеющий историческое значение historical [his'tonksl] а исторический, связанный с историей history ['histan] n история hit [hit] v (hit,hit) ударять, попадать в цель hoist* [hDist] v поднимать (флаг) hold [hould] v (held, held) держать hole [houl] n дупло, нора, ямка homeland ['houmlaend] n отечество, родина homesick ['houmsik] а тоскующий по дому honest ['onist] а честный honesty ['Dnisti] n честность honour ['эпэ] п слава, честь; почет; уважение; v уважать, почитать in honour of в честь (кого-либо) hope [houp] n надежда; v надеяться horrible* [ЪэгэЫ] а страшный, ужасный hot [hot] а жаркий hour ['аиэ] п час how [hau] adv как How long ...? Сколько времени...? How many...? Сколько...? (с исчисл. сущ.) How much...? Сколько...? (с неисчисл. сущ.) How old are you? Сколько тебе/Вам лет? however* [hau'eva] adv однако, все-таки human [tijurmsn] а человеческий, свойственный человеку human being* человек Humanities [hju:'maenitiz] n the 5гуманитарные науки humanity [hjir.'maeniti] n человечество humorous ['hjuimaras] a 1 юмористический humour ['hjuima] n 1 юмор hunger [Ълвдэ] п голод hunt [hAnt] v охотиться hunt a bear охотиться на медведя hunter [Ълхйэ] п охотник hurry [Ълп] v торопиться, спешить hurt [ha:t] v (hurt, hurt) причинить боль, повреждать hut* [h\t] n хижина I ice [ais] n лед iceberg ['aisba:g] n айсберг icecream ['aiskri:m] n мороженое icy ['aisi] а ледяной, холодный idea [ai'dia] n идея, мысль That s a good idea! Прекрасная мысль! idle ['aidl] а незанятый, свободный; ленивый, праздный be idle бездельничать, лодырничать idleness faidlnis] n безделье, праздность, лень idly ['aidh] adv лениво, праздно if [if] cj если; ли I wonder if he will go. Интересно, пойдет ли он. ignore* [ig'no:] v игнорировать illustration [.itas'treijh] n иллюстрация, рисунок imaginary [Гтзефпэп] о воображаемый; нереальный imagination [i.masdji'neijn] n воображение imagine [I'masc&in] v воображать, представлять себе imitate* ['imiteit] v подражать, имитировать immediately [I'mirdjath] adv немедленно important [im'poitsnt] а важный impossible [im'pDsabl] а невозможный, невыполнимый impress [im'pres] v производить впечатление, поражать impression [im'prejh] n впечатление improve [im'pnrv] v улучшать improvement [im'pnrvmgnt] n улучшение include [in'klurd] v 3 включать, содержать в себе including [in'klu:din] prep 3 включая, вместе с, в том числе increase [m'kri:s] v 7возрастать, увеличивать(ся); ['inkn:s] n рост, увеличение increasing [m'krnsir)] а 7увеличивающийся, возрастающий indeed [m'di:d] adv в самом деле, действительно
VOCABULARY (служит для усиления, подчеркивания) independence [mdi'pendans] n независимость, самостоятельность India ['mdjs] prn Индия Indian ['mdjan] л индиец; а индийский indifference [in'difrans] n равнодушие indifferent [m'difrent] а равнодушный, безразличный industrial [in'dAstnas] а промышленный industrious [in'dAStnss] а трудолюбивый industry ['mdsstn] л промышленность, индустрия influence ['influsns] n 1 влияние; v влиять (на кого-то или что-то) inform [m'fb:m] v информировать, сообщать information [.mfo'meijh] n информация, сообщение initiative [I'mjigtrv] n инициатива injustice [in'd^AStis] л несправедливость innocent ['inssnt] а невиновный, невинный inquire [m'kwais] v 3 спрашивать, узнавать, наводить справки inquiry [m'kwaisn] л 3 запрос make inquiries about наводить справки о insect ['msekt] n насекомое inside [m'said] prep внутри, внутрь insist [in'sist] v настаивать inspiration [,inspa'reijh] л 6 вдохновение, воодушевление inspire [m'spais] v 6 вдохновлять instead [m'sted] prep вместо instructor [in'strAkta] n преподаватель, тренер intelligent [m'telicfcant] о умный, разумный interest ['mtnst] n интерес interested ['mtnstid]: be interested (in) интересоваться international [.inta'naejanl] а международный interrupt [.ints'rApt] v прерывать, перебивать interview ['intavju:] n интервью; v брать интервью introduce [,intr9'dju:s] v представлять, знакомить introduction* [.intra'dAkJh] л представление invent [m'vent] v изобретать inventive [m'ventiv] а изобретательный investigate [m'vestigeit] v 6расследовать, исследовать investigation [in,vesti'geijh] л 6 расследование, исследование invisible* [inVizabl] а невидимый invitation [,invi'teijh] л приглашение accept an invitation принимать приглашение involve [in'volv] v 6 вовлекать, впутывать be involved in быть вовлеченным (во что-либо) Ireland [aratand] prn Ирландия iron* ['aian] л железо island ['aitand] л остров isle* [ail] л остров issue fisju:] л выпуск, номер, экземпляр (газеты); предмет обсуждения; v выпускать, издавать (газету) Italian [I'taeljsn] а итальянский Italy ['itsh] prn Италия item ['aitam] л сообщение, новость, небольшая заметка jar [d3a:] л кувшин, банка job [фэЬ] л работа, труд joint [d33int] а объединенный, общий, совместный joke [djouk] л шутка journalist ['cfeainalist] л журналист, газетный сотрудник journey ['фэ:ш] л путешествие joy [d5Di] л радость judge [d3Acfc] v (by) судить (по чему-либо) jump [d5Amp] л прыжок; v прыгать junior ['d3u:nj3]a младший (по возрасту) just [d3ASt] adv только just [djASt] а справедливый justice ['djAStis] л справедливость К keen [ki:n] a 1 живоинтересующийся be keen (on) очень любить, увлекаться keep [ki:p] v (kept, kept) держать, хранить, сохранять keep busy быть занятым, заниматься (чем-либо) keep one's eyes open быть наблюдательным keep rules выполнять правила, следовать правилам keep the house вести хозяйство keep somebody's birthday отмечать день рождения keep up a correspondence поддерживать переписку key [ki:] л ключ kid [kid] л ребенок kill [kil] v убить, убивать kind [kamd] л вид, сорт What kind of...? Какой...? Что за...? Какого рода...? kind* [kamd] а добрый kind-hearted [.kaind'hatid] а добрый, мягкосердечный kindness ['kamdnis] n доброта king [kin] л король kingdom ['kirjdsm] л королевство knife [naif] л (pi knives) нож knit [nit] v вязать knock [пэк] v стучать know [nou] v (knew, known) знать knowledge ['nolid^] л знания laboratory [ta'boratsn] л лаборатория labour ['leiba] л труд, работа, усилие; а трудовой, рабочий lack [laek] л / недостаток, нужда, отсутствие чего-то; v испытывать нужду, не иметь, не хватать ladder ['teds] л лестница land [laand] л земля; v высаживаться, приземляться language ['laengwicfe] л язык last [last] а последний; прошлый at last наконец last [lojst] v длиться, продолжаться lately ['leitli] adv последнее время Latin ['laetin] л латинский язык law [b:[ л закон lawn [b:n] л лужайка lay [lei] v (laid, laid) класть, положить; накрывать; стелить lay the table накрыть на стол lazy fleizi] а ленивый
lead [li:d] v(led, led) вести; быть лидером; руководить leaf [li:f] л (pi leaves) лист leave [li:v] (for) v (left, left) уезжать, оставлять leisure [Чезэ] п досуг; свободное время lend [lend] v (lent,lent) давать взаймы; одалживать less [les] а меньше, менее let [let] v (let,let) позволять, разрешать letter ['lets] л письмо letter-box ['letaboks] л почтовый ящик level ['levl] л уровень librarian [lai'bregnsn] л библиотекарь library ['laibren] л библиотека lie [lai] л ложь tell a lie говорить неправду lie [lai] v (lay, lain) лежать life [laif] n (pi lives) жизнь lift [lift] v поднимать light [lait] л огонь, свет light [lait] v (lit, lighted or lit) зажигать, освещать lighting* ['laitirj] л освещение like [laik] v любить, нравиться I'd like to Мне бы хотелось like [laik] а похожий, подобный line [lain] л очередь, линия, строка line up вставать в очередь linguist ['lingwist] л лингвист list [list] n список listen fhsn] (to) v слушать literary ['ht(9)ran] a 1 литературный literature ['litrstfa] л литература little ['litl] а маленький; adv немного, мало a little немного lively [laivli] а живой, оживленный, веселый lock [bk] л замок; v запирать на замок London ['Undgn] prn Лондон lonely ['lounli] а одинокий long [bo] о длинный long ago давно look [luk] (at) v смотреть (на) look after присматривать (за), ухаживать look for искать look forward to с нетерпением ожидать чего-либо look happy выглядеть счастливым look like выглядеть похожим look through просматривать lose [lu:z] v (lost, lost) терять lose a game (a match) проиграть игру (матч) lot: a lot of много loss* [bs] л потеря lovely ['Uvli] а красивый, прекрасный, привлекательный low [lou] а низкий luck [L\k] л счастье, удача M machine [rm'JI:n] л машина, станок; механизм, sewing-machine швейная машина washing-machine стиральная машина mad* [maed] а сумасшедший go mad сходить с ума magazine [,тэедэ zi:n] л журнал magic ['mascfcik] л волшебство; а волшебный magnificence [maeg'mfisns] л 3 великолепие,пышность magnificent [masg'mfisant] a 3 великолепный, величественный mail [meil] л почта, почтовая корреспонденция; v посылать по почте main [mem] а главный, основной maintain [men'tem] v 8 поддерживать, сохранять maintenance ['memt(i)n3ns] л <? поддержание, сохранение, поддержка make [meik] v (made, made) делать make a mistake делать ошибку make one's bed стелить постель make somebody angry рассердить кого-либо make somebody do something заставить кого-то сделать что-то make up (a story, a dialogue, a plan) составить (рассказ, диалог, план) make up one s mind решиться, принять решение manage ['тэешф] v суметь (сделать), справиться mankind* [majn'kaind] л человечество manner ['mans] л манера, поведение table manners правила поведения за столом map [maep] n карта mark [так] п метка, знак; отметка, оценка; v отмечать mark an anniversary отмечать годовщину market* ['makit] л рынок, базар marvellous ['maivibs] (the) a 5 изумительный, удивительный mass media ['maes 'miidja] л 5 средства массовой информации master* ['maista] л хозяин masterpiece ['ma:st3pi:s] л 3 шедевр material* [ms'tianal] л материал mathematician [meeeama'tijh] л математик mathematics [.maees'mastiks] л математика matter ['maeta] n дело; v иметь значение no matter how как бы ни было по matter where где бы ни было по matter what что бы ни было What's the matter? Что случилось? may [mei] v (might) мочь (модальный глагол, выражает просьбу или разрешение) meal [mi:l] л еда; принятие пищи mean [mi:n] v (meant, meant) иметь в виду, значить, означать mean [mi:n] а подлый, нечестный, скупой means [mi:nz] л 5 средство, способ by means of посредством meanwhile* [,mi:n'wail] adv тем временем; между тем measure ['тезэ] л 8 мера, мерка; v измерять, мерить take measures принять меры medicine ['medsm] л лекарство' medium ['mMjam] л (pi media) 5средство, способ meet [mi:t] v (met, met) встречать (ся) meeting ['mi:tin] л встреча, собрание, митинг melt [melt] v таять member ['membs] л член семьи, организации, общества
VOCABULARY memorial [пн'тэ:пэ1] л мемориал, памятник memorize ['memaraiz] v запоминать memory ['тетэп] я память mend [mend]учинить, штопать; латать; ремонтировать mention ['menjh] v упоминать, ссылаться message ['mesicfe] л идея; мысли, взгляды metal* ['metl] л металл middle ['midl] я середина in the middle в середине mighty* ['maiti] а мощный; могущественный mind [maind] я разум, ум; pi умственные способности; v помнить; заботиться; заниматься чем-то; возражать, иметь (что-либо) против Never mind Ничего, не беспокойтесь. Не беда Would you mind doing something? Вы не будете возражать против того, чтобы сделать что-то? minerals ['mmarelz] я полезные ископаемые, минералы minute ['mirut] я минута miracle ['mirekl] я чудо mirror ['mire] я зеркало misery* ['гшгэп] я несчастье, страдание miss [mis] v скучать (по кому-либо); пропустить miss a lesson (a meeting) пропустить урок (собрание) missing ['misin] а недостающий, отсутствующий mistake [mis'teik] я ошибка mistrust [mis'trAst] я недоверие mix [miks] v смешивать, мешать mix up спутать, перепутать modern ['modn] а современный modest ['modist] а скромный moment ['moumant] я момент, мгновение money ['тлш] я деньги monitor ['тэгшэ] я староста в классе monthly ['rrunOli] я ежемесячное издание; adv ежемесячно, раз в месяц monument ['monjurrant] л памятник moral ['morel] л мораль, а моральный, духовный motto ['motou] л девиз, лозунг move [mu:v] v двигаться, переезжать, переселяться movement ['muivmant] л движение multiplication [,iTL\ltipli'keifn] л умножение multiplication table таблица умножения multiply ['rrultiplai] v умножить musician [mju:'zijh] л музыкант must [m\st] v должен, обязан (модальный глагол, выражает должествование) mutual* ['mjuitfusl] а взаимный mysterious [mis'tianas] а таинственный mystery ['mistan] л тайна myth* [mi9] л миф N nail [neil] л гвоздь narrow ['паггои] а узкий, тесный nation fneifn] л народ, нация; народность national ['naejanl] а национальный, народный native ['neitiv] а родной natural ['naetfrel] а естественный nature ['neitfa] л природа naughty ['no:ti] а непослушный, озорной, капризный neat [ni:t] а аккуратный, опрятный necessary ['nesasan] а необходимый need [ni:d] v нуждаться (в чем-либо) needle ['ni:dl] л иголка neighbour ['neiba] л сосед neighbourhood* ['neibahud] л соседство neighbouring ['neibann] а соседний neither ['naids]: neither... nor... cj 1 ни ... ни ... neither of... никто из... nephew ['nevju:] л племянник nervous ['nsivss] а нервный nest [nest] я гнездо news [nju:z] л новость, новости, известия newspaper ['nju:s,peip3] л газета next [nekst] а следующий next week на следующей неделе niece [ni:s] я племянница nobility [nou'biliti] я благородство noble ['noubl] а благородный nod [nod] v кивать головой (в знак согласия) noise [noiz] л шум noisy ['noizi] а шумный north [no:8] л север in the north на севере the North Pole Северный полюс northern ['пэ:бэп] а северный note [nout] л J заметка, запись, записка; уделать заметки notice ['noutis] л заметка, объявление, уведомление; v замечать novel ['novsl] л роман short novel повесть nowhere* ['nouwea] adv нигде number ['плтЬэ] я число a number of много nurse [na:s] л няня, медсестра nut [riAt] я орех О oath* [ouG] л клятва take an oath поклясться obey [a'bei] v слушаться, повиноваться oblige [3'blaid3] v 8 обязывать be obliged быть обязанным, быть благодарным observation [,obz3(:)'veiJn] л наблюдение observe [ab'zaiv] v наблюдать, замечать, следить (за чем-либо) observer [эЬ'гэ:уэ] я наблюдатель; обозреватель occasion [s'kerjn] л случай, событие occupation [pkju'peijh] л занятие, род занятий, профессия occupy ['okjupai] v занимать, завладевать, оккупировать occur [э'кэ:] v случаться, происходить, приходить на ум ocean ['oujh] л океан the Arctic Ocean Северный Ледовитый океан the Atlantic Ocean Атлантический океан the Indian Ocean Индийский океан the Pacific Ocean Тихий океан
offer ['ofa] v предлагать, « предложение office ['ofis] « учреждение oils [diIz] n pi масляные краски once [wAns] adv однажды at once сразу же, немедленно once more еще раз one [\улп] ргоп некто, некий, кто-то only ['ounli] adv только the only единственный opinion [a'pmjan] n мнение opportunity [ppg'tjurniti] возможность opposite ['opszit] adv напротив; а 3 находящийся напротив, противоположный orchard ['ottfsd] n фруктовый сад order ['э:с!э] п порядок; v приказывать in order to для того чтобы ordinary ['o:dnn] a 5 обыкновенный organize ['o:ganaiz] v организовывать organization [oiganai'zeifn] n организация other [Ч5э] ргоп другой at each other друг на друга with each other друг с другом ought [o:t] (to) vмодальный глагол со значением долженствования out [aut] prep вне, наружу go out выходить out of из outlook ['autluk] n точка зрения; кругозор outside [.aut'said] adv снаружи, на открытом воздухе outstanding [aut'staendirj] a 3 выдающийся, знаменитый over ['ouvsj: all over the world во всем мире be over кончаться, оканчиваться overcoat fouvakout] n пальто overcome [,оиуэ'клт] v (overcame, overcome) преодолеть, побороть, превозмочь owe [ou] v быть обязанным owing ['ouirj] (to) prep благодаря (чему-либо), вследствие, по причине own [oun] а собственный; v владеть owner ['оипэ] п владелец Р раек [раек] v упаковать page [peid3] « страница pain [pern] n боль, страдание, горе paint [pemt] v писать красками; заниматься живописью painting ['pemtin] n картина; живопись pair [pes] « пара a pair of gloves пара перчаток palace ['paslis] n дворец pale [peil] а бледный paper Грефа] п бумага parade [ps'reid] n парад; v шествовать paragraph* ['paeragraf] n абзац parents ['pesrants] n родители part [pat] n часть part [pat] v расставаться, разлучаться participant [pa'tisipant] n участник participate [pa: tisipeit] v участвовать particular [pa'tikjub] а особенный party ['pati] « вечер New Year party новогодний вечер pass [pais] v проходить, проезжать, проходить (о времени) passage ['paesid3] n 1 эпизод, отрывок passenger ['paesindp] n пассажир passer-by [.pasa'bai] n прохожий passion ['paefn] п страсть passionate ['paejbnst] а страстный past [past] prep мимо past [pa:st]: half past nine половина десятого pastime ['pirstaim] « развлечение, приятное времяпровождение pat* [past] v погладить patience fpeijans] n терпение patient ['peifant] n пациент; а терпеливый patiently ['peijbntli] adv терпеливо patriot ['paetnat, 'peitngt] n патриот patriotic [.pastn'otik] а патриотический patriotism fpaetnatizsm] « патриотизм pay [pei] v (paid, paid) платить, вознаграждать pay attention (to) обращать внимание (на) peace [pi:s] n мир peasant ['pezsnt] n крестьянин peculiarity [pi.kjuili'aerati] n /особенность pedestrian [pi'destnan] n 3 пешеход pen-friend ['penfrend] n друг по переписке pension ['penjbn] n пенсия perform [рэТэ:т] v исполнять, представлять, играть; совершать performance [pa'foimans] n представление perhaps [ps'haeps] adv может быть, возможно period* [pianad] n период persistence [pa'sistans] n упорство, настойчивость persistent [pa'sistant] а упорный, настойчивый person ['pa:sn] n человек; личность personal ['pa:snl] а личный personality [.paiss'naeliti] «личность, индивидуальность persuade [pa'sweid] v убедить, уговорить phenomenon [fi'nonman] n (p/-mena) <5 явление, феномен physical* [Tizikal] а физический physician [fi'zif(3)n] n врач physicist [Tizisist] n физик physics [Tiziks] n физика pick [pik] v рвать picnic ['piknik] n пикник picturesque [piktfs'resk] а живописный piece [pi:s] (of) n кусок pity ['piti] «жалость; vжалеть It's a pity! Как жаль! place [pleis] « место take one's place сесть на место plan [plaen] « план; v планировать plane [plem] « самолет plane [plem] « рубанок plant [pla:nt] « завод in a plant на заводе plant [plant] « растение; усажать (растение)
VOCABULARY plantation [plasn'teijh] я плантация play [plei] я пьеса; v играть playground ['pleigraund] я площадка для игр pleasant ['pleznt] а приятный please [pli:z] уделать приятное, доставлять удовольствие be pleased быть довольным pleasure ['р1езэ] я удовольствие plenty ['plenti] л изобилие, достаток plenty of достаточно много, достаточно, вполне plot [plot] л сюжет pocket ['pokit] л карман poem ['pouim] л стихотворение poet ['pouit] л поэт poetry ['pouitn] л поэзия polite [po'lait] а вежливый politician [,poli'tiJ(9)n] л политик point [point] я точка, пункт; момент; вопрос; главное, суть point of view точка зрения point at v указывать на pool* [pu:l] л пруд, заводь pollute [po'lurt] v # загрязнять pollution [po'lujh] л <? загрязнение poor [риэ] а бедный; the poor бедные, бедняки popular ['popjulo] а популярный popularity [.popju'laenti] я популярность populate ['popjuleit] v населять population [.popju'leifn] л население portray [po:'trei] v / нарисовать портрет, охарактеризовать possess [po'zes] v / обладать, владеть, иметь possibility [,posi'biloti] л возможность possible ['posobl] а возможный post [poust] л почта; v отправлять по почте postcard ['poustkad] л почтовая открытка poster ['pousto] я 5 плакат postman fpoustmon] л почтальон post-office ['poust.ofis] л почта, почтовое отделение poverty fpovoti] я бедность, нищета pour [po:] v <?лить, выливать power ['раиэ] сила, мощь, власть power station электростанция powerful ['pauoful] а сильный, могущественный practice ['praektis] я практика, действие, применение in practice на практике, на деле practise ['praektis] упрактиковать(ся); осуществлять praise [preiz] я похвала; v хвалить precious ['prejbs] a J драгоценный predict [pn'dikt] v 6 предсказывать predictable [pn'diktobol] a 6 предсказуемый prefer [pri'fo:] v предпочитать prepare [рп'реэ] v приготавливать prescribe [pn'skraib] v прописывать, предписывать present' ['preznt] я подарок present ['preznt]: be present присутствовать preserve [pn'zo:v] v сохранять president ['prezidont] я президент press (the) [pres] я пресса, печать pretend [pn'tend] v притворяться, делать вид pretty ['pnti] а милый, прелестный prevent [pn'vent] v предупреждать, предотвращать, помешать price [prais] я цена pride [praid] я гордость principal ['prmsopl] a J главный, ведущий prison* ['pnzn] я тюрьма prisoner [pnzno] я заключенный; подсудимый; арес- товнный prize [praiz] я приз probably ['probobh] adv возможно; вероятно problem ['problom] я проблема; вопрос; задача solve a problem решить задачу proclaim [pro'kleim] v сообщать; провозглашать profession [pra'fefn] я профессия professor* [profess] я профессор proficiency [pro'fif(o)nsi] я 7 опытность, умение, искусство proficient [pro'fif(o)nt] а 7искусный, умелый, опытный programme ['prougrasm] я программа progress ['prougres] я прогресс progressive* [pro'gresiv] а прогрессивный promise ['promis] я обещание; v обещать keep one's promise сдержать обещание promote [pro'mout] v 8 выдвигать; способствовать, помогать, поддерживать promotion [pro'mouf(o)n] я #поощрение, поддержка; продвижение по службе pronounce [pro'nauns] v произносить; объявлять, провозглашать pronunciation [pro.nAnsi'eifn] я произношение proper ['propo] а правильный, должный, подходящий properly ['propoli] adv как полагается, как следует prospect [prospekt] я 7 часто pi перспектива; планы на будущее protect [pro'tekt] v защищать prove [pru:v] v доказывать proverb ['provo:b] я пословица provide [pro'vaid] v обеспечивать proud [praud] а гордый be proud (of) гордиться public ['publik] а общественный publication [pAbh'keiJh] л публикация publish ['рлЬЬЛ v опубликовать pull* [pul] v тащить, тянуть punish ['рлшЛ v наказывать punishment ['рлш/mont] я наказание pure [pjuo] a 8 чистый, ясный purity ['pjuonti] я 8 чистота, ясность purpose ['po:pos] я цель on purpose нарочно, умышленно purse* [po:s] я кошелек push* [puj] v толкать put [put] v (put,put) положить, класть put on надевать (одежду) put up with примириться, смириться qualification [.kwolifi'keifn] я 7квалификация qualify ['kwolifai] v 7определять, квалифицировать quality ['kwoliti] я качество quantity ['kwontiti] я количество
quarrel ['kworal] n ссора; v ссориться question ['kwestfn] n вопрос quiet ['kwaist] а спокойный, тихий quite [kwait] adv совсем, вполне quotation [kwo(u)'teiJh] n 1 цитата quote [kwout] v / цитировать R race [reis] n состязание, гонка, гонки; v состязаться radio ['reidiou] n радио railway ['reilwei] n железная дорога; а железнодорожный railway line железнодорожная линия railway station железнодорожная станция raincoat ['remkout] n плащ rainy ['reini] а дождливый raise [reiz] v 5 поднять, поднимать range [reined] n 3 область распространения, диапазон; v тянуться, простираться rapid ['raspid] а быстрый rare [геэ] а редкий, необыкновенный rather ['гадэ] adv довольно reach [ri:tf] v достигать, доходить reaction* [ri:'aekjh] п реакция real [пэ1] а действительный; настоящий realize ['nslaiz] v 7понимать, осознавать; реализо- вывать really ['nali] adv действительно reason ['ri:zn] n разум, рассудок, благоразумие; причина, повод, основание, довод reasonable ['riiznabl] а разумный recall* [п'кэ:1] v вспоминать receive [n'si:v] v получать, принимать recent ['ri:snt] a 5 недавний recognition [reksg'nijn] n 6 признание recognize ['rekagnaiz] v узнавать record ['reko:d] n запись, учет; [n'ko:d] v вести запись record ['reko:d] n рекорд; пластинка; [n'ko:d] v записывать на пластинку (на пленку) record-player ['rekoid.pleia] n проигрыватель recreation [,rekn'eijh] n J развлечение, отдых recycle [,ri:'saikl] v # подвергать вторичной переработке reduce [n'dju:s] v <!? сокращать, уменьшать, ослаблять reference ['refrens] а справочный reflect [n'flekt] v 5 отражать reflection [n'flekjh] n 5 отражение refuse [n'fju:z] v отказаться, отказываться region ['ltcfcsn] n край, область, округ, район (страны) regret [n'gret] п 7сожаление; v сожалеть regular ['regjuta] а регулярный, систематический relation [n'leijh] n родственник, родственница relations [n'leifnz] n отношения relative ['retativ] n родственник relax [n'lasks] v 5расслаблять(ся); отдыхать relaxed [n'laekst] a 5спокойный; удобный relaxing [n'laeksin] a 5 успокаивающий, расслабляющий release [n'li:s] n 8 освобождение; выпуск; v выпускать; высвобождать, отпускать reliable [n'laiabl] а надежный rely [n'lai] on v положиться (на кого-либо) remain [n'mem] v оставаться remark [n'mak] n 1 замечание, заметка; v замечать, отмечать, наблюдать remarkable [п'тшкэЫ] а замечательный, удивительный remember [п'теггшэ] v помнить remind [n'mamd] v напоминать remote [n'mout] а далекий, отдаленный remove [n'mu:v] v ^устранять, удалять repair [п'реэ] v чинить, ремонтировать repairman* [п'реэтэп] п мастер, производящий ремонт repeat [n'pi:t] v повторять reply [n'plai] v отвечать report [n'port] n отчет; сообщение, доклад; v сообщать, докладывать reporter [n'poita] n репортер represent [,repn'zent] v представлять representative [,repn'zent3trv] n представитель republic [n'pAblik] n республика request* [n'kwest] n просьба require [n'kwaia] v 7требовать requirement [n'kwaismant] n /требование research [n'saitj] n 6 научное исследование, изучение; v исследовать, заниматься исследованием reserved [ri'zaivd] а сдержанный, замкнутый resource [n'so:s] n ^средства, возможности, ресурсы, находчивость resourceful [n'so:sful] а находчивый, изобретательный respect [n'spekt] n уважение; v уважать responsibility [ns'ponss'biliti] n ответственность responsible [ns'ponsabl] а ответственный rest [rest] v отдыхать rest [rest]: the rest of остаток, остальное, остальные, другие restless* ['restlis] а беспокойный restore [n'sto:] v восстановить, реставрировать result [riZAlt] n результат retire [n'tais] v удаляться, уходить return [n'tsin] n возвращение; v возвращаться in return в обмен reveal [nVi:l] v / показывать, обнаруживать review [n'vju:] n отзыв; повторение пройденного материала; v повторить пройденный материал rhyme* [raim] n стихотворение, рифма; v рифмовать nursery rhymes детские стишки rhythm ['пбэт] п ритм rich [ntf] а богатый; the rich богатые riches ['ntfiz] n богатства ride [raid] v (rode, ridden) кататься (на велосипеде, лошади) right1 [rait] а правильный, правый, верный, справедливый in the right order в правильной последовательности, в правильном порядке right2 [rait] л право ring [nrj] v (rang, rung) звонить, звенеть ring somebody up позвонить кому-либо (по телефону) ripe [raip] а зрелый, спелый
VOCABULARY rise [raiz] v (rose, risen) подниматься, вставать risk [risk] я риск; v рисковать take a risk (run risks) рисковать road [roud] я дорога rock* [rok] я скала Rome [roum] prn Рим roof* [ru:f] я крыша root* [ru:t] я корень round [raund] prep вокруг; а круглый route [ru:t] я маршрут row1 [rou] я ряд row2 [rou] v грести rub [глЬ] out v стирать, протирать rubbish* ['глЫЛ я мусор, хлам rude [ru:d] а грубый rudely ['ru:dli] adv грубо rule [ru:l] я правило; v править, управлять as a rule как правило keep rules соблюдать правила run [глп] v (ran, run) бегать sacrifice ['saeknfais] я жертва v жертвовать sad [saed] а печальный, грустный safe [seif] а безопасный; надежный safe and sound цел(ый) и невредим(ый) safety ['seifti] я безоасность sail [seil] я парус; v идти под парусом, плавать (о судне) sailor ['seila] я матрос; моряк sake [seik]: for the sake of ради salt [so:lt] я соль salty ['sxlti] а соленый same [seim] pron тот же самый, один и тот же; одинаковый, такой же sand [saend] я песок sandwich ['saenwicu]я бутерброд satisfactory [.saetis'faektan] а удовлетворительный satisfy ['saetisfai] v удовлетворять save [serv] v спасать saying ['senn] я поговорка scenery ['si:nan] я пейзаж; декорация schedule ['Jedju:l] я J расписание scheme [ski:m] я схема science ['saians] я 6 наука the natural sciences естественные науки the physical sciences точные науки social sciences общественный науки science fiction научная фантастика scientist ['saiantist] я ученый scissors ['sizsz] я ножницы score [sko:] я счет; v забить (гол) scorn* ['sko:n] я презрение; v презирать Scotland ['skotbnd] prn Шотландия screen [skri:n] я экран sculptor ['skAlpta] n J скульптор sculpture ['skAlptja] n 3 скульптура seaside |'si:said] л побережье at the seaside у моря to the seaside к морю secret ['si:knt] я секрет, тайна keep a secret не выдавать тайну, хранить тайну secretary ['sekratn] n секретарь secure [si'kjua] n £ безопасный, прочный, надежный; v обезопасить security [si'kjuarati] n # безопасность see [si:] v (saw, seen) видеть seed [si:d] n семена, зерно seem [si:m] v казаться It seems to me that... Мне кажется, что ... seize* [si:z] v хватать, схватить; захватывать seldom ['seldsm] adv редко selfish ['selfif] а эгоистичный sell [sel] v (sold, sold) продавать sense [sens] n чувство sentence ['sentans] n предложение separate ['separeit] v отделять(ся) separate ['sepnt] а отдельный, самостоятельный serious ['sianas] а серьезный servant* ['sarvant] n слуга serve [sa:v] v служить, обслуживать, быть полезным set [set] v (set, set) ставить, класть, помещать; садиться, заходить (о луне, солнце) set an example подавать пример set out on a trip отправиться в путешествие set up начать, учреждать settle [setl] v поселить(ся), заселять settle down обосноваться, устроиться settlement* ['setlmant] я поселение, колония, небольшой поселок settler* ['setb] и поселенец several ['sevral] а несколько sew [sou] v (sewed; sewed, sewn) шить, сшивать, зашивать sew a button (on) пришивать пуговицу (к) shade [feid] n тень shake Lfeik] v (shook, shaken) трясти(сь) shake hands подать руки друг другу shake one's head покачать головой shame [feim] я стыд Shame on you! Как вам не стыдно! share [|еэ] v делить, делиться sharp [jap] а резкий, острый sheet [p:t] я лист (бумаги), листок; простыня а sheet of paper лист бумаги shelter ['Jelta] я убежище, укрытие shine [fain] v (shone, shone) светить shiny* ['Jaini] а солнечный, блестящий shoot Lfirt] v (shot, shot) стрелять, застрелить shop [fop] я магазин do one's shopping делать покупки go shopping идти за покупками shop-assistant ['Jopa.sistant] я продавец, продавщица shore [jo:] я берег (моря) shout [faut] v кричать show [fou] я зрелище, спектакль, выставка variety show я 5 варьете show [fou] v (showed, shown) показывать shy [fai] а робкий, застенчивый, нерешительный sick [sik] а больной side [said] я сторона
sigh* [sai] v вздыхать sight [sait] я вид, зрелище sightseeing ['sait,si:in] я осмотр достопримечательностей go sightseeing осматривать достопримечательности sign [sain] я J знак, признак, символ; v подписывать; подать знак silence ['saltans] я молчание silk* [silk] я шелк silly ['sili] а глупый silver ['silva] я серебро; а серебряный similar ['simita] a 1 подобный simple ['simpl] а простой since [sins] cj с тех пор sincere [sin'sia] а искренний sincerity [sin'senti] я искренность sing [sin] v (sang, sung) петь sister ['sisto] я сестра sit [sit] v (sat, sat) сидеть sit down садиться situated ['sitjueitid] а расположенный be situated быт расположенным, находиться situation [.sitju'eijh] я положение, место; местоположение; ситуация size [saiz] я размер, величина skating-rink ['skeitinnnk] я каток skilful ['skilful] а умелый, искусный skill [skil] я мастерство; умение skilled [skild] а квалифицированный; искусный sleep [sli:p] v (slept, slept) спать slide [slaid] я диапозитив slide-projector ['slaidpre'djekto] я диапроектор slow [slou] а медленный slowly ['slouli] adv медленно smell [smel] я запах; v (smelt, smelt) чувствовать запах smile [small] я улыбка; v улыбаться smoke [smouk] я дым; v курить sociable ['soutabl] a 5 общительный, дружеский society [so'saioti] я общество soft [soft] а мягкий soil [soil] я почва, земля soldier ['soulcfeo] я солдат sometimes ['sAmtaimz] adv иногда soon [su:n] adv скоро, вскоре sorrow* ['sorou] я печаль; горе sorry [son]: be sorry сожалеть, жалеть I am sorry. Простите. (Извините.) sound [saund] я звук; v звучать soup [su:p] я суп South [sau9] юг in the south на юге the South Pole Южный полюс southern ['sASan] а южный sow [sou] v (sowed, sown) сеять, засевать space [speis] я космос space flight космический полет spade [speid] n лопата, заступ Spain [spein] prn Испания Spanish ['spasnij] а испанский speak [spi:k] v (spoke, spoken) говорить speak a foreign language говорить на иностранном языке special ['spefal] а специальный, особый species ['spi:Jl:z] n 8 вид, (биологический) endangered species вид (животных, растений), находящийся под угрозой исчезновения с земли spectacular [spek'taekjuta] а б эффектный, захватывающий spectator [spek'teita] n зритель speed [spi:d] n скорость spell [spel] v (spelt, spelt) писать или произносить слово по буквам spend [spend] v (spent, spent) тратить, проводить spite [spait]: in spite of несмотря на splendid ['splendid] а великолепный, роскошный spoil [spoil] v (spoilt, spoilt) портить sport [spo:t] n спорт stadium ['steidjom] n стадион stage [steid3] я сцена; v ставить (пьесу), инсценировать stamina ['stasmmo] n выносливость stand [staend] v (stood, stood) стоять; выдерживать; выносить, терпеть stand up вставать stand up to выносить, выдерживать, преодолевать (трудности) state [steit] n государство, штат statement* ['steitrmnt] n утверждение, заявление station ['steijh] n станция statue ['stsetju:] я статуя, изваяние stay [stei] v оставаться, гостить, жить steady ['stedi] а прочный, устойчивый; v укреплять steal* [sti:l] v (stole, stolen) красть, украсть, воровать step [step] я шаг; ступень, ступенька; v ступать, шагать stepmother* ['steprmda] я мачеха stick [stik] я палка stick [stik] v (stuck, stuck) втыкать; приклеивать stick a stamp on an envelope приклеивать марку на конверт still [stil] adv все еще stomach-ache ['sUmakeik] я боль в животе stone [stoun] я камень stop [stop] я остановка; v останавливать(ся) stop over делать короткую остановку в пути (переночевать) store [sto:] я запас; универмаг, магазин; v запасать, делать запасы storey ['sto:n] я 3 этаж many-storeyed (multi-storeyed) многоэтажный storm [sto:m] я шторм, буря story ['sto:n] я рассказ straight [streit] а прямой straightforward [streit'forwad] а честный, прямой, откровенный strain [strein] я 5 напряжение, нагрузка, переутомление; v напрягаться, делать усилие strange [streind3] а странный, удивительный; чужой stream* [stri:m] я ручей strength [stren6] я сила strengthen* ['strenBon] v усиливать, укреплять stretch [stretf] v простираться, растягиваться, тянуться strict [stnkt] а строгий
VOCABULARY strike [straik] v (struck, struck) ударять, бить; производить впечатление, поражать struggle ['strAgl] л борьба; v бороться stubborn ['stAbsn] а упрямый study ['sUdi] n занятие; кабинет; v изучать, учиться style [stail] л 1 стиль; манера; направление {в искусстве) subject ['sAbd3ikt] л предмет subscribe [sab'skraib] v подписываться (на газету) subscriber [ssb'skraibg] л подписчик subscription [sab'skripfn] n подписка substance ['sAbstsns] л 8 вещество subtract [saeb'traekt] v вычитать subtraction* [sgb'trajkfn] л вычитание suburb fsAbsib] n 3 окраина succeed [sak'si:d] v 6 преуспеть, иметь успех; достигать цели success [ssk'ses] л успех be a success иметь успех such [sAtf] а такой suddenly ['sAdnli] adv вдруг suffer ['sAfs] v страдать suffering ['sAfsnn] л страдание sugar [jugs] л сахар lump of sugar* кусочек сахара suggest [safest] v предлагать suggestion [sa'auestlh] n предложение suit [sju:t], [su:t] v 7годиться, соответствовать, подходить be suited for быть пригодным для suitable ['sju:t3bl] a 7 подходящий, соответствующий, годный sum [saiti] n арифметическая задача, арифметический пример do a sum решить задачу (пример) sunny ['sAm] а солнечный sunshine ['здп/ат] л солнечный свет supplement ['sAphmant] л приложение supplementary [.SApli'msntsn] о дополнительный support [sa'po:t] n 6 поддержка; v поддерживать suppose [sa'pouz] v полагать, думать sure Qua]: be sure быть уверенным make sure убедиться, удостовериться surprise [ss'praiz] л сюрприз, удивление surprised [sa'praizd]: be surprised удивляться surround [ss'raund] v окружать, обступать survival [ss'vaivl] n 8 выживание survive [ss'vaiv] v 8 выживать survivor [sa'varva] n 8 выживший sweep [swi:p] v (swept, swept) подметать sweet [swi:t] а сладкий swim [swim] v (swam, swum) плавать swimming pool /; бассейн symbol ['simbal] n символ sympathy ['simpaBi] n симпатия, сочувствие sympathize ['simpsBaiz] (with) v сочувствовать, симпатизировать take [teik] v (took, taken) брать, взять take off снимать (одежду) take one's eyes from the stage оторвать глаза от сцены take one's place сесть на место take part (in) принимать участие take pictures фотографировать take place происходить, иметь место take something for granted принимать как само собой разумеющееся take somebody to some place отвести кого-то куда- то It takes me ... to do... У меня уходит..., чтобы сделать... take up занимать(ся) tale [teil] n рассказ talk [to:k] n разговор, беседа; v разговаривать tame [teim] а ручной, домашний; прирученный; v приручать; дрессировать, укрощать tape-recorder ['teipn.koria] n магнитофон target ['tcugit] n цель, мишень hit the target попать в цель task [ta:sk] n задача taste [teist] n вкус, v пробовать (на вкус) tasty ['teisti] а вкусный teach [ti:tf] v (taught taught) учить, обучать team [ti:m] n команда tear [tea] v (tore, torn) рвать tear [tia] n слеза tease [ti:z] v дразнить, приставать technology [tek'nobd3i] л 6 технология technological [,tekn3'bd3ik3l] a 6 технологический teenager ['tirneidjs] n подросток telegram ['teligrasm] n телеграмма telephone [telifoun] n телефон; v звонить по телефону talk over the telephone говорить по телефону television ['teli,vi3n] n телевидение tell [tel] v (told, told) сказать, рассказывать tell a lie говорить неправду tell the truth говорить правду tender ['tends] а нежный tension ['tenfn] n напряжение tent [tent] n палатка put up a tent ставить палатку term [ts:m]: on friendly terms в дружеских отношениях terrible ['terebl] а ужасный, страшный territory ['tentan] n территория, земля test [test] n испытание, проверка; контрольная работа; v проверять, испытывать text [tekst] л текст than [daen] cj чем (при сравнении) thank [Gaenk] v благодарить, спасибо thanks [9senks]:thanks to благодаря that [6aet] pron (pi those) тот; cj что theatre ['Giata] «театр at the theatre в театре theme [9i:m] л тема there [5еэ] adv там, туда therefore ['беэгЬ:] cj поэтому thick [0ik] a густой; толстый think [Gink] v (thought, thought) думать thirst [Gs:st] л жажда
thirsty [ Qsisti] а жаждущий though [бои] cj хотя thought [9o:t] л мысль thoughtful ['Qoitful] а заботливый, внимательный thousand ['Gauzand] пит тысяча thread [0red] л нитки threat [Qret] n 8 угроза threaten [Gretn] v 8 угрожать threatening ['Qretnin] a 8 угрожающий hrilling ['Qnlin] а волнующий, захватывающий through [0ru:] prep через be through with покончить с (чем-либо) look through something просмотреть что-то throw [Grou] v (threw, thrown) бросать thus* [6as] cj таким образом ticket ['tikit] л билет tidy ['taidi] а аккуратный; v приводить в порядок tie [tai] а галстук (мужской); v завязывать till [til] prep до, не раньше; cj до тех пор пока time-table ['taim,teibl] л расписание tin* [tin] л консервная банка, жестянка tiny ['taini] а очень маленький, крошечный tired [taisd]: be tired уставать title ['taitl] л заголовок, название (книги) together [ts'geds] вместе tomb [tu:m] n могила the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Могила Неизвестного солдата tongue [Un] л язык the mother tongue родной язык too [tu:] adv также too much слишком много too soon слишком скоро tool [tu:l] л инструмент toothache ['tu:Qeik] n зубная боль top [top] n вершина, верхушка topic ['topik] л тема touch [Utf] v касаться, трогать tour [шэ] п турне, поездка, экскурсия tourist ['tuanst] л турист tournament ['tornamsnt] л турнир toward(s) [taSrad^)] prep к, по направлению towel ['taual] л полотенце town [taun] л город track-and-field ['traekand'fiild] а легкоатлетический trade [treid] л 7занятие, ремесло, профессия tradition [tre'dijh] л традиция traffic ['traefik] я движение, транспорт traffic lights светофор train [trein] v обучать, тренировать trainer ['treina] n тренер trait [trei, treit] n черта характера treasure* ['ti-езэ] n сокровище treat [tri:t] v обращаться (с кем-либо); лечить treat somebody badly(kindry) обращаться с кем-либо плохо(бережно) treatment ['trktmant] n лечение tremble ['trembl] v дрожать trick* [tnk] n шутка trip [trip] n путешествие; поездка, экскурсия make a trip совершить путешествие, поездку, экскурсию trouble ['trAbl] n волнение, беспокойство; тревога; v беспокоиться, тревожиться true [tru:] а верный come true сбываться, осуществляться trust [trASt] л доверие; v доверять truth [tru:G] n правда tell the truth сказать правду truthful ['tru:Gful] а правдивый truthfulness ['tru:Gfulnis] n правдивость try [trai] v стараться, пытаться; пробовать try one s best делать все возможное turn [ta:n] v поворачивать(ся) turn off выключать turn on включать turn to somebody for обратиться к кому-либо за (советом) turn out оказываться twice* [twais] пит дважды twin [twin] n близнец type [taip] v печатать на машинке typist ['taipist] л машинистка U umbrella [лт'ЬгеЬ] л зонтик underground [4ndograund| (the) л метро underline* ^nda'lam] v подчеркивать understand [.Ands'stasnd] v (understood, understood) понимать unforgettable [Anfb'getabl] а незабываемый unfortunately [An'foitfmtli] adv к сожалению unjust [An'd3ASt] а несправедливый uniform ['ju:nrfb:m] л форма school-uniform школьная форма unique [ju(:)n'i:k] a J единственный в своем роде, уникальный unit ['ju:nrt] л часть; единица, целое unite [ju:'nait] v соединяться; объединять (ся) united [ju:'naitid] а объединенный; соединенный the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии the United States of America Соединенные Штаты Америки unity ['ju:niti] л единство university [ju:niV3:siti] л университет unless [An'les, sn'les] cj если не unlike* [^n'laik] prep в отличие (от) unlock [лп'Ьк] v отпереть unpredictable [.Anpn'diktabl] a 6 непредсказуемый untidy [An'taidi] а неопрятный until [An'til, sn'til] cj (до тех пор) пока не up [лр] adv наверху, выше upset [Ap'set] v (upset, upset) перевернуть, опрокинуть; огорчать, расстраивать urgent ['a:d39nt] a <? срочный, крайне необходимый use [ju:s] л польза; [ju:z] v пользоваться, применять; употреблять used |ju:st ] а привыкший be used (to) быть привыкшим (к)
VOCABULARY get used (to) привыкнуть (к) useful ['juisful] а полезный; пригодный valuable [Vaelju9bl] а ценный, дорогой; полезный value [Vselju:] л ценность; v ценить variety [va'raiati] л 5 разнообразие various [Ve9ri9s] а разнообразный vegetables [Ved3tablz] л овощи victory [Viktan] л победа Victory Day День Победы view [vju:]: point of view точка зрения viewpoint [Vju:point] л точка зрения village [ЧаЬёз] л деревня vital [Vaitl] a J жизненный, насущный, первостепенной важности vivid [Vrvid] a 1 яркий; живой, пылкий vocation [vo(u)'keifn] л 7 призвание, склонность vocational [vo(u)'keiJbnl] а /профессиональный vocational school профессиональное училище vocabulary [va'kasbjubn] л запас слов, словарь voice [vois] л голос volume [Volju:m] л том vote* [vout] v голосовать voyage [VDiid3] л морское путешествие W Washington ['wofintan] г. Вашингтон wait [weit] (for) v ждать wake [weik] v (woke, woken) up просыпаться, будить Wales [wei\z\pr л Уэльс wall [wo:l] л стена war [wo:] л война warn [wo:n] v предупреждать warning ['wo:nin] л предупреждение wash [wof] v мыть(ся), стирать wash up мыть посуду waste [weist] л потери, убыль; утерять (время), расточать watch [wotf] я часы; v смотреть (телевизор) water ['wo:ta] л вода; v поливать water-colours fwDita.kAlaz] л акварель, акварельные краски way [wei] я дорога, путь; способ on the way по пути weak [wi:k] а слабый wealth [welG] я богатство wealthy fwelGi] а богатый weapon ['wepan] я оружие; орудие wear [we9] v (wore, worn) носить (одежду) weather ['we63] я погода week [wi:k] л неделя weekly [\vi:kh] я еженедельный выпуск welcome [Svelkgm] я гостеприимство, радушный прием; v приветствовать; а желанный, приятный Welcome! Добро Пожаловать! well [wel] adv хорошо well-read ['wel'red] a 1 начитанный, эрудированный well-known [,wel'noun] а известный, популярный west [west] я запад in the west на западе western [Svestan] а западный westward(s)* ['westwad(z)] adv направление к западу wet [wet] а мокрый, влажный wheel [wi:l] n колесо whether ['weda] с/ли which [witj] adv, cj который; какой while [wail] cj в то время как; когда for a while на время whisper [Vispa] v шептать whistle* ['wisl] v свистеть whole [houl] а целый, весь whom [hu:m] pron кого whose [hu:z] pron чей, чья, чье, чьи wicked* ['wikid] а злой, нехороший wide [waid] а широкий will [wil] я воля, завещание willing ['wilirj] а готовый (сделать что-то), охотно делающий что-то be willing to do something охотно делать что-то win [win] v (won, won) выиграть; победить wind [wind] я ветер windy [Svindi] а ветреный wing* [win] я крыло winner ['wins] я победитель wipe [waip] v вытирать wisdom ["wizdam] n мудрость wise [waiz] а мудрый wish [wij] я желание; v желать without [wi'6aut] prep без wonder [\vAnds] л чудо; v интересоваться I wonder... Интересно, что... wood [wud] л лес; дерево wool* [wul] л шерсть word [wa:d] л слово workshop [Srakfop] л мастерская worry ['wait] v беспокоить(ся) be worried быть обеспокоенным feel worried чувствовать беспокойство worth [wa:9] а заслуживающий, стоящий worthy ['wa:5i] а достойный wrestling ['reslin] л борьба (спортивная) yard [jad] л двор year [ji9] л год yellow [jelou] а желтый yet [jet] adv еще, все еще young []лп] а молодой youth [ju:9] я молодежь; а молодежный
УДК 373.167.1:802.0 + 802.0 (075.3) ББК81.2Англ-922 Х955 Консультант: профессор Кейт Роусон-Джоунз (Великобритания), факультет иностранных языков МГУ УСЛОВНЫЕ ОБОЗНАЧЕНИЯ Этот значок означает, что упражнение или часть текста записаны на аудиокассету. Этот значок рядом с номером упражнения указывает, что упражнение следует выполнить письменно. Заказы, предложения, замечания направляйте по адресу: 119146, г. Москва, а/я 573 Хрусталева Л. В., Богородицкая В. Н. Х955 Учебник английского языка: Для IX кл. шк. с углубл. изуч. англ. яз., лицеев, гимназий, колледжей. 2-е издание доработанное — М.: 1997.— 256 с: илл. ISBN 5-901059-03-4 © Л. В. Хрусталева, В. Н. Богородицкая, текст, 1996 © Л. В. Хрусталева, В. Н. Богородицкая, текст, 1997, доработанное © В. Н. Богородицкая, оригинал-макет, обложка, оформление, 1996 © В. Н. Богородицкая, оригинал-макет, обложка, оформление, 1997, доработанное
Учебное издание Хрусталева Лилия Валентиновна Богородицкая Валентина Николаевна УЧЕБНИК АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА ДЛЯ IX КЛАССА школ с углубленным изучением английского языка, лицеев, гимназий, колледжей 2-е издание доработанное Компьютерная верстка — А. А. Ушаков Художник — С. Л. Кривцов Формат 60x90/8. Гарнитура Newton. Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 32. "Издательство "ВЕРСИЯ" Лицензия №064905 от 10.12.96 107078, г. Москва, Хоромный тупик, д.4-6, стр. 8 Отпечатано в Финляндии