Text
                    MOCKOBCKA5I AKA.QEMIt151 nPE.QnpIt1HIt1MATEllbCTBA
nplt1 nPABIt1TEllbCTBE MOCKBbl


H. H. YepHOrOp


K)pV1AV1YeCKa
 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb
OpraHOB V1 AOn)/(HOCTHbIX nV1W
MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBneHV1

(TeOpen'1KO-npaBOBble np06neMbl)


MOCKBA
IOp",cnPYAe><LI"'"
2006





YAK 342.55 66K 67.401 '1-49 PeQeH3eHTbl: J1a3apeo Bal1epl1i1 BaCI111beOI1'I, ,D,OKTOP IOpl1,D,WleCKI1X H8YK, npcxpeccop; Ta6011I1H BI1a.QI1MI1P BI1KTOpOOl1'l, ,D,OKTop IOpl1,D,WleCKl1x H8YK. npocpeccop AOTOP: 'IepHorop HI1Kol1ai1 HI1KOl1aeOI1'1, K8H,D,I1,D,8T IOpl1,D,I1'1eCKI1X H8YK. ,D,o,-<eHT (npopeKTop MAn) 'IepHorop, H.H. IOpl1Al1'1eCKaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB 11 AOI1>KHOCTHblX '1-49 I111L1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBIIeHI1R (TeopeTI1KO-npaBoBble np06I1eMbI) [TeKcT] I H.H. 'IepHorop. - M. : I-1A "lOpl1cnpYAeHLlI1R», 2006. - 176 c. - 500 3K3. - ISBN 5-9516-0217-3. B MOHorpa<l>l'I1 paCCMaTpl1BalOTCR TeopeT"'ecKl1e, MeTOJ\OIlOrl1'1eCKIIB 11 npaeOBbie np06neMbi IOpL'\l\",eCKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01 opraHOB 11 AOn>KHOCTHbiX I111L1 MeCTHOrO ca- MoynpaelleHI1R. B I1X 'I"cne COBpeMeHHble TeHAeHLI"11 B <jJopM"poBaHI1" TeOpl1" IOPUJ\"- 'IeCKO;; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01 B MYHI1L1"n3llbHo-npaBOBO;; HayKe, Bonpocbl nOHRTI1R 11 CytlIHO- CT01IOPL'\l\",ecKO;; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01 opraHOB 11 AOIl"'HOCTHbIX 1l11L1 MecTHOro caMoynpaB- lleHl-1R, MeTOJ\onOrl1,eCKl1e np061leMbi ee KIlaCCI1<jJI1K8L1I1I1. B pa60Te TaK>Ke <jJoPMYII"PY- IOTCR OCHOBHble TeopeTII'lecKl1e KaTeroplll1lOpL'\l\I1'IeCKO;; OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha3BaHHblX cy6b€KTOB, ABeTCR TeOpeTIIKO-npaBOBa xapaKTepl1CT01Ka OTAellbHblX ee B01j\OB An CTYAeHTOB, aCnl1paHTOB 11 npenOAaBaTene;; IOpI1AI1"eCKI1X ey30B. YAK 342.55 66K 67.401 ISBN 5-9516-0217-3 @ H.H. 4epHorop, 2006 @ O<jJopMneHl-1e. I-1A "lOplICnPYJ\eHIII1'I" 2006 
BBE,QEHE BOT Y>Ke 60Jlee AecHTI1 JleT B POCCI1H I1AeT npol.\ecc CTaHOBJleHI1H MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJleHI1H - caMOCTOHTeJlbHOrO ypoBHH ny6J1l1qHOM BJlaCTII B CTpa- He. 8TOT npOl.\ecc COnpOBO>K,!\aeTCH nOCTOHHHblMI1 pecpopMaMI1 B ccpepe ero OpraHI13al.\HI1. <f>opMl1pOBaHl1e 3qJqJeKTI1BHbiX MeXaHI13MOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII opraHOB 11 ,!\OJDKHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H 11 KOHTpOJlH I1X Ae- HTeJIbHOCTl1 - 3TO caMOCTOHTeJIbHOe HanpaBJleHHe B paMKax pecpOpMbl opra- HH3al.\1111 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B POCCl1tlCKOM <f>e.nepal.\I1H Ha COBpeMeH- HOM :nane 11 <pYH,!\aMeHTaJlbHaH np06J1eMa MYHHl.\HnaJIbHo-npaBOBOH HaYKI1. KOHCTI1TYl.\I1H POCCI1MCKOM <f>eAepal.\I1I111 <f>e.nepaJlbHbIM 3aKOH ,,06 06- ll\HX npl1Hl.\l1naX OpraHl13al.\I1H MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B POCCHt!CKOt! <f>eAepal.\I1H» OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r. NQ 154-<f>3' nOJlO>KI1J1H HaqaJlO cpOpMH- pOBaHHH OCHOBHblX npaBoBblx I1HCTI1TYTOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH. MH- CTI1TYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 AOJl>KHOCTHbiX JlI1l.\ MeCTHOrO caMoyn- paBJleHI1H HBJlHeTCH OAHI1M 113 caMbIX npo6J1eMaTI1QHb1X H caMbIX HeCTa- 611J1bHblX I1HCTHTYTOB 3aKOHo.naTeJlbCTBa 0 MeCTHOM caMoynpaBJleHHH. IIo- cJle YCTaHOBJleHI1H COOTBeTCTBYIOll\eM HopMaTHBHOM KOHCTPYKl.\1111 B <f>eAe- paJlbHOM 3aKOHe OT 28 aBrycTa 1995 r. Y>Ke .nBa>Kl\bl H3MeHHJlCH (npHQeM cYll\eCTBeHHo) MexaHH3M OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 AOJI>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. IIpH 3TOM 3aKOHOAaTeJlb KpatIHe HenOCJleAOBa- TeJleH B peqJOpMI1pOBaHI111 AaHHoro npaBOBoro I1HCTI1TYTa. CJleACTBHeM HB- JlHeTCH OTCYTCTBHe o61ImpHot! npaBonpHMeHI1TeJlbHOM npaKTI1KH, o606ll\e- Hl1e KOTOpOt! n03BOJlHJlO 6bI Ol.\eHHTb 3qJqJeKTHBHoCTb npaBoBoro perYJlI1- pOBaHl1H COOTBeTCTBYIOll\I1X 06ll\eCTBeHHbIx OTHOIIleHI1H 11 CBoeBpeMeHHO KoppeKTl1pOBaTb MepbI, npe.nnpl1HI1MaeMbIe 3aKOHo.naTeJleM no peqJOpMH- pOBaHl11O paCCMaTpHBaeMoro npaBOBoro I1HCTHTYTa. O.nHOM 113 rJlaBHbIX npHQI1H TaKoro nOJlO>KeHHH .neJl HBJlHeTCH OTCYTCT- BHe Ha 06ll\erocy.napCTBeHHOM ypOBHe KOHl.\enl.\HH npaBoBoro perYJlJ'lpOBa- HI1H COOTBeTCTBYIOll\HX 06ll\eCTBeHHbIX OTHOIIleHl1tl 11 COOTBeTCTBYIOll\eH TeOpHI1, KOTopaH MOrJla 6bI CTaTb ee OCHOBOtl. IIonbITKI1 qJOpMl1pOBaHI1H Ta- Kot! KOHl.\enl.\I1H, Ha Haill B3rJIHA, nOKa He YBeHQaJlI1Cb ycneXOM. PerYJll1po- BaHl1e qJe.nepaJlbHbIM 3aKOHo.naTeJleM paCCMaTpl1BaeMbIX OTHOIIleHI1H no- pOAI1J10 HeMaJlO npo6J1eM 11 npOTI1BOpeQl1t! B HOpMOTBOpQeCKot! npaKTI1Ke cy6'beKTOB POCCI1I1CKOM <f>e.nepal.\l1l1 H Mymll.\l1naJlbHblx o6pa30BaHI1M B CH- JlY Toro, QTO HI1 B npaBOBOM HaYKe, HI1 B 3aKOHOTBOpQeCKOM npaKTI1Ke He pa3- pa60TaHbI KJlIOQeBble BonpOCbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 opraHOB 11 .nOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlJ1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH. MHOro BonpocoB B03HI1KaJlO 11 nO-npe>KHe- MY B03HHKaeT B QaCTII onpeAeJleHI1H Kpyra cy6'beKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII, ee OCHOBaHI1M, npl1MeHHeMbIX CaHKl.\I1M, np0l.\e.nypbI HX npHMeHeHI1H 11 T.n.  
TaKI1M 06pa30M, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB 11 ,nOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlJ1l.\ MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJleHl1H HBJlHeTCH He TOJlbKO caMOCTOHTeJlbHOM np06J1eMOM npaBOBoro perYJll1pOBaHI1H 06lI.\eCTBeHHbIX OTHOllleHI1M. CBH3aHHbiX C OCY- lI.\eCTBJleHl1eM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, 11 He TOJlbKO caMOCTOHTeJlbHbIM HanpaBJleHl1eM MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHOM peqJOpMbI Ha COBpeMeHHOM 3Tane, HO 11 qJYHAaMeHTaJlbHoi'1 np06J1eMoi'1 MYHI1l.\lmaJlbHo-npaBoBoi'1 HaYKl1, KOTopaH Tpe6yeT He npOCTO BceCTopOHHero I1CCJleAOBaHI1H. 3a,na'la Ky,na cepbe3Hee. Pe'lb I1AeT 0 qJOpMHpOBaHl111 TeOpl111, OTpaCJleBOrO Y'leHI1H 06 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH B MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHoM npaBe Bo06lI.\e 11 MYHI1l.\lmaJlbHbIX opraHOB H AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ B 'laCTHOCTI1. I'IHTepec K np06J1eMe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH 06'bHCHHeTCH He TOJlbKO TeOpenl'leCKoi1 H npaKTI1'leCKOM 3Ha'lI1MOCTblO BonpOCOB, CBH3aHHbIX co CTaHOBJleHl1eM 11 pa3BI1TI1eM B POCCI1i'ICKOi'1 4>eAepal.\I1H MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H 11 ero OC- HOBHbIX HHCnlTYTOB, HO H TeM, 'ITO 4>e,nepaJlbHbli'1 3aKOH «06 06lI.\l1x npHH- l.\l1nax opraHI13al.\1111 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH B POCCI1MCKOi1 4>eAepa- l.\I1H» OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r. N 154-4>3, ero nocJle.nyIOlI.\l1e peAaKl.\HH H, Ha- KOHel.\, HOBbli'1 4>eAepaJlbHbli'1 3aKOH OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r. N 131-4>3 2 C OA- HOHMeHHbIM Ha3BaHHeM 3aKpemlJlH B 3T0i1 'lacnl HeMaJlO npaBoBblx HOBeJlJl AJIH poccHi'lcKoro npaBa C TO'lKH 3peHHH KaK IOpH,nI1'leCKOrO cOAep>KaHHH I1HcTI1Tj'Ta OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha3BaHHblX cy6'beKTOB, TaK 11 I1cnoJlb3yeMoM B 3aKOHOAaTeJlbCTBe repMHHOJIOrHI1. MHorl1e H3 HI1X Tpe6ylOT OCMbICJleHI1H Ha 06lI.\eTeOpenl'leCKOM ypoBHe. HecMoTpH Ha O'leBHAHYIO HOBH3HY H CJlO>KHOCTb, np06J1eMa IOpI1AI1'leC- KOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 AOJI>KHOCTHbIX JIJ'Il.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JleHHH 11 AO HacTOHlI.\erO BpeMeHH He BbI3bIBaeT npl1CTaJIbHOro I1HTepeca Y'leHblX. Ha cerOAHHlllHI1M ,neHb OTCYTCTBYIOT <pYHAaMeHTaJlbHble HaY'lHble HCCJleAOBaHHH no ,naHHoi'1 np06J1eMe. CnpaBe,nJlI1BOCTH paAI1 3aMenlM, 'lTO B npol.\ecce pa3BI1TI1H MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHo-npaBoBoi1 HaYKH nOCTeneHHO qJOpMH- PYIOTCH TeOpeTI1'leCKl1e B3fJ1HAbI 11 npeACTaBJleHI1H 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 op- raHOB H AOJI>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH. B HaY'lHOM JlHTepa- Type Y>Ke 6bIJIl1 npeAnpl1HHTbI nOnblTKI1 TeOpeTI1'leCKOrO OCMblCJleHI1H OT- AeJlbHbIX acneKTOB np06J1eMbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. O,nHaKO 3TOT npOl.\eCC nOKa 'lTO HOCHT «cnl- XHi'IHbli'1 xapaKTep», nOCKOJlbKY MaJlO KTO H3 aBTopOB CTaBI1T nepe,n c060i'1 3a,na'lY TeOpenl'leCKoi1 pa3pa60TKH OTpaCJleBoi'1 TeOpl1l1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. B IOpI1AI1'leCKOM HaYKe, KaK npaBI1J10, paCCMaTpl1BalOTCH OTAeJlbHble npo- 6J1eMbI npaBOBoro perYJlHpOBaHHH 11 npaBonpHMeHI1TeJlbHOM npaKTI1KH. Pa3pa60TKa TeOpeTI1'leCKI1X acneKTOB np06J1eMbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH HOCI1T 3nH30,nH'leCKI1M, qJparMeHTapHblM xapaKTep 11 'lalI.\e Bcero CBO,nI1TCH K KOMMeHTl1pOBaHl11O ,nei'lcTBYIOlI.\erO 3aKOHOAaTeJlbCTBa JlI160 ero H3MeHeHI1i'I. B ony6J1I1KoBaH- HbIX pa60Tax 11 AHCCepTal.\HOHHbIX HCCJle,nOBaHHHX npe,nMeToM J!3Y'leHHH -4- 
CTaHOBHTCH JI11111b OT,neJIbHble TeOpeTl1qeCKl1e aCneKTbl ,naHHoi1 np06JIeMbI. B pe3YJIbTaTe ocraeTcH 6e3 ,nOJDKHOro BHI1MaHI1H aHaJI113 ,naHHOrO npaBOBO- ro HBJIeHI1H Ha 06ll.\eTeOpeTI1QeCKOM ypOBHe. CYll.\eCTBYIOll.\l1e TeOpeTI1QeC- Kl1e BbIKJIa,nKI1 He 06pa3YlOT CI1CTeMbI. TaKI1M 06pa30M, HOB113Ha I1CCJIe,nyeMoi1 Marepl1H, HeCTa611JIbHOCTb 3a- KOHo,naTeJIbCTBa, OTCYTCTBHe o606ll.\eHI1i1 npaBonpl1MeHI1TeJIbHoi1 npaK- THKI1, Hepa3BI1TOCTb TeOpenIQeCKOrO 3HaHHH B YCJIOBI1HX npOBOAI1MOii B POCCI1i1CKOi1 <t>e,nepal!1111 MYHI1Lll1naJIbHoi1 peqJOpMbI no6y,nI1JII1 aBTopa K HanHcaHHIO AaHHoi'1 pa6OTbI, KOTopaH HBJIHeTCH nepBbIM MOHorpaqmQec- KHM HaYQHbIM HCCJIe,nOBaHHeM, nOCBHll.\eHHbIM pa3pa6oTKe Teopl1l1 OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 B MYHI1Lll1naJIbHOM npaBe H KOHLlenTyaJIbHbIX OCHOB npaBOBO- ro perYJI11pOBaHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H AomKHOCTHblX JIHLl MeCT- Horo caMoynpaBJIeHHH. 
rnaBa 1 TEOPETKo-nPABOBbIE OCHOBbl IOP,Q4ECKOH OTBETCTBEHHOCT OprAHOB  ,QOl1>KHOCTHbIX 11 MECTHOrO CAMOYnPABl1EHSI 1.1. METOAOJlOn14ECKI-1E np06JlEMbi 06Ll1E TEOPI-1I-1 IOPI-1AI-14ECK0li1 OTBETCTBEHHOCTI-1 JIOrJ1Ka UCCJIeAOBaHUH npo6J1eM IOpUAH'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 OpraHOB 11 ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIUl\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH Tpe6YeT Ha'ffiTb C OnpeAeJIe- HUH pOllOBOrO nOHHTUH - IOpllllJ.l'leCKOn OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. TaKaH He06xOllU- MOCTb npOllUKTOBaHa npemlle BCerO TeM, 'ITO B TeOpl1J.1 npaBa J.I B OTpaCJleBbIX IOpJ.lAJ.l'IeCKI1X HaYKaX AO HaCTORIl.\erO BpeMeHJ.I HeT eAI1HOrO ee nOHJ.lMaHI1H; HeT 06Il.\eii TO'IKJ.I 3peHJ.lH XOTH 6bI no npJ.lHl\J.lnl1aJIbHbIM nOJIOmeHJ.lHM, TaKI1M, KaK npaBOBaR npJ.lpo.na IOpJ.lllJ.l'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I 11 ee MeCTO B Mexa- HJ.l3Me npaBOBoro peryJIJ.lpOBaHJ.lH, 11 Ap. IIpJ.l3TOM OHa HBJlHeTCH 01lHOMI13 Be- AYIl.\J.lX HayqHblx KaTeropJ.lM, I1cnoJlb3yeMblx B TeOpJ.lJ.l npaBa J.I OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpJ.lllJ.l'IeCKJ.lX HaYKax. COllepmaHJ.le ee nOHHTl1H onpeAeJIHeT npaBOBoe 11 op- raHJ.l3al\J.lOHHOe HanOJIHeHJ.le KOHKpeTHbIX MeXaHJ.l3MOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, Me- CTO J.I pOJIb IOpJ.lAJ.l'IeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I B CJ.lCTeMe npaBa 3 . IIo3TOMY BO- npoc 0 TOM, 'ITO nOHJ.lMaeTCH no,l\ TepMJ.lHOM «lOpJ.l,D;J.l'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», KaKOH CMbICJI BKJIa,l\bIBaeTCR B 3TO nOHHTl1e, RBJIHeTCR BonpOCOM MeTOllOJIOrJ.lJ.l JII060ro qJYHllaMeHTaJIbHOrO I1JIJ.I npJ.lKJIallHoro J.lCCJIellOBaHJ.lH. IIoHHTJ.le IOpJ.lAJ.l'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I BBeAeHO B HaY'IHbIH 060pOT 11 3aKOHOAaTeJIbCTBO cpaBHJ.lTeJIbHO He,l\aBHO - B Cepe.I\J.lHe XX BeKa 4. Ho yme K HaCTOHIl.\eMY BpeMeHJ.I J.lCCJIeAOBaHJ.lIO np06JIeM IOpJ.lAJ.l'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTII nOCBHIl.\eHO 3Ha'IJ.lTeJIbHOe 'II1CJIO ne'IaTHbIX J.l3,l\aHJ.li'! B paMKax KaK 06Il.\ei'! TeOpJ.lJ.l npaBa, TaK J.I OT,l\eJIbHbIX OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpJ.l,l\U'IeCKJ.lX HaYK 5 . IIp06JIeMa nOHJ.lMaHJ.lH IOpJ.l,l\J.l'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I paCCMaTpl1BaJIaCb B TpYAax C.C. AAeICceeea, C.H. BpamycJ!, lO.A. l-!euucoea, O.C. Moif)(jJe, 0.3. J'Ieucma, H.C. MClAeuua, IT.E HeiJ6aw!O, M.C. CafttoU}e1tICO, B.A. Tapxo- ea, M.X cPapyICwu1W., M.J{. LUapzopoBcICozo, JI.C. HeU'la J.I ,l\pyrnx aBTopoB. AHaJII13 ,l\aHHbIX ny6JIJ.lKal\J.lH n03BOJIReT BbIAeJIJ.lTb pR,l\ Hal16o.rree pa3BJ.lTbIX KOHl\enl\lo1MlOpJ.lAJ.l'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I. B TeOpl1J.1 IOpJ.lAJ.l'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MomHO BbIAeJIJ.lTb TpJ.l OCHOB- HbIX B3fJIH,l\a Ha ee nOHJ.lMaHJ.le. EOJlbIllJ.lHCTBO J.lCCJIeAOBaTeJIei'! IOpJ.lAJ.l'IeC- \.0 
KOi'1 OTBeTC'fBeHHOCTH (D.C. Moif)(jJe, M.J{. lllapzopooc'Kuit, JI.C. H6U't H .I1p.) CBH3bIBalOT ee C npcrrHBonpaBHbIM nOBeAeHHeM, npaBoHapyweHHeM, KOTO- poe B.ne'!eT 3a C060M rocY.l1apCTBeHHOe npHHym.l1eHl1e 11 HaKa3aHHe. IIpaBo- MepHble Aei'lcTBHH Cy6'beK'I"OB B nOHHTHe IOpHAH'!ecKoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npH 3TOM He BK.nIO'!aIOTCH 6 . TaKYIO OTBeTC'fBeHHOCTb B TeOpHH npaBa npHHH- TO Ha3bIBaTb «HeranIBHOM», H.nH «peTpOcneKTHBHOM». IIpe.l1C'faBHTe.nH BTOpOM rpynnbI (P.M. KocOJwn06, B.C. Map'Ko6, H.M. Ma- mY306, IT.E. HeB6awlO, H.A. CJ!o6oB'LU1C06 HAp.) paCCMaTpHBalOT IOpHAH'!ec- KYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B 6o.nee WHpOKOM n.naHe, KaK nOHHTHe AByxacneKTHoe, BI\.nIO'!alOl.l\ee B ce6H nOMHMO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 «HeraTHBHoi'l» OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb «n03HTHBHYIO» (<<aKTHBHYIO», «nepCneKTI1BHYIO»). OHa npeACTaB.nHeT- CH yme He TO.nbKO KaK noc.ne.l1CTBl1e HeranlBHoro HB.neHHH, KaK peaKl!HH rocy- .I1apcTBa Ha COBepweHHoe npaBOHapyweHHe, a KaK .fIB.neHHe n03HTHBHoe, npe.l1nOJIaralOl.l\ee C03HaTe.nbHoe, OTBeTCTBeHHoe OTHoweHHe HH.I1l1Bl11la K CBOHM nocTynKaM, 06pa3Y mI13HH, .nIOAHM, pa60Te, T.e. 3TO OCHOBa nOBeAeHH.fI cy6'beKTOB, HCK.nIO'!alOl.l\aH HapyweHHe npaBoBblx npe.l1nI1CaHHi'? TpeTbH TO'!Ka 3peHI1H cqJOpMy.nHpOBaHa 0.:3. JIeitcmo.M, KOTOpbIM YKa- 3bIBa.n Ha TO, '!TO TepMI1HOM «OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» MomeT 0603Ha'!aTbCH OAHO- BpeMeHHO HeCKo.nbKO caMOCTOHTe.nbHbIX COl!Ha.nbHblx HB.neHI1M, cpeAH KOTO- pbIX c.neAyeT OTMenlTb IOpl1.11H'!eCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOC'fb 3a naBoHapywe- HHH H ynpaB.neH'!eCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a nopy'!eHHoe Ae.no . B OCHOBe paCXO)KAeHHH Ha3BaHHblX To'!eK 3peHI1H .neml1T pa3JIH'!HblM no.l1XO.l1 HX aBTopoB K CYI.l\HOCTH IOpH.I1H'!eCKUM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTll, a TaKme K MOMeHTY ee B03HHKHOBeHI1H. EOJIbWHHC'fBO y'!eHbIX BHA.fIT B IOpH.I1H'!ec- KOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC'fH Mepy roCY.l1apCTBeHHoro npHHym.l1eHI1H. peaKl!111O ro- CYAapCTBa Ha COBepweHHoe npaBoHapyweHI1e. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK Mepa rOCY.l1apCTBeHHoro npHHym.l1eHHH. no HX MHeHHlO, BblpamaeTCH B ocymlIe- HI1H npaBoHapyweHHH, B YCTaHOB.neHI1I1 .I1.nH npaBOHapywHTe.nH onpeAe- .neHHbIX OTpl1l!aTe.nbHbIX (He6.naronpHHTHbIX) noc.ne.l1CTBHM B Bl1.11e orpaHH- '!eHHi'1 (.nHweHHi'I) .nH'!Horo H HMYl.l\eCTBeHHOrO xapaKTepa. TaK, D.C. Moif)(jJe H M.J{. lllap2opooc1Cuit'o onpeAe.nH.nH IOpH.I1H'!ecKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK Mepy rOCYlIapCTBeHHoro npl1Hym.l1eHHH, OCHOBaHHYIO Ha IOpl1.11l1'!eCKOM H 061.l\ecTBeHHoM ocym,!\eHHH nOBeAeHHH npaBoHapywHTe.nH H BblpamalOl.l\Y- lOCH B YCTaHOB.neHHH ,!\.nH Hero onpeAe.neHHbIX OTpl1l!aTe.nbHbIX noc.ne,!\C'f- BHi'1 B Bl1.11e orpaHH'!eHI1M .nH'!HOro H HMYl.l\eCTBeHHoro nOpH.I1Ka. To.nbKO co- 11 '!eTaHHe 3TI1X Tpex 3.neMeHTOB c03MeT IOpHAI1'!ecKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb . AHa.norJ.!'!H)'IO TO'!KY 3peHHH BbICKa3b1BaIOT H ,!\pyrl1e aBTOpbI. TaK, M.C. Ca- J1tOUWIi1CO H M.X. cPapy1CULU'/i onpe.l1e.nHIOT IOptl,!\l1'!ecKyIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK rocY.l1apCTBeHHOe npHHj')K,!\eHHe K Hcno.nHeHHIO Tpe60BaHHM npaBa, COAev:- mal.l\ee ocym,!\eHHe AeHHHM: npaBoHapyrnl1Te.n.fl rocy,!\apCTBOM H 06I.l\eC'fBOM 2. C TO'!KJ-I 3peHHH JI.M. CnUpUBO'/i06a, IOpHAH'!eCKHe noc.neACTBHH npaBoHapy- weHHH, KOTopble C rOCYlIapCTBeHHbIM npl1Hj')K.I1eHHeM He CB.fI3aHbI, IOpI1lII1'!e- CKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO He HB.nHIOTCH. OHa eCTb peaKl!I1H 06l.l\ecTBa 11 rocy- AapCTBa Ha npaBOHapyrneHl1e, n03TOMY BblC'rynaeT KaK Mepa rOCY.l1apCTBeH- HOro npHHym,!\eHHH, KOTOpaH BblpamaeTCH B OTpHl!aTe.nbHbIX nOCJIeACTBHHX r-- 
AJIH npaBOHapYlmrreJIH, HacrynalO!W1X B BHAe OrpaHWleHHt"1 JIH'lHOrO HJII1 I1MYll.\eCTBeHHOrO nOpHAKa 13. P.o. Xa.n.g;u1I.a paCCM,npl1BaeT IOpI1AI1'leCK)'1O OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B Ka'leCTBe nOCJIeACTBHi1 npaBOHapyweHI1H, Bblpa:1KaIOll.\I1XCH B B03HI1KHOBeHI1H HOBbIX 06H3aHHoCTet"1 Y npaBOHapYIIJl1'TeJIH I1JII1 B Bl1)\OI13MeHeHI1I1 paHee CYll.\eCTBo- BaBWI1X 14. ,l\amlOi1 TO'lKI1 3peHI1H nOMepml1BalOTCH MHOll1e I1CCJIeAOBaTeJIl1. TaK, B.M. fWU11I.-t.{epe01l.1OK nOJJaraeT, 'lTO IOpl1,D;I1'leCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 03- Ha'laeT npe-repneBaHl1e npaBOHapYWIITeJIeM KaKl1x-JII160 JII1WeHI1t"I, CTeCHelll1e ero CBo60Abl, YMaJIeHHe 'leCTI1I1 AOCTOHHCTBa, BJIe'leT H3AepmKI1I1MYll.\eCTBeH- HOro xapaKTepa. I1pl13TOM IOpHlIl1'leCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, C ero TO'lKI13peHI1H, eCTb Kapa. OHa npeACTaBJIHeT AJIH npaBOHapYlmlTeJIH HOB)'IO IOpll)l,J1'leCKYIO 06H3aHHOCTb. KOTOpoi1 AJUI Hero 110 npaBOHapyweHIIH He CYll.\eCTBOBaJIO 15. B npl1BelIeHHblX B033peHI1HX Ha IOpHAI1'leCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MomHO BbIlIeJII1Tb pHlI cywecTBeHHbIX MOMeHTOB: Bo-nepBbIX. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He- pa3pbIBHO CBH3aHa C npaBOHapyweHl1eM; BO-BTOPbIX, OHa Bblpa:1KaeTCH B npl1MeHeHl1I1 K npaBOHapYWI1TeJIIO roCYlIapCTBeHHoro npl1HymlIeHI1H; B-Tpe- TbI1X, B caMOM aKTe npl1MeHeHHH npl1HymlIeHHH COlIepml1TCH ocymAeHl1e lIe- 16 HHI1H npaBOHapYWI1TeJIH . B paMKaX paCCMaTpl1BaeMOro nOHI1MaHI1H IOpI1AI1'leCKot"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1 BeAeTCH AI1CKYCCHH 0 TOM, KaKI1M 06pa30M BblpamaeTcH rocYlIapCTBeHHoe npl1HymlIeHl1e npH peaJIJ.13al\I1H IOpHlIl1'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. TaK, cne- l\H<pI1Ka IOpIlAI1'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTlI, no MHeHl110 a.c. Mog;g;e, COCTOI1T B TOM, 'lTO OHa He JII060e BJIaCTHO-npHHYAI1TeJIbHOe B03Aei1cTBHe roCYAapCTBa, a B031Iei1CTBl1e HaKa3bIBalOll.\ee. CJIeAOBaTeJIbHO, OCHOBHOi1 'lepTOM, onpeAe- JIHIOll.\eM CYll.\HOCTb IOpI1AI1'leCKoii: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, HBJIHeTCH HaKa3aHl1e, Kapa 3a COBepweHHoe npaBOHapyweHl1e. I1paBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - oco- 6aH roCYAapCTBeHHo-npI1HYAlITeJIbHaH Mepa. 06pYWI1BalOll.\aH Ha OTBeTCT- BeHHoro cy6'beKTa CYll.\eCTBeHHO HOBbIe, 1I0nOJIHI1TeJIbHbIe 06peMeHeHI1H, 3a- KJIIO'lalOll.\l1eCH JII160 B JII1WeHI1H npaBa, JIH60 B B03JIOmeHI111 06H3aHHOCTII (HanpI1Mep, ynJIaTI1Tb HeYC1'Ot"IKY), JIH60 B JIHWeHl111 npaBa, coeAHHeHHOM C B03JIOmeHI1eM 06H3aHHOCTI1 (HanpHMep, JII1WeHl1e CBo60,l\bI KaK Mepa yro- JlOBHOro HaKa3aHI1H). OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK qJOpMa rOCYlIapCTBeHHoro npl1- HymAeHHH, B OTJlI1'll1e OT I1HblX roCYAapCTBeHHo-npI1HYAl1TeJlbHbIX Mep, YKa3aHa JlHWb B wTpaqJHbIX (KapaTeJlbHbIX) CaHKl\I1HX. IIo3TOMY HX peaJIJ'I- 17 3al\HH - He 'lTO I1HOe, KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb . KaK peaJIl13al\111O caHKl\I1l1 IOpI1AII'leCKoi1 HOpMbI TpaKTyeT OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb 11 C.H. Bpamycb, OAHaKO nOA'lepKHBaeT, 'lTO OCHOBHoe - 3TO o6H3aH- HOCTb. lOpIlAJ.!'leCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - 31'0 Ta me 06H3aHHoCTb, HO npHHY- l1I1TeJlbHO I1CnOJIH.ReMaH, eCJlH JlI1l\O (rpamlIaHl1H 11J111 opraHI13al\l1H), Ha KOTO- pOM 3Ta 06H3aHHoCTb Jleml1T. He IICnOJIHHeT ee A06pOBOJIbHO 18. C.H. Bpamycb 06pall.\aeT CBoe nOHHMaHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npoTl1B ee TpaKTOBKI1 KaK KapbI, HaKa3aHHH. C ero TO'lKI13peHI1H, XapaKTepHCTlIKa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH KaK KaPbI, HaKa3aHI1H HBJIHeTCH OlIHOCTopoHHei1. OH C'lI1TaeT, 'lTO Hel\eJleco06pa3HO pac- npOCTpaHHTb 'lepTbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, npl1cyII.\l1e yrOJIOBHOMY 11 alIMI1HI1CT- 0) paTHBHOMY npaBY, Ha Te 06ll.\eCTBeHHble OTHOWeHI1H, KOTOpbIe perYJIl1pYIOTCH 
rpa)K,QaHCKI1M npaBOM, a TalQKe TpYAOBbIM, ceMei1HbIM 11 APymMI1 O-rpaCJIHMI1 npaBa. ECJII1 06ecne'II1Tb I1CnOJIHeHl1e HapyrneHHoi1 06H3aHHOCTI1 HeB03MomHO, TO Y npaBOHapyrnITeJIH B03HI1KaeT HOBa.fI 06H3aHHOCTb, KOTOpaH ,nOJI>KHa 6blTb I1CnOJIHeHa. OH AOJImeH HeCUI HaKa3aHl1e (B yrOJIOBHOM npaBe) I1JII1 BbI- ruIaUITb HeYCTOi'rKY, B03MeCTI1Tb y6bITKI1 (B rpam,l\aHCKOM npaBe)'9. Cxomefl n03I1l!1111 npl1Aepml1BaeTC.fI JI.C. HBU<I. B caMOM npocTei1rneM nOAxo,l\e, no ero MHeHl1lO, IOpl1,nI1'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - 3TO npl1MeHeHl1e COOTBeTC'fBYIOIl.\ei1 CaHKLll111 HapyrneHHoi1 npaBOBofl HOpMbI 20 . B Hal160JIee pa3pa6oTaHHOM BI1,ne y CTOpOHHI1KOB 3TOfl KOHLlenLll111 nOHflTl1e OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 .fIBJIfieTCH 60JIee rnl1pOKI1M. TaK, 0.:3. JIeucm HaCTal1BaeT Ha TOM, 'ITO nOH.fITl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 no CBoeMY 06'beMY rnl1pe nOH.fITI1.f1 «npl1MeHeHl1e caHKLlII1», nOCKOJIbKY BKJIIO'ffieT TaKl1e npo6JIeMbI. KaK KBaJIl1cpI1KaLlI1.f1 npa- BOHapyrneHI1H, rapaHTl111 AOCTl1meHI1.f1 06'beKTI1BHoi1I1CTI1HbI no AeJIY, npl1- MeHeHl1e Mep npeCe'IeHI1f1 (o6eCne'IeHI1.f1), npaBa JIl1ua, 06BI1HfleMOrO B npa- BOHapyrneHl1l1, OCHOBaHI1.f1 oCBo6omAeHI1f1 OT oTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, «COCTOflHl1e HaKa3aHHOCTI1» npl1 peaJII13aLlI1I1 rnTpaqJHbIX, KapaTeJIbHbIX CaHKl!l1fl 11 pfiA ,npyrI1X 2 '. I13BecTHO, 'ITO nOHflTl1e Bcer,na rnl1pe ero onpe,neJIeHI1.f1, n03ToMY, Y'Il1TblBafi AOnOJIHeHI1.f1 0.:3. JIeucma, Bce me MomHO pe31OMI1pOBaTb 3TY KOHLlenl!l-11O TaR: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb npl1MeHeHl1e CaHKLlI1I1. IIoHI1MaHl1e IOPI1,nI'I'IecKofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK npl1MeHeHI1.f1 CaHKLll111 (B3bICKaHI1.f1) pa3AeJI.fIeTC.fI MHOrl1MI-I Y'IeHbIMl1, I1CCJIe,nOBaBrnI1MI1 np06JIeMbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B paMKax OTAeJIbHbIX OTpaCJIeBbIX HayK. K npl1Mepy, p,.H. Baxpax paCCMaTpl1BaeT aAMI1Hl1cTpaulBHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK npl1MeHeHl1e, peaJIl13al!111O a,nMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHbIX B3bICKaHI1i13a aAMI1HI1CTpa- TI1BHble npocTynKI1 cy6'beKTaMI1 qJYHKl!110HaJIbH0i1 BJIaCTI1 Ha OCHOBaHl1l111 B nOp.flAKe, KOTopble YCTaHOBJIeHbI aAMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHbIM npaBoM 22 . B 70-80-e ro,nbI XX BeKa 6bIJIa npe,nnpl1HHTa nOnbITKa 06'be.l\I1HITb pac- cMoTpeHHble Bblrne KOHLlem.!l111 IOpl1,l\I1'IecKofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, npe,nCTaBI1B ee B Ka'IeCTBe npaBOBoro OTHOrneHI1f1 (A.U. Ca1-lmaJWB, H.A. fCLIZaza1-l 11 AP.). CTOpOHHI1KI1,naHHofl KOHLlenLll111 nOJIaralOT, 'ITO cOAepmaHl1e IOpl1,nI1'IeCKoi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK npaBoOTHOrneHl1f1 COCTOI1T B BbIHym,l\eHHOM npeTepneBa- HHI-I BI1HOBHbIM JII1l!OM OTpl1l!aTeJIbHbIX nOCJIe,ncTBI1i1 COBeprneHHoro 11M npaBD- HapyrneHl1f1 B qJOpMe roCY,l\apcTBeHHoro nOpl1LlaHl1.f111 npl1Hj'>K,l\eHI1.f1 ero K 3TO- MY co CTOpoHbI cneLll1aJIbHO ynOJIHOMO'IeHHbIX rocy,napCTBeHHbIX opraHOB 23 . EJII13KI1 K npl1BeAeHHoi1 KOHl!enl!1111 IOpl1,nI1'IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII KaK npaBOOTHOrneHI1.f1 B3rJI.fIAbi ,l\pyroi13Ha'II1TeJIbHoi1 'IaCTI1 Y'IeHblX (C.C. AAe'K- ceeB, H.M. Bpau1-lu1-l, 8.U. Kyp.rt.Jl'llac'KUU, A.A. ITU01-lm'KOBC'KUU 11 Ap.), OHI1 no- JIaralOT, 'ITO IOpl1Al1'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npe,l\CTaBJIHeT c06oi1 npl1MeHe- Hl1e K BI1HOBHOMY JII1l.\Y rocY,l\apcTBeHHoro npl1Hym,neHl1H 3a COBeprneHHoe 11M npaBoHapyrneHl1e 24 . IIpl1 3TOM ,l\aHHbli1 npOLlecc peaJIJ3yeTcH 'Iepe3 oc06oe OXpaHI1TeJIbHOe npaBOOTHOrneHl1e 25 . HeCMOTpH Ha cxomeCTb n0311Lll1fl A.U. Ca1-l- mCLIZOBa U H.A. fa.iWZa1-la, C O,nHOi1 CTOpOHbl, 11 C.C. AA€'KCeeBa 11 ero CTOpOHHI1- KOB - C ,npyroi1, Heo6xo,nI1MO I1X pa3rpaHI1'II1Tb, nOCKOJIbKY nepBble BI1,nHT B IOpl1,!.!11'IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npaBOOTHOrneHl1e, B TO BpeMH KaK BTOpble paCCMaTpl1BalOT IOplJ\I1'IeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK Mepy rOCYAapCTBeHHO- 0\ 
ro npHHY>KJ1eHHH, peaJII'l3yeMoe 'Iepe3 CneWlaJlbHOe OXpaHHTeJlbHOe npaBO- OTHOllleHHe, KOTOpoe caMO no ce6e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO He Ha3bIBaeTCH. CpeJ1H CTOpOHHI1KOB KOHuenU)1H, cor.rraCHO KOTOpOMlOpH,!(I1'IeCKaH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb HBJlHeTCH npaBOOTHOllleHl1eM 11J111 peaJll13yeTcH 'Iepe3 Hero, HJ1YT cnopbI 0 MeCTe TaKoro npaBOOTHOllleHI1H B MexaHH3Me npaBoBoro pery- Jll1pOBaHHH, ero IOpl1I'IeCKOM npHpOJ1e H MOMeHTe B03HHKHOBeHHH. TaK, B. T. Ba3'bIJIee C'II1TaeT, 'ITO IOpl1J1I1'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - 3TO J1I1HaMI1'Ie- CKoe npaBOOTHOllleHl1e, B03HI1KaIOlI.\ee H3 qJaK'l"a npaBOHapYllleHI1H, Me>KJ1Y rOCYJ1apCTBOM 11 npaBOHapYIllHTeJleM 26 . OH paCCMaTpl1BaeT IOpl1Al1'IeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK pa3BI1BalOlI.\eeCH MaTepl1aJlbHOe npaBOOTHOllleHl1e, BblAeJlHH B HeM TPH CTaAI1I1: CTaHOBJleHl1e (nepBOHa'IaJlbHOe pa3BHTHe), KOH- KpeTII3aUHIO 11 peaJlH3aUHIO (OCYlI.\eCTBJleHHe). IIepBaH CTaAHH Ha'IHHaeTCH C npaBOHapYllleHI1H 11 peaJII13yeTCH B IOpHJ1I1'IeCKOM npouecce KaK CT<lAI1H npeJ1Bapl1TeJlbHoro paCCJleJ10BaHI1H npecTynJleHI1H, J10CYJ1e6HOM nOJ1rOTOBKH rpa>KAaHcKoro AeJla K CJlYlllaHI11O, paCCJleAOBaHl1e aAMHHI1CTpaTI1BHOrO npa- BOHapYllleHI1H HJlH pa3611paTeJlbCTBO AI1CUl1nJlI1HapHOro npocTynKa. Ha CTa- J1HI1 KOHKpeTII3aUHI1 BbIHOCI1TCH aKT 0 HaKa3aHI1I1. Ha nOCJleAHei'r CTaJ11111 OCYlI.\eCTBJlHeTCH <paKTH'IeCKaH peaJll13aUl1H KapaTeJlbHOrO B03AeMCTBI1H, KOTopoe 6bIJlO npeAnHcaHO aKTOM 0 HaKa3aHI1I1; npH'IeM B 3TOi'1 cTaAHH, no MHeHl110 B.T. Ba3'blJleea, 3aKJlIO'ffieTCH CMbICJI CYlI.\eCTBOBaHHH IOpI1AI1'IeCKoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, B HeMlOpl1J1H'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MaTepl1aJl113yeTCH. TaKI1M 06pa30M, npaBOOTHOllleHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3aKaH'IHBaeTCH Ha CTa- AI1I1 peaJII'13aU1I1 HaKa3aHI1H 27 . I13J10>KeHHOe BHAeHHe IOpl1J1I1'IeCKoi'1 OTBeT- 2B CTBeHHOCTII pa3AeJlHIOT TaK>Ke 11 HeKOTopble J1pyrne aBTOpbl . CYlI.\eCTByeT 11 I1HaH TO'IKa 3peHI1H, BblCKa3aHHaH M.C. CQJlW14e1/;IW H M.X. c'PaPY'KWU1i'b!, KOTOpble OTMe'IalOT, 'ITO IOpl1Al1'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb H npaBOOTHOllleHl1e - 3T0 He COBTIaJ1alOlI.\He nOHHTI1H. OXpaHI1TeJlbHble npaBOOT- HOllleHI1H nOpO>KJ1aIOTCH caMI1M npaBOHapYllleHl1eM. lOpl1.l\l1'IecKaH >Ke OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb B03HI1KaeT Jll1ll1b nocJle YCTaHOBJleHI1H 06'beKTI1BHoro qJaKTa npaBOHa- pYllleHI1H (ero npI3HaHHH) KOMne-reHTHbIMI1 OpraHaMH 11J111 JlI1l-laMI1. OxpaHH- TeJlbHoe npaBOOTIlOllleHHe peaJII13yeTcH B J1BYX CTaJ1l1HX. Ha nepBoM CTaJ11111 - pa36l1paTeJlbCTBa - YCTaHaBJlI1BaeTCH qJaKT cOBepllleHI1H npaBOHapYllieml.fL Ha BTOpOH - B03JJ0>KeHI1H 11 peaJII13aUHI1 IOpl1Al1'IeCKOH oTBeTCTBeHHoc - Heno- cpeJ1CTBeHHO oCYlI.\eCTBJlHeTCH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npaBoHapYIllrreJlH . H.M. Bpau1iu1i j'TBep>K,naeT, 'ITO IOpHJ1I1'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK KOHKpeTHoe npaBoOTHollleHHe 6epeT CBoe Ha'IaJlO C MOMeHTa npl1BJle'IeHHH JlI1Ua K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (B yroJloBHOM npaBe - C MOMeHTa npl1BJle'IeHI1H npaBOHapYIllHTeJlH B Ka'IeCTBe 06BI1HHeMoro)3o. IT.E. HeB6aii.!to BI1AI1T B03- HHKHOBeHl1e IOpl1Al1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 C MOMeHTa BbIHeCeHI1H pellle- HHH (npl1rOBOpa), npH3HalOlI.\erO qJaKT npaBOHapYllleHI1H. COBepllleHHoro on- peAeJleHHbIM JlI1UOM 3 '. HeCMOTpH Ha pa3JJI1'IHble TO'IKI1 3peHHH OTHOCI1TeJlbHO MOMeHTa B03HI1KHo- BeHHH IOpl1J1I1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII B oxpaHI1TeJlbHbIX npaBOOTHOllleHI1HX, n0311Ul111 aBTOpOB CXOJ1HTCH B TOM, 'ITO IOpl1J1H'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK CBil3b Me>K,l\y npaBOHapYIllITeJleM 11 opraHOM rOCYAapCTBa, ynpaBOMO'IeHHbIM o -- 
npl1MeHHTb K HeMY YCTaHOBJIeHHble 3aKOHOIII IIIepbl DpI1HY1K,!\eHI1H. peaJll13yeT- CH B paMKaX KOHKpemoro npaBOOTHOllleHI1H IOpl1.!1l1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 32 . HeT e,!\I1HCTBa IIIHeHl1i:j11 OTHOCJ1TeJlbHO He6J1aronpl1HTHbIX nOCJle,!\CTBI1t'I, KOTOble 06H3aH HeCTI1 njaBOHapYIlII1TeJlb. TaK, C TOqKI13peHI1H M.M. Awp- 'KOBa 3 11 C.H. Bpamyc,f/.3 ,KOTOpaH B ,!\aJlbHeMllieM 6bIJIa pa3BI1Ta H.C. Ca.MO- 'UJeH'KO 11 M.X. <PaPY'KtuUHbl./lt, 113 TOro <paKTa, qTO Y npaBOHapYllIl1TeJlH He B03HI1KaeT HOBbiX 06H3aHHOCTet'1 11 OH He TepHeT Tex I1Jm I1HblX npaB, COBceM He CJle,!\yeT, qTO OH He HeceT HI1KaKI1X Jll1ll1emlji ECJlI1 ero npl1HY1K,!\alOT K I1C- nOJlHeHl11O 06H3aHHOCTet'r, 3Haq11T, C Hero Cnpallll1BalOT OTqeT 0 COBepllleHHOM ,!\eHHI1I1, oCY1K,!\aIOT ero 3a 3TO ,!\eHHl1e, eCJlI1 eCTb BI1Ha - 3aCTaBJIHIOT BbIDOJl- HI1Tb npaBOBYIO 06H3aHHocTb nOMI1I110 BOJlI1 35 . OaKo ,!\aHHYIO n03111..\111O nep- BOHaQaJlbHO nO,!\Bepr KpJ1TI1Ke O.C. HorfJrfJe. KOTOpblt'1 OTMeQaJl. QTO rocy,!\ap- CTBeHHoe npl1HY1K.1\eHl1e M01KeT npl1MeHHTbcH He3aBI1CI1MO OT BI1HbI Jll1l..\a, He I1CnOJlHI1BllIerO B03J101KeHHYIO Ha Hero 06H3aHHOCTb, B TO BpeMH KaK IOpl1,!\l1- QeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb I1MeeT MeCTO TOJlbKO npl1 ee HaJlI1QI111 36 . B ,!\aJlbHet'l- llIeM B nOJleMI1KY C npe,!\CTaBJ1TeJlHMI1 nOHI1MaHI1H IOpl1,!\J1'lecKoi:j OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 KaK npI1HY1K,!\eHI1H K I1CnOJlHeHl11O 06H3aHHocHI BCTynl1J1 H.C. Ma- ./I.eUH. ITo ero MHeHI1IO, JlI06aH HopMa npaBa o6ecneQI1BaeTCH rocy,!\apCTBeH- HbiM npI1HY1K.1\eHl1eM. O.1\HaKO 113 3Toro He CJle,!\yeT, QTO Bce HOpMbI npaBa npe,!\CTaBJIHIOT co6ot'1 I1HCTI1TYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B npOTI1BHOM cJlYQae npo- 1130lllJlO 6bI OT01K,!\eCTBJleHl1e npaBoro pery Jll1pOBaHI1H B l..\eJlOM 11 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 KaK O,!\Horo 113 ero I1HCTI1TYTOB 37 . To eCTb npI1HY.1\i1TeJlbHoe i1cnOJl- HeHl1e o6H3aHHocTI1 caMO no ce6e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO He HBJlHeTCH. rJlaBHOe npe.1\Ha3HaQeHl1e IOpl1,!\I1QeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3aKJIlOQaeTCH B npl1HY1K- .1\eHI1I1 K C06J1IO,!\eHI1IO HOpM npaBa, B B03.1\eHCTBI1I1 Ha npaBOHa pYIllJ1TeJlH C TeM, QTo6bl Bblpa60TaTb y Hero MOTI1Bbl C03HaTeJlbHOrO, npaBonOCJlYIliHoro 3B OTHOllleHI1H K npaBOBbIM npeJ\nl1CaHI1HM . C.C. A./I.e'KCeeB MepbI rocy,!\apCTBeHHoro npI1HY1K.1\eHI1H ,!\eJlI1T Ha npo<pl1- JlaKTI1QeCKl1e, npeBeHTI1BHbie Mepbl 11 IOpi1,!\I1QeCKl1e caHKI..\i1I1. COl..\l1aJlbHOe Ha3HaQeHI1e npaBOBoro npI1HY1K,!\eHI1H, Bblpa1KalOlI.\erOCH B CaHKI..\I1HX, OH BI1- .1\I1T B I1X npaBOOXpaHJ1TeJlbHoi:j pOJll111 ,!\eJlJ1T CaHKl..\l111 Ha npaBOBOCCTaHOBI1- TeJlbHble I1Il1Tpa<pHble. OH 11 ero nOCJle,!\OBaTeJlI1 npl1ll1J111 K BbIB0.!IY 0 TOM, QTO Heo6xo,!\i1MO OTrpaHI1Qi1BaTb Mepbl npI1HY1K.1\eHi1H K I1CnOJlHeHl11O 06H3aHHoc- TI1, HanpaBJIeHHble Ha BOCCTaHOBJleHl1e HapYllleHHbIX npaB nOTepneBllIero (Mepbl 3all\I1Tbl cy6'beKTI1BHbIX npaB 11 06ecneQeHI1H I1CnOJlHeHI1H 06H3aHHoc- TeM), OT I1HbIX, Bblpa1KeHHbIX B HOBbIX, 06peIlleHHIOII.\I1X JlI1I..\O 06H3aHHocTHX, T.e. Mep IOpl1.1\I1QeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. Mepbl 3all.\I1TbI cy6'beKTI1BHblX npaB 06eCneQl1BalOT I1X BOCCTaHOBJleHHe 11 npl1 OTCYTCTBI1I1 BHHbI Jll1l..\a, Ha PYIllI1B- llIero 3TI1 npaBa. IOpl1,!\HQeCKaH 1Ke OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb CBH3aHa C BI1HOBHbIM npaBOHapYllleHl1eM. QeM 11 06'b.RCHHeTCH B03J101KeHi1e Ha npaBOHapYIlli1TeJlH 06peMeHeHI1t'1 - HaKa3aHI1H, IlITpa<pHbIX 11 I1HbIX Jll1ll1eHI1t'1 11 ,!\onOJlHJ1TeJlb- HblX 06H3aHHocTei1: 39 . Hal160Jlee Ba1KHaH OTJlHQJ1TeJlbHaH QepTa IOpl1J\HQeC- KOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - 3TO npeTepneBaHl1e CaHKI..\Ht'I, I1I11elOlI.\l1X npeHMYlI.\e- CTBeHHO IlITpa<pHoi1 xapaKTep40. 8TY KOHl..\enl..\HIO BOCnpl1HHJlI1 C.H. KO:JICeB- HUKOB, B.Jl.. ApOaW'KUH, B.T. Ba3b!JteB, O.A. KpacaB'!UKOBI1 ,!\p. ..- ..- 
J1,/\efl n03nTnBHOt:r OTBeTCTBeHHOCTn B03HnKJIa B 60-e ro,!\bI XX BeKa. Ee TpaKTOBKa ObIJIa pa3paOOTaHa npe,!\CTaBnTeJUlMI1 <pHJIOCO<pCKOt:1 Ha}'Kn. ITo- 311TnBHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb paCCMaTpnBaJIaCb KaK npH3HaK pa3BI1TI1fl COl.(na- JIHCTnqeCKHX OOll.\eCTBeHHblX OTHOllieHnt:l. TaK, P.M. KOCOJlan06 H B.C. Map- 'K06, nO,!\Beprafl KpHTHKe Tpa,!\11l.(HOHHOe nOHHMaHne IOpn,!\HqeCKoi:j OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH KaK nOCJIe,!\CTBHfl npOTHBonpaBHoro nOBe,!\eHHfl, YTBepmAaJIH, qTO nOflBJIeHl1e HOBbIX OOlJ.(ecTBeHHblx OTHollieHHt1 npH COl.(HaJIH3Me Bbl,!\Bl1raeT Ha nepe,!\HHt1 nJIaH n03HTHBHoe co,!\epmaHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, H COOTBeTCT- BeHHO CTaBHJIn np06JIeMY HCCJIe,!\OBaHHfl ee HMeHHO B ,!\aHHOM acneKTe 41 . CTOpOHHI1KH n031ITnBHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 I1CXO,!\flT n3 TOro, qTO npaBo npn3BaHo OblTb n031ITnBHbIM CTI1MYJIflTOpOM aKTnBHoi1 n03Hl.(nl1 cyo'beKTa npaBa H cnocoocTBoBaTb TOMY. qTOObI rocy,!\apcTBo B KOHeqHOM CqeTe nepe- pOCJIO B nOJIHOCTblO caMoynpaBJIfleMoe 06ll.\ecTBO, OCHOBaHHoe Ha MOpaJIb- HbIX perYJIflTOpax. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb - 3TO cpellCTBO, He TOJIbKO npellOTBpa- ll.\alOlJ.(ee HapYllieHne npaBOBblX HOpM, HO n CTI1MYJInpYIOIl.\ee aKTJIBHoe no- Be,!\eHHe CY0'beKTa npaBa, cpe,!\CTBO BOCnJ1TaHHfl Y Hero CHJIbHbIX BHYTpeH- Hnx perYJIflTOpOB KaK Hal160JIee 3<p<PeKTnBHbIX rapaHTOB 06lJ.(ecTBeHHoro nOBe,!\eHnfl 42 . TaK, C roqKH 3peHHfl H.M. MamY3013Cl, oe3 KaTeropnH n031ITnB- HOt:1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npaBOBafl CHCTeMa ObIJIa ObI Kpat:IHe HeYCTot:lqnBot:l, KaK H nOJIOmeHl1e JIHqHOCTI1 B Het:l. rocy,!\apCTBO 3aKpenJIfleT n03nTnBHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B 3aKOHax, YCTaHaBJInBaeT B KaqeCTBe ocoooro npaBOBoro I1HCTI1TYTa, npH3BaHHoro OKa3bIBaTb 06ll.\ee opraHH3YIOIl.\ee H ,!\nCl.(IITIJIHHn- PYIOIl.\ee B03,!\eMCTBHe Ha yqaCTHHKOB OOlJ.(eCTBeHHbIX OTHollieHHt1, <pOpMH- pOBaTb nx OTBeTcTBeHHoe, rJIYOOKO OC03HaHHoe nOBe,!\eHHe 43 . O,!\HnM n3 nepBbIX H,/\elO «n03I1THBHOt:1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» B IOpl1)\J1'!eCKoi'1: HaYKe BbI,/\BIIHYJI II.E. HeiJ6aww. OH nHCaJI, qTO COl.(l1aJIbHblt:1 CMbICJI TaKot:1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 COCTonT B ,!\em-eJIbHOCTH, COOTBeTCTByJOlJ.(et:1 06'beKTnBHblM Tpe- 60BaHlmM ,!\aHHOM cnTyal.(l1n 11 06'beKTHBHo 06ycJIoBJIeHHbIM J1)\eaJIaM BpeMeHH, a B co,!\epmaHne n0311TI1BHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 BXO,!\I1T caMOCTOHTeJIbHafl H HHl1l.(l1aTHBHafl ,/\em-eJIbHOCTb B paMKax npaBOBbIX HOpM H TeX J1)\eaJIOB, ,!\JIfl ,!\O- CTilmeHHfl KOTOpbIX HOpMbI H3,!\aHbI 44 . IT03,/\Hee B pa60Tax CTopOHHnKOB n0311- TnBHot:1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH CTa.na npocJIeml1BaTbCfl MbICJIb 0 TOM, qro 3Ta OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb HBJIHeTCfl 06H3aHHOCTblO. TaK, Ell. Ha3ap06 BH,!\I1T B n03HTJIBHOM OTBeTCTBeHiiOCTI1 06H3aHlioCTb ocYll.\eCTBJIeHHfl npe.!IyCMoTpeHHot:1 HopMaMH npaBa nOJIe3Hot:1 ,!\JIH 06lJ.(eCTBa ,/\em-eJIbHOCTI1. PeaJIn3al.(Hfl IOpJ1)\nqeCKot:1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTl1, no cYJ.l\ecTBY, Bcer,/\a eCTb I1CnOJIHeHl1e IOpH,!\J!'JeCKot:1 06fl3aH- HOCTH 45 . ITpnMepHo TaK}'1O me n0311l.(11IO 3aHHMaeT lI.B. II.R.ma'Ko6, KOTOpbIM npHMeHl1TeJIbHO K TPY'!\OBOM)' npaBY nJrcaJI, qTO HaqaJIa IOpH,!\I1'JeCKoi:j OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTJI paBHbIM 06pa30M conpoBom,/\alOT KaTeropHIO TPY,!\OBOt:1 ,!\nCl.(l1nJInHbI KaK 06fl3aHHoCTI1 ,!\06pocOBeCTHO TPY,/\I1TbCH B H30paHHot:1 06JIacTH 06ll.\ecTBeH- HO nOJle3Hot:1 ,!\eflTeJIbHOCTH, a MOmeT OblTb, Bce 60JIee CJII1BaIOTCfl C Het1 46 . OrlleJIbHO CJIe.l\YeT OCTaHOBI1TbCH Ha «ceMaHTHqeCKOM» TOJIKOBaHHI1 IOpH- ,/\HqeCKot:1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. TpaKTOBKa IOpH,/\nqeCKot1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK peryJInpyeMoM npaBoM oOfl3aHHOCTJI ,/\aTb OTqeT B CBOI1X ,!\eMCTBHHX (OTBeTJITb 3a HI1X) npHHa,!\JIeml1T B.A. Tapxoey. ITo ero MHeHHlO, HCTpe60BaHHe OTqeTa - N ..- 
OCHOBHOH npH3HaK H CYll(HOCTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, a nOCJIe.l\YeT JIH 3a OT'IeTOM ocym.L\eHHe HJIH HaKa3aHHe - 31'0 yme .L\Pyroii BOnpoc. Kor.L\a 061l.!eCTBeHHble OTHOll1eHHH OCYll.!eCTBJIHIOTCH HOpMaJIbHO, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb CYll.!eCTByeT, HO He npOHBJIHeTCH. Kor.L\a me HapyrnalOTcH npaBHJIa nOBe.L\eHHH, TO nOHBJIHeTCH He06xo.L\HMOCTb B aBTOpHTapHOM npH3BaHHH JIllla K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. OfBeT- CTBeHHOCTb HBJIHeTCH 06"beKTHBHOH He06XO.L\HMOCThIO, He 3aBHCHll.!ei'[ OT C03Ha- HHH, KOTOpylO JIIO.L\11 cnoc06Hbi n03HaBaTb H B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3THM nocTynaTb npaBHJIbHO, a nOTOMY cy6'beKTHBHbIM OCHOBaHl1eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCUI HBJIHeTCH '1YBCTBO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. B.A. TapX06 YTBepm.L\aJI, '1TO H B OTHOll1eHI1H HaCTO- Hll.!erO H 6Y.l\Yll.!ero. a He TOJIbKO npOll1JIoro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK .L\OJIr, 06H3aH- HOCTh HBJIHeTCH IOpH.L\H'IeCKHM perYJIHTOpOM nOBe.L\eHHH JIIO.L\eM 47 . B.JI. Ha3ap06 C'IHTaeT n03HTHBHbli'[ acneKT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH He nOCJIe.L\- CTBHeM HapYll1eHHOrO nOpH.L\Ka, a CTHMYJIHTOpOM HeOOXO.L\HMOrO C TO'lKH 3pe- HHH I1HTepeCB 06Il.!eCTB H corpam.L\aH nOBe.L\eHI1H, HCnOJIHeHJ10JIra, B03- JIOmeHHbIX OOH3aHHOCTe[, nOJIOmHTeJIbHblX COI..\HaJIbHblX pOJIeH . HeKOTopble Y'IeHble-lOpHCTbl nblTaJIHCb paCKpblTb C}'Tb «n03HTI1BHOi'[ OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1" '1epe3 nCI1XOJIOfl1'1eCKHi'[ acneKT. TaKoM nOllXO.L\ I1MeeT He- CKOJIbKO pa3HOBH.L\HOCTei'[. 3.A. Acme.MUp06 nHCaJI 0 CYll.!eCTBOBaHHH 06'beK- THBHOH H CY0'beKTHBHoi'[ CTOpOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. IIo.L\ 06'beKTHBHoi'[ CTOpo- HOi'[ OH nOHI1MaeT BblpameHHe HopMaTHBHO CcpopMYJIHpOBaHHoro Tpe60BaHHH H npHMeHeHHH CaHKI..\Hi'[, npl1'1eM KaK nOJIOmHTeJIbHOrO, TaK H OTpHl..\aTeJIbHo- ro CBOMCTBa. C CY0'beKTHBHoi'[ CTOpOHbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, no ero MHeHHIO, npe.L\CTaBJIHeT COOOH npeJIOMJIeHHe YKa3aHHoro Tpe60BaHHH B C03HaHI-IH JIH'I- HOCTH H nCHXOJIOfl1H JIIO.L\CKOi'[ 06Il.!HOCTH, YCBoeHl1e HMH COl..\l1aJIbHblX HOpM H HMnepaTHBOB, BblpaOOTKY Y HHX COI..\HaJIbHO-n0311T11BHOH MOTHBal..\HI1 H, HaKO- Hel..\, co06pa30BaHHe C COI..{HaJIbHblMH HopMaMH H TpeOOBaHHHMH CBOero nOBe- .L\eHHH H nocTynKoB, npaKTH'IeCKOH mH3He.L\eHTeJIbHOCTH (06pa3a mH3HH), a B CJIY'Iae HapYll1eHHH 3THX HOpM H TpeOOBaHI1i'[ - peaJIbHyIO nO.L\OT'IeTHOCTb co- OTBeTCTBYlOll.!eM HHCTaHl..\l1H H He06xo.L\HMOCTb nO.L\BeprH}'TbCH caHKl..\l1H OT- pHl..\aTeJIbHOrO, B3blCKaTeJIbHOrO xapaKTepa. 3.L\eCb HaJIHI..\O cy6'beKTHBHaH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb, .L\OBe.L\eHHaH .L\O nOTeHI..\I1aJIbHblX H KOHKpeTHbIX HOCHTeJIei'[49. HeKOTOpble yqeHble nblTalOTCH OO'bHCHHTb «n03HTI1BHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» '1epe3 KaTerOpl11O nCHXOJIOfl1'1eCKOrO OTHOll1eHI1H. TaK, B.H. KyCJpSl.6lie6 H B.M. JIa3apee onpe.L\eJIHIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B n031ITHBHOM CMbICJIe - KaK OT- BeTCTBeHHoe OTHOll1eHHe K BblIlOJIHeHI1IO CBOHX TPY.L\OBbIX <PYHKI..\Hi'[, K pell1e- HHIO HaY'IHbIX, np0I13BO.L\CTBeHHbIX, COI..\HaJIbHblX 3a.L\a'l, K JIJOOOMY .L\eJIY, nopy- '1eHHOMY '1eJIOBeK}' nepCOHaJIbHO HJIH me KOJlJleKTI1BlO. AHaJIorJ1'lH)'1O n03HI..\HIO 3aHI1MaeT H.f. K06elf, roBOpH 0 C03HaTeJIbHOM OTIiOll1eHHH JIH'IHOCTH K HCnOJIHe- HHIO CBOHX 06H3aHHOCTeM nepe.L\ 06Il.!eCTBOM 5 '. 0 n03rrI1BHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK 00 OC03HaHI1H .L\OJIra. HeoOXO[MOCTJ.I BbIIlOJIHHTb oOH3aHHOCTH IlI1CaJI TalOKe M.C. Cmp0206U 1 t.lOpl1,!\J.l'leCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, no ero MHeHHIO, eCTb npem- .L\e Bcero OTBeTCTBeHHoe OTHOll1eHHe '1eJIOBeKa K CBOHM 06H3aHHocTHM, OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb 3a npaBI1JIbHOe BblnOJIHeHl1e JII1I..\OM B03JlOmeHHbIX Ha Hero 3aKOHOM 06H3aHHocTei'L ECJIH me 06H3aHHocTb He BbIIlOJIHeHa, HacrynaeT OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb B ee HeraUIBHOM 3Ha'leHI1H - npHH)'m.L\eHHH, B3bICKaHI1I1, HaKa3aHl1l1 52 . n ..- 
CYIl{eCTByeT TOqKa 3peHI1H. comaCHO K01'Opoii n0311TI1BHaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb OKOHqaTeJlbHO nepeBO,!\I1TCH B IlJIOCKOCTb BHYTpeHHero I1MnepanIBa. Ta- Kyro n03111..!111O OTCTal1BaJlI1 B.A. MaCJ!e1i1iU1W8. KOTOpbIii BBeJl KaTerOpl11O «npa- BOBOro ,!\OJlra»53. 113.f. KpoUl06a, TpaKTYIOIl{aH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a nopyqeH- Hoe ,!\eJlo KaK MOpaJlbHbli"[ ,!\OJlr, MOpaJlbHYIO 06H3aHHocTb, K01'OpaH JlI1Illb npl1 HapYIlleHl111 CTaHOBHTCH IOpl'l,lJ.I1qeCKOM 54 . HeKOTopble yqeHble npl1 3TOM OTMe- qalOT, 'ITO CTOpOHHI1KI1 n0311TI1BHOro HanpaBJIeHI1H onepl1pYIOT HpaBCTBeHHbIMI1 KaTerOpI1HMI1. HanOJlHHH co,!\ep>KaHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HpaBCTBeHHbIMI1 xa- paKTepl1CTI1KaMI1, npI1CYIl{HMH He npaBY, a MOpaJU!. IIo YTBep>K,!\eHI1IO H.C. Ma- J1eU1iG, CTOpOHHI1KI1 n03HTI1BHoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BbIBO,!\HT nOHHTl1e OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 3a rpaHHI..\bI npaBa: C03HaHI1e, q}'BcTBa, MOpaJlb - KaTerOpHI1 Henpa- BOBbie. B nO,!\JII1HHO IOpll,!\HqeCKOM CMblCJle OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb peaKl..!l1H Ha npaBOHapYIllel-IHe. KaK Oc06bIM npaBoBoi"[ I1HCTI1TYT, OHa 06J1a,!\aeT xapaKTep- HblMH npl13HaKaMI!: rocynapCTBeHHoe npl1HY>KneHl1e, oCY>K,!\eHl1e npaBOHapy- IlleHI1H 11 ero cy6'beKTa, HaJll1ql1e He6J1aronp11HTHbIX nOCJle,!\cTBI1M ,!\J1H npaBoHa- pYIllI1TeJlH. IIOCKOJIbKY n0311TI1BHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - KaTeropl1H C03HaHI1H, npaBOC03HaHI1H, HO He co6cTBeHHO npaBa, OHa He HMeeT npaKTI1qeCKOM peaJlI1- 3al..!l1l1. lOpl1,!\l1qecKaH >Ke OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 6a311pYeTCH Ha npI1HY,!\IITeJlbHOM Cl-lJIe npaBa, qTO 03Ha'laeT B03MO>KHOCTb rocy,!\apCTBeHHoro npl1HY>KneHI1H55. II0311TI1BHYlO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb paCCMaTpl1BaIOT 11 B paMKax 06Il{ero npa- BOOTHOIlleHHH. H3naHI1e HopMaTHBHa-npaBOBoro aKTa, co,!\ep>KaIl{ero n03H- TIIBHble 06H3blBaHIIH II 3anpeTbl, C03naeT y rpa>K,!\aH npaBOBYIO 06H3aHHOCTb nocTynaTb onpe,!\eJleHHbIM o6pa30M. Me>K,!\y rocynapcTBOM II rpa>KnaHIlHOM Ha OCHOBe 3TIIX HOpM B03HIIKaeT npaBOBaH CBH3b. rocynapcTBO B Jll1l..!e ero opraHOB nOJlyqaeT npaBO Tpe60BaTb OT rpa>KnaH COOTBeTCTBYIOIl{ero nOBe,!\e- HIIH, a rpa>KnaHe ,!\OJl>KHbl ,!\ei"[CTBOBaTb COrJlaCHO npaBOBblM npe,!\IlIICaHIIHM. HaJll11..!o npaBOBaH CBH3b. npe,!\CTaBJIHIOIllaH 06Il{ee npaBOBOe OTHOIlleHl1e no- 3I1n[BHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 56 . HenpllHTI1e n0311TIIBHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH aprYMeHTllpyeTcH ee npOTI1B- HI1KaMI1 qaIl{e Bcero TeM, qTO OHa He MO>KeT 6bITb <popMaJlI130BaHa, npe,!\CTaB- JlHH c06oi"[ nOHHTl1e He IOpl1,!\lIqecKoe, a CKopee 06pa3Hoe B nOJllln[qeCKOM CMbICJle - TaKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He COnpH>KeHa C rocynapcTBeHHbIM npl1- HY>KneHlleM 57 . B qaCTHOCTl1, IT.A. BapYJ111 M.H. fp.I!3U1i no 31'OMY nOBO,!\y IlI[- caJlI1 CJIe,!\ylOIl{ee. Bo-nepBbIX, B OTJll1'll1e OT npyrl1x <pOpM COl..!l1aJlbHoi"[ OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTl1, npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B3allMOCBH3aHa C qeTKO onpeneJleH- HblM 11 KOHeqHbIM (XOTH 11 He Bcer,!\a MaJlbIM) KOJlllqeCTBOM HOpM 11 COOTBeT- CTBYIOIl{I1M MHO>KeCTBOM 06H3aHHocTei"1. He MO>KeT cYIl{eCTBOBaTb npaBoBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. Korna HeT HOpM B BII,!\e qeTKOrO IOpl1nl1qecKoro npennllca- HI1H. II03TOMY 06'beM C<pePbl npaBoBoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIl I1MeeT qeTKl1e paMKIl H HBJlHeTCH no cpaBHeHll10 C I1HblMI1 cpopMaMI1 60Jlee OrpaHllqeHHbIM. BO-B1'O- PbIX, peaJlI13a1..!l1H npaBOBOi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCn[ o6ecneql1BaeTCH rocy,!\apcT- BeHHblM npI1Hy>K,!\eHl1eM, T.e. HBJlHeTCH CJle,!\CTBlleM 06Il{e06H3aTeJlbHocTI1. H3 31'Oro KaqeCTBa BblTeKaeT TO 06CTOHTeJlbCTBO, qTO Xon pea.nH3al..!HI1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 06JIeqeH B TOQHO onpeneJleHHyro npOl..!eccyaJlbH}'1O CPOPMY. IIfl1 ,!\pyrllx qJOpMaX COl..!l1aJIbHoii: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3TO KaQeCTBO OTCYTCTBYeT 5 . -:;t ..- 
Cnop l1,!\eT B OCHOBHOM 0 TOM, MO>KHO JII1 YJIO>KI1Tb IOpl1,!\l1qeCKYIO OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb B «l..\enOqKY»: HapyweHl1e - BI1Ha - OTpl1l..\aTeJIbHaH peaKl..\l1H (npI1HY>K.I\eHl1e, HaKa3aHl1e)? HJII1 CO.l\ep>KaHl1e :3T0t'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BCe- TaKI1 60JIee Wl1pOKOe? B3al1MOHenOl-IHMaHI1e CTOpOHHl1KOB ,!\BYX 3TI1X B3rJIH,!\OB 1I0pO>K.I\eHO TeM, qTO «peTpOCneKTI1BI1CTbI» npl13HalOT npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb JII1Wb 3a Ha- pyweHl1e BnOJIHe onpe,!\eJIeHHbIX, qeTKO C<POPMYJIl1pOBaHHbIX HOpM. CTOpOHHI1- KI1 AByxaCneKTHOM KOHl..\en1..\1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nblTalOTCH 060CHOBaTb 11 Hat'l- TI1 MeCTO ,!\JIH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He TOJIbKO B Kpl1MI1HaJIbHOM IlJIaHe, HO 11 B nJIa- He COl..\l1aJIbHO n03I1T11BHOM, T.e. 06HapY>KIITb npaBOBOM CMblCJI <POPMYJIbI «HecTI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a nopyqeHHoe .l\eJIo». TeM caMblM BHI1MaHl1eM nOCJIe.l(HHX OX- BaTblBaJIaCb Bce paCWl1pHIOWaHCH c<pepa aKTI1BHot'1 npaBOMepHot'1 ,!\eHTeJIbHOC- TI1, KOTOpyro CTOpOHHHKH y3KOt'1 TpaKTOBKI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII OTHOCHT K JIr06o- MY '!\PyroMY BI1.l\Y COI..\HaJIbHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, HO TOJIbKO He IOpl1l!l1qeCKOH. KOHl..\enl..\l1H .l(ByxaCneKTHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Bbl3BaJIa Kpl1TI1KY He TOJIb- KO CTOpOHHHKOB QI1CTbIX «HerOTI1BI1CTOB», B npl1HI..\JlIle OTBepralOlI..\HX cYll..\e- CTBOBaHl1e n03IITI1BHOt'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, HO H Tex, KTO npl13HaeT n03I1TIIB- HYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, HO He KaK acneKT, a KaK caMOCTOHTeJIbHblH BI1.1\ OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1, T.e. .l\OBO.l\JIT HaMeTI1BWI1HCH pa3pbIB l..\eJIOCTHOl1 KaTeroplH1 .1\0 JIOrl1QeCKDrO KOHl..\a. Hal160JIee HPKI1M BbIpa311TeJIeM nOCJIe,!\Hero B3rJIH,!\a HB- JIHeTCH 0.3. ,l1eiicm. Do ero MHeHl1lO, 0603HaQeHl1e pa3JII1QHbIX HBJIeHI1t'1 11 CBH3eH O,!\HI1M TepMI1HOM «OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» nopo.l\l1JIO npe.l\CTaBJIeHHe, QTO n0311T1IBHaH 11 HeraTlIBHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - .l\Ba acneKTa O,!\Horo nOHHTI1H. TaKoe npe,!\cTaBJIeHl1e Be,!\eT K nonbITKaM onpe,!\eJII1Tb nOHHTl1e B l..\eJIOM, B pe3YJIbTaTe qero KaQeCTBO n0311TI1BHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepeHocHTCH Ha IOpl1.1\l1QecKyro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npaBoHapyweHl1e, 11 Hao60pOT. B pac- cY>K,!\eHI1Hx 0 ,!\BYX acneKTax OJ\HOro nOHHTI1H ynYCKaeTCH 113 BI1.1\Y, qTO «no- 3JITI1BHaH», I1JII1 «aKTI1BHaH", OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Hepe,!\KO OqeHb OT,!\aJIeHHO, onocpe,!\OBaHHO CBH3aHa C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO 3a npaBoHapyweHl1e. D03TOMY B3rJIH.I\ Ha «n03I1TI1BHYIO» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb JII1Wb KaK Ha .l\pyrOH acneKT OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 «HeraTI1BH0I1» onaceH HenOMepHbIM CMell.!eHl1eM aKl..\eHTOB, B pe3YJIbTaTe Qero, Hanpl1Mep, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ,!\en}'TaTa nepe,!\ 113611paTeJIH-   MI1 oY.l\eT BbIrJIH,!\eTb TOJIbKO KaK B03MO>KHOCTb ero OT3bIBa . 0.3. JIeucm OKOHQaTeJIbHO 11 CTpOro pa3,!\eJIHeT KaTeropl11O OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 Ha .l\Be nOJIHOCTblO caMOCTOHTeJIbHble KaTeropJII1. OH BBO,!\I1T B HaYQ- HblH o6opoT HOBoe nOHHTl1e - «ynpaBJIeHQeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», KOTopaH I1MeeT npl1po,!\y «n03I1TI1BHOH» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, OTJIHQHYIO OT npl1pO.l\bl OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a npaBoHapyweHl1e. Dpl1 3TOM OH BbICTpal1BaeT KOHCTPYK- 1..\1110 ynpaBJIeHQeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, BbI.I\eJIHH BHYTpl1 Hee Tpl1 <pop- Mbl: 1) «KOHCTI1TYTI1BHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», BblTeKalOll.!YIO 113 caMoro cpaK- Ta nOHBJIeHI1H B YCTaHOBJIeHHOM nopH,!\Ke OTBeTCTBeHHoro opraHa I1JII1 JIl1l..\a (1136paHl1e, Ha3HaQeHHe H T.n.): 2) «<PYHKI..\110HaJIbHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», npOI1CTeKalOlI..\YIO 113 onpe,!\eJIeHI1H 3a,!\aQ, l..\eJIeH COOTBeTCTBYlOll.!ero opraHa, CBH3aHHYlO C Ha,!\eJIeHl1eM ero He06xo,!\I1Mb1MI1 npaBOMOQI1HMl1, 3a Ha.l\JIe>Ka- lI..\YIO peaJII13al..\HIO KOTOpblX OH HeCeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb; 3) <<IlepCOHaJIbHYIO t..t'\ ..- 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», 03HaqalOWYlO TOqHYIO Onpe.l\eJleHHOCTb Kpyra .IIeJl pa- 60THHKa, nopyqeHHbIX eMY OnepaI.\Hi"I, 3a.l\aHHi"I, npaKTHqeCKHX pa60T 60 . Cym.l\eHHe 0 TOM, qTO .l\Ba aCneKTa IOpH.l\l1qeCKoi"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He Mo- rYT 6bITb OXBaqeHbI O,l\HI1M nOHHTHeM, BbICKa3bIBalOT H .l\pynle aBTOpbI. TaK, T.H. PaOb'KO mlcaJl, qTO HeJlb3H He BH.l\eTb, qTO Mem.l\Y OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO B no- 3HTHBHOM H HeraTHBHOM !1JIaHe cywecTByeT .l\HaJleKnIqeCKOe e.l\HHCTBO npal11- BOnOJlOmHOCTet1 61 . XOTH T.H. PaOb'KO B OTJlHqHe OT 0.3. JIeucma HaCTaHBaeT Ha e.l\HHCTBe IDpH.l\HqeCKoi"1 OTBeTCTB€HHOCTH KaK npaBoBoi"1 KaTeropmL H.B. Bumpy'K pa3J1WffieT nOHHTHH «lOpH.l\l1qeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb>, H «npa- BOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb». OH no.naraeT, qTO IOpH.l\l1qeCKaH OTB€TCTB€HHOCTb - 3TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha OCHOB€ npaBa H 3aKOHOB rocY.IIapCTBa, B npOl.\ecce pea- JlH3al.\1H 3aKOHOB H B COOTB€TCTBl1J.I C 3aKOHaMH roCY.IIapCTBa. ITo ero MHeHHlO. npaBOBaH OTBeTCTB€HHOCTb JlemHT B OCHOBe IOplWlqecKoi:j OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, OHa onpe.l\€JIHeT l.\eJlH, <PYHl(I.\HI1 H npHHI.\HnbllOpH.l\HqeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 62 . M.A. Kpac1ioe, pa3,l\eJlHH H.l\elO llUlpoKoro nOHHMaHHH IOpH.l\I1qeCKoi"1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH, BblcTynaJl npoTHB nOnblTOK ee .l\p06J1eHI1H Ha acneKTbI, CTO- pOHbI H T.n., pa3.l\eJleHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha «no3HTHBHYIO» H «HeraTHB- HYIO». C ero TOqKH 3peHHH, TaKaH KOHCTPYKI.\HH 3aTYlleBbIBaeT nOHHMaHHe pOJlH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B qeJlOBeqeCKOM nOBe.l\eHHH, He 06'bHCHHeT ,l\HaJleK- THKI1, nepeXO.l\a «n03HTHBHoro» B «HeraTHBHoe». EMY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npe.IICTaBJlHeTCH KaK CBH3b Mem.l\Y llBYMH cy6'beKTaMH, npl1 KOTOpOt1 O.l\Ha CTopOHa, 06J1a.l\alOWaH CBo60.l\OM BOJIH H Bbl6opa, 06H3blBaeTCH B CHJlY CBoe- ro npaBOBoro nOJlOmeHHH CTpOHTb nOBe.l\eHHe B COOTBeTCTBI1I'1 C OmH.l\aeMoi:j MO.l\eJlblO, B .l\pyraH CTopOHa KOHTpOJlHpyeT H Ol.\eHI1BaeT TaKoe nOBe.l\eHHe H ero pe3YJlbTaTbI. a B cJlyqae OTpHl.\aTeJlbfM Ol.\eHKH 11 HaJll1qHH BI1HbI Bnpa- Be onpe.l\eJleHHbIM 06pa30M peanrpOBaTb . .D:JII1TeJlbHaH .l\HCKYCCHH Cpe.l\H IOpHCTOB no .l\aHHoi"1 np06J1eMe TaK H He np!BeJia nOKa K Bblpa60TKe e.l\HHOM KOHl.\enl.\HH IOpH.l\HqeCKot1 OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH. .D:o HacToHwero BpeMeHH B OTeqeCTBeHHOM npaBOBe.l\eHHH HeT e.l\HHOrO onpe.l\eJleHHH nOHHTHH «lOpH.l\HqeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb». ITpH 3TOM Kam.l\aH TeopHH HcnoJlb3yeT CBOM nOHHTHMHO-KaTerOpHaJlbHbli:j annapaT, n03BOJlHIO- WHM ocywecTBI1Tb CO.l\epmaTeJlbHbli"1 aHaJlH3 npe.l\MeTa I1CCJle.l\OBaHHH Ha ee  64 COOCTBeHHOM H3bIKe ,qTO 3Haql1TeJlbHO YCJlomHHeT 3a.l\aqy HCCJleAOBaTeJlH. ITpHqHHa MHoroo6pa3HH nO.l\XO.l\OB K nOHHMaHHIO IOpH.l\HqeCKoi"1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH npe)/(,l\e Bcero rHoceOJlOnrqeCKaH. rOBOpH 0 nJllOpaJll13Me nO.l\XO.l\OB K nOHHMaHHIO npaBa, B.B. Jla3apee milleT: «B npol.\ecce n03HaHHH BCer.l\a cywecTByeT B03MomHOCTb YBJIeqbCH KaKoi"I-TO o.l\Hoi:j CTOpOHOi:j HBJleHHH, npeBo3HecTH ee, He 3aMeTHTb HJlH npeHe6peqb .l\pyrnMH. OTClO.l\a pa3Hble onpe,l\eJleHHH npaBa, qTO caMO no ce6e .l\ame He!1JIOXO, eCJlH npH 3TOM He HC- KamaeTCH 06waH KapulHa, eCJlH TaKDe O.l\HOCTOpoHHee onpe,l\eJleHHe He npe- TeH.l\YeT 3aMeHHTb Bce .l\pynre, CTaTb e.l\HHCTBeHHO npaBHJlbHbIM, HrpaTb pOJlb Bce06111ero» 65. l1MeHHo 3TO MbI MomeM Ha6J1IO.l\aTb H B npol.\ecce pa3BH- THH B3rJlH.l\OB Ha npo6J1eMY nOHHMaHHH IOpH.l\HQeCKoi"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. B paMKax Kam.l\oro H3 cywecTBYIOWHX nO.l\XO.l\OB IOpH.l\HQeCKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb paccMaTpHBaeTcH C KaKoi"I-JlH60 O.l\HOi"1 CTOpOHbl. ::hy CTOPOHY npe.l\- \0 ..- 
CTaBHTeJIH TOM HJIH HHOM KOHl.\eIIl.\HH orrpe,!\eJIHIOT KaK CYU.\HOCTb HBJleHHH, 060ca6JIHBaHCb rrpH <lTOM OT ,!\PYfl1X ee CTOpOH H rrpOHBJleHHM. TaK, O,!\HH aB- TOpbI KOHl.\eHTpHpYIOT CBoe BHHMaHHe Ha CYU.\HOCTH IOpH,!\WleCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCT1 (rrpeTeprreBaHHH Mep rocy,!\apCTBeHHO-BJIaCTHOro xapaKTepa 3a COBepll1eHHOe rrpaBOHapYll1eHHe), ,!\pyme - Ha rrpOl.\eCce ee peaJIH3al.\HH (ro- cy,!\apCTBeHHot'1 peaKl.\HH, HeraTHBHot'1 rocy,!\apCTBeHHot'1 Ol.\eHKe, rrpHMeHe- HHH CaHKl.\Ht'I), TpeTbH - Ha <popMe peaJIH3al.\HH (rrpaBOOTHOll1eHHH), qeTBep- TbIe - Ha l.\eJIH H pe3YJIbTaTaX ee ,!\eMCTBHH (rrpaBOMepHOM rrOBe,!\eHHH, OT- BeTCTBeHHOM OTHOll1eHIU! K CBOHM 06H3aHHOCTHM H T.J\.). B3rJIHJ\bl aBTopOB pa3HHTCH eU.\e H rrOTOMY, qTO O,!\HH rrpeB03HUCHT «aKn!B- HYIO» CTOPOHY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - aKTHBHOCTb rocy,!\apCTBa H em yrrOJIHOMO- qeHHbIX opraHOB. orrpeJ\eJIHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK mCYJ\apCTBeHHyIO peaK- l.\1'11O Ha COBepll1eHHoe rrpaBOHapYll1eHJ-Ie, KOTopaH BbIpa:iKae-rCH B HeraTI1BHoii: Ol.\eHKe J-I OC}':iKlIeHHJ-I rrpon!BOrrpaBHoro rrOBelleHHH, a TalOKe B rrpHMeHeHJ-IJ-I caHKl.\J-IH; ,I1pyme aKl.\eHTJ-IpYIOT «rraCCHBHYIO» CTOPOHY - 0OO3aHHOCTb rrpaBO- HapYll1l1TeJIH rrpe-reprreBaTb MepbI rocy,!\apCTBeHHO-BJIaCTHOro xapaKTepa H caMO rrpe-reprreBaHHe 3TJ-IX Mep, paCCMaTpJ-lBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK Kapy, HaKa3aHHe (COCTOHHJ-Ie HaKa3aHHOCTH) rrpaBOHapYll1HTeJIH. B rrpHHl.\I1rre IOpH- ,!\HqeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK rrpa)Boe HBJIeHH: cyU.\ecTBiT 06'beKTHBHo B ,!\HaJIeKTHqeCKOM e,!\HHcTBe aKTHBHOH J-I rraCCHBHOH CTOpOHbI . CyU.\ecTBYIOU.\He KOHl.\errl.\!I1 IOpHJ\J-IqeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ-I J-IMeIOT He TOJIbKO rHOCeOJIOfllqeCKOe, HO J-I rrpHKJIa,l1HOe 3HaqeHHe, rrpHqeM Ka:iK,!\bIM rro,!\xoJ\ OpHeHTJ-IpOBaH Ha CBoero cy6"beKTa (rpyrrrry cy6"beKTOB). TaK, rro,!\xo,!\ K rrOHJ-IMaHHIO IOpH,!\J-IqeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH KaK HOBOt'1 Crrel.\HqJJ1qeCKot'1 06H3aHHOCTJ-I, B03HHKalOU.\et'1 B CBH3H C COBepll1eHJ-IeM rrpaBOHapYll1eHHH, J-IMeeT rrpHHl.\J-IrrHaJIbHOe 3HaqeHHe }.\JIH 3aKOHOTBOpqeCKOH rrpaKTJ-IKH, OCO- 6eHHO J\JIH KOHCTPYHpOBaHHH HOpM rrpaBa B OTpaCJIHX, rJ\e rrpe06JIalialOT J-IMyU.\eCTBeHHble CaHKl.\J-IJ-I H r,!\e CTOpOHbI COCTOHT B orrpe,!\eJIeHHbIX OTHOll1e- HJ-IHX (T.e. J-IMeIOT rrpaBa H 06H3aHHOCTH,!\0 rrpaBOHapYll1eHHH). llaHHbIt'1 rro'!\- XOJ\ HMeeT H 06U.\ee MeTO,!\OJIOfl1'lecKoe 3HaqeHHe BO Bcex Tex CJIyqaHX, Kor- ,!\a KOHCTpYHpyeMaH HopMa (He3aBHCHMO OT OTpaCJIeBot'1 rrpHHa,!\JIe:iKHOCTH) rrpe.llllOJIaraeT CaHKl.\HIO, T.e. orrpelleJIeHJ-Ie Tex caMbIX He6JIarorrpHHTHbiX rro- CJIe,l1CTBJ-IH, KOTopble C HeH36e:iKHOCTbIO ,!\OJI:iKHbI HacTyrraTb ,!\JIH aApecaTa <lTOM HOpMbI B TOM CJIyqae, eCJIH ero rrOBe,l1eHHe 6y,!\eT OTKJIOHHTbCH OT l.\eJIH 67 HOpMbI, ee ,!\Hcrr03Hl.\J-IJ-I . MeTO,!\OJIOrHqeCKJ-IM rro,!\xo,!\, rrpJ-l KOTOpOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb paCCMaTpJ-l- BaeTCH KaK rrpHMeHeHHe CaHKl.\llI1:, opHeHTHpOBaH rrpe:iK,!\e Bcero Ha rrpaBO- rrpHMeHHTeJIH, BbI,I1BHraH Ha rrepBbIl1: I1JIaH 06H3aHHOCTb yrrOJIHOMOqeHHbIX rocy,!\apCTBeHHbIX opraHOB rrpOHBJIHTb orrpe,!\eJIeHHYIO aKTHBHOCTb}.\JIH TOro, qT06bI Te He6JIarOrrpHHTHbie rrOCJIe,!\CTBHH. KOTopble rrpe.!(yCMOTpeHbl caHK- l.\Het'1 rrpaBOBot'1 HOpMbI, C HeH36emHOCTblO HacTyrrHJIH ,I1JIH rrpaBOHapYll1HTe- JIH. TaKoM rro,!\xoll rr03BOJIHeT BKJIlOqHTb B COllep:iKaHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH He TOJIbKO HOpMbl MaTepHaJIbHoro rrpaBa, HO rrpOl.\eccyaJIbHbIe HOpMbI. Ha He,!\o- rrYCTHMOCTH BbIBe,!\eHHH rrOCJIe,!\HHX 3a rrpe,!\eJIbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HaCTaJ-l- Bae-r 0.3. JIeucm 6B . B rrpOl.\eCce rrpaBorrpHMeHI1TeJIbHot'1 ,!\eHTeJIbHOCTH qe-r- l"- ..- 
KOMY orrpe,!\eJleHI1IO rrpaB 11 06H3aHHOCTeiiI rrpaBOrrpl1MeHI1TeJlbHbIX OpraHOB. C o,!\HoiiI CTOpOHbI, 11 Jll1l..\a, B OTH0ll1eHl111 KOTOpOrO rrpl1MeHHIOTCH CaHKI..\J111, - C '!\PyroiiI. cJlyml1T rrOHI1MaHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK rrpaBOOTIiOll1eHI1H. IIoHI1MaHl1e IOpl1,!\l1qecKoiiI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK KapbJ 3a rrpaBOHapYll1e- Hl1e I1MeeT 6oJlbll1oe rrpC4JJ1JIaKTl1qecKoe, BOCI1JnaTeJlbHOe 3HaqeHI1e 11 Opl1- eHTl1pOBaHO rrpem,!\e BCerO Ha a,!\peCaTOB rrpaBOBbIX HOpM - rpam.l\aH, Crrel..\l1- aJlbHblX CYO'beKTOB 11 T.rr. .D:JIH rJlYOOKoro rr03HaHI1H rrpaBOBOrO HBJleHI1H - IOpl1,!\l1qeCKOH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 - BCe orrpe,!\eJleHI1H, eCJlI1 OHI1 OTpamalOT XOTb KaKYIO-TO qaCTb pe- aJlI1I1, rrOJle3HbI. llIl1poKl1e orrpe,!\eJleHI1H O1'BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 XOpOll1l1 TeM, qTO OHI1 Opl1eHTl1pYIOT Ha paCCMOTpeHl1e HaJll1ql1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 B rrpaBOO1'HO- ll1eHI1HX. rrpaBOC03HaHHI1 ,!\O COBepll1eHI1H rrpaBOHapYll1eHI1H. Y3Kl1i't, HeraTl1B- Hbli't, rro,!\xo,!\ K ee orrpe,!\eJleHI1IO HBJlHeTCH cyry60 rrpaKTl1qeCKI1M, cJlymall..\l1M YllOBJleTBOpeHl11O c06cTBeHHo IOpl111I1QeCKOH rr01'peOHOCTI1 - rroTpe6HOCTI1 pa3pell1eHI1H IOpl1,!\I1QeCKI1X ,!\eJl, rrpe,!\OTBpall..\eHI1IO 11 rrpeCeQeHl110 rrpaBOHa- pYll1eHl1ii B HayqHblx l..\eJlHX 11 B I1HTepeCaX 3<p<peKTI1BHOrO rrpaBOTBOpQeCTBa CJleA)'eT rrpl1BeTCTBOBaTb pa3Hble rrO,!\XO,lJ,bI K rrOHI1MaHl11O IOpl1,!\I1QecKoi't 01'- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1, pa3Hble ee orrpe,!\eJleHI1H 11 CTpeMJleHl1e K I1X CI1HTe3Y B paM- KaX e,l1I1HOrO rrOHHTI1H, eCJlI1 3TO ,l1I1KTyeTcH rrpaKTI1QeCKOi't HeOOXO,l1I1MOCTblO. .D:JIH rrpaKTI1QeCKOrO I1CrrOJlb30BaHI1H YMeCTHO I1CKaTb e,!\J1HOe ee rrOHI1MaHl1e, KOTOpoe ObI OTJlI1QaJlOCb He TOJlbKO cBoeiiI rrpl1rO,!\HOCTblO K rrpaKTI1QeCKOMY I1CrrOJlb30BaHI1IO, HO 11 BbJXO,!\OM Ha I1HTerpaTI1BHOe BOCrrpI1HTl1e. .D:I1CKYCCI1H cpe,!\l1lOpl1CTOB rro rrp06JIeMe rrOHI1MaHI1H IOpl1,!\l1QecKoiiI OTBeT- cTBeHHOCTI1, BD-rrepBbIX, rrOKa3aJla, KaKI1M MHorocpaKTOpHblM cpeHOMeHOM OHa HBJlHeTCH, BD-BTOpblX, rr03BOJlI1J1a BbIHBJ1Tb pa3Hoo6pa3Hble QepTbl co,!\epma- HI1H pa3JUIQHbIX ee BI1,l10B, B-TpeTbI1X, rrpl1BeJla K BbIBOA)' 0 He06xo,!\I1MOCTI1 ,!\11<p<pepeHl.!J'lpOBaHHOrO rrO,l1xo,!\a K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.! B 3aBI1CJ.!MOCTI1 OT C<jJePbI COl..\l1aJlbHbIX OTHOll1eHl1i't 11 COl..\l1aJlbHoi't pOJU! cy6'beKToB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 69 . KpOMe TOro, ObIJlI1 BbIHBJleHbI CJleA)'lOllll1e AtemOOOAOZU'teCKue npo6.W.JItbt. 1. OCHoBHaH rrp06J1eMa, C KOTOpoi't CTaJlKI1BalOTCH Bce oe3 I1CKJIIOQeHI1H I1CCJle,!\OBaTeJlJ1 IOpl1,!\J1QecKoi't OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. COCTOJ1T B orrpe,l1eJleHI1J1 ee pOJlJ1 B 06ecrreQeHI1113aKoHHocTI1, rrpe,!\yrrpem,l1eHI1I1I1 rrpeCeQeHl111 rrpaBoHa- pYll1eHl1i't, a TaKme B YCTpaHeHI1J.! I1X 06l1..\ecTBeHHo Bpe,l1HbJX rrOCJle,!\cTBI1M. BblpamaeTcH 3TO B CJlOmHOCTI1 YCTaHoBI1Tb MeCTO IOpl1,!\l1QecKoi't OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 B MeXaHI13Me rrpaBoBoro perYJll1pOBaHI1H, B ee COOTHOll1eHl1H C Ta- KI1MI1 rrpaBOBbIMI1 KaTerOpI1HMJ.!, KaK cy6'beKTI1BHoe rrpaBo, IOpl1,!\I1QeCKaH oOH3aHHocTb, rrpaBOOTHOll1eHl1e. 2. PaccMaTpHBaH MeTO,!\OJIOrnQeCKl1e rrp06J1eMbI I1CCJle,l10BaHHH IOPI1,!\J'J- QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, CJleA)'eT 06paTI1Tb BHHMaHl1e Ha Hepa3pbIBHYlO CBH3b Mem.!(y rrpaBoBoi't HaYKoi't H 3ClKOHO,l1aTeJlbCTBOM. .D:aHHaH CBH3b rro- pOm,l1aeT Heorrpe,!\eJleHHOCTb rrpl1 YHcHeHl111 rrOHHTI1H IOpl1,l1I1QeCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTl1, KOTopaH BblpamaeTcH B TOM, QTO 3aKOHo,!\aTeJlb B cBoeii: lleHTeJlb- HOCTI1 PYKOBO,!\CTByeTcH rrOJlOmeHJ1HMI1 rrpaBOBOM HaYKI1, a OHa, <pOpMI1PYH CBoi't rroHHTHi"IHo-KaTeropl1aJlbHbJi't arrrrapaT. OCHOBblBaeTCH Ha ,!\eiicTBYIO- C() lI..\eM 3aKOHo,!\aTeJlbCTBe. B 3arra,!\Hoi"1 HaYKe TaKaH B3al1MOCBH3b, rropOm.l\alO- ..- 
lI.(aH HeOrrpe,!\eJIeHHOCTb B rrpe,!\MeTe HCCJIe,!\OBaHml, rrOJIyqHJIa Ha3BaHHe pe- <pJIeKCI1BHOCTI170. IIpaBoBaH HaYKa He MomeT orrepl1pOBaTb «roJIbIMI1» ,!\ecpHHI1I..\HHMI1. B rrpOTI1BHOM CJIyqae Hel136emHO rrpoI130t:i,!\€T ee OTpblB OT rrpaKTI1KI1 H OHa rro- TepHeT BCHKYIO l..\eHHOCTb. II03TOMY 6bIJIO 6bI l..\eJIeco06pa3Ho OCTaBI1Tb 3a rrpe,!\eJIaMH ,!\aHHoro I1CCJIe,!\OBaHI1H BCHKHe rrOrrbITKH orrpe,!\eJII1Tb rrOHHTl1e IOpl1,!\l1qeCKot1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 C I1CrrOJIb30BaHI1eM ceMaHTl1qeCKI1X MeTO,!\OB 11 I1HblX cpe,!\CTB, He OCHOBaHHblX Ha cepbe3HOM 11 BceCTopOHHeM aHaJII13e ,!\et1cTBYlOlI.(ero 3aKOHo,!\aTeJIbCTBa 11 rrpaKTI1KH ero rrpHMeHeHI1H. B :3TOH CBH- 3H CJIeA)'eT rrOJIHOCTblO COmaCI1TbCH C YTBepm.l\eHl1eM 0.8. JIeucma. KOTO- pblt1 OTMeqaJI, qTO aHaJII13 repMI1HOB, CPOPMY JIHpOBOK H orrpe.l\€JIeHI1t:'I, 6e- 3YCJIOBHO. BameH. rrOCKOJIbKY rr03BOJIHeT IOpl1CTaM roBOpl1Tb Ha OJ!HOM H3bI- Ke 11 BJIeqeT e,!\I1Hoo6pa3Hoe rrpl1MeHeHl1e 3aKOHa Ha rrpaKTI1Ke. BMeCTe C TeM CTOJIb me OqeBI1.l\HO, qTO HeJIb3H rrO,!\MeHHTb JIHHrBl1CTl1qeCKHMH 113bICKaHI1- HMI1 .l\et:'lcTBI1TeJIbHO€ 113yq€HHe rrpaBa, rrpaKTI1KH ero rrpHMeHeHI1H, rroTpe6- HocTet111 rrepCrr€KTI1B pa3BI1T11H 71 . C ,!\pyrot:i CTOpOHbI, .l\etkTBI1TeJIbHO HaYQHOe I1CCJIe,!\OBaHl1e, rrpeTeHA)'IO- lI.(ee Ha orrpe.l\eJIeHHYIO HOBI13HY 11 3HaQI1MOCTb, He MomeT OrpaHI1QHBaTbCH rrpOCTblM KOMMeHTl1pOBaHHeM .l\etkTBYlOlI.(ero 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIbCTBa 11 rrpaKTI1- KI1 ero rrpl1MeHeHI1H. B HeM Ha OCHOBe HCCJIe,!\OBaHI1H 06'beKTI1BHbIX rrpOHBJIe- HHt:'1 rrpaBa ,!\OJImHbI 6bITb BblHBJIeHbl CPYH.l\aMeHTaJIbHbIe TeH,!\eHI..\I1H pa3BI1- THH, YCTaHOBJIeHbI I1X B3al1MOCBH311 C rroTpe6HOCTHMI1 JIHQHOCTI1, KOJIJIeKUI- Ba, o6l1.(eCTBa H rocy,!\apCTBa. HOBbIe B3rJIH,!\bI 11 rrpe,!\CTaBJIeHI1H, B03HHKalOlI.(I1e B rrpaBOBOH HaYKe, He- MI1HyeMo OTpamalOTCH B 3aKOHo,!\aTeJIbCTBe 11 B rrpaKTHKe ero rrpl1MeHeHI1H, QTO, B CBolO OQepe.l\b, BJIeQeT H3MeHeHI1€ B rrpe.l\MeTe I1CCJIe.l\OBaHI1H 11 rro- pom,!\aeT HOBbie B033peHI1H. .D:aHHbIH rrpOl..\eCC HBJIHeTCH 6eCKOHeQHbIM, 11 I1MeHHO OH rr03BOJIHeT rrpaBOBot:'1 HaYKe pa3BHBaTbCH. BMeCTe C TeM OrrI1CaH- HbIH rrpOl..\eCC C03,!\aeT 11 orrpe.l\eJIeHHble TPYJ!HOCTI1, CBH3aHHbie C HeCTa6I1JIb- HOCTblO rrOHHTHt:'IHO-KaTerOpl1aJIbHOrO arrrrapaTa. 3. ElI.(e O,!\Ha rrp06JIeMa COCTOI1T B TOM, QTO O,!\HI1I1 Te me CJIOBa (TepMHHbI) MorYT I1MeTb HeCKOJIbKO 3HaQeHHt:'I, KOTopble TOJIbKO OT.l\aJIeHHO CBH3aHbI APyr C ,!\pyroM. OCHOBHaH orraCHOCTb 3.l\eCb He B TOM, QTO 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIb MO- meT I1CrrOJIb30BaTb O,!\HI1I1 Te me TepMHHbI .l(JIH o603HaQeHI1H pa3JII1QHbIX rro- HHTHH, ,!\aHHaH orraCHOCTb CpaBHI1TeJIbHO rrpocTo YCTpaHHeTcH rrocpe,!\cTBaM TOJIKOBaHI1H 3aKOHo,!\aTeJIbHbIX aKTOB. 3HaQl1TeJIbHO 6oJIbllll1t:i Bpe,!\ 3aKJIIO- QaeTCH B TOM, QTO CTOpOHHI1KI1 pa3JII1QHbIX KOHl..\errl..\HM IOpl1.l\I1QeCKot:! OTBeT- CTB€HHOCTI1 BKJIa,!\bIBaIOT B 1'lcrrOJIb3Y€MbI€ CJIOBa pa3HO€ 3HaQeHl1e. EOJI€e TOro, rro,!\Qac OHYl rrOJIb3YlOTCH TepMI1HOJIOmet1 ,!\pymx HaYK (cpI1JIOcocpml, rrCHXOJIOrJ1H, COI..\HOJIOrI1H 11 T.rr.), 'ITO 6e3 crrel..\HaJIbHOrO YTOQHeHHH C03.l\aeT ,!\orrOJIHI1TeJIbHble TPY,!\HOCTI1 B I1X rrOHHMaHI1I1. 4. IIpl1 HCCJIe,!\OBaHI1I1 IOpl1.l\HQeCKot:'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 rrpaKTHQeCKH Bce aBTopbl CTaJIKHBaIOTCH C rrp06JIeMoH ee COOTHOllleHHH KaK po,!\oBoro rrOHHTI1H C OT.l\eJIbHbIMI1 ee BI1,!\aMH. TaK, Hepe,!\Ko rrp06JIeMbI. HMelOlI.(l1e 3HaQeHI1e TOJIbKO .l\JIH OT.l\eJIbHbIX OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpH,!\I1QeCKI1X HaYK, BbIHOCHTCH Ha 06- 0\ ..- 
cym,!\eHl1e Ha 06l1.(eTeopeTl1qecKoM ypOBHe, qTO 3aTpY,!\HHeT cpOpMl1pOBaHHe l..\eJIOCTHoro npe,!\CTaBJIeHI1H 0 IOpl1,!\l1qeCKoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. IIpl1MepoM MOmeT CJIymHTb 6e3BI1HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B rpam,!\aHCKOM npaBe. C ,!\pyroi"[ CTOpOHbI, o6l1.(aH TeOpHH npaBa He B nOJIHOH Mepe HCnOJIb3yeT ,!\O- CTl1meHI1H OTpaCJIeBbIX HaYK B 06JIacTI1I1CCJIe,!\OBaHI1H IOpl1,!\l1'leCKoi"[ OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1. TaK, B rpam.l\aHCKOM 11 a,!\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOM npaBe HeO,!\HOKpaTHO YKa3blBaeTCH Ha TOm.l\eCTBeHHOCTb nOHHTI1H «HeHCnOJIHeHl1e 06H3aHHoCTI1» 11 «npaBOHapYllieHl1e», B TO BpeMH KaK 06l1.(aH TeopHH npaBa npe,!\nOql1TaeT HC- n0J1b30BaTb I1CKJIlOqlITeJIbHO TepMHH «npaBOHapYllieHl1e», qTO HeCKOJ1bKO OT- TeHHeT B3aHMOCBH3b Me)K.l(y IOpH,!\I1'leCKoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO 11 IOpl1,!\HqeC- KOi"[ 06H3ClHHOCTblO, I1CnOJ1HeHl1e KOTOpOi"[ OHa npH3BaHa o6ecneqJITb. TalOKe He06xo.l\I1MO 06paTlITb BHI1MaHI'le Ha TO, QTO He,!\OCTaTOQHaH Kpl1- TI1QHOCTb npJ1 onpe,!\eJIeHJ1J1 nOHHTI1H IOpJ1.l\I1QecKoH OTB€'TCTBeHHOCTI1 npl1BO- ,!\lIT K COQeTaHJ11O B HeM oco6eHHocTei"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. XapaKTepHoi"[ ,!\J1H OT- .l\eJlbHblX OTpaCJleBbIX HaYK. IIpJ1 3TOM Hepe.l\KO ,!\aHHble oc06eHHOCTI1, BKJlIO- QeHHble B o6l1.(ee nOHHTI1e IOpl1,!\J1QeCKoi"[ oTBeTcTBeHHOCTJ1, MOryT npOTI1BOpe- QIITb ,!\pyr ,!\pyry. 06l1.(ee onpe,!\eJleHJ1e IOpi1.l\J1QeCKoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 ,!\OJ1m- HO 6blTb B paBHoi"[ Mepe npJ1MeHJ1MO KO BceM ee BJ1,!\aM. TaKaH O.l\HOP0.l\HOCTb npl1MeHeHI1H 06l1.(ero nOHHTI1H IOpl1.l\I1QeCKoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 K OT.l\eJlbHblM ee BI1,!\aM ,!\OJlmHa Onl1paTbCH Ha ,!\ei1cTBJ1TeJIbHO 06"beKTHBHYIO OCHOBY. HecMoTpH Ha 0603HaQeHHble np06J1eMbI MeTO.l\0J10mQeCKoro XapaKTepa, nopom,!\alOlI.(J1e Bbillieom1caHHbie npoTI1BOpeQJ1H B nOHJ1MaHJ!I1 IOpl1.l\J1QeCKOH OTBeTCTB€'HHOCTI1, B03MomHO BbI,!\eJlJ1Tb aea 0614UX Jlw.>nenma, Ha KOTOpbIX CXO.l\HTCH Bce 11J111 60Jlbllil1HCTBO I1CCJIe,!\OBaTeJIei"[. 1. IIoHHTl1e IOpl1,!\J1QeCKoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Hepa3pblBHO CBH3aHHO C nOHH- TJ1eM «npaBOHapYllieHJ1e». KaK npaBI1J10, .l\aHHaH 3ClBJ1CJ1MOCTb onpe.l\eJlHeTCH B Ha3HaQeHJ1J1 IOpl1,!\I1QeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - He,!\onYllieHI1I1 npaBoHapy- llieHJ1H, YCTpaHeHJ1J1 J1X 06l1.(eCTBeHHO Bpe,!\HblX nOCJIe,!\CTBI1H. 3,!\eCb He06xo- .l\I1MO 06paTl[Tb BHI1MaHJ1e Ha TO, QTO JlI060e npaBOHapYllieHJ1e conpHmeHO C HeI1CnOJ1HeHl1eM npaBOHapYllil-ITeJIeM B03J10meHHoi"[ Ha Hero 06H3aHHOCTI1. CJIe,!\OBaTeJIbHO, MomHO rOBOpl1Tb 0 TOM, QTO IOpl1,!\I1QeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npl13BaHa 06eCneQl1Tb I1CnOJ1HHeMOCTb IOpl1,!\I1QeCKI1X 06H3aHHocTei"[. 2. EeccnopHblM HBJlHeTCH TO, QTO IOpH,!\I1QeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb conpH- meHa C npl1MeHeHl1eM rocy,!\apCTB€'HHOrO npI1Hym.l\eHI1H. EOJIee TOro, MHOrJ1e cnel..\l1aJIJ1CTbl B 06JIaCTJ1 IOpl1,!\J1QeCKoi"[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 rOBopHT, QTO OHa eCTb Mepa rocy,!\apCTBeHHoro npl1Hym,!\eHI1H 11J1J1 QTO OHa eCTb npJ1MeHeHHe ero Mep (caHKI..\I1H). He OTpJ1l..\aeTCH CBH3b IOpl1.l\J1QecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 rocy,!\apcTBeHHoro npl1Hym.l\eHHH TaKme 11 n03J1TI1BJ1CTaMJ1. 3TO MomeT YKa- 3blBaTb TOJlbKO Ha TO, 'ITO rocy,!\apCTBeHHoe npI1Hym,!\eHJ1e npl13HaeTCH B Ka- QeCTBe KJIIOQeBOrO npl13HaKa IOpJ1.l\I1QeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BCeMI1 cnel..\l1- aJII1CTaMJ1 B 3T0i"[ 06J1acTiI. IIpJ1MeHI-ITeJlbHo K rocy,!\apcTBeHHoMY npl1Hym- ,!\eHJ11O cnopbl 11,!\}'T TOJIbKO B OTHOllieHJ!I1 Bonpoca 0 TOM, Bce JIJ1 Mepbl rocy- ,!\apCTBeHHoro npJ1Hym.l\eHJ1H HanpaBJleHbl Ha 06eCneQeHJ1e peaJlll3al..\l1J1 o IOpl1,!\J1QeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11J1J1 TOJlbKO Te 113 HI1X, KOTopble 3aKpenJle- N Hbl B CaHKI..\I'IHX npaBOBbIX HOpM. 
CJIeJjCTBJ1eM W1CKYCCJ10HHOCTJ1 np06JIeMbI nOHIIMaHJ1H IOpJ1,l\II'IeCKoi=i OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTII B 06ll.\ei1 TeOpJ1J1 npaBa HBIIJIaCb HeoJjH03Ha'IHaH TpaKTOBKa B CO- BpeMeHHOt:! Ha)"lHOt:! JIJ1Teparype OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 OpraHOB J1 JjOJDKHOCTIibIX JIHl.\ MeC'THoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. 1iI3Jl0IKeHHble KOHl.\ern.\HJ1 IOpJ1,l\WlecKoi=i OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII HalIlJIJ1 CBoe OTpaIKeIDIe BO B3I' JIH.l\aX )"IeHbIX Ha np06JIeMY OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII opraHOB J1 JjOJIIKHOCTIiblX JIJ1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ1H. B KOHTeKCTe TeMbl HaCTOHll.\erO J1CCJIeJjOBaHHH npeJjCTaBJIHeTCH l.\eJIeC006pa3HbIM, He BCTynaH B nOJIeMI1KY Ha cyry60 TeOpeTJ1'IeCKOM ypOBHe, nepej:"rm K aHaJIH3Y KaTeropIDI IOpJ1,l\J1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII npHMeHJ.rreJIbHO K ccpepe COl.\HaJIb- HbIX OTHOlIleHI1M, B KOTOpOM BblOOJIHHIOT CBOI1 COl.\HaJIbHO 3Ha'IHMble pOJII1 opra- Hbl J1 JjOJI:JKHOCTHble JIJ1l.\a MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH. BMeCTe C TeM npeJjCTaB- JIHeTCH Heo6x0W1Mb1M 0603Ha'Il.ffb HeKOTOpble UCXOC!J.ibl€ nOJ!OJIC€1iW!. OTpa:JKa- IOll.\J1e rr03J.1l.\HIO aBTOpa HaCTOHll.\ei1 pa60Tbl no paCCMaTpJ.lBaeMOMY Bonpocy. 1. He OTpJ1uaH B npHHUl1rre cywecTBOBaHJ.1H rr03J.1TI1BHoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1, Mbl He pa3JjeJIHeM CTpeMJIeHJ.1H aBTopOB onpeJjeJIJ1Tb nOHHTJ.1e IOpJ1JjJ.1'Ie- CKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 B eJjJ1HCTBe n03J.1TJ.1BHOrO J1 HeraTJ1BHOrO acneKTOB. TpYJjHO, Ha HalIl B3rJIHJj, COrJIaCJ1TbCH C KOHUenUl1eM «JjByxacneKTHoi1:» OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1 no CJIeJjyIOll.\J.1M npJ1'IJ.1HaM. BO-n€pebIX, BblJjeJIeHJ1e acneKTOB IOpJ.1JjH'IeCKoj:"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 Bce :JKe rrpeJjnoJIaraeT coXpaHeHJ1e 11 npOHBJIeHJ1e eJjJ1HbIX CYll.\HOCTHbIX 'IepT :3TOro HBJIeHI1H B Ka:JKJjOM J13 acneKTOB. B paccMOTpeHHblx KOHCTPYKl.\J1HX «JjByxacneKTHoi1:» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1 3TJ1 'IepTbl 06HaPY:JKJ.1Tb He YJjaeTCH. TaK, CMbICJI n03I1THBHoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npe.l\CTaBJ1TeJIJ1 :3T0i1: KOHl.\errl.\J1J1 nbITaIOTCH 06HapY:JKJ1Tb B OTBeTCTBeHHoi1 JjeHTeJIbHOCTH cy6'beKTa, OC03Ha- HJ1H JjOJIra. nOJIO:JKJ.1TeJIbHOM, C03HaTeJIbHOM OTHOlIleHJ.1J1 K rropY'IeHHOMY Jje- JIY, nOJjOT'IeTIiOCTJ.I J1 nOJjKOHTpOJIbHOCTJ.1 cy6'beKTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1. Hera- TJ1BHbIM :JKe acneKT OHJ1 CBH3bIBaIOT C HapYlIleHJ1eM BnOJIHe onpeJjeJIeHHblX, 'IeTKO CCPOPMYJIJ1pOBaHHbIX npaBOBblX HOpM, IOpJ.1JjI1'IeCKHX 06H3aHHoCTei1:, rOCYJjapCTBeHHblM rrpJ.1Hy:JKJjeHJ.1eM, npeTepneBaHJ.1eM cy6'beKTOM He6JIaro- rrpJ1HTHbIX npaBOBblX nOCJIe.l\CTBJ1j:"I, TaKJ.1M 06pa30M, paCCMOTpeHHble Jjecpl1- HJ1l.\I.IJ.1 He CBH3bIBalOT BoeJjJ1HO MOTJ1BaUJ.10HHYIO ccpepy C BHelIlHJ1MJ1 perYJIH- TOpaMJ.1, 6e3 'Iero Cyrb HBJIeHJ1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1 He MO:JKeT 6blTb YHCHeHa. Bo-emopbIX, KaK y:JKe 6blJlO CKa3aHO BbllIle, HecMOTpH Ha cYll.\eCTBYIOll.\l1e pa3HOrJIaCHH, npeJjCTaBI1TeJIJ1 pa3JIH'IHbiX KOHUerrl.\Hi1: CXOJjHTCH B TOM, 'ITO npa- BOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb CBH3aHa C 'IeTKO onpeJjeJIeHHbIMJ1 IOpJ1,l\J.1'IecKJ.IMJ.1 rrpeJjrrJ1CaIDIHMJ.1, 06H3aHHoCTbIO, Ee CYll.\eCTBeHHbIMJ.1 npJ.13HaKaMJ1 HBJlHIOTCH IOpJ.lJjJ1'leCKHi1: xapaKTep Tpe6oBaHJ.lj:"I, onpeJjeJIHIOll.\J.lX COOTBeTCTBj'1Oll.\ee nOBe- JjeHl1e, J.I 06ecrre'IeHHOCTb peaJIJ.13al.\J.1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I rOCYJjapCTBeHHbIM npJ.IHY:JKJjeHJ.leM. IIo3HTIlBHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B paCCMOTpeHHblX TpaKTOBKax He 06JIaJjaeT 3TJ.1MJ1 Ka'IeCTBaMI1. OHa He CBH3aHa C rrpe-repneBaHJ.1eM cy6DeKTOM He6JIaronpJ.lHTHblX npaBOBblX rrOCJIeJjCTBJ.Ii1: J.I He MO:JKeT 6bITb <popMaJIJ.I30BaHa. B-mpembux, KOHuenl.\J.1H lIByxacneKTIioi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII He 06'bHCHHeT JjJ.laJIeKTJ.lKH nepexoJja «n03J.1TJ.lBHOro» B «HeraTJ.lBHoe». KCTaTJ.I CKa3aTb, J.1MeHHO TaKoi1: nepexoJj HBJIHeTCH KaMHeM npeTKHOBeHJ.lH TeOpJ.lJ.1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTJ.I, nblTaIOll.\ej:"lcH 06'bHCHJ.lTb cBoe06pa3J.1e MexaHJ.l3Ma OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I 3a .- (\j 
rropyqeHHoe l\eJIo. ECJIH B KOHUerrUl-IH «l\ByxacrreKTHOM» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH l\0- CTaTO'lHO rrOHHTHa pOJlb ee «peTpOCrreKTI1BHoro» aCrreKTa (B03MOmHOCTb He- 6JIarOrrpHHTHbIX rrOCJIel\CTBHM rrpaBOHapymeHHH H HX l\eMCTBHTeJIbHOe rrpe- TeprreBaHHe), TO rrOBel\eH'IeCKaH pOJlb «rr03HTHBHOro» aCrreKTa OCTaeTCH He- BbIHCHeHHOM: HH B TOM CJIY'Iae, KOrl\a rrOl\ HHM rrOHHMaeTCH rrpaBOMepHaH J1,e- HT€'JIbHOCTb cy6'beKTa, C03HaTeJIbHOe OTHOmeHHe K rrOpY'IeHHOMY l\eJIY, HH TOrM, KOrl\a rr03HTI1BHb!i1 aCrreKT rrpOHBJIHeTCH BOBHe, KaK oOH3aHHOCTb OCY- ll.\eCTBJIHTb rrOJIOmHTeJIbHble l\eikTBHH. B 060HX CJIyqaHx OCTaIOTCH HeBbIHB- JIeHHbIMH H He06'bHCHeHHbIMH HCTO'IHHKH, rr06Yl\HTeJIbHble MOTHBbI rrpaBO- MepHOrO rrOBel\eHHH cy6'beKTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI-I. TaKHM 06pa30M, '1TO 6b! He rOBopruUl rrpOl.{J.1THpoBaHHbIe Bblme aBTopbI 0 l\J.1aJIeKTH'IeCKOM el\HHCTBe «rro- 3HTHBHOro" H «HeraTHBHoro» acrreKTOB, rrOHHTHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B rrOMep- mHsaeMoM HMH KOHl.\errUHH YTpa'lHBaeT CooM YHHBepCaJIbHbIM xapaKTep. B- 1 ICmeepmbIX. KaK rrOKa3bIBaeT rrpaKTI1Ka, «J1,ByxacrreKTHoe» rrOHHMa- HHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH He pa60TaeT Ha l1,l\elO CTHMYJIHI.\HH aKTHBHoro TBOp'le- CKOro rrOBeJ1,eHHH. ,UJlH TpaKTOBKH «rr03HTHBHOM" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH xapaK- T€'pHO rrpH3HaHHe B Ka'leCTBe rJIaBHblX ee 3J1eMeHTOB C06JIIOJ1,eHHe YCTaHOB- JIeHHbIX 06H3aHHOCTei1 H C03HaT€'JIbHOrO OTHomeHHH K CBOHM CPYHKI.\HHM, rroJ1,- KperrJIHeMblX oOH3aHHOCTblO cy6DeKTa OT'IHTbIBaTbCH 0 cooeii J1,eHTeJIbHOCTI-I rrepeJ1, HHCTaHUHeM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 H rrpHHHTb ee oueHKY. IIpH 3TOM He 0610- HCHHeTCH, '1TO me HBJIHeTCH rapaHTHeH HCrrOJlHeHHH TaKHX 06H3aHHocTei1 H '1eM TaKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OTJIH'IaeTCH OT oOb['1HOrO MOpaJlbHOrO rrpH3bIBa K l\06pOCOBeCTHOMY, aKTHBHoMY, TBOp'leCKoMY BbIIIOJIHeHHIO CBOHX CPYHKI.\HH. IIpOUJ.1THpoBaHHble aBTopbI He J1,alOT Ha 3TH BorrpOCbI KOHCTPYKTHBHOro OTBe- Ta. ,Ua H BPHl\ JIH TaKOM OTBeT MomeT 6bITb Hafll\eH rrpH J1,aHHOM rrOCTaHOBKe rrp06JIeMbl. He rrOJ1,KpeIIJIHeMaH peaJIbHblM MexaHH3MoM B03J1,eHCTBHH Ha '1e- JIOBe'lecKoe rrOBel\eHHe, TaKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rrorra.qaeT B pa3pHJJ: 3YH- rOB, CMblCJI KOTOpbIX He BocrrpHHHMaeTCH T€'MH, KOMY OHH al\peCOBaHbI . 06'bHcHeHHe rrpaBoMepHoro rrOBel\eHHH OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6'beKTa. Ha Ham B3rJIHl\, HymHo HCKaTb He B BblJ1,eJIeHHH oc060ro acrreKTa OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH, a B H3Y'IeHHH ee B03}J.eMcTBHH Ha MOTHBaUHIO }J.ewreJIbHOCTH HCXOl\H H3 pa3HooOpa3HH cpaKTopoB (BHYTpeHHJ.IX H BHemHHx), Y'IaCTBYIOll.\HX B cpOpMH- pOBaHHH TaKoM MOTHsaI.\HH. 06peTaH cTaTYc cy6'beKTa IOpH}J.H'IeCKOM OTBeT- cTBeHHOCTI1, '1eJIOBeK rrOrral\aeT B CJIOmHeHmHH MHp B3aHMOl\eMcTBylOll.\HX Mem}J.Y C060H BHemHHX H BHYTpeHHHx perYJIHTOpOB. IiI BOBce He O'leBHl\HO, '1TO C03HaTeJIbHOe OTHomeHHe K 06H3aHHOCTHM HBJIHeTCH TOJIbKO CJIe}J.CTBHeM IOpH}J.H'IeCKH YCTaHOBJleHHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a rropyqeHHoe J1,eJIo. TaKI1M 06pa30M, rrorrbITKH orrpel\eJIHTb rrOHHTI1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B l.\eJIOM (B e}J.HHCTBe }J.BYX acrreKTOB) He crroco6CTBYIOT pemeHHIO rrpaKTH'IeCKJ.IX 3aJ1,a'l. II03HTJ.IBHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rrpe}J.CTaBJIHeT c060i1 caMOCTOHTeJIbHOe rrpaBO- Boe HBJIeHHe H caMOCTOHTeJIbHblfl rrpe}J.MeT HCCJIeJ1,OBaHHH. OHa, HeCOMHeHHO, CBH3aHa C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb IOpHJJ:H'IeCKOM, HO XapaKT€'p 3TOM CBH3H He rr03BO- JIHeT COrJlaCHTbCH C BKJIIO'IeHHeM ee B 06wee rrOHHTHe IOpH}J.H'IeCKOH OTBeTCT- N BeHHOCTH B Ka'leCTBe Ol\Horo H3 acrreKTOB. II03HTI1BHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb H N IOpH}J.H'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb }J.OJlmHbI HMeTb CBOIO rrOHHTHHHj'1O HHJ1,HBH- 
JjyaJIbHOCTb H KBaJIH<pHUHpOBaTbCH KaK aBTOHOMHble JjeqmHHUI1H. IIpeJjMeToM HaCTOHIl\ero HCCJIeJjOBaHHH HBJIHeTCH C06CTBeHHO IOpl1J\l1'1eCKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb OpraHOB H JjOJImHOCTHblX JIHU MecTHOro Ca&lOynpaBJIeHHH. IIo3HTHBHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3THX CYODeKTOB Tpe6yeT OTJjeJIbHOrO HCCJIeJjOBaHHH. 2. IIoHHTHe IOpHJjH'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH JjOJImHO OTBe'laTb nOTpeoHo- CTHM npaKTHKHHHMeTb He TOJIbKO TeOpeTH'IeCKOe, HO H npHKJIaJjHoe 3Ha'le- HHe (npaBHJIbHO opHeHTHpOBaTb 3aKOHOJjaTeJIH, npaBonpHMeHHTeJIH H OObI'I- HblX rpamJjaH). Y3KHH, HeraTHBHblt'1 nOJjxoJj K ee onpeJjeJIeHHIO B 3TOM CMblC- JIe HBJlHeTCH 60JIee npHrOJjHbIM, 60JIee npaKTI1'1eCKHM, HO B TO me BpeMH He HCKJIIO'IaeT B03MomHOCTH CHHTe3a B paMKax eJjHHoro nOHHTHH pa3JIH'IHbIX TeOpeTH'IeCKHX nOJjXOJjOB H BblXOJja Ha HHTerpaTHBHoe BOCnpHHTHe. TpYJjHO cnopHTb C TeM, '1TO B CBoet'1 CYIl\HOCTHlOpHJjH'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb eCTb npeTepneBaHHe CYO'beKTOM KaKHX-JIHOO He6JIaronpHHTHbIX npa- BOBbIX nOCJIeJjCTBHH B BI1Jje JIHWeHI1HH OrpaHH'IeHHH JIH'IHOro. opraHH3aUH- OHHoro HJIH HMYIl\eCTBeHHoro xapaKTepa. 3aKOHHOCTb 11 HeOTBpaTHMOCTb 3TOro 06eCne'lHBaeTCH C nOMOIl\blO IOpHJjl1'1eCKHX cpeJjCTB, TaKHX, KaK IOpl1- JjH'IeCKaH 06H3aHHOCTb, Mepbl roCYJjapCTBeHHoro npHHymJjeHHH, npaBonpH- MeHeHHe, npaBOOTHoweHHe. IID:3TOMY HapHJjY C npeTepneBaHHeM npH onpe- JjeJIeHHH nOHHTHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HeH30emHO HCnOJIb3yeTcH H 3TOT IOpl1- JjH'IeCKI1HHHCTPYMeHTapI1H, H COOTBeTCTBylOIl\aH TepMHHOJIOrMH. IOpHJjH'IeCKI1 npeTepneBaHHe BblpamaeTCH B B03HHKHOBeHHH H peaJII1- 3aUI1H OOH3aHHOCTH npeTepneTb He6JIaronpHHTHble npaBOBble nOCJIeJjCTBI1H 3a HeJjOJImHOe nOBeJjeHue. TaKoe nOHI'IMaHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OOyCJIOBJIeHO HHCTpYMeHTaJIbHblM nOJjXOJjOM K nOHHMaHHIO npaBa, KOTOpblH pa3JjeJIHeT aBTOp HaCTOHIl\ero UCCJIeJjOBaHHH. IOpuJjH'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HBJIHeT- CH OJjHHM H3 cpeJjCTB, n03BOJIHIOIl\HX npaBY BbInOJIHHTb UHCTpYMeHTaJIbHYIO pOJIb: B YCJIOBUHX L\aHHoro MeCTa H BpeMeHH CJIy>KHTb cTa6HJII13aumiH yno- pHJjO'leHHIO 06Il\eCTBeHHbiX CBH3eH, pa3peweHHIO IOpHJjU'IeCKHX JjeJI 73 . C 3TUX n03Hl.\HH B HaCTOHIl\eM HCCJIeJjOBaHHH Mbl nOnblTaeMCH nOJjot'ITH K peweHHIO KJIIO'IeBbIX TeOpeTH'IeCKHX np06JIeM IOpUJjH'IeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TH opraHOB H JjOJImHOCTHbIX JIHU MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. OJjHOHH3 HaH60- JIee BamHbIX H nepBOCTeneHHblX HBJIHeTCH np06JIeMa onpeJjeJIeHHH nOHHTHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H JjOJImHOCTHblX JIUl.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH. BCHKaH nonbITKa KOHCTpYHpOBaTb TaKoe nOHHTI1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 6e3 Y'le- Ta cneuHqmKH ccpepbl COl.\HaJIbHbIX OTHoweHHH, COUI13JIbHOro H npaBoBoro CTIlTyca Cy6DeKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTHH TOH pOJIH, KOTOPYIO OHa BbInOJIHHeT B MexaHH3Me npaBOBOro pery JIUpOBaHHH COOTBeTCTBYIOIl.\HX OOIl\eCTBeHHbIX OT- HOWeHHI1, onaCHa CMeIl\eHHeM aKl.\eHTOB B onpeJjeJIeHHH ee CYIl\HOCTI1 H CO- JjepmaHHH. KpOMe TOro, 6blJIO 6bl OWOOKOH UrHOpHpOBaTb B3rJIHJjbI yqeHblx, yme npeJjnpHHHMaBwux nonblTKH HCCJIeJjOBaTb JjeHCTBHe IOpUJjH'IeCKOH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B ccpepe MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH TOJIbKO Ha TOM OCHOBaHHH, '1TO OHH paCXOJjHTCH C npeJjCTaBJIeHHHMH aBTopa. Ee3 aHaJIH3a yme HaKOfIJIeH- Horo OnblTa JII06ble nOnbITKH peWHTb nOCTaBJIeHHble B HaCTOHIl\eM HCCJIeJjOBa- HHH 3a}:(a'lH BPHL\ JIH OKamYTCH YJja'lHbIMH. OlmaKo npemJje '1eM nepeHTH K n npOOJIeMe nOHHMaHUH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B MYHHl.\HnaJIbHO-npaBoBot'1 HaYKe, (\j 
OCTaHOBHMCH Ha 06ll.\eii xapaKTepl1CTHKe npouecca CTaHOBJIeHI1H OTpaCJIeBOrO TeOpeTwlecKoro 3HaHI1H 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, BbIHBI1M ero oc06eHHocTil 11 oc- HOBHble TeH}J.eHUI'lI1, nOCKOJIbKY nOCJIe}J.Hl1e, HeCOMHeHHO, OKa3blBalOT BJII'IHHl'le Ha COCTOHHl'le 1'1 cO}J.ep:IKaHl'le HaY'IHOro 3HaHI1H. 1.2. COBPEMEHHblE TEHAEH(41t11t1 B cPOPMItIPOBAHltI1tI TEOPItlItlIOPItIAItII.jECKOt1 OTBETCTBEHHOCTItI B MYHItI(4lt1nAIlbHO-nPABOBOt1 HAYKE IOpl1.!1l'1'1ecKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - O}J.Ha 113 l.\eHTpaJIbHbIX KaT€ropl1ii Teo- pl1l'1 npaBa, '1TO 06YCJIOBUIO nOHBJIeHl1e 06ll.\eii T€OpIDI IOpH,/\I1'1eCKOii OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH. BOJIee Toro, B OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpH}J.I1'1eCKI1x HaYKax, TaKHX, KaK yro- JIOBHOe npaBo, allMHHHCTpaTIlBHOe npaoo, rpa:IK}J.aHcKoe npaBo, KOHCTHTYUHOH- HOe npaBO, CcpOpMHpOBaJII1Cb OTpaCJIeBble yqeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTil. B npol.\ec- ce pa3BI1TI1H MYHHl.\HnaJIbHO-npaBoBoii HaYKH cpopMHpyeTcH H c06cTBeHHoe OTpaCJIeBOe yqeHHe 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTil. IIpol.\ecc 3TOT nOKa '1TO HOCI1T «CUI- XI1iiHblii xapaKTep», nOCKOJIbKY MaJIO KTO 113 aBTopoB CTaBHT nepe}J. c060ii3a- }J.a'lY TeOpeTl1'1eCKOii pa3pa60TKI1 OTpaCJIeBOii TeOpHI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1. B no- }J.aBJIHIOll.\eM 60Jlbllll1HCTBe OHH nblTaIOTCH aHaJIH311pOBaTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, '1TO Ha3bIBaeTCH, no xoJJ.y }J.eJIa - npl1 paccMOTpeHI1H }J.Pymx HHCTI1TyrOB MeCT- Horo caMoynpaBJIeHIDI 11 Mj'HHl.\l1I1aJIbHOrO npaBa. OCBell.\aH BonpocbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCU( opraHoB 11110JI:lKHOCTHbIX JIHU MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHIDI, npe,/\CTaBI1TeJII1 MYHI1l.\V!naJIbHO-npaBoBoii Ha)'RH, KaK npaBI'IJIO, paCCMaTpl1BaIOT OT}J.eJIbHble np06JIeMbI npaBoBoro perYJIHpOBaHHH 11 npaoonpl1MeHHTeJIbHOf( npaKTIlKI1. TaKI1M 06pa30M, OCTaeTCH 6e3 }J.OJI:lKHOro BHHMamm aHaJIH3 }J.aHHoro npaBoBoro HBJleHI1H Ha 06ll.\eTeopeTIl'leCKOM ypOB- He. IIpH pa3pa6OTKe OT}J.eJIbHbIX TeOpeTIl'leCKI1X n03l1l.\Hii aBTOpbI '1epnaIOT ap- rYMeHTbI B }J.eHCTByIOll.\eM 3aKoHo}J.aT€JIbCTBe, KOTopoe B HaCTOHwee BpeMH BeCbMa HecTa6HJIbHO H }J.aJIeKO OT COBepllleHCTBa. J1 XOTH CBH3b Me:IK}J.y TeOpl1- eiil1 3aKOHo}J.aTeJIbCTBOM Bcer}J.a }J.BYCTOPOHHHH, BH,/\eTb B n0311l.\HH 3aKOHo}J.a- T€JIH I1CTI1HY B nOCJIellHeH HHCTaHID111 npl1 pa3pellleHHI1 TeopeTl1'1eCKHX npo- 6J1eM npe}J.CTaBJIHeTCH 0lllH6KOfl 06"beKTI1BHO He HMeH B03MO:IKHOCTH 060HTH Bonpoc 0 nOHHTHI1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1, aBTopbI }J.aIOT onpe}J.eJIeHl1e 3TOMY npaBOBOMY HBJleHHIO, HCnOJIb- 3YH nOHHTHH, CcpOpMHpOBaHHble B paMKax T€OpeTI1'1eCKHX KOHl.\enl.\Hi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH, CJIO:IKI1BIllI1XCH B 06ll.\efl TeOpl1H npaBa JIHno B OTpaCJIeBblX IOpl1}J.I1'1eCKI1X HaYKax. TaKI1M 06pa30M, npOl'ICXOllI1T MexaHH'IeCKOe 3aI1MCT- BOBaHHe 11 nepeHOC }J.e<pHHHl.\I1H Ha MYHHl.\l1naJIbHO-npaBOBYIO MaTepl1IO 6e3 Y'leTa OTpaCJIeBOii CneUl1cpHKI1, '1TO, B CBOIO O'lepe}J.b, MO:IKeT npl1BeCTI1 K on- pe}J.eJIeHHblM 3a6JIY:IK.1leHHHM B OCMbICJIeHI1I1I1CCJIe}J.yeMoro HBJIeHHH. B yqe6Hoiil1 HayqHoH JIHTepaTYpe no Mj'HHl.\l1naJIbHOMY npaBY np06J1eMa OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH paCCMaTpI1BaeTCH I1CKJIIO'II1T€JIbHO B KOHTeKCT€ OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1 opraHOB 11 llOIDKHOCTHbIX .mll.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. 3-r0 06"beKTI1BHO 06YCJlOBJIeHO pa3BJ1TI1eM 3aKOHO}J.aT€JIbCTBa, '!TO BbIHY:IK}J.aeT aBTOpOB cJle}J.o- .q {'\j 
BaTb 6)'KBe 3aKOHa. B TO me BpeMH yme OblJUI npe}J.npHHHTbI nonbITKI1 Ha)"IHoro aHaJlH3a npaBOBOM npl1pO}J.bll1 MeXaHI13Ma peaJlH3al\HI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 ewe 11 TaKI1X CYOWKTOB, KaK Mj'Hl1l\l'InaJlbHOe 06pa30BaHI1e 11 MecTHoe HaCeJleHl1e (Ha- CeJleHl1e Mj'Hl1l.\lmaJlbHOrO 06pa30BaHI'IH). B pe3YJlbTaTe HeKOTopble aBTopb{4 nOnblTaJlI'ICb C<P0PMYJll1poBaTb 06ll.\eOTpacJleBoe nOHHTIle OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I. B npaBOBOM J1I1TepaType C<pOpMl'lpOBaJlOCb Tpl1 OCHOBHblX nO}J.xo}J.a K YHC- HeHI1IO npaBOBOM npl1pO}J.bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I opraHOB 11 }J.OJlmHOCTHbIX J1111\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. ComaCHO nepBOMY 113 HI1X cnel\l'I<pHKa OCHOBa- HI1i=i, npOl\eJJ.YpbI, Kpyra 3al1HTepeCOBaHHbiX cy6'beKTOB, I1CTO'IHI'IKOB peryJlI1- pOBaHI1H I'1I1HbIX YCJlOBI'IM npl1MeHeHI'IH npI1HY}J.I'ITeJlbHbIX Mep B03}J.eMCTBI1H K OpraHaM 1'1 }J.OJlmHOCTHbIM J1l'1l\aM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI'IH n03BOJIHeT roBO- pl1Tb 00 06oc06J1eHI1I'1I1 aBTOHOMHOM CTaTyce MYHl1l\l'InaJlbHo-npaBoBoi=i OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 75 . BTOpOM no}J.xo}J. 3aKJIIO'IaeTCH B TOM, '1TO I1HCTI1TYTY OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 yneJlHeTCH caMoe npl'lCTaJlbHOe BHI1MaHl1e B CI'ICTeMe Mj'Hl'Il\ImaJlb- HOro npaBa 1'1 MYHl1l\l'InaJlbHoro 3aKOHO}J.aTeJlbCTBa C TOM, o}J.HaKo, pa3HI1l\eM, '1TO HeT HI1 MaJleMlllero HaMeKa Ha ee MYIDIl\HnaJlbHo-npaBOBYIO 3KCKJlI03I1B- HOCTb 76 . TIpl'l TpeTbeM nO}J.xo}J.e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 }J.OJlmHOCTHbIX J1Hl\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H npaKTI1;!,eCKI'I nOJIHOCTbIO BbIBO}J.I'ITCH 3a paM- KI1 c06CTBeHHo Mj'Hl'Il\I1naJlbHOrO npaBa ,'1TO, O'leBI1,!\Ho, CBI1,!\eTeJlbCTBYeT 0 IOpl'l}J.I1'1eCKOM oxpaHe Mj'Hl1l\l1naJlbHO-npaBOBblx OTHOllleHI1M CHJlaMI1 Tpa}J.l1- 1\110HHbiX (KJlaCCI1'1eCKl'lx) BI1}J.OB IOpl'l}J.I'I'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI(78, I1MeIOIl.\I'I- x MemOTpaCJleBOM MaCIllTao npl1MeHeHI'IH 79 . CYll\eCTBYIOll.\aH Heonpe}J.eJleH- HOCTb B 3TOM Bonpoce 06ycJlOBJIlmaeT nOHBJleHl1e pa3HOrJlanIM cpe}J.11 npe}J.- CTaBI1TeJlei1 MYHl'Il\l1naJlbHo-npaBOBOM HaYKI'I no PH.!\)' ,!\pyrnx KJIIO'IeBbIX BO- npOCOB KaK TeOpeTI1'1eCKoro, TaK 11 npaKTl1'1eCKOrO xapaKTepa. OCOOO CJle}J.yeT OTMeTI'ITb TO OOCTOHTeJlbCTBO, '1TO nO'lTI1 HI'I O}J.HO I'IccJle- ,!\OBaHl'le He OTJll1'1aeTCH <pj'H}J.aMeHTaJlbHOCTbIO. ABTOPbl, npl1HI1MaH 3a OC- HOBY TY 11J1I'1I'1Hyro }J.e<pI'IHI11\11IO, B nOCJle}J.yroIl.\I1X paccym}J.eHI'IHX ee He npl1- }J.epmI1BaIOTCH, }J.OCTaTO'lHO BOJlbHO 06pall.\aHCb CO CTpomMI'I IOpl1nl1'1eCKI'IMI1 TepMI1HaMl1, '1TO }J.eJlaeT aBTOpCKl1e paccym,!\emm KpaMHe HenOCJlenOBa- TeJlbHbIMI'I, J10m'leCKI1 He BbI}J.epmaHHbIMI1. TaKl1e HBJlemm, KaK B03HI'IKHO- BeHl'le I1HTepeca K HaY'lHOM np06J1eMe, CTpeMJleHl'le K n03HaHl'lIO CYIl.\HOCTI1 HOBOro HBJleHI1H (a He KOMMeHTl1pOBaHHe ero BHelllHI'IX npOHBJleHI1M) 1'1 T.n. - 3TO Bcero J1l1lllb Bonpoc BpeMeHI1. TIoHBJleHl1e me HaY'lHbIX pa60T 11 aBTop- CKI'IX n03Hl\I'IM, He I'IMeIOll.\l'IX B CBoeM OCHOBe npO'lHOM TeOpl'll1, CHCTeMHOCTI1 11 nOCJle}J.OBa TeJlbHOCTI1 cym}J.eHI1M, cnoc06Ho npl1BeCTI1 K <pOpMl'lpOBaHI1IO TeOpeTI'I'IeCKI'IX 1'1 npaBOBblx «HarpOllfOm}J.eHI'IM», BeCbMa naJleKI1X OT pea J1b- HOro nOJlOmeHI'IH Bell.\ei=i 11 nOTpe6HocTeM npaBoBoi=i 1'1 COl\l1aJlbHoi=i npaKTI1KI1. B nOMepmKY CKa3aHHoro npl'lBe}J.eM HeKOTOpble npl1MepbI. CJle}J.CTBl'leM }J.I1CKYCCI'IOHHOCTl1 np06J1eMbl nOHI'IMaHI1H IOp!,!\H'IeClwi=i OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B 061l.\eM TeOp1111 npaBa 11 OTpaCJleBblX IOpl'!,!\I1'1eCKI'IX HaYKax HBI'IJlaCb HeOAH03Ha'lHaH TpaKTOBKa B )"Ie6HOi111 Ha)"IHOM J1I'1TepaType OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 }J.OJDKHOCTHbIX J111l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H UII1 OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 B MYHl'Il\l'IIIaJlbHOM npaBe B l\eJlOM. Pa3JII1'1Hble KOHl\enl\l'I1'I IOpl1,!\l1- It'\ '1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HaIllJlI1 cooe OTpameIDIe B onpeneJleHI1HX OTBeTCTBeH- (\j 
HOCTH OpraHOB H }J.OJlmHOCTHbIX nl1U MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1.H. B HaCTOHIUee BpeMH MOmHO KOHCTaTHpoBaTb, "ITO Bee HaHOoJlee I13BeCTHble n03HUHH yqeHblx no Bonpocy nOHHMaHHH IOPl1.l\l1"1ecKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npe}J.CTaBJleHbI B MYHH- l.\HnanbHo-npaBOBOM nHTepaType. IIpH 3TOM Bbl3bIBaeT TpeBory He MHorooopa- 3He HayqHblx B3fnH}J.OB, He }J.HCKYCCI10HHOCTb caMoi=i np06J1eMbI, a TOT aBTO- MaTI13M, C KOTOpblM aBTopbI 3aHMCTByJOT Te HJlH HHbie l\eqmHI1I.\HH H TeOpeTH- "IeCKHe KOHCTpYKUI1H. IIPOHCXOl\I1T I1MeHHO MeXaHH"IeCKOe I1X 3al1MCTBOBaHHe 11 nepeHOC Ha MYHHl.\lmaJlbHo-npaBOByro MaTepI1IO. Hanpl1Mep, H.JI. IIewuJi onpel\eJlHeT IOpI1.l\H"IeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opra- Ha HJlH }J.OJI)KHOCTHOrO nHl.\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH KaK «npl1MeHeHl1e K CO- OTBeTCTByroIUeMY opraHY HJlH nl1l.IY, COBeplllHBllIeMY npaBOHapyuIeHl1e, npeAY- CMo-rpeHHbIX 3aKOHOM Mep npI1HY)K!\eHI1H B YCTaHOBJleHHOM nOpH.IIKe»80. .D:aJlee OH IDIllIeT: «...IOpl1l1H"IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npe}J.nOJlaraeT npl1MeHeHHe K opraHaM HJlH nl1uaM, COBepllll1BllIl1M npaBOHapyuIeHl1e, npel\YCMOTpeHHbIX 3a- KOHOM Mep npl1Hym,!\eHHH B YCTaHOBJleHHOM nopH,!\Ke» 81. .D:aHHbIM Te3I1C CTaBI1T no}J. COMHeIDIe npHBe}J.eHHoe paHee onpe}J.eJleHHe. BbIXOl\I1T, "ITO IOpJ.1,!\J.1"1eCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npe}J.noJlaraeT TO, "IeM, no yrBepml\eHJ.1IO H.JI. IIewuJia, caMa J.1 HBJlHeTCH. O"IeBI1.l\HO, "ITO paccym}J.eHJ.1H aBTopa MeTO}J.OJlOrJ.1"1eCKJ.1 He Bbl}J.ep- maHbl. 3TO 06HapymJ.1BaeTCH J.1 B nOCJle.l\YIOIUJ.1X ero paccym,!\eHJ.1HX: «...ycno- BJ.1H npJ.1MeHeHJ.1H al\MI1HJ.1CTpaTJ.1BHOM J.1J1I1l\I1Cl.\J.1nJlJ.1HapHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1 }J.OJlmHOCTHbIX nJ.1U MorYT 6bITb YCTaHOBJIeHbl TaIOKe J.1 HOpMaTIIBHbIMJ.1 npaBO- BbIMJ.1 aKTaMJ.1 cy6'beKTOB POCCJ.1HCKOM cpel\epal.\l1J.1....» 82. 3-r0 03Ha"laeT, "ITO YCJlO- BI1.H npJ.1MeHeIDIH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - :ITO YCJlOBJ.1H npl1MeHeHHH np1M!enenUJ! Mep npJ.1HY)K!\eHJ.1H (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1), "ITO CBJ.1,l\eTenbCTByeT 0 Ha.mI"lJ.1J.1 B }J.aH- HOM c.nyqae 3J1eMeHTa TaBTOJlOfl1J.1. KpOMe Toro, B03HHKaeT np06J1eMa onpe}J.ene- HI1.H Kpyra cy6'beKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.!. EcnJ.1 J.1CXOl\J.ffb J.13 6YKBanbHOro nOHI1- MaHJ.1H aBTopCKoro OnpelleJleIDIH, TO cy6'beKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH }J.OJlmHO 6bITb }J.Be rpynnbI: cy6'beKTbI, B OTHOllieHIDI KOTOpbIX npJ.1MeHHIOTCH Mepbl npJ.1Hym- l\eHJ.1H, J.1 Te. KOTopble HX npJ.1MeHHIOT. ABTOp me Bel\eT pe"lb TOJlbKO 0 nepBbIJ<. PaCCMaTpJ.1BaH Bonpoc 0 COl\epmaHJ.1J.1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1, H.JI. IIewU1t OT- Me"laeT, "ITO «cO}J.epmaHJ.1eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.1 opraHOB J.1J1J.1 }J.OJlmHOCTHbIX nl1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHi-IH B pe3ynbTaTe YTpaTbl l\OBepl1.H HBnHeTCH pellleHl1e 0 paccpopMJ.1pOBaHJ1J1 opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHJ1H J1nJ1 06 OT- 3bIBe }J.onmHocTIgro JlHl.\a MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, YTpaTI1BllIero }J.OBe- pJ1e HaCeJleHJ1H» . Ho Tor}J.a nOJlY"laeTCH, "ITO cOl\epmaHJ1eM npJ1MeHeHHH Mep npJ1Hyml\eHJ1H (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1) HBJlHeTCH pellleHJ1e 0 npJ1MeHeHJ1J1 MepbI npJ1HY)K!\eHI1.H. B TO me BpeMH co,!\epmaHJ1eM npaBOnpl1MeHeHI1.H C TO"I- KH 3peIDIH 06IUei=i TeOpJ1H npaBa HBJlHeTCH peaJll13al.\J.1H HOpMbI npaBa (B }J.aH- HOM cJlyqae - CaHKuJ1J1 npaBoBoH HOpMbl). IIpJ1MeHeHJ1e Mep npe}J.nOJlaraeT on- pel\eneHHYIO nOCJlel\OBaTeJlbHOCTb }J.ej:"lcTBJ1H (CTal\J1H), B KOTOpbIX npoJ1cxo- ,!\J1T He TOJlbKO BbIHeCeHJ1e pellleHJ1H ynoJlHoMO"leHHblM CYO'beKTOM 0 npJ1Me- HeHJ1J1 MepbI npJ1HymlleHJ1H, HO peaJlJ13aUJ1H 3TOro pellleHJ1H - cpaKTJ1"1eCKOe npeTepneBaHJ1e cy6'beKTOM COOTBeTCTBYIOIUJ1X HeOJlarOnpJ1HTHbIX npaBO- \0 BbIX nocne}J.CTBJ1M. B ]:IaHHOM cnyqae TOme He Bbl}J.epmaH 06Il\eMeTOl\OJlom- (\j "IeCKJ1M nOl\XOl\ aBTopCKoro nOHJ1MaHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1. 
HaKoHel.\, rOBOpH 0 cO}J.ep:1Kamm YCTaBa MYHI1l.\I1naJIbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H. Ha3BaHHbli1: aBTOp nl1l11eT 0 TOM, '1TO B yCTaBe MYHI1l.\l1naJIbHoro 06pa30Bamm 3aKpenJIeHbI YCJIOBI1H HacTynJIeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII nepe}J. HaCeJIeHl1eM (YTpaTa }J.OBepI1H), pa3rpaHI1'1eHbI cy6'beKTb! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, onpe}J.eJIeHbI «OC06eHHOCTI1 npOl.\e}J.ypbI npl1MeHeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT ee cy6'beKTa»84. OnHTb aBTOp He BbI}J.ep:1KI1BaeT npI1HHTOi1: KOHl.\enl.\1111 OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTl1, }J.onYCKaH TaBTOJIOrmO, rOBopH 0 npOl.\e}J.ype npl1MeHeHI1H npu- AteHeHU.i/. Mep npI1HY:1K}J.eHI1H (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1). Awwom'lHYIO 01lll16KY }J.onYCKaeT B.M. Ba6u 1 lee, KOTOpblii, pa3}J.eJIHH TO'l- KY 3peHI1H M.A. KpaCHoea B5 , onpe}J.eJIHeT IOpl1}J.l1'1eCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK «CBH3b Me:1K}J.y }J.BYMH cy6'beKTaMI1, npl1 KOTOpoi1 O}J.Ha CTOpOHa (cy6'beKT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1), OMa}J.aIOll\aH CB06o}J.oii BOJII1 11 BbI6opa. 06H3bIBaeTCH B CI1JIY cBoero cTaTyca CTpOI1Tb nOBe}J.eHl1e B COOTBeTCTBl111 C O:1KI1.1\aeMoi1: MO}J.e- JIbIO, a }J.pyraH CTOpOHa (I1HCTaHl.\I1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1) KOHTpOJIl1pyeT, Ol.\eHI1- BaeT TaKOE' nOBe}J.eHl1e 11 (J.1JlI1) ero pe3YJIbTaTbI, a B CJIY'lae OTpl1l.\aTeJIbHoi1: 0l.\eHKI1I1 HaJIl1'1l1H BI1HbI BnpaBe onpe}J.E'JIeHHbIM 06pa30M OTpeampOBaTb Ha 3TO»88. IIpl1 }J.aJIbHei1:rneM paCCMOTpeHl111 Bonpoca 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII aBTOp He BbI}J.ep:1KI1BaeT 3TOT MeTO}J.OJIOrl1'1eCKI1i1: nOCblJI. TaK, OH mlrneT: «IIoHHTHO, '1TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb '1acTO HOCI1T }J.BYCTOPOHHI1i1: XapaKT€p 11 Cy6'b€'KTbl OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B CBH311 C 3TI1M MeHHIOTCH n0311l.\IDIMI1»87. .D:aHHoe YTBep:1K.1\e- Hl1e n03BOJIHeT npe}J.nOJIO:1KI1Tb, '1TO eCTb cJIY'Ial1, Kor}J.a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HO- CI1T O}J.HOCTOpOHHI1i1: xapaKTep. Ho Tor}J.a PYIlHlTCH Ta T€OpeTI1'1eCKaH KOHCT- PYKl.\I1H nOHHTI1H OTBeTCTBE'HHOCTI1, KOTOPYIO aBTOp 6E'pE' 3a OCHOB8 a I'IME'H- HO TO, '1TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb CBH3b Me:1K}J.y }J.BYMH CY0'beKTaMI1 . He cOrJIacyeTcH nOHHTl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, npl1HHTOe B.M. Ba6u'leeblJ1ot, C ee OCHOBaHI1HMl1, KOTopble Bbl}J.eJIHeT aBTop. «OcHOBaHl1eM IOpl1}J.I1'1eCKoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, - nl1eT B.M. Ba6u 1 tee, - HBJIHeTCH npaBoHapyrneHl1e B ero pa3HOBI1}J.HOCTHX...» . O}J.HaKo, KaK CJIe}J.yeT 113 npl1Be}J.eHHoro onpe}J.eJIe- HI1H nOHHTI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 B '1eM COCTOI1T OCHOBHoe cO}J.ep:1KaHl1e KOH- l.\enl.\1111 M.A. KpacHoea 90 , '1bIO TO'IKY 3peHI1H, no c06cTBeHHoMY 3aHBJIeHI1IO B.M. Ba6u 1 teea, OH pa3}J.eJIHeT, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HacTynaeT 11.0 cOBeprneHIDI OTBeTCTBeHHbIM cy6'beKTOM npaBoHapyrneHI1H. KM. A.Mup6elCoe onpe}J.eJIHeT IOpl1.1\l1'1ecKyro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK «<POPMY npI1ME'HeHI1H K BI1HOBHOMY JIHl.\y, cOBeprnl1BrneMY npaBOHapyrneHl1e, Mep ny6- JII1'1HO-npaBoBoro npI1HY:1K}J.eHI1H, npe}J.ycMarpeHHblx CaHKl.\l1ei1: HapyrneHHoi1: IOPl1.1\l1'-IecKOi1: HOpMbI, B cTporo onpe}J.eJIeHHOM }J.JIH 3TOro npol.\eccyaJIbHOM no- pHJJ.Ke»91. .D:aJIee OH nO}J.'1epKI1BaeT, '1TO ee CYll\HOCTb COCTOI1T B 06H3aHHOCTI1I1H- }J.l1BJ-I)\a BbInOJlHHTb cOOTBeTcTByroll\He nOJlI1Tl1'1eCKl1e, IOpl1.1\I1'1eCKHe 11 MOpaJIb- Hble Tpe60BaHI1H, npe}J.'bHBJIHeMbIe eMY 06ll\eC'ffioM, KOJIJIeKTI1BOM, rocy}J.apcT- BOM 92 . Onpe}J.eJIeHl1e nOHHTI1H }J.OJI:1KHO OXBaTblBaTb npe:1K.1\e seero cyr.t\HoCTIible npl13HaKH HBJIeHIDI, n03TOMY He COBceM HCHO, nO'leMY aBTOp nOJIHOCTbIO I1CKJIIO- '1aeT 3TJ.1 npl13HaKI1113 cO}J.ep:1KaHI1H onpene.neHHH 3TOro nOHHTIlH. TeM 60JIee He nOHHTHO, nO'leMY onpe}J.eJIHH IOpH.1\H'IeCKyro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B Y3KOM, peTpo- CneKTI1BHOM ee nOHI1MaHl1H, KM. A.A-tup6eh'OO BJUlI1T ee CYll\HOCTb B n03HTI1BHOM t-- BbInOJIHeHl111 06H3aHHocTeii, KOTOpoe He CBR3aHO C npaBoHapyrneHl1eM, npHMe- (\j 
HeHl1eM Mep npI1H)"K.11eHI1H, CaHKl.\HHMI1I1 T.n. 11. B Cj'IWiOCTI1, MO>KeT xapaKTe- pl130BaTb JII1Il1b n0311TI1BHj'1O OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. B nOCJIe.11YIOLl.\I1X paCCY>K.11eHHHX K.M. AMUp6eIC06 onepHpyeT HeCKOJIbKO I1HbIM Onpe.11eJIeHl1eM, comaCHO KOTOPOMY IOpI1,Z\H'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb «npl1MeHeHHe K BI1HOBHOMY JIHl.\Y, COBepIllI1BIlIeMY npaBOHapYIlIeHl1e, Mep ny6JII1'1HO-npaBOBoro npI1HY>K.11eHHH, npe.11YCMOTpeHHbIX CaHKl.\Hei1: Ha- pYIlleHHoi1: IOpl1.11H'IeCKoi1: HOpMbI, B CTpOro onpe.11eJIeHHOM .11JIH :3TOro npOl.\ec- cyaJIbHOM nopH.11Ke». TaKoe onpe.11eJIeHHe npe.11CTaBJIHeTCH eMY 60JIee IlIHpO- KI1M no '1HCJIY cy6'beKTOB, YCTaHaBJII1BaIOLl.\I1X KOHKpeTHble BI1l\bI IOpH.l\I1'1e- CKoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, T.e. He OrpaHl1'1HBaeT HX '1I1CJIO TOJIbKO opraHaMH ro- cY.l\arCTBa, a n0300JIHeT BKJIIO'IHTb CIO.l\a 11 opraHbI MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HI1H 9 . TeM caMbIM OH npI1XO.l\I1T OT onpel\eJIeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK «<P0pMbI npl1MeHeHI1H Mep npI1HY>K.11eHI1H» K onpel\eJIeHI1IO ee KaK npl1MeHe- HI1H Mep npHHY>K!IeHI1H. 3aBepIllaeT '1epel\Y TaKHX «nepeOCMbICJIeHHi1:» 3aHBJIeHI1e aBTopa 0 TOM, '1TO «OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, HBJIHHCb He06xol\I1MOCTbIO 11 06H3aHHOCTbIO OTBe'laTb 3a COOI1 l\ei1:cTBHH (6e3l\ei1:cTBHH) 11 nocTynKH, 3a HeHal\JIe>KaLl.\ee Be.l\eHHe l\eJI, HeMbICJIHMa 6e3 CaHKl.\HM, 6e3 KOHKpeTHbIX He6JIarOnpHHTHbIX nOCJIel\-  g4 CTBI1H l\JIH opraHa HJII1 BI1HOBHOro JII1l.\a» . Onpel\eJIeHHYIO l\BYCMbICJIeHHOCTb l\OnycKaIOT aBTopbI Y'le6HHKa nOlI pel\aKl.\Hei1: H.C. BonoapR. B Ol\HOM cJIY'lae OHH nHIlIyr 0 TOM, '11'0 IOpHl\I1'1e- CKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B c06CTBeHHoM CMbICJIe CJIOBa - STO npHMeHeHHe CaHKl.\I1H npaBOOXpaHI1TeJIbHoi1: HOpMbI, '1TO Bblpa>KaeTCH B HeraTI1BHbIX no- CJIel\CTBHHX l\JIH npaBoHapyu..IHTeJIH, HacTynl1BIlIl1x B BH.11e JIHIlIeHHi1: HJII1 or- paHH'IeHHH JIH'IHOro HJIH I1MYLl.\eCTBeHHoro xapaKTepa 95 . B l\pyroM cJIY'lae 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 rOBOpl1TCH KaK 0 HeraTI1BHOM IOpHl\H'IeCKOM nOCJIel\CTBHI1 3a npOTI1BOnpaBHoe .l\eHHKe, K01'Opoe HaCTynaeT B pe3YJIbTaTe oCYIlleCTBJIe- HI1H HaCeJIeHHeM H rocYl\apCTBeHHbIMH opraHaMH CPYHKl.\Hi1: KOHTpOJIH 11 Hal\- 30pa 3a l\eHTeJIbHOCTbIO MYHHl.\HnaJIbHblX opraHOB H l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII1l.\. 3a- KOHO.l\aTeJIbCTBO 3aKpenJIHeT np0l.\el\Ypy npl1MeHeHHH CaHKl.\HH B OTHOIlle- HI1I1 npaBoHapYIllI1TeJIei1: 96 . OCHOBY S1'Oi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (nepel\ HaCeJIe- HHeM) COCTaBJIHIOT HOpMbl KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOro npaBa, npel\ycMaTpI1BaIOLl.\He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB H l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ nepel\ HaCeJIeHHeM - OCHOB- HbIM Cy6'b€'KTOM BJIaCTeOTHoIlleHHi=i Ha Teppl1TOpHI1 MYHI1l.\l1naJIbHoro 06pa- 30BaHHH. «IIosToMY CaHKl.\HH npH peaJIH3al.\I1H l\aHHoro HHCTI1TYTa OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH nel\ HaCeJIeHl1eM HOCHT B OCHOBHOM KOHCTHTyl.\HOHHO-npaBoBoM xapaKTep»9 . ECJIH aBTopbI onpel\eJIHIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK npl1MeHeHl1e K npaBoHapYIllHTeJIIO caHKl.\I1H, TO nOCJIel\Hee YTBep>K.l\eHHe 3BY'lHT TaR: «caHKl.\HI1 npH peaJIH3al.\HH CaHKl.\Hi1:... HOCHT B OCHOBHOM KOHCTI1TYl.\HOHHO- npaBOBOM xapaKTep». IiIJII1 >Ke aBTopbl nOl\pa3YMeBaeT nOlI HHCTHTyrOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He'lTO .l\pyroe? B JII060M cJIY'lae OHI1 HenOCJIel\oBaTeJIbHbI. IIOXIDKYIO KapTHHY MO>KHO Ha6JIIOl\aTb npl1 paCCMoTpeHHH Bonpoca 0 BH- l\ax, cpopMax H Mepax OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB H l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII1l.\ MeCT- 0) HOro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. Hepel\KO TepMHHbl «BHl\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» opraHoB (\j 11 l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII1l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H 11 «cpOpMbI OTBeTCTBeHHOC- 
TH» HCnOJlb3YIOTCH RaR TO:1Kl\eCTBeHHble. B Ol\HHX CJI)"IaHX aBTOpbI HCnOJlb- 3yIOT OTpaCJIeBYIO RJIaccHqmRauHIO IOpHl\WlecRoi=i OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, OTO:1K- l\eCTBJlHH npH 3TOM nOHHTHH «BI1l\b[» H «cpOpMbl» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. Hanpl1- Mep, H.JI. IIewuH, paccY:1K.11aH 0 Cnel.\Hcpl1Re OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe.l\ HaCeJIeHl1eM, nl1!lleT: «OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe.l\ HaCeJIeHl1eM MYHHUHnaJIbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H - Cnel.\I1<pWleCRHM BI1.l\ OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH. Cnel.\l1cpHRa ee COCTOHT B TOM, '1TO OHa He MO:1KeT 6bITb OTHeceHa HI1 R Ol\HOMY 113 CYll\eCTBYIOWHX BI1l\OB IopHl\H'IeCROM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (yrOJIOB- HOM, al\MI1HHCTpaTI1BHoi=i, .l\I1Cl.\l1nJIHHapHoi=i, rpa:1Kl\aHCRo-npaBOBOM). He06- XOl\I1MO OTMeTI1Tb, '1TO TaRoro pOl\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He 06H3aTeJlbHO HacTy- naeT B pe3YJIbTaTe HenpaBOMepHbIX l\eMCTBHM opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHI1H I1JIH .l\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MeCTHO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. I1I1MeHHO 3TO OT- JII1'1aeT ee OT BbI!lleHa3BaHHbIX cpOpM» . B l\pyrHx CJIY'laHX nOlI BHl\aMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nOHHMaIOTCH ROH- RpeTHble MepbI npI1HY:1Kl\eHI1H (Hanpl1Mep, npeRpaweHHe nOJIHOMO'lHM op- raHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, B03MeweHI1e Bpel\a), '1TO, O'leBI1l\HO, He corJIacyeTcH C OTpaCJIeBOM CTPYRTYPOM npaBa 11 COOTBeTCTBYIOweM RJIaC- CHcpHRal.\HeM IOpVll\H'IeCROM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, a OTpaCJIeBble BI1l\bl OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTH paCCMaTpHBaIOTCH B Ra'leCTBe ee cpO pM. dIpl1MemlTeJIbHo R opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, - nl1!lleT H.JI. IIewuH, - MO:1KHO rOBO- pl1Tb TOJIbRO 0 TaROM cneuHcpl1'1eCROM BH.l\e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH nepel\ rocy- l\apCTBOM, RaR npeRpaweHl1e nOJIHOMO'lHM opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HHH. <popMaMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1l\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JII1l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHI1H nepel\ rocYl\apCTBoM HBJIHIOTCH yroJIOBHaH, al\MI1HHCTpaTI1BHaH 11 l\HCUHnJIHHapHaH oTBeTcTBeHHocTb»99. IiI l\aJlee: «... HenpaBoMepHble pe- !lleHHH, CBH3aHHble C <pI1HaHcOBbIMI1 BonpOCaMI1, BCerl\a BJIeRyr MaTepH- aJIbHbIM, cpl1HaHCOBbIM ywep6. IT03TOMY B03MeWeHI1e Bpe.l\a, npl1'1I1HeHHO- ro B npol.\ecce ocyweCTBJIeHI1H cpl1HaHCOBoM l\eHTeJIbHOCTH, HBJlHeTCH Ol\- HI1M H3 BHl\OB rpa:1KMHCRO-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH» 100. AHaJIOrH'IHble 3aHBJIeHI1H .l\eJIaIOT 11 aBTOpbI Y'le6HI1Ra nOlI pe.l\aRl.\Vlei=i A.M. HUKumuHa, YRa3bIBaH Ha TO, '1TO cpopMaMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 l\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepe.l\ roCYl\apCTBOM HBJlHIOTCH (RpOMe npo'lero) yrOJIOBHaH 11 al\MHHI1CTpaTI1BHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 101. «ITo OTHO- !lleHI1IO R opraHaM 11 Bbl60pHbIM l\OJI:1KHOCTHbIM JII1l.\aM MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHHH, - nH!llYT aBTopbl 3Toro Y'le6HHRa, - MO:1KHO roBOpl1Tb TOJIbRO 0 TaROM cnel.\Hcpl1'1eCROM BHl\e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, RaR npeRpaweHl1e nOJIHO- MO'lHM opraHa HJIH BbI6opHOro l\OJI:1KHOCTHOro JII1l.\a MecTHoro caMoynpaB- JI€HI1H... ITOpH.l\OR H YCJIOBVlH OTB€TCTB€HHOCTH nep€l\ HaC€JIeHI1€M onpel\€- JIHeTCH YCTaBOM MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHH, a cpopMa OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1 Ol\Ha: OT3bIB l\enYTaTa npel\CTaBI1TeJIbHOrO opraHa I1JII1 BbI60pHOro 10:[ l\OJI:1KHOCTHOro JII1l.\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H» . K.M. A..!ltUp6eK06, paCCMaTpl1BaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB I1l\OJI:1KHOCT- HbIX JII1U MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepel\ roCYl\apCTBOM B BHl\e l\OCpO'lHO- ro npeRpaweHHH I1X nOJIHOMO'lHM. Ha3bIBaeT €e MgOM IOpI1AH'IeCROM OTBeT- 0\ CTBeHHOCTl111 Ol\HOBpeMeHHO ee pa3HOBI1l\HOCTbIO . (\j 
HeKOTopbIe aBTOpbI B CBOHX HaY'IHbIX H3blCKaHHHX OTOm}J.eCTBJlHIOT Me- pbI (<p0PMbI, BH}J.bl) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H OCHOBaHHH HX npHMeHeHHH (HaCTyn- JleHHH). TaK, JI.A. Hyanen'KO '04 paCCMaTpHBaeT OT3bIB }J.enyraTa, BbI60pHOrO }J.OJlmHOcTHoro JlHI.\a MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH KaK KOHCTHTYl\HOHHbIM }J.e- JlHKT. Paccym}J.eHHH aBTOpa 0 ero COCTaBe npHBO}J.HT K BbIBO}J.y, '1TO pe'lb H}J.eT 0 }J.eJlHKTe - OCHOBaHHH OT3bIBa, a He 06 OT3bIBe KaK TaKOBOM. H.M. KOlI.ocoea B HeKoTopbIX CJlY'laHX nOHHTHe «COCTaB KOHCTHTYl\HOH- Horo npaBOHapYllleHJ1H» (cy6'beKTaMJ1 KOToporo, no ee MHeHHlO, HBJlHIOTCH J1 opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynJ;aBJleHJ1H) nO}J.MeHHeT nOHHTJ1eM «COCTaB IOpJ1}J.H'Ie- CKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1» ' . ECTecTBeHHo, B03HI1KaeT pe30HHblM Bonpoc 0 KOp- peKTHOCTH TaKJ1X <POPMYJlJ1pOBOK, nOCKOJlbKY OHH BeJJ.YT K nO}J.MeHe nOHHTJ1M. TaKoM «TeopeTJ1'1eCKHM 3aAeJl» npJ1Bo}J.J1T K 3Ha'lJ1TeJlbHOM HeonpeAe- JleHHOCTJ1 J1 B Bonpoce 0 KJlaccJ1q:mKal\J1J1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 opraHoB J1 }J.oJlm- HOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHJ1H. ,lIJlH Toro '1T06bI YBH3aTb OTpaCJle- Bble BJ1}J.bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHJ1H nepe}J. HaCeJleHJ1eM, HeKoTopbIe aBTopbI nOIllJlJ1 no nYTJ1 }J.eJlemm OTpaCJleBbIX BJ1}J.OB IOpJ1}J.J1'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 Ha nO}J.BJ1}J.bI. «B CT. 48 3aKOHa, - nJ1Il1YT aBTopbl yqe6HJ1Ka no MYHJ1l\J1naJlbHoMY npaBY no}J. pe}J.aK- l\J1eii H.C. Bonaap.R, - Bbl}J.eJleHa TaKme OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe}J. MeCTHblM HaCeJleHJ1eM - cnel\J1<pJ1'1eCKHM BI1,l.\ KOHCTJ1TYl\J10HHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1» '06. TaKoM no}J.xo}J. B HaCTOHll\ee BpeMH xapaKTepeH }J.JlH HaYKJ1 KOHCTJ1TYl\J10H- Hoe npaBO, B '1aCTHOCTJ1 .l\JlH J1CCJle.l\OBaHJ1M, nOCBHll\eHHblX KOHCTJ1TYl\J10H- Ho-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1. Bbl}J.eJlHH KOHCTJ1TYl\J10HHO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CI1CTeMe IOpH- }J.J1'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, O}J.HJ1 aBTopbI J1CXO.l\HT 113 Ha}J.OTpaCJleBOrO xa- ... 107 paKTepa 3T0l1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 , .l\pyrne - J13 TOro, '1TO OHa e}J.CTaBJlHeT c060ii cyry60 OTpacJleBoii BJ1A IOpJ1}J.J1'1ecKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 B. QAHaKo J1 Te J1 }J.pyme .l\J1cpcpepeHl\J1pYIOT KOHCTJ1Tyl\110HHO-npaBoBYIO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb Ha BH.l\bI (nO.l\BJ1.l\bl, pa3HOBJ1.l\HOCTJ1) no caMbIM pa3J1H'IHbIM OCHOBaHJ1- HM. Bo-nepBbIx, Kam}J.aH Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 paCCMaTpJ1BaeTCH KaK caMO- CTOHTeJlbHbIM BJ1.l\ KOHCTJ1TYl\HOHHO-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 (oTpellleHJ1e IIpe3J1}J.eHTa P4> OT }J.OJlmHOCTI1, OTCTaBKa IIpaBJ1TeJlbcTBa P4>, }J.OcpO'lHOe npeKpall\eHHe nOJlHOMO'lJ1M opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ1H J1 T.n.)'09; BO-BTOPbIX, BJ1}J.bl KOHCTJ1Tyl\110HHO-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 BbI}J.eJlHIOTCH B 3aBJ1CJ1MOCTJ1 OT OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6'beKTa (POCCJ1MCKOM 4>e}J.epal\J1J1 J1 cy6'beKTOB POCCJ1MCKOM 4>e.l\epal\J1J1; opraHoB rocY}J.apcTBeHHoM BJlaCTJ1 Poc- CJ1MCKOM 4>e.l\epal\J1J1, opraHoB rocY.l\apCTBeHHoM BJlaCTJ1 cy6'beKTOB POCCJ1H- CKOM 4>e}J.epal\J1J1, opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ1H) "0; B-TPeTbJ1X, BbI}J.e- JlHIOTCH TaKJ1e Bl1,l.\bI KOHCTJ1TYl\J10HHOii oTBeTcTBeHHOCTI1, KaK cpe}J.epaTl1BHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb J1JIJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CJ1CTeMe HapO.l\HOrO npe.l\CTaBJ1- TeJlbCTBa, napTJ1iiHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHoCTb, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B ccpepe BbI60pOB, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb cYAeii"'; B-'1eTBepTblx, BbweJlHIOTCH ABa ee BJ1Aa: BOCCTa- HOBJ1TeJlbHaH (3aIl\J1THaH) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 11 KapaTeJlbHaH (penpeCCJ1BHaH) KOHCTJ1TYl\J10HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb "2 J1 T.n. BbI}J.eJlHIOT TaKme '1pe3BbI'IaH- HbIe Bl1,l.\bI (cpOpMbI) KOHCTJ1Tyl\HOHHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1" 3 . o n 
TaKaJ'1 J\Hq,q,epeHl\Hal\HjI npeJ\CTaBnReTCR Man03q,q,eKTI1BHoti no J\BYM npwHlHaM: 1) B paMKax oTpacneBoro nOJ\xoJ\a K KnaCCI1q,I1Kal\HI1 IOpHJ\I1'1eCKOH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 aBTopbl nblTalOTCR «KOHCTpYl1pOBaTb» npOTI1BOpe'lal1e eMY cxeMbl, T.e. HapHJ\)' C oTpacneBbIMH BHJ\aMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH BbIJ\enHTb «BI1- J\bI» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII, KOTopbIe 06'beKTHBHO He MorYT 6bITb 060c06neHbI no O'I'paCneBOtl npI1HaJ\ne)!(HOCTI1; 2) OHa BeJ\eT K J\p06neHHIO OTpacneBbIX BHJ\OB IOpt[J\I1'1ecKOtl OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTII Ha nOJ\Bt[J\bI, pa3HOBt[J\HOCTII H, caMoe rnaBHoe, He 06'bHCHHeT, no KaKOMY OCHOBaHUIO np0I13BOJ\I1TCH TaKoe J\eneHl1e 11 B '1eM ero npaKTH'IeCKOe 3Ha'leHl1e. ABTOpbI yqe6HHKOB no MYHI1l\l1nanbHOMY npaBY nOJ\ peJ\aKl\l1etl H.C. BOlL- Bap.R 11 A.M. HU1<:umulLa C'IHTalOT. 'ITO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYIOHX opraHoB H J\on)!(HOCTHbIX nl1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHI1H nepeJ\ MeCTHblM Ha- CeneHl1eM 6 31ta 1 IUmMb1i0u. Jltepe HBnHeTCH KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-npaBOBOH, no- CKonbKY pe'lb l1J\eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H J\on)!(HOCTHbIX nHl\, KOTO- pbIM MeCTHoe co06ecTBo J\enempoBano CBOH nOnHOMO'll1H ,!\JIH perneHHH BO- npOCOB MecTHoro 3Ha'leHtIR tt4 . He COBceM nOHHTHa B J\aHHOM cnY'Iae oroBopKa aBTopoB 0 TOM, '1TO :ITa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb RBnHeTCH KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-npaBO- BOH B «3Ha'itITenbHOtl Mepe». TaKoe yrO'lHeHl1e n03BOnHeT npeJ\nonO)!(UTb, '1TO 3Ta OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B 3Ha'lHTenbHOti Mepe HBJIHeTCH KOHCTIITj'l\I'IOHHO- npaBOBOtl 11 B MeHbrnetl (HO J\Pyrotl) Mepe KaKOtl-nH60 ee. IIonaraeM, '11'0 Ha- Y'IHaH KJIaCCHq,I1Kal\HR npeJ\nonaraeT '1eTKOe pa3rpaHH'IeHl1e HBJIeHI1H Ha BH- J\bI, TIlnbI, <pOpMbI 1.1 T.n. EJ\Ba nl1 MO)!(HO COrnaCI1TbCH C Te3HCOM 0 TOM, '1TO, Ha- npHMep, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BHHOBHOro B COBeprneH1111 npeCTYI1JIeHHH HBnHeTCH B «3Ha'lHTenbHOtl Mepe» yronoBHo-npaBOBOH. II03TOMY npH onpeJ\eneHHI1 BI1- J\OBOH npt!Ha,!\JIe)!(HOCTI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepeJ\ HaceneHHeM Hj')!(Ha nonHaH onpeJ\eneHHoCTb. RpoMe Toro, TPY.I\HO COrnaCI1TbCH C t[J\eetl J\p06JIeHI1H OTpac- neBbIX BI1)\OB IOpl1J\I1'1eCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha nOJ\BI1J\bI, T.e. BbIJ\eneHHH «cnel\Hq,I1'1eCKoro» BHJ\a KOHCTI1TYl!110HHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, TeM 60nee 'ITO HeHCHO, no KaKoMY OCHOBaHHIO npoH3BOJ\I1TCH TaKoe J\eneHHe. J13nO)!(eHHOe, HarnHJ\HO HnnlOc'I'pHpyeT ypoBeHb H CTeneHb HaY'IHoj1 pa3- pa60TaHHOCTI1 <!JYHJ\aMeHTanbHbIx nOHH'mtl IOpl1J\H'IeCKOtl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B MYHI1l\HnanbHo-npaBoBoH HaYKe, 'ITO, B CBOIO O'iepeJ\b, n03BonHeT KOHCTa- TIlpOBaTb KpatlHe HI13KI1tl ypoBeHb pa3BHTIIH OTpacneBOtl TeopHH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH, paBHO KaK 11 OTcyrcTBl1e CTpororo, COOTBeTCTBYIOero nOHHTHt!HO- KaTeropHanbHoro annapaTa. HeJIb3R He BbIpa311Tb 03a60'leHHOCTb 11 06I1M COCTOHHHeM TeOpHl1lOpt[J\H'IeCKOtl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B o'I'paCJIeBbIX HaYKax, B '1aCTHOCTI'! KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-npaBOBOtl, aJ\MuHHcTpaTHBHo-npaBOBOtl H rpa)!(J\aHCKo-npaBoBoj1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. AHaJIOm'lHOe nOJIO)!(eHl1e Ha6JIIO- J\aeTCR 11 B 3TI1X oTpacnRx HaY'IHoro 3HaHI1H. OJ\HaKO MbI He CTaBHM l\eJIblO nOtlMaTb TOro unl1 I1HOro aBTopa Ha cnOBe 11 HenpeMeHHO ynpeKHYTb ero B 3TOM. RpOMe TOro, 6bIJIO 6bI HeCnpaBe,!\JIHBO npHHH)!(aTb BKJIaJ\ npOl\tITl1pO- BaHHbIX BblUle aBTopOB B pa3BI1TI1e MYHI1l\l1nanbHO-npaBOBOH HaYKH TonbKO Ha TOM OCHOBaHI1H, '1TO OHH B CBOHX paCCY)!(J\eHI1RX J\onYCKaIOT HeKOTopbIe HeTO'lHOCTH. O'leBHJ\HO, TOMY eCTb 06'beKTHBHbIe npH'II1HbI, cpeJ\H KOTOpbIX H - rr\ 
MHorooopa3He TeOpeTWleCKHX KOHl!em-ll1ti IOpt!,l\WlecKoti OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. H HeCTaOHJlbHOCTb 3aKOHO,!\aTeJlbCTBa, H rrpOTI!BOpe'lI1BOCTb OOll.\eCTBeHHoti rrpaKTHKoi1 OpraHl13al!1111 MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H. 11 MHOroe '!\Pyroe. B 113Y- '1eHHI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB H ,!\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHl! MecTHoro caMoyrrpaB- JleHI1H HCCJle,!\OBaTeJlHM rrpe,!\CTOHT, O'leBI1,!\HO, rrpO,!\eJlaTb rrYTb OT HeKpI1TI1- '1eCKOrO 3aHMCTBOBaHI1H 11 OOOOll.\eHHH BbIBO,!\OB OOll.\ei1 TeOpHH rrpaBa 11 OT- paCJleBbIX HaYK K COOCTBeHHOMY TeOpeTI1KO-rrpaBOBOMY I1CCJle,!\OBaHI1IO, Ha- rrpaBJleHHOMY rrpem,!\e Bcero Ha paCKpblTHe CYIl.\HOCTI1 I1CCJle,!\)'eMoro HBJle- HHH B COOTBeTCTBI1H C COOCTBeHHbIMH OTpaCJleBbIMI1 l!eJlHMI1 H 3a,!\a'laMH. TIO,!\BO,!\H HTOr BbIWeI13J10meHHOMY, MOmHO C,!\eJlaTb BbIBO,!\. '1TO rrpOl!eCC q,OpMl1pOBaHI1H TeOpl1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B MYHI1l!t!I1aJlbHO-rrpaBOBOfl HaYKe XapaKTepH3yeTcH CJle,!\)'IOIl!HMH OCOOeHHOCTHMH. rr03BOJlHIOIl!HMH rOBOptITb o HaJll1'1HI1 OnpeBeAe1i1ibtX me1iBe1i1.fuii. 1. TI pOl!ecc 3TOT rrOKa HOCI1T «CTI1Xl1fIHbli1 xa paKTep", rrOCKOJlbKY MaJlO KTO 113 aBTopOB CTaBtIT rrepe,!\ coooii: 3a,!\a'lY TeOpeTl1'1eCKOfl pa3paooTKI1 01'- paCJleBOI! Teopm.! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. PaccMaTpHBaH BorrpocbI OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH opraHOB 11 ,!\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l! MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H, rrpe,!\CTaBI1Te- JlI1 MYHI1l!HrraJlbHO-rrpaBoBoi1 HaYKI1, KaK rrpaBHno, paCCMaTpHBalOT OT,!\eJlb- Hble rrpOOJleMbI rrpaBOBoro perynl1poBaHl1H H rrpaBorrpHMeHtITeJlbHoi1 rrpaK- TI1KH. TaKHM oopa30M, OCTaeTCH oe3 ,!\onmHoro BHHMaHHH aHanH3 ,!\aHHoro rrpaBoBoro HBJleHI1H Ha OOll.\eTeOpeTl1'1eCKOM ypoBHe. 2. B Y'leoHofl 11 HaY'lHofl nl1TepaType rro MYHHl!HrranbHOM)' rrpaBY rrpo- oneMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH paCCMaTpHBaeTCH HCKnlO'II'lTenbHO B KOHTeKCTe OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII opraHOB H ,!\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHl! MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H, '1TO OO'beKTI1BHO ooycnoBneHO pa3BI1TI1eM 3aKOHo,!\aTenbCTBa. 3. TIpOHCXO,!\HT MeXaHl1'1eCKOe 3al1MCTBOBaHI1e rrOHHTI1ii: H rrepeHOC ,!\eq,I1- HHl!l1fl oOIl!efl TeopHH rrpaBa 11 OTpacneBbIX IOpH,!\H'IeCKHX HaYK Ha cq,epy ,!\ei1cTBI1H MYHI1l!l1rranbHoro rrpaBa. 4. TIpl1 pa3paooTKe TeOpeTl1'1eCKHX rr03Hl!Hfl aBTOpbl '1eprralOT aprYMeH- TbI B ,!\eflcTBYlOll.\eM 3aKoHo,!\aTenbcTBe, KOTopoe B HaCTOHll.\ee BpeMH BeCbMa HeCTaOt!JIbHO 11 ,!\aJleKO OT cOBepweHcTBa. 5. TIpaKTl1'1eCKI1 HI1 O,!\HO I1CCJle,!\OBaHl1e He OTnH'IaeTCH <!JYH,!\aMeHTaJlb- HOCTblO. ABTOpbl, rrpl1HHMaH 3a OCHOBY TY 11JIH I1HYIO ,!\eq,I1HI1l!I1IO, B rrocne- ,!\YIOIl.\I1X paccym,!\eHI1HX ee He rrpl1.!\epml1BalOTCH, ,!\OCTaTO'lHO BonbHO oopa- ll.\aHCb co CTpOmMI1 IOpl1,!\I1'1ecKI1MI1 TepMI1HaMI1, '1TO ,!\enaeT I1X paccym,!\e- HI1H Kpai1He Herrocne,!\OBaTenbHbIMI1, nOrH'IeCKI1 He BbI,!\epmaHHbIMI1. Q'!eBI1,!\HO, '!TO,!\JIH rrpO,!\BHmeHHH Brrepe,!\ B rroC'rpoeHHI1 TeopHH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ,!\OJlmHOCTHbIX nl1l! MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHtIH I.!JII.! B l!eJlOM OTpaCJleBoi1 Teopl1l1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII B MYHI1l!l1rranbHo-rrpaBoBoi1 Ha- YKe BamHoe 3Ha'leHHe HMeeT peIl!eHHe MeTO,!\OJlOm'leCKHX BorrpocoB. He cne,!\)'eT 3aobIBaTb 0 TOM, '1TO TeOpl1H - 3TO pa3BHToe, KOHKpeTH3HpOBaHHoe, pa3BeTBJleHHOe rrOHHTHe CYIl!HOCTII rrpe,!\MeTa. TIpH'IeM 3Ta Cl1CTeMa rrOHH- Tm! I1MeHHO Tor,!\a rrpe,!\CTaBJlHeT cooof! TeOpl1lO, Kor,!\a MomeT OblTb I1HTep- N rrpeTIlpOBaHa KaK O,!\HO (pa3BHToe) rrOHHTl1e CYIl.\HOCTH rrpe,!\MeTa 115. Orrpe- rr\ ,!\entITb rrOHHTHe 03Ha'iaeT pa3BI1Tb ero, BKJIIO'IHTb B Y3nOBYlO nHHHIO rrOHH- 
Tl1tiHbIX npeBpall.\eHtdl. a J\aJlee onpeJ\eJlHTb ero 'Iepe3 «MeCTO" B CHCTeMe nOHHTl1ti, B TeOpeTII'IeCKOI! CTpYKType 116 . EyJ\Y'IH BKJllO'IeHHbIMI1 B Teope- Tl1'1eCKYIO CI1CTeMY, nOHHTI1H, KaK 11 HaY'lHbie 3aKOHbl, npl1Hl..\l1nbI, oopa3YlOT CBoero pOJ\a l1epapXHH. COJ\ep>KaHl1e nOHHTHH 11 ero MeCTO B CHCTeMe nOHH- THti onpeJ\eJleHO ero «TeOpeTtI'leCKI1M OKpY>KeHl1eM", ero CBH3blO C J\pyrHMH nOHHTI1HMI1, npeJ\CTaBJleHI1HMH 117.l\eHTpaJlbHOe MeCTO B TaKoi'x CI1CTeMe 3a- HI1MaeT nOHHTHe IOPHJ\J11'lecKOi'x OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1I..\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, n03TOMY CJleJ\yeT OTJ\eJlbHO OCTaHOBJ1TbCH Ha npOOJleMe nOHHTHH H CYll.\HOCTH IOpl1J\H'IeCKoti OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHI..\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. 1.3. nOHn1E 1-1 CYLl.\HOCTb IOPI-1AW.jECKO OTBETCTBEHHOCTI-1 OprAHOB 1-1 AOJl}KHOCTHbIX JlI-1l..\ MECTHOro CAMOYnPABJlEHI-1 B onpeJ\eJleHHI1 nOHHTHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTtI opraHOB 11 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1I..\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH B COOTBeTCTBl111 C l..\eJlblO HaCTOHll.\erO I1CCJleJ\OBa- HHH MbI HCXOJ\I'IM H3 HeOOXOJ\I1MOCTJ.I perneHI1H J\BYX OCHOBHbIX 3aJ\a'l. JIepeaJ! 3aaa<w COCTOI1T B TOM, 'ITOObl npaBHJlbHO onpeJ\eJlI1Tb npeJ\eJlbI npeJ\MeTa HC- CJleJ\OBaHHH, BKJIIO'IHTb B Hero Bce HeOOXOJ\HMbIe 3J1eMeHTbI, COCTaBJlHIOll.\l1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H J\OJD!(HOCTHbIX JlI1I..\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH KaK npaBOBoe HBJlemie H B TO >Ke BpeMH He paClimpHTb ero npeJ\eJlbl, OXBaTbIBaH CMe>KHbIe 11JI11 BHeUlHe nOXO>Kl1e HBJleHI1H npaBOBOH J\ei'xcTBJ1TeJlbHOCTI1. Bmo- pllJ! 3aaa'la 3aKJIIO'IaeTCH B TOM, 'ITOObI TaKoe nOHHTtle MOrJIO OblTb pa3BepHY- TO B CHCTeMY nOHHTHI\ npeJ\CTaBJlHIOll.\YIO COOOH pa3BtlTOe, KOHKpeTII3HpOBaH- Hoe, pa3BeTBJleHHOe nOHHTl1e CYIl.\HOCTtI npeJ\MeTa, H OTpa>KaJlO ero CBH3b C J\pymMI1 nOHHTI1HMI1 H npeJ\CTaBJleHI1HMI1, oopa3YIOll.\J.lMJ.I J\aHHYIO CI1CTeMY. OnpeJ\eJlHH TaKoe nOHHTtle, MbI J\OJDKHbI )"II1TbIBaTb ocooeHHOCTH c<I)epbI CO- I..\HaJlbHbIX OTHornemlM, B KOTOpOJ.i BbInOJlHHIOT cooJ.l COl\l1aJlbHO 3Ha'lHMbIe pOJm opraHbI H 1l0Jl>KHOCTHble JmUa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJlem1H. TeOpeTII'IeCKOe 0606- ll.\eHl1e pa3JJJ11.IHbIX 'IepT H 3JJeMeHTOB 3Toro HBJlemlH He J\OJl>KHO 3aCJlOHHTb ero OTpaCJleBblX ocooeHHOCTefL BMeCTe C TeM nOHHTHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB H J\OJ1>KHOCTHbIX JlI11..\ MeCTHOro caMoynpaBJleHJ.lH J\OJI>KHO l1MeTb Me>KOTpaCJIeBOe 3Ha'leHl1e, nOCKOJIbKY cOBoKynHocTb npaBOBblX HOpM, peryJll1pYIOll.\I1X COOTBeT- CTBYIOll.\He OTHorneHHH, npeJ\CTaBJIHeT cooofl KOMnJIeKCHbIHI1HCTl1Tyr, B KOTO- pOM no npeJ\MeTHOMY npl13HaKy oO"beJ\I'IHeHbI pa3HooOpa3HbIe no CBoef! npHpOJ\e npaBOBble HOpMbI. B ero OCHOBe Jle>KaT HOpMbI KOHCTI1TYl\llOHHOro, allmHJ.lCTPa- v 118 TI1BHOro, MYHl1l..\l1naJlbHoro, rpa>KJ\aHcKoro 11 J\pymx OTpac.nel1 npaBa HaKOHel..\, COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\aH J\eq,I1HJ.lI..\HH J\OJl>KHa OTBe'laTb nOTpeOHoc- THM npaKTHKI1 H HMeTb He TOJIbKO TeOpeTI1'1eCKOe, HO H npl1KJ1aJ\Hoe 3Ha'leHI1e (Hanpl1Mep, 'ITOObl TaKoe nOHHTl1e npaBI1J1bHO Opl1eHTl1pOBaJlO 3aKOHOJ\aTeJlH, aJ\eKBaTHO OTpa>KaJlO npeJ\MeT npaBoBoro peryJlHpOBaHHH H OXBaTbIBaJlO BeCb cneKTp OOll.\eCTBeHHbIX OTHOrneHl1fl, CBH3aHHbiX C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO op- rr\ rr\ 
raHOB H J\OJJ)!(HOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJUI, KOTOpbIe, C O,!\HOM CTOpOHbI, OO'beKTIIBHO MOrYT ObITb yperYJIHpOBaHbI npaBOM, C ,!\pyroti - Tpe- OylOT TaKOrO peryJIHpOBaHHH). .D:JIH peWeHI1H nOCTaBJIeHHbIX 3a,!\a'l npeJ\CTaBJIHeTCH npOJ\YKTIIBHbIM HC- nOJIb30BaTb CYIl.\eCTBYIOIl.\HM n0311THBHbIM OnbIT onpe,!\eJIeHI1H nOHHTI1H OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII OpraHOB H J\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH H <!JOpMl1pOBaHI1H COOTBeTCTBYIOIl.\I1X ,!\eqJJ1HI1I.\J1I1 B MYHHl.\l1naJIbHO-npaBOBOM HaYKe. OOOOIl.\eHl1e CYIl.\eCTBeHHbIX 'IepT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 J\OJI)!(- HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, nOJIO)!(eHHbIX B OCHOBY pa3JII1'1- HbIX J\e<!mHI1I.\I1H, I1X KOppeJIHl.\l1H C npe,!\CTaBJIeHI1HMI1 aBTOpa HaCTOHIl.\erO HCCJIeJ\OBaHI1H 0 paCCMaTpl1BaeMOM HBJIeHl111 n03BOJII1T onpeJ\eJIHTb co,!\ep- )!(aHl1e COOTBeTCTBYIOIl.\erO nOHHTI1H. IIpeJ\cTaBtITeJIH MYHl1l.\tmaJIbHO-npaBOBOJ1 HaYKI1 nOHI1MalOT OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb OpraHOB 11 ,!\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H Heo,!\H03Ha'l- HO. CJIeJ\CTBl1eM ,!\I1CKYCCI10HHOCTI1 npOOJIeMbI nOHI1MaHI1H IOpl1,!\I1'1ecKofi OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII B 06Il.\efi TeOptlH npaBa 11 OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpH,!\H'IeCKI1X HaYKaX HBHJIaCb HeO,!\H03Ha'iHaH TpaKTOBKa B yqeoHoi1 11 HaY'lHOM JII1Teparype OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB H ,!\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH. Pa3- JIH'IHbIe KOHl.\enl.\l1l1lOpt!,I\I1'1ecKoti OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH HalllJII1 CBoe OTpa)!(eHl1e B onpe,!\eJIeHHHX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,!\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JIJ.JI.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH. CYIl.\eCTBYIOIl.\l1e TO'lKI1 3peHI1H no ,!\aHHOMY Bonpocy MO)!(- HO rpynnl1poBaTb aHaJIOnI'IHbIM oopa30M, KaK 3TO CJ\eJIaHO B oOIl.\efl TeopHH npaBa. Pe'lb HJ\eT 0 KOHl.\enl.\HHX lllJ1pOKOrO, J\ByxacneKTHoro, nOHIlMaHI1H IOpl1,!\H'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII H KOHl.\enl.\l1HX Y3Koro ee nOHI1MaHI1H. IIepBaH nonbITKa ,!\aTb onpeJ\eJIeHl1e nOHHTl1fl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H J\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H ObIJIa npeJ\npl1HHTa 8.11. CPao€€- /!b/JIt B O,!\HOM H3 nepBbIX yqeoHHKoB no MYHl1l.\JmaJIbHOMY npaBY POCCJ1H 119 . OH onpeJ\eJJ.HeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 J\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHI1H KaK 1-l€6./!azonplUlm1ib!€ npa6061J!€ noc./!€OCm61.U! 3a npU1-lJ!mb!€ U,MU npomU6onfca61ib!€ p€UU?I!1.U!, 1i€'llaiJJl€JiCaUl€€ oCYUI€CmM€1iU€ C60UX 3aoa'l U tfiY1!1C1.j-uil 1 0. 3Ta TO'lKa 3pemIH ObIJIa nO,lJJJ;ep»<aHa J\PYrHMI1 aBTOpaMH 121 11 Ha KaKoe-TO BpeMH CTaJia J\OMI1Hl1pYIOIl.\eH B TeOp1111 MYHl1l.\ImaJIbHoro npaBa. B J\aHHOM onpe,!\eJIeHHI1 aBTOp HCXO,!\HT 113 TaK Ha3bIBaeMoro Y3KOro (Hera- THBHOro) nOHHMaHHH IOpI1)\H'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII H He TOJIbKO CBH3blBaeT, HO 11 npaKTI1'1eCKI1 OTQ)!(J\eCTBJIHeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb C HroJiarOnpl1HTHblMI1 J\JIH opraHOB I1JUI ,!\OJJ)l{HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nOCJIe,!\CTBH- HMtL PaCCMa'I'pt!BaeMOe onpe,!\eJIeHHe n03BOJIHeT OTHeCTH K CYIl.\eCTBeHHbIM 'IepTaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,!\OJI)!(HOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHI1H HeOJIaronpl1HTHble npaBOBbIe nOCJIeJ\CTBI1H H cnel.\l1<!JJ1'1eCKl1e OCHOBa- HHH HX HacryI1JIeHI1H, KOTopbIe BKJIIO'IaIOT B ceOH He TOJIbKO npaBOHa pyweHI1H, HO H npaBOBoe nOBe.l\eHHe, KOTOpoe 06'beKTI1BHo He MO)!(eT ObITb KBaJIH<pHI.\H- pOBaHO KaK npaBoHapyweHl1e I1JIH ,!\a)!(e KaK OO'beKTI1BHO npOTI!BOnpaBHoe J\e- HHl1e, O,!\HaKO B COOTBeTCTBJ1H C 3aKOHOM (YCTaBOM) MO)!(eT nOpO)!(J\aTb HroJIa-  ronpHHTHbIe npaBOBbIe nOCJIe,!\CTBI1H ,!\JIH COOTBeTCTByIOIl.\I1X opraHOB H ,!\OJI)!(- rr\ HOCTHblX JII1I.\. Pe'lb HJ\eT npe)!(J\e Bcero 0 nOBeJ\eHI1I1 (J\eHTeJIbHOCTII) no pea- 
nH3a,-\l1vt OpraHaMvt H ,!\OJl)!(HOCTHbIMH nvt,-\aMH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHR COO- CTBeHHOI1 KOMmTeH,-\HI'1 B perneHHH BOnpOCOB MecTHoro 3HaqeHI1H. TaKaH ,!\eH- T€J1bHOCTb MO)!(eT OCYll.\eCTBnRTbCH npl1 cpOpMaJlbHOM c06nlO,!\eHHI1 npaBOBbIX HOpM, O,!\HaKO BOnpeKvt OOll.\I1M npl1H'-\vtnaM B3avtMOOTHOrneHI1ti Me)!(,!\y HaCene- HHeM H COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\vtM OpraHOM (,!\OJl)!(HOCTHbIM nH,-\OM), O)!(I1,!\aHHHM Ha- CeneHI1H, ero vtHTepeCaM, Tpa,!\I1W1RM H T.n., qTO Be,!\eT K YTpaTe OpraHaMvt vtnH ,!\OJl)!(HOCTHbIMvt nvt,-\aMH MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1R ,!\OBepvtH HaCeneHI1H. B paCCMaTpvtBaeMOM onpe,!\eneHvtvt B OOOOll.\eHHOM BH,!\e TaKOe nOBe,!\eHHe cpOp- MYJlHPYeTCH KaK HeHa.l\Jle:mall.\ee OCYll.\eCTBJleHHe CBOHX 3a,!\aq vt CPYHK'-\Hii Cne,!lyeT nOHvtMaTb, qTO CaMvt HeonaronpHfITHbIe npaBOBble nOCJle,!\CTBvtfI, KOTOpbIe B COOTBeTCTBHvt C 3aKOHO,!\aTenbCTBOM (YCTaBOM) MOrYT HacTynaTb .l\JIH OpraHOB HJlH .l\OJl)!(HOCTHbIX nH,-\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH. HeO,!\HOpO,!\- HbI. TaKOBbIMH MOrYT ObITb, HanpHMep, pOCnYCK BbIOOpHOro npe,!\CTaBHTenb- HOro OpraHa MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHl1e, OT3blB vtJlH OTperneHl1e OT .llOn)!(HOC- TI1 Bbl60pHoro ,!\OJI)J{HOCTHOro J1vt,-\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHvtH, a TalOKe npe- ,!Iynpe)!(,!\eHvte 0 B03MO)!(HOCTvt pocnYCKa, OTperneHvtH OT ,!\OJl)!(HOCTI1. B nep- BOM cnyqae peqb l1,!\eT 0 Mepe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt, BO BTOpOM - 0 Mepe 3all.\l1TbI. 11 Ta H ,!\pyraH npe,!\CTaBJlfIIOT coooC! onpe.lleneHHbIe He6naronpHRTHbIe no- Cne.llCTBHH ,!\J1H opraHa Hnvt ,!\OJl)!(HOCTHOro nvt,-\a MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHvtR, HO HMelOT pa3J1HqHYIO npaBoBYIO npHpO.llY vt npe.llHa3HaqeHHe. PaCCMaTpI1Ba- eMoe onpe.lleJleHvte nOHfITHfI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt opraHOB 11 .llOJl)!(HOCTHbIX nH,-\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHl1fI CTIlpaeT rpaHb Me)!(,!\j' HvtMH. TaKoti no.llXo,!\ MO- )!(eT npHBecTvt K BKJIlOqeH111O B ooneM nOHRTI1H 3neMeHTOB, He CBOIICTBeHHbIX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 .llOJl)!(HOCTHbIX J1H,-\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHl1fI, qero MbI B .llaHHOM cnyqae, KaK OblJIO 3aRBJleHO BbIrne, nblTaeMCfI vt30e)!(aTb. TI03TOMY, Ha Harn B3fnfI,!\, B 3TOti qaCTvt paCCMaTpvtBaeMoe onpe.lleJleHvte HY)!(- .llaeTCH B yroqHeHHH, a no.l\ HeOJlaronpHHTHbIMH npaBOBbIMH nOCJle.llCTBI1HMH .llOn)!(Hbl nOHvtMaTbCfI TOJlbKO MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. R)pvt,!\vtqeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BOOOll.\e vt OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 .ll0Jl)!(HOCTHbIX 3111,-\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIemIH B qaCTHOCTI1 npe,!\CTaBJIHeT CO- OoC! COBOKynHOCTb 11 e.llvtHCTBO «cpe,!\CTB» H «TeXHoJlorvtfl». B paCCMaTpHBaeMOM onpe.llenemm aK,-\eHT C.lleJIaH Ha «cpe,!\CTBax». TaKofl no.llXo,!\ Opl1eHTJ1pyeT I1C- Cne.llOBaTenfI Ha vt3yqeHI1e He6J1arOnpvtRTHbIX npaBOBbIX nOCJle.llCTBI1H, OCTaB- nHH sa npe,!\eJlaMI'1 npe,!\Me'!'a HCCJle,!\OBaHvtH «TeXHOJIOrl1lO» HX HaCTynneHHH (npI1MeHeHvtR). B TO)!(e BpeMH npaKTI1Ka 3aKOHO,!\aT€J1bHoro perynHpOBaHvtH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H .llOJl)!(HOCTHbIX nH,-\ MecTHOro caMoynpaBJleHHH, HOp- MOTBOpqeCTBO Myml,-\vtnanbHbIX oopa30BaHI1C! CBJ.!,!\eTenbCTBYIOT 0 TOM, qTO HH- CTl1ryT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3THX cy""KTOB OO"be,!\J.!HHeT B ceDe 3Ha'HITeJlbHOe KO- J1l1qecTBO npo,-\eccyanbHblX HOpM ,OT KOTOpbIX 3aBvtCHT npaKTIIqecKoe ocy- ll.\eCTBJleHHe vt HeoTBpaTvtMOCTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. 11CKJIlOqeHHe HX 113 npe.llMe- Ta Hccne,!\OBaHI1H He n03BOJlvtT HaM CcpOpMHpOBaTb nOJIHoro, 06'beKTvtBHOro npe.llCTaBJleHvtfI 0 paCCMaTpvtBaeMOM npaBOBOM HBJleHI1I1. COOTBeTCTBeHHO H 38.- KOHo,!\aTenb npvt '!'aKOM nO'!\XO.lle MomeT ObITb COpl1eHTvtpOBaH Ha 3aKpenneHvte B 3aKOHe, npe)!(,!\e Bcero vt rJIaBHbIM oopa30M. He6J1arOnpHRTHbIX npaBOBbIX no- In cne,!\CTBl1fl H OCHOBam!l1 vtx HacTynneHvtH (npHMeHemIH), OCTaBJIHH BHe npe,!\e- rr\ 
JlOB rrpaBoBoro peryJlHpOBaHHH «TeXHOJlOmlO rrpHH)'IK)1eHHH» 12a. C 3TOi1 TO'lKI1 3peHI1H MbI He MOlKeM BOCrrpl1HHTb paCCMaTpHBaeMbIti rrO)1XO)1 6e30rOBOpO'lHO, rrOCKOJlbKY B )1aHHOM CJlyqae He Y)1aCTCH Bbl)1eplKaTb TY YCTaHOBKY, KOTOpylO MbI rrptlHHJIH 3a OCHOBY, rrpl1CTyrraH K perneHtl10 3a)1a'Hl orrpe)1eJleHHH rrOHHTI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H )10JlIKHOCTHbIX JlHI..\ MecTHOro caMoyrrpaBJleHtIH. OTMeTI1M TaKlKe, '1TO, q,OpMI1PYH rrOHHTHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 )10JlIKHOCTHbIX JlHI..\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHHH, B )1eq,I1HI1I..\I1I-I MbI He )10JlIK- HbI OrpaHH'IHBaTb OCHOBaHHH HacTyrrJleHHH He6J1arOrrpHHTHbIX rrpaBOBblX rrOCJle)1CTBI1M TOJlbKO rrpOTI1BOrrpaBHblMI1 perneHI1HMI1 opraHOB H )10JlIKHOCT- HblX JlI1I..\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H H HeHa)1J1elKall.\HM OCYll.\eCTBJleHHeM CBOHX 3a)1a'l H q,YHKI..\I1M. 8TO He COfJIacyeTcH C )1efICTBYIOll.\I1M 3aKOH0)1a- TeJlbCTBOM 11 CYll.\eCTBYIOll.\efl rrpaBOrrpl1MeHI1TeJlbHOfl (B TOM '1HCJle 11 cY)1e6- Hofl) rrpaKTI1Kok OpraHbl H )10JlIKHOCTHble Jll1l..\a MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH rrOTeHl..\l1aJlbHO H q,aKTI1'1eCKI1 HeCYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ell.\e H 3a rrpOTHBO- rrpaBHble )1eMCTBHH (6e3)1efICTBHe), H )1J1H HI1X MorYT HacTyrraTb He6J1arOrrpl1- HTHble rrpaBOBble rrOCJle)1CTBHH rrpH HaJlH'II1H TaKHX OCHOBaHI1M. K paCCMaTpHBaeMofl rr03111..\HI1 6J1113KH B3rJlH)1bI H.B. IIocmoeo2o, KOTOpbIM )1aeT orrpe)1eJleHHe OTBe1'CTBeHHOCTII B MYHHl..\l1rraJlbHOM rrpaBe 6e3OTHOCH- TeJlbHO K cy6'beKTaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. OH orrpe)1eJlHeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MYHl1l..\l1rraJlbHOM rrpaBe KaK HucmYWleltue He6.QQ2onplUlmHbIX nOCJteBcm6UU, '/wmopbU! npUl\IeI/Jl.JOmcJ! 'K cy6'beKmaM JltYHU1tunaJtb'/tbtX npueoom'/!01UeHUU, He ucnOJtJiJ!'/OUflUll WlU JieJtuBJte:JICuup.I..M 06pU3o.M ucnO.l!1-lJ!'/OUfu'M ceou o6J!- 3uHHocmu no OmJi01UeJtU'/O 'K Opy2'I.I..M y<wcmHU'KUJlI npueoomJi01UeHuu I24 . C 3TOj:'1 TO'lKH 3peHI1H OH H HeKOTopble .l\pyme aBTOpbl 125 paCCMaTpHBaIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOC'I'b opraHOB 11 )10JPKHOCTHbIX JlI1I..\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H. B )1aHHOM cJlY'lae aKl..\eHT C)1eJlaH He rrpOCTO Ha He6J1arorrpHHTHbIX rrOCJle.l\CTBH- SIX, a Ha I1X q,aKTI1'1eCKOM HacTyrrJleHI1H. <!JaKTI1'1eCKOM HX rrpeTeprreBaHI1I1, '1TO TalOKe HBJlHeTCH cYll.\eCTBeHHoi1 '1epToi1 (rrpH3HaKOM) IOptl)111'1ecKoj1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII Boo6ll.\e H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH paCCMaTpHBaeMbIX cy6'beKTOB B '1aCTHOCTI1. B TO lKe BpeMSI B rrpHBe)1eHHOM orrpe.l\eJleHHI1 rrpe)1CTaBJlHeT HHTe- pec q,OPMYJlHpOBaHHe OCHOBaHI1j:'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I. ABTOp orrpe)1eJlHeT J.lX KaK Hel1crrOJlHeHJ.le I1J1H HeHa,!\JIelKall.\ee HCrrOJlHeHHe opraHaMI1 J.I )10Jl>KHOCT- HblMI1 Jll1l..\aMI1 MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHHSI CBOI1X 06H3aHHOCTefi rro OTHorne- HHIO K )1pymM yqacTHHKaM rrpaBOOTHOrneHHj:'I. TaKaH q,OPMYJlJ.lpOBKa rr03BO- JlfIeT OXBaTI1Tb rrpOTI1BOrrpaBHbie )1eMCTBI1H (6e3)1efICTBJ.le) J.I perneHJ.lfI opraHOB 11 .l\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1I..\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H, HeHa,!\JIelKall.\ee oCYll.\eCTB- JleHHe I1MJ.I CBOHX 3a)1a'l H q,YHKI..\I1j:'I, rrOCKOJlbKY C06J1IO)1eHHe 3aKOHHOCTH B CBoeM )1eHTeJlbHOCTI1, HeHa,!\JIe>Kall.\ee OCYll.\eCTBJleHl1e CBOI1X 3a)1a'l 11 q,YHK- 1..\11i1 rrpe)1CTaBJlHIOT C060MlOpH)1I1'1eCKHe 06H3aHHOCTH, B03JIOlKeHHble Ha )1aH- HblX cy6'beKTOB B clmy 3aKOHa (YCTaBa MYHl1l..\HnaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H). B rrpouecce HaY'lHoro OCMblCJleHI1H HHCTI1TyrOB MYHl1ul1naJlbHoro rrpaBa, H B '1aCTHOCTH I1HCTIITYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, BblCKa3bIBaJlHCb H )1pyrHe cY>K- )1eHl1fI rro rrOBO)1Y CO)1eplKaHI1S1 rrOHfITHSI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB 11 )10Jl>K- HOCTHbIX JlHI..\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H. TaK, H.JI. IIewuH paccMaTpt!BaeT \0 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB H )1OJ1IKHOCTHbIX JlHI..\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHHSI rr\ '/WK npUJ!teJieHUe K coomeemcmey'lO'Ufeflty Op2UHy WlUJtU1ty, coeep1Uue1UeJlIY 
npae01iapywe1iue, npeMiMOmpe1i1ibIX 3a1C01iOM Jltep npU1iY:JICBeHUJI} yc- ma1i06.l!ell1iOJlt nOpJlB1Ce . STY TO'my 3peHI1H pa3,l\enHIOT aBTOpbI Y'leOHI1Ka no MYHl1l..\l1nanbHOMY npaBY no,l\ pe,l\aKl..\l1eii H.C. B01iBapJl I27 B ,l\aHHOM onpe,l\eneHl1I1 06HapY>KI1BaIOTCR ee HeKOTopbIe xapaKTepHble '1epTbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB J.I ,l\On>KHOCTHbIX nl1l..\ MecTHoro caMoynpaB- neHI1H, KOTopbIe, no MHeHJ.l1O Ha3BaHHblX aBTopOB, BbIpa>KalOT ee CYHOCTb H CO,l\ep>KaHl1e. PaCCMaTpHBaeMoe onpe,l\eneHI1e OpI1eHTtipYeT HCCne,l\OBaTenH Ha BKnlO'IeHI1e B npe,l\MeT HCCne,l\OBaHI1H TaKI1X ::weMeHTOB, KaK CaMI1 MepbI npHHY>K,l\eHHR, npHMeHReMble K cy6'beKTY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII, OCHOBaHHH H npOl..\eCC I1X npHMeHeHHH, npoueccyanbHbIe (np0l..\e,l\ypHbIe) npaBHna TaKoro npl1MeHeHI1H. PaCCMaTpl1BaeMOe onpe,l\eneHI1e OXBaTbIBaeT He TOJ1bKO «cpe,l\- CTBa», HO 11 «TeXH0J10fl1lO» npI1HY>K,l\eHI1H. IIpl1 TaKOM nO,l\XO,l\e paCllIl1pfIeTCR 11 npe,l\MeT npaBoBoro perynHpoBaHHfI, KOTOpbIf! OXBaTbIBaeT Bce nepe'lI1C- neHHbIe 3J1eMeHTbI, '1TO Tpe6yeT OT 3aKOHO,l\aTenR 11 HOpMOTBOpl..\eB MYHHI..\J1- nanbHblX 06pa30BaHI1f! YCTaHOBneHHH COOTBeTCTBYIOJ.lX MaTepl1anbHbIX H np0l..\eccyanbHbIX HOpM, a OT cy6'beKTOB npaBonpHMeHI1TenbHOii ,l\eRTenbHOC- TI1 CTpororo C06nlO.l\eHHH YCTaHOBneHHoro nOpH,l\Ka npHMeHeHI1H Mep npl1- HY>K,l\eHI1H K opraHaM H ,l\OJ1>KHOCTHbIM nl1l..\aM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJ1eHI1H. O,l\HaKO B paCCMaTpl1BaeMOM onpe,l\eneHI1I1 cyecTBeHHO OrpaHI1'1J.1BalOT- CH OCHOBaHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1: MepbI npJ.lHY>K,l\eHHH npHMeHHIOTCH TonbKO K nHuy, COBepIIlI1BIIIeMY npaBOHapYIIleHHe. RaK OTMe'laJIOCb BbIIIIe, OCHOBa- Hl1fI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ,l\On>KHOCTHbIX nl1l..\ 3Ha'll1TenbHO II1I1pe H He CBO,l\fITCfI TOnbKO K npaBOHapYIIleHHIO. Ha.l\o 3aMeTI1Tb, '1TO B HOBOM CPe,l\e- panbHOM 3aKOHe ,,06 o6l1x npHHI..\HnaX opraHH3al..\HH MecTHoro calOynpaB- neHHH B POCCHf!CKOf! CPe,l\epaW-Il1» OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r. NQ 131-CP3 OT'IeTnI1- BO npOCne>KI1BaeTCfI I1MeHHO TaKof! no,l\XO,l\ K YCTaHoBneHl11O oCHOBaHI1f! OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII opraHoB 11 ,l\On>KHOCTHbIX nl1l..\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJ1eHHR B l..\enOM H ,l\a>Ke TaKoro Cnel..\l1qm'lecKoro BH,l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, KaK OTBeTCT- 12B BeHHOCTb nepe,l\ HaCeneHl1eM . J1ccne,[l)'H IOpl1J1l1'1eCKl1e MeXaHI13Mbi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B CI1CTeMe MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBneHI1R, E.B. U3J1ta"iiAoeu npHillna K BbIBO,l\y, '1TO HaH60J1ee nOJ1HO npH3HaKJ.I, q,YHKI..\I1J.1 11 l..\enl1 IOpH,l\J.I'IeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHoB H ,l\On>KHOCTHbIX nHI..\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHI1R OTpa>KaIOTCH (B ee nOHI1MaHI1I1) KaK 06J13a1i1iocmu npemepneeamb onpeBeJ!eJi1ible Jltepbl zocyBapcmeeJi1io-npa- 606020 npu1iY:JICBeHWI 129. TaKHM 06pa30M, B nOJ1e Haillero 3peHI1H nOHBJIHeTCH ee O,l\HH ::weMeHT (cyecTBeHHoe Ka'leCTBO), KOTOpbIii aBTOp Bbl)\enHeT B onpe,l\eneHI-II1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,l\OJ1>KHOCTHbIX nl1l..\ MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJIeHI1H. TaKof! no,l\XO,l\ K onpe,l\eneHHIO IOpl1,l\H'IeCKof! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH nlO6bIX KaTeropHl1 cy6'beKTOB B npaBOBOJ1 HaYKe HBnHeTCH ,l\OCTaTO'lHO pac- npOCTpaHeHHbIM. OH MO>KeT 6bITb npl1MeHeH H K onpe,l\eneHI1IO OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 opraHOB J.I ,l\On>KHOCTHbIX nl1l..\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHI1H, O,l\HaKO B 3TOM cnyqae BCR np06neMa H3yqeHI1R OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH paCCMaTpHBaeMbIX cy6'b- eKTOB MO>KeT 6bITb CBe,l\eHa K H3Y'leHJ.l1O caMoii 3TOJ1 06H3aHHOCTII, OCTaBnHH BHe nonR 3peHI1R I1CCne,l\OBaTenfI «cpe,l\CTBa» H «TeXH0J10fl1lO» ee B03HI1KHO- BeHl1fI 11 peanl13al..\I111, '1TO onRTb >Ke He n03BOJ1I1T HaM CTporo Cne,l\OBaTb 3a- t- rr\ 
J\aHHoti YCTaHOBKe. IIo3ToMY J\aHHOe onpeJ\eJleHHe MbI He MO>KeM npHHHTb B Ka'leCTBe HCXOJ\HOro nOHHTJ-IH, HCnOJlb3yeMoro ,!\JU! J\aJlbHeihnero peIlleHHH 3aJ\a'l HaCTOHll.\ero HCCJleJ\OBaHHH. B yqe6HHKe no MYHHl.\HnaJlbHOMY npaBY nOJ\ peJ\aKl.\Heii A.U. K06aJ!e1i1W aB- TOpbI onpeJ\eJlHlOT O1BeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHJ1H C n03Hl.\Hii IlIHpoKoro, J\ByxacneKTHoro nOHHMaHI1H IOpHJ\H'IeC- KOM O1BeTCTBeHHOCTI1: «Omeemcmeeuuocmb opzauoe MecmU020 ca.MoynpaMe- UW! U ()OJlJ/CliQcm'llbIX J!U1.j- Jltecm'llOZo CQ.MoynpaMeuW! e coomeemcmeuu C npu- uJlmou e POCCUUcKOU 4>eCJepa1.j-uu 1\O'IIcmumy1.j-UO'llUOU O1JY:!emcmee'I/J-WCmb1O e CJeyx ee OCUOOUblX gJOp/lWX xapaKmepu3yemcJl ?aI'/C eo-nepeblX, n03UmWJ'IIaJ! omeemcmee'llUOCmb, mo ecmb COZJUlC'110 KO'llcmumy1.j-uu POCCUUcKOU 4>eCJepa- 1.j-UU U 4>eCJepaJ!b'/iOMY 3a1\O'IIY ,,06 06uj.ux npuu1.j-u'TWX opzauu3a1.j-uu /I,tecmuozo cCLilwynpU6Jle'llW! e POCCUUC1\OU 4>eCJepa1.j-uu» omeemcmeeu1W.R. CJeJ!meJtbuocmb no peweJlu10 eanpocoe /I!ecmuozo 3ua'leuW!; eo-emopblX, uezamWJ'IIaJ! omeem- C1JWeH'IIOCmb - omeemcmeeU'IIOCmb opza'/iOO MeCm'/iOZO cCLilwynpa6/te'/iW! U CJOJlJ/C1tOCm'/ibIX J!u1.j- MeCm'llOZO cCLilwynpU6Jle'llW! nepeCJ: a) 'IIaceJ!e'll'/1eft! e pe3YJ!b- mame ympambl ezo ()oeepuJl; 6) zocyCJapcmeoM e cAy'IUe '/iapywe'/iW! KO'/icmu- my1.j-uu Poccuuc1<:Oii 4>eCJepa1.j-uu, KO'IICmumy1.j-uu, ycmaeoe cy6uh'7Twe Poccuu- C1\oU 4>eClepa1.j-uu U U'/lbiX npaeoeblX a'lcmoo, a ma1QlCe ceJ!3a'll'llaJ! C OCYUf€CTn6/!e- '/iUeJI! OmiJeJ!b'/ibIX zocy()apcmeeuublX nOJ!'IIO/lw'IUU; e) nepeCl ifru.3U'leC1c'U.Jl1U U 1OpU()UWCXU.MU J!U1.j-CLiltu e nopJ!CJ1\e, ycmau06J1e'll'/io/l! 3U1W'IIOOameJ!bC1JWO/l!» 130. TaKoe onpeJ\eJleHl1e MaJlO '1TO J\aeT J\JlH YRCHeHI1R CYll.\HOCTII H cOJ\ep>Ka- HI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH YKa3aHHbIX cy6'beKTOB 11 COOTBeTCTBeHHO J\JlH peIlle- HI1H 3aJ\a'll1 q,OpMl1pOBaHHR nOHHTI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 J\OJl>KHO- CTHbIX JlHl.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. OTBe'lalOll.\ero 3afIBJleHHbiM Bblille Tpe60BaHI1RM. Bo-nepBbIX. 06paillaeT Ha ce6H BHI1MaHHe TO, '1TO aBTopbI onpe.l!eJlHIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1R B KOHTeKCTe KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. TaKI1M 06pa30M, B OCHOBY nOHHTHR paCCMaTpHBaeMoro RBJleHI1H nOJIO>KeHbI Cnel.\Hq,I1'1eCKl1e oco6eHHO- CTH onpeJ\eJleHHOrO BHJ\a IOpHJ\I1'1eCKOM O'rBeTCTBeHHOCTII. Ba>KHOCTb HCCJle- J\OBaHI1R KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H He BbI3bIBaeT COMHeHl1ii, OJ\HaKO 3TO He J\OJl>KHO nOJ\MeHHTb co6orl HCCJleJ\OBaHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Ha3BaHHbIX cy6'beKTOB KaK 60Jlee CJlO>KHOrO fIBJleHI1H H KOMnJleKcHoro npaBoBoro HHCTI1TYTa. IIpH TaKOM nOJ\xoJ\e 113 npeJ\MeTa HCCJleJ\OBaHl1fI I1CKJIIO'IaIOTCfI J\pyme BHJ\bI OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII (aJ\MI1HHCTpaTHBHafI, rpa>KJ\aHCKo-npaBOBaR H T.J\.), cy6'beK- TaMI1 KOTOpOi1: B COOTBeTCTBHI'1 C J\eMCTBYIOll.\I1M 3aKOHOJ\aTeJlbCTBOM HBJlH- IOTCR opraHbI H J\OJl>KHOCTHble JlI1l.\a MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. BO-BTOPbIX, n03HTI1BHaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H onpeJ\eJlHeTCH KaK OTBeTCTBeHHaH J\eHTeJlb- HOCTb no peIlleHHIO BonpOCOB MecTHoro 3Ha'leHI1H. TaKoe onpeJ\eJleHHe M113- KO no CBoeMY cOJ\ep>KaHI1IO K onpeJ\eJleHI1IO MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHl1fI, 3a- 0) KpenJleHHoro B CT. 2 CPeJ\epaJlbHoro 3aKOHa «06 o6ll.\l1x npl1Hl.\l1naX OpraHI1- rr\ 3al.\I-II1 MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H B PoccHikKOti cpeJ\epal.\l1l1» OT 28 aBrycTa 
1995 r. N 154-<P3 H CT. 1 O,!\HOHMeHHoro <Pe,!\epaJlbHoro 3aKOHa OT 6 OKTR6pH 2003 r. N 131-<P3, '1TO ,!\eJlaeT BeCbMa pa3MbITbIMH OTJUI'II1H ,!\BYX caMOCTO- HTeJlbHblii npaBoBblx HBJleHI1M (MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHvtH vt OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH cy6'beKTOB, '1epe3 KOTOpbIX MeCTHoe caMoynpaBJleHvte ocyecTBJlReTcR) H O,!\HOHMeHHbIX npaBoBblx I'IHCTHTYTOB, XOTH OHH cyecTBeHHo pa3HHTCH ,!\pyr OT ,!\pyra no cBoeMY Ha3Ha'leHvtlO, <PYHKl.\vtRM, HOpMaTtIBHoMY co,!\epma- HI1IO vt T.n. RpoMe TOro, OTO)J{,!\eCTBJleHvte n0311TI1BHO(I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 OT- BeTcTBeHHoM ,!\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 no peweHHIO BonpocOB MecTHoro 3Ha'leHvtH, Ha Haw B3rJlH,!\, He TOJlbKO HH'Iero He ,!\aeT npaKTHKe, HO, Ha060pOT, ,!\e30pvteH- TI1PYeT 3aKOHo,!\aTeJlH vt npaBOnpvtMeHHTeJlR. ITpl1 paCKpblTvtl1 nOHHTvtH He- raTvtBHO(1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH onpe,!\eJleHvte ,!\aeTCH '1epe3 onpe,!\eJlReMOe, T.e. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npH 3TOM co,!\ep:maHvte nOCJle.l\He(1 He paCKpblBaeTCH. Bce 3TO CTaBHT no,!\ COMHeHHe HaY'lHYIO 3Ha'lvtMOCTb paCCMaTpHBaeMO(1 n03vtl.\vtvt. lllHpOKvtM no.llXO.ll K onpe,!\eJleHvtlO nOHHTvtR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt opraHOB 11 .llOJl)J{HOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHR I1cnOJlb3YlOT M.B. BbJapU1i 11 A.H. KO'Iwmoe. ITo I1X MHeHl1lO, n03UmUe1ibJU C/ltbtCJ! 1OpUaU'lecIWU omeem- Cmee1i1iOCmU e031iU1Wem U3 06J13a1i1iOCmu Op2a1iOe /ltecm1i020 caJlwynpaMe- 1iWl oCYUfecmMJlmb nOJ!O:JICUme./l.b1ibte aeucmeu.I!, e mo'mo.lI-! coomeemcm- euu cJ!eaYJI 1iOp.'lta/lt IW1iCmumY1}U01i1i020 U me'KYUfe20 3a'K01iOaame./l.bCmea, ycmaeoe JltY1iU1}unWlb1ibtX 06pG306a1iUU. HezamUe1ibtU acne'Km CeJl3a1i c 1ia- cmy11J!eHUeM omeemCmee1-t1iOcmU npeacmaeume./l.b1ibtX U U1ibtX Op2a'liOe /lteCm1i020 ca/lwynpaMe'liUJI e cJ!y'we 1iapywe'liuJI U/ltU K01icmumY1}uu Poc- CUUC'KOU cPeaepa1}Uu, 'K01icmumY1}uu, ycmaea cy6'be'Kma POCCUUC'KOU cPeae- pa1}uu, ifJeaepWlb1ibtX 3a'K01iOe, 3a'KO'liOe cy6'be'Kma ifJeaepa1}uu, ycmaea /lty-  131 1iU1}unWlb1i020 oopa30ea1iU.I! ,n:aHHoe onpe,!\eJleHvte OpvteHTJ1pyeT Ha H3yqeHvte CBH3eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H .llOJl)J{HOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIemIH C '!\PYfl1Mvt npaOOBbI- Mvt HBJleHI1HMl1, nocKOJlbKY aBTopbI, 3aHBJlHH 0 cyecTBOBaHl1vt n0311TI1BHOro 11 HeraTI1BHoro acneKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt opraHOB 11 ,!\OJJ)J{HOCTHbIX Jlvtl.\ MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIemIH, YKa3blBalOT Jll1lIlb Ha TO, H3 '1ero B03HHMeT n03HTl1BHbl(1 CMbICJI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt H C '1eM CBH3aH acneKT HeraTtIBHblii. ITpvt 3TOM He yro'l- HReTCR, '1TO c.neA)'eT nOHvtMaTb no,!\ n0311TI1BHOH vt HeraTtIBHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC- '!'b1O. Y'IvtTblBaH, '1TO B o6eii TeopHvt npaBa H OTpac.neBbIX IOpJ-J.l\H'IeCKHX Ha- YKax HeT 06enpl13HaHHoro onpe,!\eJleHtIH nOHHTHH HH nOOI1TtIBHOH, HH Hera- TI1BHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, HI1 IOpvt.llvt'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Bo06e, TPY,!\HO CY.llHTb 0 TOM, B KaKOM 3Ha'leHvtvt aBTopbl HCnOJJb3YlOT ,!\aHHble KaTeropl1vt. R '1HCJlY CTOpOHHHKOB WvtPOKOro nO'!\XO.lla K nOHI1MaHvtlO OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TH opraHOB vt .ll0JlmHOCTHbIX Jlvtl.\ "IeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHvtH MO)J{HO OTHeCTtI 11 A.A. Y oopooo. C ero TO'lKH 3peHI1H, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHHH - MHororpaHHoe nOHHTtle: «IIcmJlmue omeemcmee1i1iOcmu e WUpO'KO/lt 31ia'le1iUU 3m020 CAoea ynompe6J!JlemcJI 'Ka'K om1iow.e1iue Op2a1iOe JlteCm1i020 CGJlwynpaMe1iU.I! 'K 1iaCe.ll.e1iU1O MY1iU1}unWlb1i020 06pa30ea1iUJI, 'KO eceJltY o6Ufecmey W1.U 20cyaapcmey C mo'l'KU 3pe1iU.I! ebtnOJ'l.'lie1tWl 3mUMU Op2a1iaJltu e03J!O:JICe1i1ibtX 1ia 1iUX 3aaa'l U mpe6oea1iuu. B Y3'KOJlt, 1OpUaU'tec- 0\ 'KO/lt 31ia'Je1iUU noa mepJltu'liOJlJ «omeemcmee1i1iOCmb)} n01iU.l\!aemCJI pea'K- rr\ 
1.fWl zocyBapcmea 'Ita C06epme'lt'ltoe OpZa'lto.M .MeCm'ltOZO ca.llwynpa6J/.e'ltWl npaeo'ltapymeHue, CeJl3a'lt'ltW! C ngemepneea'ltue.M nocAeBHUll-t 'lte6.1Ulzonpu- JlmHbtX BAS! Hezo noCJteBcmeuu» 13 . H3 co,!\epmaHvtH rJlaBbl 7 <pe,!\epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa «00 OOvtX npvtHl..\vtnaX OpraHI13al..\vtvt MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHvtH B PoccvtilcKoii <pe,!\epal..\vtvt», no MHeHl110 A.A. Yeapoea, CJle,!\yeT, 'ITa nOHHTl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt vtCnOJlb3yeTcH 3,!\eCb KaK B 11ll1pOKOM, «n03vtTI1BHOM», 133 CMbICJle, TaK vt B Y3KOM, cnel..\vtaJlbHO-lOpvt,!\I1'1eCKOM, 3Ha'leHvtvt IIpvtBe,!\eHHoe onpe,!\eJleHvte OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt opraHOB vt ,!\OJl:H\HOCTHbIX Jlvtl..\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHvtH B «llHlpOKOM CMbICJle» MaJlO '1TO ,!\aeT HaM ,!\JlH perneHl1H nOCTaBJleHHoi1 3a,!\a'lvt. B TO :H\e BpeMH nOHvtMaHvte OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTvt YKa3aHHbIX CYO'beKTOB B «Y3KOM, IOpvt,!\vt'leCKOM, 3Ha'leHvtJ1» ,!\O- nOJlHHeT CKJla,!\blBalOeeCH npe,!\CTaBJleHl1e a paCCMaTpvtBaeMOM fIBJleHvtvt TaKvtMvt cyeCTBeHHbIMH xapaKTepvtCTvtKaMvt, KaK peaKl..\vtfI rocy,!\apCTBa Ha npaBoHapyrneHvte vt npeTepneBaHl1e npaBoHapyrnt!TeJleM HeOJlaronpl1HTHbIX nOCJle,!\CTBvti1. CyecTBeHHbIM ,!\OCTOvtHCTBOM paCCMaTpvtBaeMoro onpe,!\eJle- HI1H, Ha Harn B3rJlfIJ\, fIBJlHeTCH TO, '1TO aBTop OO'be,!\vtHfIeT B 0,!\Hoi1 ,!\eqmHI1- I..\vtvt «aKTI1BHYIO» 11 «naCCvtBHYIO» CTOpOHbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt - aKTvtBHOCTb rocy,!\apCTBa vt npeTepneBaHvte npaBoHapyrnvtTeJleM COOTBeTCTBYIOI1X Mep. OJ\HaKO TaKoe onpe,!\eJleHvte TpYJ\HonpvtMeHI1MO K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTvt opraHOB 11 ,!\OJl:H\HOCTHbIX Jlvtl..\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHl1H nepe,!\ HaCeJleHvteM, no- CKOJlbKY B 3TI1X OTHorneHvtfIX npaBHJlbHee roBOpvtTb a peaKl..\l1vt caMoro Hace- JleHvtH, a He rocy,!\apCTBa. RpOMe Taro. CBH3blBaHvte TaKOI1 peaKl..\vtvt TOJlbKO C npaBoHapyrneHvteM, KaK nO,!\'1epKI-IBaJlOCb Bblrne, He COOTBeTCTByeT npHpo,!\e B3al1MOOTHorneHvtii opraHOB vt ,!\OJl:H\HOCTHbIX Jlvtl..\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHl1H C HaCeJleHvteM MYHHI..\HnaJlbHoro oopa30BaHvtH. HeCMOTpH Ha TO 'ITa B nOCJle,!\Hee BpeMH TaKoi1 nOJ\xo,!\ HarneJl OTpa:H\eHHe B 3aKOHOJ\aTeJlbCTBe 0 MeCTHOM caMoynpaBJleHvtH, Ha Harn B3rJlH,!\, OH He- a,!\eKBaTHO OTpa:H\aeT xapaKTep 3TvtX B3aHMOOTHorneHHii vt He ooeCne'lvtBaeT B HeOOXO,!\vtMOM OO'beMe J\OCTI1:H\eHvte ueJll1lOpH.lU1'1eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 B MeCTHOM caMoynpaBJleHvtvt, KOTopaH COCTOvtT He CTOJlbKO B HaKa3aHI1H BI1- HOBHbIX, CKOJlbKO B ooeCne'leHvtH vt 3avtTe npaBa HaCeJleHvtfI Ha MeCTHoe ca- MoynpaBJleHvte, ooeCne'leHvte 3aBI1CvtMOCTvt opraHOB H ,!\OJl:H\HOCTHbIX Jlvtl..\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH aT OCHOBHoro HCTO'IHvtKa MYHHI..\HnaJlbHoi1 BJlaC- TH, OCHOBHOro CYO'beKTa npaBa Ha ocyecTBJleHl1e MecTHoro caMoynpaBJle- HI1H - HaCeJleHvtH MYHHl..\vtnaJlbHoro oopa30BaHvtH. Ha3Ha'leHvte OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTtI paCKpblBaeTCH B CJlY:H\eOHoi1 pOJU!, KOTOPYIO aHa BbInOJlHHeT B Ka'leCT- Be OCHOBHoro npvtHl..\tIna MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHvtH. CyecTBOBaHvte n03HTHBHoii vt HeraTtIBHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 npl13HaeT vt E.C. Illyzpu'lta. aHa pa3J1vt'laeT n03vtTI1BHYlO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 ,!\OJl:H\HOCTHbIX JlI1I..\ MeCTHOO caMOI'aBJleHI1H vt COOCTBeHHO IOp,!\vt'leCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3THX CY0'beKTOB . B nOHHMaHvtH n03vtTvtBHOH OTBeTCT- 135 BeHHOCTvt aHa COJlH,!\apHa C aBTopaMvt , paCCMaTpvtBalOvtMvt n03vtTvtBHYlO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK OC03HaHI1e vt BocnpOvt3Be,!\eHHe Jlvt'lHOCTblO B CBoeM no- Be,!\eHvtH HeoOXOJ\HMOCTH BbInOJlHeHHH ,!\oJlra 136. lOpvt,!\I1'1ecKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb B ee nOHvtMaHI1H - 3mo peazupoea'ltue zocyBapcmea e Jtu1.fe BM:JfCltoCm- 'ltb!X Jtu1.f 'U.i1.U opw'ltoe 'Ita npaeo'ltapyme'ltue u 06Jl3a'lt'ltOCmb npaeo'ltapymu- o -:j- 
me.ltSl npemepneeUmb 'He6J!uZOnpUSlm'H"bte nocJ!eacmeW! (qTO C6JIH)KaeT B3rJISI):\bI I.\HTHpyeMoro aBTOpa Ha HeraTHBHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb C paHee paCCMOTpeHHbIMH n03HI.\HSlMH E.B. U3.!1taWlOeoU U A.A. Yeapoea)137. E.C. Illyzpu1iu HCXO):\I1T H3 TOrO, qTO nOBe):\eHI1e qeJIOBeKa HMeeT ):\Be no- JISlpHbie pa3HOBH):\HOCTH - COI.\HaJIbHO nOJIe3HOe 11 COI.\HaJIbHO Bpe):\HOe. IIo- 3TOMY H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb paCCMaTpHBaeTCSI B ):\BYX aCneKTaX: n03HTHBHOM (npOCneKTHBHOM) H HeranlBHOM (peTpOCneKTHBHOM). IIo3HTHBHaSl OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb HacTynaeT 3a 6Y):\Yll\ee nOBe):\eHHe, HeraTI1BHaSl - 3a y)Ke COBep- WeHHOe 138. II03HTHBHaSl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIe- HHSI H HX ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIl1l1, no ee MHeHHlO, peaJIH3yeTcSI B <popMe pery- JISlpHbIX OTqeTOB 0 pa60Te nepe):\ H36HpaTeJISlMH, rJIaBOJ1 MYHHl.\l1naJIbHOrO oopa30BaHI1S1, PYKOBO):\HTeJISlMH CTPYKTypHbIX no):\pa3):\eJIeHHM. I1cnoJIHI1- TeJIbHbIJ1 opraH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHSI, 6y):\yqH nO,IJ.KOHTpOJIbHbIM npe):\- CTaBHTeJIbHOMY, TaK)Ke 06S13aH npe):\CTaBJISlTb OTqe-rbI 0 pa60Te. HeranlBHaSl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb peaJIH3yeTcSI B BI1):\e IOpH):\l1qeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opra- HOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHSI H HX ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIl1I.\ ne):\ rocy):\apcr- BOM, HaCeJIeHHeM, <pH3HQeCKHMH I1lOpH):\I1QeCKHMI1 JIHl.\aMH .0TMeQeHHble Bblwe ):\OCTOI1HCTBa H He):\OCTaTKH TeOpeTHQeCKHX n03HI.\I1J1 E.B. U3.MUWlOeoU U A.A. Yeupoea Mor)'T 6bITb BocnpOH3Be):\eHbI npH xapaKTepHCTI1Ke paCCMa- Tpl1BaeMOro no):\xo):\a E.C. IllyzpU1ioii.. IIonblTKH 060CHOBaTb Heo6xo):\I1MOCTb HCCJIe):\OBaHHSI IOpH):\I1QeCKoi'1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ):\OJI)KHOcrHbIX JIHI.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHSI C n03HI.\HM WHpOKoro, .IJ.ByxacneKTHoro ee nOHHMaHHSI npe):\npHHHMaJII1Cb H HeKOTopbIMH ):\PYrHMH aBTopaMJ.I. TaK, B.B. fpuzopoee onpe):\eJISleT OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHOB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MYHl1l.\HnaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHSI 1WK 06Sl3u'H'Hocmb 3mu;c opZU'Hoe u aOJ!JlC1iOCm'Hb!X J!U1.j- eb!nOJ!'HSlmb YCJ!oeuJI ae- SlmeJ!b'HOCmU no pewe1iU10 eonpocoe Jltecm'HOZO 31iU'll?1iUSl, U e CJ!Y'ta€ 1iUpY- Ul.e1iUSl 3mux YCJ!oeuii - npemepneeumb onpeae.Jte1i'H"bte 'He6J!azonpUSlm'H"bte npae06bte nocJ!eacmeuSl. TaKHx YCJIOBI1J1 OH BbI):\eJISleT TPI1 140 : 1) 3<p<peKTI1BHOCTb oCYll\eCTBJIeHI1S1 cooTBeTcTBYlOll\l1X nOJIHOMOQI1J1, T.e. 06S13aTeJIbHocTb ):\OCTI1)KeHJ.lSI onpe):\eJIeHHbIX nOJIO)KHTeJIbHbIX pe3Y JIb- TaTOB ):\eSlTeJIbHOCTH no ynpaBJIeHHIO ):\eJIaMH MeCTHoro cOOOll\eCTBa; 2) C06JIIO):\eHJ1e 3aKOHHOCTH (B WHpOKOM CMbICJIe CJIOBa) B ):\eSlTeJIbHOCTH no oCYll\eCTBJIeHHIO cOOTBeTcTBYlOll\HX nOJIHOMOQHH; 3) ):\OopocoBecTHoe I1CnOJIHeHHe oOSl3aTeJIbCTB, B03HHKalOIl\HX 113 rpa)K- ):\aHCKo-npaBOBbiX OTHOWeHI1i'I. COcrOSlTeJIbHOCTb H nepcneKTHBbl onpe):\eJIeHI1S1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opra- HOB 11 ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1S1 Qepe3 KaTeropHIO OOSl- 3aHHOCTH y)Ke paCCMaTpHBaJIHCb BbIwe. B ):\aHHOM CJIYQae Oco6b1i'1 HHTepec npe):\CTaBJlSleT aBTOpCKI1J1 no):\xo):\ K onpe):\eJIeHHIO OCHOBaHI1J1 HeraTI1BHOJ1 OT- Be-rcrBeHHocTH opraHOB H ):\OJ!)KHOCTHbiX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1S1. Ta- KOi'1 no,l\Xo):\ npe):\CTaBJISleTCSI HaHOOJIee YHHBepCaJIbHbIM no cpaBHeHHIO C pac- CMOTpeHHbIMI1 paHee 11 n03BOJISleT y<iI1TblBaTb B O):\HOi'1 ):\e<pI1HI1I.\I1I1 CneI.\H<pI1- QeCKHe ocooeHHOCTH pa3JII1QHblX BI1):\OB OTBeTcrBeHHocTH opraHOB H ):\OJI)KHO- CTHblX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHSI O):\HaKO I.\HnipyeMbIM aBTOp He YQI1- - -::t 
TbiBaeT TO 06CTORTeJIbCTBO, qTO OpraHbI H ,l\OJI)KHOCTHble JIII.\a MeCTHOrO ca- MoynpaBJIeHHR 06R3aHbI C06JIIO,l\aTb Onpe,l\eJIeHHbIE' YCJIOBHR He TOJIbKO npH OCYll\eCTBJIeHl1H ,l\eRTeJIbHOCTI1 no peweHHIO BOnpOCOB MeCTHoro 3HaqeHHR, HO 11 npH OCYll\eCTBJIeHJ1H OT,l\eJIbHbIX rocY,l\apCTBeHHbIX nOJIHOMOqHJ1. B CJIY- qae HapyweHHR YCJIOBHii HX OCYll\eCTBJleHHR B COOTBeTCTBI1H C 3aKOHO,l\a- TeJIbCTBOM TalOKe B03HHKaeT 06R3aHHOCTb npeTepneBaTb onpe,l\eJIeHHbIe He- 6JIarOnpHRTHbIe npaBOBbIe nOCJIe,l\CTBHR B BI1,l\e 113'bRTI1R 3TI1X nOJIHOMOqHM 113 KOMneTeHl.\HI1 opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R, B03JIO)KeHHR 06R3aHHo- CTI1 BepHYTb MaTepHaJIbHbIe H <plHaHCOBbIe pecypCbI, nepe,l\aHHbIe opraHY MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R ,l\JIR OCYll\eCTBJIeHI1R COOTBeTCTBYIOIl\11X rocY,l\ap- crBeHHbIX nOJIHOMOqHJ1. TaKI1M 06pa30M, OCHOBaHI1R OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 opra- HOB H ,l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR B 061l\eii ,l\e<pHHHl.\HH CJIe,l\YeT <POPMYJIHpOBaTb C yqeTOM BbICKa3aHHOrO 3aMeqaHI1R. M.A. Kpac"Hoe paCCMaTpHBaeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H ,l\OJI)KHOCT- HbIX JIJ1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR KaK Ce.l!3b JlteJldly oeYJlt.l! cy6-oeKma.MU, npu 1wmopoii OiJ1iU cmop01iU (cy6"OeKm omeemcmee1i1iOCmu), 06Jtaoa1O'Uta.l! ce06000ii eoJtu u 6bI60pa, 06.1!3bIeaemc.I! e CUJty ceoezo cmamyca cmpoumb noeeoe"Hue e coomeemcmeuu C oJICuoaeJlwii JltOoeJtb1O, a opyza.l! cmop01iU (u1iCma1itj-Wl omeemcmee"H1iocmu) 'Ko"HmpoJtupyem, otj-e1iueaem ma'Koe no- eeoe1iue u (UJtu) ezo pe3YJtbmambI, a e cJty'tae omputj-ameJtb1ioii otj-e"H'Ku u 1iMU'IU.l! eU1ib! enpaee onpeoeJte"H1ib!/rI 06pCL30/rI ompeazupoeamb '4'. OH BbI- cTynaeT 3a wHpOKoe nOHHMaHl1e IOpl1,l\HqeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H ,l\OJI)KHOCTHbiX JIHl.\ ME'CTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1R, HO BbIpa)KaeT HE'COrJIaCl1e C l):\eeJ1 ee pa3,l\eJIeHI1R Ha «n03HTI1BHYIO» 11 «HeranIBHYIO».I'I3 npHBe,l\eHHO- ro onpe,l\eJIeHI1R CJIe,l\yeT, qTO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H ,l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHl1R CKJIa,l\bIBaeTCR H3 cOBoKynHocTH CJIe,l\YIO- Il\HX KaqeCTB, KOTopbIe, no YTBep)K,l\eHHIO M.A. Kpac"Hoea, COCTaBJIRIOT CTPYKTYPY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH KaK COl.\l1oJIomqecKoii H npaBoBoii KaTerOpHI1. OHa BKJIlOqaeT B ce6R: 1) CB06o,l\y BbI60pa Bapl1aHTa nOBe,l\eHHR CaMI1M cy6ceKToM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, 06JIa,l\aIOIl\HM CB06o,l\oJ1 BOJI).!; 2) YCTaHOBJIe- HHe MO,l\eJIH ,l\OJI)KHOrO, O)KH.1\aeMOrO nOBe,l\eHHR JIH60, Ha06opoT, nOBe,l\eHHR He,l\OJI)KHOrO (B pa3HbIx BJl,l\aX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npaKTHKYIOTCR pa3HbIe nO,l\XO,l\bI, HO Bce OHI1 OXBaTbIBalOTCR nOHRTl1eM «OCHOBaHHR OTBeTCTBeHHO- CnI»); 3) npHql1HHO-CJIe,l\CTBeHHYIO CBR3b Me)K,l\Y nOBe,l\eHHeM Hero nOCJIe,l\- CTBHRMH; 4) HHCTaHl.\HIO oTBeTcTBeHHocTH'42; 5) KOHTpOJIb 11 Ol.\eHKY nOBe- ,l\eHHR; 6) B03MO)KHOCTb He6JIaronpl1RTHbIX nOCJIe,l\CTBI1i1 ,l\JIR OTBeTCTBeH- HOro cy6'beKTa, npH3HaHHoro BI1HOBHbIM'43. BKJIlOqeHHe 3THX «KaqeCTB» B npE',l\ME'T I1CCJIE',l\OBaHI1R, HE'COMHE'HHO, 060raniT cHcTeMY 3HaHHR 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ,l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R. O,l\HaKO. Ha Haw B3rJIR,l\, I1X cOBoKynHocTb He 06pa3yeT nOHRTHR, OTpa)KalOll\erO CYIl\HOCTb RBJleHHR. B paCCMaTpHBae- MOM onpe,l\eJIeHHH 06'be.1\HHRIOTCR pa3HOnOpRllKOBbIe KaTeropHH - npH3Ha- KH IOpH,l\HqeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (HanpI1Mep, ee 3aKpenJIeHHe HOpMaMI1 N npaBa, COnpR)KeHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH C He6JIarOnpHRTHbIMH nOCJIe,l\CTBHR- -::t MH) H YCJIOBHR ee OCYll\eCTBJIeHI1R (HaJIHql1e CB060,l\bI BOJIH H BbI60pa BapH- 
aHTa nOBe):\eHHH, HaJIWme KOHTpOJIHPYlOll1el1 HHCTaHl.\HH H ):\p.), 3a MHO)Ke- CTBOM KOTOpbIX TepHeTCH CYll1HOCTb paCCMaTpHBaeMOrO HBJIeHHH. HeCMOT- pH Ha TO 'ITO aBTOp H36eraeT HCnOJIb30BaHHH TepMHHa «npaBOOTHOWeHHe», HeTpY):\HO 3aMeTJoITb, 'ITO ):\aHHaH KOHl.\em.\HH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH YKJIa):\bIBa- eTCH B TeopHIO npaBOOTHoweHHH, a npHBe):\eHHaH Bblwe ee CTpYKTypa npe):\CTaBJIHeT c06011 He 'ITO HHoe, KaK COCTaB npaBOOTHoweHHH (c BBe):\eHI1- eM HeKOTopbIX ):\onOJIHHTeJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB). TaKHM 06pa30M, xapaKTepl1C- Tl1Ka OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHHH KaK npaBOOTHoweHHH TaK)Ke MO)KeT 6bITb Y'ITeHa npH <pOpMHpOBa- HI1H 061l1ero nOHHTI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH YKa3aHHbIX cy6'beKTOB. 06061l1aH CYll1eCTBeHHble 'IepTbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ):\OJI)KHO- CTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, BblJ!eJIeHHble npH paCCMOTpeHI1H OT):\eJIbHbIX ):\e<pHHHl.\l1ii, He06xo):\HMO OTMenlTb CJIe):\YlOll1He npu1t'ltunu- Cl.i!"bJi"bLe JlWJlteJim"bt. 1. PaccMoTpeHHble ):\e<jmHHI.\I1I1, C<POPMYJIHpOBaHHble C n03HI.\HfI ):\Byxac- neKTHoro nOHHMaHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, He HY)K):\aIOTCH B no):\p06HOM aHaJII1- 3e, nOCKOJIbKY B HI1X BOCnp0I13BO):\HTCH OCHOBHble nOJIO)KeHHH paCCMOTpeH- HbiX paHee (B naparpa<pe 1.1) KOHl.\enl.\HfI wHpOKoro no):\xo):\a K nOHHMaHHIO IOpH):\H'IeCKOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. IIpOI.\HTHpOBaHHble aBTopbI JIHWb Bocnpo- H3BO):\HT I1X, ):\a)Ke He nbITaHCb npHBeCTH KaKHe-JIH60 aprYMeHTbI. IIonbITKH onpe):\eJIHTb nOHHTHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 opraHOB 11 ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ B I.\e- JIOM (B e):\HHCTBe ):\BYX acneKTOB) He MorYT 6bITb HaMH BocnpHHHTbI no TeM npH'IHHaM, 0 KOTOpbIX WJIa pe'Ib B naparpa<pe 1.1 HaCTOHll1ero HCCJIe):\OBa- HHH. KpoMe TOro, OHH He cnoc06CTBYlOT peweHHIO Tex 3a):\a'I, KOTopble 6bIJIH 3aHBJleHbI B caMOM Ha'IaJIe HaCTOHll1erO naparpa<pa. 2. Jl13BecTHo, 'ITO JII060e nOHHTl1e - 3TO cOBoKynHocTb npH3HaKoB HBJIe- HHH. IOpH):\H'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHHH B BI1):\eHI1H npe):\cTaBHTeJIel1 MYHHI.\JmaJIbHO-npaBOBoi-i HaYKI1 06JIa):\aeT cJIe):\YlOll111MH xapaKTepHbIMH npH3HaKaMH. KOTopble B co- BOKynHocTH MorYT npe):\cTaBJIHTb c060ii cooTBeTcTBYlOll1ee nOHHTl1e: - He6JIarOnpHHTHble npaBoBble nOCJIe):\CTBI1H ,lJ.JJH OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6'b- eKTa 3a HeHCnOJIHeHHe I1JII1 HeHa):\JIe)Kall1ee I1CnOJIHeHl1e opraHaMH 11 ):\OJI)K- HOCTHbIMH JIHl.\aMH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ1H CBOI1X 06H3aHHocTei-i no OTHO- weHll10 K ):\PYrl1M Y'IaCTHHKaM npaBOOTHoweHHii: COBepweHHe npOTHBO- npaBHbIX ):\eI1CTBHI1 (6e3):\eI1CTBJ.lH), HeHa):\JIe)/ffill1ee OCYll1eCTBJleHJ.le CBOJ.lX 3a):\a'I H <PYHKI.\HfI; - <paKTH'IeCKOe HacTynJIeHHe, <paKTJoI'IeCKOe npeTepneBaHHe COOTBeTCT- BYlOll1HX nOCJIe):\CTBHii; - peaKl.\l1H rocy):\apCTBa Ha COBepweHHoe opraHOM IlJII1 ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIM JIIII.\OM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH npaBOHapyweHHe, CBH3aHHaH C npeTep- neBaHHeM nOCJIe):\HI1M He6JIarOnpHHTHbIX ,lJ.JJH Hero nOCJIe):\CTBHii; - npl1MeHeHl1e K opraHaM H 1l0JI)KHOCTHbiM JIl1l.\aM MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHHH B YCTaHOBJIeHHOM nopH):\Ke Mep npJIHY)K):\eHHH (Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH); - 06H3aHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYlO1l111X opraHOB H 1l0JI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHO- "" ro caMoynpaBJIeHHH npeTepneTb onpe]1eJIeHHble He6JIarOnpHHTHble npaBO- -::t 
Bble nOCJIe,l\CTBIUI 3a cOBeprueHHoe npaBOHapyrueHJ.le. HeHal\JIe)Kall\ee ocy- ll\eCTBJIeHJ.le CBOI1X 3al\aq J.I <PYHKl!J.li1; - CBH3b Me)/(,l\y l\BYMH cyfueKTaMl1, npli KOTOpOi1 Ol\Ha CTOpOHa (I1HCTaH- l!J.lH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I) KOHTpOJIJ.lpyeT, Ol!eHJ.lBaeT nOBe,l\eHJ.le OTBeTCTBeH- HOi1 CTOpOHbl11 (J.lJIJ.I) ero pe3YJIbTaTbl, a B CJIyqae OTpHl!aTeJIbHoi1 Ol!eHKI'1 J.I HaJIHql1H BHHbI BnpaBe onpel\eJIeHHblM 06pa30M OTpeampOBaTb; - npaBOOTHorueHJ.le, B KOTOpOM TaKaH CBH3b MaTepl1aJIJ.l3YeTCH 11 cYll\e- cTByeT. CJIel\yeT OTMeTI1Tb Heo6xol\I1MOCTb «ruJ.lpOKoro» nOl\XOl\a K !j:JOPMYJIJ.I- pOBaHHIO B 061l\eM BJ.ll\e OCHOBaHJ.li1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. He BbI3blBaeT co- MHeHJ.lH TO, qTO 3TH OCHOBaHJ.lH He CBO,l\HTCH J.lCKJIlOqJ.lTeJIbHO K npaBoHapy- rueHl'IIO. OCHOBaHJ.lHMJ.I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTli opraHOB J.ll\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1l! Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHliH B onpel\eJIeHHblX CJIyqaH HBJIHIOTCH l\eHHJ.lH J.lJIJ.I l\a)Ke lleHTeJIbHOCTb, KOTopble 06'beKTHBHO He Mor)'T 6blTb KBaJIJ.I<pJ.ll!J.lPO- BaHbI KaK npaBoHapyrueHlie. IIpe)Kl\e Bcero 3TO KacaeTCH OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TJ.I nepell HaCeJIeHJ.leM. CTpeMHCb OXBaTI1Tb B Ol\HOi1 l\e<pJ.lHJ.ll!lm oc06eHHO- CTli pa3JIJ.lqHblX BJ.ll\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB lil\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIJ.ll! Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, KaK 6blJIO CKa3aHO Bblrue, aBTopbl <POPMYJII1PYIOT OCHOBaHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I KaK: a) HeJ.lCnOJIHeHJ.le J.lJII1 HeHal\JIe)Kall\ee J.lCnOJIHeHJ.le opraHaMJ.I J.lllOJI)KHOCTHbIMI1 JIJ.ll!aMJ.I MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HliH CBOJ.lX 06H3aHHocTei1 no oTHorueHJ.l1O K llpynlM yqaCTHJ.lKaM npaBOOT- HorueHJ.li1; 6) HapyrueHJ.le YCJIOBJ.li1 ,l\eHTeJIbHOCTJ.I no perueHl110 BonpOCOB MecTHoro 3HaqeHI1H. IIocJIel\HHH n03J.1l!I1H npel\CTaBJIHeTCH HaJ.l6oJIee YHJ.I- BepCaJIbHoi'i, nOCKOJIbKY, HanpJ.lMep, OT3bIB BbI60pHoro JII1l!a MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHHH MO)KeT 6blTb Bbl3BaH He npoCTO <popMaJIbHblM HeBbInOJIHe- HlieM IOpl1l\J.lqeCKof! 06H3aHHOCTJ.I, a !j:JaKTJ.lqeCKOfl YTpaToi1 ,l\OBepJ.lH Hace- JIeHI1H (J.l36J.1paTeJIei1) B clmy pa3JII1qHbiX npJ.lqJ.lH. BKJIlOqaH cOBeprueHl1e aMOpaJIbHOrO nocTynKa. 06061l\eHJ.le OTMeqeHHblX npJ.l3HaKOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB J.I l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIJ.ll! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH J.I B03MO)KHbIX nO,l\XOl\OB K onpe,l\eJIeHHIO ee OCHOBaHl1fl C yqeTOM nOCTaBJIeHHblX 3allaq, BbICKa3aH- HblX paHee KpJ.lTl1qeCKHX 3aMeqaHlii1 J.I npellCTaBJIeHJ.lfl aBTopa HaCTOHll\e- ro HCCJIellOBaHI1H 0 IOpl1l\J.lqeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTli KaK 06Il\eTeOpeTJ.lqeC- KOi1 J.I o6ll\enpaBoBoi1 KaTerOpJ.lJ.l n03BOJIHeT C<POPMYJIJ.lpOBaTb CJIe,l\YIOIl\YIO lle<pJ.lHJ.ll!J.lIO. IOpJJl1qCCKaH OTBCTCTBCHHOCTb opraHOB H AOJI)KHOCTHbIX J!IIl! MCCTHoro calOynpaBJICHJJH - 3mo e03HU'K1-!Oee1tue U peQ.J!U3a"lfUJ! e ycma1t06J!e1i1!O.M. 3a'K0I!O.M. (ycmCWOJlt) nopJ!d'Ke 06J!3a1tJiocmu coomeem- cmeylOUj,UX opzaJioe U dOJ!JlCI!Ocm1t"btX J!U"If npemepnem"b npedYCJlwmpeJi- Ji"bte ca1t'K"lfueii npaeoeoii 1tOp.MOl Jltep"bt npUJiyJICdeHUJ! e eUde J!u'Iw?1tuii UJtU ozpa1tu'le1tuii J!U'l1tOZO, U.M.YUj,ecmee1t1tOW UJtU OpZa1tU3a"lfU01t1tOW xa- pa'Kmepa 3a 1tapyme1tue YCJ!oeuii deJ!meJ!"b1!Ocmu no peQ.J!U3a"lfUU c06cm- eeJi1toii 'KO.MnemeJi"lfuu e pemeJiUU eonpocoe JlteCm1t020 3Ha'le1tUJ! U oCYUj,e- Cm6J!eHUlO omdeJ!"b1tOlX wcydapcmeeH1t"btX nOJ!HOJlW'IUii. TaKoi1 nOl\XOll -::t n03BOJIHeT HHTerpJ.lpOBaTb B Ol\Hofll\e!j:JliHI1l!J.IJ.I OCHOBHble nOJIO)KeHJ.lH Ha- -::t J.l60JIee pa3pa60TaHHbiX KOHl!e n l!J.li1 IOPI'lllJ.lqeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I, BOC- 
npHHHTblX MYHHI.\maJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 HaYKoi1. a,l\eKBaTHO Onpe,l\eJIHTb npe,l\MeT npaBOBOrO perYJIJ'lpOBaHHH - TOT Kpyr 061l1eCTBeHHbIX OTHOrne- HHH, KOTOpble 06'beKTHBHO HY)K,l\aIOTCH B yperYJIHpOBaHHHH H MOrYT 6bITb yperYJIJ.lpOBaHbI, BbI,l\ep)KaTb Me)KOTpaCJIeBOH XapaKTep TaKOrO nOHHTJ.lH, 06eCne'lI1Tb npHrO,l\HOCTb ,l\e<pJ.lHHI.\IUI KaK ,l\JIH HaY'lHOrO HCCJIe,l\OBaHl'IH, TaK 11 ,l\JIH npaBOBOH npaKTHKI1. C :noi1 TO'lKH 3peHJ1H ,l\aJIee 6Y,l\YT paCCMaTplBaTbCH OT,l\eJIbHble TeOpe- TI1'leCKHe H npHKJIa,l\Hble npo6.rreMbl IOpH,l\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opra- HOB H ,l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH. OTHOCHTeJIbHO CaMO- CTOHTeJIbHbIH 6JIOK npo6JIeM TeOpeTH'leCKOrO H MeTO,l\OJIOm'leCKOrO xapaK- Tepa COCTaBJIHeT np06JIeMaTI1Ka KJIaCCJ1(jmKaI.\HH IOpH,l\I1'leCKoi1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH YKa3aHHbiX cy6'beKTOB, KOTOpoii nOCBHll1eHa CJIe,l\YlOll1aH maBa HaCTOHll1erO HCCJIe,l\OBaHI1H. 
rnaBa 2 np0511EMbl Kl1ACCcJ>KAU IOP,Q4ECKO OTBETCTBEHHOCT OprAHOB  ,QOl1>KHOCTHbIX l1U MECTHOrO CAMOYnPABl1EHSI 2.1. 01CTEMHbl nOAXOA KAK OCHOBA K11AC01<PI1KAI..(I1I1 IOPI1AI14ECKO OTBETCTBEHHOCTI1 opr AHOB 11 A011>KHOCTHbIX 11111..( MECTHoro CAMOynPAB11EHI1f1 rJIyoOlroe H BceCTOpOHHee H3yqeHHe IOpH.1\wlecKoi1 O1'BeTCTBeHHOCTH opra- HOB H .1\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH npe.1\no.rraraeT HCnOJIb30- BaHHe .1\H<p<pepeHI.\HpOBaHHOrO nO.1\XO.1\a K HCCJIe.1\YeMoi1 MaTeplUL IIpH TaKOM nO.1\XO.1\e MbI HeH30e)KHO CTaJIKHBaeMCH C np06JIeMoi1 KJIaCCH<pHlffiI.\IUI IOpH.1\H- 'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH j'Ka3aHHbIX cy6'beKTOB, CO.1\ep)KaHHe KOTOpOi1 CO- CTaBJIHIOT .1\Ba OCHOBHblX Bonpoca. Bo-nep6bIX, <pOpMHpOBaHHe TeOpeTH'leCKI1X npe.1\CTaBJIeHHi1 06 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH opraHoB 11 .1\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H Tpe6yeT onpe.1\eJIeHI1H COOTHoweHHR OTBeTCTBeHHocrH YKa3aHHbIX cYO'beKTOB C 01'- .1\eJIbHbIMI1 (H3BecTHbIMH npaBOBoi1 HaYKe) BI1.1\aMH IOpH,!(H'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH H, B03MO)KHO. onpe,lleJIeHI1R ee O1'HOCHTeJIbHO caMOC1'ORTeJIbHoro MeCTa B CHCTeMe IOpH,!(H'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. 31'0, B03MO)KHO, n03BOJIHT orrpa- HH'lI1Tb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB 11 .1\OJI)KHOcrHblX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHI1R 01' CneI.\H<pH'leCKI1X oc06eHHocTei'i pa3JIH'lHbIX BH,!(OB oTpaCJIeBoi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH. IIo3ToMY nepBbli1 Bonpoc, Ha KOTOpbli1 npe,!(cTOI1T Hai1TI1 01'- BeT, C<POPMYJIHpyeM CJIe.1\YlOll1HM 06pa30M: MO)KeT JII1 6bITb 06oco6JIeHa B CH- creMe IOpH,!(H'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Bo061l1e O1'BeTcrBeHHocTb opraHoB H ,!(OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, MO)KeT JIH OHa npeTeH.1\OBaTb Ha onpe,lleJIeHHYIO BH.1\OBYIO cnel.\l1<pHKY H KJIaCCI1<pHl.\l1pOBaTbCH KaK caMO- croHTeJIbHbli1 BI1.1\ IOpI1.1\J1'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH'? BO-IJ1TWPbIX, J\a)Ke nOBepxHocTHbli1 aHaJII13 COl.\l1aJIbHblX 11 <PYHKI.\110HaJIb- HbIX cBH3ei'i opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, a TalOKe ,!(eikTBYlOll1ero 3aKO- Ho,!(aTeJIbcrBa npHBO,!(HT K npe,llnOJIO)KeHHIO 0 BHYTpeHHei1 HeO,!(HopOJ\HOCTH IOpl1.1\l1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H ,!(OJI)KHOCTHbiX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJIeHHH. 3TI1M npeJ\flOJIO)KeHl1eM Bbl3B8.H BTOpoi1 BOnpoc, Cyrb K01'Oporo CO- CTOI1T B CJIel\JlOll1eM: MO)KeT JII1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 ,!(OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ \.0 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R 6b1Tb .III1<P<PepeHI.\HpOBaHa H eCJIl1 ,!(a, TO KaKl1e OC-  HOBaHHH Moryr 6bITb nOJIO)KeHbl B OCHOBY ee «BHYTpeHHefl» KJIaCCH<pHKal.\l.M? 
TaKHM 06pa30M, nepe):\ HaMH ):\Be OTHOCHTeJIbHO CaMOCTOHTeJIbHble npo- 6JIeMbI. IIepBaR - 3T0 KJIaCCH<pHKaI.\HR IOpH):\H'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH BO- 061l\e H onpe):\eJIeHI1e BH):\OBbIX OC06eHHocTei1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 OpraHOB 11 ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHR (eCJIJ.I TaKOBble CYll\eCTBYIOT). BTOpaR - BH)'TpeHHRR KJIaCCH<pHKaI.\HR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OpraHOB H ):\OJI)K- 144 HOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR PeWeHHe nOCTaBJIeHHbIX npo6JIeM I1MeeT He TOJIbKO TeopeTI1'leCKOe, HO H npHl\JIa,l\HOe 3Ha'leHl1e. OHO n03BOJIHT Hai1nl OTBeT Ha BOnpoc 0 l.\e.necoo6pa3HO- CTI1I1 o6DeKTI1BHoi1 06YCJIOBJIeHHOCTI1 cpopMJ.lpOBaHHR B 3aKOHo):\aTeJIbCTBe HO- BbIX (cneI.\H<pH'leCKHX) HOpMaTHBHbIX KOHCTpYKI.\I1i1 IOpl1):\H'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH opraHOB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JI111\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR I1JIH )Ke, Ha06o- poT, OTKa3aTbCR OT :noro. omlpaTbCR (HcnOJIb30BaTb) Ha CYll\eCTByKJll\He OTpac- JIeBbIe Bl1):\bI IOpl1.1ll1'leCKoi'"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 11 HMelOll\l1eCR npaBOBbIe Mexa- HH3MbI. IIpH 3TOM MorYT 6bITh peweHbI J.I cyry60 TeOpenl'leCKHe np06JIeMbI. Oll- HOi1 113 HHX RBJIReTCR CI1CTeManl3aI.\HR OCHoBaHHi'"1 KJIaCCJ[(j)J1KaI.\HH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCnl opraHOB MeCTHoro caMOYllpaBJIeHI1R 1.II1X 1l0JI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\. TaKaR nOCTaHOBKa np06JIeM, nOM HMO 06'beKTHBHOH He06xOlll1MOCTH, 06YCJIOBJIeHa ell\e pR):\OM npl1'lI1H. Bo-nep6btX, B HayqHblx ny6.!U1KaI.\I1RX y)Ke npe):\npJIHI1MaJIHCb nOnblTKI1 OOOCHOBaHl'IR BJ!):\OBOi1 cnel.\l1<pI1KI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H ):\OJI)KHOCT- HbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR, n03TOMY MbI He MO)KeM OCTaBHTb 6e3 BHI1MaHHR paHee BbICKa3aHHbIe CY)K):\eHI1R no ):\aHHOMY Bonpocy. Bo-emOpbtX, C MOMeHTa npJIHRTHR <peJjepaJIbHOrO 3aKOHa ,,06 061l\I1x npJIHl.\llIIaX OpraHI13al.\HI1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R B POCCI1HCKOi1 <pe):\e- pal.\l1H» OT 28 aBrycTa 1995 r. NQ 154-<p3 H 3aKpenJIeHI1R B HeM 061l\I1X npJIH- I.\JIIIOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 opraHOB 11 JjOJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHHR MeXaHI13M OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH y)Ke llBa)l(J(bI CYll\eCTBeHHO H3MeHRJICR. ::ITO CBI111eTeJIbCTByeT 06 OTC)'TCTBHH Y 3aKOHOllaTeJIR 'leTKoi1 KOHl.\enl.\JII1 npaBOBoro perYJIHpOBaHI1R OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 YKa3aHHbIX cy6ceKTOB. 'lTO, BepORTHee Bcero, npoHCXO):\I1T 113-3a OTC)'TCTBHR COOTBeTCTBYlOll\ei1 TeopHH. TaKaR HeCTa611JIbHOCTb 3aKOHo):\aTeJIbCTBa H OTC)'TCTBI1e CKOJIbKO-HI16Y):\b C<pOPMl1pOBaBwei1cR TeOp1111 Tpe6YeT OCMbICJIeHI1R OTBeTCTBeHHocnl opra- HOB 11 ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR B KOHTeKCTe nOCTaB- JIeHHoi'"1 npo6JIeMbI. B-mpembUX, 3aKOHOlllTeJIb, a BCJIe1l3a HHM H Y'leHbIe KJIaCCH<pl1l.\l1pOBa- JII1 OTBeTcrBeHHocTb opraHOB 11 ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HHR Ha OTJjeJIbHbIe BI1.l1bI (<pOpMbI)'45. IIpl13TOM B HaY'lHoi1 JII'ITepaType npo- ):\OJI)KaeT coxpaHRTbCR 3Ha'll'ITeJIbHaR HeonpeJjeJIeHHOCTb B OCHOBaHHRX Ta- Koi'I KJIaCCH<pI1KaI.\I1I1, Ol.\eHKax H xapaKTepl1CTHKe OTJjeJIbHbIX BI1110B OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H llOJI)KHOCTHbIX JIIII! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR. Pa3pa60TKa np06JIeMbI KJIaCClI<pHKal.\l1l1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1U MecrHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R 1l0JI)KHa 6bITb OCHOBaHa Ha He- KOTOpbIX HCXOllHblX 1I0JIO)KeHI1RX. IIoJIHoTa H BceCTopOHHOCTb ee HCCJIellOBa- HI1R Tpe6YeT npe)K):\e Bcero <pOpMl1pOBaHHR npe):\cTaBJIeHI1R 06 06'beKTe KJIac- r-- Cl1<pHKaI.\JII1, a CJIellOBaTeJIbHO, npHMeHeHHR CHCTeMHoro no):\xoJja. JJ:0 He- -::t 
):\aBHero BpeMeHI1 B IOpl1):\l1qecKoi't HaYKe npeo6JIa):\a.rra TeH)\eHI.IIUI paCCMaT- pl1BaTb np06JIeMbI IOpl1):\l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, OmlpaHCb I1CKJIlOql'lTeJIb- HO Ha perneHHble B npaBOnpHMeHI1TeJIbHblX OpraHaX ):\eJII1KTbI, a 3aTeM, KOM- MeHTI1PYH COOTBeTCTBYlOll1ee 3aKOHo):\aTeJIbCTBO, BbIBO):\J.lTb onpe):\eJIeHI1H KaTeropl1i1. B pe3YJIbTaTe I1HTeHCI1BHoro npOHI1KHOBeHI1H n03HaHI1H B CYll1- HOCTb COl.\l1aJIbHbIX HBJIeHl1i't 11 npOl.\eCCOB CTaJIO B03MomHbIM paCCMaTpl1BaTb pH):\ CJIOmHblX COl.\l1aJIbHO-npaBOBbIX HBJIeHl1i't KaK CHCTeMY. B KaqeCTBe CI1C- TeMbl HCCJIe.I\YeTCH npaBO, nOJ!J.ITl1qeCKaH opraHI13al.\HH 06ll1ecTBa, ynpaBJIe- Hl1e, OT):\eJIbHble npaBOBbIe I1HCTI1Tj'Tbl. B IOpl1):\l1qeCKOH HaYKe CI1CTeMHbli1 MeTO):\ npl1MeHHeTCH npl1 113yqeHHI1 IOpl1):\l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H ):\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH KaK HB- JIeHl1e Boo61l1e 11 KaK 06'beKT KJIaCCI1<pI1KaI.\HI1 B qaCTHOCTI1 npe):\CTaBJIHeT CO- 6oi"1 CJIOmHYIO CI1CTeMY, CI1CTeMHbli1 06'beKT. TaKOH no):\xo):\ K ee BOCnpl1HTl11O H)'mHO OTHecnl K 06111I1M MeTO):\OJIOrHqeCKI1M npl1Hl.\l1naM I1CCJIe):\OBaHHH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTl1 opraHOB H ):\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH 146. IIpl1CTynaH K CJ.1CTeMHOMY aHaJII13Y arBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ):\OJImHOCT- HbIX JII1I.\ MeCTIIOrO caMoynpaBJIeHl1H KaK HBJleHHH, MbI npl1HJ.1MaeM B KaqeCTBe HCXO):\HOi1 qx,pMYJIHpoBKY nmmnm Cl1CTeMbl B npaBe KaK 06'beKTJ.1BHOro 06'be):\J.1- HeHI1H «no co):\epmaTeJIbHbIM npl13HaKaM onpe):\eJIeHHblX npaBOBblX 'ffiCTei"1 B CTpyKTypHO ynOpHJ\OqeHHOe l.\eJIocrnoe e):\J.1HCTBO, o6JIa):\alOll1ee OTHOCI1TeJIbHOi1 caMOCTOmeJIbHOCTblO, YCTOi1qI1BOCTblO H aBTOHOMHOCTblO <j:JYHKI.\110HJ.1poBa- HHH» 147. HaM npe):\cTaBJIHeTCH He06xo):\I1MbIM ):\onOJIHI1Tb AaHHoe onpe):\eJIeHl1e YKa3aHlleM Ha TO, qTO CI1CTeMa CKJIa):\blBaeTCH 113 KOMnOHeHTOB, B3aI1Mo):\ei"ICTBl1e KOTOpblX nopom.n:aeT HOBbIe I1HTerpaUIBHble (CI1CTeMHble) KaqeCTBa, He npHCY- 06 148 C 1l111e ee pa3)'10111llM . yu.!HOCTb CHCTeMHoro no):\Xo):\a COCTOI1T B pacnpOCTpa- ... 14 HeHl111 pal.\110HaJIbHOrO perneHJ.lH AJUI O):\HOI1 qaCTJ1 CI1CTeMbl Ha ):\PYTl1e IIpl1113yqeHI111 CI1CTeMbI npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .l\OJImHO- CTHblX JII1I.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H HymHo Hai"ITI1 npl1Hl.\l1mlaJIbHOe e):\J1HCTBO 06pa3YlOll1HX ee 3JIeMeHTOB. Cl1CTeMHoe e):\I1HCTBO ):\aHHoi1 npaBO- BOi1 arBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BblpamaeTCH npem.l\e Bcero B e):\MeTe, MeTo):\e npa- BOBoro pery JIl1pOBaHI1H 11 cBoe06pa3HbIX npl1Hl.\l1naX . OCHOBHblM <j:JaKTopOM, I1HTerpaTI1BHbIM CBOi1CTBOM, 06pa3YlO1l111M CI1CTe- MY IOpl1):\l1qeCKoi"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ):\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, HBJIHeTCH npe):\MeT npaBOBoro perYJIl1pOBaHJ.lH, T.e. Te 06- ll1eCTBeHHble OTHorneHHH, KOTopble Henocpe):\cTBeHHo I1CnbITblBaIOT B03):\eH- ... 151 CTBJ.le IOpl1):\l1qeCKOJ.1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 CKJIa):\bIBaIOTCH no):\ ee BJlI1HHl1eM IIpc):\MCT npaBOBoro pcr).JIUpOBaHIIH - 3TO OCHOBHOi1 MaTepHaJIbHbli1 npl1- 3HaK, onpe):\eJIHlOll1l1i"1 Bce OCTaJIbHble CJ.1CTeMHble CBOi"ICTBa IOpl1.l\l1qeCKoi"1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ):\OJImHOCTHblX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. CBOe06pa3l1e OTHOlIleHI1i1. perYJIl1pyeMblx I1HCTI1TYTOM npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ):\OJI:!KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, COCTOI1T B TOM, qTO OHI1 B03HI1KalOT B oc060i1 c<j:Jepe :!K113HI1 061l1eCTBa, KOTOPYIO KOH- CTI1TYI.\J.1H pcp onpe):\eJIHeT KaK «MeCTHoe caMoynpaBJIeHl1e». MeCTHoe caMO- 0::> ynpaBJIeHHe npe):\CTaBJIHeT C060H l.\eJIOCTHYIO CI1CTeMY 061l1eCTBeHHbiX OTHO-  rneHI1i"I, CBH3aHHbIX C caMOCTOHTeJIbHbIM 11 no):\ CBOIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb perne- 
HHeM HaCeJIeHHeM HenOCpe):\CTBeHHO H (I1JIH) 'lepe3 OpraHbI MeCTHOrO caMoyn- paBJIeHHH BOnpOCOB MeCTHOrO 3Ha'leHHH I1CXO):\H 113 I-IHTepeCOB HaCeJIeHHH C Y'leTOM I1CTOpH'leCKI-IX 1-1 HHbIX MeCTHbiX Tpa):\HI.\HM. MeCTHOe caMoynpaBJIe- HHe - 3TO He TOJlbKO o6.rracTb rpa)l():laHcKoi1 caMOCTOHTeJIbHOCTH H 06ll.\eCT- BeHHoi1 aKTHBHOCTH HaCeJIeHHH, HO H cnel.\l1<pI-I'leCKHi1 ypOBeHb BJIaCTH, opra- HH3al.\HOHHbIe <pOpMbI OCYll.\eCTBJIeHI-IH KOTOpOi1 onpe):\eJIHIOTCH HaCeJIeHl1eM MYHl1l.\l1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H caMOCTOHTeJIbHO Ha OCHOBe <pe):\epaJIbHOrO 3aKOHo):\aTeJIbCTBa, 3aKOHo):\aTeJIbCTBa cy6'beKTa Poccl1ikKOi1 <pe):\epaI.\HH 152. IIpe):\MeToM npaBoBoro perYJIl'lpoBaHHH ):\aHHoro npaBoBoro I1HCTHTyra HBJIH- IOTCH 06ll.\eCTBeHHbIe OTHOlIleHI1H, B03HHKalOll.\11e B CBH3H C oCYll.\eCTBJIeHl1eM MeCTHbiM HaCeJIeHHeM npaBa Ha MeCTHoe caMoynpaBJIeHl1e nocpe):\cTBoM <pOpMHpoBaHHH OpraHI130BaHHbix JIemTHMHbIX CTPYKTYP - opraHoB 11 ):\OJI)K- HOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. Co):\ep)KaHHe 3THX 06ll.\eCTI;eHHblx oTHolIleHHM CBH3aHO: Bo-nepBblx. C ):\eHTeJIbHOCTblO BbI60pHbIX 11 ):\pymx op- raHOB H ):\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JII1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH no ynpaBJIeHl110 MY- HHI.\I-maJIbHOM C06CTBeHHOCTblO, 06'beKTaMI-I MYHHl.\l-InaJIbHOrO X03HMCTBa, <pOpMHpOBaHHeM H I1CnOJIHeHI1eM MeCTHoro 61O):\)KeTa, a TalOKe IIHOM HX ):\eH- TeJIbHOCTblO B pa3JIH'lHbIX c<pepax MeCTHOJ1 )KH3HI1, HanpaBJIeHHOM Ha 06ec- ne'leHHe )KH3He):\eHTeJIbHOCTII HaCeJIeHHH MYHIII.\HnaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHH, pelIleHHe ):\pymx BOnpocoB MecTHoro 3Ha'leHHH. BKJIIO'laH BonpocbI OpraHl13a- I.\I1H cBoeM pa6oTbI, MYHHl.\lmaJIbHOM CJlY)K6bI; BO-BTOPbIX, C peaJlH3al.\HeM op- raHaMH MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH OT):\eJIbHbIX rocy):\apcTBeHHblx nOJIHOMO- 'lHii, nepe):\aHHbIX 11M B COOTBeTCTBl-I11 C 3aKOHo):\aTeJlbCTBOM. MO)KHO BbI):\eJlHTb CJIe):\YIOll.\He OTJIH'lHTeJlbHble npl13HaKI1 OTHOlIleHHii, COCTaBJIHIOll.\I1X npe):\MeT npaBoBoro perYJll1pOBaHI-IH IOpII):\H'leCKOM OTBeT<.1'- BeHHOCTII opraHoB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH: - B03HHKalOT B CBH311 C <pOpMl1pOBaHHeM. <PYHKI.\I'IOHl-lpOBaHHeM H npeKpa- ll.\eHl1eM nOJIHOMO'lHJ1 opraHoB H ):\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTIioro caMoynpaBJleHIIH; - I1MeIOT JIOKa.TIbHO-TeppI1TOpl1aJIbHblJ1 xapaKTep. TaK KaK B03HI-IKaIOT Ha MeCTHOM (MYHHl.\lmaJIbHOM) TeppHTOpllaJIbHOM ypoBHe B npol.\ecce oCYll.\ecTB- JIeHHH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH HaCeJIeHHeM MYHl1l.\lmaJIbHbIX 06pa30Ba- HHM, reppl1TopHH KOTOpbIX ycraHaBJlHBalOTcH B COOTBeTCTBI1I1 C <pe):\epaJIb- HbIM 3aKOHOM H 3aKOHo):\aTeJIbCTBOM cy6'beKTOB POCCI1MCKOM <pe):\epaI.\HI1; - HOCHT KOMnJleKCHblii xapaKTep, nocKoJlbKY CBH3aHbI C peaJII13al.\HeM 3a- ):\a'l H <PYHKI.\Hi1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H: 3KOHOMH'leCK0J1, 61O):\)KeTHO- <pHHaHCOBOM, COI.\HaJIbHO-KYJIbTypH0J111 ):\p.; - 06H3aTeJIbHbIMI1 cy6'beKTaMH 3THX oTHOlIleHHJ1 BblcTynalOT JIH60 opra- HbI, JlI-I60 ):\OJDKHOCTHbIe JlHl.\a MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. CJle):\YIOll.\HM CBOJ1CTBOM, IIHTerpHpYIOll.\HM CHCTeMY IOpH):\H'leCKOJ1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H ):\OJI)KHOCTHbIX Jll1l1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHR B e):\llHoe l.\eJIoe, RBJIReTCR MeToA npaBoBoro perYJIl-lpOBaIlI-lR. OH BKJIIO'laeT B ce6H CJle.nyIOWHe OCHOBHble 3JIeMeHTbI: a) o6wee npaBOBoe nOJlO)KeHl-le cy6'beKTOB (T.e. npaBocy6'beKTHOCTb, npaBOBOM cTaTYc); 6) OCHOBaHI-IH B03- HI-IKHOBeHI1R, H3MeHeHI1R 11 npeKpall.\eHI-IH npaBOOTHOlIleHHJ1 (T.e. IOpl1):\I-I'leC- 0\ KHe <paKTbI); B) cnoc06 <pOpMHpOBaHIIH cy6'beKTI1BHbIX npaB H IOpl1):\I1'leCKHX -::t 
06H3aHHocTei1; r) XapaKTep IOpl1):\l1qeCKI1X Mep B03):\ei1cTBI1H (T.e. CaHKI.\I1i1), crrOC060B, OCHOBaHI1i=i 11 rrpOl.\e):\ypbI rrpl1MeHeHI1H CaHKI.\I1i1 153. r.rraBHbIM B MeTO):\e rrpaBOBoro perYJUlpoBaHI'IH, T.e. ero orrpe):\eJUIIOIl\I1M 3J1e- MeHTOM, HBJUleTCH 061l\ee IOpl1)(l1qeCKOe rrOJlO)KeHl1e cy6"beKTOB, I1X rrpaBoBoi1 craTYC. B HeM KOHl.\eHTpl1pyJOTCH Bce OC06eHHOCTII MeTO):\a rrpaBoBOro perYJlI1- poBaHI1H B l.\eJlOM 154. OC06eHHOCTb IOpl1):\WlecKoro rrOJlOmeHI1H yqaCTHI1KOB rrpa- BOOTHOllleHI1i=i, CKJla.l\bIBaIOIl\I1XCH B rrpOl.\eCce peaJlI13a1.\1111 HOpM, YCTaHaB.JII1Ba- 101l\I1X IOpl1):\l!qeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 ):\OJDKHOCTHbIX JlID.\ MecrHoro caMoyrrpaBJI5I1H, COCTOI1T B TOM, qTO OHI! HBJlHIOTCH OTHOllleHI1HMI1 BJIaCTI1 11 rro):\qllHeHI1H . BJlacrHblMlI rrOJlHOMOql!HMI1 06.rra):\alOT MeCTHoe HaCeJleHl1e 11 rocy):\apcTBeHHble opraHbl, KCITOpbIM rrpe):\ocTaBJleHO rrpaBO Ha pellleHl1e Borrpo- ca (Jl1160 yqacrl1e B ero pellleHI1I1) 0 B03JIO)KeHIII! Mep IOpJ1):\l1qecKoi=i OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 11 Herrocpe):\cTBeHHoi1 peaJlI13a,-\I1J.1 3TOro pellleHI1H. IIO):\OTqeTHOi=i CTOpO- HOi1 BblcryrralOT opraHbl11 ):\OJDKHocrHbIe Jll1l.\a MecrHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHIIH. Oc06eHHocTb MeTo):\a rrpaBoBOro perYJll1pOBaHl1H IlHcTI1TYTa IOpl1):\l1qec- Kofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 ):\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JlIII.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJle- HI1H OTpa)KeHa 11 B xapaKTepe IOpl1):\l1qeCKIIX <j:JaKToB, C KOTOpbIMI1 CBH3blBa- eTCH B03HI1KHOBeHI1e, 113MeHeHI1e 11J111 rrpeKpall\eHl1e ):\aHHbIX rrpaBOOTHOllle- HJ.li1. Peqb l1):\eT 06 OCHOBaHI1HX IOpl1):\lIqeCKoi1 OTBeTcrBeHHocTI1, KOTopble, KaK 6blJl0 OTMeqeHO BbIlIIe, He CBO):\HTCH TOJlbKO K rrpaBOHa pYllleHI1IO. IIo <popMe Bblpa)KeHI1H IOpl1):\J.lqeCKl1e <j:JaKTbl, C KOTOpblMI1 CBH3blBaeTCH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb opraH, 11 ):\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JlI1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H, HBJlH- IOTCH CJlO)KHbIMI1 ,T.e. HOpMbI rrpaBa rrpe):\rrOJlaralOT HeCKOJlbKO 06CTOH- TeJlbCTB, B cOBoKyrrHocTI1 HBJlHIOIl\I1XCH OCHOBaHlleM B03HI1KHOBeHI1H, 113Me- HeHI1H, rrpeKpall\eHIIH COOTBeTCTBYlOll\l1X OTHollleHIli1. MeTO):\ rrpaBOBoro perYJll1pOBaHI1H IOpll):\l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII opra- HOB 11 ):\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JIl1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHIIH <popMllpyeT cy6"beK- TI1BHble rrpaBa 11 IOpl1):\l1qeCKlle 06H3aHHocTI1 yqaCTHIIKoB ):\aHHblx rrpaBooT- HOllleHl1fl rrocpe):\cTBoM rrpl1MeHeHI1H rrpl1eMOB, I1crroJlb3yeMblx OTpaCJleBblMI1 IlHcrllTYTaMI1 OTBeTcrBeHHOCTI1. IIpaBoBble HOpMbl, perYJll1pYlOll\l!e OTHO- lIIeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII opraHOB 11 ):\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JlI1I.\ MecTHoro caMoyrr- paBJleHI1H, B03JIaralOT Ha cy6"beKTOB 06H3aHHOCTb He HapYlllaTb YCJlOBIIH ):\e- HTeJlbHOCTII rro peaJlJ.l3al.\IIJI c06CTBeHHoi1 KOMrreTeHl.\l1JI B pellleHl111 Borrpo- COB MeCTHoro 3HaqeHI1H, OCYll\eCTBJleHl111 OT):\eJlbHbIX rocy):\apCTBeHHbIX rroJl- HOMOqlli1. K TaKHM YCJlOBI1HM MO)KHO OTHeCTlI: 1) 3<p<j:JeKTI1BHOCTb oCYll\ecrBJIeHIIH cooTBeTcTBYlOll\lIX rrOJlHOMOqllfl, T.e. 06H3aTeJlbHOCTb ):\OCTI1)KeHI1H orrpe):\eJleHHblX rrOJlO)KJ.lTeJlbHbIX pe3YJlbTaTOB ):\eHTeJIbHOCTII rro yrrpaBJleHl110 ):\eJIaMI1 MecTHoro co06ll\ecTBa, 0CYll\ecrBJIeHI1IO OT):\eJlbHbIX rocy):\apCTBeHHbIX rrOJlHOMOql1fl; 2) C06J1IO):\eHl1e 3aKOHHOCTII (B 1II11pOKOM CMblCJle cJloaa) B ):\em'eJlbHocrl1 rro oCYll\eCTBJleHl11O COOTBeTCTBYIOIl\I1X rrOJlHOMOqlli1; 3) ):\06pocoBecTHoe I1CrrOJlHeHlle 06H3aTeJlbCTB, B03HI1KaIOIl\HX 113 rpa)KAaH- CKo-rrpaBOBbIX OTHOllleHI1i1. II03TOMY MeTO):\ rrpaBOBoro perYJll1poBaHIIH ):\aHHbIX OTHOllleHI1i1 OCHOBblBaeTCH Ha KOMrrJleKCHOM I1CrrOJlb30BaHI1I1 COBOKyrrHOCTI1 o rrpl1eMOB CIJOpMl!pOBaHI1H cy6"beKTlIBHbIX rrpaB 11lOplI,lJ.JlqeCKI1X 06H3aHHocrei1 B  OXpaHIneJlbHblX rrpaBOBblX OTHOllleHI1HX. 
IIpI1eMbl cpOpMI1pOBaHI1H cy6'beKTI1BHbIX npaB I1 IOpI1J\I1qeCKJ.lX 06H3aH- HOCTeM B J\aHHbIX npaBOBblX OTHOllleHI1HX onpeJ\eJlHIOT I1 pa3J1J.1qHblM XapaK- Tep B3aI1MOCBH3eM Me>KJ\Y cy6'beKTaMI1. OTHOllleHJ.lH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opra- HOB I1 J\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepeJ\ HaCeJleHI1eM I1 rOCYJ\apCTBOM, KaK OTMeqaJlOCb, XapaKTepI13YIOTCH KaK OTHOllleHI1H BJlaCnl I1 nOJ\qI1HeHI1H. OTHOllleHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 COOTBeTCTBYIOII.\I1X OpraHOB I1 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ nepeJ\ rpa>KJ\aHaMI1, (pI13I1qeCKJ.lMI1 I1lOpI1J\I1qeCKJ.lMI1 JlI1- l\aMI1 CTpOHTCH Ha npJ.lHl\I1ne paBHOnpaBI1H CTOpOH. Cnel\mpI1QeCKOM QepTOM, XapaKTepI13YlOlI.\eM cBoeo6pa3I1e MeTOJ\a npa- BOBOrO perYJlI1pOBaHI1H IOpI1J\I1QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I OpraHOB I1 J\OJl>KHO- CTHblX JlI1l\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHJ.lH HBJlHeTCH TaK>Ke TO, QTO npaBa I1 06H- 3aHHOCTJ.I cy6'beKTOB npaBOOTHOllleHHM, 6YJ\YQI1 B 0611.\eM BJ.lJ\e npeJ\YCMOT- peHbl B npaBOBblX HOp MaX, HenocpeJ\CTBeHHO peaJlI13y1OTCH nocpeJ\CTBOM Tex I1J1H I1HbIX aKTOB npaBOnpI1MeHeHI1H. 1'1 HaKOHel\, nOCJleJ\HHH cYlI.\eCTBeHHaH oco6eHHocTb MeTOJ\a IOpHJ\I1QeC- Koi'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB I1 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJle- HI1H, Ha Halll B3rJlHJ\, Bblpa>KaeTCH He CTOJlbKO B xapaKTepe IOpI1J\HQeCKHX Mep B03J\eHCTBI1H Ha OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6ceKTa, CKOJlbKO B cnoco6ax, OCHO- BaHHHX H npOl\eJ\ype I1X npI1MeHeHI1H. TaKI1e IOpI1J\I1QeCKI1e Mepbl B03J\eiicT- BI1H, KaK npeKpall.\eHI1e nOJlHOMOQI1M opraHa, OCYlI.\eCTBJlHlOlI.\ero BJlaCTHble (PYHKl\I1I1, OT3blB J\enyraTa, npI13HaHI1e Toro I1J1I1 J.lHOro HOpMaTI1BHOrO npa- BOBOro aKTa npOTI1BOpeQall.\l1M 3aKOHY, B03J10>KeHI1e 06H3aHHocnl B03Mec- TI1Tb ylI.\ep6, npI1QI1HeHHbli'! He3aKOHHbIMI1 J\eHCTBHHMJ.I Tex I1J1I1 I1HbIX cne- l\I1aJlbHbIX cy6'beKTOB, npI1MeHHIOTCH He TOJlbKO B c(pepe MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHI1H. OHI1 l11I1pOKO I1CnOJlb3YIOTCH, B QaCTHOCTI1, B c(pepe J\eMCTBI1H ny6J1I1QHOro npaBa. B STOM nJlaHe apceHaJllOpI1J\HQeCKI1X Mep B03J\eiicTBHH Ha OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6'beKTa B c(pepe J\eiicTBI1H npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I1 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H He OpHrHHaJleH. Cnel\mpHKOH 06J1a.L\alOT cnoc06bl, OCHOBaHHH I1 npol\eJ\ypa I1X npI1MeHe- HI1H. HanpI1Mep, paCCMaTpI1BaH cnoco6bl npI1MeHeHI1H IOpI1J\I1QeCKI1X Mep B03.L\eHCTBI1H, Heo6xoJ\I1MO 06paTI1Tb BHI.IMaHI1e Ha TO, KOMY npI1HaJ\Jle>KI1T I1HI1l\I1aTJ.lBa npI1BeJ\eHI1H B J\eMCTBI1e STI1X Mep. B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT TOro, KTO I13 ynoJlHOMOQeHHblX cy6'beKTOB BblcTynaeT I1HI1laTOpOM npI1MeHeHI1H Tex I1J1I1 I1HbIX IOpI1J\I1QeCKI1X Mep B03J\eMCTBI1H, pa3J1I1QaIOTCH I1 OCHOBaHI1H, I1 npOLleJ\ypa HX npI1MeHeHI1H. TaK, comaCHO CT. 71-74 <1>eJ\epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa -06 o611.\I1x npI1Hl\I1naX OpraHI13al\l1I1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B POCCI1H- CKoii <1>eJ\epal\I1I1» OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r. NQ 131-<1>3 nOJlHOMOQHH opraHa I1J1I1 Bbl6opHOro J\OJl>KHOCTHOro JlI1l\a MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H MorYT 6blTb npe- Kpall.\eHbl KaK no I1HI1l\I1aTI1Be I1 nocpeJ\cTBoM rocYJ\apcTBeHHo-BJlacTHoro B03.L\eHCTBI1H Ha OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6ceKTa, TaK I1 no I1HI1laTI1Be HaCeJleHHH MYHI1l\I1naJlbHOro o6pa30BaHI1H. B J\aHHOM cJlYQae OCHOBaHI1H I1 npol\e.L\ypa npeKpall.\eHI1H nOJlHOMOQHM cooTBeTcTBYlOlI.\ero opraHa I1J1I1 J\OJI>KHOCTHOro JlI1l\a cYlI.\ecTBeHHo OTJlI1QalOTCH B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT Toro, KaKoe OTHOllleHI1e IOpI1J\I1QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB I1 .L\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JIJ-ILI MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHI1H peaJlI13yeTcH - OTHOllleHI1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepeJ\ rocy- .-- J\apcTBoM HJlH nepeJ\ HaCeJleHI1eM MYHHl\lmaJlbHoro o6pa30BaHI1H. If'\ 
OCHOBaHH.fI H npOe,l\ypa npJ.lMeHeHJ.I.fIlOpH,l\I1'IeCKHX Mep B03,l\eHCTBH.fI B ,l\aHHOH C(pepe pa3H.fITC.fI J.I no «TeppHTOpHaJIbHOMY" npH3HaKY. 3TO 03Ha'la- eT, 'lTO YCTaB H HopMaTHBHbIe npaBOBble aKTbl MYHHJ.lnaJIbHoro 06pa30Ba- HJ.I.fI MorYT 3aKpenJI.fITb CneH(pJ.l'leCKHe, npJ.lMeH.fIlOIl!HeC.fI TOJIbKO B npe- ,l\eJIax 3Toro MYHHJ.lnaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHH.fI OCHOBaHH.fI H npoe,l\YPY npJ.lBe,l\eHH.fI B ,l\eHCTBHe IOpJ.l,l\J.I'leCKJ.lX Mep B03,l\eHCTBJ.I.fI Ha opraHbI J.I ,l\OJI>KHOCTHbIe JIHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHH.fI. IIo,l\06HOH cneI1CpHKoH 06- JIa,l\alOT npe>K,l\e Bcero OCHOBaHJ.I.fI J.I npoe,l\ypa npJ.lBe,l\eHH.fI B AeHcTBHe IOpH,l\H'leCKHX Mep B03,l\eiicTBH.fI Ha OTBeTCTBeHHoro cy6'beKTa B OTHOllleHJ.I- .fiX npaBoBoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHoB H ,l\OJI>KHOCTHbiX JIJ.I MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHH.fI nepe,l\ HaceJIeHHeM MYHHJ.lnaJIbHoro 06pa30BaHJ.I.fI. B COOT- BeTCTBHH co CT. 71 <1>e,l\epaJIbHoro 3aKOHa OT 6 OKT.fI6p.fl 2003 r. N 131-<1>3 nOp.fl,l\OK H YCJIOBH.fI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Bbl60pHbiX ,l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JIH MeCT- HOro calOynpaBJIeHH.fI nepell HaCeJIeHJ.leM OnpelleJI.fIlOTC.fI YCTaBaMH MYHJ.I- HnaJIbHbiX 06pa30BaHHi1:. K 'lJ.lCJIY Ba>KHeHIIII1X CHCTeM006pa3YIOIl!I1X CBOHCTB IOpHlIH'leCKOii OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H ,l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JIH MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHH.fI 01'- HOC.fITC.fI Tal()l(e ee npllHl..\lmbI, T.e. OCHOBOnOJIaralOIl!He nOJIO>KeHH.fI, 3aKpen- JIeHHbIe B HopMax npaBa, YCTaHaBJIHBalOIl!He npaBoBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb H Bblpa>KalOIl!He cOllep>KaHHe lIaHHOrO npaBoBoro HHCTIITYTa. OHH HaH60J1ee .fIpKO, peJIbe(pHO OTpa>KalOT xapaKTep IOpHlIJ.I'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B TeopHH IOpHlIH'leCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He BbI3blBaeT COMHeHHH nOJIO- >KeHHe, 'ITO ee npJ.lHl1nbI KOHeHTpl1pOBaHHO BbIpa>KalOT ee COllep>KaHl1e. Ha- H60JIee eMKHe XapaKTepHCTHKH npHHI..\HnOB IOpHlIl1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH pa3pa6OTaHbI H.A. fcl.lWZa1io.M, A.E. J7Y1i€ebt, H.C. Ca.....w14€1i1W, M.x. CPa- PYKmU1ib!. OnpelleJIeHHbIH HHTepec npe,l\CTaBJI.fI1OT paCCY)K,lIeHJ.I.fI HKJIaC- CH(pJ.lKaH.fI npHHHnOB E.H. MapKoeou. OHa OTMe'laeT BeCbMa CYIl!eCTBeH- HYIO ,l\eTaJIb: npHHl1nbl npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OTpa>KalOT CneI..\H(pHKY ,l\aHHorO HHCTIITYTa. 3TO n03BOJI.fIeT KOHCTpYHpOBaTb B npe,l\eJIax 06Il!eH CHC- TeMbl J.lHCTHTYTa nO,l\CHCTeMY npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Cnel..\HaJIbHblX cy6'beKTOB a,l\MHHHCTpaTHBHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII - 1I0JI>KHOCTHbIX JIH. }:(aH- Ha.fl nOllCJ.lCTeMa, no MHeHHIO E.H. MapKoeou, OCHOBaHa Ha npHHJ.U1IIaX npaBO- BOH OCHOBbl, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a KOHKpeTHoe ,l\e.flHHe, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a BHHY, nepCOHaJIbHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, HeOTBpaTi-IMOCTH, copa3MepHOCTH HaKa3aHI1.f1 CO,l\e.flHHOMY, B3aHMOHaJIO>KeHH.fI HeCKOJIbKHX BHlIOB OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH, rJIaCHOCTH, onepaTHBHOCTH, paBeHCTBa nepe,l\ 3aKOHOM, nOBbIIIleHHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I B 3aBHCI1MOCTH OT 3aHJ.lMaeMOH ,l\OJI>KHOCTH'57. B HaCTO.flIl!ee BpeM.fI CneH(pHKa H CO,l\ep>KaHHe npaBOBofl OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH xapaKTepH3yeTC.fI CJIellYIOIl!HMI1 OCHOBHbIMH npl1Hl..\lmaMH: OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb JIHillb 3a ,l\e.flHHe. .fIBJI.fIlOIl!eeC.fI npOTHBonpaBHblM; npe3YMnl..\H.fI HeBH- HOBHOCTH; npl1HHn cnpaBe,l\JII1BOCTH; npHHI..\Hn 3aKOHHOCTH; npl1HHn l..\eJIe- co06pa3HocTH HnpHHI.!Hn HeOTBpaTHMOCTH'58. }:(aHHa.flKJIaCCI1CpHKaI.(H.fI .fIB- JI.fIeTC.fI Hal160JIee pacnpoCTpaHeHHOH. N OCHOBOH OnTI1MaJIbHOrO nO,l\XO,l\a K BbUleJIeHHIO npHHI.(HnOB npaBOBOH OT- If'\ BeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H 1I0JI>KHOCTHbIX JII1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHH.fI .fIB- 
JIHeTCH OTpameHI1e B HI1X CneI1<pI1KJ.I ,l\aHHOrO npaBOBOrO I1HCTIITYTa 159. Cne- J.lcpI1Ka I1 CO,l\epmaHI1e IOpI1,l\WfeCKOii arneTCTBeHHOCTJ.I OpraHOB I1 ,l\OJImHOCT- HblX JIJ.I MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H XapaKTepI13YeTCH (HapHJ1Y C npI1Be,l\eH- HblMI1 Bblllle) CJIeAYIOll!I1MJ.I npJ.lHwmaMI1. 1.0TBeTcTBeHHocTb 3a pe3YJIbTaTI1BHOCTb ,l\eHTeJIbHOCTI1 no OCYll!eCTB- JIeHI110 I1CnOJIHHeMbIX (PYHKJ.lM. 3TOT npI1HI1n nO,l\'fepKI1BaeT cneJ.I(pI1KY OCHOBaHI1M IOpI1,l\J.I'feCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I1 ,l\OJImHOCTHblX JII1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH. 2. }:(I1(p(pepeHJ.laI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHI1eM MYIU1I1I1aJIb- Horo 06pa30BaHI1H, rocY,l\apCTBOM, (pI13I1'feCKI1MI1 I1 IOpI1,l\I1'feCKI1MI1 JII1aMI1). }:(aHHbIM npJ.lHI1n 03Ha'faeT CYll!eCTBOBaHJ.le Tpex pa3JII1'fHbIX no cBOeii npJ.lpo- .lie OTHollleHm\ OTBeTCTBeHHblM cy6'beKTOM B KOTOpblX BblcTynalOT opraHbl I1 ,l\OJImHOCTHble JIJ.Ia MeCTHOrO calOynpaBJIeHI1H. 3, ABTOHOMHOCTb OCYll!eCTBJIeHI1H IOpI1l[I1'feCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opra- HOB J.I ,l\OJ1mHOCTHbIX JII1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHl1eM. Oc- HOBHblM COl[epmaTeJIbHblM MOMeHTOM :noro npI1HI1na HBJIHeTCH TO, 'I TO B CO- OTBeTCTBI1J.1 C (pel[epaJIbHbIM 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbCTBOM J.I 3aKOHaMI1 cy6'beKTOB POCCJ.lMCKOii <1>eAepaJ.lI1 OpraHI13aJ.lOHHbIe <POpMbl IOpl1,WI'feCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB J.ll[OJImHOCTHbIX JII1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepe,l\ Ha- CeJIeHI1eM MYHI1QI1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H onpe,l\eJIHIOTCH 3TI1M HaCeJIeHI1eM B YCTaBe MYHI1QI1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H 11 peaJII13YlOTCH caMOCTOHTeJIbHO; 4, CO'feTaHJ.le nepCOHaJIbHOM I1 KOJIJIeKTI1BHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. Bbl,l\eJIe- HJ.le ,l\aHHoro npI1HI1na 06YCJIOBJIeHO 3aKOHOl[aTeJIbHbIM 3aKpenJIeHI1eM B CI1CTeMe opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJ1eHI1H J.lHl[I1BJ.I,l\yaJIbHbIX J.I KOJIJIeK- TI1BHblX cy6DeKToB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JII1Q I1 opraHoB MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. 5. rJIaCHocTb. 3TOT npI1HQI1n npel[nOJIaraeT OfJIaCKY <paKTa npI1MeHeHJ.lH Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, ,l\OBel[eHI1e l[0 CBel[eHI1H HaCeJIeHI1H 06cToHTeJIbcTB ,l\eJIa I1 TOro, KaKJ.le MepbI 6bIJIJ.I npI1HHTbI. 6. B3al1Mo,l\eiicTBI1e OTpaCJIeBblX BJ.ll[OB IOpI1,l\I1'feCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. TaKoe B3aI1Mo,l\eMCTBI1e HaXO,l\I1T CBoe BbIpameHI1e B TOM, 'I TO HOpMbl MYHI1- I1naJIbHoro npaBa KpOMe c06cTBeHHblx Mep 06eCne'fI1BaIOTCH MepaMJ.I OT- BeTcTBeHHOCTI1, 3aKpenJIeHHbIMJ.I B ,l\pYfI1paCJIHX pOCCI1MCKOrO npaBa (rpaml[aHCKOro, a,l\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHoro I1 T.n.) . J'I3J10meHHble paHee xapaKTepI1CTI1KI1 npe,l\MeTa 11 MeTOl[a npaBoBoM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB I1 ,l\OJ1mHOCTHbIX JIJ.I MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH pacKpbIBalOT cO,l\epmaHI1e ,l\aHHblX I1pI1HI1nOB. }:(pyrI1MI1 CJIOBaMI1, 3TI1 npI1HImbI CCPOPMYJIl1pOBaHbI Ha OCHOBaHI1I1 I13JIOmeHHOro I1 npel[CTaBJIHeT- CH HeeJIeco06pa3HbIM nOBTopmbcH, nO,l\pOOHO pacKpbIBaH KamllblM B OT- ,l\eJIbHOCTI1. B TO me BpeMH YHCHeHI1e 3TI1X npI1HQI1nOB BamHO l[JIH nOHI1Ma- HI1H CYll!HOCTJ.I npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I1 AOJImHOCTHbIX JII1 Me- CTHOro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH, nOCKOJIbKY B cOBoKynHocTJ.I OHI1 npellCTaBJIHIOT CO- 60M ee 060611!eHHYIO XapaKTepI1CTI1Ky161. AHaJII13 YKa3aHHbiX npJ.lHI1nOB I1MeeT TaKme 3Ha'fHTeJIbHYIO eHHOCTb llJIH TeOpeTI1'feCKOM pa3pa6OTKI1 "" KOHKpeTHbIX BonpOCOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 COOTBeTCTBYIOll!I1X opraHOB J.I If'\ 
,I:(OmKHOCTHbIX JH11.\ J.I HaY'lHO 060CHoBaHHoro npJ.lMeHeHJ.I.fI Ha npaKTJ.lKe Ta- Koii rapaHTJ.IJ.I 3aKOHHOCTJ.I, KaK J.lHCTJ.lTYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B npaBe 162. 3Ha- 'leHJ.le npJ.lH1.\J.InOB IOpl1,I:(J.I'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I OpraHOB J.I ,I:(OJI>KHOCTHbIX JIJ.l1.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI, KaK J.I 06ll!enpaBOBblX npJ.lH1.\J.lnOB, COCTOI1T B TOM, 'ITO, 06JIa,I:(a.fl cBoiicTBaMJ.I nepBJ.I'lHOrO nO,I:(pa3,I:(eJIeHJ.I.fI npaBOHOpMa- TJ.lBHbIX npe,I:(nJ.lCaHI1M, npI1H1.\J.lnbl BMeCTe C TeM .fIBJI.fIIOTC.fI Crep>KHeM npaBO- BOM CJ.lCTeMbl, Toii «>KJ.l3HeHHOM CI1JIOM", KOTOpa.fl CB.fI3bIBaeT BCe ee nO,I:(pa3- ,I:(eJIeHI1.f1 B eAI1HbIM OpraH113M'63. IIepe'lJ.lcJIeHHble BbllIle OCHOBHble J.lHTerpaTJ.lBHble Ka'leCTBa rrpe,I:(Onpe- ,I:(eJI.fIIOT 1.\eJIOCTHOCTb IOpl1,I:(J.I'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I OpraHOB J.I ,I:(OJI>KHOCT- HblX JII11.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI KaK CI1CTCMM. IIO,I:(p06Hoe paCCMOTpe- HJ.le :,JJJeMeHTOB, COCTaBJI.fIlOlIlJ.lX CJ.lCTeMY npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opra- HOB J.I ,I:(OJ!>KHOCTHbIX JIJ.l1.\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI, n03BOJI.fIeT Bbl.flBJ.lTb Cne1fulj3uKY cUCme.lltb! 6 1fMO,,1t. 1.lOpl1,I:(I1'leCKa.fl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB 11 ,I:(OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII11.\ MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI HOCJ.IT ny6JIJ.I'lHO-BJIaCTHblii XapaKTep. OHa YCTaHaBJlJ1- BaeTC.fI 3aKOHOM (YCTaBOM) 11 Onl1paeTC.fl Ha B03MO>KHOCTb roCY,I:(apCTBeHHoro (a,I:(MJ.lHJ.lCTpaTI1BHoro JIJ.l60 cY,I:(e6Horo) npJ.lHY>K,I:(eHI1.f1. 2, J1HCTI1TYT IOpJ.l,I:(J.I'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHoB J.I ,I:(OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII11.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI J.lMeeT CBOM cne1.\J.lcpJ.l'leCKI1ii npe,I:(MeT npa- BOBOro perYJIJ.lpOBaHJ.I.fI, T.e. Te 06ll!eCTBeHHble OTHOlIleHJ.I.fI, KOTopble Heno- cpeAcTBeHHo J.lcnblTblBalOT B03,I:(eikTBJ.le IOpJ.lAI1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 J.I 164 CKJIa,I:(blBaIOTC.fI nOA ee BJIJ.I.fIHJ.leM . 3, Cnoc06bl npaBOBoro perYJIJ.lpOBaHI1.f1 (1.\eHTpaJII130BaHHOe, pemOHaJIb- Hoe, JIOKaJIbHoe) J.I MeTO,I:( npaBoBoro perYJIJ.lpOBaHJ.I.fI HOC.fIT KOMnJIeKCHblM xapaKTep. Cne1.\I1(lmKa MeTO,I:(a npaBoBoro perYJlJ'!pOBaHJ.I.fIlOpl1,I:(J.I'leCKOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB J.I 1\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JIJ.l1.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI Bblpa>KaeTC.fI B CO'leTaHJ.IJ.I ny6JIJ.I'lHO-npaBoBoro J.I 'laCTHOnpaBoBoro perYJlJ'!- pOBaHJ.I.fI COOTBeTCTBYIOll!J.lX OTHOlIleHI1M. I1CnOJ!b30BaHJ.I.fI OTpaCJIeBblX MeTO- ,I:(OB npaBoBoro perYJIJ.lpOBaHJ.I.fI. 4.0npe,I:(eJIeHHOM cne1.\J1(lmKOM OTJII1'laIOTC.fI IOpJ.l,I:(I1'leCKJ.le <paKTbl, C KO- TOpblMI1 CB.fI3aHO B03HI1KHOBeHJ.le, 113MeHeHI1e 11 npeKpall!eHJ.le OTHOlIleHI1M OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, a TaK>Ke np01.\eAypa I1X YCTaHOBJIeHI1.f1 J.I peaJIJ.l3a1.\1111 HOpM, YCTaHaBJII1BalOll!J.lX npaBoBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB J.I ,I:(OJ!>KHOCT- HblX JII11.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI B HeranlBHOM acneKTe. 5. CBoe06pa3J.1e npJ.lH1.\J.lnOB IOpJ.l,I:(I1'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB J.I ,I:(OJ!>KHOCTHbIX JII11.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.I.fI TaK)Ke npJ.l,I:(alOT ,I:(aHHOMY J.lHCTJ.lTYTY onpe,I:(eJIeHHYIO cneUI1(lmKY. 6. <POpMl1pOBaHJ.le J.I CPYHK1.\110Hl1pOBaHl1e J.lHCTI1TYTa npaBOBoM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB J.I AOJI)KHOCTHbIX JIJ.lU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1.f1 npe,I:(Yc- MaTpJ.lBaeT J.lCnOJIb30BaHJ.le BceH CJIO)KJ.lBlIleHC.fI B pOCCJ.liicKOM npaBe CJ.lCTe- Mbl IOpl11\J.I'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I, BKJIIO'la.fl OTpaCJIeBble BJlllbl. II03ToMY cOBoKynHocTb BI11\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB J.I 1\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII11.\ MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHI1.f1 TO>Ke 06pa3yeT CJ.lCTeMY, 3JIeMeHTbI KOTOpof! Haxo- 1\.fITC.fI BO B3aJ.lMOCB.fI3J.1 J.I B3aJ.lMO,I:(eMCTBJ.lJ.I. 4-  
IIoCJIe onpe,l\eJIeHHH 06'beKTa KJIaCCH(lmKal.lHH KaK CHCTeMbI H Bbl- HBJIeHHH ee Cnel.lH<pWleCKHX 'lepT B l.leJIHX peWeHHH nOCTaBJIeHHbIX l"Hoceo- JIOHI'leCKIfX 3alla'l HaM npellCTOIfT paCCMOTpeTb B03MO>KHOCTH pacnpe,l\eJIe- HHH COCTaBJIHlOll!HX CHCTeMbl Ha rpynnb! Ha OCHOBaHHJ.I KaKOrO-JIH6o 06ll!ero npl13HaKa C TeM, 'lTo6bI 06HapY>KHTb CYll!eCTBeHHble Ka'leCTBa nO,l\pa311eJIe- HHH nICTeMbI. Ho 3,l\eCb MbI onHTb CTaJIKHBaeMCH C Heo6xOllHMOCTbIO IfC- nOJIb30BaHHH HeKoero HHCTpYMeHTapHH - nOHHTHi1Ho-KaTeropHaJIbHoro an- napaTa, KOTOpbIi1 6bI n03BOJIHJI «pa3JIO>KWI'b no nOJlO'lKaM» nO,l\pa3,l\eJIeHHH CHCTeMbI H HX CYll!eCTBeHHbIe Ka'leCTBa. B CHJIY npH'lHH, KOTopbIe 6Y,l\YT 1'13- JIO>KeHbI HH>Ke, STOT annapaT ,l\OCTaTO'lHO 06WHpeH 1'1 He BCer,l\a 'leTKO onpe- ,l\eJIeH, n03TOMY CJIe,l\YIOIl!HH nYHKT IfCCJIe,l\OBaHHH nOCBHll!eH peWeHJ.l1O 3a- ,l\a'lH ero ynopHllO'leHHH H CJ.lCTeMaTH3aLlHI1. 2.2, OCHOBHblE KA TEroPlt11t1 KJlACCIt1<PIt1KAl..\1t11t1 IOPIt1AIt14ECK0t1 OTBETCTBEHHOCTIt1 opr AHOB It1 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlIt1l..\ MECTHOro CAMOynPABJlEHIt1}1 KJIaCCH(lmKal.lHH (KaK npJ.leM HaY'lHOrO nooHaHHH I65 ) npe,l\CTaBJIHeT co- 6oi1 pacnpe,l\eJIeHHe MaCCbI H3Y'laeMbIX HBJ/eHHi1 Ha rpynnbI no KaKHM-JIH60 061l!HM npH3HaKaM 166 . 8TO cnoco6 o6HapY>KeHJ.lH CYll!eCTBeHHbIX Ka'leCTB nO,l\pa3AeJIeHJ.lH CHCTeMbl, OT KOTOpbIX 3aBHCHT ,l\pyrHe, npOJ.l3BO,l\Hble OT HHX npH3HaKH Ka)K,lloro 1'13 3JIeMeHTOB nO,l\pa3AeJIeHHi1 167 . TpallI1l.(HOHHO B npa- BOBOi1 HaYKe TaKHe «rpynnbI», HJIH «nO,l\pa3,l\eJIeHHH CIfCTeMbI», HMeHYIOT BH,l\aMH IOpHllH'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. J'IMeHHo «BH,l\ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I» CTaHOBHTCH l.leHTpaJIbHOii KaTeropHei1 KJIaCCHcpHKal.lHH IOpH,l\H'leCKoi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHoCTH Boo61l!e H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 1'1 llOJI>KHOCTHbIX JIHl.l MeCTHoro calOynpaBJIeHHH B 'laCTHOCTH. B npaBoBoi1 HaYKe npHHHTO nO,l\pa3,l\eJIHTb (KJIaCCJ.I(PI1l.\HPOBl:) IOpH,l\J.I- 'leCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha BHllbI no pa3JIH'lHbIM OCHOBaHHHM . IIo npH- 3HaKY OTpaCJIeBoi1 npHHallJIe>KHOCTH BbIlleJIHIOT TaKHe B!llbI OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TH, KaK ra>KllaHCKO-npaBOBaH, yrOJlOBHaH, a,l\MHHHCTpaTHBHaH, 11I1Cl.lHnJIH- HapHaH 16 H,l\p. IIo xapaKTepy npaBoHapyweHHH H COllep>KaHHIO CaHKl.ll1i13a ero COBepweHIfe pa3JIH'la1OT wTpacpHYIO (KapaTeJIbHYIO) If npaBOBOCCTaHOBIf- TeJIbHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 170. J'IHorlla IOpH,l\H'leCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no,l\- pa3,l\eJIHIOT Ha ny6m'I'lHO-npaBOBYIO H 'laCTHOnpaBOBYIO 171. CYll!eCTBYIOT If llpyme KJIaCCJ.I(pHKal.lHH (0 HHX noi"l,l\eT pe'lb HH>Ke). EOJIee TOro, OTpaCJIeBbIe BH,l\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH TalOKe nO,l\pa3,l\eJIHIOTCH Ha BH,l\bI. TaKoe ,l\eJIeHHe Ha- _ 0172 HOOJIee HpKO npe,l\CTaBJIeHO B OTHOWeHHI1 KOHCTHTYl.lHOHHOH H rpa>K,l\aH- CKo-npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH I73 . O,l\HaKO, KaK nOKa3bIBaeT aHaJII13 JIHTe- paTypbI no KOHCTHTYl.lHOHHOMY H MYHHl.lHnaJIbHoMY npaBY, KaTeropHH «BI1)1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW> opraHOB If ,l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JIHl.l MecTHoro caMoynpaBJ/eHHH Hepe,l\KO KOHKypHpyeT C ,l\pymMH KaTerOpHHMI1, TaKHMIf, KaK «cpopMa OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTH» J.I «Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH». TaK, B O,l\HHX CJIY'laHX aBTopbI HC-   
nOJlb3yIOT OTpaCJleBYIO KJlaCCI1(pI1KaI11O IOpI1,L\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, npI1 3TOM OTmK,L\eCTBnHlOT nOHHTI1H «BI1,L\bI» H «(popMbl» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B ,L\PyrHx CJlY'laHX nO.l\ BH,L\aMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH nOHI1MaIOTCH KOHKpeTHbIe Me- pbI npI1Hym,L\eHI1H, T.e. MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I (HanpI1Mep, npeKpaIl!eHHe nOJIHOMO'lHH OpraHa MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H, B03MeIl!eHI1e Bpe,L\a), 'ITO, O'leBI1.l\HO, He comacyeTCH C OTpaCJIeBOH CTPYKTYPOH npaBa H COOTBeTCTBYIO- Il!efl KJlaCCI1<pI1KaHeH IOpH,L\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, a OTpacneBble BH,L\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpJ.lBaIOTCH B Ka'leCTBe ee CPOPM'74. TaKoe CMellle- HI1e I1 np0I13BOJIbHOe HCnOJIb30BaHI1e nOHHTI1H CBI1,L\eTeJIbCTByeT, C O,L\HOH CTO- pOHbl. 0 «pe(pJIeKCHBHOCTH», 0 CTpeMJIeHI1I1 aBTopOB TO'lHO CJIe,L\OBaTb (pop- MYJII1pOBKaM, 3aKpenJIeHHbIM B HOpMaTJ.lBHbIX aKTax 175, a C .l\pyroH - 0 He,L\O- CTaTO'lHOfl HaY'lHOfl pa3pa6OTaHHOCTI1 caMOH np06JIeMbl. ITOCJIe!\Hee 06CTOH- TeJIbCTBO 06YCJIoBJII1BaeT He06xo,L\I1MOCTb ynopH,L\O'leHI1H COOTBeTCTBylOIl!erO nOHHTI1HHOrO pH,L\a, onpe,L\eneHHH CO,L\epmaHI1H nepe'lI1CJIeHHbIX KaTeropHH I1 HX COOTHOllleHI1H .l\pyr C .l\pyroM (no KpaHHeH Mepe B aBTopCKOM BI1,L\eHI1H). OT,L\enbHble BI1.11bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, I1X oc06eHHOCTI1 I1 T.n. llII1pOKO OTIl1- caHbl KaK B 06Il!eH reopJ.lI1 npaBa, TaK H B OTpaCJIeBblX IOpI1,L\I1'leCKI1X HaYKax. O,L\HaKO caMa KaTeropHH «BI1.l\ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» B npaBOBOH HaYKe HBJIHeT- CH npaKTI1'leCKI1 Hepa3pa60TaHHOfi. BI1,L\ B nOrI1'leCKOM CMbICJIe - nOHHTI1e, KOTopoe 06pa3yeTcH nocpe,L\CTBOM Bbl,L\eJIeHHH 06ll1J.1X npH3HaKOB B I1H.l\I1BH,L\yaJIbHbIX nOHHTI1HX I1 caMO I1MeeT 06Il!I1e npJ.l3HaKI1 C ,L\pyrI1MI1 BI1,L\OBbIMI1 nOHHTI1HMI1. JI13 nOHHTHH BI1,L\a MO- meT 6blTb 06pa30BaHo ellie 60Jlee llII1pOKOe nOHHTI1e - nOHHTHe pO.l\a. B CBOIO O'lepe,L\b, nOHHTHe BI!)\a MomeT CTaTb no OTHOllleHI11O K nO.l\'lI1HeHHbIM nOHH- 176 TJ.lHM TaKme nOHHTI1eM pO,L\a B npaBOBOH HaYKe npe,L\npI1HI1MaIOTCH OT.l\eJIbHbIe nOnblTKI1 nOHCHIITb, Ka- KOH CMbICJI CJIeJ\YeT BKJIa!\bIBaTb B nOHHTI1e «BI!)\ IOpl'!)\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeH- 177 HOCTI1» , O,L\HaKO, no CYIl!eCTBY, aBTopbl Be.nyT pe'lb 0 KpI1TepHHX, no KOTO- pblM CJIe,L\yeT nO,L\pa3,L\eJIHTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha BI1,L\bI. TaK, HanpHMep. no MHeHI110 H.M. KOJ!OC060U, ,L\JIH npI13HaHI1H Toro 11J1I1 I1HOrO BI1.11a OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 B Ka'leCTBe caMOCTOHTeJIbHOrO Heo6xo,L\I1MO HaJlI1'lHe cOBoKynHocTH npI1- 3HaKOB: J.ITO'lHI1KI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOC::H, cneJ[(J.I'leCKHe OCHOBaHJ.lH ee Haii'n- neHI1H, cY0"beKThI, CI1CTeMa CaHKI1J.1 I1 OCOObII1 nOpH,!10K J.lX npJ.lMeHeHHH . M./l,. Illu'/ta.nnu'/ta c'lIITaeT, 'ITO Kam,L\OMY BI1,L\Y IOpH,L\I1'leCKOfl OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1, HecMoTpH Ha COBna,L\alOlI.\I1e MOMeHTbl, npJ.lcYIl! CBOH OC06bIH BH,L\ IOpI1C,L\I1K110HHOro npoecca. ComaCHO OTpaCJIeBOH KJlaCCJ.I<pI1KaI1I1 IOpJ.l- ,L\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OHa BbI,L\eJIHeT: KOHCTI1TYOHHbIH, rpam,!1aH-     179 CKI1I1, TPY,L\OBOI1, a.l\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHbII1 I1 yroJIOBHbII1 npoecc ITo MHeHJ.l1O E.C. Illyzpu'/tou, BJ.I,L\bI IOpJ.l,L\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII pa3- JIJ.I'laIOTCH cJIe,L\YIOIl!HMI1 npH3HaKaMI1 180 . 1. HopManlBHoe perYJII1pOBaHI1e. ITOpH,L\OK npI1BJIe'leHHH K OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH perYJIHpYeTCH HopMaMH pa3JII1'lHbIX oTpacJIefI. 2.0cHOBaHI1H. «OcHOBaHI1eM nlO60ro BI1,L\a IOpI1,L\I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOC- \.0 TH HBJIHeTCH npaBoHapYllleHI1e. OCHOBaHI1eM yronoBHofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH  HBJIHeTCH npecTynJIeHHe, rpam,L\aHCKO-npaBoBoH - rpam,L\aHcKO-npaBoBoH 
,I:(eJH1KT, ,I:(I1C1.\I1nJIHHapHOH - ,I:(I1C1.\I1nJII1HapHbIH npocTynoK, KOHCTI1TY1.\I10H- HO-npaBOBOH - KOHCTI1TY1.\110HHO-npaBOBOH ,I:(eJII1KT, MYHI11.umaJIbHO-npaBO- BOH - YTpaTa ,I:(OBepi1H». 3. IlIKaJIa B3bICKaHI1t1:. TaK, 3a a,I:(MI1HI1CTpanIBHbIH npocrynOK MO>KeT 6blTb HaJIO>KeH, HanpI1Mep, lIlTpa(p, npl1MeHeHbl HCnpaBI1TeJIbHble pa60Tbl, a,I:(MI1Hi1CTpaTI1BHbIH apeCT, 3a .wIC1.\mJII1HapHbli" npocTynoK - BbiroBOp, CTpOrl1H BblrOBOp, 3a rpa>K,I:(aHCKO-npaBoBof, ,I:(eJIHKT - neHH, B03Mell.\eHI1e Bpe,I:(a. B pe3YJIbTaTe YTpaTbl ,I:(OBepI1H Bbl60pHoe ,I:(OJI>KHOCTHOe JII11.\O MO>KeT 6blTb OT03BaHO; pe3YJIbTaTOM npI1BJIe'leHI1H K KOHCTI1TY1.\I10HHO-npaBoBof, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MO>KeT 6blTb, Hanpl1Mep, npJ13HaHI1e aKTa He3aKOHHblM, npeKpall.\eHi1e nOJIHOMO'li1H opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH i1 T.A. 4. IIopH.I!oK npI1BJIe'leHI1H K 01BeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I. Bonpoc 06 yroJIOBHOf, OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTi1 pelIlaeTCH B cY,I:(e6HOM nOpHJJ:Ke, a,I:(MHHi1CTpaTHBHaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb HaJIaraeTCH B a,I:(MJ.lHI1CTpaTI1BHOM I1JIi1 B cY,I:(e6HOM nOpH,I:(Ke, Bonpoc 06 O'I'3blBe Bbl60pHbiX ,I:(OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII11.\ pelIlaeTCH Ha BceHapo,I:(HoM roJIOCOBaHJ.lJ.I. 6. Kpyr JII11.\ I1JIH opraHoB, HaJIaralOlI.\J.lX B3bICKaHI1e. TaK, yrOJIOBHOe HaKa- 3aHI1e HaJIaraeTCH TOJIbKO B cY,I:(e6HOM nOpHJJ:Ke; ,I:(i1C1.\l1nJII1HapHOe B3blCKaHI1e HaJIaraeTCH PYKoBO,I:(HTeJIeM HJII1 BbllIleCTOHlI.\l1M B nopH,1\Ke nO,I:('lI1HeHHOCTi1 ,I:(OJI>KHOCTHbIM JIJ.l1.\OM; a,I:(MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHoe HaKa3aHI1e HaJIaraeTCH, HanpI1Mep, a,I:(MI1HJ.lCTpaTI1BHOH KOMI1CCI1ef" opraHaMJ.I BHYTpeHHI1X ,I:(eJI; Bonpoc 06 OT3bl- Be Bbl60pHbiX JII11.\ (paKTJ.I'leCKJ.I pelIlaeTCH HaCeJIeHHeM HenOCpe,I:(CTBeHHo. 7. <popMa npaBOnpl1MeHI1TeJIbHOrO aKTa. B yrOJloBHoM npaBe - 3T0 npI1ro- BOp, B a,I:(MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOM - nOCTaHOBJIeHI1e, B rpa>K,I:(aHCKOM - pellleHHe cy- ,I:(a. Pe3YJIbTaTbi ro.nOCOBaHI1H 06 OT3blBe Bbl60pHoro .l!OJI>KHOCTHOro .nJ.l1.\a ()(POpMJIHIOTCH pelIleHJ.leM COOTBeTCTBYlOlI.\eH I136l1pa Te.nbHof, KOMI1CCJ.lI1 I1 T.,I:(. 8. CPOKI1 Ha.nO>KeHI1H, i1Cno.nHeHHH i1 nOrallleHI1H B3bICKaHJ.lH. TaK, a,I:(MH- HI1CTpaTI1BHOe B3bICKaHI1e Ha.naraeTCH B Te'leHI1e ,I:(BYX MeCH1.\eB C MOMeHTa COBeplIleHI1H, a npl1 ,I:(.nHlI.\eMCH - B re'leHI1e ,I:(BYX MeCH1.\eB C MOMeHTa COBep- llleHI1H, ,I:(J.lC1.\l1n.nJ.lHapHOe B3bICKaHi1e - B Te'leHl1e MeCHl.(a C MOMeHTa 06Ha- pY>KeHJ.lH. CpOK noralIleHHH a,I:(MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHoro I1 ,I:(I1C1.\J.lnJII1HapHoro B3bIC- KaHI1M COCTaB.nHeT O,I:(HH ro,I:(, CpOK nOrallleHI1H CY,I:(HMOCTJ.I - ,I:(O BOCbMH .neT. 9. IIepe,I:( KeM HacTynaeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. HanpHMep, yro.noBHaH, a,I:(MH- HHcTpaTHBHaH, KOHCTi1TY1.\I10HHO-npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HacTynaeT ne- pe,I:( rocY,I:(apCTBoM, rpa>K,/\aHcKo-npaBoBaH - nepe,I:( (pH3I1'leCKHMH I1.nI1lOpJ1- ,I:(H'leCKHMJ1 JIJ11.\aMi1, MYHJ11.\Hna.nbHo-npaBOBaH - nepe,I:( HaCeJIeHHeM MYHJ1- 1.\HnaJIbHoro 06pa30BaHi1H. MO>KHO I1 ,I:(aJIbllle npJ.lBO,I:(I1Tb aHaJIOrI1'lHble npI1Mepbl, O,I:(HaKO, KaK no,I:(- 'lepKHBa.nocb Bblllle, I1 ,I:(pyrne aBTopbl, no cYll.\eCTBY, Be,I:(YT pe'lb 0 KpI1Tepl1- HX, no KOTOpblM c.neAyeT nO,I:(pa3,I:(e.nHTb IOpH,I:(I1'lecKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha BI1,I:(bl. a He 0 CO,I:(ep>KaHHI1 paCCMaTpi1BaeMOH KaTerOpHI1. B TO me BpeMH cy- lI.\eCTBYIOIllI1e TeOpeTH'leCKI1e B033peHHH n03Bo.nHIOT 0606l1.\I1Tb CYll.\eCTBeH- Hble xapaKTepi1CTHKH ('lepTbl) cO.l!epmaHHH 3TOf, npaBoB0I1 KaTerOpl1I1. Ec.ni1 a6CTparI1pOBaTbcH OT 'laCTHOCTef, I1 nonblTaTbCH BbIHTJ1 Ha 60JIee BblCOKHM ypOBeHb 0606l1.\eHI1H (06l1.\eTeOpenl'leCKI1M YPOBeHb), TO MO>KHO npI1HTH K Bbl- t-- BOAY, 'ITO B!,1\ IOpI1,I:(I1'leCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - 3TO npaBOBaH KaTeropI1H, If'\ 
KOTOpa.fl 06pa3yeTc.fI Ha OCHOBe BbI,l\eJIeHI1.f1 oc06eHHocTeM (CYIl!eCTBeHHbIX Ka'IeCTB) CO,l\ep:1KaHI1.f1 11 (POPMbI OT,l\eJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB CI1CTeMbI IOpJ!)\I1'Iec- Koii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. IIpI1 3TOM I1MeHHO 0606Il!eHHe oc06eHHocTeM 11 TOro II ,l\Pyroro (cO,l\ep:1KaHI1.f1 I1 <pOPMbl) (POpMHpyeT nOH.fITI1e «BH,l\ IOpl1.l\I1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW>. TaKI1M 06pa30M, BHA IOpll,l\II'ICCIWn OTBCTCTBCHIIOCTH .MOJIC'/W OnpeaMUm'b 'IW'K npaeoey'/O '/(amezopu'/O, 6'bLpaJICa'/O'Uty'/O noOpa3aMe- 'liue '/OpuaWtec'KOU omeemcmee'li'l/Ocmu 'Ka'K J!6J!e'l/uJ! (cucmeJlt'bt), o6Jtaaa'/O- 'Utee oco6e'li'l/ocmJlfltu (cy'Utecmee'li'li'btJltu 'Ka 1 tecmetutu) coaepJICa'liuJ! u ifJop- Jlt'bt. }:(aHHa.fl ,l\e(pI1HI1I1.f1 Tpe6YeT nO.flCHeHI1.f1 Toro, 'ITO CJIe,l\yeT nOHI1MaTb no,l\ «cO,l\ep:1KaHI1eM» I1 «(POPMOM» IOpl1,l\I1'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. TepMIIH «cO,l\ep:1KaHlie OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII» Hepe,l\KO IICnOJlb3yeTc.fI npe,l\- CTaBIITeJI.fIMI1 KaK 06Il!eii TeOpHI1 npaBa. TaK I1 OTpaCJIeBblX IOpH,l\WleCKI1X Ha- YK npI1 pa3pa6oTKe np06JIeMaTI1KI1 IOpI1,l\I1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM. O.l\HaKO Bonpoc 0 TOM, KaKoii CMbICJI cJIe,l\YeT B BKJIallblBaTb B cooTBeTcTBYIOIl!ee no- H.RTl1e, OCTaeTC.fl OTKpbITbIM. HeJIb3.f1 cKa3aTb, 'ITO npI1'II1HOH 3TOro .fIBJI.fIeTC.fI HaY'IHa.fl ,l\I1CKYCCI1.f1 0 cO,l\ep:1KaHI1I1 KaTerOpI1I1 «co,l\ep:1KaHI1e IOpI1.11I1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTlI». ABTOpbl nonpocTY 06xo,l\.fIT 3TOT BOnpoc. AHaJIH3I1py.fl cOOTBeTCTBYIOIl!YIO IOplI,l\I1'IecKYIO JII1TepaTYPY, MbI npI1xo- ,l\I1M K BbIBO,l\y, 'ITO 'IaIl!e Bcero nOlI cOllep:1KaHI1eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nOHI1Ma- IOTC.fI KOHKpeTHble JII1l11eHH.fI (06peMeHeHI1.f1), KOTopbIe npeTepneBaeT npaBo- Ha PYIlll1TeJIb. J/IHorlla YKa3bIBaeTC.fI, 'ITO cOllep:1KaHHeM IOpI111I1'IeCKOM OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 BblcTynaeT rocY,l\apCTBeHHoe npI1HY:1K.11eHHe 181. B OT,l\eJIbHbIX CJIY'la.flx K «CTPYKTypHbIM 3JIeMeHTaM cOllep:1KaHI1.f1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII» OTHO- C.fIT ee OCHOBaHI1.f1, oeHKY ,l\e.flHH.fI (,l\e.flTeJIbHOCTII) I1 peaKHIO Ha Hero 182. He- KOTopbIe Y'IeHbIe YCMaTpHBalOT cO,l\ep:1KaHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B npoellYP- HOM (npoeccyaJIbHOM) pellleHI1I1. TaK, aBTOpbI KOMMeHTapI1.f1 K <Pe,l\epaJIbHO- MY 3aKoHY «06 06Il!I1x npI1HI1naX OpraHI13aI111 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHH.fI B POCCI1HCKOii <pellepaI1I1» nOlI pellaKI.1I1eM 1O.A. TuxoJl'tUpooa OTMe'IaIOT: «Collep:1KaHI1eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, HacTynalOIl!eM B pe3YJIbTaTe YTpaTbI 1l0- BepI1.f1, .fIBJI.fIeTC.fI pellleHI1e HaCeJIeHI1.f1 0 paccpopMI1pOBaHHI1 npeaBHTeJIb- Horo opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1.f1, YTpaTl1BllIero 1l0BepI1e» . R)plI,l\I1'IeCKa.fl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK npaBoBoe .fIBJIeHl1e npe,l\cTaBJI.fIeT C060M ellI1HCTBO cO,l\ep:1KaHH.fI I1 (poPMbI. COllep:1KaHl1e HeMbICJII1MO BHe (POP- MbI, B KOTOpoii OHO Bblpa:1KaeTC.fI. COllep:1KaHl1e eCTb «'ITO» B «KaK», T.e. TO, 'ITO HanOJlH.fIeT (POPMY, I13 'Iero OHa OCYIl!eCTBJI.fIeTC.fI 1B4 . rereJIb YTBep:1KllaJI: «IIpl1 paCCMOTpeHI1I1 npOTI1BOnOJIO:1KHOCTH Me:1KllY cpOpMOM H COllep:1KaHl1eM CYIl!eCTBeHHO Ba:1KHO He ynYCTI1Tb H3 BI1AY, 'ITO COllep:1KaHI1e He 6eccpopMeH- HO, a cpopMa OllHOBpeMeHHO H COllep:1KI1TC.fI B caMOM COllep:1KaHHI1, I1 npell- CTaBJI.fIeT c060ii He'ITO BHelliHee eMY. MbI 311ecb IIMeeM YllBoeHlIe cpOpMb!: BO- nepBblX, OHa, KaK pe(pJIeKTI1pOBaHHa.fl BHYTPb ce6.f1, eCTb cO,l\ep:1KaHI1e, BO- BTOpbIX, OHa, KaK HepecpJIeKTMpOBaHHa.fl BHrb ce6.f1, :CTb BelllHee 63pa3- JII1'IHOe llJI.fI cOllep:1KaHI1.f1 cYllleCTBOBaHI1e» . J13 3TOH llBOI1CTBeHHOH npl1- pO,l\bl (POPMbl BbITeKaeT, Bo-nepBblx, B03MO:1KHOCTb OTHOCI1TeJIbHO caMOCTO.fl- TeJIbHOrO I1CCJIellOBaHI1.f1 (poPMbl, BO-BTOPbIX, HeI136e:1KHOCTb BbIXO,l\a 3a npe- ,l\eJIbI c06cTBeHHo (popMbl no Mepe yrJIy6JIeHI1.f1 ee IICCJIe,l\OBaHI1.f1 1B6 . II03To- co  
MY TPYJ\HO I1, BepOHTHO, MeTO,L\OJIOrWleCKI1 HenpaBHJIbHO nblTaTbCH peIlHITb BOnpOC 0 «cO,L\ep>KaHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I», a6CTpamPYHCb OT ee (POPMbl. Ha 31'0 nOTeHI.lI1aJIbHOe 3a6JIY>KJ\eHl1e 06pall!aJII1 BHJ.lMaHI1e MHOrI1e TeOpeTI1KI1 npaBa. TaK, 1O.A. l{e1tUC06 OTMe'laJI: «IIpl1 pa3pa60TKe np06JIeM IOpl1.11I1'1eC- KOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 aBTOpbl Onl1palOTCH npeI1MYll!eCTBeHHO Ha HOpMbl MaTe- pl1aJlbHOrO npaBa. BMeCTe C TeM KaK CO,L\ep>KaHl1e HeMblCJII1MO BHe <pOPMbl, B KOTOpOM OHO Bblpa>KaeTCH, TaK 11 npaBO HeMbICJIJ.lMO BHe npOl.leccyaJIbHblX (POPM ero peaJII13allI1I1» 187. «ECJII1 >Ke B npe,L\MeT J.lCCJIe,L\OBaHI1H BOBJIeKaeTCH npol.leccyaJIbHOe npaBo, - nl1lIleT 0.3. J7eiicm, - TO MHome cnopHble BonpOCbl OTna,L\alOT CaMI1 c060M, TaK KaK caMa npol.le,L\ypa npI1MeHeHJ.lH JII060ro Bl'lJ\a caHKIM nOKa3blBaeT, 'ITO 3,L\eCb I1MelOT MeCTO rocYJ\apcTBeHHoe oCY>KJ\eHl1e H J\onOJIHlITeJIbHble 06peMeHeHI1H, B03JIaraeMble Ha npaBOHapYWJ.lTeJIH» 188. J'lcCJIe,L\OBaHHe <POpMbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH n03B0JlJ1T 60Jlee 'IeTKO O'lepnlTb ee cOJ\ep>KaHI1e. IIpl1CTynaH K peWeHl110 :noi1 3a,L\a'll1, Mbl npHHI1MaeM 3a pa60'lYlO mn0Te3y Te3HC 0 TOM, '-!TO CO,L\ep>KaHl1e IOpI1,L\H'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 CO- CTaBJIHIOT rocY,L\apCTBeHHaH (ny6JIH'IHO-npaBOBaH) Ol.leHKa (ocY>K,L\eHI1e) ,L\eH- HI1H (B pH!le CJIY'laeB - J\eHTeJIbHOCTI1) I1 ,L\OnOJlHlITeJIbHble 06peMeHeHI1H, B03- JIaraeMble Ha npaBoHapywHTeJIH. B (pI1JIOCOcpCKOM CMblCJIe (pOpMa eCTb BHeWHee O'lepTaHI1e, HapY>KHblii BH,L\, BHeWHee Bblpa>KeHl1e KaKoro-JlH60 cO,L\ep>KaHHH, a TaK>Ke BHYTpeHHee CTpOeHI1e, CTpYKTypa, onpe,L\eJIeHHbli1 I1 onpeJ\eJIHIOll!I1M nOpH.l\OK npe,L\MeTa HJII1 nopHJ\oK npOTeKaHHH npol.lecca 1B9. IIOCKOJlbKY cpopMa eCTb cnoc06 cYll!e- CTBOBaHHH H Bblpa>KeHI1H cOJ\ep>KaHI1H, (pOpMa IOpI1,L\I1'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 npeJ\cTaBJlHeT co6oM TO, B 'IeM OHa ce6H o6HapY>KHBaeT H cYll!eCTByeT. IIo Bonpocy 0 cOJ\ep>KaHJ.lH KaTeropHH «cpopMa OTBCTCTBCHHOCTH" B IOpI1,L\I1'1eCKOM HaYKe, TaK >Ke KaK I1 B OTHoweHHH ee BI1,L\a. HeT onpe!leJIeHHO- CTH. 0606ll!eHI1e cYll!eCTBYIOll!erO MHoro06pa3HH aBTopcKHX cY>KJ\eHHM, nO,L\xO,L\OB K paCCMaTpI1BaeMOii np06JIeMe n03BOJIHeT npI1iiTI1 K BbIBO,L\y 0 cy- ll!eCTBOBaHI1I1 B npaBoBOM HaYKe nHTH HanpaBJIeHHM B nOHHMaHHH (POPMbl IOpI1J\I1'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. IICpBOC HanpaBJICHIIC CBH3aHO C nOHHMaHHeM cpOpMbl IOpHI'IeCKOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK cpOpMbl Bblpa>KeHI1H Tex ,L\OnOJIHlITeJIbHbIX 06peMeHe- HHM, KOTopble B03JIaralOTCH Ha npaBoHapYWI1TeJIH. TaKoM nOJ\xo,L\ YTBep,L\I1JI- CH B rpa>K,L\aHCKO-npaBoBoi1 HaYKe. «IIo,L\ cpOpMOM rpa>K,L\aHCKO-npaBoBoH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH nOHI1MaeTCH (pOpMa Bblpa>KeHI1H Tex J\onOJIHHTeJIbHbIX 06pe- MeHeHHM, KOTopble B03JIaraIOTCH Ha npaBoHapYWI1TeJIH. rpa>K,L\aHCKOe 3aKO- HO,L\aTeJIbCTBO npe,L\ycMaTpI1BaeT pa3J1I1'1Hble cpOpMbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. OHa MO>KeT HacTynaTb B <ffMe B03Mell!eHHH y6bITKOB, YlIJlaTbl HeYCTOMKI1, no: TepI1 3a,L\aTKa I1 T.,!P' . IIpI1 STOll! npOI1CXO,L\1IT OTO>KJ\eCTBJIeHHe nOHHTI111 (pOpMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H caHKI.lI1H. «...B03Mell!e- HHe y6blTKOB Ha3bIBalOT 06ll!eM MepOM rpa>KJ\aHCKo-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTJ.I. .D:pyme (POPMbl rpa>K)\aHCKO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha3blBalOT cnel.lI1aJIbHbIMH MepaMH rpa>K,L\aHCKo-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW> 191. «Cy- ll!eCTByeT !lBe (POPMbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a HapyweHHe 06H3aTeJIbCTBa, I1Ha- 'Ie Ha3bIBaeMble HMYll!eCTBeHHbIMI1 caHKI.lI1HMH: Bo-nepBbIX, B03Mell!eHHe _  192 npl1'lHHeHHblX YOblTKOB I1, BO-BTOPbIX, ynJIaTa HeYCTOHKH» 0\  
KaK YKa3bIBaJIOCb BblllIe 193, TaKOe npe,l\CTaBJIeHI1e 0 (pOpMe OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 HaIIIJIO OTr9meHI1e I1 B paOTax no KOHCTI1TYI.\I10HHOMY I1 MHI1UI1- naJIbHOMY npaBY . 8TOT nOllXOll OblJI BOCnpI1H.fIT I1 HOpMOTBOp'feCK0I1 npaK- THKOM MYHI1I.\I1naJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1M. TaK, B CT. 66 YCTaBa ropo,!\a TYJIbI6bl- JIO 3aKpenJIeHo: «OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHoB 11 1l0JImHOCTHbiX JII11.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1.fI nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHI1eM ropo,l\a peaJII13yeTC.fI B BI1,l\e npaBa no- CJIellHerO Ha BblpameHI1e He,l\OBepI1.fI COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\I1M opraHaM I1 Bb160p- HblM 1l0JImHOCTHbiM JII1uaM. <popMaMI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,l\OJImHO- CTHblX JII1U MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1.fI .fIBJI.fIIOTC.fI OT3bIB llenYTaTa TYJIbCKOii ropollcKOM JJ:YMbl, 1l0CpO'fHOe npeKpall.\eHI1e nOJIHOMO'fI1ii TYJIbCKOM ropo,l\- CKOM JJ:YMbl I1JII1 fJIaBbl ropolla» 195. K 3TOMY HanpaBJIeHI110 T.fIrOTeeT n03I1UI1.fI aBTopOB. KOTopble I1CXOll.fIT I13 TOro, 'I TO TaKYIO (POPMY I1MeeT He caMa IOpI1,!\I1'feCKa.fI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, a ee Mepbl. «Bo Bcex CJIY'fa.fIX, - mlllIeT K.I1. AJlwp6e-Koe, - Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 JII1ua, nOllBeprHYToro rpam,l\aHcKo-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, Bblpa- maeTC.fI B MaTepI1aJIbHOii <popMe (neHI1, llITpa(pbl, I1Hble BI1,l\bl 3KOHOMI1'feC- KOro npI1HY JK lleHI1.fI)>> 196. BTOpOC HanpaBJICHIlC I1MeeT B CBoeM OCHOBe nfe,l\CTaBJIeHI1e 0 (pOpMe OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK 0 npol.\eccyaJIbHOM <popMel9 . «C (pI1JIococpcKoii TO'fKI1 3peHI1.fI IOpI1,l\I1'feCKa.fI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK npaBoBoe .fIBJIeHI1e npe,l\CTaBJI.fI- eT C060M e,l\I1HCTBO cO,l\epmaHI1.fI 11 <pOPMbl, TO eCTb He TOJIbKO onpelleJIeHHOe COCTO.fIHI1e, H3MeH.fI1Oll.\ee npaBOBOM CTaTYC npaBOHapYllII1TeJI.fI, HO I1 «OCo- 6yIO r80l.\eAYP ee 03JIOmeHI1.fI (npI1MeHeHI1.fI), I1CnOJlHeHI'I.fI I1 OCYllIeCTBJIe- HI1.fI» . «CYlleOHbII1 npouecc 11 npaBO TaK me TeCHO CB.fI3aHbi ,l\pyr C ,l\pyroM, KaK, HanpI1Mep, (POPMbl paCTeHI1M CB.fI3aHbi C paCTeHI1.fIMI1, a (POPMbl mI1BOT- 199 HblX - C M.fICOM 11 KpOBblO mI1BOTHbIX» 8TOT nOllxOll XapaKTepeH llJI.fI 06ll.\eM TeOpI1I1 npaBa. «IIpH pa3pa6OTKe np06JIeM IOpI111I1'feCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, - nOll'fepKI1BaJI 1O.A. ,lI;e1iUcoe, - aBTOpbl OnI1palOTC.fI npeI1MYll.\eCTBeHHO Ha HOpMbl MaTepHaJIbHOrO npaBa. BMecTe C TeM, KaK CO,l\epmaHI1e HeMblCJIHMO BHe (poPMbl, B KOTOpOM OHO Bblpa- maeTio' TaK I1 npaBO HeMbICJII1MO BHe np0l.\eccyaJIbHblX cpOpM ero peaJII13a- UI1I1» . «IIocJIellH.fI.fI 3aBI1CI1T OT MaTepI1aJIbHOrO OCHOBaHI1.fI ell.\e I1 B TOM OT- HOllIeHI1I1, 'I TO 'feM CTpome CaHKUI1.fI, TeM 60JIee pa3BI1Ta :'ITa npoueccyaJIbHa.fI (pOpMa (0611II1pHOCTb HOpMaTI1BHOii ,l\eTaJII13al.\I1I1 rapaHTI1ii I1CTI1Hbl no lleJIrov npaBa Ha 3all.\I1TY np.fIMO nponopl.\I10HaJIbHa CTeneHI1 CTpOrOCTI1 CaHKUI1I1)>> . B IOpI1,WI'feCKOfl HaYKe CYll.\eCTBYIOT pa3JII1'fHble TO'fKI1 3peHI1.fI Ha onpe- ,l\eJIeHI1e npoueccyaJIbHOM <pOPMbl, IOpI111I1'feCKOM npOl.\e,l\ypbl, npoueccyaJIb- HblX oTHOllIeHI1fl, np0l.\eccyaJIbHblX CTallI1M I1 npoueccyaJIbHblX np0I13BOllCTB. KOHuenUI1I1 aBTopOB 6a3I1pYIOTC.fI KaK Ha OTomlleCTBJIeHI1I1 nepe'fI1CJIeHHbIX nOH.fITHfl, TaK H Ha I1X pa3rpaHI1'feHI1I1 202 . B TO me BpeM.fI CYll.\eCTBYIOll.\I1e KOHl.\enUI1I1 c6JII1maeT I111e.fI 0 TOM, 'I TO nOH.fITI1e «npOl.\eccyaJIbHa.fI cpopMa» He npellCTaBJI.fIeT c060fl caMorpouecca, a BbInOJlH.fIeT JII111Ib cpYHKUI110 xa- paKTepI1CTI1KI1 ero CTPYKTYPbl o TpcTI,c HanpaBJICIIIIC CB.fI3bIBaeT <PoPMY IOpI1,l\H'feCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHocnl C \.0 npaBOOTHOllIeHI1eM. 8TOT no,l\XO,l\ TaKJKe ,l\OCTaTO'lHO nonYJI.fIpeH CpellI1 Teope- 
THKOB npaBa. TaK, C TOqKH 3peHI1H c.c. &eKCeeBU. npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb CYll.\eCTBYeT 11 peaJU13yeTcH I1MeHHO B paMKaX (nOCpe.QCTBOM) OXpaHI1TeJIbHbIX npaBOOTHOllleHHii 204 . Pa3BHBaH 3TY H.QelO, M.J!.. LIIU1iaRnU'lia npHXO.QtIT K BbI- BO,l\Y, qTO npaBOOXpaHHTeJIbHaH CaHKQHH CO.Qep)KHT B ce6e KOHKpeTHYIO Mepy OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, peaJIH3aQI1H KOTOpoi1 (npI1MeHeHl1e) BbICTynaeT KaK npaBo- OXpaHI1TeJIbHOe OTiiOllleHHe. «TaKHM 06pa30M, - nI1111eT OHa, - IOpH.QHqeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npl106peTaeT QJOPMY KOHKpeTHoro OXpaHI1TeJIbHOrO npaBOOT- HOllleHI1H» 205. TaKoi1 )Ke n0311QHI1 npH.Qep)KI1BaIOTCH 11 HeKOTopbIe npe.QcTaBH- TeJIH yroJIOBHO-npaBoBoi1 HayKl1: «YrOJIOBHO-npaBOBoe OTHOllleHHe HBJIHeTCH, C O.QHOi1 CTOpOHbI, QJOPMOi-i CYll.\eCTBOBaHI1H yroJIOBHOi-i orneTCTBeHHOCTI1. C .QPY- roM - cnoc06oM onpe.QeJIeHI1H ee 06'beMa H peaJII13aQI1H»206. CTOpOHHHKI1 3TOi1 TOqKI1 3peHI1H. TaK )Ke KaK 11 npe.QcTaBI1TCJII1 BbIllleHa3- BaHHoro HanpaBJIeHHH, onepl1pYIOT KaTeropl1HMI1 «MaTepl1aJIbHoro co.Qep)Ka- HHH» IOpI1Jll1qeCKoi-i OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI.! H ee «npoQeccyaJIbHoi-i <!JOpMbI». «Ha onpe.QeJIeHHOM 3Tane pa3BI1THH, - nHllleT M.J!.. LIIU1iaRnU1iU, - y IOpl1.QI1'IeC- KOi-i OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npOHBJIHeTCH npoQeccyaJIbHbli-i acneKT: .QBI1)KeHl1e npa- BOOTHOllleHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 06JIeKaeTcH B npoQeccyaJIbHYIO QJOPMY. IIpo- QeccyaJIbHaH QJopMa He 06pa3YeT caMOCTOHTeJIbHoi-i cTa.QHl1lOpl1.QHqeCKOii OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1, a npe.QCTaBJIHeT co6oi-i BHelllHee Bblpa)KeHl1e .QBI1)KeHI1H MaTe- pl1aJIbHoro OXpaHI1TeJIbHoro npaBOOTHOllleHHH OTBeTcmeHHOCTI1» 207. «IIpl1 3TOM MaTepHaJIbHoe OTHOllleHl1e KaK 6bl OTXO.QI1T Ha BTOpoii nJIaH, «npOCBeql1- BaH» CKB03b ceTb npoQeccyaJIbHbIX OTHOllleHI1M, nepenJIeTaHCb 11 B3aI1MO.QeM- cmYH C HI1MW,20B. «BJIaro,l\apH B03HHKHOBeHHIO KOHKpeTHblx, I1H,I\I'IBH.I\yaJII1- 311pOBaHHblX npoQeccyaJIbHbIX OTiiOllleHI1M MaTepHaJIbHO-npaBOBaH CBH3b 6y- ,l\eT pa3BHBaTbCH llO Tex nop, nOKa B YKa3aHHYlO npaBOBYIO QJOPMY MO)KHO BJIO)Kl1Tb COOTBeTcmYIOll.\ee MaTepl1aJIbHOe CO,l\ep)KaHl1e. B 3TOM 3aKJIlOqaeT- CH e.QHHCTBO MaTCpl1aJIbHoro cO.Qep)KaHI1H 11 npoQeccyaJIbHoi1 QJOPMbI»209. 'ICTBCpTOC HanpaB.ijCHIIC CBH3aHO C npe.QCTaBJIeHHeM 0 TOM, qTO IOpl1.Ql1qec- KaH OTBeTcmeHHOCTb I1MeeT He npoCTO QJOPMY, a QJOPMY peaJIH3aQ1111 210 . )IaH- Hoe HanpaBJIeHHe B 3HaqHTCJIbHOii CTCneHI1 npe.QCTaBJIeHO B yroJIOBHO-npaBO- BOi-i HaYKe 11 COOTBeTCmeHHO B TCOpI1I1 yrOJIOBHOii OTBCTCTBeHHOCTI1. «PeaJII138.- QI1H OTBCTCTBeHHOCTH 03HaqaeT, qTO nOCJIe B03HHKHOBCHI1H npaBOOlliOllleHI1H npaBa 11 06H3aHHOCTI1 ero cy6'beKTOB 6bIJII1 peaJIH30BaHbI B TOqHOM COOTBeTCT- BI1I1 C npe,l\nI1CaHHHMI1 38.KOHa. 3TOMY npe,l\llleCTByroT CJIO)KHble <paKTl1qeCKl1e OTHOllleHHH Me)K,l\Y cy6'bCKTam, HanpaBJIeHHble Ha YCTaHOBJIeHl1e xapaKTcpa H npe,l\eJIOB B38.I1MHbIX npaB H 06H3aHHocTei1 H OCYll.\eCTBJIHeMble B onpe.QeJIeHHoi-i npoQe,l\YpHoii (npOQeccyaJIbHoi-i) QJopMe. IIocJIe yroqHeHI1H CO,l\ep)KaHI1H 11 06'b- eMa npaB 11 06H3aHHOCTci1 cy6'beKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HaXO,l\I1T CBoe OmeKTI1B- Hoe BOIJ.JlOll.\eHl1e B TCX I1JII1 HHbIX Mepax rocynapCTBeHHoro npHHy>KlleHI1H, H3- 6I1paeMbIX no BOJIe rOCY,l\apcTBa B JIHQe ero KOMneTCHllibIX opraHOB. 3T11 MepbI Ha3bIBalOTCH QJopMaMI1 peaJII13aQtlI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. CPopMaMI1 peaJII13aQI111 yroJIOBHOi-i OTBeTCTBeHHOCTi1 HBJIHIOTCH: HaKa3aHl1e; OCy>KlleHHe 6e3 Ha3Haqe- HHH HaKa38.HI1H; npe,l\Ynpe,Ql1TCJIbHble MepbI Melll1QHHcKOro xapaKTepa»211. AHaJIOrl1qHbIX B3rJIH.I\OB npl1.Qep)KI1BaIOTCH 11 HeKOTopbIe npellCTaBHTeJII1 MYHI1QImaJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 HaYKI1, a TaK)Ke TCOpeTI1KI1 npaBa, pa3pa6aTbIBa- - \.0 
IOlI.\l1e np06J1eMbI MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. TaK. E.M. KO/J/?WHU1W/J nl1- llIeT: .0,l\H0i1 H3 QJOPM peaJll13aQI1I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,l\OJI>KHOCT- HblX JIm.! MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe,l\ HaCeJleHHeM B pe3YJlbTaTe yrpa- Tbl ero ,l\OBepI1H HBJlHeTCH B03MO>KHOCTb OT3bIBa HaCeJleHl1eM ,l\enYTaTa, 'lJIe- Ha Bbl60pHOro opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH, BbI60pHoro ,l\OJI>KHOCTHOro JlI1Qa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH»212. .CaM CMblCJI 31'0i1 QJOPMbl peaJII.13aQl1l1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, - nO,l\'-IepKI1BaeT M.A. Kpuc1/o/J, - npe,l\nOJlaraeT ee HeKHl1 '-Ipe3Bbl'-laMHblfl xapaKTep, KOr,l\a Bce HHbie B03MO>KHOCTH ,l\eMOKpan1'-1eCKO-  213 ro B03,l\eI1CTBI1H Ha MeCTHYIO BJlaCTb HC'-IepnaHbI» 11..A. JIunuHcKUU BKJla,l\blBaeT I1HOM CMblCJI B "QJOPMY peaJlI13al\I1H» OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1. OH npe).!JIaraeT OTKa3aTbCH OT n03HTI1BHOrO H HeraTI1BHoro ac- neKTOB, ,l\HqJQJepeHl\l1pYlOlI.\I1X OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. aneJlJll1pYH K LleJlOCTHOCTI1 ,l\aHHoro qJeHOMe4 H npe,l\JlaraeT 3aMeHHTb I1X Ha ,l\Be qJOpMbI peaJll13af1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 : ,l\06pOBOJlbHYIO 11 rOCY,l\apCTBeHHo-npI1HY,l\I1TeJlbHYIO . B CBOe BpeMH :'lTa l1,l\eH paCCMaTpHBaJlaCb rr.c. 11.azMe.1ft H B.A. HOJIWK01/0- /Jbl./ft. ITo MHeHl110 31'I1X aBTopOB, B paMKaX e,l\I1HOH CYIl!HOCTI1I1 06l1.\ero cO,l\ep- >KaHI1H IOpH,l\H'-IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MO>KeT I1MeTb ,l\Be pa3J1H'-IHble QJOP- MbI: nOOll.\pHTeJlbHYIO (n03HTI1BHYIO) 11 oxpaHHTeJlbHYIO (HeraTI1BHYIO), HeH3- 6e>KHO npl106peTalOlI.\I1e onpe,l\eJleHHYIO cneQI1QJI1KY B perYJlHTHBHblX 11 OX- paHHTeJlbHbIX OTpaCJlHX npaBa 216 . B HaCTOHlI.\ee BpeMH OHa HcnoJlb3yeTcH B HaYKe KOHCTHTYl\HOHHOro npaBa npl1 HCCJle,l\OBaHI1I1 np06J1eM KOHCTI1TYl\110H- Ho-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 217 . PeaJll13aQI11O IOpl1,l\H'-IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MO>KHO paCCMaTpl1BaTb KaK B llIl1pOKOM, TaK 11 B Y3KOM CMblCJle (3Ha'-leHtm). B llIl1pOKOM CMblCJle no,l\ peaJlH3aQI1eH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nOHHMalOT ee OCYll.\eCTBJleHl1e 218 . B Y3KOM CMblCJIe peaJll13aQI1H IOpl1).!I1'-1eCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npe,l\CTaBJlHeT C060M O).!Hy H3 CTaJlI1HlOpl1J1I1'-1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B IOpl1J.!l1'-1eCKoi1 HaYKe Bonpoc 0 CTa.l(l1HX IOpl1.1(H'-IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 npI1Ha,l\Jle>KHT K '-Il1CJlY .l(l1CKYCCI10HHbIX. He cYll.\eCTByeT e).!HHOrO KpHTepl1H BbI,l\eJleHHH CTa.l(l1M IOpH.I(l1'-1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, l1X npo.l(OJl>KHTeJlbHOCTl1 BO BpeMeHl1l1 npocTpaHcTBe. TaK, Hanpl1Mep, B.T. Ba3b/..l!e/J 06ocHoBbIBaJl Tpl1 CTam1l1 IOpl1J.!l1'-1eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1: CTaHOBJIeHl1e (nepBOHa'-laJlbHoe pa3- Bl1Tl1e), KOHKpeT113aQHH H oCYll.\eCTBJleHHe 219 . B.JI. Ha3apo/J Bb!).!eJlHeT '-IeTblpe CTa,l\l1l1: a) B03HI1KHOBeHl1e IOpl1.1(l1'-1eCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1; 6) BbIHBJleHl1e IOpI1J.!H'-IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH; B) onOCpe,l\OBaHl1e IOpH,l\H'-IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1, ee OQJI1QHaJlbHaH OQeHKa B aKTax KOMneTeHTHblX opraHOB; r) peaJlI13a- l\l1H IOpl1.1(l1'-1eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIl 20 . M.B. 3aa1/enpo/JCKaJt paccMaTpl1BaeT CJle.l\YlOlI.\l1e CTa,l\1-II1 IOpl1,l\I1'-1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1: 1) CTa,l\l1H COCTOHHHH npaB 11 06H3aHHOCTeM cy6'beKTOB npaBOOTHOllleHl1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH; 2) CTa- ,l\l1H peaJl113aQHI1 npaB 11 06H3aHHocTei1 cy6'beKTOB npaBooTHOllleHl1H OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTIl 21 . M.11.. LIIu1/aJtnu1ta BbI.I(eJlHeT Tpl1 CTa,l\11I1: B03Hl1KHOBeHHe IOpl1- ,l\l1'-1ecKofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI.I: KOHKpeTH3aLll1H IOPH.I(H'-IeCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1;  22 peaJl113aQl1H IOpl1,l\11'-1eCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 N HecMOTpH Ha cYIl\ecTBeHHble pa3JIl1'-1I1H npl1Be,l\eHHbIX Bb!llle TO'-leK 3peHI1H. \.0 ace aBTopbI Bb!).!eJlHIOT CTa,l\HIO peaJll13aQI1H (OCYll\eCTBJleHl1H) OTBeTCTBeHHOC- 
TI1. IOpl1,l\WJeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, CYll.\eCTBOBaBWaH B HaqaJIe CBOero pa3BI1- TI1H KaK CBH3b rrpaB 11 06H38.HHoCTeM rocy,napCTBa 11 rrpaBOHapYWI1TeJIH, Ha CTa- .n1111 peaJII138.l\I1H BOrrJIOll\aeTCH B q)aKTl1qeCKl1e .neiiCTBI1H CTOpOH rrpaBOOTHD- WeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 rro rrpeTeprreBaHI1IO rrpaBOHapYWI1TeJIeM He6JIarorrpl1- HTHbIX rroCJIe.ncTBl1ii CBOro rrpOTI1BOrrpaBHoro rrOBe.neHI1H. Ha3HaqeHI1e .naHHOM cra,n1111 IOpl1.l\l1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OqeHb TOqHO rrO,lJ,MeTJ1JI B. T. Ba3bUlee: .CTa.nl1fl peaJIl13al\1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - rJIaBHafl ee CTa,nI1H, B HeM 3aKJIIO'Ia- eTCH CMblCJI CYll.\eCTBOBaHI1H IOpl1.n11'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. JlIHaqe roBOpH, peaJII138.l\I1H HaKa3aHI1H eCTb TO, pa,l\11 qero rrpaBOOTHOWeHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B03HI1KaeT 11 CYll.\eCTBYeT. B CTa,l\1111 peam138.l\1111 IOpl1)1W1eCKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb MaTepHaJII13yeTCH»223. ITo MHeHI1IO M.ll.. LIIU1iaRnU1iOU, 3Ta CTa,nI1H Haql1- HaeTCH C MOMeHTa BCTyrrJIeHI1H B 38.KOHHYIO CI1JIY rrpaBorrpHMeHI1TeJIbHoro aKTa, rrpH3HaIOll\ero COBepweHHoe .neHHHe rrpaBOHa pyweHHeM 11 YCTaHaBJII1BaIOll\ero BI1,n 11 Mepy IOpl1,nHqeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, H 3aKaHqHBaeTCfl rro 06weMY rrpa- BI1JIY Tor.na, Kor.na Ha3HaqeHHoe HaKa38.Hl1e 6y,neT peaJIH30BaHo. .B co.nepmaHl1e 3TOM CTII.n11l1 BXO.l\HT <j:JaKTWleCKl1e .neMCTBI1H CTOpoH Ma TepHaJIbHoro rrpaBOOT- 224 HOWeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1 rro peaJIH3al..\l111 HaKa38.HI1H" . B IOpl1.nHqeCKOM JII1Teparype Borrpoc 0 qJOpMe peaJIl13al\1111 IOpH.nl1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpl1BaeTCH B KOHTeKCTe qJOpMbl peaJIl13al\11I1 HaKa3a- HI1H. TeopeTl1KI1 rrpaBa I1CrrOJIb3YIOT B 3TOM l1JIaHe ,nOCTl1meHI1H OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpH)1l1qeCKI1X HayK. TaK, B HaYKe yrOJIOBHD-rrpol\eccyaJIbHoro rrpaBa Be.neTCH .nI1CKYCCI1H rro rroBo.ny qJOpMbl peaJII138.l\HI1 yroJIOBHOro HaKa3aHHH, T.e. rrOCJIe.n- HeM cTa.n1111 yroJIOBHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B xo.ne 3TOM.nI1CKYCCI1I1 OCHOBHaH rro- JIeMI1Ka l.AeT rro Borrpocy 0 co.nepmaHI1I1 CTa,l(t1l1 HCrrOJIHeHHH rrpmOBopa. O,nHI1 aBTOpbl CqHTaIOT, qTO CTa,nHIO I1CrrOJIHeHI1H rrpl1rOBOpa 06pa3yeT ,ne- HTeJIbHOCTb cy.na rro 06pall\eHI1IO rrpHroBOpa K HCrrOJIHeHI1IO, a .neHTeJIbHOCTb a,l\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHbIX opraHOB rro I1CrrOJIHeHI1IO rrpl1roBopa JIeml1T BHe yroJIOB- HOro rrpOl\eCca H, CJIe.nOBaTeJIbHO, rrpOl\eccyaJIbHOM He HBJIHeTCH 225 . H.A. CmpY'l'/we rrOJIaraeT, qTO I1CrrOJIHeHl1e rrpl1rOBOpa KaK CTa.nI1IO yroJIOBHO- ro rrpol\ecca CJIe.nyeT OTJIl1qaTb OT I1CrrOJIHeHI1H HaKa3aHI1H KaK .l\eHTeJIbHOCTI1, ocYll\eCTBJIHeMOM B COOTBeTCTBHI1 C rrpe.nnl1CaHl1flMI1 rrpl1roBopa. J1crrOJIHeHHe Bcex HaKa3aHI1M, CBfl3aHHbiX C MepaMl1l1crrpaBHTeJIbHD-TpY.l\OBOrO B03.1\eMCT- BHH, rro ero MHeHI1IO, 06pa3yeT c<j:Jepy rrpHMeHeHI1H Crrel\l1aJIbHO rrpl1HI1Mae- MbIX .l\JIH 3TOro rrpaBoBblx HOpM - HOpM I-IcrrpaBI1TeJIbHD-TpY.l\OBoro rrpaBa 226 . CTOpOHHHKI1 .npyroM TOqKI1 3peHI1H HaCTaHBaIOT Ha TOM, qTO I1CrrOJIHeHl-le rrpl1rOBOpa - 3TO cocraBHaH qaCTb yrOJIOBHoro rrpOl\eCca, rr03TOMY KpoMe 06- pall\eHI1H K I1CrrOJIHeHI1IO BKJIIOqaeT B ce6H ero Herrocpe.ncTBeHHoe I1CrrOJIHe- Hl1e H ocYll\eCTBJIeHl-le KOHTpOJIH 3a 3TOii .neHTeJIbHOCTbI0 227 . TaKI1M 06pa30M, BHeWHIOIO <j:JOPMY peaJII-I3al..\l111 IOpl1.nHqeCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH TaK I1JIH I1Haqe CBH3bIBalOT C rrpOl\eCcoM. .CTa.nI1H peaJIl13al\1111 IOpl1- .l\l1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH pa3BI1BaeTCH B paMKax IOPI1C.I\I1Kl\110HHOro rrpo- 226 22!t l\eCca . ero 3aBepWaIOll\ero 3Tarra - HCrrOJIHI1TeJIbHoro rrp0l13Bo,nCTBa» . HapH,ny C TepMI1HOM «<j:JopMa peaJIl-I3al\11I1 IOpl1.1\l1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TH» Hepe.nKO I1crro.:'Ib3yeTcH TepMI1H «<j:JopMa oCYll\eCTBJIeHI1H IOpH.nl1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH»230. B O,l\HI1X CJIyqaflX, KaK 6bIJIO OTMeqeHO BbIwe, 3TOT n \.0 
TepMI1H HCnOJIb3yeTcH }:\JIH 0603HaqeHI1H CTa.Q11I1 IOpl1.QHqeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1, B .QPYfl1X OH npl1MCHHeTCH K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B l\eJIOM. TaK, aBTOpbI yqe6HI1Ka no OOll.\ci1 TeOp1111 npaBa H rOCY.QapCTBa no.Q pe.QaKl\l1eii B.B. JIU3U- pe/Ju OTMCqaIOT: «BI1.QbI IOpl1J\l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He CJIe.l\YeT CMeWH- BaTb C nopH.QKOM, QJOPMOi1 ee OCYlI.\eCTBJIeHI1H (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CY.Qe6HOM, a.QMI1HHCTpaTI1BHOM I1I1HOM nopH.QKe). O.QI1H 11 TOT me B1,1\ IOpl1.QI1'JeCKoi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MomeT OCYll.\eCTBJIHTbCH B pa3JII1'JHbiX qJOpMax»231. IIHTOC HanJ}<IBJICIIIIC I1CXO.QHT 113 TOro, qTO HCraTI1BHaH 11 n031ITI1BHaH OTBeT- CTBCHHOCTb HBJIHIOTCH Hl1'JeM I1HblM (He aCnCKTaMH, CTOpOHaMI1, BI1.QaMI1I1 T.n.), KaK QJopMaMI1 IOpl1.Ql1qeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. «... HenpaBI1J1bHbIM HBJIHeTCH MHeHl1e 0 TOM, - OTMeqaJI M.C. CmpOZO/JU1t, - 'JTO IOpl1.QH'JeCKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb HaCTynaeT TOJIbKO Tor.Qa, Kor.Qa JII1l\O He BbInOJIHHJIO 06H3aHHOCTb, Ha- PYWI1JIO 3aKOH. TOJIbKO B CJlY'Jae Hel1CnOJIHeHI1H I1JI11 HenpaBI1JIbHOrO I1cnOJI- HeHI1H HM CB0I1X 06H3aHHocTei1 IOpH.QI1'JeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npHHI1M;i HcraTI1BHYIO qJOPMY ocym.QeHI1H, B3bICKaHHH, npI1Hym.QeHI1H, CaHKl\Hl1» . TaKoi1 no.Qxo.Q Mbl 06Hapyml1BaeM 11 B HeKOTopbIX pa60Tax no MYHI1l\maJIb- HOMY npaBY. 0 n03I1TI1BHoi111 HeraTI1BHOM: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK 0 qJOpMaX OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H 11 .QOJImHOCTHbIX JII1l\ Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH m1WYT aBTopbI yqeOHI1Ka no MYHI1l\l1naJlbHOMY npa- BY no.Q pe.QaKl\l1eii A.M. KO/JU/te'liKO U K.M. A.Mup6e1W/J2'33. HeTpY.QHo 3aMeTlITb, '!TO B3rJIH.QbI npe.QcTaBI1TCJIei1 pa3JI11'JHbIX HanpaB- JIeHI1M: 3Ha'JI1TeJIbHO OT JII1qaIOTCH .Qpyr OT .Qpyra. O'JeBH.QHo, 'JTO OCHOBHblX npl1ql1H TaKI1X npOTHBOpeql1M: .QBC. IIepBaH npH'Jl1Ha Z'lioceO.lWZU 1 IecKa:t 234 . B paMKax Kam.Qoro 113 cYlI.\eCTBY- IOlI.\HX nO,lJ,XO.QOB QJopMa IOpl1J\H'JeCKOM: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpl1BaeTCH C KaKOM:-JII100 O.QHOM: CTOpOHbl BHeWHero npOHBJIeHI1H nOCJle.QHeM:. ::hy CTOpoHY npC.QCTaBHTeJIl1 TOro 11J111 I1HOro HanpaBJleHI1H npeB03HOCHT, 060CaOJII1BaHCb npl1 3TOM OT Apymx ee CTOpOH 11 npoHBJIeHI1M:. BTopaH npH'Jl1Ha JltemrooAOZU1tecK(lJt ORa KpoeTCH B MHor006pa31111 no,ZJ,Xo- .QOB K onpe.QeJIeHI1IO CYlI.\HOCTI1 caMoro HBJleHI1H IOpl1.Ql1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK npaBoBOro QJeHOMeHa 11 K npaBOnOHI1MaHl11O B l\eJIOM. IIpe.QCTaBJlCHl1e 0 qJOpMe OTBCTCTBeHHOCTI1 BO MHOroM onpe.QeJIHeTCH TCM, 'JTO nOHI1MaeTCH no.Q IOpl1I!l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTbIO, KaKOM: CMblCJI BKJla.llbIBaeTCH B 3TO nOHHTl1e. IIoHI1MaHl1e qJOpMbl 6Y.QeT TCM 60JIee pa3HI1TbCH, 'JeM 60JIec 6Y.QYT pacxo- .QI1TbCH npeI!CTaBJIeHHH 0 nOHHTl1l1lOpl1.QI1'JeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK TaKO- BOM: 11 COOTBeTCTBeHHO ee cO.QepmaHI-II1. B CBOIO OqepeI!b, 3TO 3aBI1CI1T OT nOHI1- MaHI1H npaBa B l\eJIOM TCM 11J1I1I1HbIM HCCJIe.QOBaTCJICM. CKamCM, HOpMaTI1BHblM nOllXO.Q K nOHI1MaHI1IO npaBa Opl1CHTI1PYeT Hac B nOHI1MaHI1I1 QJOPMbl OTBCTCT- BeHHOCTI1 Ha TaKl1e ee npOHBJleHI1H, KaK rocY.QapCTBeHHaH peaKl\I1H (ee QJOP- Ma), Mepbl npl1HymlleHI1H, CaHKLlI1I1. COl!llOJIOm'JeCKaH IOpl1cnpYlleHl\HH 11 nCI1XOJIOrl1'JeCKI1M: nO.QXOI! K nOHI1MaHI1IO npaBa n03BOJIHIOT CKOHl\eHTpl1pO- BaTb BHI1MaHl1e Ha npaBOOTHOWeHI1I1, BBeC11-1 B npe.QMeT I1CCJIeI!OBaHI1H n0311- THBHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. J1HTerpaTI1BHbIM nO.QXOI! npeI!nOJIaraeT CTpCMJIe- Hl1e I1HTerpl1pOBaTb 113JIOmeHHbie TO'JKI1 3peHI1H. KpOMe TOro, BonpOCOM MeTO.QOJIOrl1l1 HBJIHeTCH ypOBeHb 06ooll.\eHI1H, Ha KOTOpOM MbI nblTaeMCH peWI1Tb BOnpoc 0 qJOpMe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. J13BecTHO, 4- \.0 
qTO OOll.\eTeOpenlqeCKI1i1 ypOBeHb npe,l\nOJIaraeT 06ooll.\eHl1e Hal100Jlee 06- Il.\I1X qepT HBJleHI1H 11 3aKoHoMepHocTei1 ero B03HI1KHOBeHJ1H 11 pa3BJ'JTI1H. 0.1\- HOBpeMeHHo Ha 3TOM ypoBHe npHxO,l\I1TCH a6cTpampoBaTbcH OT qaCTHocTei1, OTpaCJleBbIX oc06eHHocTei1, KOTopbIe npeB03HOCJITCH B OTpaCJIeBblX HCCJle,l\O- BaHI1HX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. COOTBeTCTBeHHO Ha ypoBHe OTpaCJleBbIX HCCJle,l\O- BaHI1i1 He CTaBHTCH 3a.l\aqa 0 BbIXO,l\e Ha 061l.\Y1O TeopHIO Bonpoca. ECJlf1 ,l\ame OHa npOB03rJlaWaeTCH, TO COOTBeTCTBYlOll.\l1e 3a,l\aqH Bee paBHO pewalOTCH HCXO,l\H H3 3a,l\aq OTpaCJleBoi1 HaYKI1, oco6eHHoCTei1 ee npe,I\MeTa. II03TOMY B ,l\aHHOM cJlyqae CYll.\eCTByeT B03MomHOCTb KOHcTpynpoBaHHH I1epapXI1I1 <pOpM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, B OCHOBY KOTOpOi1 MomeT 6bITb nOJlOmeH ypOBeHb OOOOll.\eHI1H CYll.\eCTBeHHblx qepT, oc06eHHocTei1, npH3HaKOB HBJIeHI1H. PaCCMOTpeHI1e ,l\I1HaMI1KI1 IOpH,l\I1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npI1BO.I\I1T K BbIBO,l\y 0 TOM, qTO Ha pa3HbiX 3Tanax OHa MomeT I1MeTb pa3J111qHbIe <pOpMbI BHewHero BblpameHI1H (HanpHMep, Ha CTa.l\I1I1 B03HI1KHOBeHI1H. KOHKpeTI13a- QI1I1 I1 peaJlH3aQHH). HaKOHeQ, OTHOCI1TeJIbHO CaMOCTOJITeJIbHYIO <POPMY I1Me- lOT :jJIeMeHTbI, COCTaBJIHIOIl.\I1e CO.l\epmaHI1e IOpI1.1\HqeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK CJIOmHoro npaBOBoro HBJIeHHH (OQeHKa, Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, npeTep- neBaHHe). TaK, HanpHMep, ocooeHHOCTb nepBoro HanpaBJIeHI1H COCTOHT B TOM, qTO aBTopbl onepI1pYIOT TpI1a,/\oi1 KaTeropI1i1 (Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, caHKQI1H, <popMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1), Kam,l\aH H3 KOTOpbIX onpe,/\eJIHeTCH qe- pe3 JlI06ylO H3 ,l\BYX ,l\pymx JII160 qepe3 ooe O,l\HOBpeMeHHO. TaKHM 06pa30M, MbI Ha6J1IO,l\aeM HX OTom,/\eCTBJIeHl1e. IIpn 3TOM COAepmaHI1e OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 HeOOOCHOBaHHO cymaeTcH I1 CBO,/\HTCH K ee Mepe, K caHKQI1I1. IIoHJITi1e IOpllllI1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 no CBoeMY 06'beMY WI1pe nOHH- nlH «Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» HJII1 «caHKQI1H». 3TO OqeBll,1\HO ,/\ame npH Y3KOM, HeraTI1BHOM, nOAxo,/\e K nOHI1MaHI11O IOpll,1\I1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, He roBO- pH yme 0 npn3HaHI1I1 ee AByxacneKTHoii KOHQenQI1I1. IOpI1AI1qeCKaH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb KaK MHHI1MYM BKJllOqaeT B ce6H ell.\e H HeKoe «,/\ei1cTBO» - aKTI1B- HOCTb ynOJIHOMOqeHHbIX cy6'beKTOB no npl1MeHeHI11O caHKQI1I1, npeTepneBa- HI1e npaBoHapyWI1TeJIeM COOTBeTcTBYIOIl.\I1X Mep I1 T.,l\. TaKHM 06pa30M, «lOpI1- ,l\I1qeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» I1 «caHKQHH» (<<Mepa OTBeTcTBeHHOCTI1», «<popMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTw» - nOHHTHH OqeHb TeCHO CBR3aHHbIe, HO He COBna,l\alOll.\l1e. }II HaKOHeQ, npn paccMaTpnBaeMoM nOAxo,/\e B03HHKaeT Bonpoc 0 QeJIeCO- o6pa3HocTn BBe.l\eHI1H B TeopnlO IOpI1,l\J1qeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Tpex pa3- JIl1qHblX no CeMaHTI1Ke, HO COBna,l\alOll.\HX no cO,l\epmaHI11O TepMHHoB. B ,l\aH- HOM cJIyqae, KoppeKTHee, BI1,/\I1MO, roBOpHTb 0 TOM, qTO <POPMY HMeeT He ca- Ma OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, a ee MepbI - 06peMeHeHI1H, B03J1araeMbIe Ha npaBOHa- pYWI1TeJIH. Mepa IOpI1.1\I1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npe,l\CTaBJIHeT co6oi1 Co- OTIiOWeHl1e ero KOJll1qeCTBeHHbIX H KaqeCTBeHHbIX napaMeTpOB. KaTeropHH MepbI BblpamaeT TaKoe B3aI1MOOTHOWeHI1e Mem,l\y 3TI1MI1 CTOpOHaMI1 rocy- ,l\apCTBeHHoro npI1Hym,l\eHI1H, KOr,l\a KaqeCTBO ero OCHOBaHO Ha onpe.l\eJleH- HOM KOJlI1qeCTBe, a nOCJIe.IlHee eCTb KOJIHqeCTBO onpeI!eJIeHHOrO KaqeCTBa. Mepa npaBOBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - 3TO I1H,l\I1BI1,l\yaJII13I1pOBaHHOe, cnpa- BeAJIHBOe, copa3MepHoe npaBOBoe nOCJIe,/\CTBI1e IOpI1,1:(tIqeCKoi1 OQeHKI1 KOH- KpeTHoro nocTynKa CYO'beKTa npaBa 235 . If\ \.0 
CaHKUI1H HBJlHeTCH HOpMaTI1BHbIM Bblpa>KeHl1eM lIIepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, <popMoi.. ee HOpMaTI1BHOrO 3aKpenJleHI1H (BbIpa>KeHI1H), CpeJ1CTBOM npl1J1a- HHH el1 npaBOBOH <pOpMbl 11, B HeK01'OpOM CMblCJle, npaBOBoi1 <pOpMOH MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (HO He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK TaKOBOH). IIpeJ1cTaBJIHeTCH, qTO CYlllecTByeT B03MO>KHOCTb H onpeJ1eJleHHble OCHOBaHJ-IH J1J1H nOCTaHOBKI1 Bonpoca 0 BblJ1eJleHI1H 'liop.llwmWJ1i.ou 11 U'licmumY'lfUO'IW.!I.b'liOU <pOpM Mep OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1. HOpMaTI1BHOH <POpMOH MepbllOpl1,/\J-IqeCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BblcTynaeT CaHKUI1H. He05xoJ1HMOCTb npaBoBoi1 perJlaMeHTal..\l'l11 npaK'rJ1'iec- KOi1 peaJll13auI1I1 (npI1MeHeHI1H) COOTBeTCTBYlOlllei1 CaHKUl1l1 npI1BOJ1IIT K <pop- Ml1pOBaHl11O npaBoro I1HCTI1Tyra, K B03HI1KHOBeHI11O I1HCTJ-ITYI..\I'IOHaJlbHoi1 <pop- MbI Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - HHCTHTYUJ-IOHaJlbHoi.. <pOPMbl, Bblpa>KalOlllei1 He TOJlbKO caMY Y OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (Mepy npI1HY>KJ1eHI1H. CaHKUI1IO), HO 11 «TeXHOJlOrJ11O» ee peaJlJ13aUJ-II1. Hanpl1Mep, TaKaH Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, KaK JlJ-IllIeHl1e BJlaCTBYlOlllero cy5'beKTa (opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, J10Jl>KHOCTHOro Jll1ua MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H) COOTBeTCTBYlOllll1X BJiaCT- HblX nOJIHOMOql1H, J-IMeeT l'IHCTIITYUI'IOHaJlbHylO <POPMY «OT3bIBa» J1enyraT, a Mepa B OTHOllleHJ-I11 Bbl50pHoro J10Jl>KHOCTHOrO Jll1ua - «OTpellleHJ-IH» OT J10Jl>K- HOCTJ-I, pocnYCKa Bbl60pHoro npeJ1CTaBJ-ITeJlbHOrO opraHa 11 T.n. Ha OCHOBaHI1I1 113J10>KeHHOrO MO>KHO CJ1eJlaTb BbIBOJ1 0 TOM, qTO B palllKax nepBoro 113 nepeql1CJleHHblX HanpaBJleHI1i1 peqb l1J1eT 0 <popMe He OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 B I.(eJlOM, a OJ1HOro 113 3J1eMeHTOB ee COJ1ep>KaHI1H, qTO He n03BOJlH- eT corJlaCI1TbCH C l1J1ei1 pacnpOCTpaHeHI1H TaKoro pellleHI1H np05J1eMbl qJOp- Mbl Ha IOpJ-lJ1l1qeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B ueJlOM. II03BOJll1M ce5e He OCTaHaBJlf1BaTbCH Ha n0J1p06HOi" KpHTHKe CJla6blX MeCT Bcex npl1BeAeHHbIX nOAX0J10B (HanpaBJleHHl1). C moceOJlOmqeCK0I1 TOqKI1 3peHI1H Bce OHI1 nOJle3Hbi. BMeCTO 3Toro CKOHueHTpl1pyeM BHI1MaHHe Ha n03IITI1BHbIX, paUI10HaJlbHbiX HJ1eHX npOLlIITl1pOBaHHbIX BbIllie aBTopOB, KOTopble Moryr 6bITb 3<p<peKTI1BHO I1CnOJlb30BaHbI }:\JIH pellleHI1H CTOHIllI1X nepeJ1 HaMI1 3aJ1aq B paMKax HacTOHlllero I1CCJleJ10BaHHH. Hac I1HTepecyeT qJOpMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He caMa no ce5e, a nOCTOJlbKY, nOCKOJlbKY OHa xa- paKTepJ-l3yeT ee BI1J1. B 3TOM CMbICJle Hac I1HTepecyeT ee npaBOBaH <popMa, KOTopaH OXBaTblBaeT MaTepl1aJlbHYIO (<pOPMY, B KOTOpOH Bblpa>KalOTCH rocy- J1apCTBeHHoe OCY>KJ1eHl1e 11 AOnOJlHI1TeJlbHble 05peMeHeHI1H, B03J1araeMble Ha npaBoHapyllll1TeJIH npJ-lHY>KJ1eHl1e) 11 npoueccyaJlbHYIO <pOpMbI IOpJ-lJ1l1qec- Koi.. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. KOJIb CKOpO Mbl npHllIJiH K BbIBOJ1j' 0 TOM, 'JTO HeT OCHOBaHHH O1'O>KJ1eCTB- JlHTb KaTeropl1l1 «cpopMbl» 11 «MepbI» IOpl1J1l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 '!TO 3TI1 KaTeropl1H He COBna,WIIOT no COJ1ep>KaHI'IIO, B03HI1KaeT He05xoJ1I1MOCTb 50Jlee BHI1MaTeJlbHoro paCCMOTpeHJ-IH nOCJleJ1Hei1. MepbI IOpl1J1J-1'JeCKoi1 01'- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B npaBoBoi1 HaYKe TpaJ1I1UI10HHO paCCMaTpl1BalOTCH B KOH- TeKCTe rOCYJ1apCTBeHHoro npI1HY>KJ1eHI1H KaK pa3HOBI1,/\HOCTb ero Mep. IIpI1HY>KJ1eHl1e - 31'0 HenOCpeJ1CTBeHHoe BHelliHee B03J1ei'rcTBl1e Ha nOBe- J1eHl1e nOJ1BJlaCTHOro, O1'pJ-lualOlllee ero BOJlIO. KorJ1a pe'Jb l1J1eT 05 OTpl1uaHl111 \.0 BOJIH nOJ1BJlaCTHoro. TO I1MeeTCH B BI1J1j' HrHOpl1pOBaHJ-Ie ero JlH'JHbIX npl1H- \.0 Ul1nOB, >KeJlaHI1HI1 npeJ1nOqTeHI1H JlI1UOM, 113J1a101ll11M BJiaCTHOe paCnOpH>Ke- 
Hl1e. IIpl1 3TOM Hel1CrrOJlHeHl1e paCrrOpHmeHI1H rrO.I\BJlaCTHbIM BJleqeT Hera- TI1BHble .I\JlH HerO rrOCJle,/\CTBHH B QeJlHX rrpe06pa30BaHJ1H ero BOJlJ1 TaKI1M 06- pa30M, qT06bl ,/\06I1TbCH rrO.I\qHHeHI1H. B 3aBI1CHMOCTH OT 06'beKTa B03.I\ei1CT- BI1H Bb!,/\eJlHeTCH rrCI1Xl1qeCKDe, qm311qeCKOe, OpraHI13aQI10HHOe 11 MaTepH- aJlbHOe (I1MYl..QeCTBeHHoe) rrpI1Hym.I\eHl1e. MaTepl1aJlbHOe (I1MYl..QeCTBeHHoe) rrpJ1Hym.I\eHl1e rrpe,/\cTaBJlHeT c060i1 B03,/\ei1cTBl1e Ha Marepl1aJlbHble 6J1ara, rrpl1HaMemal..Ql1e rrO.I\BJlaCTHoMY, B l\eJlHX 06ecrreql1Tb ero rrOBeAeHHe B COOT- BeTCTBI1H C rrpaBOBblMI1 rrpe.I\ITI1CaHI1HMI1. IOpl1CTa rrpJ-lHym.I\eHl1e I1HTepecyeT rrpem,/\e Bcero KaK cpe,/\cTBo oxpaHbI rrpaBOrrOpH.I\Ka, KaK MeTO.I\ rocy.napcTBeHHoi1 .I\eHTeJlbHOCTI1. IOpl1.I\I1QeCKaH HaYKa paCCMaTpl1BaeT rrpJIHym.I\eHl1e, KOTOpoe rrpl1MeHHeTcH Ha OCHOBe IOpl1,/\I1QeCKI1X HOpM 11 B CBH311 C I1X HapyrneHl1eM B QeJlHX rrOHY.I\I1Tb rrpaBO- Hapyrnl1TeJlH K C06J1IO.I\eHHIO rocy,/\apCTBeHHO-BJlaCTHbIX rrpe,/\rrHCaHl1ii. Ta- KDe rrpJIHym.I\eHl1e rrpl1HHTO Ha3bIBaTb n paBOBbll. IIpaBoBoMY rrpl1HymAeHHIO npl1cYl..Q11 cJleAYlOI..QI1e rrp113HaKH: - HBJlHeTCH rrpaBOrrpl1MeHI1TeJlbHoi1 .I\eHTeJlbHOCTblO; - l\eJlb ero COCTOI1T B o6ecneQeHI1I1 oxpaHbl rrpaBOnOpH.I\Ka; - peaJll13yeTcH B paMKax Crrel\l1aJlbHbIX rrpaBOOXpaHI1TeJlbHblX rrpaBOOT- HOrneHI1i1; - rrpl1MeHeHl1e ero .I\OrrYCKaeTCH TOJlbKO K KOHKpeTHblM cy6'beKTaM rrpaBa; - OHO peaJlJ13YeTCH I1CKJlIOQI1TeJlbHO Ha OCHOBe npaBa; - .I\eHTeJlbHOCTb rro ero peaJll13aQI1H oCYl..QeCTBJlHeTCH I1CKJlIOQI1TeJlbHO roCY.I\apCTBOM. B TO me BpeMH MomHO rOBOpl1Tb 0 pH,/\e oc06eHHOCTeii pa3J1I1QHbIX BI1.I\OB roCY.I\apCTBeHHo-rrpaBoBoro npI1Hym.I\eHI1H, CI1CTeMa KOTOpblX onpe.I\eJlHeT KaQeCTBeHHoe cBoe06pa311e OT.I\eJlbHbIX ero BH,/\OB 237 . IIpaBoBDe rrpl1Hym.!\eHl1e BKJlIOQaeT B ce6H: Cpe.I\CTBa rrpeCeQeHI1H Henpa- BOMepHoro rrOBe.I\eHI1H; Mepbl npaBOBoro rrpJ1Hym.I\eHI1H, QeJlb KOTOpbIX CO- CTOHT B 06eCrreQeHHI1 HCnOJlHeHHH 06H3aHHocTei1; MepbI rrpaBOBoro rrpJIHym- .!\eHI1H, rrpl1MeHeHl1e KOTOpblX 03HaQaeT perneHl1e TOro 11J1I1I1HOrO BOrrpoca rro 23B CYl..QeCTBY . IOpl1.I\I1QeCKaH OTBeTcTBeHHocTb, 6e3YCJlOBHO, BCer.I\a CBH3aHa C rocY.I\ap- CTBeHHblM rrpl1Hym.I\eHl1eM, O.I\HaKO .I\aJleKO He BCHKaH Mepa rocy.napCTBeH- Ho-rrpI1HY.I\I1TeJlbHoro B03.!\ei1cTBI1H Ha rrpaBoHapyrnl1TeJlH O.I\HOBpeMeHHO HBJlHeTCH 11 Mepoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. IOpl1.I\I1QeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK <POPMY roCYAapCTBeHHoro npl1HymAeHHH CJle,/\yeT OTJlJ1QaTb OT ,/\pymx ero q)OPM, TaKI1X, KaK MepbI 3aI..QI1Tbl cy6'beKTI1BHbIX rrpaB 11 06ecrreQeHI1H IOpH- .!\I1QeCKI1X 06H3aHHOCTei:,[ (Me,RbI 3aI..QJ'JTbl), BblITOJlHHlOl..QHe rrpaBOBOCCTaHOBJ'J- TeJlbHYIO <PYHKl\111O B rrpaBe 39. HeKOTopble aBTopbl rrpl1 pa3rpaHHQeHI1I1 Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 I1HblX Mep rOCY.I\apCTBeHHoro rrpl1Hym.!\eHI1H BO rJlaBY YrJIa CTaBHT OTpl1QaTeJlbHYIO roCY.I\apCTBeHHYIO Ol\eHKY (roCY.I\apCTBeHHoe ocymlleHHe) npaBOHapyrneHHH 11 npaBoHapyrnl1TeJlH. O.I\HI1M H3 OCHOBHblX Cpe.I\CTB peaJlJ13aQl1l1lOpl1.I\I1Qec- Koii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, orrpe.I\eJlHIOI..QHM ee CYI..QHOCTb, HBJlHeTCH rocy,/\apCT- t-- BeHHoe ocym.I\eHl1e rrpaBoHapyrnl1TeJlH 3a rrpOTl1BOrrpaBHoe AeHHl1e. CJle,/\o- \.0 
BaTeJIbHO. MepOM IOpl1lll1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, no I1X MHeHl1lO, MomeT 6bITb TOJlbKO TaKaH Mepa rOCYllapCTBeHHoro npJiHymlleHI1H, KOTopaH COllep- ml1T OTpl1uaTeJIbHYIO OUeHKY npaBOHapYllIeHHH, COOTBeTCTBYlOlI.\YIO CTene- HI1 06l1.\ecTBeHHoM onaCHOCTI1 nOCJle,/\Her0 240 . C.C. Me'KCee6 MepbI rocy,/\apCTBeHHOrO npl1Hym,/\eHI1H ,/\em1T Ha npoQJu- JIaKUlqeCKl1e 11 npeBeHTI1BHbIe Mepbl 11 Ha IOpl1llHqeCKl1e CaHKUI1I1. COl.\l1aJIb- Hoe Ha3HaqeHI1e npaBoBoro npl1Hym,/\eHI1H, BblpamalOlI.\erOCH B CaHKul1HX, OH Bl1llHT B I1X npaBOOXpaHI1TeJIbHOfl pOJll1l1lleJII1T CaHKUIlIi Ha npaBOBOCCTaHO- BI1TeJIbHble H llITpaq)HbJe. OH 11 ero nOCJIellOBaTeJIIi npHllIJIH K BbIBOllY 0 TOM, qTO He06xOAI1MO OTrpaHl1ql1BaTb MepbI npJ1HymlleHI1H K I1CnOJIHeHl11O 06H- 3aHHOCTI1, HanpaBJIeHHbJe Ha BOCCTaHOBJIeHl1e HapYllIeHHblX npaB nOTepneB- llIero (MepbI 3allll1TbI cy6'beKTI1BHbIX npaB 11 06eCneqeHI1H I1CnOJIHeHI1H 06H- 3aHHOCTefl), OT I1HbIX, BbIpameHHbIX B HOBbIX, 06peMeHHIOlI.\HX JIIiUO 06H3aH- HOCTHX, T.e. Mep IOpl1lll1QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. Mepbl 3aIlU1TbI cy6'beKTI1B- HbIX npaB 06eCneQl1BalOT I1X BOCCTaHOBJIeHl1e 11 npl1 OTCYTCTBI1I1 BHHbI JIl1ua, Hapyllll1BllIero 3T11 npaBa.lOpl1llHQeCKaH me OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb CBH3aHa C BH- HOBHblM npaBOHapYllleHl1eM, QeM 11 06'bHCHHeTCH B03JIOmeHI1e Ha npaBOHa- pYllll1TeJIH 06peMeHeHI1i1 - HaKa3aHI1H, llITpaQJHblX H I1HblX JIIill1eHI1M 11 ,/\0- nOJIHI1TeJIbHbIX 06H3aHHOCTew 241 . Hal160JIee BamHaH OT JII1QI1TeJIbHaH QepTa IOpI1.I\I1QeCKOW OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - :3T0 npeTepneBaHl1e CaHKUI1M, I1MelOlI.\HX A-. - 242 3 npel1MYll.\eCTBeHHO llITpa't'HOIi xapaKTep . TY KOHuenUl11O BOCnpl1HHJlI1 C.H. KOJICe61/U'Koi 43 , B.. Apaa'UL'Ku1/ 24 , B.T. Ba3bl./lei 45 , a.A. Kpaca6 1 tu- 'K06 246 , H.C. MG..I/.eU1/ 247 I1llp. 06l1.\I1M npl13HaKOM Mep IOpl1lll1QeCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 Mep 3all.\HTbl HBJIHeTCH HX 06eCneQeHI1e rocy,napCTBeHHo-npaBOBblM npl1HymAeHl1eM. IIo- Bl1llHMOMY, 3TOT QJaKT n03BOJIHeT ueJIow rpynne YQeHblX OTom,/\eCTBJIHTb Me- pbI 3all.\I1TbI 11 MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. TaK. C TOQKI1 3peHI1H /I1.C. Ca.MOUfe1i- 'KO H M.X. <PaPYK'ULU'lia, 113 TOro QJaKTa, QTO y npaBOHapYllll1TeJIH He B03HH- KaeT HOBbIX 06H3aHHOCTew H OH He TepHeT Tex I1JIIi I1HblX npaB, COBceM He CJIell)'eT, QTO OH He HeceT HI1KaKI1X JIIill1eHI1W. ECJIIi ero npJ.lHym,/\alOT K I1C- nOJIHeHJ11O 06H3aHHOCTeM, 3HaQl1T, C Hero Cnpallll1BaIOT OTQeT 0 COBepllleHHOM ,/\eHHI1I1I1 ocym,naIOT ero 3a 3TO lleHHl1e, eCJII1 eCTb BI1Ha, 3aCTaBJIHIOT BbInOJI- HHTb npaBOBYIO 06H3aHHOCTb nOMHMO BOJII1 248 . C.H. Bpamycb nIill1eT: «... QTO ):\JlH nOTepneBllIero, oCYll.\eCTBJlHlOlI.\ero CBOe npaBo npl1 nOMOll.\l1 rocYAapcTBeHHoro npl1HymlleHHH, HBJlHeTCH Mepoi1 3all.\l1Tbl, TO llJIH 06H3aHHoro JIl1ua, HapYllll1BllIero Qymoe npaBO 11 npl1Hym- ,/\aeMoro K ero BOCCTaHOBJIeHl1lO, - IOpl1lll1QeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb... 3TO llBe B3al1MOCBH3aHHble CTOpOHbI O):\HOro HBJleHJ1H" 249. Ee3YCJIOBHO, MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 Mepbl 38.lI.\I1ThI B3aHMOCBH3aHbl, HO I1X CBH3b He npl1BOlll1T K Tom,/\eCTBY. MepbI 3all.\IITbI HBJIHIOTCH nepBI1QHbIMI1 npaBooxpaHI1TeJIbHbIMI1 cpellCTBaMI1, OHI1 HanpaBJIeHbI Ha npe):\OTBpall.\eHl1e npaBOHapYllleHI1W: pHll Mep 38.llII1TbI npJiMeHHeTCH npll OTCYTCTBIII1 npaBOHapy- llIeHI1M (BI1H,/\I1KaUI1H I1MYllleCTBa y ,/\06pOCOBeCTHoro npH06peTa TeJIH, npJ13Ha- CO Hl1e aBTopcma. BbIQeT H3 3apIIJIaTbl H3JIHllIHe nOJIyqeHHbIx C}'MM B pe3YJIbTaTe \.0 ap l1 <p MeTI 1'IeCKoM OIlll16KI1 11 AP.). HeKOTopble MepbI 3all.\J1TbI npl1MeHHIOTCH K 
nI-!4aM, COBepllll1Bl11I1M lleHHI1R C npl13HaKaMH npaBOHapYllIeHI1H. B 38.BI1CI1MOC- TI1 OT pellleHI1H Bonpoca no YCTaHOBJIeHl11O COCTaBa npaBOHapYllIeHI1H JI1140, K KOTOPOMY 6blJII1 npl1MeHeHbl MepbI 3all.\l'lThI, MomeT 6bITb nOllBepmyro IOpHllH- '1eCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1l1.JI11 oCB06om,!\eHo OT Hee 250 . IIpl1 npl1MeHeHl111 Mep 3a- lI.\l1TbI «OKa3bIBaeTCH BnOJIHe llOCTaTO'lHbIM TOJIbKO npl1Hym,!\eHl1e K I1CnOJIHe- HI1IO IOpl1,!\H'IeCKI1X OOH3aHHOCTeH, 3all.\Wra CYO'beKTHBHoro npaBa»25'. MepbI IOpl1l\l1'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npecJIeJ\YlOT 60JIee rJIy60KYIO 4eJIb - HgaBCT- BeHHO-nCI1XOJIOrl1'leCKOe npe06pa30BaHl1e C03HaHI1H npaBoHapyrnl1TeJIH 2. C.H. KO:HCe/J1/WW6 pa3rpaHI1'1I1BaeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 11 MepbI 3all.\I-ITbI no CJIe.l\YlOlI.\I1M KpI1TepI1HM: a) no OCHOBHOH HanpaBJIeHHOCTH (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 06pall.\eHa npem,!\e Bcero K HapYllII1TeJIIO, a 3all.\l1Ta npaBa - He TOJIbKO 11 CTOJIbKO K HapYllll1TeJIlO. CKOJIbKO K ynpaBoMO'leHHOMY); 0) no OCHOBaHHHM npl1MeHeHI1H - OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HacTynaeT nl11l1b npl1 HaJUI'I1111 npaBoHapy- llIeHI1H (BI1HOBHOe, ocym.naeMoe ,!\eHHl1e, npl1'111HHlOllIee Bpell 061l1eCTBY), 3a- lI.\l1Ta me npaBa ,!\onYCTtIMa H B CI1JIY 06'beKTI1BHO npOTtIBOnpaBHoro ,!\eHHI1H, a B pH,!\e CJIY'laeB 11 npl1 OTcyrCTBI1I1 npOTl1BOnpaBHOCTI1; B) no <PYHK4I1HM 11 co,!\epmaHI1IO paCCMaTpl1BaeMblX KaTeropl1H (waBHaH <PYHK4I1H IOpl1,!\I1'1e- CKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - llITpa<lmaH, KapaTeJIbHaH, <PYHK4I1H me BOCCTa- HOBI1TeJIbHbIX Mep CBO,!\I1TCH K 06eCne'leHI1IO I1CnOJIHeHI1H IOpl1,!\I1'1eCKOH 00H3aHHOCTI1, 3all.\I1TbI npaBa); r) no cnoc06aM B03,!\eHCTBI1H Ha nOBelleHI1e Y'laCTHI'!KOB OXpaHI-ITeJIbHOrO npaBOOTHOllleHI1H (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BCer,!\a npe,!\nOJIaraeT HpaBCTBeHHo-nCI1XOJIOrI1'1eCKOe npe06pa30BaHI1e JII1'1HOCTI1I1 Bcer,!\a conpHmeHa C ocym,!\eHl1eM, nOpl14aHI1eM npaBOHapYllll1TeJIH, npl1'1l-1- HeHl1eM eMY onpeAeJIeHHblX JIl1ll1eHI1H, BOCCTaHOBJIeHl1e me npaBa pacnOJIa- raeT OOJIee 061l111pHbIM KOMnJIeKCOM cpe,!\CTB B03;CTBI1H, Hanpl1Mep npl1- 3HaHHe npaBa, ero npI1HY,!\HTeJIbHOe I1CnOJIHeHHe) . MbI He CJIY'laHHO 3aTpOHYJIH npOOJIeMY 06l1.\eTeOpeTI1'1eCKOrO nopH,!\Ka 0 COOTHOllleHl111 Mep IOpl1,!\I1'1eCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 H Mep 3allll1TbI. Ee pe- llIeHl1e I1JIH no KpaHHeii Mepe '1eTlffiH aBTopCKaH n0311l{11H I1MeeT Henocpe,!\- cTBeHHoe OTHOllleHl1e K np06JIeMaTI1Ke OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,!IOJIm- HOCTHbIX JUl4 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. He6J1aronpl1HTHble npaBOBble no- CJle,!\CTBI1H, npe,!\YCMOTpeHHble caHK411HMI1 HOpM npaBa ,!\J1H opraHOB H ,!\OJlmHOCTHbIX 31114 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, Heo,!\Hopo,!\Hbl. B pa6OTax, nOCBHlI.\eHHbIX np06J1eMaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 YKa3aHHblx cy&beKToB, Hepe,!\- KO He npOBO,!\I1TCH pa3J1I1'1Hii Mem,!\y MepaMI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 MepaMI1 3all.\l1Tbl, XOTH ,!\JIH :noro, O'leBI1,!\HO, CYll.\eCTBYIOT 113BeCTHbIe OCHOBaHI1H. TaK, Hanpl1Mep, B.B. IIbI.llU1i K MepaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OTHOCHT npe,!\y- npemlleHl-le 0 B03MomHOCTH pocnycKa npellCTaBl1TeJlbHoro opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H H Henocpe,!\cTBeHHo ero pocnycK (,!\ocpO'lHOrO npeKpall.\e- HI1H nOJIHOMO'lI1H)254. BepoHTHo. aBTOp He Y'lHTblBaeT pa3JIH'IHH B npaBOBOH npl1po,!\e JTI1X Mep, '1TO npI1BO,!\I1T K nOCTaHOBKe B O,!\I1H pH,!\ pa3HonopH,!\KO- BblX HBJleHI1H- MepbI 3allll1TbI (B nepBOM cJlY'lae) 11 Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (BO BTOpOM). Hepa3pa60TaHHOCTb np06J1eMbl npl1Hym,!\eHI1H 11 ero Mep B MY HI1 4 11 - 0\ naJlbHo-npaBOBoii HaYKe npI1BO,!\I1T TaKme HeKOTopbIX aBTopOB K BbIBO,!\y, \.0 
qTO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1H rrepe.Q HaCeJle- Hl1eM OITI1paeTCH I1CKJllOqI1T;HO Ha 06ll!eCTBeHHoe, a He rOCY.QapCTBeHHoe (rry6J1l1qHoe) rrpl.fHym.QeHl1e , qTO, Ha Halll B3rJlH.Q, B rrpl1Hl!lme I1CKamaeT rrpe.QCTaBJleHl1e 0 rrpHpO.Qe 11 CYll!HOCTl1lOpl1.Ql1qeCKoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 256 . JJ:ei1:cTBI1TeJlbHO, B HeKOTopbIX cJlyqaHX MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MorYT rrpl1- MeHHTbCH oe3 rrOMOll!11 rrYOJll1qHoi1: BJlaCTI1 11 COOTBeTCTBeHHO rry6J1l1qHOro rrpI1Hym.QeHI1H. 8TO OOCTOHTeJlbCTBO He MeHHeT I1X rrpl1pOllbI KaK rocY.Qap- CTBeHHo-rrpI1HY.QI1TeJlbHbIX Mep, cO.QepmaHl1e 11 rropH.QOK rrpl1MeHeHI1H KO- TOpbIX YCTaHOBJleHbl 3aKOHOM. «8T11M rrpl13HaKOM HOpMbI rrpaBa, - YKa3bI- BaeT 0.8. JIeucm, - OTJIl1qalOTCH OT .QPYrux COl!l1aJlbHbIX HOpM, peaJll13a- l!I1H KOTOpblX Orrl1paeTCH I1CKJllOql1TeJlbHO Ha rrO.Q.QepmKY 06ll!eCTBeHHoro MHeHI1H (rrpI1Hl!l1rrbI 11 HOpMbI Mopam1). Ha aBTopI1TeT 06ll1eCTBeHHoi1: opra- H113al!1111 (HMbI OOll!eCTBeHHblx OpraHI13al!l1i-.), Ha clmy rrpl1BbIqKI1 (06bI- qal1) 11 T.LI..» . BepHeMcH, OAHaKO, K cO.QepmaHI1IO caMoi1: KaTeropI1I1 «Mepa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1». HeKOTopble aBTopbI rrbITalOTCH paCKpbITb ee cOllepmaHl1e, OITI1paHCb Ha CJlOBa pb PYCCKOro H3b1Ka. «Orrpe.QeJlHH MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, - rrl1ll1eT M.. llluHaJ!nuHa, - MbI I1CXO.QI1M 113 CJlOBa «Mepa» B 3HaqeHI1H «rrpe.QeJl, B KOTOpOM OCYll!eCTBJlHeTCH, rrpOHBJlHeTCH qTO_HI10Y.Qb»258. TaKI1M 06pa30M, peqb rroi1:.QeT :?5pe.QeJlax, B KOTOpbIX .QOCTl1raeTCH l!eJlb IOpl1.Q11qeCKoi1: OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1» . O.QHaKO qall!e Bcero cO.QepmaHHe KaTeropHI1 «Mepa OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1» aBTopbI paCKpbIBalOT JlI100 qepe3 rrOHHTl1e «<popMa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1» (KaK ObIJIO CKa3aHO BbIllIe), JII100 qepe3 rrOHHTl1e «caHKl!J.lH». TepMI1H ccCaHKI.\HH» MHOr03HaqeH. B 3aKOHO.QaTeJIbCTBe, rrpaBoBOi1: HaYKe 11 IOpl1.Ql1qeCKoj:j rrpaKTI1Ke OH orrpe.QeJlHeTCH KaK: 1) YTBepm.QeHl1e BbIcllIei1: I1HCTaHl!Hei-. KaKoro-JI1160 aKTa, rrpl1.QalOll!ero eMY cImy 3aKOHa; 2) 0.Q06pe- Hl1e, pa3pellleHl1e 260 ; 3) qaCTb IOpl1.QHqeCKoi1: HOpMbI, YKa3bIBalOlI.\1IH Ha He- 6JIarorrpHHTHbie rrOCJle.QCTBI1H, B03HI1KllII1e B pe3YJIbTaTe HapYllleHI1H .Ql1crro- 311l!1111 rrpaBoBoi1: HOPMbI 261 ; 4) KOHKpeTHaH Mepa MepbI rocy.napcTBeHHoro rrpl1Hym.QeHI1H 262 (Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 rrpaBoHapYlllI1TeJlH); 5) <popMa HOpMaTI1BHOrO 3aKperrJIeHI1H Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH KaK Hal160Jlee cepbe3- HbIX Mep rocY.QapcTBeHHo-rrpI1HY.QI1TeJIbHoro rropHllKa263. B IOpl1.Ql1qeCKoi1: JII1TepaType OT.QeJIbHbIe BI1.QbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII Hepe.QKo OTom.QeCTBJlHIOTCH C cooTBeTcTBYIOll!I1MI1I1M rrpaBoBbIMI'I CaHKl!I1HMi'I, rrpl1qeM TaKaH TeH.QeHl!HH 264 XapaKTepHa .QJIH OTpaCJIeBbIX HaYK . COOTBeTCTBeHHO i'I K orrpe.QeJIeHi'l1O CYll!eCTBeHHbIX rrpi'l3HaKOB CaHKl!i'li1: yqeHbIe rrO.QXO.QHT rro-pa3HOMY. K HI1M rrpe}:\JIaralOT OTHeCTI1 rrpI.fHym.QeHl1e, He6JIarorrpl1HTHbIe rrpaBOBble rrOCJIe.QCTBI1H, HeraTl1BHYlO Ol!eHKY roCYllapCT- Ba, Yll!eMJIeHi'lH MaTepi'laJIbHOrO I1JII1 IOpi'l.Ql1qeCKoro xapaKTepa. J136paB TY i'lJII1 HHYIO rr0311l!111O. O.QHI1 aBTopbI rrpOTI1BorrOCTaBJIHIOT CaHKl!1111 rrpI1Hym- .QeHI1H 11 CaHKl!I-H1 HeOJIarorrpl1HTHbIX rrOCJIellCTBI1i1: 265 . JJ:pyrl1e CYMMI1PYIOT 3TH rrOHHTi'lH 266 . TpeTbH CqI1TaIOT, qTO JIIOOaH caHKUHH rrpellCTaBJIHeT c060i-. YKa3aHI1e Ha Mepy rrpI1Hym.QeHI1H, OCYll!eCTBJIHeMYIO opraHaMI1 roCY.QapCTBa o B cJIyqae rrpaBOHapYllleHI1H (JIlO6ble He6JIarorrpl1HTHble rrOCJIe.QCTBI1H rrpl1HY- t-- .QHTeJIbHO B03JIaralOTCH Ha rrpaBOHapYlllI1TeJIH opraHaMI1 roCY.QapCTBa)267. 
B o6e([ TeOpm! npaBa CaHKHI-IKJIaCCmpHl-IpYIOT B 3aBHCHl\!OCTt[ OT xa- paKTepa He6JIaronpHHTHbIX nOCJIeACTBHM Ha lllTpa4JHble (KapaTeJIbHble) H npaBOBOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHble 26B . IIpaBOBOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHble CaHKI1H HanpaB- JIeHbI !fa BOCCTaHOBJIeHHe OTHOWeHI1M, HapyweHHbIX BCJIeACTBHe npaBOHa- pyweHHH. lllTpa4JHble (KapaTeJIbHble) CaHI1H, B03AeMCTBYH Ha Hl\!yecT- BeHHble HJIH JII1'IHble HHTepeCbI rpamAaH JII160 Ha pa3JIH'IHOrO pOAa KOJIJIeK- TI-IBHble HHTepeCbl (B OTHOWeHI-IH IOpl1AI-I'IeCKoro JIHIW), l1l\!elOT cBOef! eJIblO  269 ooee 11 CneHaJIbHOe npeAynpemAeHl1e TaKoe AeJIeHHe CaHKHM Bbl3BaJIO AI1CKYCCHIO 0 COOTHOWeHHI-I l\!ep IOpl1- A['IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H CaHKHH - wTpa4JHblX H npaBOBOCCTaHOBI-I- TeJIbHb!X. 0.3. JIeucm C'II1TaeT, 'ITO KaK KapaTeJIbHble, TaK 11 npaBOBOCCTaHO- B!TeJIbHble CaHKHH OXBaTbIBalOTCH nOHHTHel\! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTt?70. B.H. Ky- apJ!B1.IeB nOJIaraeT, 'ITO wTpa4JHble CaHKI1H - :no BCerAa l\!epbI OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI-I, a npaBOBOCCTaHOBI1TeJIbHble CaHKI1H l\!OrYT 6blTb 3JIeMeHTOM OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTH JIHWb TorAa, KorAa I1X npl1MeHeHl1e COOTB2;CTBYeT YCJIOBI1HM HacTynJIeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (HaJIH'IHe BHHbI 11 T.n.) . C.C. AAe'KCeeB 11 H.C. MMeU'/i, HanpOTI-IB, OTCTal1BaIOT MHeHl1e 0 TOl\!, 'ITO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb CBH3aHa TOJIbKO C KapaTeJIbHbIl\!11 CaHKI1Hl\!H272. TOJIbKO Te CaHK1111 6YAYT MepaMI-I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, KOTopble npHl\!eHHIOTCH npH HaJII1'IHI1 Bcex 6e3 I1CKJIIO'IeHHH npl13HaKOB IOpI1AI1'IeCKO([ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. 8TO WTpa4JHble (KapaTeJIbHble) CaHKI1I1, OHI1 onpeAeJIHIOT BI1A 11 npeAeJIbl HaKa3aHI1H (Ka- pbl) npaBOHapYWI1TeJIH. CaHKI1H, npHMeHHeMble 6e3 Y'IeTa npH3HaKOB OT- 273 BeTCTBeHHOCTI1, CJIeAyeT OTHeCTt! K MepaM 3a!TbI . J'lcXOAH 113 o6ero nOJIOmeHI1H TeOpl1H npaBa 0 TOl\!, 'ITO CaHK1111 HOpM npaBa npeACTaBJIHIOT C060M YKa3aHl-le Ha l\!epbl roCYAapCTBeHHoro npl1Hym- AeHHH, I1CnOJIb3yel\!ble B CJIY'Iae HapyweHI1H npaBOBblX Tpe6oBaHI1M 274 , OTomAeCTBJIeHHe nOHHTt!H «caHKHH» 11 «MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» Henpa- 275 BOMepHO . CaHKI1H KaK 06H3aTeJIbHbifi :meMeHT JI106oi-i npaBOBofl HOpMbl npeA- CTaBJIHeT C060M npemAe Bcero YKa3aHI1e Ha Mepy rOCYAapCTBeHHoro npl1- HymAeHI1H, npl1MeHHeMYIO K HapYWI1TeJIIO AaHHOM HOpMbl. OCHOBHaH eJIb caHKI1([ - npeA)'npemAeHl1e npaBoHapyweHI1f(. ECJII1 me npaBoHapyweHl1e COBepweHO, TO npl1l\!eHeHHe 1-1 peaJIl13aI1H CaHK1111 HanpaBJIeHbl Ha ocye- CTBJIeHHe 3aAa'I 06eMI1 'IaCTHOM npeBeH1111, I1CnpaBJIeHl1e 11 nepeBOCnJ1- TaHl1e npaBOHapYWI1TeJIH, BOCCTaHOBJIeHl1e B B03MomHbiX CJIY'IaHX Hapy- weHHoro npaBOnOpHAKa. KpOMe TOro, B cOAepmaHl111 CaHKI1I1I1MeeTCH YKa- 3aHI1e «Ha IOpI1AI1'IeCKl1e nOCJIeACTBI1H npaBoHapyweHHH, KOTopble MorYT B03HHKHYTb KaK Ha OCHOBe aKTOB ynOJIHOMO'IeHHbIX opraHOB, TaK 11 lOMa- TI1'IeCKI1, B CI1JIY 3aKOHa, 6e3 Bl\!eWaTeJIbCTBa KaKI1X-JII160 opraHOB» . IIpl1 3TOM He CJIeAyeT oTomAeCTBJIHTb CaHKlll110 1-1 IOpI-lAI1'IeCKYIO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb 277. CaHKI1H, HBJIHHCb 3JIel\!eHTOM HOpMbI npaBa, cyecTByeT He3a- BI1CI1MO OT ee npl1MeHeHI1H, TorAa KaK IOpHAI1'IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha- cTynaeT JII1Wb npH COBepWeHl111 HenpaBoMepHoro AeHHI1H, npH HapyweHHI1 TOM HOpMbl npaBa. B KOTOpOH cOAepml1TCH CaHKI1H. KaK l\!epa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 caHKHH BbInOJIHHeT ABe OCHOBHble 4JYHKI1H: KapaTeJIbHYIO 11 npe- - r- 
BeHTHBHYIO. IIepBaH 3aI(JIIO'IaeTCH B Hal(a3aHHI1 HapYIllI1TeJIH. B He06xo,nH- MOCTH npl1MeHeHI1H I( HeMY JIHllleHI1i1 MOpaJIbHOrO, 4J11311'1eCl(oro, I1MyecT- BeHHOrO Xapal(Tepa. Ho I(apa He HBJIHeTCH CaMOeJIblO, OHa eCTb He06xo,nl1- Moe cpe,nCTBO BOCnI1TaHI1H, npeAynpemAeHHH npaBOHapYllleHHii IIpeBeH- TI1BHaH 4JYHI(HH MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH BbITIOJIHHeT 3a,na'lH '1aCTHoi1 npe- BeH1111 (npe,nynpem,neHl1e HapYllleHI1H co CTOpOHbI caMoro BI1HOBHOro JII1- a) 11 06I1.\ei1 npeBeHHI1 (npo4JHJIaKTHl(a HapYllleHI1i1 co CTOpOHbI ol(pyma- IOHX ero cy6'beI(TOB)27B. I'IHor,na B JII1TepaTYpe yl(a3bIBaeTCH, '1TO IOpl1,nI1'1eCl(aH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ecTb He '1TO 11H0e, Kal( «peaJIH3aHH CaHI(iV'II1 HOpMbI npaBa", H60 co,nepmaHl1e CaHI(I1H CBOAHTCH I( yeraHOBJIeHHIO onpeAeJIeHHbIX IOpI1AI1'1eCI(I1X nOCJIeACT- BHi1 nOBeAeHI1H 279 . Ho ,na.nel(o He BCHKaH CaHI(I1H YCTaHaBJII1BaeT Mepy IOpl1- ,n11'1eCl(oi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, He rOBopH yme 0 TOM, '1TO 60JIblllHHCTBO ,nei1CTBY- IOII.\I1X npaBOBbIX HOpM He HMeeT I(JIaCCI1'1eCI(OH TpeX'IJ\eHHoi1 CTPYKTYPbI (rn- nOTeaa - AHcn03HHH - CaHI(HH) 11 CaHI(HeH MomeT 6bITb ,name HopMa B e- JIOM, a BO MHorHX HopMax CaHI(HI1 OTCYTCTBYIOT, '1TO caMO no ce6e ee He 03- Ha'iaeT OTC)'TCTBI1H IOpH,nI1'1eCl(oJ;'! omeTcTBeHHOCTI1 3a I1X HapYllleHl1e. I'IHoe AeJIO - nOHI1MaHl1e CaHI(1111 I(al( YCTaHOBJIeHHoi1 3al(OHOM (I1JII1 AorOBOpOM) 1(0HI(PeTH0i1 MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a npaBOHapYllleHl1e. Ha OCHOBaHHI1113JIOmeHHOro npe,nCTaBJIHeTCH B03MomHbIM C4JOPMYJII1PO- BaTb C.J1eay1014ue BbtBOabt. 1. DeHTpaJIbHOe MeCTO B CI1CTeMe l(aTerOpl1J;'! I(JIaccl14Jl1l(a1111 IOpI1AI1- '1ecl(oi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ,nOJImHOCTHbiX JIH MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHI1H 3aHI1MaeT l(aTerOpl1H «BI1A OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1". Co,nepmaHl1e no- HHTI1H «BI1,n OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH» onpeAeJIHeTCH ero «TeopeTI1'1eCI(I1M OI(PY- meHl1eM», ero CBH3blO C Apyrl1MI1 nOHHTI1HMI1, TaI(I1MI1, I(al( «4JoPMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1», «Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH», «caHI(I1H». Tal(HM 06pa30M, CI1CTeMY OCHOBHbIX l(aTeropHi1I(JIaCcl1q)J1l(aI1H IOpl1,nH'IeCl(oi1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,nOJImHOCTHbIX JIH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H 06pa3YlOT «BI1,n», «4JopMa», «Mepa» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 11 "CaHI(I1H». 2. BI1,n IOpl1,nI1'1ecl(oJ;'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - :no npaBoBaH l(aTeropl1H, I(OTO- paH 06pa3yeTcH Ha OCHOBe BbI,neJIeHI1H oc06eHHocTeH co,nepmaHI1H 11 4JOPMbI OTAeJIbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB CI1CTeMbI IOpI1AI1'1ecl(oJ;'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. IIpl1 :nOM HMeHHO 0606I1.\eHHe oc06eHHocTei1 H TOro H ,npyroro (cOAepmaHl1H H 4JOpMbI) 4JopMHpyeT nOHHTl1e «BI1,n IOpI1.l\11'1eCI(OH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW>. Tal(l1M 06pa- 30M, BH)\ IOpl1,nI1'1eCI(OH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MomHO onpeAeJII1Tb I(al( npaBOBYIO l(aTerOpHIO, BblpamalOUO'IO no,npa3AeJIeHHe IOpHAI1'1eCl(oi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 I(al( HBJleHI1H (CI1CTeMbI), 06JIa,nalOee oc06eHHOCTHMH (CYIl.\eCTBeHHbIMH I(a- '1eCTBaMI1) co,nepmaHI1H 11 4JOPMbI. 3. COAepmaHl1e IOpHAH'IeCl(oJ;'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH COCTaBJIHIOT rocYAapcT- BeHHaH (ny6JII1'1HO-npaBOBaH) OeHl(a (ocym,neHHe) ,neHHHH (B pH,ne CJIY'laeB - ,neHTeJIbHOCTI1) 11 ,nonOJIHI1TeJIbHble 06peMeHeHHH. B03JIaraeMble Ha npaBO- Ha pYlllHTeJIH. (\f 4. CecTByeT l1epapXHH 4JOPM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, a TalOKe Hel(aH MHO- I'- meCTBeHHOCTb (CI1CTeMa) 4JoPM COCTaBJIHIOX ee 3JIeMeHTOB - npaBOBblx 
cpeJ\CTB H TeXHOJIOnUI. B KOHTeKCTe TeMbI HaCTOHIl.\ero HCCJIeJ\OBaHI1H MbI I1CXOJ\HM H3 nOHI1MaHHH <pOpMbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH KaK npaBoBoi1 cpOpMbI, KO- TOpaH OXBaTbIBaeT MaTepl1aJIbHYIO (cpOPMY, B KOTOpoi1 BbIpamalOTCH rocy- J\apCTBeHHOe ocymJ\eHHe 11 AonOJIHHTeJIbHbIe 06peMeHeHI1H, B03JIaraeMbIe Ha npaBOHapYIlIl1TeJIH npJ1HymJ\eHHe) 11 npoeccyaJIbHYIO cpOpMbI IOpI1AH'leC- Kofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. 5. «Mepa» IOpl1J\J1'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npeACTaBJIHeT c060i1 COOTHO- rneHl1e KOJII1'leCTBeHHbIX 11 Ka'leCTBeHHbIX napaMeTpoB rocYJ\apCTBeHHOrO npl1HymAeHHH. KaTeropHH MepbI BbIpamaeT TaKoe B3al1MOOTHOrneHI1e Mem- J\Y 3TI1MI1 cTopoHaMH rocYJ\apcmeHHoro np!HymJ\eHI1H, npl-l KOTOpOM Ka'le- CTBO ero OCHOBaHO Ha onpeJ\eJIeHHOM KOJII1'leCTBe, a nOCJIeJ\Hee eCTb KOJII1'le- CTBO onpeJ\eJIeHHOrO Ka'leCTBa. Mepa npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - 3TO I1H- AI1BI1J\yaJII1311pOBaHHoe CnpaBeAJII1BOe 11 copa3MepHoe npaBoBoe nOCJIeACT- Bl1e IOpHAI-I'leCKOfl OeHKI1 KOHKpeTHOrO nocTynKa cy6'beKTa npaBa. 6. TIpeAcTaBJIHeTCH, 'lTO CYIl.\eCTByeT B03MomHOCTb 1-1 onpeAeJIeHHbIe oc- HOBaHI1H AJIH nOCTaHOBKI1 BOnpoca 0 BbIAeJIeHl111 HopMaTI1BHoi1I1I1HCTI1TYI-I- OHaJIbHOM <pOpMbI MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. HOpMaTI1BHOM cpOpMOM MepbI IOpl1J\I1'leCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BbIcTynaeT caHKI.\I1H. He06xoJ\I1MOCTb npa- BOBOfl perJIaMeHTaHI1 npaKTI1'leCKoi1 peaJIl13a1111 (npI1MeHeHI1H) COOTBeT- cTBYIOIl.\ei1 CaHKl.\l111 npI1BOJ\I1T K cpOpMl1pOBaH111O npaBoro I1HCTI1T)'Ta, K B03- HI1KHOBeHl11O I1HCTHTY110HaJIbHOfl cpOpMbI MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, BbIpa- malOIl.\efl He TOJIbKO caMY Mepy OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (Mepy npI1HymJ\eHI1H, CaHKI1IO), HO H «TeXHOJIOrl1lO» ee peaJII13aHI1. 7. CaHKI1H HBJIHeTCH HOpMaTI1BHbIM BbIpameHHeM MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1, cpOpMOM ee HOpMaTI1BHOrO 3aKpenJIeHHH (BbIpameHHH), cpeJ\cTBoM npl1- J\aHHH eM npaBoBoi1 cpOpMbI 11 B HeKoTopoM CMbICJIe npaBoBoi1 cpOpMOi1 MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI-I (HO He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KaK TaKOBOM). C rnoceOJIorl1'lecKofl TO'lKI13peHHH CJIeJ\yeT pa3JII1'laTb «caHK111O HOpMbI npaBa» - 3JIeMeHT ee JIOrl1'leCKoi1 CTPYKTYPbI 11 «caHKI1IO» KaK YCTaHOBJIeH- HYIO 3aKOHOM (I1JII1 AorOBopOM) KOHKpeTHYIO Mepy npl1HymAeHHH (OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1) 3a npaBoHapyweHl-le, T.e. CaHKl.\l11O B cpopMaJIbHOM 11 MaTepl1aJIb- HOM CMbICJIe. OnpeJ\eJIHBWHCb C Heo6xoJ\I1Moi1 TepMI1HOJIOmefl, MomHO npl-lCTynl1Tb HenocpeJ\CTBeHHO K KJIaCCl1cpI-lKa1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 J\OJImHOCT- HbIX JIH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. KaK nOJ\'lepKI1BaJIOCb BbIwe, KJIaCCI1- cpl1KaI1H npeJ\CTaBJIHeT c06oi1 pacnpeJ\eJIeHl1e COCTaBJIHIOIl.\I-IX 3JIeMeHTOB CHCTeMbI Ha rpynnbI Ha OCHOBaHJ111 KaKOrO-JII160 06Il.\ero npH3HaKa. TaKl1x npl13HaKOB MOmeT 6bITb MHoro. I1cnOJIb30BaHl1e KamJ\oro 113 HI1X npHBOJ\I1T K cpOpMHpOBaHl11O onpeJ\eJIeHHOrO nOJ\xoJ\a K KJIaCCl1cpHKal.\Hl1, B paMKax KOTO- poro BbIJ\eJIHIOTCH BI1J\bI IOpHJ\I1'leCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, HX CYIl.\eCTBeHHbIe oco6eHHOCTI1, xapaKTepl-lCnlKI1 H B3aI1MOCBH3b. .D:aJIee 6YAYT paCCMOTpeHbI B03MomHbIe nOJ\XOJ\bI K KJIaCCl1cpHKaI-IH IOpl-lJ\H'leCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHocnl opraHOB 11 J\OJImHOCTHbIX JII1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. rr'\ r- 
2.3. OCHOBAHIt1f1 KJlACClt1ctJIt1KALlIt1It1IOPIt1AIt14ECKO OTBETCTBEHHOCTIt1 OprAHOB It1 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlIt1Ll MECTHOro CAMOynPABJlEHIt1f1 PaCCMaTpHBaH BOnpOCbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 AOJImHOCTHblX JII1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, I1peliCTaBI1TeJIH MYHHHnaJIbHO-npaBoBoM Ha- YKI1 HcnOJlb3YlOT nOllxOllbl K KJIaCCH!pI1KaI1I'llOpI1l\H'leCKoJ;'! OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1, cllJopMl1pOBaBWl1eCH B 06weJ;'! TeopHH npaBa H B 3aKOHOllaTeJIbCTBe. B e- JIOM MomHO BbIlIeJII1Tb HeCKOJIbKO CYll\eCTBYlOwI1X (HcnOJIb3yeMblx) KJlaCCI1- IlJI1KaHJ;'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11110JImHOCTHbiX JII1 MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHHH. HeJIb3H CKa3aTb, 'lTO Bce OHH KOHenTyaJIbHO ollJopMJIeHbI H Me- TOAOJIOrI1'leCKI1 BbI)\epmaHbl, HO aBTopbl K HHM 06pawalOTcH, I1X I1cnOJlb3YlOT I1JII1 npeliJiaralOT I1CnOJIb30BaTb B Y'le6HOM JIHTepaType, CneHaJIbHbIX HC- CJIeliOBaHHHX, nOCBHweHHblX np06JIeMaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 cy6'beKTOB MY- HHl1naJlbHO-npaBOBbIX OTHoweHHM. TaKI1M 06pa30M, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb op- raHOB 11 AOJlmHOCTHbIX JIH MeCTIforo caMoynpaBJIeHHH KJlaccHIlJHHpyeTcH no CJICAYlOll.\lInl OCIlOBalIIIHI. I. TpallHHoHHO B OTe'leCTBeHHoJ;'! npaBoBoJ;'! HaYKe IOpHlIH'lecKYIO OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb npHHHTo KJlaCcH<pI1HpOBaTb Ha BI1Abl no OmpaCJleBOu. npwiQo- JteJfC1tOCmu 280 . Ha 3roM OCHOBaHlm IOpHlI11'lecKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nOApa3- lIeJIHIOT Ha yrOJlOBHYlO, allMHHHCTpaTI1BHYIO, rpamllaHcKo-npaBOBY2':i1 (HMY- wecTBeHHYIO), AHCHI1JIHHapHYIO, MaTepHaJIbHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb . PaccMaTpHBaH np06JIeMbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 1I0JImHOCTHbIX JIH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, aBTopbI 'lawe Bcero I1CnOJIb3YlOT I1MeHHO 3TOT nOllxOll K KJIaCn!IlJHKaI1I'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH YKa3aHHblx cy6'beKToB. IIpl1 3TOM cpeAH aBTopoB HeT elll1HOrO MHeHHH 0 KOJII1'leCTBe 11 HaI1MeHOBa- HHH TaKHX BHlIOB. TaK, JI.A. PeBe'/t1w nHweT: «Ha llJeliepaJIbHOM ypoBHe yc- TaHaBJIHBalOTCH BI1)\bl IOpl1l1H'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, KOTOpblM nOllJlemaT opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH H HX 1I0JlmHOCTHble JIHa. B OTHoweHHH opraHoB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH npHMeHHeTcH aAMHHHCTpaTl1BHO-npa- BOBaH, rpamllaHcKo-npaBoBaH 11 ny6.nI1'lHO-npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb; B OTHoweHHH 1I0JImHOCTHbIX .nH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH - yroJIOBHO-npa- BOBaH,rpamAaHcKo-npaBoBaH,aAMI1HHCTpaTHBHo-npaBoBaH,AHcHnJII1Hap-  2B2 HaH, nYOJII1'lHO-npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» ABTOpbl Y'le6HI1Ka no MYHHJmaJIbHoMY npaBY nOA peAaKl\HeM H.C. Bo'/t- oapJ! OTMe'laIOT: «BbllleJiHIOT c.nellYlOwHe BI111bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1: rpamllaH- cKo-npaBoBaH; yrOJIOBHaH; a.n;MHHHCTpaTI1BHO-npaBoBaH; lIHCI1I1J1I1HapHaH; MaTepraJIbHaH. Bee 3TH Bl1l\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B TOM HJIH I1HOM creneHH MO- rYT HMeTb MeCTO B cllJepe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. B CT. 48 3aKOHa Bb!,l\eJIe- Ha TaKme OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeA MeCTHbIM HaCeJIeHHeM - cneI1IlJI1'leCKI1M BI1A KOHCTI1TYHOHHOJ;'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» 283. E.C. Illyzpu'/ta BbIAeJiHeT yrOJlOBH)'IO, a.n;MI1HHCTpaTHBHYIO, lIHCmJII1- HapHYIO, rpam)\aHCKO-npaBoBYIO, MaTepl1aJIbHYlO, KOHCTI1TYHoHHo-npaBo- BYIO 11 MYHHl1naJIbHO-npaBoBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, KOTOPYIO HecYT opraHbI 4- r- 
11 AOJl>KHOCTHble JlHla MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H 2B4 . ::ho([ >Ke n03111111 npl1- .l\ep>K!BaeTCH B.H. Ba6u'leB 2B5 . 3a I13'bHTl1eM MYHI1l1naJlbHO-npaBOBOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1, aHaJlOrl1'lHbIM nepe'leHb BI1.l\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 0J;:raHOB 11 .l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JlI1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H AaeT M.M. M01WeB 2 6. Kal( BI1.l\HO 113 npl1Be.l\eHHblX I1TaT, paCXO>K.l\eHI1H aBTOpCl(l1X CY>K.l\eHI1([ no AaHHOMY Bonpocy .l\OBOJlbHO 3Ha'l!TeJlbHbI. TIo:nOMY npl111CnOJlb30BaHI111 .l\aHHoro (OTpaCJleBoro) nOAxoAa I( l(JIaccl1q)Hl(a1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opra- HOB 11 .l\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H CJle.l\yeT I1MeTb B BI1.l\Y CJleAYIOee. BO-nepB'bIX, aneJlJIl1poBaHl1e I( TpaAI1110HHO Bbl.l\eJIHeMbIM OTpaCJIeBblM Bl1.l\aM IOpl1.l\I1'leCI(O(1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, eCJII1 Y'lI1TbIBaTb ypOBeHb I1X pa3pa- 60TaHHOCTI1 B IOpI1AI1'leCl(o([ HaYl(e, n03BOJIHeT I1CnOJlb30BaTb CJIO>KI1BIlIYIOCH .l\eCHTl1JIeTI1HMI1 B OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpl1.l\l1'leCI(I1X HaYl(ax TeOp111O OTpaCJIeBbIX BI1AOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI!, cnoc06cmyeT YHCHeHl110 npl1pOAb! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .l\OJI>KHOCTHbIX JII1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepe.l\ HaCeJIeHl1eM, rOCYAapCTBOM, 4J11311'leCI(I1MI111 IOpI1AI1'leCI(I1MI1 JII1aMI1, YCJIOBI1M HacTynJIe- HI1H l(a>K.l\oro 1(0HI(peTHoro BI1Aa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, Xapal(Tepa CaHI(!.\I1(! 11 Tex 4JYHI(W!([, 1(0TOpble BbInOJIHHeT I1HCTI1T)'T OTBeTcmeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .l\OJI>K- HOCTHbIX JII1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H B eJIOM. TI03TOMY, Ha Halll B3rJIH.l\, paCCMaTpl1BaeMb!M nOAxOA I( l(J!aCCI14Jl1l(a1111 opraHOB 11 AOJ!>KHOCTHbIX J!11!.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H MO>KeT 11 .l\OJ!>KeH 6bITb I1CnOJlb30BaH npl1 npOBe- .l\eHI1I1 COOTBeTcmYIOl1x I1CCJ!e.l\OBaHI1M, paBHO I(al( 11 B Y'le6Hoii JI!TepaType. BO-BmOp'bIX, B 06eM TeOp1111 npaBa AeJ!eHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 no OTpac- J!eBOH npI1Ha,l\JIe>KHOCTH HBJ!HeTCH .l\aJIel(O He 6eccnopHOH n0311l1eM. Hanpl1- Mep, O'leBI1AHO, 'lTO Tal(Oe AeJ!eHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He cOBnaAaeT C OTpac- J!eBOH CTPYI(TYPO([ npaBa Y>Ke no TO([ npl1'lI1He, 'lTO BI1.l\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MeHbllle, 'leM OTpaCJ!eM npaBa. TIpl1'leM 3a HapYllleHl1e HOpM pa3J!I1'lHbIX OT- pacJ!e([ npaBa MO>KeT npl1MeHHTbCH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OAHoro 11 TOro >Ke BI1Aa, Hanpl1Mep a.l\MI1HHCTpaTI1BHaH- OTpaCJ!eBaH l(J!aCCI1<pl1l(aI1H He 06"bHCHHeT Tal(>Ke, nO'leMY B npeAeJiax OAHOM OTpaCJ!11 npaBa MorYT ceCTBOBaTb pa3- Hble BI1.l\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (.lJ.I1Cl1nJ!I1HapHaH 11 MaTepl1aJ1bHaH - B TPY.l\D- BOM, a.l\MIIHI1C1paTI!BHaH 11 4JI1HaHCOBO-npaBOBaH - B 4JHHaHCOBOM), 11 Ha060- pOT, HOpMaMI1 pa3HbIX o1pacJ!e(1 npaBa perYJ!l1pYeTCH ocyeCTBJ!eHl1e OAHoro BI1.l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (yroJloBHoe. yroJ!OBHo-npoeccyaJ!bHoe, yroJ!OBHO-I1C- nOJ!H!TeJ!bHoe npaBO - npl1MeHI1TeJlbHO I( yroJlOBHO(! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1; rpa>K- .l\aHCI(Oe, rpa>K.lJ,aHCI(Oe npoeCCYaJIbHoe npaBO 11 HCnOJlHI1TeJ!bHoe npoH3BO.l\- cmo - npl1MeHI1TeJ!bHO I( rpa>K.lJ,aHCI(O-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1). KpOMe TOro, CI1CTeMa npaBa He CTaTI['lHa, OHa He HBJ!HeTCH 3aCTb!BllIe([ 1(0HCTpYI(l1eM. KOJlI1'leCTBO oTpacJ!ei'i npaBa, I1X MeCTO [ 3Ha'leHl1e B CI1C- TeMe npaBa MeHHeTCH C Te'leHl1eM BpeMeH11 287 . Tal(l1e 113MeHeHI1H BJ!I1HIOT 11 Ha CI1CTeMY IOpl1.l\I1'leCI(OM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, 06YCJ!OBJ!I1BaH 113MeHeHI1e 3Ha'leHI1H OTAeJ!bHb!X ee BI1.l\OB 11 nOHBJ!eHl1e HOBbIX OTpaCJ!eBbIX BI1.l\OB. B HaCTOHee Bper.;H I( TpaAI1110HHO Bbl.l\eJlH:IM BI1AaM IOPI1.l\I1'lOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 AooaBJ!T npoeccyaJ!bHYIO , Me>K.lJ,pOAHYIO , rocy- .l\apCTBeHH2;npaBOYIO 2931(0HCTI1TY110HHo-npaBOBYIO ,MYHI1l1naJ!bHO- It'\ npaBOBYIO . CeMe!HYIO 11 AP. I'- 
IIpo6JIeMa OTpaCJIeBOi1KJIaCCH<pHKaI1H COCTOHT ee 11 B TOM, '1TO B HaCTO- Hee BpeMH nporpeCCl1pyeT TaKOe HBJIeHl1e, KaK BHyrpeHHee paCCJIOeHl1e OT- paCJIeBbIX BI1,l\OB. TaK, fl..B. TromU'l! B paMKa,l\MHHHCTpaTI1BHoi1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 Bbl.l\eJIHeT cpl1HaHCOBYIO 11 HaJIOrOBYIO . B HaYKe <pI1HaHCOBOro npaBa B cpI1HaHCOBOi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BI1.l\HT caMOCTOHTeJIbHbIH BI'I,l\ IOpl1,l\H'lecKoi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 295 JII160 OTJII1'1aIOT peaJIbHble nepCneKTHBbI ee 060c06JIeHHH 296 . MHOrHe I1CCJ\e,l\OBaTeJIH Bbl,l\eJIHIOT B ee COCTaBe HaJIOroBYIO 11 61O,l\:)KeTIfYIO OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb 297. PaCCY:)K,l\aH 0 3aKOHOMepHOCTHX CPOpMl1pOBaHI1H cpI1HaHCO- Bo-npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, 1O.A. Kpoxu'/«l YKa3bIBaeT Ha 60JIee ,l\eTaJIb- HOe 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbHoe ocpopMJIeHHe H HayqHoe OCMblCJIeHl1e HaJIOI"OBoi1, 61OA- :)KeTIfoJ;'1 H BaJIIOTHOJ;'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIl 9B . B 3aKOHOAaTeJIbCTBe nOHBHJII1Cb Ta- KHe TepMI1HbI, KaK HaJ\OrOBOe npaBOHapyweHl1e, cp!HaHCOBble CaHKI.\HH, 610,l\- :)KeTIfaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. IIoxo:)KaH KapTI1Ha Cl(Jla,l\bIBaeTCH 11 C KOHCTI1TYH- OHHOJ;'I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO. Bce :ITO TalQl(e 06YCJIOBJII1BaeT nocTaHoBKy Bonpoca o pacwHpeHI1H nepe'lH!! OTpaCJIeBbIX BI1,l\OB IOpI1.l\H'IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. B-mpembux, OTpaCJIeBaH KJIaCCl1cpHKaHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH He BcerAa Y,l\a'lHO I1CnOJIb3yeTcH npe,l\CTaBHTeJIHMI1 MYHI1l1naJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 HaYKI1. TaK, npl1MeHHH ,l\aHHbIH nOAXO,l\, aBTopbI CMeWI1BalOT pa3JIH'IHble KJIaCCHcpl1- Ka1111 o-rpaCJIei1 npaBa, a HMeHHO AeJIeHl1e npaBa Ha '1aCTHOe 11 ny6JIH'IHOe 11 ero ,l\eJIeHHe Ha yrOJIOBHOe, rpa:)K.l\aHCKOe, a,l\MI1HI'ICTpan!BHOe H T.n. IIepBaH KJIaCCHcpI1Ka!H HBJIHeTCH 60JIee 06eH 11 Bce06'beMJIIOeJ;'! no OTHoweHHIO KO BTOpOi1. CKameM, ny6JII1'1HOe npaBO 06'be.l\I1HHeT B ce6e TaKl1e OTpaCJIH, KaK KOHCTI1TY110HHoe (roCYAapCTBeHHoe npaBO), aAMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOe npaBO, yrOJIOBHOe 11 T.n. qaCTIfoe :)Ke npaBO OXBaTbIBaeT TaKl1e OTpaCJIl1, KaK rpa:)K- AaHCKoe npaBO, ceMei1Hoe npaBO 11 AP.299 II03TOMY Bb!AeJIeHl1e B OAI1H KJIaC- n!cpI1Ka110HHb!H pH.l\ TaKHX OTpaCJIeBb!X BI1AOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, KaK yro- JIOBHaH, a,l\MI1HHCTpan!BHaH 11 HM nOA06HbIX, H ny6JII1'1Ho-npaBOBoJ;'I, KaK 3TO AeJIaeT _'l.A. PeIJe'/i"KO, npe.l\CTaBJIHeTCH KaK MI1HHMYM JIOrl1'1eCKoi1 OWI16- KOM - AeJIeHl1eM no pa3HbIM OCHOBaHHHM. Cnel1aJIHCTbI, I1CCJIe.l\OBaBWl1e ny6JII1'1HO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, CnpaBe.l\JII1BO HaCTal1BalOT Ha TOM, '1TO 3Ta KaTerOpl1H 60JIee wHpoKaH no OTHOWeHl11O K OTpaCJIeBbIM BH.l\aM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. TaK, M.A. Y.M'/iOIJa C'II1TaeT, '1TO KaTeropHH ny6JII1'1HO-npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OXBaTb!Ba- eT He TOJIbKO OTHOWeHI1H, perYJIl1pyeMble rOCYAapCTBeHHbIM npaBOM, HO 11 a.l\MI1HHCTpaTI1BHbIM, X03HJ;'ICTBeHHbIM, cpI1HaHCOBb!M, npl1po.l\opecypCHb!M 11 HHb!MI1 OTpaCJIHMl1, CBH3aHHblMI1 C peryJIl1pOBaHl1eM BJlaCTHOH KOMneTeHl.\l111 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbHbIX 11 I1CnOJIHI1TeJIbHbIX opraHOB rocY.l\apCTBeHHOJ;'1 BJlaCTH, I1X B3aI1MooTHoweHI1M C YAeHbIMI1  Ha.l\30J'IMH opraHaMI1 B npoecce ocy- eCTBJIeHI1H CPYHKI1H nYOJII1'1HOH BJIaCTI1 . 8TO 3aMe'laHl1e, BepoHTHo, YKa3blBaeT He CTOJIbKO Ha CJIa60CTb 11 YH3BI1- MOCTb caMoro MeTO.l\OJIOn!'1eCKOrO nOAxoAa - OTpaCJIeBOH KJIaCCl1cpI1KaI1I'1 oTBeTcTBeHHOCTI1, CKOJIbKO Ha YH3BI1MOCTb Bb!WenpI1BeAeHHOH n0311HI1 JI.A. PeIJe'/i"Ko (11 aHaJIOrH'IHbIX eJ;'I). HaKoHe, IJ-'temIJepmbtX, OTpaCJIeBaH l(JlaCCI'((j)J1KaI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He BcerAa n03BOJIHeT 06'bHCHI1Tb OTpaCJIeBYIO npI1HaAJIe:)KHOCTb TOro HJII1 I1HOro BI1Aa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JII1 MeCTIforo caMO- \0 r- 
ynpaBJIeHI1H, Hanpl1Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIe- HI1H nepeA 4J11311'leCKI1MI1 11 IOpI1AI1'leCKI1MI1 JII1l.{aMI1. C OTpaCJIeBOM TO'lKI1 3peHI1H npl1 nepBOM npl16JII1:)KeHI1I1 COBepWeHHO HeHCHO, K KaKOMY 113 OTpaC- JIeBbIX BI1AOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OHa OTHOCI1TCH - rpa:)KAaHCKO-npaBOBOM, KOHCTI1TYl.{I'10HHo-npaBOBOH I1JII1 KaKOM-JII100 ee. JJ:JIH Toro 'lT06bI YBH3aTh OTpaCJIeBble BI1)\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepeA HaCeJIeHl1eM, HeKOTopble aBTopbl nOWJII1 no nym AeJIeHI1H OTpaCJIeBblX BI1AOB IOpI1AI1'leCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 Ha nOABI1AbI. «B CT. 48 3aKOHa, - nl1wYT aBTopbI Y'le6HI1Ka no MYHI1- l.{l1naJIbHoMY npaBY nOA peAaKl.{l1ef! H.C. BouaapS!, - BbIAeJIeHa Tal0Ke OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb nepeA MeCTHblM HaCeJIeHl1eM - cnel.{I1<pI1'lecKl1f! BI1A KOHCTI1TYl.{H- OHHOH oTBeTcTBeHHOCTII,,301. TaKoM nOAXOA B HaCTOee BpeMH xapaKTepeH .l\JIH HaYKH KOHCTI1TYl.{HOHHOro npaBa 11, B 'laCTHOCTI1, I1cCJIeAOBaHI1M, nOCBH- eHHbIX KOHCTHTYUI10HHO-npaBOBOf! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. Y:)Ke OTMe'laJIOCb, 'lTO, BblAeJIHH KOHCTHT)'l.{HOHHO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CHCTeMe IOpH)\I1'leC- Kofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, OAHI1 aBTopbI I1CXOAHT 113 ee HaAOTpac.rreBoro xapaKTe- pa302, Apyme - 113 TOro, 'lTO OHa npeACTaBJIHeT co60f! cyry60 OTpaCJIeBOM BI1)\ IOpI1AH'leCKOf! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 303 . GAHaKo 11 Te 11 Apyme AJ-I4J4JepeHl.{HpYIOT KOHCTI!T)'l.{110HHO-npaBoBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha BI1AbI (noABl1)\bI, pa3HOBI1)\- HOCTII) no caMbIM pa3JII1'lHbIM OCHOBaHI1HM. B O.l\HI1X CJIY'laHX Ka:)KAaH Mepa OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpl1BaeTCH KaK caMOCTOHTeJIbHblM BI1)\ KOHCTI1TYl.{HOH- Ho-npaBOBOf! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (oTpeWeHl1e TIpe311AeHTa P<t> OT AOJI:)KHOCTI1, OTCTaBKa TIpaBl-ITeJIbCTBa P<t>, AO'lHOe npeKpaeHl1e nOJIHOMO'lJ.lM opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H 11 T.n.) ; B Apymx CJIY'laHX Bl1)\bI KOHCTI1TYUI10H- Ho-npaBOBOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Bbl):\eJIHIOTCH B 3aBI1CI1MOCTH OT OTBeTCTBeH- Horo cy5DeKTa (POCCHHCKOf! <t>eAepal.{I1H 11 cyooeKToB POCCHHCKOf! <t>eAepa- l.{1111: opraHoB rOCYAapcTBeHHoM BJIaCTH POCCI1MCKOM <t>eAepaum. opraHoB rocy- AapcTBeHHoM BJIaCTH cy6oeKToB POCCI1HCKOM <t>eAepal.{HH, opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H)305; B-TpeTbI1X CJIyqaHx BbIAeJIHIOTCH TaKl1e BHAbI KOHCTI1- TYl.{110HHOM UfBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, KaK 4JeAepaTI1BHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb I1JII1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb B CI1CTeMe Hapo,l\HOrO npeACTaBI1TeJIbCTBa, napTIIMHaH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B c4Jepe BbIOOpoB, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb cYAef!306; B-'leTBepThIX CJIyqaHx BbIAeJIHIOTCH ABa ee BHAa: BOCCTaHOBI1TeJIbHaH (3a- I1THaH) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb H KapaTeJIbHaH (penpecCI1BHaH) KOHCTHT)'l.{110HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 307 11 T.n. BblAeJIHIOT Tal0Ke 'lpe3BbI'lafIHble Bl1)\bI (4JOPMbl) KOHCTHTYl.{110HHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 30B . TaKaH AI14J4JepeHl.{l1al.{I1H MaJI034J4JeKTI1BHa, nOCKOJIbKY B paMKax OT- paCJIeBoro nO.l\XOAa K KJIaCCI14JI1Kal.{1111 IOpl1)\l1'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH aB- TOpbI nbITalOTCH «KOHCTPYI1P0BaTb" npOTI1BOpe'lall.{11e eMY cxeMbI, HapHAY C OTpaCJIeBbIMI1 BI1AaMI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH BblAeJIHH «BI'l):\bl» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, KOTopble OOoeKTI1BHO He MorYT ObITb 06ocooJIeHbl no oTpac.rreBoM npl1HaA- JIe:)KHOCTI1. KpoMe Toro, OHa BeAeT K Apo6JIeHI11O OTpaCJIeBbIX BI1AOB IOpI1AI1- 'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Ha nOABl1)\bl, pa3HOBI1AHOCTH, a rJIaBHOe - He 000- HCHHeT, no KaKOMY OCHOBaHHIO np0l13BOAI1TCH TaKoe AeJIeHl1e 11 B 'leM ero I'- npaKTI1'leCKOe 3Ha'leHl1e. I'- 
PellleHl1e BOnpOCa 0 KOJlI1'leCTBe 11 Hal1MeHOBaHHI1 BHAOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB H .l\OJI:1KHOCTIfbIX JlI1L! MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H HanpHMYIO 3aBI1CI1T OT TOrO, HaCKOJlbKO 6YKBaJlbHO CJle.l\yeT BOCnpHHI1MaTb OTpaCJleBOfl nO.l\XO.l\ K KJlaCCmpI1KaL!HI1 IOpl1,!\I1'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. ECJlI1 npHHHTb TO'lKY 3pe- HI1H TeX aBTOpOB, KOTOpble C'lHTaIOT, 'lTO IOpl1,!\H'leCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, 6y- ,!\Y'l11 O.l\HI1M 113 Ba:Hmeflllll1X Cpe.l\CTB OpraHl13aL!1111 npaBI1J1bHOrO (.l\OJDKHOrO) I1CnOJlHeHHH npeAnl1CaHHfl npaBOBblX aKTOB, npe.l\ynpemAeHHH 11 npeCe'leHI1H HemeJlaTeJlbHOrO C TO'lKH 3peHHH 3aKOHa nOBeAeHI1H Cy6'beKTOB OOll.\eCTBeH- HbIX OTHOllleHl1fI, HBJlHeTCH KaTerOpHeM, cBofICTBeHHOM BCeM OTpaCJlHM npaBa, BKJlIO'laH 11 KOHCTI1TYL!J.lOHHOe 309 , TO TaKOfl nepe'leHb MOmeT COBna.l\aTb C ne- pe'lHeM OTpacJlefl pOCCI1MCKOro npaBa. OAHaKO AaHHblfl nOAxOA npeACTaBJIH- eTCH MaJI034J4JeKTI1BHbIM. nOCKOJlbKY OH He Y'lI1TblBaeT HH MeTO.l\a npI1H)')K.l\e- HI1H, KOTOpbIfl onpe.l\eJlHeT CYll.\HOCTHble oc06eHHocTI1 OTAeJlbHbIX BI1)\OB IOpl1- .l\11'lecKofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I, HJ.I npaBOBoro pemJ.lMa, KOTOpblM CKJla.l\bIBaeTCH npJ.l peaJlI13aL!J.l11 OTAeJlbHbIX :-:'AOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, HJ.I BH,!\a cneL!l1aJlI13I1- pOBaHHoro cy,!\onp0I13BO.l\CTBa , B paMKax KOToporo peaJlH3YeTCH caMOCTOH- TeJlbHblfl BI1.l\ IOpH.l\I1'leCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. KpoMe Toro, KaK OTMe'laJlOCb BbIllle, CJ.lCTeMa npaBa C TO'lKJ.I 3peHHH OTpaCJleBOM CTPYKTypbI HeCTaTI1'lHa, n03TOMY nepe'leHb OTpaCJleBbIX BHAOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MOmeT ObITb 60Jlee I1JIH MeHee TO'lHbIM TOJlbKO B KOHKpeTHbIM npOMemYTOK BpeMeHI1. B HaCTOH- ll.\ee BpeMH npaKTI1'leCKOe 3Ha'leHl1e I1MelOT TaKl1e BI1.l\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 op- raHOB 11 AOJlmHOCTHbIX JlJ.lL! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH, KaK KOHCTHT)'L!HOHHO- npaBOBaH, MYHHL!maJlbHO-npaBOBaH, yrOJlOBHaH, a.l\MJ.lHHCTpaTHBHaH, 4111- HaHCOBaH, .l\I1CL!J.lnJlJ.lHapHaH, rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBOBaH 11 MaTepJ.laJlbHaH. II. CJle.l\YIOll.\aH KJlaCCJ.l4J"KaL!HH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB J.I ,!\OJlmHOCT- HbIX JII'IL! MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H npOBOAI1TCH no cy6o€Kmy, n€peiJ KO- mOp'b!.M '/i€cym omB€mCmB€'/i'/iOCm'b opza'/i'b! U aOJ!J/C'/iocm'/i'b!€ J!u1ta .IIt€cm'/iO- zo cawynpaM€'/iUJ!. CYll.\eCTByeT Hepa3pbIBHaH CBH3b Mem.l\y npaBOBOM Ha- YKOM 11 3aKOHO.l\aTeJlbCTBOM. BblpamalOll.\aHCH B TOM, 'lTO 3aKOHO.l\aTeJlb B CBoeM .l\eHTeJlbHOCTH PYKOBO.l\CTByeTcH nOJlOmeHHHMH npaBOBOM HaYKI1 B TO BpeMH KaK npaBOBaH HaYKa, 4J0pMJ.lPYH CBOM nOHHTJ.lMHO-KaTerOpl1aJlbHblfl annapaT, OCHOBbIBaeTCH Ha .l\efICTBYIOll.\eM 3aKOHO.l\aTeJlbCTBe. HOBbIe B3rJlH- Abll1 npeACTaBJleHJ.lH, B03HHKalOll.\l1e B npaBOBOM HaYKe, HeMJ.lHyeMo OTpa- malOTCH B 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIbCTBe 11 B npaKTI1Ke ero npl1MeHeHI1H, 'lTO, B CBOIO O'lepe.l\b, BJle'leT J.l3MeHeHHe B npe.l\MeTe HCCJle.l\OBaHJ.lH 11 nopom,!\aeT HOBbie B033peHI1H. OAHaKO J.I 3aKOHO.l\aTeJlbHble HOBeJlJlbI BbI3bIBalOT 113MeHeHJ.le Ha- Y'lHOrO nOHHTI1MHO-KaTerOpHaJlbHOrO annapaTa. .l!:aHHblfl npOL!eCC HBJIHeTCH 6eCKOHe'lHbIM, n03BOJlHH npaBOBOM HaYKe pa3BHBaTbCH. BMeCTe C TeM onl1- caHHblM npOL!eCC C03.l\aeT 11 onpe.l\eJleHHbIe TPY.l\HOCTI1, CBH3aHHble C HeCTa- 6lJIbHOCTblO nOHHTHMHo-KaTeropl1aJlbHOrO annapaTa. B .l\aHHOM cJlY'lae MbI rOBOpl1M 0 TOM, 'lTO HMeHHO 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIb BBeJl HOBYIO KJIaCnI4JI1KaL!HIO IOpl1.l\J.I'leCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1I1 npOB03rJlaCI1JI OT.l\eJlbHble ee BI1.l\bI, paHee HeI13BeCTHble npaBOBofl HaYKe. C() <1>e.l\epaJlbHblfl 3aKOH ,,06 06ll.\l1x npl1HL!l1naX OpraHl13aL!I1H MeCTHoro ca- t'- MoynpaBJIeHHH B POCCI1MCKOM <1>e.l\epaL!l1l1» OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r. NQ 154-<1>3 
3aKpenl1JI HOBYIO }:\JlH OTe'leCTBeHHOM npaBOBOM HaYKI1 KJlaCCJ1(pI1Ka111O OT- BeTCmeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 }:\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1 MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHtlH, B OCHOBY KOTOpofl nOJlO:1KeH TaKOM npl13HaK, KaK cy6'beKT, nepeA KOWpbIM He- CyT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\l1e OpraHbI 11 AOJl:1KHOCTHbIe JlI1a311. B COOTBeTCTBl111 CO CT. 47 3aKoHa opraHbI 11 }:\OJl:1KHOCTHble JlI1a MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHI1H HecYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe}:\: a) HaCeJleHl1eM MYHI1l1naJlb- Horo o6fa30BaHI1H; 6) rocy}:\apCTBOM; B) 1lJ11311'1eCKI1Ml1l1lOpl1}:\I1'1eCKI1MI1 JlI1- aM1131 . OmeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 AOJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1I.\ MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHI1H nepe}:\ HaCeJleHl1eM, rocy}:\apCTBOM, 1lJ11311'1eCKI1MH I1lOpl1}:\I1'1eCKH- MH JlI1aMH HBJlHeTCH O}:\HI1M 113 OCHOBOnOJlaralOll.\I1X npHHI1TIOB IlJYHKHO- Hl1poBaHI1H MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. TaKaH TpeXCTopOHHHH CBH3b 06yc- JlOBJleHa npHpO}:\OM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. HBJlHeT C060M KopeHHoe Ha- '1aJlo 11 l1.l\elO, Jle:1Kall.\YIO B OCHOBe OpraHl13a111111 J\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 HaCeJleHI1H, 1lJ0pMI1pyeMblx 11M opraHOB, caMOCWHTeJlbHO ocyweCTBJIHIOWI1X ynpaBJle- Hl1e MeCTHbIMI1 AeJlaMI1. HapHAY C APYfl1MI1 06ll.\I1MI1 npl1Hl.\l1naMI1 3TOT npHHHn OTpa:1KaeT CYll.\HOCTHbIe npl13HaKI1 11 '1ep1'bI MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JleHI1H, a TaK:1Ke Tpe60BaHI1H 06'beKTI1BHbIX 3aKOHOMepHOCTefl 11 TeH}:\eHl1fl pa3BI1TI1H MeCTHOM BJIaCTI1. OH npH3BaH 06eCne'lI1Tb: 1) 31lJIlJeKTI1BHOCTb ocy- ll.\eCTBJIeHI1H MeCTHbIX 3aAa'l, OTHeCeHHblX K BeAeHl110 MYHI1l1na.nbHbIX 06- pa30BaHI1i1; 2) Y'leT 11 3aWI1TY I1HTepecoB HaCeJleHI1H MYHI1l1naJlbHoro 06pa- 30BaHI1H, IlJH311'1eCKHX 11 IOpH}:\I1'1eCKI1X JlI1 B }:\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 opraHoB MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H I1I1X AOJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1; 3) TeCHYIO CBH3b 11 B3aHMO- 3aBHCI1MOCTb opraHoB 11 BbI60pHbIX AOJl:1KHOCTHbIX MeCTHoro cabIOynpaBJle- HI1H OT HaCeJleHHH; 4) 3aKOHHOCTb }:\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 }:\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1I.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, C06J1IOJ\eHl1e rocy}:\apcTBeHHbIx HHTepecoB. KOMMeHTHpYH CT. 47 <PeAepaJlbHoro 3aKOHa OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r., yqeHble YKa3bIBalOT, '1TO B 3TOM CTaTbe onpe}:\eJlHIOTCH BI1}:\bI IOpH}:\I1'1eCKOf! OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH, KOTOpoM nO}:\Jle>KaT opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H H }:\OJl:1KHO- CTHbIe JlI1a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H 313 . llaBaH xapaKTepl1CTI1KY 3TI1M BI1}:\aM, npaBOBe}:\bI CBH3bIBalOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe}:\ HaCeJleHl1eM, rocy- }:\apCTBOM, IlJH311'1eCKI1MI1 11 IOpl1.l\l1'1eCKI'IMI1 JlI1aMI1 C OTpaCJleBbIMI1 Bl1.l\aMI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. O}:\HaKO 3TO He Bcer}:\a y}:\a'lHO. TaK, B.M. Ea6u'«?B nl1WeT: .PaCCMOTpI1M CJlY'laI1, KorAa B Ka'leCTBe CyO'beKTa omeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BbICTY- nalOT opraHbI MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH 11 BbI60pHbIe }:\OJl:1KHOCTHbIe JlI1a Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, }:\eflcTBYIOll.\l1e KaK OT I1MeHI1 MYHI1HnaJlbHoro o6pa- 30BaHI1H, TaK 11 OT cBoero I1MeHH. B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT cy6'beKTa, nepeA KOWpbIM HacrynaeT I1X OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, MO:1KHO BbI}:\eJlI1Tb yrOJlOBHYIO, a}:\MI1HI1CTpa- nIBHYIO, }:\I1CI1TIJ1I1HapHYIO, rpa>K}:\aHCKo-npaBOBYIO, MaTeptIaJlbHYIO, 3r.:1HI1- l1naJlbHo-npaBOBYIO 11 KOHCTI1T110HHo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» . llYMaeTCH, '1TO B AaHHOM cJlY'lae MbI MO>KeM Ha6J1IOAaTb CTpeMJleHl1e aB- Topa YBH3aTb (COOTHeCTI1) OTpaCJleBble Bl1.l\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH C nO}:\XO}:\OM 3aKOHo}:\aTeJlH K KJlaCCl1llJl1KaUl111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 }:\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H (no cy6'beKTY, nepe):\ KOTOpblM HeCYT OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYIOWl1e opraHbI 11 }:\OJl>KHOCTHbIe JlI1a). TIpl1 3TOM. KaK 0\ npeACTaBJlHeTCH, aBTOp HeonpaBAaHHO nOAMeHHeT OCHOBaHl1e OTPaCJleBOM I'-- 
KJlaCCH(pHKaml IOpH.nW-IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OCHOBaHl1eM, KOTOpoe BBO- .nI1T 3aKOHO.naTeJlb, 'ITO C'raBHT no.n COMHeHHe ee HaY'IHYIO COCTOHTeJlbHOCTb. CpeAI1 aBTOpOB HeT eAI1HOrO MHeHI1H no BOnpocy OTpaCJleBoi1 aAeKBaTHO- CTH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepeA HaCeJleHl1eM, rocy.napCTBOM, 4JH3H'IeCKJ.!MH 11 IOpHAI1'IeCKHMH JII1aMH. TaK, mmpJ.!Mep, OAHH aBTopbI onpeAeJIHIOT KaK KOH- CTJ.!TYHOHHo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1 Me- 315 CTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH niRt A HaCeJleHl1eM ,APyn!e - HX OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb nepe.n rocy.napCTBOM , TpeTbl1 C'II1TalOT, 'ITO 11 TY 11 .npyrylO CJle.nyeT 06'beAHHI1Tb B O.nHH BHA - ny6J1I1'IHO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 317. IIpe.n- npHHI1MaJlJ.!Cb TaKme nOnbITKI1 06'be.nJ.!HI1Tb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe.n HaCeJle- Hl1eM, roCy.naPCTBOM, 4JH311'IeCKI1MI111 IOpI1AI1'IeCKHMI1 JII.!aMI1 B O.nI1H OTpac- JleBO" BI1A OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1 MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHHH H paCCMaTpI'lBaTb B KOHTeKCTe JIHGO MYHJ.!J.!naJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTJ.!31B, JIJ.!60 KOHCTHTY110HHo-npaBoBoi1319. CJle.nyeT OTMeTI1Tb, 'ITO 60Jlbllll1HCTBO npl1Be.neHHbIX TO'IeK 3peHI1H He conpOBomAaeTCH aprYMeHTaMJ.! B I1X no.nAepmKY, n03TOMY AOCTaTO'IHO CJlOmHO AaBaTb KaKl1e-JlJ.l60 OeHKI1 aBTOpCKI1M cym.neHJ.!HM, OCHOBaHJ.!HM 11 MOTl1BaM, no KOTOpblM OHJ.! npl1111JlI1 K COOTBeTCTBYIOI1M BbIBOAaM. HeCMOT- pH Ha 3Ha'IHTeJlbHOe MHoro06pa3He, cyeCTBYIOl1e TO'IKH 3peHHH 06'be.n11- HHeT OAlia 06aH I1AeH: CTpeMJIeHHe J.lHTerpHpOBaTb OTpaCJleBoi1 nOAXOA K KJlaCCI14JI1KaHI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlH MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H 11 no.nxOA, npl1 KOTOpOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYIO- J.!X opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1 KJlaCCI1<pI1l1pyeTcH no cy6'beKTY, nepe.n KOTOpblM OHH HeCYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. TaKoi1 no.nxo.n HMnOHl1pYeT He TOJlbKO cBOei1 npl1ro.nHOCTblO K npaKTH'IeCKOMY I1CnOJlb30BaHJ.!IO, HO 11 BbIXO.nOM Ha I1HTerpaTI1BHOe BOCnpl1HTHe HCCJle.nyeMoi1 MaTepl1l1. IIpe.nCTaBJIHeTCH, 'ITO HaY'IHaH KJlaCCI14JI1KaJ.!H IOpl1AJ.!'IecKoi'i OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JIH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H no cy6'b- eKTY, nepe.n KOTOPb!M no 3aKOHY COOTBeTCTBYIOl1e opraHbl11 AOJImHOCTHb!e JlI1a Hec)'T OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, I1MeeT npaBO Ha CeCTBOBaHl1e. PaCCMOTpe- Hl1e TaKI1X BJ.!AOB IOpJ.!.nI1'IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlJ.I MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe.n HaCeJleHl1eM MYHI1J.lnaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHH, rocYAapCTBOM B JlI1e ero opraHOB, <p11311'IeC- KI1MI1 J.! IOpI1AJ.!'IeCKJ.!MI1 JlJ.!aMH, n03BOJIHeT 60Jlee no.np06HO paCKpb!Tb CO- AepmaHl1e I1HCTI1TYTa IOpHAI1'IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 AOJlmHOCT- Hb!X JII1 MeCTHoro calOynpaBJIeHI1H. B TO me BpeMH, KaK no.n'IepKI1BaIOT He- KOTopble aBTOpb!320, .naHHaH KJIaCCI14JHKaI1H He HBJlHeTCH I1C'IepnbIBalOei1, nOCKOJIbKY He .naeT nOJlHOrO npe.nCTaBJleHI1H 0 xapaKTepe npaBOHapYllleHHi'i, KOTopble HBJlHIOTCH OCHOBaHHHMI1 HacTynJleHI1H YKa3aHHbIX BI1)\OB OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTl1, 11 caHKHHX, YCTaHOBJIeHHb!X 3a COBepllleHl1e 3TI1X npaBOHapYllle- HI1i1, He Y'It!TbIBaeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeA BbI60pHbIMH OpraHaMI1 11 AOJlm- HOCTHblMI1 JIJ.IaMJ.! MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, KOTopaH peaJlbHO cyeCTBY- eT (HanpJ.!Mep, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb r.naBbI MYHHHnaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHH nepe.n Bb!60PHbIM npeACTaBI1TeJIbHb!M opraHOM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H). IIo3TOMY aBTopbI Hel136emHO CTaJlKHBalOTCH C He06xOAHMOCTbIO aneJIJII1- pOBaTb K OTpaCJIeBbIM BI1AaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 npJ.! xapaKTepHCTI1Ke OTBeT- o 0) 
CTBeHHOCTI1 rrepel\ HaCeJleHneM, rOCYl\apCTBOM. <pn3l1qeCKnMn n IOpn.w1qec- KnMn JIIU.laMn. TaKoH rrOl\XOl\ rrpel\CTaBJlHeTCH l.{eJleCOOOpa3HbIM C Toi;[ TOqKn 3peHI'IH, qTO arreJlJll'lpOBaHl1e K Tpal\I'Il.{110HHO BbIl\eJlHeMbIM BI'Il\aM IOpl'll\nqe- cKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I (yqnTbIBaH ypOBeHb nx pa3pa60TaHHOCTI'I B IOpl1l\l'I- qecKoi;[ HaYKe) crrOC06CTBYeT YHCHeHl110 rrpl'lpOl\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 1'1 l\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JlI'Il.{ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHnH rrepel\ HaCeJleHl'leM, rocy- l\a pCTBOM, <p1'I3nqeCKI'IMI'I 1'1 IOpl'll\l1qeCKI1MI1 JlI1l.{aMI1, YCJloBl'lii HacTyrrJleHI'IH Ka>Kl\OrO KOHKpeTHOrO BI'Il\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII, xa paKTepa CaHKl.{I1i1 1'1 TeX <PYHKl.{I'IH, KOTOpble BbIITOJlHHeT nHCTI'ITYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I OpraHOB 1'1 l\OJl1KHOCTHbIX JlI'Il.{ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI'IH B l.{eJlOM. B TO 1Ke BpeMH nCrrOJIb30BaHl'le l\aHHoi1l(J1aCCI'I<pI1Kal.{nn, KaK OKa3aJlOCb, Tal1T B ce6e OrraCHOCTb 3a6J1Y1KJ\eHI1H rro rrOBOl\Y MeXaHI'I3Ma peaJll13al.{IUI OT- l\eJlbHbiX BI'I,nOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl'I, 1'13J11HlIHeii a6COJlIOT113al.{I'iI'1 OCHOBHoro rrpl'lHUl1rra. rrOJlO1KeHHOrO B ee OCHOBY. TaK, Hel((JTOpOe aBTopbl rrplHllJll1K Bbl- BOllY, 'ITO cy6'beKTaMI'I, Hal\eJleHHbIMI'I rrpaBOM rrpnMeHeHI'IH caHKl.{I1HK op- raHaM 1'1 ,nOJl>KHOCTHbIM JlI'Il.{aM MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI'IH 3a HapyrneHl1e 3aKOHOB, rrOMI'IMO opraHOB roCYl\apCTBeHHoi1 BJlaCTI'I cy6'beKTOB P<I:> 1'1 <pel\epaJlbHbIX CYl\OB, HBJlHIOTCH: IOpUaU 1 t€C'KU€ U gJU3U 1 t€C'KU€ JlUlfa - «rro OTHOrneHl'l1O KO BceM paccMaTpnBaeMbIM cy6'beKTaM (rrpel\'bHBJleHl'le nMYIl.\e- CTBeHHbIX 1'IJ11'1 HeI1MYll.\eCTBeHHblx (Jll1qHbIX) Tpe60BaHl'lii 3a HapyrneHI'IH, BblTeKaIOIl.\l'Ie 1'13 rpa>Kl\aHCKO-rrpaBOBbIX OTHOrneHl1ii)>> 1'1 '/WC€J!€UU€ Jltyuu- lfUnUJlbU020 06pa30ea'liUJl - «rro OTHOrneHl11O K qJleHaM rrpel\CTaBIITeJlbHOrO opraHa I'IK BblOOpHblM l\OJl>KHOCTHbIM JIIIl.{aM MYHI1l.{l1rraJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI'IH (l\OCPOqHbli1 OT3bIB 3a rrpaBoHapyrneHI1H, BbITeKalOIl.\I'IHI'I3 JlI06blX rrpaBOOT- HOrneHI'IH)>> 321. IIoxo>Ke, QTO l\aHHOe 3a6J1Y>Kl\eHl'le 06ycJloBJleHo yrrp0Il.\eH- HbIM rrOHI1MaHl'leM IOpI1l\I'IQecKoii rrp0l.{el\YPbI peaJII'13al.{l1I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl'I, a TaK1Ke rrpaBoB0I1 CBH311 Me>KlIY OpraHaMI'I 1'1 J\OJl>KHOCTHbIMI1 JIIH.!aMI'I MeCT- HOro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H, C 0l\H0I1 CTOpOHbl, 1'1 HaCeJleHl'leM, <p1'I3I1QeCKI1Mn n IOpnl\I'IQeCKI1Mn JlI'Il.{aMI1 - C l\pyroi1. BHI'IMaTeJlbHblii aHaJll13 rrpOl.{el\ypbI peaJII'13al.{I'iI'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I opra- HOB I1 l\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI'Il.{ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI'IH 1'1 ee CTal\IU1 rrpnBOl\I1T K l\pyroMY BbIBOl\Y, B QaCTHOCTl'I, 0 TOM, QTO cy6'beKTOM, yrroJlHOMOQeHHbIM rrpnMeHHTb COOTBeTCTBYIOIl.\l'Ie CaHKl.{1'I11 K opraHaM 1'1 l\OJl>KHOCTHbIM JlI1l.{aM MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI'IH, HBJIHeTCH He HaCeJleHl'le (1'1 TeM 60Jlee He IOpnl\l1- QeCKne 1'1 <pI13I'1QeCKl1e JlI'Il.{a), a roCYl\apCTBO B JlI1l.{e ero opraHOB. 3TO YT- Bep>Kl\eHl1e He BbIl\ep>KI1BaeT Kpl'lTI'IKI'I HI1 C TOQKI'I 3peHI'IH TeOpl'lI1, HI1 C TOQ- KI'I 3peHI1H l\eiicTBYIOIl.\erO 3aKOHOl\aTeJlbCTBa. Ha3BaHHbie cy6'beKTbI Bbl- rrOJlHHIOT Jll1rnb HeKOTopble <PYHKl.{1'I11 Ha orrpel\eJleHHOM :narre B03HI'IKHOBe- HI'IH 1'1 peaJlI13al.{I'iI'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I, HO OTHIOl\b He OOJIal\alOT rrpoBocy6'b- eKTHOCTblO rrpaBOrrpl'lMeHI1TeJlH. Eo I136e>KaHl1e TaKI1X TeOpeTI1QeCKnX Ka3Y- COB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB I'Il\OJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.{ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJle- HI'IH CJle,nyeT l(JIaCCl-1<pI'IUl'lpOBaTb He rro rrpl'l3HaKY I'IHCTaHW'iI'1 OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI'I (HaCeJleHl'le, rOCYl\apCTBO, <p1'I3I'1QeCKl'le I'IlOpl'll\I1QecKl1e JlI1l.{a), a rro rrpl'l- 3HaKY nHTepeca, KOTOpblfl rrpl'l3HaeTCH, YCTaHaBJlnBaeTCH HopMaMn rrpaBa n oxpaHHeTCH rrpl'l rrOMOIl.\11 rrpaBOBblX Cpel\CTB. OpraHbll'll\OJl>KHOCTHble JIIH.la - 0) 
MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHY!H HeC)'T OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HapyrneHY!e rocYl\ap- CTBeHHblX, MeCTHblX nYOJIW-IHbIX Y! "IaCTHblX Y!HTepeCOB. HeKOTOpble npel\CTaBY!TeJIY! MYHY!L\Y!naJIbHO-npaBOBOii HaYKY! nblTalOTCH BblCTpal1BaTb l1epapXl11O OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB I1l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIY!L\ Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHY!H, o,nHaKO He l\OBOAHT :ny 1l\elO ,no JIOm"leCKoro 3a- BeprneHY!H, OrpaHI1"111BaHCb Ol\oopeHY!eM «nepBOO"lepel\HOCTW> 3aKpenJIeHI1H B <I:>el\epaJIbHOM 3aKOHe «06 061l.{I1X npl1HL\l1naX OpraHl13aW'iY! MecTHoro caMO- ynpaBJIeHY!H B POCCY!HCKOH <I:>el\epaL\l1w> OTBeTCTBeHHocnl nepel\ HaCeJIeHH- eM H nOCTaHOBKOii aKL\eHTa Ha 3Ha"lY!MOCTH :3Toro BHl\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!. TaK, RB. Ta60AU'/i OTMe"laeT: «MomHo C"IY!TaTb npaBY!JIbHblM IOpY!.l\H"IeCKOe YCTa- HOBJIeHY!e nepBOO"lepel\HOCTY! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHOB MYHY!L\maJIbHoro ynpaBJIeHHH nepel\ HaCeJIeHHeM. B CYIl.{HOCTH, :3T0 nOJIHTHKO-lOpY!l\Y!"IeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Opl"aHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepel\ HaCeJIeHHeM - OCHOBHblM cy6DeKToM BJIaCTHblX OTHorneHHH Ha TeppY!TopY!2!YHHL\lmaJIbHO- ro 06pa30BaHHH... 3TO "IHCTO KOHCTY!TYL\HOHHaH CY!TyaL\HH» . AHaJIOm"lHbie CY)Kl\eHHH BblCKa3blBalOT H l\pyme yqeHble. TaK, aBTOpbl Y"le6HI1Ka no MYHI1L\l1naJIbHOMY npaBY no,n pel\aKL\HeH H.C. BO'/iaapS! nOl\"Iep- KI'iBalOT: «IIepBoo"lepe,nHocTb 3aKpenJIeHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHOB H l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIY!L\ MYHY!L\l1naJIbHoro ynpaBJIeHHH nepel\ HaCeJIeHHeM OCHOBa- Ha Ha CYIl.{HOCTH MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH KaK cpOpMbl HapO.l\OBJIaCnIH ("I. 2 CT. 3 KOHCTY!TYL\HY! P<I:». DeHOBY :3Tofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 COCTaBJIHIOT HOpMbl KOHCTY!TYL\Y!OHHOro npaBa, npe)1ycMaTpl1BalOll.\Y!e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB Y! l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHL\ nepe,n HaCeJIeHHeM - OCHOBHblM cYO"beKTOM BJIaCTeOTHO- rneHY!H Ha TeppY!Topml MYHHL\lmaJIbHOrO 00pa30BaHHH. IIo:3ToMY CaHKL\Y!H npH peaJII'13aL\lull\aHHOrO Y!HcTI1TYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! nepel\ HaCeJIeHHeM HOCH'!" B OCHOBHOM KOHCTHTY'-\HoHHo-npaBoBofl xapaKTep" 32a. H.A. MmamlO'K, A.A. 3a- JI!omaee, A.B. IIa6J!Ywxu'/i C"IY!TaIOT, "ITO TaKaH l1epapXI1H YCTaHOBJIeHY!H OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1L\ MecTHOro ca!OynpaBJIeHI1H He CJIyqaflHa. OHH, KaK Y! BbirneHa3BaHHbie aBTopbl, nOJIaralOT, "ITO YKa3aHHe Ha nepBOO"lepel\HOCTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH nepel\ HaCeJIeHl1eM OTpa:lKaeT CYIl.\HOCTb MecTHOro ca!OynpaBJIeHHH KaK cpOpMbl HapOl\OBJIaCTY!H B COOTBeTCTBY!H C "I. 2 CT. 3 KOHCnITYL\Y!H P<I:>. HaCeJIeHY!e HBJIHeTCH OCHOBHblM cYO"beKTOM npaB Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. IIo3ToMY, C HX TO"lKI1 3peHHH, npe)K.l\e Bcero Heooxo- l\HMO YCTaHOBJIeHHe «3<P<peKTY!BHblX BHl\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH ?8?HOB H l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1L\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepel\ HaCeJIeHHeM» . B TO )Ke BpeMH npOL\HTY!pOBaHHble aBTopbl He l\alOT OTBeTa Ha Bonpoc 0 TOM, KaKY!M 06pa30M COOTHOCHTCH l\pyme BY!l\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHOB Y! l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JIHL\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH C TO"IKI1 3peHHH HX «3Ha"ll1- Mocnl" C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO nepeJl HaCeJIeHHeM. IIoC'l"aHoBKa np06JIeMbi 00 HepapXIUI BY!l\OB OTBeTCTBeHHocnl opraHOB Y! l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1L\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHY!H Tpe6YeT nOHCKa OTBeTOB KaK MHHY!MYM Ha TPy! Bonpoca: 1. CYll.{eCTBYIOT JIH OCHOBaHHH ,l(JIH caMOH nOCTaHOBKH Bonpoca 0 TaKOM (no CTeneHI1 3Ha"lI1MOCTH) paHml1pOBaHHY! IOpHl\Y!"IeCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! paCCMaTpY!BaeMbiX CYO"beKTOB Y! B03MO)KHO JIY! nocTpoeHY!e TaKofl HepapXIUI B CHCTeMe IOpY!l\H"IeCKoi;[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH? N 0) 
2. B "IeM npaKTI'I"IecKoe 3Ha"leHl'le onpel\eJleHI'IH l'Iepapxl'Il'I BI'Il\OB OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI'I opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI'IH 1'1 I'IX l\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JII'IL\? 3. B KaKOH nOCJle,nOBaTeJlbHOCTI'I l\OJl)KHbI 6blTb pacnOJlO)KeHbl B TaKOH l'Iepapxl'Il'I cooTBeTcTBYIOIl.{l'Ie BIl\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I? .D:YMaeTCH, "Iro JlIOOaH TeOpeTI'I"IeCKaH KOHCTPYKL\I'IH l'IepapXI'iI'1 BI'Il\OB IOpl'll\I'I"1ecKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I opraHoB 1'1 l\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JlI'IL\ MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHI'IH 0Yl\eT HOCI'ITb BeCbMa YCJlOBHblH xapaKTep. Cpel\11 OTHOIlle- Hl'lii, Cl(Jlal\bIBalOI'IXCH B npoL\eCce ocyeCTBJJeHI1H MYHI'IL\l1naJlbHOH BJlaCTII B npl1HL\l1ne Mor)'T 6bITb Bbll\eJleHbl Hal100Jlee 3Ha"ll'lMble, OCHOBOnOJlaralOIl!l1e no cBoeMY xapaKTepy 11 COl\ep:lKaHI'lIO OTHOIlleHI1H, KaK 3TO Cl\eJlaHO npl1 on- pel\eJleHI1I'1 npel\MeTa KOHCTI'ITYL\l1oHHoro npaBa. Ol\HaKo npaKTII"IeCKI'I He- B03MO)KHO npOl'I3BeCTI'I aHaJlOm"lHOe l\eHCTBl1e C IOpIl\I'I"1eCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTbIO, nocKoJlbKY ee pa3J1I'1"1Hble BI'Il\bl ooeCne"ll'lBalOT 1'1 3aIl!l'IalOT OT Ha- PYIlIeHI'IHKaK Hal100Jlee 3Ha"ll1Mbie (ocHoBOnOJIaralOIl!l1e) OTHOIlleHI'IH, TaK 1'1 Te, KOTopbIe Cl(Jlal\bIBaIOTCH Ha I'IX OCHOBe, KOHKpeTI131'1PYIOT I'IX. B KOHL\e KOH- L\OB HeBa)KHO, KaROH no C"IeTY (nOpH.1\KoBOMY HOMepy) Bbll\eJIHTb B 3aROHe CTaTblO, YCTaHaBJII'IBalOll.\Y1O OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JleHI1H 11J111 ero l\OJl)KHOCTHOro JlI'IL\a nepel\ HaCeJleHl'leM, rocYl\apCTBOM, <p11311- "IecKI1MI'I1'1 IOpl'll\I1"1eCKI'IMI1 JlI'IL\aMH. Ha Halli B3rJlHl\, rOpa3l\0 npol\YKTI'IBHee "IeTKOe pa3rpaHI1"1eHI1e OCHOBaHI'IH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 pa3J1I1"1Hb1X BI1l\OB, Mep 3TOfi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, npoL\e.I\Yp ee peaJlI13aL\I'iI'I, a TaK)Ke YCTaHOBJIeHl1e npaBI1J1 npl1MeHeHI'IH Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I B cJlY"lae KOHKypeHL\I'iI'1 HOpM (11 npoL\e.I\Yp), YCTaHaBJlI'iBalOx OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. IIpl'lBel\eHHble BblIlle 3aHBJleHI'IH 0 nepBOO"lepel\HOCTII, oc060fl 3Ha"ll'l- MOCTI'I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 l\OJl)KHOCTHbIX JlHL\ MeCTHoro calOyn- paBJleHI1H nepel\ HaCeJleHl'leM YH3BI1Mbll\JlH Kpl'lTIIKI'I ee 1'1 nOTOMY, "ITO C TO"lKI'I 3peHI1H ee «3Ha"lI1MOCTW> OHa KOHKypl'lpyeT C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO ne- pel\ JII'I"IHOCTblO (Bblpa)KaHCb KaTeropl'lHMI'I MYHI1L\l'InaJlbHoro npaBa - OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTblO nepel\ "IJ1eHOM MecTHoro COOOIl!eCTBa, )KI1TeJleM, "IJ1eHOM MYHI'IL\maJlbHoro oopa30BaHI'IH 325 ). OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BJlaCTI1 nepel\ JlI1"1- HOCTblO - 3TO OCHOBHOH npl'lHL\l1n <PYHKUHOHl1pOBaHI'IH COBpeMeHHoro KOH- CTI1TYL\1'I0HHOro roCYl\apCTBa 326. COOJlIOl\eHl1e 11 ooeCne"leHl1e npaB 1'1 CBO- 60l\ JlI1"1HOCTI'I ("IeJlOBeKa 1'1 rpa)Kl\aHI1Ha) - Ol\I1H 113 OCHOBOnOJlaralOI'IX npI'lHL\mOB CPYHKL\1'I0HHpOBaHI'IH rOCYl\apCTBeHHofl 1'1 MYHI'IL\lmaJlbHofl BJIa- CTI'I. COOTBeTCTBeHHO 1'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 3TOH BJlaCTI'l, ee l\OJI)KHO- CTHblX JlHL\ nepel\ Jll'I"IHOCTblO l\OJl)KHa HMeTb nepBOCTeneHHoe 3Ha"leHl1e. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepel\ Jll1"1HOCTblO ()KI1TeJleM) - 3TO npl'lHL\l'In, ee B OOJlbIllefl CTeneHI1 npI'lCYI1H ocyecTBJleHI'lIO MYHI1L\l1naJlbHOH BJlaCTI'l, "IeM BJiaCTI'I roCYl\apCTBeHHofl, TeM 60Jlee "Iro OL\eHKa nOBe,neHI'IH OTBeTCT- BeHHoro cy6'beKTa «nepel\ HaCeJleHl1eM» npOI1CXOl\I'IT pe)Ke, a OL\eHI1BaeTCH l\eHTeJlbHOCTb B L\eJlOM, ocyecTBJlHeMaH Ha npOTH)KeHI'II1 onpel\eJleHHOrO BpeMeHI'I. OueHKa l\eHCTBI'IH nepe,n Jll1"1HOCTblO I'IMeeT onpe,neJleHHbIe xa- paKTepl1CTI'IKH B Ka)Kl\OM KOHKpeTHOM «aKTe» peIlleHI'IH BonpOCOB MeCTHO- ro 3Ha"leHI'IH. 3TI'Il\efICTBI'IH OL\eHI'IBaIOTCH ropa3l\0 "Iae "IJ1eHaMI'I MeCTHO- ro co06eCTBa, "IeM HaCeJleHl'leM B L\eJlOM. n 0) 
BbIIlleM3J10meHHOe n03BOJlHeT rOBOpl1Tb 0 TOM, 'ITO 3aKpenJleHMe 11 peaJlM- 3aL\I1H npl10pl1TeTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1L\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe.n JlJ1<JHOCTblO - 'IJleHOM MecTHoro c006Il.\eCTBa KaK OC- HOBHOrO npl1HL\lma MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H I1I1HCTI1TYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpl1BaeMblX cy6'beKTOB I1MeeT He MeHee BamHoe 3Ha'IeHMe, 'IeM OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb 3THX cy6'beKTOB nepe.n HaCeJleHl1eM. III. Eo MHornx pa60Tax, nOCBHIIWHHblX np06J1eMaM MYHML\lmaJlbHoro npa- Ba, BblCKa3blBaeTCH ImeH 0 HeOOXO.nI1MOCTH KOHKpenI3aL\HI1 cy6'beKTa OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTl111 .n11<p<pepeHUl1pOBaHHoro no.nxo.na K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHL\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B 3aBl1Cl1MOCTH OT 11H,l(I1BI1.1\Y- aJlbHblX oc06eHHOCTefi npaBOBoro CTaTyca nOCJle.nHI1X. TaK, H.JI. II€mu'li OTMe- 'IaeT: «IIpMMeHI1TeJlbHO K opraHaM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H MomHO roBO- pHTb TOJlbKO 0 TaKOM cneL\I1<pM'IeCKOM BI'I.ne OTBeTCTBeHHocnI nepe.n rocy.nap- CTBOM, KaK npeKpaIl.\eHHe nOJlHOMO'IHM opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. <PopMam OTBeTCTBeHHOCnl .nOJl}KHOCTHbIX JlI1L\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe.n rocy.napCTBOM HBJlHCH yrOJlOBHaH, a.nMHHI1CTpaTI1BHaH 11 .nHCL\HnJlH- HapHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» . JI.M. P€a€H'KO rro.n'IepKI1BaeT: «Ha <pe.nepaJlb- HOM ypOBHe YCTaHaBJlI1BalOTCH BM.nbl IOpM.nI1'IeCKoi;[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, KOTO- pbIM nO,l(JIemaT opraHbl MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H I1I1X .nOJlmHOCTHble JII'IL\a. B OTHOIlleHl111 opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H npl1MeHHeTCH a.nMI1HI1CTpa- TI1BHO-npaBOBaH, rpam.naHCKo-npaBOBaH 11 ny6J1I1'IHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb; B OTHOIlleHMI1 .nOJDKHOCTHbIX JlI1L\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H - yroJlOB- Ho-npaBOBaH, rpam.l\aHCKo-npaBOBaH, a.nMI1HMCTpaTI1BHo-npaBOBaH, .nI1CL\Hn- JUlHapHaH, ny6J1I1'IHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb,,328. Pa3Bl1BaH 3TY H.I\elO, K.M. !up6€lCoa KJIaCCI'I<pI1L\HPYeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 .l\OJl}KHOCTHbIX JlHL\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H no cy6"b€lCmy om- a€mcma€'Ii'liocmu. JIornKa ero paccym.l\eHHM CJle.nylOll.{aH: 113 'IHCJla pa3JUI'I- HbIX opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH cy6'beKTaMH rocy.napCTBeHHo-npa- BOBOfl OTBeTCTBeHHocnl HBJlHIOTCH TOJlbKO Te, KOTopble B CBoeM JlI1L\e BOIIJIO- Il.\alOT Hapo.nOBJlaCnle, HBJlHIOTCH ero Bblpa3HTeJlHMH H CTaJlM TaKOBblMH B pe- 3YJlbTaTe BbI60pOB I1JUI pe<pepeH.nYMOB, T.e. BJIaCTb HM .neJlernpOBaHa Hapo.nOM HenOCpe.l\CTBeHHO I1J11'1 'Iepe3 npe.l\CTaBI1TeJlbHblfl opraH MecTHoro calOynpaB- JleHHH. TaKJ1MH cy6'beKTam KpoMe caMoro MYHHwmaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHH HB- JlHIOTCH npe.nCTaBI1TeJlbHbli1 opraH MYHI1L\l1naJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHH, 'IJleH (.ne- nYTaT) 3TOro npe.nCTaBHTeJlbHOrO opraHa, Bbl60pHoe .nOJlmHOcTHoe JlHL\O MY- HI1L\l1naJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H. OCTaJlbHble opraHbI 11 pa6OTHl1KI1 MecTHOro caMO- ynpaBJleHHH He MorYT BblcTynaTb HOCHTeJlHMI1 rocy.napcTBeHHo-npaBOBofl OT- BeTCTBeHHocnl. BonpoCbl MX IOpl1.l\l1'IecKOi;[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 yperyJlHpoBaHbl B paMKax .npymx OTpacJlefl 3aKoHo.naTeJlbCTBa. B CBH3H C 3THM Heo6xo.nMMO 'IeTKO pa3rpaHH'IHBaTb nOHHnIH IOpl1.nI1'IecKoi;[ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH: - MYHI1L\lmaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHH B L\eJlOM; - npe.ncTaBI1TeJlbHoro opraHa MecTHoro calOynpaBJleHI1H. no.l\ KOTOpbIM nOHI1MaeTCH KOJlJlemaJlbHblfl Bbl60pHbifi opraH; - 'IJleHa npe.nCTaBI1TeJlbHoro opraHa MecTHOro calOynpaBJleHI1H (.nenYTaTa); - Bbl60pHoro .l\OJlmHOcTHoro JlI1L\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, KaKOBblMI1 06bl'IHO HBJlHeTCH rJIaBa MYHHL\lmaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H; 4- 0) 
- I'IHblX Henpel\CTaBI'ITeJlbHbIX 1'1 HeBbl60pHbiX OpraHOB B BI'Il\e pa3Jll'lqHblX KOMI'ICCl'lti, OTl\eJlOB, ynpaBJleHI'li1, COBeTOB 1'1 T.n.; - Ha3HaqaeMbiX l\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI'IU MeCTHOrO ca!OynpaBJleHI'IH; -I'IHbIX pa60THI'IKOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI'IH 329 . XapaKTep 1'1 BIl\ IOpl'll\l'IqecKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTtI Ka:1Kl\OrO 1'13 nepeql'lc- JleHHblX cy6'beKTOB npaBOOTHOWeHI'li1 3aBI'ICI'IT OT CneL\I'I<pI'IKI'I CaMOrO cy6'b- eKTa. Hanpl'lMep, npl'lMeHI'iTeJlbHO K nepBblM l\BYM cy6'beKTaM npaBOOTHO- weHl1fl peqb MO:1KHO BeCTH TOJlbKO 0 roCYl\apCTBeHHO-npaBoBoi1 H rpa:1Kl\aH- CKO-npaBOBOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I, TOrl\a KaK npl'lMeHI'ITeJlbHO K Bbl60pHbiM JlI1L\aM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H (B qaCTHOCTI1, K fJlaBaM l1l\enYTaTaM) l\0- nYCTtIMbl H l\pyme BHl\bl IOpl1l\I'IQeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 C C06J1IOl\eHl1eM Cnel\HaJlbHblX rapaHTHi1. HeBbl60pHbie OpraHbl MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI'IH (OTl\eJlbl, ynpaBJleHI'IH, KOMI1CCI'II1, al\MI'IHI1CTpaW'lfl, CeKpeTapHaTbl. COBeTbl H T.n.) HBJlHIOTCH CTPYK- TYPHblMI'I nOl\pa3l\eJleHHHMI1 al\MI1HI'ICTpaL\I'Ii1 H npel\CTaBHTeJlbHbIX opra- HOB, a n03TOMY Bonpocbl 06 I'IX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I BXOl\HT B KOMneTeHL\l'I1O ca- MHX opraHoB, C03l\aBWI1X I1X, perJlaMeHTl'lpOBaHbl nOJlO:1KeHI1HMI'I, )'TBep:1K- l\eHHbIMI'I fJlaBaMl1l1J1I1 npel\CTaBI1TeJlbHbIMI'I opraHaMI1 MYHI'IL\l1naJlbHoro 06- pa30BaHI1H. IIpaBooTHoweHI1H no nOBO.ny HX IOpHl\HQeCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He HBJlHIOTCH rOCYl\apCTBeHHo-npaBOBblMI'I. Pa60THI'IKH opraHOB MYHI1L\l1naJlbHblX 06pa30BaHI'IH, He HBJlHlOl.I.\HeCH l\OJl:1KHOCTHbIMI'I JlI'IL\aMI1, H I1X HeBbl60pHbie (Ha3HaQaeMble) l\OJl:1KHOCTHble JlHl\a COCTOHT Ha MYHI'IL\maJlbHofl CJlY:1K6e 11J111 BbInOJlHHIOT pa60TY no TPy- l\OBOMY l\OrOBOpy (3a I1CKJlIOQeHl'leM HeKOTOpblX QJleHOB pa3J1HQHbIX KOMI1C- Cl1fl 1'1 COBeTOB, BbJnOJlHHlOl.I.\l1X pa60TY no QJleHCTBY Ha 061.1.\eCTBeHHbiX HaQa- Jlax); BonpOCbll1X IOpl1l\I1QeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'Il\OCTaTOQHO nOJIHO pefJIa- MeHTl1pOBaHbl 3aKOHOl\aTeJlbCTBOM 0 MYHI'IL\lmaJlbHoi1 cJly:1K6e. TPYl\OBbIM H l\pyrl1M 3aKOHOl\aTeJlbCTBOM. TaKofl nOl\xol\ 06'beKTI1BHO 06YCJlOBJleH. He06xol\I1MOCTb Bbll\eJleHHH B CTpYKType opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI'IH npel\CTaBI1TeJlbHbIX opraHOB, Bbl60pHbiX l\OJl:1KHOCTHbiX JlI1L\ H T.l\. KaK caMOCTOHTeJlbHblX cy6'beKTOB IOpl1- l\HQeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 06YCJlOBJleHa TeM, QTO YKa3aHHble K.M. AMup6e- K06"bW1t cy6'beKTbl BbJnOJlHHIOT pa3JIHQHble <PYHKL\I'iI'I, OTJlI1QalOTCH nopHl\KOM <pOpMl'lpOBaHI'IH 11 B3al1MOOTHOWeHI'IHMI1 C HaCeJleHl'leM. EOJlee TOro, Ol\HI'I cy6'beKThI nOl\OTQeTHbl H nOl\KOHTpOJlbHbl l\PYfl1M. Hanpl1Mep, OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTh I1CnOJlHI'ITeJlbHblX opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H KaK CO CTOpOHbl COl\ep:1KaHI1H, TaK H CO CTOpOHbl npOL\el\ypbl OCYl.I.\ecTBJleHI1H MOryT YCTaHaB- JIIlBaTb TOJlbKO npel\CTaBI'ITeJlbHble opraHbl, KOTopble HX cpOpMI'IPYIOT. IIO:ITO- MY anpHOpl1 CYl.I.\eCTBYIOT cepbe3Hbie pa3J1I1QHH B npaBOBOM cTaTyce nepe- QHCJleHHblX cy6'beKTOB. CJlel\OBaTeJlbHO. He MOl)'T 6blTb OJ\l1HaKOBblMI'I Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (caHKL\I1I'1), OCHOBaHI1H 1'1 nOpH.l\OK I'IX npl1MeHeHI'IH B OTHO- WeHI'II1, Hanpl1Mep, npel\CTaBHTeJlbHOrO opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H 1'1 Ha3HaQaeMbiX l\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI'IL\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H. KpoMe TOro, <pel\epaJlbHOe 3aKOHOl\aTeJlbCTBO, 3aKOHbi cym.eKTOB POCCI'IH- t.f'\ CKofl <I:>el\epaL\I'II1 H YCTaBbl MYHI'IL\l1naJIbHblX 06pa30BaHl'lfl COl\ep:1KaT HOpMbl 0) 
06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!, KOTOpble B 60JlblllY!HCTBe CJI)"IaeB 06pall.{eHbi K opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHY!H B l.\eJlOM. C03.n;aeTCH Bne'JaTJleHY!e, 'JTO HOpMbl, yc- TaHaBJI:HBaIOIl.{He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB MecTHOro caMoynpaBJleHHH, OTnH- 'JalOTCH HeKoHKpeTHocTblO B onpe):leJleHY!H cBoero a):lpecaTa, n03TOMY Tpe6yJOT .n;onOJlHHTenbHoro TOJIKOBaHHH, B npol.\ecce KOToporo .n;aHHbli"1 no.n;xo.n; MO)KeT npo.n;yKTHBHO Y!cnOJlb30BaTbCH. C npY!HHTHeM HOBOi"1 pe.n;aKl.\lm <I:>e.n;epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa ,,06 061l.{HX npHHI.\Y!nax opraHH3al.\HH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH B POCCY!i"ICKOI1 <I:>e.n;epaI.\I-IH» 330 COOTBeTCTByJOll.{l-Ie HOMbl CTanY! 60Jlee KOHKpeTHbi. IIo 3TOMY me OCHOBaHY!1O HeKOTopble aBTopbl KJlaCCH<pY!I.\HPYIOT OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb, B TOM 'JHcne Y! opraHOB Y! .n;OJl)KHOCTHbIX nY!1.\ MecTHoro calOynpaB- neHY!H, Ha KOJlJleKTY!BHYIO H 11H,ZJ;I1BY!.n;yanbHYI0331, 'JTO TaKme HMeeT onpe.n;e- JleHHOe 3Ha'JeHY!H B CHCTeMe HapO):lOBJIaCTY!H. B YCJlOBHHX <PYHKI.\HOHHpOBa- HHH KOJlJlemaJlbHblX H e):lY!HOJlY!'JHbIX opraHOB BJiaCTI'I H pa3rpaHY!'JeHY!Y! Me)K.n;y HY!MH <PYHKI.\HI1 Y! nonHOMO'JHH. Henb3H, o.n;HaKO, He npY!3HaTb, 'ITO Y!):IeH .n;eneHHH no 3TOMY OCHOBaHY!1O IOpH.n;H'JeCKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Bo061l.{e Y! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I opraHOB H .n;on)KHOCTHbIX JII'II.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHY!H B 'JaCTHOCTY! YH3BY!Ma .n;nH KPHTHKH Ha TOM OCHOBaHI-IH, 'JTO TaKoe .n;eneHY!e He OTpamaeT CYIl.{HOCTHble npY!3HaKY! caMoi"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!. II03TOMY KJlaccmpY!Kal.\HH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH opraHOB H .n;on)KHOCTHbIX nY!1.\ MecTHoro ca!OynpaBneHHH no cy6"beK- TaM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! npaKTH'JeCKY! npe.n;CTaBnHeT c06011 nHllIb nepe'JeHb Tex cy6"beKTOB, KOTopble Hec)'T 3TY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Y! Tpe6YeT KJlaccY!<pH- KaI.\HY! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Kam.n;oro cy6"beKTa B OT.n;enbHOCTI'I, HO y)Ke no HHblM OCHOBaHY!HM. AHanoHI'JHa.H npeTeH3Y!.H MO)KeT 6blTb BblCKa3aHa Y! B OTHOllle- Him Y!.n;eY! 0 no.n;pa3.n;eneHY!Y! OTBeTCTBeOCTI'I Ha BY!.n;bl B 3aBHCY!MOCTH OT op- raHa, B03JIaralOll.{ero OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb . IV. B IOpY!.n;Y!'JecKOi"1 JII'lTeparype 6blJla Bbl.n;BY!HYTa Y!.!\eH 0 KJlaccY!<pY!KaI.\HY! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHoB Y! .n;on)KHOCTHbIX JII'II.\ MecTHoro calOynpaBneHlul a 3aaUCU./1tOcmu om mozo, 1W'KOU umnepec (1wCm1tUU u.n.u ny6J1.U'L1tuu) 1tapy- we1t oeS/.1tUe.M omaemcmae1t1WZO cy60e)(ma. TaK, no MHeHY!1O C. L{"bt'nJl..ileaa, He- 06XO.n;HMO KOHCTaTl'lpoBaTb pa3HblH xapaKTep IOpY!,l\I-I'JeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TH, HaCTynalOll.{ei"1 nepe.n; <pH3Y!'JecKHMY! H IOpH.n;H'JeCKI-IMH J111I.\am, Y! I-IHblX BY!- ):lOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHOB Y! .n;onmHOCTHbIX nl'll.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBne- HY!H. B nepBOM cnY'Jae HBHO Bblpa)KeH 'JaCTHbli"1 HHTepeC <pY!3Y!'JeCKHX H IOpH- .n;Y!'JeCKY!X nY!1.\ B Heo6xo.n;Y!MOCTY! BOCCTaHOBJleHI-IH Y!X nepBOHa'JaJlbHOrO (.n;o Ha- pYllieHI-IH Y!X npaB 1-1 3aKOHHbiX Y!HTepeCOB) COCTOHHY!.H. TeM caMblM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb HOCY!T xapaKTep 'JaCTHonpaBOBoii, B OTnY!'JHe OT ny6J1Y!'JHo-npaBO- BOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI-I, HacrynalOll.{el1 nepe.n; HaceneHY!eM Y! nepe.n; rocy.n;apCT- BOM, B KOTOpOti npOCJle)KY!BaIOTCH nocne.n;CTBY!.H HapYllleHHH Ba)KHbIX C TO'JKH 3peHI-IH rocy.n;apCTBa H 061l.{eCTBa npaBl-ln nOBe.n;eHI-IH 333 . IIo.n;pa3.n;eneHY!e OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII B CY!CTeMe MecTHOro calOynpaBJleHH.H Ha 'JaCTHonpaBOBYIO Y! ny6J1Y!'JHo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npY!3HaeT A.A. Cepzeea 334 . M.A. Kpac1toa, He OTpY!l.\a.H TaKOro no.n;xo.n;a B npY!HI.\Y!ne, 06paTI-IJI BHHMa- \0 HY!e Ha TO. 'JTO, CTpOro rOBOp.H, 'JaCTHonpaBOBa.H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He Bcer.n;a 0) CBH3aHa HMeHHO C OCYll.{ecTBneHY!eM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHH.H. B TaKY!X cny- 
'JaHX pe'Jb 1)\eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHoB MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHY!H KaK 06bI'JHblX BJlaCTHblX cTpYlnyp, 06bl'JHOro cy6'beKTa rrpaBa B paMKax rpam)\aH- CKOro Y!JlY! a,nMI1HY!cTpaTY!BHoro 3aKOHo,naTeJlbCTBa. ITo MHeHY!1O M.A. Kpac'/io- aa, QJe,nepaJlbHblI1 3aKOHo,naTeJlb rroCTynY!JI BrrOJIHe JlOrn'JHO, He rrblTaHCb Bbl- ,neJlI1Tb OCHOBaHY!H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - 'JaCTHble Y! rry6J1I1'JHble, TaK KaK He Bce- r,na MomHO CTporo pa3rpaHI1'JI1Tb ,neI1CTBI1H, CBH3aHHble [JIy! He I3aHHble He- rrocpe,nCTBeHHO C OCYll.{eCTBJleHY!eM MecTHoro calOyrrpaBJIeHI1H PaCCMaTpl1BaeMaH rr03Y!L\Y!H rrpe,nCTaBJlHeT HeCOMHeHHblfl HaY'JHblfl Y!H- Tepec. O,nHaKO rrpY! TaKOM rro,nxo,ne yrrYCKalOTCH J.l3 BI)\Y oc06eHHOCTI1 OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTY! 3a HapyrneHY!H MeCTHblX rry6J1Y!'JHbIX Y!HTepeCOB. IT03TOMY, KaK rrpe,nCTaBJlHeTCH, paQI10HaJlbHee 6y,neT YT0'JHI1Tb I13JIOmeHHYIO rr03Y!L\Y!1O Y! rro 3TOMY OCHOBaHl11O KJIaCCI1<pY!I.jY!pOBaTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 ,l\OJlm- HOCTHblX JlY!l\ MeCTHoro calOyrrpaBJleHI1H Ha TPy! BI)\a: - OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HapyrneHl1e rocy,napCTBeHHblX Y!HTepeCOB; - OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HapyrneHl1e MeCTHblX rry6J1Y!'JHbIX Y!HTepeCOB; -OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HapyrneHl1e 'JaCTHbIX Y!HTepeCOB. TaKOI1 rro,nxo,n rr03BOJII1T Y'JI1TbIBaTb CYI.QeCTBOBaHY!e TaK Ha3blBaeMbiX ",nBOI1HbIX COCTaBOB» 11 3<p<peKTI1BHO pernaTb Borrpoc 0 rrpY!MeHeHY!11 KOH- KpeTHofl MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! B l'Jae KOHKypeHQY!11 BI1,nOB OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 11J111 KOHKypeHLlI'il'1 rrpOL\e,nyp . V. B.E. lJUp1CU'/i KJIaCCl1CpI1LlY!PYeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTh opraHOB Y! ,nOJImHOCT- HbIX JlHQ MeCTHoro calOyrrpaBJleHY!H Ha 06Ujenpaaoay1O Y! Cn€1tUMb'/iYIO npaao- aylO. OHY! rrY!rneT: "BamHO pa3J1H'JaTb rrpaBOHapyrneHHH co CTOpOHbl rocy,nap- CTBeHHblX Y! MYHHLlHrraJlbHbIX opraHOB Y! ,nOJImHOCTHbIX JIY!L\, Kor,na OHH ,nefICT- BYIOT KaK rrpe,nCTaBY!TeJlY! BJlaCTI'I. OCYI.QeCTBJlHH rocy,napCTBeHHoe 11J1Y! M)'HY!- QlmaJlbHOe ynpaBJleHHe Y!, C .!\pyroti CTOpoHbI, Kor,na OHY! ,nefICTBOBaJUI KaK 'Ja- CTHble JlY!l\a, B JlY!'JHOM Ka'JeCTBe, B rpam.!\aHCKo-rrpaBOBbIX OTHorneHY!HX. OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb 6y,neT pa3HOi;[: 06I.QerrpaBOB0I1, KaK rpam)\aHY!Ha, Y! crreLlY!aJlb- Hofl rrpaBOBOI1, KaK ,nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHQ [JIH rocy,napCTBeHHoro MYHY!LlHrraJlbHO- ro opraHa»337. QY!TY!pyeMblfl aBTOp He YTO'JHHeT OCHOBaHHe, rrOJlOmeHHOe B OC- HOBY ,naHHOI1 KJlaCCI'I<pHKaLllm. O'JeBI1.!\HO, TaKoe ,neJleHHe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! Ha BI1)\bl B03MomHO a 3aaucUJ!!Ocmu om xapaKmepa npaeOom'/iOW€1iUU, y'tacm- 1iUKa.MU '1COmOp'bLX Jl8J!Ji1OmCJl opza1iU U aOJ!JlC1iOCm'/ibL€ J!u1ta .Mecm'/iOZO CCWIW- ynpa/3Jl€HWL U UX npaaocy6"be1Cm'/iOCmU a "mux om1iOULe1iWLX. .D:)'MaeTCH, 'JTO TaKoi;[ rro,nxo,n K KJlaccY!<pY!Kal\HY! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB Y! ,nOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHQ MeCTHoro calOyrrpaBJleHY!H, paBHo KaK Y! Bce paccMOTpeH- Hble Bblrne, HMeeT rrpaBo Ha CYll.{ecTBOBaHHe. EecrrepcrreKTY!BHo CrrOpl1Th 0 TOM, KaKaH H3 rrpHBe,neHHblX KJlaccHqmKal\Y!i;[ OTBeTCTBeHHUCTH HBJIHeTCH 6uJlee Y!C- TY!HHOfl, e,nHHCTBeHHO BepHofl. IT03TOMY Ha pa3HbIX 3TarraX HaY'JHoro rr03Ha- HY!H, a TalOKe B LleJlHX 3<p<peKTHBHoro rrpaBOTBOp'JeCTBa CJle.nyeT rrpY!BeTCTBO- BaTh pa3Hbie rro,nxo,nbi K KJlaCCH<pHKaLlI'il'1 IOpl1)\Y!'JecKofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl'I op- raHOB H ,nOJimHOCTHbIX JlY!Ll MeCTHoro calOyrrpaBJleHY!H Y! CTpeMJIeHY!e K Y!X CY!H- Te3Y, oc06eHHO ecJII'I3TO ,nHKTyeTcH rrpaKTH'JeCKOI1 Heo6XO,l\HMOCTblO. C rHoce- OJlom'JecKofl TO'JKH 3peHY!H Bce OHY! rrOJle3Hbi. C yqeTOM BblCKa3aHHbIX rrpe,no- t-- CTepemeHHfl, KpY!TI'I'JeCKY!X 3aMe'Jamlfl, a TalOKe KOHKpeTHblX 3a,na'J, CTOHll.{I1X 0) 
nepel\ YlCCJIel\OBaTeJIeM, 3aKOHOl\aTeneM YlJIYI npaBOnpYlMeHHTeJIeM, OHYI MOrYT 6blTb YlCnOJIb30BaHbIl\JIH fJIy60KOro YI BCeCTOpOHHerO Yl3)"JeHYlH OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTII OpraHOB YI l\onmHocTHbiX JIHU MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, al\eKBaTHOrO npaBoBoro perYJIYlpOBaHYlH, npaBYlJIbHOii KBaJIYI<pYlKaI-II1Y1 l\eHHYlH H T.A. B TO me BpeMH 1'13 MHomeCTBa OCHOBaHHii KJIaCCl'I(pYlKaUY!I'1 OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTYI He06xol\HMO Bbl6Y1paTb '!'e, KOTopble OTpamaJOT CYIl.\HOCTHble npl13HaKH caMoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTYI. B03MmKHbi KJIaCCI1<pYlKaUHYI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H He no OCHOBHbIM npYl3HaKaM (B COOTBeTCTBYlI1 C MepaMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, cy6"b- eKTaMYI npaBOHapYIlIeHHii, B 3aBHCHMOCTII OT Tex cy6"beKTOB, nepel\ KeM He- CYT £BeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHbl YI l\OJImHOCTHble JIHua MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HHH ,B 3aBYlniMOCTII OT opraHa, npaBOMO'JHOro npYlMeHHTb K npaBoHapy- IlIYlTeJIlO CaHKl.\I1Y1 1'1 T.n.). HO OHYI 6Yl\YT HOCHTb BTopOCTeneHHblfl xapaKTep. 3l\eCb Mbl BnJIOTHyro nOl\OIllJII1 K np06neMe COOTHOIlleHI1H 3MTII'IpH'JeCKoro YI TeOpeTIl'JecKoro YPOBHel1 HaY'JHoro n03HaHI1H. HecMoTpH Ha HanH'Jl1e none- MYlKYI no pH.ny BonpoCOB, B YlHTepeCax l\aJIbHel1Il1el1 pa3pa60TKI1 TeMbl HaCTO- Hll.{ero HCCJIel\OBaHYlH MomHO BbI;:\eJIYlTb ee Y3JIOBbie MOMeHTbl. IIpeml\e Bcero He06xOl\HMO nOl\'JepKHYTb CJIe.nylOIl.\ee nOJIOmeHYle: «TeopeTYI'JeCKoe 1'1 3MnH- pl1'JeCKoe - :3TO paBHO He06xol\HMbIe 11 B3aHMo06ycJIOBneHHbie CTPYKTypHble COCTaBJIHIOIl.\He HaY'JHoro n03HaHHH, HaXOl\HIl.\HeCH Meml\Y c060i;[ B CJIOmHOI1 B3aYlMOCBH3Y1, l\1'IaneKTH'JeCKHe npOTIIBOpe'JYlH KOTOpOI1 npel\CTaBJIHIOT co- 6011 BamHeI1Il1HI1l\BYlmYIl.\Hfl cpaKTop HaYKW> 339. CBH3b 3MnYlpYl'JeCKoro YI Te- OpeTIl'JeCKoro YPOBHel1 HaY'JHoro n03HaHHH MHorOnJIaHOBa YI MomeT 6bITb YlC- Cnel\OBaHa B pa3JIYI'JHbiX acneKTax. Hac YlHTepecyeT npe:1K,I\e Bcero KaTeropl1- anbHO-COl\epmaTeJIbHbli1 acneKT np06JIeMbI. l1MeHHo ero l'IMeeT B BYI.ny, Ha- npYlMep, n.B. Konuu'li, roBOpH, 'JTO «B 3Mnl1pYl'JecKOM MbIIlIJIeHHH o6DeKT OT- pameH co CTOpOHbl ero BHeIllHHX CBH3efi YI npOHBneHYlfl, l\ocTynHbIx mYlBOMY C03epl.\aHYlIO. JIom'JeCKOI1 <popMofl 3MnHpH'JeCKoro HBJIHeTCH OTl\eJIbHO B3HToe cyml\eHHe, KOHCTaTIlpYIOI.l.\ee cpaKT, YlJIH HX HeKOTopaH CYlCTeMa, OnYlCbIBalO- I.l.\aH HBJIeHHe. IIpaKTYI'JecKoe npl1MeHeHYle 3MTII'IpYl'JeCKoro 3HaHYlH OrpaHI1'Je- HO, a B Ha)"JHOM OTHOilieHYlH OHO HBJIHeTCH HeKOTopblM HCXOl\HbIM nYHKTOM B nOCTpOeHI'iI'1 TeOPIUl... TeopeTYI'JeCKoe MblIllJIeHYle OTpamaeT 06DeKT co CTOpO- Hbl ero BH)'TpeHHYlX CBH3el1 1'1 3aKOHOMepHocTei1l\BHmeHHH, nOCTl'IfaeMbIX ny- TeM pal.\110HaJIbHoi1 06pa60TKI1l\aHHblx 3MnHpYl'JeCKoro 3HaHHH. Ero JIOrtNeC- Kofl cpopMofl HBJIHeTCH CI1CTeMa a6CTpaKl.\Ylfl, 06"bHCHHIOIl.\aH o6DeKT» 340. TaKHM 06pa30M, B KaTerOpl1aJIbHO-COl\epmaTenbHOM acneKTe 3J!'!nUPU'teC- '/we 3'1ia'liUe BblC'rynaeT KaK Onl1CbIBalOIl.\ee o6DeKT, HMelOll.{ee OCHOBHOi1 <PYHK- l.\Hefl OnYlCaHYle YlCCJIe.nyeMofl peaJIbHOCTYI 11 BbIpa60TKY nepBYI'JHOI1KOHl.\enl.\III'I, n03BOJIHIOIl.\efl nepeflTH K o6DHcHeHI1IO 06"beKTa. 'JTO COCTaBJIHeT BamHeflillyro <PYHKl.\HIO TeoplU1. TeopemU'teCIWe 3wmue paCKpbIBaeT CYIl.\HOCTb YlCCne.nyeMO- ro, l\aeT KOHKpeTHoe 3HaHYle o6DeKTa, o6DHcHHeT ero 'Jepe3 paCKpbITYle 3aKOHO- MepHOCTei;[ B03HHKHOBeHHH, CPYHKl.\110HHpOBaHHH YI pa3BYlTYlH 341 . El\Ba JIYI nepe- 'JYlCJIeHHe cy6ceKToB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH cnoc06HO npH6JIYl3Y1Tb Hac K n03HaHI11O TaKYlX 3aKOHOMepHOCTefl. O'JeBH,!\HO, 'JTO 60JIbillYlO TeopeTH'JecKYIO l.\eHHOCTb YlMelOT KJIaCCYI<pHKal.\I1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. HMelOll.\Y!e B cBoei1 OCHOBe CYIl.\HOCT- Hble, a He BHeiliHYle OTJIH'JHH OTl\enbHblX BII;:\OB. B :3Tofl CBH3H 3aMeTI1M, 'JTO 0) 0) 
npel\CTaBY!TeJUI M)'HY!'-IY!naJlbHO-npaBOBOM Ha)'KY! Hel\OCTaTO"IHO Y!CnOJlb3j'1OT l\OCTIDKeHY!H 06Il.\eM TeoplU1 npaBa. B "IaCTHOCTY!. Ha HaW B3rJIHl\. MomeT npY!He- CTI'I n0311T11BHble proYJlbTaTb! npY!MeHeHY!e nOl\XOl\a K KJIaccY!<pY!Ka'-l11l'lIOpl1.!1Y!- 'JeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHOB Y! l\OJDKHOCTHbIX JlY!'-I MecTHoro ca!OynpaBJle- HY!H no xapaKTepy npaBOHapyweHI1H Y! COl\epmaHY!1O CaHK'-IY!M 3a ero COBepwe- HY!e. Ha 3TOM OCHOBaHl111 0.3. JIeiicm pa3J1Y!'JaeT,l(Ba BI1.l\a IOPl1.!1l1'JecKOM OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTY!: WTpacPHYIO (KapaTeJlbHYIO) 11 npaBOBOCCTaHOBlrreJlbHYIO OTBeTCT- BeHHocTb 342 . Kam,Z\bIM Y!3 HI1X COOTBeTcTByeT xapaKTepy npaBoHapyweHY!H Y! COl\epmaHY!1O CaHK'-I1111 3a ero cOBepweHlle 343 . «IIoCKOJlbKY BblpameHHblM B CaHK'-I11I'I cnoc06 npaoonopH.l\Ka npel\onpel\eJlHeT nOpHl\OK ee peaJlY!3a'-lI1I1. - OTMe'JaeT 0.3. JIeiicm, - OCHOBHblM l\eJleHY!eM BI1.110B OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (KaK Y! CaHK'-Il1fl) HBJlHeTCH !\eJleHY!e Ha npaBOBOCCTaHOBI1TeJlbHYIO Y! WTpa<pHYIO... IIpY! 3TOM l\JlH npaBOBOCCTaHOBY!TeJlbHoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII cYIl.\ecTBeHHO BamHO TO'JHoe onpel\eJleHl1e yme CywecTBYIOWI1X 06H3aHHocTei1 npaBOHapYWI1TeJlH Y! Y!X, B cJlyqae HeoOXOl\I1MOCTII. npI1HYl\I1TeJlbHOe OCYIl.\eCTBJleHY!e. .lLnH wTpa<p- HOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! - npaBY!JlbHaH KBaJlY!<pY!Ka'-lJ1H npaBOHapyweHI1H. Y!H,Z\I1- BI1.l\yaJlI13a'-lIIH HaKa3aHY!H Y!JlY! B3bICKaHI1H. peaJlY!3a'-\lIH npl1MeHeHHblX K npa- BOHapYWHTeJlIO Mep npY!H)"K.l\eHY!H, oCBo60m.l1eHY!e ero OT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. KOrl\a ee '-IeJlY! l\OCTY!rHYTbI" 344. 3THM onpel\eJlHeTCH Kpyr BonpOCOB, pewaeMblX B npel\eJlax COOTBeTCTBYIOll.{erO Bl1.!1a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII npl1 nOMOIl.\11 npo'-leccy- aJlbHOfl <pOpMbL IIOCJJel\HHH 3aBY!CI1T OT MaTepY!aJlbHOrO OCHOBaHI1H ell.{e Y! B TOM OTHOWeHIIY1, 'JTO 'JeM CTpome caHKl.\I1H, TeM 60Jlee pa3BY!Ta ::na npO'-leccya.nbHaH <popMa (06Wl1pHOCTb HopMaTHBHOJ1l\eTaJlY!3a'-lHJoI rapaHTI111 JoICTI1Hbl no l\eJlY JoI npaBa Ha 3aIl.\I,rry npHMo nponOp'-l110HaJlbHa CTeneHJoI CTporoCTI'I CaHK'-IJoIJoI). HCXOl\H JoI3 l\eJleHJoIH CaHKl.\JoIM Ha npaBOBOCCTaHOBHTeJlbHble JoI wTpa<pHble (KapaTeJlbHbIe) B npel\eJlax 06Il.\ero nOHHTY!H IOpl1.1\1I'JecKoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 pa3rpaHJoI'JJoIBalOTCH l\Be ee OCHOBHble KOHCTPYK'-I"I1, pa3J1Jo1'Jl1e Mem.I\Y KOTOpbl- Mil CBH3aHO C OTpaCJleB0I1 CTp)'KTypOM npaBa, HO He TOm.l\ecTBeHHo ei1 345 . Bce BI1.l\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJoI CJlymaT npe.I\YIlpem.l\eHI1IO npaBoHapyweHY!fl JoI60pb6e C HI1MI1, HO HX HopMaTY!BHaH OpraHI13a'-lI1H, cne'-ll1aJlbHbIe <PYHK'-IY!Y! 11 cnoc06 peaJlY!3a'-lI1Y! pa3J1I1'JHbl. "ITO l\ame n03BOJlHeT HeKoTopbIM JoIcCJJel\OBeJIHM JoIr- HOpl1pOBaTb JoIX npaBoB)'IO npJolpol\Y KaK npl1p0.I\Y OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 ECJlY! nonblTaTbCH B 06Il.\eM BJoIl\e C<PoPMYJll1poBaTb OCHOBaHl1e OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTY! opraHoB 11 l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlJoI'-I MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepel\ Hace- JleHl1eM. rocYl\apCTBOM, <pY!3Jo1'JecKY!MJoII1 IOpl1l\Y!'JeCKI1MY! JlI1'-1aMI1. TO OHO MO- meT 6bITb 0603Ha'JeHO KaK Heco6.rrlOl\eHl1e YCJlOBI1M l\eHTeJlbHOCTY!, l\JlH oCYIl.\e- CTBJleHI1H KOTOpofl <pOpMl1pYIOTCH KOJlJlemaJlbHbie IUlI'1 el\HHOJlY!'JHble opraHbl MecTHoro ca!OynpaBJleHI1H. K TaKY!M YCJlOBY!HM OTHOCHTCH: 3cPcPeKTY!BHOCTb OCYIl.\ecTBJleHI1H BJlaCTHblX nOJlHOMO'Jl1fl. KOTOpblMI1 Hal\eJlHIOTCH opraHbl 11 l\OJlmHOCTHble JlI1'-1a MecTHoro ca!OynpaBJleHY!H l\JlH peweHY!H BonpOCOB MeCT- Horo 3Ha'JeHJoIH B JoIHTepecax HaCeJleHI1H, T.e. 06H3aTeJlbHOCTb l\OCTY!meHY!H on- pel\eJleHHblX nOJlOmlrreJlbHblX pe3YJlbTaTOB l\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 no ynpaBJleHl110 l\eJlaMI1 MecTHoro C006Il.\ecTBa; 3aKOHHOCTb (B WY!pOKOM CMblCJle CJlOBa) B l\eH- TeJlbHOCTl1 no OCYIl.\ecTBJleHI1IO COOTBeTCTBYIOIl.\I1X nOJlHOMO'JJoIM; l\06POCOBecT- 0\ HOCTb I1CnOJlHeHI1H 06H3aTeJlbCTB nepel\ yqacTHY!KaMI1 rpam,I\aHCKorO 060po- 0) 
Ta 347 . IIO:nUMY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB MeCTHOrO calOynpaBJleHI'IH 1'1 I'IX l\OJDKHOCTHbIX JIlU.\, B CYll!HOCTI'I, HOCI'IT l\OrOBOpHOt:i XapaKTep, aHaJlOrW-IHbIl1 TOMY, KOTOpblJ1 BblpamaeT nOJlI'ITl'lqeCKYIO CYI.I.\HOCTb KOHCTI'ITY,-\IU1. .D:orOBOp (B l\aHHOM cJlyqae ny6JI1'lqHO-npaBOBoJ1) HOCI'IT TpeXC'ropoHHI1J1 xa- paKTep: Mem.ny HaCeJleHl'leM, rocYl\apcTBOM, OpraHaU! I'Il\OJDKHOCTHblMI1 JlI'I- ,-\a!I1 MecTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H. .D:oroBOpHOJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 CBOJ1CTBeH npaBOBOCCTaHOBI-rreJlbHblJ1 XapaKTep. CJlel\OBaTeJlbHO, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opra- HOB I'Il\OJlmHOCTHbIX J!tl,-\ MeCTHOrO calOynpaBJleHI1H nepe;:\ HaCeJleHl'leM, rocy- l\apCTBOM, <p1'I3I1qeCKI'IMI'I I1IOPl1.!1l1qecKI'IMI'I JlI1,-\aMI'I HOCI'IT npaBOBOCCTaHOBI'I- TeJlbHblJ1 XapaKTep (3a I1CKJlIOQeHl1eM cJlyqaeB npl1BJleQeHI1H l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI'I,-\ MecTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI'IH K a).\l\U!HI'ICTpaTIIBHOii I'IJUI yrOJlOBHOii OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1)348. HapyrneHl'le YCJlOBI1J1 COOTBeTCTBYIOll!eii l\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 lOmeT BblpamaThCH B Hel\OCTl1meHIUI pe3YJlbTaTa (He3qxpeKTIIBHOHl\eHTeJlbHOCTI'I) 1'1 B npaBoHapyrneHl'I11 (COBeprneHI'II1 .l\eJlI1KTa). II03TOMY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opra- HOB 1'1 l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI'I,-\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI'IH MOmHO KJlaCCI'I<pI1,-\l'IpO- BaTh B 3aBI'ICI'IMOCTI'I OT ee ,-\eJleMI'I OCHOBaHl1ii Ha ljiY'/fK1fUO'/WA"bUYIO 1'1 aeJ!u'/cm- '/iYIO. IIepBaH I'IMeeT CBOI1M OCHOBaHl1eM Hel\OCTI1meHl1e pe3YJlbTaTa, He3cpQJeK- TIIBHOCTb l\eHTeJlbHOCTII, T.e.l\eficTBI1H (6e3l\eiicTBl'le), KOTopble He MorYT 6blTb KBaJlI'I<pI1,-\HpOBaHbl KaK npaBOHapyrneHl1e 1'1 Qall!e Bcero <popMaJl1'l3YIOTCH KaK y-rpaTa l\OBepI1H HaCeJleHI'IH, HeH1!,l\JJemall!ee oCYll!eCTBJIeHl'le OTl\eJlbHbIX rocy- l\apCTBeHHbIX nOJIHOMOQHll, BTOpaH - COBeprneHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHblM cy6"beKTOM npaBoHapyrneHI1H (l\eJlI'IKTa). TaKoii nOl\XOl\ K KJlaCCI1<pIIKa,-\1'I11 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I1l\OJlmHOCT- HblX JlI1,-\ MecTHoro calOynpaBJleHI'IH MOmeT 6blTb npo.nyKTI'IBHO I'ICnOJlb30- BaH l\JlH perneHI'IH rHoceoJlorl'lQeCKI'IX 3al\aQ. Ero npaKTI1QeCKaH 3HaQl1MOCTb COCTOI'IT B TOM, QTO OH n03BOJlHeT YQI'ITbIBaTb oco6eHHOCTII npaBOBOCCTaHO- BI'ITeJlbHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII (11 ee OCHOBaHl'lii), l\JlH KOTOpofl HaJlI'IQl'le BI1Hbl He I'IMeeT npl1H,-\l1nl1aJlbHoro 3HaQeHI1H 349 . IIpl'l HeKOTopofl YCJlOBHOCTII Tep- MIIHa «<PYHKl\1'I0HaJlbHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» npel\CTaBJlHeTCH '-\eJleC006pa3- HblM I'ICnOJlb30BaHl'le l\aHHofl KJlaCCI'I<pI'IKa,-\111'1 B npo,-\ecce I'ICCJlel\OBaHI'IH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTII opraHOB 1'1 l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI'I,-\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI'IH. .D:eJleHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII Ha <PYHK,-\1'I0HaJlbHYIO II l\eJlI1KTHYIO n03BOJlHeT YQI1TblBaTb oc06eHHOCTI1 OCHOBaHI1H Kaml\oro 1'13 3TI1X BI1l\OB II cne,-\H<pIIKY np0,-\el\YP I1X peaJlI'l3a,-\l'Il1. B MYHI1'-\l1naJlbHo-npaBOBofl JlHTepaType nOMI1MO paCCMOTpeHI'IH npo6J1e- Mbl «BHYTpeHHeM» KJlaCCH<pIIKa,-\111'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I'Il\OJlmHOCT- HblX JlI'I,-\ MeCTHoro calOynpaBJleHI1H nOl\HI1MaJlCH Bonpoc 0 B03MOmHOCTI1 II nepCneKTIlBaX o6oco6JJeHI'IH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I opraHOB I'Il\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1,-\ MecTHoro calOynpaBJleHI1H B CIiCTeMe IOpl1l\I'IQeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B Ka- QeCTBe caMOCTOHTeJlbHoro BII.l\a IOpl1l\I1QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I. OXBaTbIBa- lOll!ero OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB I'Il\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlII,-\ MeCTHoro calOynpaB- JleHI1H n3el\ HaCeJleHlleM, rOCY.l\apCTBOM, cpll3HQeCKliMli 1'1 IOpl'l.l\I'IQeCKI1MI'I JlI'I,-\aU! . IIpel\CTaBJlHeTCH, QTO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB I'Il\OJlmHOCTHbIX o JlH,-\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B '-\eJlOM (BO BceM MHoroo6pa3111'1 BI1l\OB OT- 0\ BeTCTBeHHOCTII paCCMaTpl'iBaeMblX cy6DeKTOB) He MOmeT npeTeHl\OBaTb Ha 
BI1,!\OBYIO caM06bITHOCTb (<<aBTOHOMHIO») HI1 B TeOpeTl1qeCKOM, HI1 B npaKTH- qeCKOM nJiaHe. MmKHO rOBOpJ-lTb JlI1111b 06 OTHOCI1TeJlbHOM caMOCTOJ'lTeJlbHOC- TH, 060c06JIeHI111 npaBoBoro I1HCTI1TYTa - I1HCTHTYTa arBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opra- HOB 11 ,!\OJJ:IKHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, T.e. COBOKynHOCTI1 npa- BOBbIX HOpM, perYJll1pYIOll\I1X OTHOllleHI1H IOpl1,!\l1qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 ,!\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. 3Tar I1HCTI1TYT HBJlHeTCH KOMIlJleKCHbIM, B HeM no npe,!\MeTHOMY npH3HaKY 06'be,!\I1HeHbI pa3Ho06pa3Hble no CBoeM npl1po,!\e npaBOBbIe HOpMbL B ero OCHOBe Jle:1KaT HOpMbI KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOro, a.l\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHoro, M)'HI1l.\J-InaJlbHoro, rpa:1K- u 35'1 T ,!\aHCKoro J-I ,!\pyrl.IX OTpaCJleJ-l npaBa . aKaH TOQKa 3r:eHI1H B nOCJle,!\Hee BpeMH pa3,!\eJlHeTCH 11 HeKarOpbIMI1 ,!\pyrl1MI1 aBTOpaMJ-I 3 :2 3aBeplllaH paCCMOTpeHl1e Bonpoca 06 OCHOBaHI1HX KJIaccl1<pl1KaW1l1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 ,!\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHOro caMoynpaBJleHI1R, npe,!\CTaB- JIHeTCH ueJIeC006pa3HbIM nO,!\'IepKH)'Tb HeKOTopble npHHUJ-lnl1aJlbHble n03I1UJ-II1. 1. B M)'HI1l.\l1naJlbHO-npaBOBOM Ha)'Ke I1CnOJlb3Y1OTCH pa3JIJ-IQHble nO,!\XO,!\bI K KJlaCCl1cj)J1Kal.\1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 ,!\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, CcpopMl1poBaBIlll1eCH B 0611\eM Teopl1J-1 npaBa 11 B 3aKOHo,!\a- TeJlbCTBe. HeJIb3H CKa3aTb, 'ITO CYll\eCTBYIOll\l1e KJlaCCJ-Icj)J1Kal.\J-II1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 Ha3BaHHblX cy6DeKTOB 6e3ynpeQHbI, KOHl.\enTyaJlbHO o<popMJleHbI 11 Me- TO,!\OJIOrnQeCKI1 BbI.l\ep:1KaHbI. C rnoceoJIornQecKoii TOQKI1 3peHI1H Bce OHI1 no- JIe3HbI. C yqeToM BbICKa3aHHbIX npe,!\ocTepe:1KeHI1M 11 Kpl1TI1'1eCKI1X 3aMe'la- HI1M OHH MorYT 6bITb I1CnOJIb30BaHbI ,!\JIH rJly60Koro 11 BcecTopoHHero 113yqeHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 ,!\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JlJ-Il.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ-IH. B TO me BpeMH 113 MHO:1KeCTBa OCHOBaHI1M KJlaCCl1cpI1Kal.\J-IJ-I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,!\OJI:1KHOCTHbiX JlHl.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H Heo6xo,!\I1MO Bb1611- paTh Te, KOTopble OTpa:1KalOT CJ'll\HOCTHble npl13HaKI1 caMOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. 2. HecMoTpH Ha 3HaQJ-lTeJlbHoe MHoro06pa311e aBTOpCKJ-IX TOQeK 3peHJ-IH no nOBO,!\y OCHOBaHI1M KJlaCCl1cpJ-lKal.\J-II1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ-I opraHOB I1.l\OJI:1KHO- CTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ-IH 11 Bbl,!\eJlHeMbIX BJ-I,!\OB OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1, I1X 06'be,!\I1HHIOT .l\Be 0611\l1e l1,!\el1: Bo-nepBbIX, CTpeMJleHl1e I1HTerpl1pO- BaTb pa3J1J-1QHbIe nO,I\XO.l\bI K KJlaCCl1cpI1Kal.\J-II1 arBeTCTBeHHOCTJ-I opraHoB 11 ,!\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JIJ-Il.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ-IH Ha OCHOBe OTpaCJIeBoro no.l\- xO.l\a 11 nO.l\xo,!\a, npJ-l KaropOM arBeTCTBeHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYIOll\J-IX opraHOB 11 ,!\OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ KJIaCCI1<pJ-Il.\11pyeTcH no cy6'beKTY, nepe,!\ KOTOpbIM OHI1 HeCYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb; BO-BTOPbIX, l1,!\eH KOHKpeTI13al.\J-I11 CYO'beKTa arBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 J-I ,!\11<p<pepeHUl1pOBaHHoro nO'!\XO.l\a K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ-I opraHOB 11 ,!\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT I1H,!\HBH- ,!\yaJlbHbIX ocooeHHOCTeii npaBoBoro cTaTyca nOCJIe,!\HJ-Ix. 3, TeOpeTI1'1eCKaH KOHCTPYKl.\J-IH J-IepapXI1J-1 BJ-I,!\OB IOpl1,!\J-I'IeCKOM arBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB J-I .l\OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JII1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B npl1H- l.\l1ne B03MO:1KHa, O,!\HaKO, Ha Halll B3rJlH,!\, OHa 6Y.l\eT HOCJ-ITb BeCbMa YCJlOB- HbIM xapaKTep. IIpe.l\cTaBJIHeTcH ropa3,!\0 60JIee npO'!\YKTI1BHbIM He CTOJIbKO YCTaHOBJ-ITb B TeOp1111 HJlH B 3aKOHe nepBOOQepe,!\HOCTb Toro HJlHI1HOrO BI1,!\a IOpl1,!\I1QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, CKOJIbKO QeTKO pa3rpaHI1Ql1Tb OCHOBaHJ-IH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ-I pa3JII1QHbIX ee BI1,!\OB, Mep 11 np0l.\e.l\yp ee peaJlI13al.\l1l1, a -- 0\ 
TaKme onpeJjeJlI1Tb npaBI1J1a npl1MeHeHI1H Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B cJIY'lae KOHKypeHl\1111 HOpM 11 npOl\eJjYP, YCTaHaBJlI1BalOll\I1X OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. 4. B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT l\eJlei1 11 OCHOBaHI1i1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 JjOJlmHOCTHbIX JJI1l\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H MomeT 6bITb nOJjpa3JjeJleHa Ha CPYHKl\110HaJlbHyJO 11 JjeJlI1KTHYIO. IIpl1 HeKoTopoi1 YCJlOBHOCTI1 TepMI1HOB «CPYHKl\110HaJlbHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» 11 «JjeJlI1KTHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» npeJjcTaBJlHeTCH l\eJleC006pa3HbIM I1CnOJlb30BaHJ.le JjaHHoi1 KJlaCCI1<pI1Kal\J.lI1 B npol\ecce I1CCJleJjOBaHJ.lH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 JjOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. TaKoe JjeJleHl1e n03BOJlHeT yql1TbIBaTb oc06eHHocTI1 OCHOBaHJ.li1 Kam,1\oro J.l3 3TI1X BI1JjOB 11 cnel\l1cpJ.lKY npol\eJjyp HX peaJlJ.l3al\I1H. 5. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHOB 11 JjOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaB- JleHI1H B l\eJlOM (BO BceM MHoro06pa311J.1 BI1JjOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpl1- BaeMblX cy6'beKTOB) He MomeT npeTeHJjOBaTb Ha BI1JjOBYIO caM06bITHOCTb HI1 B TeOpeTI1'1eCKOM, HI1 B npaKTI1'1eCKOM nJlaHe. OTHOCI1TeJlbHoi1 caMOCTOH- TeJlbHOCTblO 06J1aJjaeT npaBoBoi1 J.lHCTI1TYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 JjOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHl\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, KOTOpbItI HBJlHeTCH KOM- nJleKCHbIM 11 no npeJjMeTHOMY npl13HaKY 06'beJjI1HHeT pa3Ho06pa3HbIe no cBOei1 npl1poJje npaBOBble HOpMbI. PaHee HaMI1 nOJj'lepKI1BaJlOCb, 'ITO B MYHJ.Il\maJlbHo-npaBoBoi:j HayKe cy- ll\eCTByeT TeHJjeHl\I1H I1HTerpal\1111 nOJjXOJjOB K KJlaCCI1<pI1Kal\J1I1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 opraHoB 11 JjOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H. Oc06eHHo HpKO 3TO npOHBJlHeTCH B CTpeMJleHl111 aBTopoB )'BH3aTb OTpaCJleBble BI1JjbI IOpl1,1\I1'1eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 C Tem BI1JjaMI1, KOTopble npoB03rJlaCI1J1 3a- KOHOJjaTeJlb: nepeJj HaCeJleHl1eM, rocYJjapcTBoM, <p11311'1eCKI1Ml1l1lOpI1JjI1'1ec- KI1MI1 JlI1l\aMI1, T.e., eCJlI1 MomHO TaK Bblpa3J.1TbCH, YCTaHoBI1Tb J.lX aJjeKBaT- HOCTb OTpaCJleBbIM BI1JjaM IOpI1JjI1'1eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B pe3YJlbTaTe B HaCTOHll\ee BpeMH cYll\eCTByeT JjOCTaTO'lHO lllJ1pOKHi1 cneKTp TO'leK 3peHHH OTHOCHTeJlbHO TaKoi1 aJjeKBaTHOCTI1 B OTHOllleHl111 Kam,1\oro 113 BI1JjOB OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 JjOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l\, «Y'lpemJjeHHbIX» 3aKOHOJjaTeJleM. JJ:aJlee MbI nOJjp06Hee paCCMOTpl1M KJlIO'IeBble MOMeHTbI nOJleMI1KI1 no JjaHHO- MY Bonpocy. 
rnaBa 3 TEOPETKo-nPABOBA XAPAKTEPCTKA OT.QEl1bHbIX B.QOB IOP.QLJECKO OTBETCTBEHHOCT opr AHOB  .QOl1>KHOCTHbIX l1Lt MECTHoro CAMOYnPABl1EH 3.1. OTBETCTBEHHOCTb oprAHOB 11 A011>KHOCTHbIX 11111.\ MECTHOro CAMOynPAB11EHI151 nEPEA HACE11EHI1EM HeCMOTpH Ha OqeBI1)1HYIO 3Haql1MOCTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 )10Jlm- HOCTHbIX JlI1I.{ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H rrepe)1 HaCeJleHl1eM, )10 HaCTOHlI.!erO BpeMeHI1 HI1 B IOPl1,lJ,JoIqeCKOH HaYKe, HI1 B 3aKOHO)1aTeJIbCTBe, HI1 B rrpaBOrrpl1- MeHl1TeJIbHOH rrpaKTI1Ke He rrOJly<JI1JI )10JImHoro pa3pelI.!eHI1H Borrpoc ee OTpac- JIeBOH IOpl1)1l1'leCKOH rrpJolpO)1bI. B IOpl1)1Jo1qeCKOH IDITepaType OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rrepe)1 HaCeJIeHl1eM aBTOpbI TpaKTYJOT He0)1H03HaqHO. O)1HI1 CQI1TalOT ee KOH- CTI1TYUl10HHo-rrpaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO 353 JII160 ee pa3HOBJoI)1HOCTbI0 354 , )1pyme BI1)1HT B HeH crreul1cpl1QeCKI1H BI1)1lOpl1)1HQeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, KO- TOpblii He MomeT 6bITb OTHeceH HH K O)1HOMY 113 CYlI.!eCTBYIOiI.!HX BJoI)10B IOpl1- )111'IeCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJoI 355 , TpeTbl1, pa3BI1BaH l1)1elO 0 cneI.{l1cpl1Ke OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTJoI rrepe)1 HaCeJIeHHeM, onpe)1eJIHIOT ee KaK MYHHUlmaJIbHO-rrpaBO- ByIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 356, QeTBepTble CQI.ITaIOT ee rrOJlJolTI1KO-lOpl1)1I1QeCKOI1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTblO 357 , He rrbITaHCb «11)1eHTl1cpJolI.{l1pOBaTb» C OTpaCJleBbIMI1 BJoI)1a- MI1 IOpl1)1I1'IeCKOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, rrHTble nOJIaraKYl', QTO 3TY OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb HeJJb3H CQI1TaTb IOpl1)1I1QeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTbI0 35B . IIpl1 3TOM O)1HI1 aBTOpbI B Toii I1JII111Hoii Mepe apr)'MeHTI1pYIOT C06CTBeHHYIO rr0311I.{111O, )1pyI'l1e rrpOCTO BOCrrpl1HI1MalOT paHee 3aHBJIeHHble TOQKI1 3peHI1H 6e3 JIJoIII.!HI1X )10BO- )10B JoI KOMMeHTapJoleB. OQeBI1)1HO, QTO TaKDe MHoro06pa3Jo1e TOQeK 3peHJoIH Ha oJ1HY 11 TY me rrpo6JIeMY I1MeeT C8OI1 rrpI1QJolHbI. cpe)1H KOTOpbIX J1aJIeKO He rro- CJIe)1Hee MeCTO 3aHJoiMaeT HOBI13Ha JoICCJIe,!\)'eMoro rrpa8OBoro HBJIeHI1H. B rrpOI.{eCce pa3BHTI1H M)'HHUlmaJIbHO-rrpaBOBOH Ha)'KH H rrpO)1BJoImeHI1H B rr03HaHHI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 )10JlmHOCTHbIX JIHI.{ CTHoro caMoyrr- paBJIeHHH HeKOTopbIe aBTopbI rrepeCMOTpeJII1 CBOI1 B3rJJH,!(bI . B 3TOM HeT HI1- Qero Y)1Jo1Bl1TeJIbHOrO, rrOCKOJIbKY rrpOI.{eCC rr03HaHI1H HOBOro HBJIeHHH rrpe)1rro-  JIaraeT BOCXOm)1eHHe OT 3l1'ITUlpHQeCKOrO BOCrrpl1HTI1H K TeopeTH'IeCKOMY, OT 0\ 
n03HaHI1H <pOpMbl HBJleHJ.lH K n03HaHI11O CYIl{HOCTI1 360 . IIo:ITOMY TaKOe nepeoc- MbICJleHl1e MOmeT paCCMaTpl1BaTbCH KaK npOHBJleHl1e 06"beKTJ1BHOrO npouecca n03HaHI1H 11 CBI1)1eTeJlbCTBO 06 onpe)1eJleHHblX ycnexax J.I npO)1BmKeHI1I1 Bne- pe)1 B TeopeTl1qeCKOM OCMbICJleHl111 HOBOro )1J1H poCCI1HCKOH npaBoBoi"t )1eHCT- Bl1TeJlbHOCTI1 HBJleHI1H. B TO me BpeMH BOnpoc no CYTI1 CBOeH OCTaeTCH OTKpbI- TbIM, Tpe6YlOIl{I1M )1aJlbHeMWero OCMbICJleHJ.lH. BCHKl1e nOnblTKI1 ero peWI1Tb, I1rHopJ.lpYH yme I1MelOll{J.lMCH onblT, e)1Ba JlI1 6Y)1YT 3cp<peKTI1BHbIMJ.I. KpOMe Toro, 6Y)1eT Hepal.\I10HaJlbHO nbITaTbCH C «qI1CTOro JlI1CTa» I1CKaTb OTBeT Ha BO- npoc, no KOTOPOMY cyIl{eCTByeT TaKoe MHoroo6pa311e B3fJ1H)10B. IIo:IToM)' BnOJlHe JlOfl1qHO n0)1p06Hee paccMOTpeTb nepeql1CJleHHble aBTOpCKl1e n0311- UI1I1 no )1aHHoMY Bonpocy, a fJlaBHOe - ol.\eHI1Tb apr)'MeHTbI, KOTopble aBTopbI I1cnoJlb3YlOT )1J1H 060CHOBaHI1H C06CTBeHHOM TOqKI1 3peHI1H. J1TaK, COrJlaCHO O)1HOM 113 npl1Be)1eHHbIX TOQeK 3peHI1H O1'BeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 )10JlmHOCTHbIX JlI1U MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe)1 MeCTHbIM HaCeJleHl1eM HBJlHeTCH KOHCTJ.lTYUI10HHO-npaBOBOM. B.B. Ta60AU"/i CQI1TaeT ee TaKOBoi\ nOCKOJlbKY peQb H)1eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB, KOTOpbIM MeCTHoe c0061l{eCTBO )1eJlerl1pOBaJlO CBOI1 nOJlHOMOQI1H )1J1H peWeHI1H Bonpo- COB MeCTHoro 3HaQeHI1H 361 . «B CYIl{HOCTI1, - nJ.lWeT OH, - :ITO nOJlI1TI1KO- IOpl1)1I1QeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe)1 HaCeJleHJ1eM - OCHOBHbIM cy6"beKTOM BJlaCTHblX O1'HOWeHI1M Ha Teppl1TOpl111 MYHI1Ul1naJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H. II03TOMY CaHKl.\l111 npl1 peaJlI13aUI1I1I1HCTI1- TYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe)1 HaCeJleHl1eM HOCHT B OCHOBHOM KOHCTI1TYl.\J.I- OHHo-npaBOBOM xapaKTep. HarJlH)1HbIM npl1MepOM CJI)':!KI1T HopMa CTaTbl148 e)1epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa ,,06 061l{I1x npl1HUl1naX OpraHI13aUl111 MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHI1H B POCCI1MCKOfl e)1epal.\l1l1», B COOTBeTCTBl111 C KOTOpOM 01'- BeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 )10JlmHOCTHbIX Jll1l.\ nepe)1 HaCeJleHJ.leM HacTynaeT B pe3YJlbTaTe YTpaTbl )10Bep11H HaCeJleHI1H. 3TO QI1CTO KOHCTI1'!Yl.\I10HHaH 362 CI1Ty a U I1H » H.M. KO.ll{)coaa npl1)1epmJ.lBaeTCH Toro me MHeHI1H B CBH311 C TeM, QTO HOpMaTI1BHblM OCHOBaHl1eM HacTynJleHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 )1OJlm- HOCTHbIX JlI1U MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H HBJlHeTCH HapyweHl1e CT. 48 e)1e- paJlbHoro 3aKOHa OT 28 aBrycTa 1995 r. aKTI1QeCKI1M OCHOBaHl1eM )1J1H 3Toro HBJlHeTCH YTpaTa )10BepI1H, QTO HOCI1T HenpaBoBoM xapaKTep. C ee TOQKI1 3peHI1H, 3TO JlI1WHI1M pa3 CBI1)1eTeJlbcTByeT 0 HaJlI1Ql111 KOHCTI1TYl.\I10HHOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1, T:K KaK 30CHOBaHI1H )10BOJlbHO QaCTO I1MelOT MOpaJlbHbIM 11J111 nOJlI1TI1QeCKl111 oKpac A.A. Yaapoa, CQI1TaeT, QTO OTpaCJleBaH npI1Ha)1J1emHOCTb IOpl1)1I1QeCKOI1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe)1 HaCeJleHl1eM onpe)1eJlHeTCH TeM, QTO CBH3aHHble C HeM O1'HOWeHI1H perYJll1pYIOTCH HopMa- MI1 KOHCTIITYUl10HHOro npaBa. nocKoJlbKY TOJlbKO B 3TOH OTpaCJlI1 npaBa B03- MomHO HacTynJleHl1e oTBeTcTBeHHOCTI16e3 npaBoHapyweHI1H. Ell{e O)1I1H ero aprYMeHT COCTOI1T B TOM, QTO )1aHHbIM BI1)1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 yme I1MeeT B 3TOM OTpaCJlI1 npaBa CBOI1 aHaJlOfl1l1 (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb IIpaBI1TeJlbcTBa P B  pe3YJlbTaTe BblpameHI1H eMY He)10Bep11H CO CTOpOHbI rOCY)1apCTBeHHoH JJ.y- 0\ Mbl (CT. 117 KOHCTI1TYl.\l1l1). E)1I1HCTBeHHbIM nOCJle)1CTBl1eM B TaKI1X cJlYQaHX 
MOmeT 6blTb npeKpaeHJ.le nOJlHOMOqJ.lii COOTBeTCTBYIOero OpraHa J.lJlJ.I 364 )1OJ1mHOcTHoro JlI1l.\a A.P. EpeJltu'/{ CBH3bIBaeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe)1 HaCeJleHJ.leM C KOHCTJ.I- TYl.\110HHO-npaBOBOH Ha TOM OCHOBaHI1J.1 qTO «MeCTHOe caMoynpaBJleHJ.le npe)1CTaBJIHeT c060ii l.\eJlOCTHYIO 11 CJ.lCTeMHYIO KOHl.\enl.\J.l1O ny6J1l1qHOii BJla- CTJ.I B POCCJ.lI1»365 ABTOpbl yqe6HI1Ka no MYHl1ul1naJlbHOMY npaBY nO)1 pe)1aKUl1eH H.C. SO'/{- iJupJl. YCMaTpl1BalOT B OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe)1 MeCTHblM HaCeJleHl1eM cnel.\J.I- <pl1qecKl1ii BI1)1 KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 366 . HeKoTopble I1X KOJl- Jlerl1 C'II1TaIOT, qTO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 )10JlmHOCTHbIX JlJ.ll.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe)1 MeCTHblM HaCeJleHl1eM 6 3'/{u 1 LUmeJl'b,/{Ou .Mepe HBJlH- eTCH KOHCHITYl.\110HHo-npaBOBoH. nOCKOJIbKY peqb l1!1eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 )10JlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\, KOTOpblM MeCTHoe co06ecTBo i.ferl1pOBaJlO CBOI1 nOJlHOMOQI1H )1J1H peWeHI1H BonpOCOB MecTHoro 3Ha QeHI1H . He COBceM nOHHTHO, nOQeMY I1CnOJlb3yeTcH oroBopKa B «3HaQI1TeJlbHoH Mepe». BI1)1I1MO, 3Ta OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B 3HaQl1TeJlbHoH Mepe HBJlHeTCH KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHO- npaBoBoHI1 B MeHbweH (HO )1pyroH) Mepe KaKoH-JlI160 ee. J13BecTHo, QTO HaY'IHaH KJlaCCI1<pI1Kal.\I1H npe)1nOJIaraeT QeTKOe pa3rpaHI1QeHI1e HBJleHI1H Ha BI1)1bl, Tl1nbl, cpOpMbl 11 T.n. II03ToMY BPH)1 JlI1 MomHO cor JlaCI1TbCH C Te311COM o TOM, QTO, Hanpl1Mep, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BI1HOBHOro B COBepWeHJ111 npecTyn- JleHI1H HBJlHeTCH B «3HaQI1TeJlbHoH Mepe» yrOJlOBHo-npaBoBoH. CJle)10Ba- TeJlbHO, npl1 onpe)1eJleHI1I1 BI1)10BOM npI1Ha)1J1emHOCTI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 ne- pe)1 HaCeJleHJ.leM, Ha Haw B3fJ1H)1, HymHa nOJIHaH onpe)1eJleHHOCTb. KpOMe TOro, TPY)1HO COfJIaCI1TbCH C l1)1eeH )1p06J1eHI1H OTpaCJleBblX BI1)10B IOpl1)1I1'le- CKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha nO)1BI1)1bl - Bbl)1eJleHJ.le «cnel.\l1cpI1QeCKoro» BI1)1a KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, TeM 60J1ee QTO HeHCHO, no KaKOMY OC- HOBaHl11O np0I13B0)1I1TCH TaKoe )1eJleHl1e. ECJlI1 0606I1Tb )10B0)1bl Ha3BaHHblX Bblwe aBTopOB, TO MomHO KOHCTaTI1- pOBaTb, QTO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe)1 HaCeJleHl1eM HBJlHeTCH KOHCTI1TYUI1OH- Ho-npaBOBOM,nOCKOJIbKY: - peQb J.I)1eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I MYHJ.ll.\J.lnaJlbHblx opraHoB BJiaCTl1, KO- TOpblM MeCTHoe co06ecTBo )1eJlempOBaJlO CBOJ.l nOJIHOMOQI1H )1J1H peWeHJ.lH BonpocoB MecTHoro 3HaQeHI1H; - B CYll\HOCTI1, 3TO nOJlI1TI1KO-lOpl1)1J.1QeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ.lH nepe)1 OCHOBHblM cy6'beKTOM BJiaCTHblX OTHowe- HJ.lH Ha TeppJ.lTOpJ.lJ.l MYHJ.ll.\J.lnaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHJ.lH; - CaHKl.\J.IJ.I npJ.l peaJlJ.l3al.\J.IJ.I J.lHcTJ.lTYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe)1 HaCeJle- Hl1eM HOCHT KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHo-npaBoBoM xapaKTep; - OCHOBaHl1eM HBJlHeTCH YTpaTa )10BepJ.lH HaCeJleHI1H, a 3TO OCHOBaHl1e HOCI1T HenpaBoBoM xapaKTep J.I n03BOJIHeT KBaJlJ.l<pJ.ll.\l1pOBaTb )1aHHyro CJ.lTY- al.\J.lJO KaK QI1CTO KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHYJO, TaK KaK ee OCHOBaHJ.lH )10BOJlbHO QaCTO J.lMeIOT MopaJlbHYJO 11J111 nOJlI1TI1QecKYIO oKpacKY; - CBH3aHHble C HeM OTHOWeHJ.lH peryJlJ.lpYIOTCH HOpMaMJ.I KOHCTJ.lTYUJ.lOH- HOro npaBa. nOCKOJlbKY TOJlbKO B 3TOM OTpaCJlJ.I npaBa B03MomHO HaCTynJle- It'\ Hl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 6e3 npaBoHapyweHI1H; 0\ 
- ,!\aHHbIM BI1,!\ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HMeeT B OTpaCJII1 KOHCTHTYUI10HHOe npa- BO npaBa CBOI1 aHaJIOrI1I1. HeTPY,!\HO 3aMeTI1Tb, qTO 3TI1 apr)'MeHTbl ,!\OBOJIbHO CJIa6ble, nOCKOJIbKY npaKTI1qeCKI1 Kam,!\bIH 113 ,!\OBO,!\OB, npl1Be,!\eHHblH aBTOpaMI1 B nOMepmKY ,!\aHHOM TOqKI1 3peHI1H, Hym.l\aeTCH B .l\OnOJIHI1TeJIbHOii aprYMeHTal.\l1l1. B03- MomHO n03TOMY B MYHl1l.\l1naJIbHO-npaBOBOM JII1TepaType Bce 60JIbllIe CTO- pOHHHKOB npl106peTaeT ,!\pyraH TOqKa 3peHI1H. TaK, HeKOTOpble aBTOpbl Cql1- TalOT, qTO e,!\epaJIbHbIM 3aKOH OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r. BBeJi cnel.\I1<pHQeCKI1M BI1,!\ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 - OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,!\ HaCeJIeHI1eM MYHHI.\I1naJIb- HOro 06pa30BaHHH. Cnel.\l1<pHKa COCTOHT B TOM, QTO OHa He MomeT 6bITb OTHe- ceHa HH K O,!\HOMY 113 CYIl.\eCTBYIOII.\HX BH,!\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, B TOM QI1CJIe 11 KOHCTI1TyI.\I10HHO-npaBOBOi1. TaKoro p0.l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He 06H3aTeJIb- HO HacTynaeT B pe3YJIbTaTe HenpaBOMepHbIX '!\ei1cTBHM opraHa MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHHH, 11 HMeHHO 3TO OTJII1QaeT ee OT HHbIX BI1Z!OB IOpHIIHQeCKOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 36B . «OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 IIOJImHOCTHbIX JIHI.\ MeCTHO- ra caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepeIl HaCeJIeHI1eM, - nI1llIeT E.B. M3.f1IUWtoeu, - HBJIH- eTCH OC06blM BH,!\OM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, nOCKOJIbKY B HeM B l.\eJIOM OTpamaIOT- CH HaH60JIee CYIl.\eCTBeHHble aCneKTbl npaBOBOM npl1pOIlbI MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHI1H. IIpl1HI.\I1n OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 IIOJImHOCTHbIX JII11.\ MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHHH npI13BaH 06eCneQl1Tb 3cp<peKTHBHOCTb pellIeHI1H Me- CTHbIX 3a.l\aQ, OTHeceHHblX K BeIleHI1IO MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, a TaKme YQeT H 3aIl.\HTY I1HTepeCOB MecTHoro HaCeJIeHI1H. I'IcnOJIb30BaHI1e ,!\aHHoro npI1Hl.\lma npe,!\nOJIaraeT I1CnOJIb30BaHHe HaCeJIeHl1eM MYHl1l.\l1naJIbHoro 06- pa30BaHI1H pa3JII1QHbIX <pOpM KOHTpOJIH 3a IIeHTeJIbHOCTbIO opraHOB 11 IIOJIm- HOCTHblX JIHI.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, KOToEb1e HaXOIlHT CBoe 3aKpenJIe- HHe B YCTaBe MYHHI.\I1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHH,,3 9. TaKoi1 B3rJIH,!\ Ha OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 .l\OJImHOCTHbIX JII11.\ MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepeIl HaCeJIeHHeM JIer B OCHOBY l1.I\eI1 06 «aBTOHOMHOM cTaTyce», BI1I10BOM 060c06JIeHHH «MYHI1UHnaJIbHO-npaBoBoM» OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 11 BBe,!\eHI1I1 3TOH KaTeropl1I1 B nOHHTHMHO-KaTeropI1aJIbHbIH annapaT MYHHl.\l1naJIbHO-npaBoBoM HaYKl1, TeOpI1H IOpl1I1HQeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 06I1.\eH TeopHH npaBa 370. 3Ta HIIeH 6blJIa nOIlIlepmaHa MHornMH aBTopaMH. Hanpl1Mep, B.M. Su6U'L€e OTMeTI1JI: «B MYHl1l.\HnaJIbHOM npaBe nOHBJIHIOTCH IIBa HOBbIX BI1.1\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, HeI13BeCTHbIX B IIpyrnx npaBOBbIX OTpac- JIHX: KOHCTHTYUHOHHo-npaBOBaH H MYHHI.\I1naJIbHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb... MYHI1I.\HnaJIbHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb op- raHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H H .l\OJImHOCTHbIX JII11.\ nepe,!\ HaCeJIeHI1eM MYHl1l.\l1naJIbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H, HacTynaIOII.\aH B pe3YJIbTaTe YTpaTbI ,!\OBe- pI1H HaCeJIeHHH, YCTaHOBJIeHa CT. 48 eIlepaJIbHOrO 3aKOHa ,,06 06I1.\HX npI1HI.\HnaX OpraHI13al.\HI1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H B POCCI1MCKOH e,!\e- paI.\I1H,,37'. «OTJII1QHTeJIbHOii QepToii MYHI1I.\I1naJIbHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, - CQI1TaeT E.B. M3.f1IUWtoeu, - HBJIHeTCH BeCbMa 06I1.\HM xapaKTep oCHOBaHI1M ee HacTynJIeHI1H. B ,!\aHHOM CJIYQae OCHOBaHHe MomHO onpe,!\eJIHTb KaK ,!\eH- \0 HHe, KOTOpoe npHQI1HHJIO I1JII1 MOrJIO npI1QHHI1Tb cYIl.\ecTBeHHbIM yIl.\ep6 Ha- 0\ CeJIeHI1IO MYHI1I.\I1naJIbHOra 06pa30BaHI1H He3aBI1CI1MO OT TOro, npOHCXO.l\HT 
npl1 :nOM HapYllIeHl1e npaBOBOM HOpMbI I1JII1 HeT,,372. E.C.llIyzpU1w onpe)1e- JIHeT Mj'HI1I.{l1naJIbHO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HeHa)1JIemall.\ee OCYIl\eCTBJIeHl1e MYHI1Ul1naJIbHOM BJiaCTI1 (B <pOpMaX npe)1- CTaBI1TeJIbHoi111 HenOCpe)1CTBeHHoi1 )1eMOKpaTI1I1)373. TIo ee MHeHI1IO, oc06eH- HOCTI1 Mj'HI'!UlmaJIbHO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 COOTBeTCTBeHHO ee 060- C06JIeHI1e KaK caMOCTOHTeJIbHOrO BI1)1a IOpl1)1I1'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 06"b- HCHHIOTCH npe)1MeTOM 11 MeT0)10M perYJIl1pOBaHI1H 06Il\ecTBeHHblx OTHOllle- HI1M; <PYHKUI1HMI1, KOTOpb!e BbInOJlHHeT OTpaCJIb npaBa B oOIl\eii CI1CTeMe npaBa, CneI.{l1cpl1KOM cTaTyca cymeKToB npaBooTHOllleHl1ii; oc06eHHocTHMI1 IOpl1)1I1'1eCKOM npHpO)1b1 HenpaBoMepHoro nOBe)1eHJ.lH B COOTBeTCTBYIOIl\eM c<pepe; OC060M np0I.{e)1ypoi1 ee peaJII13aI.{1111 374 . TIpo6JIeMa 06oco6JIeHI1H MYHI1I.{lmaJIbHO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B CI1- CTeMe OTpaCJIeBblX BI1)10B COCTOI1T rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M B 060cHoBaHI111 06"beK- TI1BHOi1 B03MmKHOCTI1 ee pa3rpaHI1'IeHHH C KOHCTI1TYUHoHHo-npaBoBoi1 OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTblO. CTOpoHHI1KI1 MYHJ.lI.{l1naJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH I1CXO- )1HT B CBOI1X paccym.l\eHI1HX 0 ee cYIl\eCTBOBaHI111113 Toro, 'ITO Mj'HI1UInaJIbHOe npaBo 06JIa)1aeT BCeMI1 npI13HaKaMI'! caMOCTOHTeJIbHOM OTpaCJII1 npaBa, xapaK- Tepl13YeTCH oc06blMI1 OTpaCJIeBb!MI1 npaBoOTHOllleHI1HMl1, MeTO)1aMI1 npaBoBO- ro perYJIl1poBaHI1H, MYHI1I.{l1naJIbHbIMI1 HOpMaMI1 J.I, KaK CJIe)1CTBl1e, He MomeT 06X0)1I1TbCH 6e3 c06CTBeHHOM OTpaCJIeBOM MYHI1I.{l1naJIbHO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1. TIoCJIe)1HHH, HBJIHHCb HeOT"beMJIeMbIM aTpI16)'TOM OTpaCJII1 MYHI1I.{I1- naJIbHoro npaBa, OT JII1'1aeTCH OT I1HblX BI1.1\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 cneI.{I1<pI1'1eC- KI1MI1 OCHOBaHI1HMI1 (MYHI1I.{l1naJIbHbIMJ.I npaBoHapyrneHI1HMI1), npoI.{e.I\YpaMI1 peaJIl13aUJ.l1111 CBH3aHHOCTbIO C YCTaBaMI1 Mj'HI1I.{l1naJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1M, 'ITO n03BOJIHeT paCCMaTpl1BaTb ee KaK npl1CYIl\Y1O !(am.l\OMY OT)1eJIbHO B3HTOMY MYHI1I.{l1naJIbHOMY 06pa30BaHI11O YCTaBHYIO Mj'HI1I.{l1naJIbHyJO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb, peaJII13yeMYlO nepe)1 MeCTHblM HaCeJIeHl1eM B COOTBeTCTBl111 C OCHOBa- 375 HI1HMJ.I, YCJIOBI1HMI1 11 nOpH)1KOM, 3aKpenJIeHHblMI1 B TOM I1JII1 I1HOM YCTaBe . E.C. llIyzpuua pa3rpaHI1'1I1BaeT KOHCTI1ryUJ.loHHo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb 11 M)'H11I.{l1naJIbHo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 )10JImHOCTHbIX JII1I.{ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H Ha TOM OCHOBaHI1I1, 'ITO nepBaH HacTynaeT ne- pe)1 rOCY.l\apCTBOM, BTopaH - nepe)1 HaCeJIeHHeM Mj'HHUHnaJIbHOrO 06pa30Ba- HI1H. «CJIe)1yeT OTMeTI1Tb, - mlllleT aBTOp, - 'ITO no 3TOMY npl13HaKY np0I13BO- )1CH pa3rpaHI1'1eHl1e3HI1Ul1naJIbH-npaBOBOM 11 KOHCTI1TYI.{110HHO-npaBO- BOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTi1>' . TI03TOMY el1 npe)1CTaBJIHeTCH KoppeKTHblM OTHece- Hl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 )10JImHOCTHbIX JII1U MeCTHoro caMoyaBJIe- HI1H nepe)1 HaCeJIeHl1eM K MYHI1I.{l1naJIbHO-npaBOBOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 . J!:aHHblii nO)1XO)1, HeCMOTpH Ha onpe)1eJIeHHYIO nonYJIHpHOCTb, nO)1Bepra- eTCH 11 )10CTaTO'lHO pe3Koi1 KpI1TI1Ke. TaK, C.fJ.. ffuJ!3ee C'II1TaeT BbI)1eJIeHl1e MYHI1UlmaJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 «I1CKyccTBeHHblM>,37B. OH ynpe- KaeT ee CTOpOHHI1KOB B TOM, 'ITO Bce cBOe06pa3J.1e MYHI1Ul1naJIbHo-npaBOBoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OHI1 CBO)1HT, no CYIl\eCTBY, I1CKJIIO'II1TeJIbHO K OT3bIBY .l\eny- TaTOB 11 Bbl60pHbIX )1OJ1mHOCTHbIX JII1I.{ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH 379 {XOTH B IOpl1)1I1'1eCKoi1 JIHTepaType 3aMeTHO CTpeMJIeHl1e K TOMY, 'IT06b1 paCllIl1pHTb  nepe'leHb Mj'HI1I.{l1naJIbHo-npaBoBbIX CaHKI.{Hi1 3a C'IeT OTHeCeHI1H K HI1M Bbl- 0\ 
HeCeHJ.lH npe.l\ynpem,l\eHl1ii, 3aCJlYUIJ1BaHI1H OTqeTOB 11 T.n. aso ). «BPH.l\ JlI1, - nl1IlIeT C.Il.. ff1iJ!3ee, - npl1 TaKOM CKY,l\HOM, K TOMY me B 3Haql1TeJlbHoi1 Mepe npeI1MeCTBeHHO n-mOTeTl1qeCKOM apCeHaJle «co6CTBeHHbIX» Mep npl1Hym- .l\eHI1H, eCTb BeCKJ.le OCHOBaHI1H HaCTal1BaTb Ha cpOpMl1pOBaH1111 B CTpYKType MYHI1/.!I-maJlbHo-npaBoBoro peml1Ma caMOCTOHTeJlbHoro BI1,l\a IOpl1.l\l1qeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1» 3B'. ITo ero MHeHI1IO, aHaJll13 .l\ei1cTBYIOll.\ero 3aKOHO.l\aTeJlb- CTBa 11 npaBOnpl1MeHI1TeJlbHoi1 npaKTI1KI1 TaKme He ,l\aeT nOBO.l\OB YTBepm- .l\aTh 0 Heo6xo.l\I1MOCTI1 Bbl,l\eJleHI1H M)'HI1/.!l1naJlbHO-npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1. Bo-nepBbIX, HI1 O,l\I1H J.l3 .l\eiicTBYIOll.\I1X HOpMaTI1BHblX npaBOBblX aKTOB 0 MeCTHOM caMoynpaBJleHl111 He CO.l\epml1T ynOMI1HaHI1H 0 MYHJ.I/.!l1naJlbHo-npa- BOBoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B OTJlI1Ql1e OT yroJloBHoi.i, a,l\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOH, ,l\I1C- /.!l1nJlI1HapHoi1. MaTepl1aJlbHOM 11 rpamJ!aHCKo-npaBOBOi1. BO-BTOPbIX, HI1 OC- HOBaHI1H, HI1 npo/.!e.nypa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .l\OJImHOCTHbIX JlI1/.! Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepe,l\ HaCeJleHl1eM npl1Hl.(I1nl1aJIbHO He OT JlI1QalOTCH OT OCHOBaHI1MI1 npo/.!e,l\ypbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbHbIX (npe,l\CTa- BI1TeJlbHbIX) opraHOB rOCY,l\apCTBeHHoii BJiaCTI111 BbICllIl1X ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JlI1/.! (PYKOBO,l\I1TeJIeM BbICIlII1X opraHOB I1CnOJlHI1TeJlbHOH BJiaCTI1) cy6"beKTOB p, BCJIe.l\CTBl1e Qero nOCTaHOBKa BOnpoca 0 He06xo.l\I1MOCTI1 ,l\11<p<pepeH/.!l1a/.!1111 MYHJ.I/.!lmaJIbHO-npaBOBoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB H ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JlI1/.! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH 11 KOHCTI1TY/.!110HHO-npaBoBoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JlI1/.! roCY,l\apCTBeHHOM BJiaCTI1 npe,l\CTaBJIHeTCH Ha- ,l\YMaHHOM. B-TpeTbI1X, paCCMaTpl1BaeMble CTOpOHHI1KaMI1 M)'HI1/.!l1naJlbHO- npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B KaQecTBe ee cne/.!l1cpl1QeCKI1X caHK/.!I1M OT3blB ,l\enyraTa npe.l\CTaBI1TeJlbHoro opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H I1JII1 Bbl- 60pHoro ,l\OJlmHOcTHoro .n11/.!a MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, pocnYCK npe,l\CTa- BI1TeJlbHOrO opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H, a TalOKe OTpeIlleHl1e OT .l\OJlmHOCTJ.I rJIaBbl M)'HJ.I/.!J.lnaJlbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H (rJlaBbl a,l\MI1HI1CTpa/.!J.lJ.I) xapaKTepHbl He TOJIbKO ,l\JIH MYHJ.ll.(I1naJlbHO-npaBoBoro perYJlHpOBaHHH. OHJ.I npl1MeHHIOTCH J.I B OTHOIlleHI1J.1 aHaJlOmQHblX cy6"beKTOB ny6J11-1QHOM BJiaCTI1 Ha perJ.lOHaJlbHOM ypoBHe. B-QeTBeprbIX, TaKl1e Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, KaK paC<PoPMl1pOBaHJ.le 1136J.1paTeJlbHoi1: KOMI1CCJ.l11 MYHI1/.!J.lnaJlbHoro 06pa30Ba- HJ.lH J.I ,l\OCpOQHOe npeKpall.\eHJ.le nOJIHOMOQJ.lM ee QJIeHOB C npaBOM peIllaJOll.\e- ro rOJlOca, Tome He MoryT 6bITb )'BH3aHbl TOJIbKO C MYHJ.I/.!J.lnaJIbHbIM npa-   BOM , TaK KaK 3aKpenJIeHbI B 3aKOHO,l\aTeJlbCTBe 0 BbIoopax I1I1MelOT )'H11- BepCaJlbHbIM CTaTYC ,l\JIH BceM CI1CTeMbl113611paTeJIbHblX KOMI1CCI1i"1 3B3 . CTOpOHHI1KI1 aHaJlOrJlQHblX B3fJIH,l\OB nO,l\QepKI1BaJOT, '!TO npl1 aHaJII13e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHOB 11 .l\OJI)KHOCTHbIX JII1/.! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ.lH YCI1J1I1H JOpl1,l\J.lQeCKOM HaYKI1 ,l\OJlmHbl 6blTb cocpe,l\<YrOQeHbl He CTOJIbKO Ha ,l\OKa3bIBaHI1I1 J.I.l\el1 o6oc06JIeHI1H MYHI1/.!1-maJlbHo-npaBoBoM <YrBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1, CKOJIbKO Ha 113YQeHJ.l11 nOTpe6HocTeM J.I npe,l\eJlOB I1CnOJlb30BaHJ.lH B COOT- BeTcTBYIOll.\I1X /.!eJlHX OXpaHI1TeJlbHOrO nOTeH/.!J.laJia pa3JII1QHbIX BI1.l\OB IOpJ.l- ,l\I1QeCKOM <YrBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 J.lI1X aJ!eKBaTHoro 3aKOHO,l\aTeJlbHOrO ocpopMJIe- HJ.lH npI1MeHJ.lTeJlbHO K Hym,l\aM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH. Be,l\b 6e3 Ha,l\Jle- CO mall.\ei1: npaBoBoi1: perJIaMeHTa/.!J.IJ.I BonpocoB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I opraHoB J.I 0\ .l\OJImHOCTHbIX JlI1/.! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ.lH ny6JIJ.lQHO-npaBoBOi"1 cTaTYc 
MYHI1Ul1naJlbHblX 06pa30BaHI1M Jll1ll1eH 3aBepllleHHOCTJ.l aS4 , 'ITO, B CBOIO o'le- pe.l\b, aKTyaJll1311pyeT nOTpe6HOCTb COBepllleHCTBOBaHI1H MeXaHI13Ma IOp11- .l\11'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 cy6"beKTOB MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHOM BJlaCTl1, 11 npem.l\e BCerO nepe.l\ HaCeJleHl1eM 3B5 . TIO.l\.l\epml1BaTb 11J111 OCnapl1BaTb TY 11J1I1I1HYIO TO'lKY 3peHI1H .l\OCTaTO'lHO 3aTpY.l\HI1TeJlbHO. Bo-neplThtx, aprYMeHTbl B nOJIb3Y Kam.l\oi''r 113 HI1X npe.l\CTaBJIHIOTCH .lIOCTa- TO'lHO CJIa6bIMI1, npem.l\e Bcero nOTOMY, 'ITO OnnOHeHTbl 'IepnalOT I1X B .l\eMCTBY- IOllieM 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIbCTBe, npeB03HOCH cpOpMaJIbHble MOMeHTbl, 11 He nbITalOTCH npOHI1KHYTb B CYIl\HOCTb I1CCJIe.l\YeMoro HBJIeHI1fl. TaK, HanpHMep, OTHeceHHe OCHOBaHI1M 11 nOpH.l\Ka peaJIl13al.\1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe.l\ Hace.neHl1eM K npe.l\MeTY peryJll1pOBaHHH YCTaBOB MYHHl.\HnaJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1i''r He MomeT CJlyml1Tb BeCKI1M .l\OKa3aTeJIbCTBOM peaJIbHOCTI1 oco60ro Bl1.l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1, KOTOpylO aBTopbl Ha3bIBalOT MytiI1Ul1naJIbHO-npaBOBOM. PaBHO KaK 11 TOT <paKT, 'ITO HI1 O.l\I1H 113 .l\eMCTBYlOll\I1X HOpMaTI1BHblX npaBOBblX aKTOB 0 MeCTHOM caMoynpaBJIeHl111 He CO.l\epml1T ynoMI1HaHI1H 0 MyHI1UHnaJIbHO-npaBOBOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 caM no ce6e He MomeT 6blTb .l\OCTaTO'lHbIM aprYMeHTOM .l\JIH OTpl1l.\aHI1H B03MOmHOCTI1 CYll\eCTBOBaHI1H MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1, nOCKOJIbKY KOHCTI1ryI.\110HHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, no.rry'lJ.lB- llIaH npaKTI1'1eCKI1 Bce06ll\ee npl13HaHl1e, TalOKe Hel13BeCTIIa .l\ei'"lcTBYlOll\eMY 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIbCTBY. OTCYTCTBl1e HOpMaTI1BHO-npaBoBoro 3aKpenJleHI1H KOH- CTI1TYl.\110HHOM (KOHCTI1T}'l\110HHO-npaBOBOM) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 KOMneHCl1pyeT- CH o<pJ.lUHaJIbHoi'"1 JIeraJlI13aUHeM KOHCTJ.lryI.\HOHHbIM CY.l\OM PCP, HeO.l\HOKfaTHO npl13HaBaBIlII1M HaJlI1'1l1e ee Mep B pa3JII1'1HbIX <pe.l\epaJlbHbIX 3aKOHax 3B . B TO me BpeMH OT.l\eJIbHble CY.l\bl1 KoHCTI1TYl.\110HHOro CY.l\a PcP I1CnOJIb3YIOT .l\JIH xapaKTepl1CTI1KJ1 CaHKlII1M, npl1MeHHeMbIX K opraHaM 11 .l\OJImHOCTHbiM JlI1l.\aM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. nOHHTl1e «Myti l1 l.\l1naJIbHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» 3B7. Bo-amopblX, HeCMOTpH Ha .l\JII1TeJIbHblM nepl10.l\ CTaHOBJIeHI1H KOHl.\enl.\1111 KOHCTI1TYUI10HHo-npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B OTe'leCTBeHHOM npaBOBOM HaYKe, .l\O HaCTOHll\erO BpeMeHI1 He CJlO)KJ1JIOCb 'IeTKJ1X, 061l\enpl13HaHHbiX npe.l\CTaBJIeHI1M HI1 no O.l\HOMY 113 KJlIO'IeBbIX BOnpOCOB TeOp1111 KOHCTI1TYUI1- OHHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3BB . TaK, HeT onpe.l\eJIeHHOCTI1 B Bonpocax 0 nOHH- TI.!J1, CYIl\HOCTI1 :3TOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, ee npe.l\MeTe 11 npe.l\eJIax, ueJIHX, npl1HUlmaX 11 Mepax OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, COCTaBe cy6"beKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOC- T11 3S9 . Te me caMble BonpOCbl Tpe6ylOT OTBeTa 11 pa3pellleHI1H B OTHOllleHl111 MYHI1l.\l1naJIbHO-npaBoBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, eCJII1 HaCTal1Ba Tb Ha ee peaJIb- HOCTI1 11 06"beKTI1BHOM He06xo.l\I1MOCTI1 06oc06J1eHJ.lH .l\aHHoro Bl1.l\a OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 B CI1CTeMe IOpl1.l\I1'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B pa3pa6OTKe np06JIeMaTI1KI1 KOHCTI1TYUl10HHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 c<pop- Ml1pOBaJII1Cb .l\Ba OCHOBHblX nO.l\XO.l\a (HanpaBJIeHI1H). TIepBblH - «Y3KJ1i1» - no.l\XO.l\ COCTOI1T B TOM, 'ITO ero CTOpOHHI1KI1 paCCMaTpl1BalOT KOHCTI1TYl.\110H- HYIO O:BeTCTBeHHOCTb C TO'lKI1 3peHI1H Tpa.l\l1UI10HHOro nOHI1MaHI1H IOPI1 'IeCKOJ.l OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I - KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a npaBOHapYllleHl1e Bbl.l\eJIHH cneUl1cpl1KY KOHCTI1TYUI10HHOro npaBOHapYllleHI1H - KOHCTI1TYUI1- 0\ OHHoro .l\eJII1KTa, KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHbIX CaHKl.\I1M, npOue.l\ypbl peaJII13aUI1I1 OT- 0\ 
BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 T.n., CTOpOHHHKI1 :noro no.nxo.na CTporo BbI.nepml1BalOT rJlaBHbIM MeTO.nOJlOrl1qeCKI1M nOCbIJI: KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B03HHKaeT H3 npaBoHapyweHHH, nYCTb .name C yceqeHHbIM COCTaBOM (.no Ha- CTOHll.\erO BpeMeHI1 He peweH Bonpoc 0 BI1He B COCTaBe KOHCTI1TYl.\HOHHOro npaBoHapyweHI1H, oc06eHHO Kor.na cy6"beKTOM npaBoHapyweHI1H BblcTynaeT KOJlJlemaJIbHbIM opraH rocy.napCTBeHHOMI1JIH MYHHUHnaJlbHOM BJiaCTI1). BTOpOM - «WHpOKJ1M» - no.nxo.n 3aKJlIOqaeTCH B 060611\eHI1I1 (coe.nI1HeHI1I1) B O.nHO HBJleHl1e (nOHHTl1e) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a npaBOHapyweHl1e 11 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 3a HeHa.nJlemall\ee oCYIl.\eCTBJIeHHe BJiaCTH, He3cpcpeKTJ.lBHOe oCYll\e- CTBJIeHl1e BJiaCTHbIX nOJIHOMOql1i1, He.nOCTJ.lmeHl1e n0311TI1BHbIX pe3YJlbTaTOB 11 T.n. 391 OH COCTOI1T B CTpeMJIeHl111 (nonbITKaX) 06"beJ1l1HI1Tb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npaBOHapyweHl1e 11 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, KOTOPYIO 0.3. JIeucm onpe!!eJIHJI KaK ynpaBJIeHQecKyIO, I1MelOll\YIO npl1po.ny n0311TI1BHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 392 . HecMOTpH Ha npl1HUl1nl1aJlbHOe OTJII1Ql1e 3TI1X !!BYX nO!!Xo.nOB, 06YCJIOB- JII1BalOIl.\ee nOJIeMI1KY no nOBO.ny OCHOBaHI1i1 KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOM OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1, COCTaBa cy6"beKTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 T..n., Bce me MomHO BbI.neJlI1Tb Te cn€1juif>u'Iec'/we '1epmbt, aKl.\eHTl1pYH BHI1MaHl1e Ha KOTOpbIX, npe.nCTaBI1- TeJlI1 060l1x HanpaBJleHI1i1 (no.nxo.noB) onpe.neJlHIOT oc06eHHocTI1 KOHCTI1TY- l.\110HH0i1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 J.I HaCTal1BalOT Ha ee 060co6.neHI1J.1 B CI1CTeMe IOpl1.nI1QeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B Ka QeCTBe caMOCTOHTeJIbHOrO BI1.na. 1. B nepByIO OQepe.nb peQb l1)1eT 0 Cnel.\l1<pI1Ke 0611\eCTBeHHblx oTHOWeHl1i'r, B KOTOpbIX OHa B03HI1KaeT 11 peaJIJj3YeTCH, T.e. 0 nOJII1TI1QeCKI1X OTHOWeHI1HX, B03HI1KalOll\I1X no nOBO.ny OCYIl.\eCTBJIeHI1H rocy.napCTBeHHoi1 BJIaCTI1 11 CO- CTaBJIHIOll\I1X npe.nMeT KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOro npaBa. B 3TOM CMbICJle KOHCTI1TY- l.\110HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 06J1a.naeT HpKO BblpameHHbIM nOJII1TI1QeCKI1M xa- paKTepOM no OCHOBaHI1HM npl1MeHeHI1H, Kpyry cy6ceKToB, BJ.I.naM CaHKl.\I1i1 393 . 2. DeJiblO KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HBJIHeTCH oxaHa 11 3all\I1- Ta KOHCTI1TYUI111 394 11 KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHO-npaBoBbix OTHOWeHl1i'r 95,06ecneQe- Hl1e C06JIIO.neHI1H OCHOBHbIX KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHbIX npl1Hl.\l1nOB, 3all\I1Ta npaB 11 CB06o.n rpam.naH396. Ee I1HCTpYMeHTaJlbHaH pOJIb 3aKJlIO'laeTCH B C03.naHI1I1 3cp<peKTI1BHoro MeXaHI13Ma .nei1cTBI1H npaBa, n03BOJIHIOll\erO rocy.na PCTBY peaJIbHO I1CnOJlHI1Tb CBOI1 BamHei1Wl1e 06H3aHHOCTI1 npl13HaHI1H, C06JIIO.neHI1H 11 3all\I1TbI npaB 11 CB060.n QeJlOBeKa 11 rpam.naHI1Ha, C03.naHI1H YCJlOBI1i1, 06ec- neQI1BalOll\I1X .nOCTOi"IHYIO ml13Hb 11 cB060.nHoe pa3BI1TI1e QeJlOBeKa, T.e. KOH- CTI1TYl.\110HHble 06H3aHHOCTI1, 3aKpenJleHHble B maBe 2 KOHCTI1TYl.\l1l1 pa97, a TaKme B YCTaHOBJIeHl111 CI1CTeMbI peaJlbHbIX rapaHTI1i"I npoTI1B KOHl.\eHTpa- l.\1111 BJiaCTI1 B 0.nHOMI13 ee BeTBei1 JII160 B pYKax O.nHOro Bblcwero .nOJlmHOCT- a9B HOro JlI1l.\a nYTeM YCTaHoBJleHI1H Mep HaKa3aHHH 3, KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHO-npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK rapaHTHH coxpaHe- HHH KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOro CTpOH npe.nCTaBJIHeT c060i1 npem.ne Bcero OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHOB BJiaCTI1 3a HeHa.nJIemall\ee OCYll\eCTBJleHl1e BJlaCTJ.I, B TOM '1I1CJIe 3a COCTOHHHe KOHCTHTYUHOHHOCTI1 H 3aKOHHOCTH B npaBOTBOpQeCKoii: 11 npaBOnpI1MeHJ.lTeJlbHoii: .neHTeJlbHOCTH rocy.napCTBeHHbIX opraHOB, .nOJIm- HOCTHbIX JII1U, 11, CJle.nOBaTeJlbHO, OHa .nOJlmHa 06eCneQl1BaTb BbICOKYIO COl.\H- aJlbHYIO 3<p<peKTHBHOCTb cpYHKl.\110Hl1pOBaHI1H BJiaCTI1 399 . o o -- 
4, B KOHCTMTYl\MOHHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM Ha nepBbIii nJIaH BbIcTynaeT npaBoBoccTaHOBMTeJIbHaH <PYHKl\MH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, CBH3aHHaH C YCTpa- HeHMeM HapyrneHMM 3aKOHa M npMHHTMeM Mep no 06ecne'JeHMIO HOpMaJIbHO- ro <PYHKl\MOHMpOBaHMH rocYAapCTBeHHOrO annapaTa, AeHTeJIbHOCTM AenYTa- TOB, .l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIMl\, ocyeCTBJIeHMIO KOHCTMTYl\MOHHbIX npaB, CBOOO.l\ M ... .... 400 OOH3aHHOCTeM rpam.l\aH 5. TaKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npMMeHHeTCH He TOJIbKO B Tex CJIY'JaHX, Kor- Aa MMelOTCH 'JeTKO BblpameHHble KpMTepMM AJIH Ol\eHKM nOBeAeHMH CYO'b- eKTOB KOHCTMTYl\MOHHO-npaBOBoro OTHorneHMH KaK HapyrnalOIl\erO 3aKOH, HO M TOr.l\a, KOr.l\a <popMaJIbHO TaKMe KpMTepMM OTCYTCTBYIOT, O.l\HaKO nOBe- AeHMe CYO'beKTa AaeT OCHOBaHMH rOBopMTb 0 TOM, 'JTO OHO npOTMBope'JMT l\eJIHM M npMHl\MnaM .l\ei'lcTBYlOrnero 3aKOHO.l\aTeJIbCTBa. B 3TMX CJIY'JaHX B Ka'JeCTBe OCHOBaHMM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM MorYT paCCMaTpMBaTbCH He.l\OCTM- meHMe HeOOXO.l\MMOro pe3YJIbTaTa, Hel\eJIeCOOOpa3HOCTb neMCTBMH, Heme-  401 JIaTeJIbHOe nOBeAeHMe CY0'beKTa H T.A. 6. CBoe06pa3Me CaHKl\MM, npMMeHHeMblx K cyO'beKTaM KOHCTMTYl\MOHHOM oTBeTcTBeHHocTM 402 . I'Ix oc06eHHocTbIO HBJIHeTCH TO, 'JTO npaKTM'JecKH Bce OHM He MorYT ObITb MCnOJIb30BaHbI B Ka'JeCTBe CaHKl\Mi'1 MHbIX BMAOB IOpI1A!1- 'JeCKoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 403 . KOHCTMTYl\110HHO-npaBOBbie CaHKI.\M!1 npl1Me- HHIOTCH rnMpOKI1M KpyroM ynOJIHOMO'JeHHbIX cyO'beKTOB - opraHaMM 3aKO- HOAaTeJIbHOM, MCnOJIHMTeJIbHOM, CYAeoHoi'1 BJIaCTM, MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HMH, AOJImHOCTHbIMI1 JIMl\aMM MAp. - OTHOrneHI1H HenOA'JMHeHHbIx 11 Heno- AOT'JeTHbIx HM cy6'beKTOB 404 . 7. HaJIM'JMe OCHOBaHMM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM He 03Ha'JaeT OOH3aHHOCTH ynOJI- HOMO'JeHHoro CYO'beKTa npl1MeHMTb CaHKl\111O 405. TaKHM OOpa30M, npMHl.\Mn HeOTBpaTMMOCTI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM npMMeHMTeJIbHO K KOHCTMTYl\MOHHOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTM HOCMT <PaKYJIbTaTI1BHbIM xapaKTep. 8. CYIl\eCTByeT TaKme Cnel\M<pI1Ka npMHym.l\eHMH npM peaJIM3al\MM KOH- CTI1TYl\MOHHOi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM. KOHCTMTYl\MOHHO-npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb 06ecne'JI1BaeTCH He TOJIbKO rOCYAapCTBeHHbIM npMHymAeHMeM, HO M I1HbIM, npMpaBHeHHbIM K HeMY ny6JII1'JHbIM (OOIl\eCTBeHHbIM) npHHymAeHM- eM. TaKoe nYOJIM'JHoe (OOIl\eCTBeHHoe) npMHym.l\eHMe, KaK M rOCY.l\apCTBeH- Hoe, OCYIl\eCTBJIHeTCH Ha OCHOBe KOHCTI1TYl\MOHHO-npaBOBbIX HOpM (MJII1 npl1 I1X CaHKl\MOHl1pOBaHHM) 11, KaK npaBI1JIO, no.l\ rOCY.l\apCTBeHHbIM KOH- TpOJIeM. I..{eJIb npMHynWreJIbHoi'1 AeHTeJIbHOCTM AOCTMraeTCH nYTeM B03- Aei'lcTBMH Ha nOJIMTI1'JeCKYIO, MOpaJIbHYlO, opraHI13aI.\MOHHYlO !1 I1MyecT- BeHHYIO C<pePbI KOHKpeTHoro cYO'beKTa KOHCTI1TYl\MOHHO-npaBOBbIX OTHO- 406 rneHMI1 9. KOHCTMTYl\MOHHO-npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MomeT conpOBOm.l\aTbCH 11 KaKMMM-JIMOO I1HbIMM BMAaMM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM. McnOJIb30BaHHe KOTOpbIX CBH3aHO C OCHOBOnOJIaralOIl\I1M xapaKTepoM OOIl\eCTBeHHblx oTHorneHMM, co- CTaBJIHIOIl\I1X npe.I\MeT KOHcTMTyl\110HHOro npaBa, a TaKiKe Cnel\M<p!1KOM CaHKl\HM KOHCT!1TYl\MOHHO-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM. 10. ,lIJIH KOHCTMTYl\MOHHO-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM xapaKTepHO TO, 'JTO He cyecTByeT e.l\MHOM npOl\e.l\ypHOM <pOpMbI ee np!1MeHeH!1H. IIO'JTM - o - 
Ka>K,I\oti: Mepe KOHCTI1TYl.\Y!OHHO-npaBoBoti: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! COOTBeTcTByeT CBOti: OC06blii nopHAOK HanpY!Mep, np0l.\e,l\Ypa OTpellieHY!H OT ,l\OJl>KHOCTY! IIpe3Y!,I\eHTa Y!HaH, 'JeM np0l.\e,l\ypa OTMeHbI He3aKOHHoro aKTa Y!JlH .nOCpO'J- Horo pocnYCKa TOro Y!JlY! Y!Horo opraHa. 11. Cy6'beKTaMY! KOHCTIITYl.\Y!oHHo-npaBoBoti: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! HBJlHIOTCH B nepBYIO o'JepeAb Te opraHbI (JlY!l.\a), KOTopble HaAeJleHbI KOHcTwrYl.\Y!eti: npaBa- MY! JlY!OO OOH3aHHOCTHMY! (nOJlHOMO'JY!HMY!, KOMneTeHl.\Y!eti:). B Kpyr cy6DeKTOB KOHCTY!TYI.1Y!OHHo-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII BKJIIO'JeHbI rocy.napCTBO B l.\e- JlOM, CYO'beKTbI CPe,l\epal.\Y!Y!, opraHbI rocy.napCTBeHHoti: BJIaCTY!, opraHbI MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJleHY!H, .nOJl>KHOCTHble JlY!l.\a. IIpY!'JY!CJlHH opraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHY!H K cYO'beKTaM KOHCTY!TY- l.\Y!OHHOii oTBeTcTBeHHocTY!.11..A. JIunHU1iC'UU Y!CXOAY!T Y!3 cJle.nYlOll1Y!x cooo- pa>KeHY!fI. Bo-nepBblx, npaBoBble OCHOBbI AeHTeJlbHOCTY! opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHY!H 3aKpenJleHbi B KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!Y! pcp (rJlaBa 8). BO-BTOpbIX, ro- CYAapCTBO AeJlernpOBaJlo opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHY!H 'JaCTb CBOY!X nOJlHOMO'JY!fI (CT. 132). B-TpeTbY!x, KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!OHHblfI CYA pcp B CBoeM no- CTaHOBJleHY!Y! npY!3HaJl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoinpaBJIeHI1H Y! Y!X AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlY!l.\ cooTBeTcTBY lO ll1 eii KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!Y! pcp40 . OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHoB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHY!H Y! HX AOJl>KHOCT- HblX JlY!l.\ nepe.n HaCeJIeHY!eM, BepOHTHO, MO>KeT 6b1Tb onpe,!\eJleHa KaK KOH- CTY!TYl.\Y!OHHO-npaBOBaH, eCJlH npHHHTb TO'JKY 3peHY!H H.B. Bumpy'/w 0 TOM, 'JTO KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!OHHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Y!MeeT HaAOTpaCJIeBYIO npY!po,!\y Y! xapaKTep406. MbI >Ke pa3,1\eJlHeM B3rJIH,I\bI Tex aBTOp<JB, KOTopble paCCMaT- pY!BalOT KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!OHHoe npaBO KaK OTpaCJIb npaBa, a He Ha,!\OTpaCJlb Y! C'JY!TaIOT, 'JTO KOHCTwrl.\Y!OHHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HOCY!T Y!MeHHO OTpacJIeBoii xapaKTep4 9, 'JTO CTaBY!T nOA COMHeHY!e CnpaBeAJ:mBocTb Y! 6e30- rOBopo'JHOCTb Bbllliec<popMyJlY!pOBaHHoro Te3Y!ca Y! n03Y!l.\Y!1O aBTopOB, BbI- CKa3aBlliY!X Y!JlY! npY!HHBlliHX ,!\aHHYIO TO'JKY 3peHY!H. COMHeHHti: ,!\06aBJlHIOT cnpaBe,!\JlY!Bble, Ha Halli B3rJlH.n, 3aMe'JaHY!H TOro >Ke H.B. BumpylW 0 Heo- 60cHoBaHHocTY! Y!3J1Y!lliHero paClliY!peHHH npeAMeTa KOHCTIITYl.\Y!OHHOfI OT- BeTCTBeHHocTY!, a TaKiKe 0 TOM, 'JTO KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!OHHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO MO>KHO C'JY!TaTb TOJlbKO TY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, KOTopaH npe.nyCMOTpeHa KOH- CTY!TYl.\Y!eii pcp Y! KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!HMY! CYO'beKTOB PCP, Y! 'JTO ee l.\eJIblO HBJIHeTCH 06ecne'JeHY!e BepXOBeHCTBa Y! npHMoro ,!\eiiCTBY!H KOHCTY!TYl.\HY! PCP, ee OX- paHa, npe,!\ynpe>K,l\eHY!e HapYllieHY!ii KOHCTJ1TYl.\HOHHOro npaBOnOpH,!\Ka, CO- OJlIO,!\eHY!e 3aKOHHOCTY! Y! cnpaBe,!\JlY!Boe B03Me3AY!e ,!\JlH HapYlliY!TeJleii KOH- CTY!TYl.\Y!H 410 . KpOMe TOro, TPY,!\HO He COfJIaCY!TbCH C TeM, 'JTO HaAO pa3J1Y!'JaTb KOHCTY!TYl.\JIOHHble OCHOBbI IOpY!,!\Y!'JeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Y! caMY KOHCTH- TYl.\HOHHo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. HapH,!\Y C HopMaMH 0 KOHCTJ1TYl.\H- OHHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!. caMoii KOHcTwrYl.\Y!eM 3aKpenJIHIOTCH OCHOBbI IOpY!- AY!'JeCKoti: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! B l.\eJlOM, KOTopble ,l\OJl>KHbl HaMTY! a,!\eKBaTHoe BblpaiKeHY!e, KOHKpeTY!3auY!lO. pa3BY!TY!e B HopMax OTpaCJleBoro 3.:'-,OHo.na- TeJlbCTBa, YCTaHaBJlY!BalOll1HX OTpaCJleBbie BH,!\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH AHaJIOrn'JHble COMHeHY!H npY!CYTCTBYIOT npY! nonbITKe OOOCHOBaTb 000- C06JIeHY!e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! opraHOB Y! AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlY!l.\ MeCTHoro caMoyn- N o - 
paBJleHY!H nepe.n; HaCeJleHY!eM B CY!CTeMe IOpY!.n;H'JecKoi" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! Y! onpe.n;eJlY!Tb ee KaK MYHY!l.\lmaJlbHO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. MYHY!l.\H- naJlbHO-npaBOBaH O1'BeTCTBeHHOCTb MOmeT 6bITb BbI.n;eJleHa KaK CaMOCTOH- TeJlbHbli.. BY!A, eCJlY! Mbl BbIHBY!M CYll\eCTBeHHYIO Cnel.\Y!<pY!KY B ee l.\eJlY!, OCHO- BaHI1HX, XapaKTepe CaHKl.\HM, cTaTyce OTBeTCTBeHHbIX cy6"beKTOB Y! cTaTyce cy6"beKTOB, Y'IaCTBYIOIl\Y!X B ee peaJlH3al.\Y!Y!, B ee npOl.\e.n;ype Y! T..n;. B TO me BpeMH, eCJlH CTporo CJle.n;OBaTb KpY!TepY!1O OTpaCJleBOM KJlaccY!- <pY!Kal.\Y!H IOpJ1AY!'1eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! - OTpaCJleBoi" npY!Ha.n;JlemHOCTI1 HOpM, ee 3aKpenJlHIOIl!Y!X, TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe.n; HaCeJleHY!eM MOmeT 6blTb onpe.n;eJleHa KaK MYHY!l.\Y!naJlbHO-npaBOBaH, nOCKOJlbKY Y!MeHHO HopMa- MY! MYHY!l.\Y!naJlbHOrO npaBa YCTaHaBJlY!BaIOTCH KOHKpeTHble OCHOBaHY!H ;nOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!, ee MepbI Y! npOl.\e.n;ypa Y!X npY!MeHeHY!H. OHa He TOJIbKO YC- TaHaBJlY!BaeTCH HopMaMY! MYHHl.\HnaJlbHOrO npaBa, HO Y! B03HY!KaeT, a TaKme peaJlY!3yeTcH B OTHOll!eHY!HX, KOTopble perYJlY!pYIOTCH 3TY!MY! HopMaMY!, - OT- HOll!eHY!HX, CBH3aHHbiX C opraHY!3al.\Y!efi Y! OCYll\eCTBJleHY!eM MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJleHY!H. B STOM cJlY'Iae YMeCTHO BcnOMHHTb n03Hl.\Y!1O C.A. AeaKbJ/.Ha, KOTOpbIM YTBepm.n;aeT, '1TO Kam.n;aH OTpaCJlb npaBa .n;OJlmHa 06eCne'lY!BaTb peaJlY!3al.\Y!1O CBOY!X HOpM c06CTBeHHblMH cpe.n;CTBaMY!, BKJlIO'IaH Y! MepbI 01'- BeTCTBeHHOCTH: «HaJlY!'1Y!e Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - STO TaKofl me npY!3HaK OTpaCJlY!, KaK «c06CTBeHHble» 061l\eCTBeHHbie OTHOll!eHHH, «CBOH» HOpMbI, .n;aHHble OTHOll!eHY!H perYJlY!PYIOIl\Y!e»412. O.n;HaKO B paccym.n;eHY!HX 0 MYHH- l.\Y!naJlbHO-npaBOBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!, eCTeCTBeHHO, BCTaeT Bonpoc 0 60Jlee y6e.n;Y!TeJlbHOM 060CHOBaHY!Y! caMOM nOCTaHOBKH Bonpoca 06 06oc06J1eHHH MYHY!l.\Y!naJlbHO-npaBoBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! B CHCTeMe IOpH)\Y!'1eCKOii OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTY!, BbIHBJleHY!H ee cnel.\Y!<pHKY! Y! pa3rpaHY!'1eHY!Y! C KOHCTY!TYl.\Y!OH- HOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO, nOCKOJlbKY nepBaH Y!MeeT HeKOTopble npY!3HaKY!, Tpa.n;Y!l.\Y!oHHO BbI.n;eJlHeMble Y KOHCTHTYl.\Y!OHHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!. ITo .n;aHHoMY Bonpocy MomeT 6blTb pa3BepHYTa .n;JlY!TeJlbHaH nOJleMHKa, KOTopaH MomeT npeBpaTHTbCH B cnop 0 TepMY!Hax H 3aCJlOHY!Tb C060M Ol.\eHKY CYIl\HOCTHbIX pa3J1H'IHfl HJlY! Tom.n;eCTBa KOHCTHTYl.\Y!OHHOM Y! MYHY!- uY!naJlbHoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY!. HeKoTopble aBTopbI 3aHBJlHIOT, '1TO OHY! He Y!MeIOT meJlaHY!H BeCTI1 cnop 0 TepMY!Hax Y! rOTOBbl COrJlaCY!TbCH C JlI06bIM HaY!MeHOBaHY!eM paCCMaTpHBaeMoro BHAa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npY! YCJlOBY!11 npH3HaHY!H e.n;HHCTBa npaBOBOM npY!po.n;bI CaHKl.\Y!fl B BY!.n;e npeKpall!eHY!H nOJlHOMO'lY!M, npY!MeHHeMbIX 3a Ha PYll!alOll\Y!e ny6J1I1'1Hblii Y!HTepec Henpa- BOMepHbie AeMCTBY!H 413 . 3aMeTI1M, o.n;HaKO, '1TO e.n;HHCTBO npaBOBOM npHpo- Abl CaHKl.\Y!M ell\e He )\OKa3bIBaeT 06Il\HOCTY! npaBOBofl npY!pO)\bI paCCMaTpY!- BaeMOM OTBeTCTBeHHocTY!, e.n;HHCTBa CYIl\HOCTHblX npH3HaKOB KOHCTY!TYl.\H- OHHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! Y! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTY! nepeA HaCeJleHY!eM, KOTOpylO HeKOTopble aBTopbl HMeHYIOT MYHI1l.\Y!naJlbHOf! (MYHI1l.\HnaJlbHO-npaBOBOM). CaHKl.\HY! (MepbI npY!Hym.n;eHY!H, Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, npe)\YCMOT- peHHble caHKuY!eM npaBOBoii HOpMbI) HBJlHIOTCH .n;aJleKO He caMbIM onpe.n;e- JlHIOIl\Y!M KpHTepY!eM, n03BOJlfllOIl\HM BbI.n;eJlHTb OT.n;eJlbHble BJ1Abl OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTY!, JlH60, HanpOTHB, 06"be.n;Y!HHTb B O.n;HH Y! TOT me BY!.n; OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTY! pa3JIH'IHble npaBOBble HBJleHHH. JJ:JlH npY!3HaHHH O.n;HOpO.n;HOCTY! KOHCTY!- f\("\ o - 
TYMOHHOfi M «MYHMMnanbHO-npaBOBOM» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM, He06xOAMMO YCTaHOBMTb OAHOpOAHOCTb MX eneM, OCHOBaHJ1M, CYll1eCTBeHHbIX 3neMeH- TOB npoeAypbI peanM3aHM, cTaTyca OTBeTCTBeHHbIX cy6'beKTOB M cTaTyca cy6'beKTOB, Y'JaCTBYJOll1MX B HX peanM3aMM M T.n. KpOMe TOro, aBTOpbI or- paHM'JMBaJOT npeAMeT MCCneAOBaHMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTbJO 3a HapYIIJaJOll1Me ny6nM'JHbIM MHTepeC HenpaBOMepHble Aei'lcTBMH. IIpM TaKOfi nOCTaHOBKe BO- npoca BHe nOnH 3peHHH Y'JeHbIX OCTaeTCH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB M AOJImHOCTHblX nH MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHMH B cnY'Jae YTpaTbI AOBepMH HaCeneHI1H, KOTOpOe MOmeT 6bITb YTpa'JeHO 11 6e3 COBepIIJeHI1H OTBeTCTBeH- HblMM cy6'beKTaMH npaBOHapYIIJeHMH. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeA HaCeneHl1eM HBHO BbIXOAHT 3a paMKM TeX OTHOIIJeHl1fi, KOTOpble CBH3aHbI C COBepIIJeHMeM OpraHOM MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBneHMH npaBOHapYIIJeHMH. :-:ha OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb HacTynaeT He 3a npaBOHapYIIJeHMe, a Ha OCHOBaHMM IOpMAH'JeCKM nOATBepmAeHHoro cpaKTa YTpaTbI AOBepMH HaceneHMH. IIepCOHMcpHMpO- BaHHbIM MCTO'JHMKOM BnaCTM opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHMH COOTBeT- CTByJOll1erO MYHI1MnanbHoro oopa30BaHJ1H HBnHeTCH ero HaceneHHe. J1MeH- HO HaceneHMe npHMO MnM KOCBeHHO ynonHOMO'JMBaeT opraHbI MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBneHMH AeficTBOBaTb B ero HHTepecax. KpMTepHeM, no KOTOPOMY Ha- CeneHl1e oeHMBaeT pa60TY CBOMX MYHI1MnanbHblx opraHOB, HBnHeTCH He TonbKO c06nJOAeHI1e MMM AeficTBYJOll1erO 3aKOHOAaTenbCTBa, HO 11 CTeneHb 414 COOTBeTCTBMH MX AeHTenbHOCTH HHTepecaM HaceneHMH . IIepBOCTeneHHbIM, Ha HaIIJ B3mH)\, HBnHeTCH peIIJeHl1e Bonpoca He CTOnb- KO 0 HaMMeHOBaHMM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM nepeA HaceneHMeM, ee aAeKBaTHoCTI1 OTpacneBblM BHAaM JOpMAH'JeCKofi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, CKonbKO 0 TOM, eCTb nM OCHOBaHMH paCCMaTpMBaTb ee KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb IOpI1AH'JeCKYIO, 11, cne- AOBaTenbHO, AeficTBYJOT nM B c<pepe B3aMMOOTHOIIJeHMii opraHOB M AonmHO- CTHblX nM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHMH C HaCeneHl1eM 061l111e 3aKOHOMepHOC- TI1 B03HMKHOBeHMH M peanM3aHM JOpMAM'JeCKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM. PeIIJeHl1e AaHHoro Bonpoca MMeeT npMHMnManbHoe 3Ha'JeHl1e npM pa3pa6OTKe HopMa- THBHOM KOHCTPYKMM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM opraHOB M AonmHOCTHbIX nM MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBneHMH nepeA HaCeneHJ1eM. IIOMCKM peIIJeHMH AaHHOM np06neMbI AaBHO BeAYTCH B HaYKe KOHCTMTY- 110HHOrO npaBa npM pa3pa60TKe np06neM KOHCTMTYMOHHOfi OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTM, B 'JaCTHOCTM no Bonpocy COOTHOIIJeHI1H KOHCTMTYMOHHOM M nOnI1TM'Jec- KOi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM. ECTb MHeHJ1e, '!TO KOHCTHTYMOHHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb _ 415 HBnHeTCH pa3HOBMAHOCTbJO nonMTH'JeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM ,a TaKme, 'JTO OHa 06'beAMHHeT B ce6e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nOnMTI1'JeCKYIO, MopanbHYJO 11 IOpMAM'JeCKYJ0 416 . ReMano CTOpOHHMKOB HMeJOT aBTopbI, KOTopble nonaraJOT, 'JTO KOHCTMTYMOHHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb pa3HOBMAHOCTb JOpMAM'JeCKofi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 417 . U.A. Kpaee1.l C'JI1TaeT, 'JTO npaBOMepHee rOBopMTb 0 ABYX BMAax OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTM B COBpeMeHHOM KOHCTMTYHOHHOM npaBe POCCMM - nonMTM'JeCKOM M JOpMAH'JeCKoii, nOCKonbKY 3TI1 TepMMHbl 60Jlee aAeKBaTHO OTpamaJOT peanb- Hbli'l npoecc peanM3aMH KOHCTIITYMOHHbIX HOpM M COOTBeTCTBYIOT CTaH- AapTaM Ml1pOBOrO KOHCTMTYMOHHoro pa3BMTMH. IIpMMeHeHMe AaHHbIX nOHH- -=:t o - 
Tl1ii B KOHCTJo(1)'l\110HHOM rrpaBe 11 rrOHI1MaHl1e pa3JIwJI1ii Me:1KJ\Y HI1MI1 (rro OC- HOBaHI1HM, rrpOl\e.n;ype oCYll\eCTBJleHI1H, rrOCJle.n;CTBI1HM) 6y.n;YT crrOC06CTBO- BaTb pa3pa6oTKe HerrpOTI1BOpeql1BOii 11 rrOCJle.n;OBaTeJlbHOii .n;OKTpI1Hbl KOHCTI1- TYl.\l10HHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B POCCI11141B. IIpl13HaBaH B rrpHHl\l1rre HeBepHblM CTpeMJleHl1e 06"be.n;J1HI1Tb B paMKaX e.n;I1HOrO rrOHHTI1H KOHCTI1TYl\HOHHO-rrpa- BOBOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 rrOJlI1Tl1qeCKYJO 11 JOpl1.n;HqeCKYJO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, U.A. Kpaee Cql1TaeT, qTO .n;aHHblii rroAxo.n; HMeeT rro.n; co6oii HeKOTOpble OCHO- BaHI1H. 06a BI1Aa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3aKperrJlHIOTCH HOpMaMH KOHCTHTYl\HOHHO- ro rrpaBa, B OTHOIIJeHHH 060HX rrpeJ\YCMaTpHBaJOTCH JOpH.1\I1qeCKl1e rrpOl\e.n;ypbI oCYll\eCTBJleHI1H, pea.n113al\I1H KOTOpbIX rrpHBO.n;I1T K CMell\eHHJO C .n;OJl:1KHOCTI1 H (HJlH) JlHIIJeHI1JO OrrpeAeJleHHblX rrpaB. O.n;HaKO OH OTMeqaeT, qTO rrOJlI1THqeC- KaH H KOHCTI1TYl\HOHHO-rrpaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb I1MelOT pa3J1HqHYJO rrpl1- pO.n;y, OCHOBaHHH, rrOpHAOK OCYll\eCTBJleHI1H. IIOHHTHe KOHCTI1TYl\HOHHOii OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH KaK CaMOCTOHTeJlbHOrO BH.n;a JOpH.n;HqeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH rrpHMeHHMO TOJlbKO K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a rrpaBOHapYIIJeHHH (AeJlHKTbl) B KOHCTJoITYl\HOHHOM rrpaBe. IIOJlHTl1qeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HOCHT rrpI1Hl\HIII1- aJlbHO I1Hoii XapaKTep, OHa HacTyrraeT B pe3YJlbTaTe YTpaTbI OT.n;eJlbHbIMH MHHHCTpaMH HJlI1 rrpaBHTeJlbCTBa B l\eJlOM .n;OBepHH rrapJlaMeHTapHeB. IIpH 3TOM OCHOBaHl1eM rrOJlHTHqeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH HBJlHeTCH Hel\eJlecoo6- pa3HOCTb .n;eHTeJlbHOCTJ1 .n;OJl:1KHOCTHbIX JlI1l\, a He COBepIIJeHl1e HMH rrpaBOHa- pYIIJeHHH. IIOJlHTHqeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MO:1KeT HacTyrrl1Tb TalOKe, rro ero MHeHHJO, B CJIyqae YTpaTbI .n;errYTaTOM AOBepl1H H36HpaTeJleii B pe3YJlbTaTe era OT3b1Ba 419 . TaKI1M 06pa30M, HMeHHO <PaKYJlbTaTHBHOCTb <paKTa HapYIIJe- HHH rrpaBOBbIX HOpM cpaKTHqeCKI1 YCTpaHHeT rpaHb Me:1K.1IY rrOJlI1Tl1qeCKOii 11 KOHCTI1TYl.\I10HHO-rrpaBOBoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTbJO H B l\eJlOM He rr03BOJlHeT BbI- AeJlHTb KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-rrpaBOBYJO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK JOpl1.11i1'IeCKYJO cpe-  420 AI1 .1Ipyrl1x BI1!\OB COl\l1aJlbHOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 PaCCMaTpl1BaH KOHCTJ1TYl\110HHYJO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb I1CKJlJOql1TeJlbHO KaK pa3HOBH)(HOCTb JOPi1,ll,l1qecKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. H.M. Ko./tocoea OTMeqaeT, qTO rrOJmnlqeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - 3TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BJlaCTI1 rrepeA 06ll\eCT- BOM 3a BblIIOJlHeHl1e rrpl1HHTbIX Ha ce6H 06H3aTeJlbCTB, 06ell\aHJ1H, rrporpaMM, a MepOH rrOJlI1Tl1qecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HBJlHeTCH OTCTpaHeHl1e OT BJlaCTJoI Tex JlHl\, KTO He .1IOJI:1KHbIM 06pa30M OCYll\eCTBJIHJI CBOI1 rry6JIl1qHble <PYHKl\J111 421 . A.A. Cepzeee rro.n;qepKI1BaeT, qTO CMeIIJeHl1e KOHCTI1TYl\J-IOHHOii 11 rrOJlI1TJ1- qeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH rrpol1CxO.1l11T 11 rro 06"beKTI1BHOH rrpl1ql1He rrOJII1TI1- 3HpoBaHHOCTI1 caMoro KOHCTI1TYl\110HHOrO rrpaBa 422. COrrpl1KOCHOBeHl1e rro- JlI1Tl1qeCKoj:1 11 KOHCTI1TYl\110HHOj:1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OqeHb TeCHoe, OCHOBaHI1H MorYT 6bITb qpe3BbIqaj:1H0 CXO:1KI1, o.n;Ha 11 Ta :1Ke CaHKl\I1H B O.n;HOM cJlyqae MO- :1KeT 6bITb CaHKl\l1eH rrOJlI1Tl1qeCKOii, B .1IpyroM - KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-rrpaBOBoj:l. IIOCKOJlbKY KOHCTHTYl\110HHOe rrpaBO rJlaBHblM 06pa30M perYJll1pyeT rrOJIH- Tl1qeCKl1e OTHOlIleHI1H, rrOCTOJlbKY 11 KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-rrpaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb I1MeeT rrOJlI1Tl1qeCKOe co.n;ep:1KaHl1e. a ee MepbI HOCHT rrOJlI1Tl1qeCKl1ii xapaKTep. KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-rrpaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BblIIOJlHHeT <PYHK- l\I1JO rrOJlI1TI1KO-rrpaBOBoro B03.11ej:ICTBHH Ha cy6"beKTOB. .n;orrYCTHBIIJI1X KOH- CTI1TYl\110HHble .n;eJlI1KTbI, HBJlHHCb O.n;HI1M 113 MeTO.l\OB perYJll1pOBaHI1H o6ll\e- Lrt o - 
CTBeHHbIX OTHOIIJeHI1ti:, 'JTO .n;aeT OCHOBaHl1e I1Hor.n;a He BnOJIHe TO'JHO OTom- .n;eCTBJIHTb KOHCTI1TY110HHO-npaBOBYro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb C nOJII1TI1'JeCKOM. Ho He BCHKYro Mepy ny6JII1'JHo-npI1Hy.n;I1TeJIbHOro B03.n;eiicTBI1H (B TOM 'Jl1CJIe OpraHI13a110HHYro), I1Meroll.\Yro nOJII1Tl1'JeCKoe cOAepmaHl1e, MomHO paCCMa- Tpl1BaTb KaK Mepy KOHCTI1TY110HHo-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. JlIHa'Je rpaHI1bI c06CTBeHHO ropl1Al1'JeCKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI16e30CHOBaTeJIbHO pac- IIJHpHroTCH, a ee <PYHKI1H CTI1MYJIl1pOBaHI1H .n;OJImHOrO nOBe.n;eHI1H CTOJIb me 6eCCMblCJIeHHO YTpa'JI1BaeTCH. IIpl1MeHeHl1e Mep KOHCTI1TY110HHo-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Bcer.n;a conpHmeHO C HacTynJIeHl1eM He6JIaronpl1HTHbIX (HeBblro.n;HbIX) nOJII1Tl1'JeCKI1X nOCJIe.n;CTBl1ii .n;JIH cy6'beKTa, .n;onYCTI1BIIJerO HeAOJImHOe nOBeAeHl1e B KOHCTI1TY110HHo-npaBoBoti: c<pepe 423 . «KOHCTI1TY110HHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb nOJII1Tl1'JeCKaH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb, HO He JIro6aH, a Ta, KOTOaH npl100peTaeT KOHCTI1TY110HHble cpOpMbI», - no.n;'JepKI1BaeT B.O. JIyttU1j4 4. OHa I1MeeT .n;OBOJIbHO 'JeTKO Bblpa- meHHoe nOJII1Tl1'JeCKoe co.n;epmaHl1e 11 no OCHOBaHI1HM, 11 no Kpyry cy6'beKTOB, 11 no MepaM B03AeiicTBI1H Ha HI1X 425 . PaCCMaTpl1BaeMbli.. BI1.n; OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1 npeACTaeT B e.n;I1HCTBe 06ll.\eCI1CTeMHbIX npl13HaKOB, npl1cYll.\I1X ropl1.n;I1'Je- CKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B eJIOM, a TaKiKe Tex CBOti:CTB 11 Ka'JeCTB, KOTopble YKa3bIBaroT Ha ee cBoeo6pa311e KaK OTHOCI1TeJIbHO caMOCTOHTeJIbHOrO npaBO- Boro HBJIeHI1H. 06ll.\11e npl13HaKI1 ropl1,!\11'JecKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 cneI1<p"- 'JeCKI1 npeJIOMJIHIOTCH npl1MeHl1TeJIbHO K KOHCTI1TY110HHo-npaBOBoii OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1. BMeCTe C TeM KOHCTI1TY110HHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He MomeT 6blTb nOJIHbIM aHaJIoroM .n;pyrl1x BI11\OB ropl1.n;I1'JeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1, nOCKOJIbKY cOAepmaHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 AOJImHO 6bITb a.n;eKBaTHO CO- .n;epmaHl1ro COOTBeTCTByroll.\I1X 06ll.\eCTBeHHbIX OTHOIIJeHl1ii. no KpaiiHeii Mepe MemAY HI1MI1 He AOJImHO 6bITb HeCOOTBeTCTBl1i.. 426 . IIo cBOeii CYTI1 KOHCTI1TY- 110HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HacrynaeT npem.n;e Bcero 3a HeHa.n;JIemaIIJee I1C- nOJIHeHl1e ee cy6'beKTaMI1 CBOI1X KOHCTI1TY110HHblX 06H3aHHOCTeM 427 . CBoe06pa3HblM KOMnpoMI1CCOM MemAY CTOpOHHI1KaMI1 11 npOTl1BHI1KaMI1 npl13HaHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JII1 MeCTHOrO caMoyn- paBJIeHI1H nepe.n; HaCeJIeHl1eM KaK OAHoro 113 BI1.n;OB ropl1.n;I1'JeCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 BblrJISi)1HT nonbITKa I1CnOJIb30BaHI1H nOHHTI1H ny6JII1'JHo-npaBOBOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 42B . TaK, K.11. AMup6e1WB npl1 paCCMOTpeHl111 BonpOCOB OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepe.n; HaCeJIeHl1eM one- pl1pyeT nOHHTl1eM «ny6JII1'JHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», KOTOpoe, no ero MHeHl1ro, HBJIHeTCH 0606ll.\aroll.\I1M no OTHOllleHl1ro K KOHCTI1TY110HHOM 11 MY- HI1l1naJIbHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. rJIaBHble Kpl1Tepl1l1, OTJII1'Jaroll.\l1e ny6- JII1'JHo-npaBOBYro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OT .n;PYI11X BI1.n;OB ropH.1\I1'JeCKoti: OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1, 3aKJIro'JalOTCH B TOM, '!TO, Bo-nepBbIX, B Heii CO'Je-raroTcH nOJII1TI1'Je- CKl1e 11 npaBOBble MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11. BO-BTOpbIX. cy6'beKTbI OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 HeCYT ee nepe.1\ OCHOBHbIM9I1CTO'JHI1KaMI1 ny6JII1'JHoi.. BJIaCTI1 - rpam.n;aHI1HOM, Hapo.n;oM, HaCeJIeHl1eM . J1CXO.n;H 113 3Toro, K.11. AMup6eK06 rOBOpl1T 0 HaJII1'JI1I1 KOHCTI1TY110HHOil 11 MYHI1l1naJIbHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, norJIoll.\aeMoi.. 06ll.\I1M nOHHTl1eM ny6JII1'JHo-npaBoBoti: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 430 . OH TalOKe HaC'ral1BaeT Ha TOM, 'JTO, HeCMOTpH Ha CYll.\eCTBeHHble pa3JII1'JIUI \0 o - 
BI1AOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. ny6J1I1'JHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb I1MeeT 'Jep- TbI, 06Il111e .l\JlH IOpl1)\I1'JecKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 BCeX BI1)\OB. K TaKOBbIM OH OT- HOCI1T OTpl1l.\aTE'JlbHYIO OL(eHKY rOCY.l\apCTBOM .l\eHTeJlbHOCTH rOCYAapCTBeH- HOrO HJlI1 MYHI1L(lmaJlbHOrO OpraHa, AOJlmHOCTHOrO JlI1L(a, Aei1cTBl1e OCHOBHbIX npl1HL(l1nOB 11 L(eJleM, 06Il111x .l\JlH BCeX BI1AOB IOpH.l\I1'JecKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1: 3aKOHHOCTI1, O.l\HOKpaTHoro npl1MeHeHI1H HaKa3aHI1H, 06'beKTI1BHOCTH HaKa3a- HI1H. npe3YMnl.{l1H HeBI1HOBHOCTI1, HeoTBpaTI1MOCTI1 HaKa3aHI1H, CBOeBpeMeH- HOCTI1 HaKa3aHI1H, L(eJleC006pa3HOCTI1I1 rYMaHI13Ma 43'. OTJlI1'JHTeJlbHOM 'Jep- Toii 3TOrO BI1.l\a IOpl1Al1'JeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, no MHeHl110 KJ1. AJ}!Up6eKO- ea, HBJlHeTCH ee nOJlI1TI1'JeCKI1M xapaKTep. II03TOMY Ha nepBbIM nJlaH BbICry- naeT nOJlI1TH'JeCKoe nOpl1L(aHl1e npaBoHapYWl1TeJlH (BblpameHl1e HeAOBepI1H, nOJlI1TI1'JeCKaH HeCOCTOHTeJlbHOCTb, npeKpaIl1eHl1e IOpl1Al1'JecKoM KapbepbI 11 T..l\.), a 3aTeM OrpaHI1'JeHI1H JlI1'JHoro I1I1MYIl1eCTBeHHoro xapaKTepa (.l\OCp0'J- Hblii pocnycK rOCY.l\apCTBeHHoii .D:YMbI, OTCTaBKa npaBI1TeJlbCTBa 11 T..l\.). Oc06eHHocTblO AaHHoro Bl1Aa IOpl1.l\I1'JecKoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HBJlHeTCH TO, 'JTO OHa He TOJlbKO He CBH3aHa C Kapoii., HO 11 He BCer.l\a BJle'JeT 3a C060M 06H3aHHOCTb BI1HOBHOro cy6'beKTa 3afJIa.l\I1Tb npH'JI1HeHHbIM YIl1ep6, '!TO 06YCJlOBJleHO Hepa3pa60TaHHOCTbIO AaHHoro HHCTI1TYTa B pOCCI1MCKOM npaBO- Boii CI1CTeMe, a TaK)Ke BbICOKI1MI1 pHCKaMI1 JlI060ii ny6.nI1'JHo-npaBOBoii (no- JlI1TI1'JeCKOM) .l\eHTeJlbHOCTI1 432 . IIpl1HL(l1nl1aJlbHoe me OTJlI1'JHe ny6J1I1'JHO- npaBOBoi't OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OT I1HbIX BI1.l\OB IOpI1AI1'JeCKOJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (yroJlOBHOM, rpamAaHCKoii, aAMI1HI1CTpaTI1BHOM 11 .l\I1CL(l1nJlI1HapHoi't), no MHeHlllO L(I1Tl1pyeMoro aBTOpa, COCTOJ1T npem.l\e Bcero B ee CO.l\epmaHI1I1. IIy6- JlI1'JHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - 3TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HeHa.l\JlemaIl1ee OCYIl1eCTBJleHl1e ny6J1I1'JHOM BJlaCTH. OTCIO.l\a BblTeKaeT cneL(I1<pI1'JeCKHM Ha- 60p OCHOBaHl1i't AJIH YCTaHOBJleHI1H KOHKpeTHoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHa 11J111 AOJlmHOCTHoro JlI1L(a 11 nepe'JeHb CaHKL(I1M, KOTopble no CBoeMY xapaKTepy cy- Il1eCTBeHHO OTJlI1'JaIOTCH OT CaHKL(I1H, I1cnoJlb3yeMblx B I1HbIX BH.l\aX IOPI1.l\H- 'JecKoi't OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. IIpl1 3TOM ny6J1I1'JHo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb TepHeT npaKTI1'JeCKI1M CMbICJI, eCJlI1 B CTpaHe OTCYTCTByeT CI1CTeMa KOHTpo.1IH 3a AeHTeJlbHOCTblO rCY.l\apCTBeHHbIX 11 MYHI1L(l1naJlbHbI3praHOB. KaropaH TaK)Ke BKJlIO'JaeT CBOI1 Kpyr Cpe.l\CTB, npl1eMOBI1 MeTO.l\OB B TeOpeTI1'JeCKOM nJlaHe AaHHbIH BI1A OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 6J11130K K nOJlI1TI1- 'JecKOM 11 BKJlIO'JaeT B ce6H L(eJiblii pH.l\ 06Il111x npI13HaKOB: - BbITeKaeT 113 oc06eHHOCTeii nOJlI1TI1'JeCKI1X OTHOWeHl1ii 11 perJlaMeHTI1- PYIOIl1I1X I1X COL(l1aJlbHblX HOpM; - B03HI1KaeT B npOL(eCce B3al1MOOTHOWeHI1fl Mem.l\y KJlaCCaMI1, HaL(HHMI1, I1HbIMI1 COL(11aJlbHbIMI1 rpynnaMH, roCY.l\apCTBOM 11 ero opraHaMI1; - HacTynaeT He TOJlbKO 3a YMbIWJleHHble BI1HOBHble .l\eHCTBI1H, HO 11 3a Hey:MeJlOCTb, npl1cnOco6J1eH'JeCTBO. onpoMeT'JI1BOCTb B Bonpocax nOJlI1TI1KI1 434 . MomHO 3aMeTI1Tb, 'JTO npaKTI1'JeCKI1 Bce aBTopbl AalOT BeCbMa noxomylO xapaKTepl1CTI1KY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1L( MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepe.l\ HaCeJleHl1eM, BbI.l\eJlHIOT O.l\HI1 11 Te me ee CYIl1eCT- BeHHbie npl13HaKI111 'JepTbl. O.l\HHaKOBbIM 06pa30M onpe.l\eJlHIOT ee cneL(I1<pH- t'-- KY, C Tofl JlI1Wb pa3HI1L(eM, 'JTO O.l\HJ1 Ha3bIBalOT ee OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO KOH- 0 - 
CTMTYMOHHOM. APyrMe - MYHMMrranbHOM. TpeTbM - rry6nM4Ho-rrpaBOBOM. 4eTBepTbIe - rrOnMTM4eCKOM. B pe3ynbTaTe KpMTM4eCKOrO 0606ILleHMH M3nO- meHHbIX BbIlIle XapaKTepl1CTMK paCCMaTpMBaeMOrO BI1Aa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM Mbl npHXOAMM K BblBOAY 0 He06xOAHMOCTM BHeCeHMH pHAa YT04HeHMii TpYAHO CnOpHTb C TeM, 4TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rrepeA HaCeneHl1eM C T04KM 3peHMH cOAepmaHI1H HOCMT HpKO BblpameHHbIM nOnMTI14eCKMM XapaKTep. OHa MMeeT MHYIO rrpMpOAY, Hemenl1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npaBOHapYlIll1TenH 3a COBeplIleHHoe npaBOHapYlIleHl1e, npecneAyeT MHbIe em-l, BbInonHHeT APY- me <PYHKl.\I1M, OTnM4aeTCH OCHOBaHI1HMM M nOpSl)1KOM OCYILleCTBneHMH. Orr- peAeneHMe ee KaK KJlaCCM4ecKoro BI1Aa IOpMAI14eCKoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM, MMeeT B cBoei'1 OCHOBe HerrOHMMaHl1e MJlM HemenaHMe rrpH3HaBaTb pa3nl1411H MemAY IOpMl\M4eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO M rronMTM4eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TblO, 06na4eHHOM B npaBOBOIO <POPMY 435. IIpl1 nlO60M APyroM nOAXOAe rpaHI1- bI c06CTBeHHO IOpMAM4eCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM 6e30CHOBaTenbHO paClIlMpH- !OTCH, a ee crreMcpH4eCKMe 4epTbI YTpa4MBaeTCH. ,lIei'lcTBl1TenbHO, :3Ta OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 06ecne4eHa <popManM30BaHHbIMM rrpaBOBbIMM cpeACTBaMM rrpHMoro AeMCTBMH, MMeeT npaBOBOM MeXaHI13M B03HMKHOBeHHH M peanH3aI1M, 06naAaeT HeKOTOpblMI1 npM3HaKaMM IOpI1AH- 4ecKoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM (B 4aCTHOCTM, OHa corrpHmeHa C rrpeTeprreBaHMeM OTBeTCTBeHHblM cy6"beKTOM orrpeAeneHHbIX He6naronpMHTHbIX rrOCJleACT- BMM, rrpe.nyCMOTpeHHbIX HopMaMM rrpaBa). IIpMAaHl1e :3TOi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM rrpaBOBOM <pOpMbl, KOTopaH nOCTOHHHO COBeplIleHcTByeTcH M ycnomHHeTCH, 06ycnoBneHO 06"beKTMBHoi'1 He06xOAI1MOCThIO M CTpeMneHHeM 3aKoHOAaTenH rrpeBpanlTb TaKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B rrOAnMHHO AeMOKpanl4eCKMM Mexa- HI13M HapOAOBnaCTMH. OAHaKO :3Ta OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HOCI1T npHHl1nManbHO MHOM xapaKTep, HacTyrraeT B pe3ynbTaTe YTpaTbl opraHOM MnM AonmHOCT- HbIM nMOM MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBneHMH l\OBepMH HaceneHMH M He HBnHeTCH rOCYAapCTBeHHOM peaKMei'1 Ha COBeplIleHHoe npaBOHapYlIleHMe. TaKMM 06- pa30M, Ha HalIl B3rnHA, cneAyeT pa3nl14aTb KOHCTI1TYHOHHYIO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb opraHoB mm AonmHOCTHblX nMl.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHMH 3a cOBep- lIleHMe KOHCTMTYMoHHoro Aem1KTa M MX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HeHaAnema- ILlee oCYILlecTBneHMe CBOI1X 3aAa4 M CPYHKMfi. KaK 6bIno nOKa3aHO BbIlIle, rrepBaH npeACTaBJIHeT C060M AenMKTHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, BTOpaH - <PYHK- MoHanbHYIO. IIocne,!\HHH YAa4Ho nomMTCH B «cxeMY» yrrpaBneH4ecKoM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTM 0.3. JIeucma 436 . IIoeraHoBKa Borrpoca 06 060c06neHI111 «MYHMMnanbHo-npaBoBoi'[» OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTM B CI1CTeMe OTpacneBblx BI1.1\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ1 06ycnoBneHa He TonbKO oc06eHHOCTHMH npaBOBoro MHCTMTY'ra OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB M AOJlmHOCTHbIX n11 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHMH rrepeA HaceneHMeM (npe.1\MeTa M MeTOAa pery JlHpOBaHI1H COOTBeTCTBYlO!J..II1X 061l\eCTBeHHblX OTIiOlIleHHM: <PYHK- Mi'l. KOTopbIe BbIITOnHHeT OTpaCJlb rrpaBa B 06ILlei'1 CMCTeMe rrpaBa; crreM<pMKI1 CTaTyca cy6"beKTOB rrpaBOOTHOlIleHI1i'I; oc06eHHocTM IOpl1)\M4eCKOM npHpollbI «HenpaBOMepHoro» nOBeAeHMH B COOTBeTCTBYlOll\eM ccpepe; oc060i'1 rrpoe.nypbI 437 )C rh   ee peanM3aMM . rrel\H't'J.JKa :3TOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Hal100Jlee :faKO rrpOHB- nfleTCR rrp€m.1\e Bcero B ee enM 11 rrpoe.nypHOM (rrpoeccyaJlbHoM B) pemHMe, co o - 
KOTOpbIM OTpamaeT aTMOC<pepy .n;eHTeJIbHOCTI1 BCeX yqaCTHI1KOB OTHOIIJeHHi". B paMKaX KOTOpbIX B03HI1KaeT 11 peaJII13YeTCH 3Ta OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. OCHOBHaH l\eJIb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JII1l\ MeCTHO- ro calOynpaBJIeHI1H nepe.n; HaCeJIeHI1eM COCTOI1T B 06eCne'JeHI1I1 11 3aHTe npaBa HaCeJIeHI1H Ha MeCTHOe caMoynpaBJIeHI1e, 06eCne'JeHI1I1 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JIHl\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H OT OCHOBHOrO HC- TO'JHHKa MYHHl\JmaJIbHOM BJIaCTI1. OCHOBHOrO cy6'beKTa npaBa Ha OCYIl1eCTB- JIeHHe MecTHoro calOynpaBJIeHHH - HaCeJIeHHH MYHHl\HnaJIbHOrO 06pa30- BaHHH. KJIIO'JeBblM 3JIeMeHTOM B 3aKOHO.n;aTeJIbHOM onpe.n;eJIeHHI1 MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H HBJIHeTCH «CaMOCTOHTeJIbHaH H no.n; CBOIO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb AeHTeJIbHOCTb HaCeJIeHI1H no peIIJeHHIO BonpOCOB MeCTHoro 3Ha'Je- HI1H». BCH .n;eHTeJIbHOCTb no TaKOMY peIIJeHHIO BonpoCOB MeCTHoro 3Ha'JeHI1H OCYIl1eCTBJIHeTCH B 3Ha'JI1TeJIbHOM CTeneHI1 'Jepe3 opraHbI I1JII1 .n;OJImHOCT- HblX JII1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. IIo:3TOMY BamHO, npem.ne Bcero, 06ec- ne'JI1Tb 3aBI1CI1MOCTb nOCJIe.n;HI1X OT OCHOBHOro cy6'beKTa npaB MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHI1H - HaCeJIeHI1H 439. B .n;aHHOM CJIY'Jae MbI Ha6JIIOAaeM HeCOBna.n;eHI1e l\eJIeH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe,ll, HaCeJIeHl1eM 11 KOHCTI1TYl\110HHO-npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. OCHOB- Hoi'll\eJIblO KOHCTWryl\110HHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, KaK 6bIJIO CKa3aHO BbIllle, HB- JIHeTCH 06ecne'JeHI1e BepXOBeHCTBa 11 npHMoro .n;eMCTBI1H KOHCTI1TYl\1111 P4>, ee oxpaHa, npe.n;ynpem.neHHe HapYllleHI1H KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOrO npaBonopH.n;Ka, C06JIIOAeHI1e 3aKOHHOCTi1 11 cnpaBeAJII1BOe B03Me3AI1e ,ll,JIH HapYIIJI1TeJIeH KOHCTHTYl\1111 440 . KOHCTHTYl\110HHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npl13BaHa OXpaHHTb I1MeHHO 06Il1eCrneHHble OTHOIIJeHI1H, COCTaBJIHIOIl1l1e npe.n;MeT KOHCTI1TYl\HOH- HOro npaBa. IIpl1 :3TOM He BCHKoe HapYllleHl1e HOpM KOHCTHTYl.\110HHOro npaBa BJIe'JeT 3a co60ii KOHCTHTYl.\l10HHYlO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. MOryT npl1MeHHTbCH 11 I1Hble BH.n;bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1: a.n;MI1HHCTpaTI1BHaH JII160 yrOJIOBHaH 441 . 3TO .n;aeT OCHOBaHHe YCOMHI1TbCH B cnpaBe.n;JII1BOCTI1 OTom.n;eCTBJIeHI1H OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 nepe,ll, HaCeJIeHl1eM 11 KOHCTJoITYl.\l10HHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,ll, HaCeJIeHl1eM npe.n;YCMaTpI1BaeTCH HOpMaTI1BHbI- MI1 npaBOBbIMI1 aKTaMI1 pa3JII1'JHoro ypOBHH: <peAepaJIbHbIM 3aKOHOM, 3aKO- HaMI1 cy6'beKTOB P4>, YCTaBaMH MYHHl.\l1naJIbHblX 06pa30BaHI1H, HO He KOH- CTI1TYl.\l1eii. KOHCTI1TYl\110HHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO MomHO C'JI1TaTb TOJIbKO TY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, KOTOpaH npe.n;YCMOTpeHa KOHCTJoITYl\l1eM P4> 11 KOHCTJ1- TYI.\HHMI1 cy6'beKTOB P<P. B npoTI1BHOM CJIY'Jae He060CHOBaHHO paCIIJI1pHeT- CH npe.n;MeT KOHCTHTYI.\HOHHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. II03TOMY CJIe.n;yeT pa3JIH- 'JaTb KOHCTHTYl\110HHbJe OCHOBbI IOpl1,11,l1'JeCKoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 11 caMY KOHCTI1TYl\JIOHHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. HapH.l\y C HopMa1H 0 KOHCTI1TYl\I10H- HOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 caMoi'1 KOHCTI1TYl.\J1eH 3aKpenJIHIOTCH OCHOBbI IOpl1.n;H- 'JeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B l\eJIOM, KOTOpbJe AOJImHbI HaHTI1 aAeKBaTHOe BbI- pameHl1e, KOHKpeTI13al\l1lO, pa3BI1TI1e B HopMax OTpaCJIeBOrO 3aKOHo.n;aTeJIb- 442 CTBa, yCTaHaBJII1BalOIIJI1X OTpaCJIeBble BI1.n;bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 . IIonblTKa pa3rpaHI1'Jl1Tb KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHYlO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 11 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepe.n; HaCeJIeHl1eM MYHI1I.\I1- naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H MomeT BCTpeTI1Tb B03pameHI1e KOJIJIer Ha TOM OCHO- 0\ o - 
BaHI1Y!, qTO CT. 3 KOHCH1TYL!1111 pcp 3aKperrJlHeT cJle,!\YIOlL!ee rrOJlOmeHl1e: HO- CI1TeJleM cYBepeHI1TeTa 11 e,!\I1HCTBeHHbIM I1CTOqHI1KOM BJIaCTI1 B POCCHI'ICKOM cpe,!\epaL!1111 HBJlHeTCH ee MHOrOHaL!110HaJlbHbIM HapOA, KOTOpblH OCYlL!eCTB- JlHeT CBOIO BJIaCTb Herrocpe,!\CTBeHHO, a TaKme qepe3 opraHbI rocYAapCTBeH- HOH BJlaCTI1 11 MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H, qTO rr03BOJIHeT HeKOTOpblM aBTO- paM paCCMaTpl1BaTb AaHHbie rrOJlOmeHI1H KaK OCHOBHOM KOHCTHTYL!110HHbIM rrpHHL!l1rr, JlemalL!I1H B OCHOBe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoyrr- paBJleHI1H rrepeA HaCeJleHl1eM. OAHaKO Ha HalIJ B3rJlHA. AaHHblii KOHCTI1TYL!I1- OHHbIH rrpl1HL!l1rr MomeT paCCMaTpl1BaTbCH Jll1lIJb B KaqeCTBe KOHCTI1TYL!110H- HOH OCHOBbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHl1fI rrepe,!\ Ha- CeJleHl1eM. 11 He 60JIee. KpOMe TOro, eCJlI1 3TI1 KOHCTI1TYl.\l1OHHble rrOJlOmeHHH rrpe,!\rrOJlaralOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB rocy,!\apCTBeHHOH BJIaCTI1 11 opra- HOB MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H nepeA I1CTOqHI1KOM BJIaCTI1, TO KaK 06'bHC- HI1Tb TOT <PaKT. qTO HI1 KOHCTI1TYL!l1fI pcp, HI1 <pe,!\epaJlbHOe 3aKOHo,!\aTeJlbCT- BO He rrpe.nyCMaTpl1BalOT peaJlbHbIX rrpaBOBblX MeXaHI13MOB OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TI1 focy,!\apCTBeHHOM JJ:YMbi pcp B L!eJlOM 11 ee ,!\errYTaTOB nepe,!\ HapO,!\OM Jl11- 60 113611paTeJlfIMI1. OqeBI1,!\Ho. qTO HopMa CT. 3 KOHCTI1TYL!1111 pcp MomeT pac- CMaTpl1BaTbCfI B KaqeCTBe KOHCTI1TYL!110HHOM OCHOBbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a 3aXBaT I1J1H rrpl1CBOeHl1e BJIaCTHbiX rrOJlHOMoql1ii B Poccl1ikKOii cpeAepaL!l1l1. Ho B ,!\aHHOM cJIyqae peqb H.1\eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a rrpaBoHapYlIJeHl1e. a He 0 TOM, KOTopafI B03HI1KaeT B pe3YJlbTaTe YTpaTbl ,!\OBepl1fI. H3 HeHa.1\Jlema- lL!ero, He3<p<peKTI1BHOrO OCYlL!eCTBJIeHI1H BJlaCTHbIX nOJIHOMOql1ii. Kam,!\OMY BI1,!\Y IOpl1.1\l1qeCKOH oTBeTcTBeHHOCTI1, HeCMOTpH Ha cOBrra,!\alO- lL!l1e MOMeHTbI. npl1cYlL! CBOH OC06blH BI1.1\ IOpI1C.1\I1KL!110HHOrO rrpOL!eCca 443. K ql1CJly OCHOBHblX 3J1eMeHTOB IOpH,!\HqeCKOrO npOL!eCca OTHOCI1TCfI npOL!ec- cyaJlbHblii peml1M (rrpI1MeHI1TeJlbHO K MYHl1l.\11rraJIbHO-rrpaBOBoii OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 - npol!e'!\ypHblii). 3TO CJlOmHaH CI1HTeTl1qeCKaH KOHCTPYKl!I1H, CO- CTOfIlL!afI 113 npl1Hl.\I1nOB, .1\eMCTBYIOlL!I1X B npOL!e'!\YPHoii c<pepe, cpe,!\CTB 11 cnoco60B I1X peaJll13aL!111111 peaJlbHO CJlOml1BlIJl1XCfI rapaHTl1ii. OTpamalOlL!HX B cBoeii cOBoKyrrHocTI1 KaqeCTBeHHbie xapaKTepl1CTI1KI1 rrpaBOBblX <pOpM Ae- HTeJlbHOCTI1 yrroJlHOMOqeHHbIX cy6'beKTOB 444 . JJ:pyrl1MI1 CJlOBaMH. npOL!eAYP- HbIH peml1M rrpe,!\CTaBJlHeT C060M cOBOKynHocTb Tpe60BaHl1ii, 06eCneql1BalO- lL!I1X 06CTaHOBKY L!eJleC04pa3Horo 6J1arOnpI1HTCTBOBaHl1fI rrpOL!eCca peaJlH- 3aL!1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 . K ql1CJlY cneL!I1<pl1qeCKI1X npl13HaKOB npOL!e.nypHoro pemHMa rrpemAe Bcero CJle.nyeT OTHeCTI1 ero CBH3b C KOHKpeTHbiM OTpaCJleBblM MeTO,!\OM 11 crroco60M npaBoBoro perYJlHpOBaHI1H. KOTopble 11 nopomAalOT 3J1eMeHTbI CBO- eo6pa311H B rrpOL!eCce peaJll13aL!1111 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe,!\ HaCeJleHHeM (<<MYHI1L!l1naJlbHo-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1»). PerYJlHpOBaHl1e 061.1.\eCT- BeHHblX OTHOlIJeHI1M MaTepHaJlbHOrO 11 npOL!eAypHoro xapaKTepa. CBfI3aH- HbiX C peaJll13aL!l1eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,!\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1L! MeCTHO- ro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H nepe,!\ HaCeJleHl1eM, OCYl.I.\eCTBJlfIeTCfI I1MnepaTI1BHbIM MeTO,!\OM 11 npl1 rrOMOlL!11 cnoc060B 06H3b1BaHl1fI 11 3anpelL!eHl1fI. PeaJlbHO 31'0 o HaXO,!\I1T CBoe BOrrJlOlL!eHl1e B KOHKpeTHOM rrpOL!eAypHOM peml1Me, KOTOpblM _ B03MomHO orrpeAeJlHTb KaK IOpI1C,!\I1KL!110HHbIM npOL!e.1\ypHblii pem11M 446 . Oc- - 
HOBHaH OC06eHHOCTb :noro npOl\eAYpHOrO peJ.lMa B TOM, qTO OH COqeTaeT B ce6e npHHl\HnbI MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, n03HTHBHOrO H36HpaTeJIbHOrO npaBa, IOpH,n:J.lqeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H Tpe60BaHJ.lH KOHCTHTYl\J.lOHHOrO, H36HpaTeJIbHoro H MYHHl\HnaJIbHOrO npaBa. fOBOpH 0 npHHl\lmaX lI!eCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH, B ,n:aHHOM CJIyqae MbI J.lMeeM B BH,n:y npe,n:e Bcero CaMOCTOHTeJIbHOCTb HaCeJIeHJ.lH B perneHHH BO- npOCOB MeCTHoro 3HaqeHHH, OpraHH3al\J.lOHHOe OOOC06JIeHJ.le OpraHOB MeCT- HOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH B CHCTeMe ynpaBJIeHHH 06ll\eCTBOM H rocy,n:apCTBOM, nO,n:OTqeTHOCTb H nO,l\KOHTpOJIbHOCTb OpraHOB lI!eCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH HaCeJIeHHIO MYHHl\HnaJIbHoro 06pa30BaHJ.lH. HX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,n: Ha- CeJIeHHeM. B qHCJIe npOql.IX 3JIeMeHTOB. 06pa3YIOll\HX npOl\e,n:ypHblt"I peHM MYHJ.I- l\HnaJIbHO-npaBOBOt"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, MOHO Ha3BaTb CJIe,n:YIOll\He npHH- l\HnbI n03HTHBHOro J.l30HpaTeJIbHoro npaBa: BCeOOll\ee, paBHOe H npHMOe H3- 6J.1paTeJIbHOe npaBO npJ.l TaiiHOM roJIOCOBaHlm; ,n:06pOBOJIbHOe H cB060AHoe yqaCTJle B rOJIOCOBaHlm; He3aBHCHMOCTb H36HpaTeJIbHbIX KOMHCCl-lt"I, ocy- ll\eCTBJIHlOll\I1X no,n:roToBKY H npOBe,n:eHJ.le BbI60pOB, OT opraHOB rocy,n:apCT- BeHHoii BJIaCTJ.I, opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, IlHbIX rocy,n:apCTBeH- HblX H MYHJ.ll\HnaJIbHbIX opraHOB; B03MOHOCTb 06aJIOBaHHH HTorOB rOJIO- COBaHHH B cy,n:; 06ll\eCTBeHHoe (rpat.HCKoe) Ha6JIIO,n:eHHe 3a rOJIOCOBaHI1- eM H YCTaHOBJIeHHe ero pe3YJIbTaTOB tho e KacaeTCH npHHl\llnOB IOpH,n:HqeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, TO B ,n:aH- HOM CJIyqae peqb H,n:eT 0 KJIaCCHqeCKHX npJ.lHl\JmaX - 3aKOHHOCTH, cnpaBe,n:- JIJ.lBOCTH, l\eJIeC006pa3HOCTH, HeOTBpaTJIMOCTJ.I, a TalOKe 0 Cnel\H<pHqeCKJ.lX npJ.lHl\J.lnaX, xapaKTepHbIX TOJIbKO ,n:JIH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB J.I ,n:OJIHO- CTHbiX JIJ.ll\ MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH nepe,n: HaCeJIeHJ.leM, - MYHJ.ll\J.lnaJIb- Ho-npaBOBOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJI. K nOCJIe,n:HHM MorYT 6bITb OTHeceHbI: - aBTOHOMHOCTb peaJIJ.l3al\HJ.I MYHHl\lmaJIbHO-npaBOBoii OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTJ.I; - OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a pe3YJIbTaTJIBHOCTb ,n:eHTeJIbHOCTH no oCYll\eCTBJIe- HHIO MYHHl\HnaJIbHot"1 BJIaCTH; - COqeTaHHe nepCOHaJIbHot"1 H KOJIJleKTI-IBHot"1 <pOpM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. - maCHOCTb; - B3aHMo,n:eiicTBHe OTpaCJIeBbIX BH,n:OB IOpH,n:11qeCKOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (TaKoe B3aJ.lMo,n:et"ICTBHe HaXOAJ-1T CBoe BblpaeHl-le B TOM, qTO B KaqeCTBe OCHOBaHI-IM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I BblcTynaeT <paKT peaJIl-I3al\1-I1-I ,n:pyroro OT- paCJIeBOrO BH,n:a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH; TaK, BCTynJIeHJ.le B 3aKOHHYlO CHJIY 06- BJ1HHTeJIbHOrO npHroBopa cy,n:a B OTHorneHl1II BbI60pHOro ,n:OJIHOCTHoro JII-Il\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI-IH (,n:enYTaTa) BJIeqeT npeKpall\eHHe ero nOJIHOII!OqHii). Cnel\H<pHKY 3TOII!Y npH,l\aIOT He CTOJIbKO oc06eHHOCTH COl\IIaJIbHOro H npaBoBoro cTaTyca OTBeTCTBeHHbIX cy6'beKTOB - opraHOB J.I ,n:OJIHOCTHbIX JII-Il\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, CKOJIbKO oc06eHHocTI-I cy6'beKTa IOpHC,n:HK- l\I-IH - TOro, KTO pernaeT Bonpoc 0 npHMeHeHJ.lH CaHKl\J.lJI. TaKoe perneHJ.le npHHI-IMaeT HaCeJIeHHe MYHI-Il\l-InaJIbHoro 06pa30BaHHH JIH60 1-136HpaTeJIH - - - 
(KOr,l\a OTBeTCTBeHHblM cy6'beKTOM JIBJUleTCJI ,l\enYTaT Bbl60pHOro npe,l\CTa- BHTeJIbHOrO OpraHa). O,l\HaKO, npUHHMaJI TaKOe pellJeHUe, HaCeJIeHHe He 06- JIa,l\aeT nOJIHOMO'lUJIMU 06ecne'luTb ero UCnOJIHeHHe, B TOM '1UCJIe C HCnOJIb- 30BaHHeM npHHY,l\eHUe, T.e. He 06JIa,l\aeT npaBOcy6'beKTHOCTblO npaBonpu- MeHHTeJIJI. PeaJIH3al.\HJI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH nepe.l\ HaCeJIeHHeM 06eCne'lHBaeT- CJI rocY.l\apCTBeHHbIM, HO OTHIO.l\b He 06ll.\eCTBeHHbIM (KaK 3aJIBJIJIIOT HeKOTO- pble aBTopbl) npt1HY.l\eHueM. OTCIO,l\a CJIe.l\yeT BbIBO.l\ 0 ell.\e O.l\HOi1 oc06eH- HOCTH :noM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - B OTJIU'IHe OT Bcex npO'lHX BU.l\OB OHa peaJIU- 3yeTCJI nOCpe,l\CTBOM HCnOJIb30BaHHJI HaCeJIeHHeM COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\erO npa- Ba, a He npaBonpUMeHeHUJI. IIpaBonpuMeHuTeJIbHaJI.l\eJITeJIbHocTb rocY.l\ap- CTBeHHblX opraHoB MoeT UMeTb MeCTO, HO TOJIbKO B TOM CJIY'Iae, KOr.l\a OT- BeTCTBeHHbli1 cy6'beKT OTKa3bIBaeTCJI ,l\06pOBOJIbHO BbInOJIHHTb BOJIIO Hace- JIeHHJI, .l\OCpO'lHO CJIOHTb .l\enYTaTCKue HJHl HHbie nOJIHOMO'lUJI nepe.l\ TeMH, KTO ero UMU B CBoe BpeMJI Ha.l\eJIUJI. 1'13 BblllJeH3JIOeHHoro MOHO C.l\eJIaTb rJIaBHblM BbIBO.l\: nOCTaHOBKa Bonpoca 06 060c06JIeHHu «MYHHl.\UnaJIbHO-npaBoBoi1» OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B CHCTeMe OTpaCJIeBblX BU.l\OB IOpu.l\U'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU B Ka'leCTBe CaMOCTOJITeJIbHoro BU.l\a UMeeT no.l\ C060M HeKoTopble 06'beKTHBHble OCHO- BaHHJI, K KOTOpblM npe.l\e Bcero .l\OJIHa 6blTb OTHeceHa Cnel.\H<pHKa co- .l\epaHUJI H <pOpMbl :noi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. JJ:aHHaJI cnel.\u<pHKa onpe,l\e- JIJIeTCJI l.\eJIblO 3TOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH U Hau60JIee JIpKO npOJIBJIJIeTCJI B np0l.\e.l\ypHoM (npol.\eccyaJIbHoM) peUMe, oTpaalOll.\eM aTMoc<pepy .l\eJI- TeJIbHOCTU Bcex Y'lacTHHKoB OTHOllJeHui1, B paMKax KOTOpblX B03HUKaeT H peaJIH3yeTCJI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB H ,l\OJIHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHUJI nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHUeM, a TaKe B oco6eHHOCTJIX npaBoBoro UH- CTHTYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H .l\OJIHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHHJI nepe.l\ HaCeJIeHHeM. BOT JIU'Iue OT Bcex npO'lHX BH.l\OB OHa peaJIH- 3yeTCJI nOCpe.l\CTBOM UCnOJIb30BaHUJI HaCeJIeHHeM COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\erO npa- Ba, a He npaBonpHMeHeHUJI. COBpeMeHHbli1 ypOBeHb HaY'lHoro 3HaHHJI U COCTOJIHUe pa3pa6oTaHHOCTH np06JIeM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU B c<pepe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHUJI n03BOJIJIIOT Bbl.l\eJIUTb CJIe.nylOll.\ue HanpaBJieHI1JI I1CCJIe,l\OBaHHJI, n03BOJIJIIOll.\He pac- KpbITb oco6eHHOCTu 3TOro BH.l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 11 06eCne'll-ITb npH3HaHue ee o6oco6JIeHI1JI B CHCTeMe OTpaCJIeBblX BH,l\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH: 1) pa3BI1THe l1.l\eH 0 TOM, '1TO Ka.l\aJI OTpaCJIb npaBa .l\OJIHa o6ecne'll1- BaTb peaJIH3al.\HIO CBOUX HOpM c06CTBeHHblMH cpe.l\CTBaMU, BKJIIO'IaJII1 Mepbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH; OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe.l\ HaCeJIeHHeM He TOJIbKO YCTaHaB- JIUBaeTCJI HopMaMH MYHI1l.\HnaJIbHOrO npaBa, HO 11 peaJIH3yeTCJI B OTHOllJeHI1- JIX, KOTopble perYJIl1pYIOTCJI HopMaMH MYHI1l.\l1naJIbHoro npaBa - OTHOllJeHI1- JIX, CBJI3aHHbIX C opraHH3al.\Hei111 oCYll.\eCTBJIeHHeM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HHJI (MYHI1l.\HnaJIbHO" BJIaCTtI); 2) 06ocHoBaHI1e oco6eHHocTefi I1HcTHTYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB H .l\OJIHOCTHbIX JII1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHJI: npe.l\MeTa H MeTO.l\a peryJIH- N pOBaHHJI 06ll.\eCTBeHHblx OTHOllJeHHi1; <PYHKl.\Hi:r, KOTopble BbinOJIHJIeT OT- _ paCJIb npaBa B o6ll.\ei1 CHCTeMe npaBa; Cnel.\H<pHKH cTaTyca cy6'beKTOB npa- - 
BOOTHOllJeHui1; OC06eHHocTei1 IOpM,l\HqeCKOH npHpO,l\bl HenpaBOMepHOrO no- Be,l\eHHH B COOTBeTCTBYIOlI.\ei1 ccpepe; oc060i1 npOl.!e,l\ypbl ee peaJIM3al.!tm; 3) pa3pa60TKa np06JIeM MYHMl.!tmaJIbHoro IOpMC,l\HKI.!HOHHOro npol.!ecca, BblHBJIeHMe cneI.!M<pHKM npOl.!e,l\ypHoro pemMMa, oc06eHHocTei1 npaBoBoro cTaTyca cy6'beKTa IOpHC,l\UKI.!MH H <pOpMbl peaJIM3al.!MH npaBoBblx HOpM 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU opraHoB M ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHi.! MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHMeM. reHe3Hc HHcTJ.lTYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIJ.li.! Me- CTHOro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHHeM CBH,l\eTeJIbCTByeT 06 H3MeHe- HJ.lM cO,l\epmaHMH paccMaTpMBaelOro BH,l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM OT nOJIMTJ.lqeC- Kofl (B 3HaqHTeJIbHOfl CTeneHH) K c06cTBeHHo IOpH,l\MQeCKOfl, QTO n03BOJIHeT rOBopuTb 0 cYlI.\eCTBOBaHMH B npaBoBoM peryJIUpOBaHHH TeH,l\eHi.!HM K HHTe- rpai.!UH ,l\BYX BH,l\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHi.! MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH - nepe,l\ HaCeJIeHMeM J.I nepe,l\ rocY,l\apCTBoM. CYlI.\eCT- BeHHble QepTbl nocJIe,l\Hefl Tpe6YlOT caMOCTOHTeJIbHOrO paCCMOTpeHHH. 3.2, OTBETCTBEHHOCTb oprAHOB ItI AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlItIl..\ MECTHOro CAMOynPABJlEHltlfI nEPEA roCYAAPCTBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHi.! MecTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHHH nepe,l\ roCY,l\apCTBOM B CMJIY cBoero ,l\OCTaTOQHO 06lI.\ero HaMMeHO- BaHJ.lH Bbl3blBaeT HeKOTOpylO HeOnpe,l\eJIeHHOCTb B ee TpaKTOBKe J.I xapaK- TepHCTJ.lKe. B Tpa,l\Mi.!HOHHOM nOHMMaHHH IOpM,l\J.lQeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH JI1060i1 ee BH,l\ eCTb no CYTJ.I cBoei1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,l\ roCY,l\apCT- BOM 44B . rOCYAapcTBo 06eCneQUBaeT oxpaHY H 3alI.\HTY rpam,l\aH tI 06lI.\eCT- Ba OT npaBoHapYllJeHMi1 J.I onpe,l\eJIeHHblM 06pa30M peampyeT B CJIYQae COBepllJeHHH TaKOBbIX. I103TOMY HeKOTopble aBTopbl cnpaBe,l\JIMBO onpe,l\e- JIHIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB J.I ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIHi.! MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHMH nepe,l\ roCY,l\apCTBOM 1.UUP01i:O, paCCMaTpMBaH ee 1i:a1i: C0601i:yn- '/wcmt> pjioa ompaCJ!€6t>LX 6U006 Om6€1nCm6€'/!'/wcmu, TaKMX, KaK yroJIOB- HaH, a,l\MUHHCTpaTHBHaH KOHCTHTYI.!HOHHO-npaBoBaH 449 If ,l\ame ,l\HCI.!Hn- JIHHapHaH 450 . B ,l\aHHOM CJIYQae TPY,l\HO QTO-JIH60 B03pa3MTb, nOCKOJIbKY OTpaCJIeBOe 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbCTBO ,l\ei1cTBHTeJIbHO npe,l\YCMaTpMBaeT OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H ,l\OJImHOCTHbIX JIMi.! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH 3a COBllJeHHe a,l\MHHHCTpaTJ.IBHbIX, yroJIOBHblX H ,l\pyrHx npaBOHapYllJe- HMH '. «HenpaBoMepHble ,l\ei1cTBHH opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHMH (TaKtle, KaK nptlHHTJ.le pellJeHJ.lH, HapYllJalOlI.\ero 3aKOH, J.l3,l\aHtie npaBOBO- ro aKTa, npOTJ.lBopeQalI.\ero ,l\eflcTBYIOlI.\eMY 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbCTBY, H T.n.) BJIeKYT npHMeHeHHe cnei.!tlaJIbHblX Mep npHHym,l\eHHH C i.!eJIblO BOCCTa- HOBJIeHJ1H HapYllJeHHoro npaBOnOpfI,l\Ka. I10CKOJIbKY 3TH Mepbl npJ1MeHH- IOTCH roCY,l\apCTBOM J.I OT HMeHJ1 roCY,l\apCTBa, ,l\aHHblfl BH,l\ OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH <Pe,l\epaJIbHbIH 3aKOH ,,06 06lI.\HX npHHi.!HnaX opraHH3al.!HH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH B POCCHi1CKOfl <Pe,l\epai.!HW) J.lMeHyeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO f'("\ - - 
rrepe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM. I1pl1 3TOM peaJlbHbl" Yll.\ep6 rrpl1qHHHeTCH He 06H3a- TeJlbHO Herrocpe.n;CTBeHHO rocy.n;apCTBY H ero opraHaM. I10TeprreBIlJHMH MO- rYT 6blTb rpam.n;aHe, rrpe.n;rrpHHTI1H, yqpem.n:eHI1H, opraHH3al.\I1H, 06ll.\eCT- BeHHbie 06'be.n;I1HeHHH H .n;pyrHe cy6'beKTbl»452. B TO me BpeMH B MYHI1l.\l1rraJlbHo-rrpaBOBO" HaYKe HaH60Jlee pacrrpOCTpa- HeH .n;pyroM rro.n;xo.n;, B COOTBeTCTBtUi C KOTOpblM aBTopbl paCCMaTpl1BalOT OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 .n;OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1H ne- pe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM e Y3KO.M. C.II!t>lCJ!€ - KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, rrpe.nyCMOTpeH- HYIO COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\I1MI1 CTaTbHMI1 <Pe.n:epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa «06 06ll.\HX rrpHHl.\l1naX OpraHl13al.\HI1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H B POCCI1MCKOM <pe.n;e- pal.\I1H» (CT. 49 3aKoHa OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r. H CT. 72-74 3aKoHa B pe.n:aKl.\HI1 OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r.). Peqb H.n;eT 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H .n:OJlmHOCT- HblX JlI1l.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH 3a rrpaBoHapYllJeHHR B c<pepe MYHI1l.\H- rraJlbHoro rrpaBOTBOpqeCTBa H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a oCYll.\eCTBJleHl1e OT.n;eJlb- HblX rocy.n;apcTBeHHblx rrOJlHOMOQI1H. I1paKTi'IQeCKH Bce rrpe.n;cTaBHTeJlH MY- HI1l.\J-maJlbHO-rrpaBoBo" HaYKH, KOTopble TaK HJII1 J1HaQe 3aTparl1BalOT B CBO- HX pa60Tax rrp06J1eMbl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B ccpepe MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJle- HHH, rrblTalOTCH orrpe.n;eJlHTb MeCTO 3TOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B CI1CTeMe oTpac- JleBblX BI1.n;OB IOpH.n;HQeCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. O.n;HaKo HeJlb3H CKa3aTb, '!TO B HaCTOHll.\ee BpeMH 3TOT Borrpoc pellJeH 0.n;H03HaQHO. TaK, COrJlaCHO o.n;Hofl 113 CYll.\eCTBYIOll.\HX TOQeK 3peHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H .n;OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1H rrepe.n; rocy.n:apCT- BOM orrpe.n;eJlHeTCH KaK KOHCTHTYl.\HOHHO-rrpaBOBaH. «KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHO-rrpa- BOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H H BblOOpHblX .n;OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l.\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHI1H rrepe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM, - rrl1- llJeT B.11. Ea6u'l€e, - HacTyrraeT BCJle.n;CTBHe COBepllJeHHH HMH KOHCTI1TYl.\H- OHHo-rrpaBoBoro .n;eJlI1KTa H OCYll.\eCTBJlHeTCH B rropH.n;Ke, YCTaHOBJleHHOM rr. 3 CT. 49 <pe.n;epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa «06 06ll.\l1x rrpHHl.\l1rraX opraHH3al.\I1H MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHHH B POCCHMCKOH <pe.n;epal.\I1I1»453. I10.n; KOHCTHryl.\110HHO-rrpa- BOBblM .n;eJlHKTOM R11. Ea6U'I€e rrOHHMaeT HapYllJeHHe KOHCTHryl.\HH PCP, KOHCTHTYl.\I1H (ycTaBa) cy6'beKTa P<P, <pe.n;epaJlbHbIX 3aKOHOB 11 3aKOHOB cy6'beKTOB PCP, YCTaBa MYHI1l.\l1rraJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI1H (KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHO- rrpaBoBoH .n;eJlI1KT)454. AHaJlOrHQHblX B3rJlH.n;OB rrpH.n;epmHBalOTcH H HeKOTO- pble .n;pyrl1e aBTopbl 455 . TaK, B.cP. JI€eu'/i H c.r. nU.Un€'/iKO rrOJlaralOT, '!TO xapaKTepl1CTI1Ka MeCTHoro calOyrrpaBJleHI1H KaK cpOpMbl Hapo.n;oBJlaCTi'm, opraHoB MeCTHoro calOyrrpaBJleHHH KaK cy6'beKTOB rry6J1I1QHOfl BJlaCTi'I, a TaKme 3aKperrJleHHe .n;eMcTBYIOll.\HM 3aKOHo.n;aTeJlbCTBOM OCHOBaHHMI1 Mep HX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, aHaJlOrl1QHblX TeM, KOTopble rrpl1MeHHIOTCH K rocy.n;ap- CTBeHHblM opraHaM, .n;alOT OCHOBaHHH YTBepm.n;aTb, QTO KOHCTHTYl.\110HHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HeCYT H opraHbl, H .n;OJlmHOCTHble JlHl.\a MeCTHoro caMoyrr- paBJleHI1H, CJle.n;OBaTeJlbHO, HX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rrepe.n; rocy.n;apcTBoM HBJlH- eTCH KOHCTHTYl.\HOHHO-rrpaBOBofI 456 . Pa3HOBH.l\HOCTblO TaKoro rro.n;xo.n;a HBJlHeTCH rr0311l.\I1H aBTopOB YQe6HI1Ka  rro MYHHl.\HrraJlbHOMY rrpaBY rro.n; pe.n;aKl.\Hefl H.C. EO'/iOapH, KOTopble CQI1Ta- _ lOT, QTO B BblllJeHa3BaHHOM 3aKOHe rrpe.nyCMOTpeHa crrel.\I1<pI1QeCKaH KOHCTH- - 
TYLlIOHHo-npaBOBaJl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB H ,n:OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JIHLI MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepe,n: OpraHaMH rocy,n:apCTBeHHOM BJIaCTJ.1 457 . B H3BeCTHOM CMblCJIe K qHCJIY CTOpOHHI1KOB TpaKTOBKH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OpraHOB H ,n:OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepe,n: rocy,n:apCT- BOM KaK KOHCTJ.lTYLlJ.lOHHOii (KOHCTHTYLlJ.lOHHO-npaBOBOM) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH MOmHO OTHeCTH H TeX aBTOpOB, KOTOpble paCCIIIaTpHBalOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,n: HaCeJIeHJ.leM J.I rocy,n:apCTBOM KaK KOHCTJ.ITYLlI10HHYI0458 JIH60 06'be,n:l1- HHIOT TaKJ.lM nOHHTI1eM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,n: HaCeJIeHJ.leM, rocy,n:apCTBOM, <p113HqeCKI1MH H IOpH,n:HqeCKHMI1 JIHl.\aIllH 459 . I1pe,n:cTaBJ.lTeJIH ,n:pyroM TOqKH 3peHJ.lH onpe,n:eJIHIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,n: rocy,n:apCTBOM KaK rocy,n:apCTBeHHO-npaBOBYI0460. TaK, E.M. Ko- 6€W1iU'K06 mUlleT: "PaCKpbIBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H ,n:OJImHOCT- HblX JII1l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH nepe,n: rocy,n:apCTBOM, CT. 49 <Pe,n:e- paJIbHOrO 3aKOHa onpe,n:eJIHeT cJIe,n:YIOII.\He YCJIOBHH rocy,n:apcTBeHHo-npa- BOBOM oTBeTcTBeHHOCTI1...»461. «He06xo,n:HMO I1MeTb B BI1,n:y, - OTMeqaeT K.U. AMUp6€'K06, - qTO IOpl1,n:l1qeCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npe,n:cTaBI1TeJIb- Horo opraHa 11 Bbl6opHOro JII1l.\a MYHI1L1l1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1fI (fJiaBbl H ,n:enYTaTa) nepe,n: rocy,n:apcTBoM, npe,n:ycMoTpeHHaJl B n. 3 CT. 49 3aKoHa ,,06 06I1.\I1x npl1HLll1naX OpraHI13aLll1H MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHJI», TaKme HOCHT rocy,n:apcTBeHHo-npaBoBofl xapaKTep, T.e. npe,n:cTaBJIJleT c060fl ro- cy,n:apcTBeHHo-npaBoBoM BJ.I,n: IOpH,n:HQeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I, TaK KaK 3TI1 cy6'beKTbl JlBJIJlIOTCH B MYHI1l.\l1naJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1J1x HOnlTeJIJlIIUI Hapo,n:oBJIaCTJ.IH... OTJIHQHTeJIbHaH 'lepTa rocy,n:apCTBeHHo-npaBOBOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH OT ,n:pyrJ.lx BH,n:OB IOpl1,n:HQeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH COCTOHT H B TOM, QTO cy6'beKTbl rocy,n:apCTBeHHo-npaBOBbIX HapYlIleHl1f! HeCYT ee nepe,n: rocy,n:apCTBOM B JIHl.\e ero npe,n:CTaBl.lTeJIbHbIX (3aKOHo,n:aTeJIbHbIX) opraHOB rocy,n:apCTBeHHOM BJiaCTI1, a HMeHHO cy6'beKTbl PcP Hero opraHbl BJiaCTH - nepe,n: npe,n:CTaBHTeJIbHbIM (3aKOHo,n:aTeJIbHbIM) opraHOM PCP, MYHI1l.\tmaJIbHble 06pa30BaHI1H, I1X opraHbl J.I Bbl60pHbie JIHl.\a - nepe,n: npe,n:CTaBHTeJIbHbIMH (3aKOHo,n:aTeJIbHbIMI1) opraHaMH cy6'beKTOB PCP, Bbl- 60pHbie JIJ.ll.\a - nepe,n: H36paBlIII1M J.lX Hapo,n:OM»462. HaKOHel.\, co,n:epmaHl1e TpeTbeM TOQKJ.I 3peHJ.lfI COCTOI1T B onpe,n:eJIeHI1I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe,n: rocy,n:apCTBOM KaK ny6JII1QHO-npaBOBofl OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 463 . TaK, M.A. KpaC1i06 nl1lI1eT: «B nYHKTe 1 CTaTbl149 rOBOpHTCJI 0 Hac-rynJIeHI1I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H 3a Ha- pYlIleHJ.le onpe,n:eJIeHHblX HOpMaTI1BHO-npaBoBblx aKTOB. PeQb B 3TOM cJIYQae l1,n:eT TOJIbKO 0 ny6JII1QHO-npaBoBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHI1J1 3a HapYlIleHJ.le HOpM npaBa. TaKoM BbIBO,n: CJIe,n:yeT H3 ,n:OKT- pHHaJIbHoro TOJIKOBaHHH ,n:aHHoM CTaTbl1 3aKoHa»464. I1pl1 3TOM M.A. Kpac- 1i06 He CQHTaeT Heo6xo,n:tllllblM ,n:11<p<pepeHLll1pOBaTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opra- HOB H ,n:OJImHOCTHbIX JIHLI MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHJI no npH3HaKaM ny6.JmQ- HOM J.I QaCTHOnpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. 110 ero MHeHl1lO, OTeQeCTBeHHblM 3aKOHo,n:aTeJIb nOCTymm BnOJIHe JIOrl1QHO, He nblTaHCb Bbl,n:eJIHTb B <Pe,n:e- paJIbHOM 3aKOHe ,,06 06I1.\HX npJ.lHl.\HnaX opraHH3al.\HH MecTHoro caMoynpaB-  - - 
JIeHHH B PoccuticKoM <Pe.n;epal.\HH» OCHOBaHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - qaCTHble H rry6JIHqHble, TaK KaK He Bcer.n;a MOHO CTporo pa3rpaHHqUTb .n;eMCTBHH, CBH- 3aHHbie HJIH He CBH3aHHble Herrocpe.n;CTBeHHO C OCYlI.\eCTBJleHHeM MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJleHHH 465 . no MHemno K.U. AfttUp6e'K06a, rrOHHTHe «rry6JIHqHO- rrpaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» HBJIHeTCH 060611.\alOII.\HM rro OTHomeHHIO K KOH- CTHTYl.\HOHHOH H MYHHl.\HrraJlbHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH rre- pe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM H rrepe.n; HaCeJIeHHeM)466. AHaJIH3HpYH rrptIBe.n;eHHble Bblme TOqKH 3peHHH, HeTpy.n;HO 3aMenlTb, qTO BbIBO.n;bl rrpOl.\HTHpOBaHHbIX aBTopOB HMelOT B CBoeM OCHOBe COOTHece- Hue oc06eHHOCTeH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (ee HopManIBHot"1 KOHCTPYKl.\HH) opra- HOB H .n;OJIHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH 3a COBepmeHHe rrpa- BOHapymeHHH B c<pepe rrpaBOTBOpqeCTBa C HaH60JIee xapaKTepHblMH qep- TaMU KOHCTHTYl.\UOHHO-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb e 3THX cy6'beKTOB 3a OCYlI.\eCTBJIeHUe OT.n;eJIbHbIX rocy.n;apCTBeHHblX rrOJIHO- MOqHt"1 OCTaeTCH BHe rrOJIH 3peHHH yqeHblX. ABTOMaTHqeCKOe OTHeceHHe Ta- KOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH K TOMY HJIH HHOMY OTpaCJIeBOMY BH.n;y OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH BCJIe.n; 3a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO opraHOB H .n;OJIHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHtlfi 3a rrpaBoHapymeHl1e Bbl3bIBaeT pH.n; BorrpOCOB, rrOCKOJIb- KY ye rrpH rrepBOM paCCMOTpeHI1H B03HHKalOT orrpe.n;eJIeHHble COMHeHHH B 3HaqHTeJIbHOM Cxo.n;CTBe H TeM 60JIee To.n;eCTBe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a rrpa- BOHapymeHHe H OTBeTCTBeHHocnl3a OCYlI.\eCTBJleHHe OT.n;eJIbHbIX rocy.n;ap- CTBeHHblX rrOJIHOMOqHt"I. «HeJIb3H He 3aMenlTb, - rrHmeT M.A. KpaC'lt06, - qTO B pa3Hbix rrYHKTax CTaTbl1 49 3aKoHa peqb HJ\eT 0 BeCbMa pa3JI1'lqHblX BH.n;ax OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, rrOCKOJIbKY, rrpe.n;e Bcero, Heo.n;I1HaKOBbl ee OCHOBaHHH (He rOBopH ye 0 TOM, qTO B O.n;HOM cJlyqae OCHOBaHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH C<POPMYJlHpOBaHO B HeranIBHOM opMe «3a HapymeHHe», a B .n;pyroM - B rr03HTHBHOM «3a oCYlI.\e- CTBJleHl1e»)4 . B rrepBOM CJIyqae peqb H.n;eT 0 HapymeHlm COOTBeTCTBYIOII.\I1- MH opraHaMH H .n;OJIHOCTHbIMH JIHl.\aMU rrpaBOBblX aKTOB. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H .n;OJIHOCTHbIX JIHl.\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH nepe.n; rocy.n;apCT- BOM HacTyrraeT TOJlbKO B cJlyqae HapymeHHH KOHCTf1TYl.\HH POCCHMCKOM <Pe- .n;epal.\HH, KOHCTI1TYl.\HH, YCTaBa cy6'beKTa POCCHt"ICKOt"1 <pe.n;epal.\HH, <Pe.n;e- paJlbHblX 3aKOHOB, 3aKOHOB POCCHilcKot"1 <pe.n;epal.\HH. YCTaBa MYHUl.\l1rraJlb- HOro 06pa30BaHHH. Bo BTOpOM cJlyqae roBOpHTCH 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a ocy- lI.\eCTBJleHHe OT.n;eJlbHbIX rocy.n;apCTBeHHblX rrOJIHOMOqHt"1 B TOM Mepe, B KaKOM 3TH nOJIHOMOql'IH 06eCneqeHbi COOTBeTCTBYlOlI.\HMH opraHaMH rocy.n;apCTBeH- HOM BJIacnl MaTepHaJlbHblMI1 H <pHHaHCOBbIMH cpe.n;CTBaMH. TaKHM 06pa30M, B03HHKaeT ell.\e o.n;Ha rrp06J1eMa - rrOHCK OTBeTa Ha BO- npoc, KaKI1M 06pa30M MOeT 6blTb «n03Hl.\HOHHpOBaHa» B CHCTeMe IOpl1.n;Hqe- CKOt"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJle- HHH 3a OCYlI.\eCTBJleHue OT.n;eJlbHbIX rocy.n;apCTBeHHblX rrOJIHOMOqHt"I. O.n;HaKO rrpe.n;e qeM Ha Hero OTBenlTb, paCCMOTpHM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha3BaHHbiX cy6'beKTOB 3a npaBoHapymeHl1e. \0 POCCHMCKaH KOHCTHTYl.\HH 1993 r.11 <Pe.n;epaJlbHbIM3aKoH 1995 r. rrpOB03- ;:: rJlaCHJlH caMOCTOHTeJlbHOCTb MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH. STO, KOHeqHO, He 
03HaqaeT, qTO CHCTeMa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHJI nOJlHOCTblO 060COOJleHa OT rocy.n;apCTBeHHOM BJlaCTtI. C O.n;HOM CTOpOHbI, rocy.n;apCTBeHHaJl BJlaCTb 06J13aHa co.n;eikTBOBaTb pa3BHTI11O MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHJI, C .n;pyrofl - MeCTHOe caMoynpaBJleHl1e .n;OmKHO OCYlI.\eCTBJIJlTbCJI B paMKaX 3aKOHa 11 He- CTH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb He TOJlbKO nepe.n; MeCTHbIM COOOlI.\eCTBOM, HO H nepe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM. KpOMe TOro, npHHl.\Hn OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ.lJI nepe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM BbITeKae-r H3 Tpe6oBaHJ.lJI e.n;HHCTBa Bcex qaCTeM rocy.n;apCTBa 46B . OpraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHJI JlBJIJlIOTCJI opraHaMH nYOJlHqHOM BJIaCTJ.I Ha TeppJ.lTOpHH COOTBeTCTBYIOlI.\ero MYHHLll1naJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHJI, peaJlH3YJl nocpe.n;CTBOM co6CTBeHHoii KOMneTeHl.\HH, 3aKpenJleHHOM YCTaBOM MYHHl.\HnaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHI1fI, nOJlHOMOqHfI MYHI1l.\l1naJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHfI no npe.n;Me-raM ero Be.n;eHl1fI - BonpocaM MeCTHoro 3HaqeHJ.lfI 469 . Cnel.\HaJlbHbIM IOpH.n;11QeCKHM cnoco60M OCYlI.\eCTBJleHHJI MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJleHHJI opraHaMJ.I MecTHoro calOynpaBJleHHJI JlBJIfIeTCfI J.l3.n;aHHe (npl1- HfITHe) J.lMH npaBOBbIX aKTOB no BonpocaM HX Be.n;eHHfI. PeaJll13YfI 3TO nOJlHO- MOQI.le, npe.n;CTaBlneJlbHble opraHbI MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHfI 06pa3YIOT JlOKaJlbHYIO npaBOBYIO CHCTeMY, KOTopafI .n;omKHa .n;onOJlHJlTb cpe.n;epaJlbHOe 3aKOHo.n;aTeJlbCTBO H 3aKOHo.n;aTeJlbCTBO cy6'beKTa POCCHMCKOM <1>e.n;epal.\HH (a OTHIO.n;b He npOTHBOCTOfITb) H C03.n;aBaTb BMeCTe C HHMH l.\eJlOCTHYIO CHCTe- MY Koop.n;I1HaT nOBe.n;eHHfI Ha TeppJ.lTOpHH MYHJ.ll.\JmaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHJ.lJl 470 . JIIOoofl BJ.I.n; IOpH.n;J.lQeCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npeCJle.n;yeT 06lI.\He l.\eJlJ.l - B03Me3.n;He 3a COBepllJeHHOe npaBOHapYllJeHJ.le, npe.n;ynpem.n;eHHe ero CO- BepllJeHJ.lJI J.I o6eCneQeHJ.le TaKHM o6pa30M pemHMa 3aKOHHOCTJ.I. npHMeHH- TeJlbHO K Kam.n;oMY BJ.I.n;y OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3TH l.\eJlH KOHKpeTH3HpYIOTCfI, «npHcnoca6J1JofBaIOTCfI» K onpe.n;eJleHHOM c<pepe OTHOllJeHJ.lfl. «CneLll1aJlb- HOM» l.\eJlblO KOHCTHTYl.\J.lOHHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH JlBJlJleTCJI 06eCneQeHHe C06J1IO.n;eHl1fI KOHCTI1TYLlI1J.1 H OCHOBHbIX npHHLlJ.lnOB, elO 3aKpenJlfIeMbIX, 3a- lI.\J.lTa KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHbIX HOpM, a TaKme npaB 11 CBo6o.n; rpam.n;aH. npHMeHJ.I- TeJlbHO K opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHJ.lfI peQb l1.n;eT 0 3alI.\HTe Bepxo- BeHCTBa KoHCTHTYLlHH, ee IOpH.n;HQeCKOH CHJlbI (Q. 2 CT. 4, Q.1 CT. 15 KOHCTI1- TYLlHJ.I p<1»471 H HX KOHCTHTYl.\HOHHOfl o6fI3aHHocTH C06J1IO.n;aTb KOHCTtITY- l.\HIO J.l3aKOHbl (Q. 2 CT. 15 KOHCTHTYLlIUl p<1»472. HecMoTpfI Ha Bce MHoroo6pa3He B3rJlfI.n;OB Ha KOHCTHTYl.\J.lOHHYIO OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb H cOOTBeTcTBylOlI.\I1X onpe.n;eJleHHM ee CYlI.\HOCTJ.I, MomHO roBO- pHTb 0 TOM, QTO KOHCTHTYl.\HOHHafI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B caMOM OOlI.\eM BH.n;e - 3TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HeBbInOJlHeHHe (HeHa.n;JlemalI.\ee HCnOJlHeHHe) cy6'beKTaMH npaBa CBOHX KOHCTJ.lTYl.\HOHHbIX 06fI3aHHOCTeM H 3a 3J1oyno- Tpe6J1eHHe CBOHMH KOHCTHTYLlHOHHbIMJ.I npaBaMH 473 . OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb op- raHOB H .n;OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHl.\ MecTHoro calOynpaBJleHHfI nepe.n; rocy.n;apCT- BOM 6a3HpyeTcfI Ha KOHCTHTYLlJ.lOHHOM 06fI3aHHOCTH opraHOB H .n;OJlmHOCT- HblX JlHLI MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHJI C06J1IO.n;aTb 3aKOHbI J.I rapaHTJ.lfIX HX caMOCTOfITeJlbHOCTH npH OCYlI.\eCTBJleHJ.IJ.I CBmlX nOJlHOMOQI1H B YCTaHOB- 474 JleHHbIX npe.n;eJlax . r- - - 
I1pe,n:CTaBJIHeTCH He060CHOBaHHbIM pa3rpaHI1qeHI1e «KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOfl» 11 «rocy,n:apCTBeHHO-npaBOBOt!" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoyn- paBJIeHI1H H I1X ,n:OmKHOCTHbIX JII'Il\, KaK 3TO ,n:eJIalOT HeKOTOpb!e 113 npOl\I1TH- pOBaHHbIX aBTOpOB. HeCMOTpH Ha 06UHlPHYlO np06JIeMaTI1KY KOHCTI1TYl\I10H- HOt! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H aKnlBHYIO nOJIeMI1KY cpe,n:I1 IOpI1CTOB, BCe aBTOpb! CXO,n:HTCH B O,n:HOM - ee l\eJIb H <PYHKl\I1H COCTOHT B 06eCneqeHI1I1 BepXOBeH- CTBa H npfIMoro ,n:efICTBHfI KOHCTI1TYl\I1H, ee OXpaHe H npe.n:ynpe,n:eHI1H Ha- pYllleHHfl KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOrO npaBOnOpfI,n:Ka. OqeBI1,n:HO, qTO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb, KOTOPYIO aBTOpbI Ha3bIBalOT rocy,n:apCTBeHHO-npaBOBOt! 11 HaCTaHBa- lOT Ha TOM, qTO 3TO CaMOCTOfITeJIbHblt! BI1,n: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, OTJIHqHblfl OT KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHO-npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCnl, npeCJIe.n:yeT I1MeHHO 3TI1 l\e- JII1. KpOMe TOrO, Me,n:y HI1MH HeT pa3HI1l\bl C TOQKI1 3peHI1H OCHOBaHI1fl 3TOfi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, ee Mep (CaHKl\I1t!), npaBOBOrO cTaTyca OTBeTCTBeHHbIX cy6'beKTOB 11 cy6'beKTOB, npI1MeHfIlOll.\HX MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 (caHKl\Jm), a TaKe nOpH,l\Ka (npOl\e,n:ypbI) 11 <pOpMbI peaJII13al\I1I1. I103TOMY eCTb Bce OC- HOBaHI1H YTBep,n:aTb, QTO ,n:aHHblt! BH,n: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MoeT 6bITb onpe- ,n:eJIeH KaK KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. B pa3Hble rO,l\bI aBTopbI Ha3blBaJII1 ee «rocy,n:apCTBeHHo-npaBOBofl,,475, «KOHCTI1ryl\I10HHO-npaBOBot!" I1JII1 «KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOH» 476 OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TblO. B 3HaQI1TeJIbHOfl CTeneHI1 3TO CBH3aHO C I13MeHeHI1eM HaI1MeHOBaHHH OTpaCJII1 (OT rocy,n:apCTBeHHoro npaBa K KOHCTHTYl\I10HHOMY npaBY), OTpac- JIeBbIM BH,n:OM KOTOpOt! OHa fIBJIfIeTCfI, 11 nepeOCMblCJIeHI1eM ee MeCTa H pOJIH B CI1CTeMe pOCCI1t!CKoro npaBa. B HaCTOHll.\ee BpeMfI paCCMaTpHBaeMblfl BH,n: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ha3bIBalOT KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOt! (KOHCTHTYl\HOHHO-npaBO- BOt!) B COOTBeTCTBI1H C Ha3BaHI1eM OCHOBHOt! OTpaCJII1 pOCCHflCKOro npaBa «KOHCTI1ryl\I10HHOe npaBO» H CcpOpMJ1pOBaBlllHXCH B npaBOBofl HaYKe npe,n:- CTaBJIeHI1fIO KOHCTJ1TYl\I10HHO-npaBOBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. CJIe,n:yeT OTMenITb, QTO no 3TOMY nOBO,n:y CYll.\eCTBYIOT H ,n:pynle TOQKI1 3peHI1H. TaK, H.B. BumpYK CQHTaeT, 'lT0 B HaCTOHll.\ee BpeMH npOI1Cxo,n:I1T He060CHOBaHHoe paClllI1peHI1e npe,n:MeTa KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOrO npaBa (ero co- ,n:epaHI1e OrpaHI1QI1BaeTCH co,n:epaHI1eM KOHCTI1TYl\J1I1 PCP, KOHCTI1TYl\I1t! (YCTaBOB) cy6'beKTOB PCP, pellleHI1HMI1 11 npaBOBbIMI1 n03I1l\HHMI1 KOHCTI1TY- l\I10HHOro Cy,n:a PCP, KOHCTHTYl\I10HHbIX Cy,n:OB cy6'beKTOB PCP, a TaKe, B03- MOHO, KOHCTI1TYl\HOHHbIMI1 06bIQaHMI1) 3a CQeT rocy,n:apCTBeHHoro npaBa, KOTopoe BKJIIOQaeT B ce6fI napJIaMeHTCKoe npaBo, a,n:MHHHCTpaTI1BHOe, pe- rYJIHTI1BHOe npaBo, cy,n:e6Hoe npaBo. CooTBeTcTBeHHo B MOHorpa<pI1Hx 0 KOHCTI1TYl\HOHHO-npaBoBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 ee npe,n:MeT paclllHpHeTcfI 3a CQeT rocy,n:apcTBeHHo-npaBoBoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 MI1HI1CTpOB, cy,n:et! 11 T.,n:., XOTH Henocpe,n:cTBeHHo 3,n:ecb peQI1 0 KOHCTI1ryl\I10HHOt! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 HeT 11 6bITb He MoeT477. KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO, no MHeHI110 H.B. Bumpy'/w, MOHO CQI1TaTb TOJIbKO TY, KOTopaH npe,n:ycMoTpeHa KOH- CTHTYl\Het! PcP 11 KOHCTI1TYl\I1HMH cy6'beKTOB PCP. KOHCTI1TYl\I10HHaH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb I1MeeT Ha,n:oTpaCJIeBYIO npI1po,n:y 11 xapaKTep, QTO onpe,n:eJIHeT Cnel\H<pI1KY ee l\eJIet! 11 <PYHKl\I1fl - 06eCneQeHI1e BepxoBeHcTBa 11 npHMoro a) - - 
,n:eMCTBHH KOHCTtITYl\HU pcp, ee OXpaHa, rrpe,n:yrrpe,n:eHUe HapYllJeHHl1 KOHCTHTYl\HOHHOrO rrpaBOrrOpH,n:Ka, C06.JIIO,n:eHue 3aKOHHOCTH H CrrpaBe,n:JIJ.!- v 47B BOe B03Me3,n:Ue ,n:nH HapYllJUTeneU KOHCTHTYl\HU O,n:HaKO, ,n:ae rrpHHHBTOqKY 3peHHH H.B. BumpY'Ka, TPy,n:HO cornaCHTb- CH C xapaKTepUCTUKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU opraHOB MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBne- HUH H UX ,n:onHOCTHbIX nUl\ rrepe,n: rocy,n:apCTBOM KaK HeKoero caMOCTOH- TenbHoro BH,n:a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH - rocy,n:apCTBeHHo-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH, OTnHqHOM OT KOHCTHTYl\HOHHO-rrpaBOBofl (KOHCTHTYl\HOHHOM). OrneTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB U ,n:onHOCTHbIX nHl\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIe- HHH 3a OCYll\eCTBJIeHHe OT,n:eJIbHbIX rOCYAapCTBeHHblX rronHoMOqufl B MeHb- llJeM CTeneHU BbI3bIBaeT UHTepec yqeHbIX, 6oJIbllJHHCTBO H3 KOTOpbIX OTMan- qHBaIOTCH rro BOrrpocy onpe,n:eneHUH ee MeCTa B CUCTeMe OTpaCJIeBblX BH,n:OB IOpu,n:UqeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU. Cpe,n:u Tex, KTO Bee e rrbITaeTCH HaMTU OT- BeT Ha 3TOT BOnpoc, CYll\ecTBYIOT orrpe,n:eneHHbIe pa3HornaCHH. OqeBH,n:HO, qTO aBTopbI nbITalOTCH pellJUTb cpa3Y ,n:Be rrp06JIeMbl. I1epBaH COCTOHT B YCTaHOB- neHHU To,n:eCTBa nu60 npUHl\mUanbHbIX pa3JIUqUM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU opra- HOB U ,n:OJIHOCTHbIX JIUl\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHUH 3a rrpaBOHapYllJeHUe B ccpepe MYHUl\HrraJIbHOrO rrpaBOTBOpqeCTBa H UX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a oCYll\e- CTBJIeHl1e OT,n:enbHbIX rocy,n:apCTBeHHblX rrOJIHOMOqUM, BTopaH - B orrpe,n:ene- HHI1 MeCTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a OCYll\eCTBJIeHUe OT,n:eJIbHbIX rocy,n:apCTBeHHblX nOJIHOMOqUM B CI1CTeMe OTpaCJIeBbIX BU)\OB IOpH,n:I.(qeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU. TaK, M.A. KpaC'/i06 Cql.ITaeT, 'ITO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB MecTHoro ca- MoyrrpaBJIeHUH nepe,n: rocy,n:apcTBoM 3a rrpaBoHapYllJeHHe H 3a oCYll\eCTBJIe- Hue OT,n:eJIbHbIX rocy,n:apCTBeHHblX nOJIHOMOqHM - BeCbMa fsa3JIUqHbIe BH,n:bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU, rrOCKOJIbKY HeO.l\lHfaKOBbI ee OCHOBaHI1H 4 9. .D:aHHaH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb He COOTBeTcTByeT xapaKTepy H HarrpaBJIeHHOCTH OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTH 3a npaBOHapYllJeHHe. Peqb H,n:eT He 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU opraHoB MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHUH 3a HapYllJeHUe 3aKOHHOCTH B HX ,n:eHTeJIbHOCTU, a 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU 3a 3<p<peKTuBHoe oCYll\eCTBJIeHHe )\eJIerHpOBaHHbIX UM OT- ,n:enbHblX rocy,n:apCTBeHHblX nOJIHOMOql1fl. KpuTepHeM 3,n:eCb BbIcTynaeT He 3aKOHHOCTb, a l\eJIeC006pa3HOCTb ynpaBJIeHqeCKOM ,n:el'ITeJIbHOCTU opraHa MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHUH, ee KaqeCTBO. PeanH3al\HH 3TOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TU rrpe,n:rrOJIaraeT oc06ylO rrpOl\e,n:ypy KOHTpOJIH H Ol\eHKH, Kpl1TepHU TaKOM 0l\eHK11 H CaHKl\HU B CJIyqae Hey,n:OBJIeTBOpHTenbHoro OCYll\eCTBneHHH ,n:eJIe- rl1pOBaHHblX rocy,n:apCTBeHHblX rrOJIHOMOqUM. "OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,n: ro- cy,n:apCTBOM (B CJIyqae HapYllJeHUH KOHCTHTYl\HU POCCUMCKOM CPe)\epal\HU, <pe,n:epaJIbHoro, pemOHanbHoro 3aKOHo,n:aTenbCTBa), - nUllJeT KU. A.Mup6e- K06, - HOCUT rocy,n:apCTBeHHo-rrpaBOBofl xapaKTep, BO BTOpOM CJIyqae (3a He- HCnOJIHeHUe OT,n:enbHbIX rocy,n:apCTBeHHbIX nOJIHOMOql.IM) - yrrpaBJIeHqeC- KHM, rrpu KOTOpOM HHeCTOHll\HM opraH HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rrepe)\ BbI- llJeCTOHll\HM KaK ero CTPYKTypHoe rro,n:pa3,n:eneHue UJIH 3BeHO, Bxo,n:Hll\l1e B 4BO e,n:I1HYIO CUCTeMY" CTOpOHHUKH ,n:pyrofl TOqKH 3peHHH rronaralOT, qTO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepe,n: rocy,n:apCTBOM O,n:HopOJ{Ha. OHa HacTyrraeT rrpH OCYll\eCTBJIeHIHI op- raHaMU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH KaK CBOHX c06CTBeHHbIX, TaK U ,n:eJIe- 0\ - - 
rHpOBaHHblX (nepe.n;aHHbIX) nOJIHOMOqHM. B COqeTaHHH C KOHCTHTYl\HOH- HblM npHHl\HnOM CaMOCTOHTeJIbHOCTH MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb 3THX OpraHOB B c<pepe cBoero Be.n;eHHH nepe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM 03HaqaeT, qTO rocy.n;apCTBO OTpHl\aTeJIbHO pearJ.lpyeT TOJIbKO Ha Te npOHB- JIeHHH .n;eHTeJIbHOCTH OpraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, KOTOpble npe.n;- CTaBJIHIOT co6ofl npaBOHapYllleHHH 4B '. I10CKOJIbKY .n;eJIerJ.lpOBaHHe nOJIHO- MOqJ.lM O<pOpMJIHeTCH 3aKOHOM, TO HX HeJ.lCnOJIHeHHe o6pa3ye-r COCTaB npa- BOHapYllleHJ.lH. 3HaqHT, YCJIOBJ.lH HacTynJIeHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH 3a HeHCnOJIHeHHe .n;eJIerHpOBaHHbIX nOJIHOMO- qJ.lH aHaJIOrHqHbl YCJIOBHHM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH npH peaJIJ.l3al\HH C06CTBeH- Hofl KOMneTeHl\J.lH 4B2 . CJIe.n;YH 3TOfi JIOrJ.lKe, npe.n;CTaBHTeJIH .n;aHHOfl TOqKJ.I 3peHHH paCCMaTpHBalOT npeKpallleHJ.le OpraHOM BJiaCTH, .n;eJIerHpOBaB- llIJ.1M .n;pyrOMY OpraHY CBOH nOJIHOMOqHH, TaKoro .n;eJIerJ.lpOBaHHH B CJIyqae HeHa.n;JIe:1Kalllero OCYllleCTBJIeHHH nOJIHOMOqJ.lM KaK <POPMY KOHCTHTYl\H- v 483 OHHO- npaBOBOJ.l OTBe-rCTBeHHOCTH He OTpHl\aIOT B03MO:1KHOCTH TaKoro no.n;xo.n;a J.I HX onnOHeHTbI. TaK, K.U. A.Mup6eKo6, nHllIeT 0 TOM, qTO nepe.n;aqa opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HJ.lH OT.n;eJIbHbIX rocy.n;apCTBeHHblX nOJIHOMOqHH npOHcxo.n;J.lT Ha OCHOBaHHJ.I 3aKOHa H 3TO MO:1KeT HBJlHTbCH npe.n;nOCblJIKOfl KOHCTaTal\J.lH <paKTa HeJ.lC- nOJIHeHHH npe.n;nJ1caHHH 3aKOHa 4B4 . I1pe.n;CTaBJIHeTCH, qTO B .n;aHHOM CJIyqae HeT .n;OCTaTOqHbIX OCHOBaHJ.lfl BeCTH peqb 0 KaKOM-TO cBoeo6pa3HOM OTpac- JIeBOM BH.n;e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. HaJIHl\o npOCTO .n;pyroe OCHOBaHJ.le OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH, .n;pyroM «COCTaB» (.n;eJIHKT). Mbl:1Ke He roBOpJ.lM 0 caMOCTOHTeJIb- HOM BH.n;e OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH BCHKHfl pa3, Kor.n;a paCCMaTplmaeM pa3JIJ.lqHble COCTaBbl npecTynJIeHJ.lH. AHaJIOrnqHaH n03J.1l\J.lH .n;OJI:1KHa 6blTb Bbl.n;ep:1KaHa H B OTHOllleHHH KOHCTHTYl\HOHHo-npaBOBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJ.I, J.I B 3TOM qac- TJ.I nOMep:1KaHbI B033peHHH Tex aBTopOB. KOTopble He BJ.I.n;HT npHHl\HnHaJIb- HblX OTJIHql'IM (c TOqKJ.I 3peHHH OTpaCJIeBOfl KJIaCCJ.I<pJ.lKal\J.U1 OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTJ.I) Me:1K.n;y OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH 3a Ha- pYllleHHe KOHCTHTYl\HJ.I J.I 3aKOHo.n;aTeJIbCTBa H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO 3a ocy- llleCTBJIeHJ.le (HeHa.n;JIe:1Kall\ee OCYll\eCTBJIeHHe) OT.n;eJIbHbIX rocy.n;apCTBeH- HblX nOJIHOMOqHfl. COOTBeTCTBYIOIl\J.le ".n;eJIHKTbi» 06pa3YlOT OCHOBaHHH KOHCTHTYl\HOHHOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H .n;OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JIHl\ MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH. OrBeTcTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H .n;OJI:1KHOCTHbIX JIJ.ll\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HHH nepe.n; rocy.n;apCTBOM 3a OCYll\eCTBJIeHHe OT.n;eJIbHbIX rocy.n;apCTBeHHblX nOJIHOMOqHH BblTeKaeT H3 oco6oro xapaKTepa B3aHMo.n;eMCTBHH rocy.n;apCTBa H MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI'IH. KoHCTJ.lTYl\I1H POCCJ.lMCKOM <Pe.n;epal\HH H <Pe- .n;epaJIbHblM 3aKOH onpe.n;eJIHIOT B03MO:1KHOCTb Ha.n;eJIeHHH opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH OT.n;eJIbHbIMI1 rocy.n;apCTBeHHbIMI1 nOJIHOMOqI1HMH. qTO Bbl- 3bIBaeT Heo6xo.n;HMOCTb 3aKpe[IJleHI1H HeKOTopblX cne'tfUlpU 1 teCKUX oco6e1l- 1l0cmeu 3m020 63atutoaeUCm6UJi 485 . 1. Ha.n;eJIeHI1e opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH OT.n;eJIbHbIMI1 rocy.n;ap- CTBeHHbIMI1 nOJIHOMOql'IHMH oCYll\eCTBJIHeTCH TOJIbKO <pe.n;epaJIbHbIMI1 3aKO- HaMI1 JIH60 3aKOHaMH cy6'beKTa POCCHMCKOM <pe.n;epal\I1I1. o N - 
2, HaAeJIeHHe rocYAapcTBeHHblMH nOJIHOMO'IHHMH npoHcxoAHT C OAHO- BpeMeHHoM nepeAa'Ieii MYHHL\HnaJIbHbIM opraHaM HeooxoAHMblX MaTepl1- aJIbHbIX 11 <pHHaHcoBblx pecypCOB. 3, PeaJIH3aL\HH nepeAaHHbIX nOJIHOMO'IHfl nOAKOHTpOJIbHa rOCYAapCTBY. YCJIOBI1H H nopHAOK KOHTpOJIH 3a OCYIl\eCTBJIeHHeM opraHaMI1 MeCTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHHH OTAeJIbHbIX roCYAapCTBeHHbIX nOJIHOMO'lHl1 onpeAeJIHIOTCH COOTBeTCTBeHHO <peAepaJIbHblMH 3aKOHaMI1 11 3aKOHaMI1 cYO'beKTOB POCCMH- CKOH <PeAepaL\HI1. 4.0praHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH H AOJImHOCTHble JIHL\a MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHMH Hec)'T OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a oCYIl\eCTBJIeHHe OTAeJIbHbIX ro- cYAapcTBeHHblx nOJIHOMO'lHM B TOM Mepe, B KaKofl 3TM nOJIHOMO'lHH ooecne- 'IeHbI COOTBeTCTBYIOIl\HMM MaTepHaJIbHblMH H <pMHaHCOBbIMH pecypcaMH. OpraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHMH MOrYT OblTb HaAeJIeHbl OTAeJIbHbIMH rOCYlJapCTBeHHbIMM nOJIHOMO'IMHMI1, peaJIl13aW'IH KOTOpbIX nOllKOHTpoJIbHa OpraHaM roCYAapcrBeHHOH BJIaCTI'I. B COCTaB AeJIempyeMblx nOJIHOMO'IMM MO- rYT BXOITb nOJIHOMO'IHH KaK npeACTaBI1TeJIbHOrO (3aKOHOAaTeJIbHOrO) opra- Ha, TaK 11 MCnOJIHMTeJIbHoro OpraHa roCYAapCTBeHHOH BJIaCTI'I. OpraHaM MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H MOr)'T AeJIempOBaTbCH npaBa 11 OOH3aHHOCTM opraHOB rOCYAapCTBeHHOM BJIaCTI'I no OAHOMY HJIH HeCKOJIbKI1M BonpocaM, a TaKme OT- AeJIbHble nOJIHOMO'IHH, CBH3aHHble C npMBJIe'IeHl1eM opraHOB MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJIeHMH K peaJIM3aW'II'1 nporpaMM COL\MaJIbHO-3KOHOMI1'1eCKoro pa3BHTMH pemOHa. OpraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH B npeAeJIax cBoeM KOMneTeH- L\I1M OCYIl\eCTBJIHIOT YKa3aHHble nOJIHOMO'IHH H COOTBeTCTBeHHO HecYT OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb 3a HaAJIemaIl\ee (HeHaAJIemaIl\ee) HX OCYIl\eCTBJIeHMe. IIOPHAOK nepeAa'IH YKa3aHHblx nOJIHOMO'IMH YCTaHOBJIeH KOHCTHTYL\H- eM P<P ('I. 2 CT. 132) H <peAepaJIbHbIM 3aKOHOM «00 OOIl\HX npl1HL\lmaX op- raHH3aL\HH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH B POCn!l1CKOH <peAepaL\HM» (n. 4 CT. 6 M CT. 38). KOHCTMTYL\MOHHaH HopMa aApeCOBaHa rOCYAapCTBeHHblM op- raHaM. MMeHHo OHI1 BnpaBe HaAeJII1Tb opraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH rOCYAapCTBeHHbIMM nOJIHOMO'IHHMH, npH'IeM CAeJIaTb 3TO MorYT TOJIbKO npeACTaBIITeJIbHble (3aKoHOAaTeJIbHble) opraHbI rocYAapcTBeHHoM BJIaCTI'I M TOJIbKO OAHMM aKTOM - 3aKOHOM. PacCMaTpl'IBaH nOHHTMe «HaAeJIHIOTCH», CJIeAyeT MMeTb B BHAY, '1TO pe'Ib I1AeT 0 BpeMeHHOM IWM nOCTOHHHOM AeJIe- rHpOBaHHH nOJIHOMO'IHfl, HO He 0 nOJIHofl HX nepeAa'Ie opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. B npOTHBHOM CJIY'lae OHM npHOOpeTaJIM Obi MeCTHoe 3Ha- '1eHMe. BMeCTe C TeM AeJIenlpOBaHMe nOJIHOMO'lHM He 03Ha'IaeT, 'ITO OHI1 )'T- pa'IHBalOT rOCYAapCTBeHHoe 3Ha'IeHHe, rOCYAapCTBeHHbIM xapaKTep. IIe- peAalOTCH He <PYHKL\MH rOCYAapCTBa, a nOJIHOMO'lI1H no MX HCnOJIHeHHIO, H 4B6 TOJIbKO OTAeJIbHble PeaJIM3aL\MH nepeAaHHblX nOJIHOMO'IHI1 BBHAY HX 3Ha'II1MOCTH npol1cxo- AHT B OCOOOM IOpHAH'IeCKOM pemMMe. OpraHbl rOCYAapCTBeHHOH BJIaCTI'I, /l,e- JIenlpOBaBlIlIIe nOJIHOMO'IHH opraHaM MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, ocyweCTB- JIHIOT KOHTpOJIb KaK 3a 3aKOHHOCTblO, TaK M 3a L\eJIeCOOOpa3HOCTblO peWeHl'll1 opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHMH, npHHHMaeMbIX AJIH peaJIM3aL\HH nepe- AaHHbIX nOJIHOMO'II1H. KOHTpoJIb 3a oCYIl\eCTBJIeHHeM nepeAaHHbIX rocYAap- - N - 
CTBeHHbIX nOJlHOMO'IMtl 03Ha'IaeT B03MOmHOCTb CaHKL\MOHMpOBaHMH OpraHa- MM rOCY.I\apCTBeHHOI1 BJlaC'TI! cy6'beKTa PocnlikKoii <Pe.l\epaL\UM COOTBeTCT- BYIOlL\V!X Ael1CTBMI1 OpraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHMH, OL\eHKY npUHMMae- MblX MMU peweHMi1 C TO'IKU 3peHMH l\eJleC006pa3HOCTM, MaTepMaJlbHoi1 M <pMHaHCOBOI1 06eCne'IeHHOCTI'I, B03MOmHOCTb npMOCTaHOBJleHUH M OTMeHbI npMHHTbIX peWeHMI1 487 . TaKUM 06pa30M, B paMKaX OCYll\eCTBJleHUH TaKOrO KOHTpOJlH OpraH rOCYAa pCTBeHHOI1 BJlaCTI'I AOJlmeH o6.rra.l\aTb nOJlHOMO'IMeM: OTMeHHTb HeAOCTaTO'IHO 06OCHOBaHHble MJlU npOTl'IBope'Iall\ue 3aKOHOAaTeJlb- CTBY peweHMH opraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHMH, npMHMMaeMble B paMKax nepe.l\aHHbIX roCY.I\apCTBeHHblX nOJlHOMO'Iuii; npOM3BO.l\MTb npOBepKU .l\eH- TeJlbHOCTU opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHMH no OCYll\eCTBJleHMIO AeJlenlpo- BaHHblX MM rOCY.I\apcTBeHHbIX nOJlHOMO'IMtr: Ha3Ha'IaTb ynOJlHOMO'IeHHblX .l\JlH nOCTOHHHoro Ha6J1IO.I\eHUH :xi OCYll\eCTBJleHUeM .l\eJlenlpOBaHHbIX rOCY.I\apCT- BeHHbIX nOJlHOMO'Iuii; 3anpawimaTb M nOJlY'IaTb B YCTaHOBJleHHblH CpOK. a npu 'Ipe3Bbl'Ial1HbIX 06CTOHTeJlbCTBaX (CTMXUHHble 6eAcTBUH, 3KOJlOrM'IeCKUe KaTaC'rpo<pbI M .l\p.) HeMe.l\JleHHO He06xo.l\MMble .l\OKYMeHTbI U .l\PyrylO MH<jJop- MaL\UIO 06 oCYll\eCTBJleHUM .l\eJlenlpOBaHHblX rocY.I\apcTBeHHblx nOJlHOMO'IUI1. He.l\06pocoBecTHoe oCYll\ecTBJleHUe YKa3aHHblx nOJlHOMO'IMI1 BJle'IeT Ha- cTynJleHMe HeraTUBHblX npaBOBblX nOCJle.l\CTButl .l\JlH opraHa MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJleHuH. O.l\HaKO <Pe.l\epaJlbHbll1 3aKOH «06 06ll\MX npUHL\MnaX OpraHI1- 3aL\UU MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHUH B PocnlHCKOI1 <Pe.l\epaL\Hl1» YCTaHaBmma- eT BamHoe OrpaHU'IeHMe CTeneHU OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM COOTBeTCTBYIOll\UX opra- HOB 3a OCYll\eCTBJleHMe nepe.l\aHHblX MM rOCY.I\apCTBeHHblX nOJlHOMO'IUI1: OHM HeCYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a OCYll\eCTBJleHMe TOJlbKO Tex nOJlHOMO'IMl1, B03- MomHOCTb peaJlM3aL\MI1 KOTOpblX nOJlHOCTblO 06eCne'IeHa opraHaMI1 rocYAap- CTBeHHOH BJlaCTI'I MaTepMaJlbHblMU U <PMHaHCOBbIMM cpeACTBaMM. B paCCMa- TpMBaeMotl HopMe CO.l\epmMTCH YCJlOBMe peaJlM3aL\UM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM op- raHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, COCTOHll\ee B a.l\eKBaTHOCTM MX OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTM CTeneHM 06eCne'IeHHOCTM .l\eJlenlpOBaHHbIX nOJlHOMO'IMH MaTepM- aJlbHblMM M <pMHaHCOBbIMM Cpe.l\CTBaMH. ITo MHeHMIO HeKOTopbIX aBTopOB, npOCTaH M nOHHTHaH, Ha nepBbl11 B3rJlH.I\, HopMa MomeT BbI3BaTb onpe.l\eJleHHble CJlOmHOCTM npu peaJlM3aL\IUI ee Ha npaKTI'lKe. ITpem.l\e Bcero, AJIH MCKJllO'IeHMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 no 3TO- MY OCHOBaHMIO M3 Bcetl cOBoKynHocTM npaBoHapyweHMtl, B03MomHbIX npM OCYll\eCTBJleHMM .l\eJlenlpOBaHHbIX nOJlHOMO'IMH, He06xo.l\UMO BbI.I\em'ITb TOJlbKO Te, KOTopble CBH3aHbI C HeMCnOJlHeHMeM 06H3aHHOCTeM opraHOB MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBJleHUH no peaJlH3al\MM AeJlenlpOBaHHbIX nOJlHOMO'IMM. ITpa- BOHa pyweHMH, KOTopble BblpamalOTCH, HanpMMep, B 3J1oynoTpe6J1emm MJlM UHOM Hea.l\eKBaTHOM BOJle 3aKOHO.l\aTeJlH MCnOJlHeHIUI .l\eJlenlpOBaHHbIX nOJl- HOMO'IMM, K AaHHOM KOHCTPYKl\IUI OCHOBaHI1H oCB060mAeHMH OT OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTM He OTHOCHTCH. .D:aJlee, npM peam'13aL\MM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM Ha npaKTMKe B03HMKae-r Bonpoc 0 TOM, 'ITO cJlellyeT nOHI1MaTb nOli 06eCne'IeHHOCTbIO Ma- TepMaJlbHbIMH 11 <pMHaHCOBbIMI1 cpeACTBaMU. 3TO 03Ha'IaeT, 'ITO ynoJlHoMO- 'IeHHble rOCYAapCTBeHHble opraHbI He 06eCne'IMJlM npellOCTaBJleHMe 3UIX Cpe.l\CTB B TOM 06'beMe, KOTOpbII1 npe,n;YCMOTpeH COOTBeTCTBYIOll\MM 3aKOHOM. N N - 
Ho eCJlH MaTepHaJlbHble H <pHHaHCOBble Cpel\CTBa 6bIJlH nepel\aHbl B nOJlHOM 06"beMe, B KOTOpOM OHH Onpel\eJleHbl 3aKOHOM, TO BOnpoC 0 TOM, l\OCTaTO"IHbI JlI1 OHI1 6bIJII1 l\JlSI OCYli.\eCTBJleHHSI COOTBeTCTBYIOli.\I1X rOCYl\apCTBeHHbIX nOJlHOMO'lHM, MOmeT 6b1Tb pellleH TOJlbKO nYTeM I1CCJleAOBaHI1H BceM COBO- KynHocTH CBH3aHHbIX C STHM 06CTOHTeJlbCTB. KpoMe SToro, Hyml\aeTCH B l\0- Ka3bIBaHIU! 11 TO, KaKl1e I1MeHHO l\eMCTBHSI opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJle- HI1H no OCYli.\eCTBJleHI1IO AeJlen!pOBaHHbIX nOJlHOMO'lI1M 11 B KaKoi-. Mepe 3a- BHCeJII'! OT rOCYl\apCTBeHHoro MaTepHaJlbHoro ofiecne"leHI1H, "ITO B03MomHO 488 TOJlbKO B YCJlOBI1HX cYl\OnpmI3BOAcTBa CaHKI.\HeM B l\aHHOM cJlY"Iae HBJlHeTCH H3"bHTHe Y COOTBeTCTBYIOli.\erO op- raHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH paHee nepel\aHHbIX rOCYAapCTBeHHblX nOJl- HOMO"lHM 11 B03Bpali.\eHl1e B rOCYAapCTBeHHblM 61Ol\meT COOTBeTCTBYIOli.\erO ypOBHH nepel\aHHblX AJIH HX OCYli.\eCTBJleHI1H MaTepHaJlbHblX H <PHHaHCOBbIX Cpel\CTB. OCHOBaHl1eM l\JlH I1X 113"bHTHH SlBJlHeTCH pellleHl1e CYAa 0 HeI1CnOJl- HeHl'll1I1J1H HeHal\Jlemali.\eM HCnOJlHeHI1H npel\CTaBI1TeJlbHbIMH OpraHaMI1 Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1S1 nepel\aHHbIX HM nOJlHOMO'lI1M. J13"bHTHe rocYAapCT- BeHHblX nOJlHOMO"ll1ii, paHee nepel\aHHbIX 3aKOHOM, TaKme OCYli.\eCTBJlHeTCSI B 3aKOHOl\aTeJlbHOM nOpSll\Ke. J13J10meHHble 06CTOHTeJlbCTBa YKa3blBalOT Ha TO, "ITO B AaHHOM cJlY"Iae HeT l\OCTaTO"lHbIX OCHOBaHI1ii n03111.\110HI1pOBaTb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H AOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHI.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH 3a OCYli.\eCTBJleHl1e nepe- AaHHbix OTAeJlbHblX roCYl\apCTBeHHblX nOJlHOMO'll1ii B CHCTeMe OTpaCJleBblX BHl\OB IOpHl\H"IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCHI KaK caMOCTOHTeJlbHblM CneI.\H<pH"Ie- CKHI1 ee BHl\. Bce CYli.\eCTBeHHble npH3HaKH KOHCTHTYI.\HOHHO-npaBOBOI1 OT- BeTcTBeHHOCTH, 0 KOTOpblX IIlJIa pe"lb BbIllle, Mor)'T 6bITb pacnpOCTpaHeHbI Ha paCCMaTpHBaeMYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, "ITO 11 n03BOJlHJlO HaM paHee npHM- TI1 K COOTBeTCTBYIOli.\eMY BbIBOl\Y. B TO me BpeMH HeJlb3H nOJlHOCTblO OTpHl.\aTh n03HI.\HIO aBTopoB, YTBepm- AalOli.\HX, '1TO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH nepel\ ro- CYAapCTBOM 3a npaBOHapYllleHHe 11 3a OCYli.\eCTBJleHl1e OTl\eJlbHbIX rocYAap- CTBeHHbIX nOJlHOMO"lI1I1 - STO pa3J1I1'1Hble BHl\bl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 489 . BOJlb- IllI1HCTBO I1X apryMeHTOB MOmeT 6bITb npl1HSlTO C OAHHM Jll1lllb YTO'lHeHl1eM - Bbll\eJleHl1e STof! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH B Ka"leCTBe cBoe06pa3Horo BI1l\a OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH B03MomHO ee npl1 l\eJleHHI1 (He no OTpaCJleBOM npl1Ha.l\JlemHOCTI1, a B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 OT l.\eJleI111 OCHoBaHI1I1) Ha <PYHKI.\110HaJlbHYIO l1l\eJlI1KTH)'IO. B STOM CMblCJle HX n03111.\11S1 MOmeT 6b1Tb nOJlHOCTblO nOMepmaHa 11 pa3l\eJle- Ha. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npaBOHapYllleHHe B c<pepe npaBOTBOp"leCTBa npeA- CTaBJlHeT C060f! l\eJlHKTHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, a 3a OCYli.\eCTBJleHHe OTAeJlb- HblX rOCYl\apCTBeHHbIX nOJlHOMO"lHI1 - <PYHKI.\110HaJlbHYIO. Ha OCHOBaHl111 H3J10meHHOro MomHO CAeJlaTb cJteay'KYlltue /3bt/30abt. 1.0TBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHoB 11 l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHI.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JleHHH nepel\ rocYl\apCTBOM MomeT pacCMaTpHBaTbCH B IlIHpOKOM H Y3KOM CMbICJle. B Illl1pOKOM CMbICJle OHa npel\CTaBJlHeT c06011 cOBoKynHocTb pHl\a  OTpaCJleBbIX BHAOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, TaKHX, KaK yrOJlOBHaH, aAMI1HHCTpa- N - 
THBHaH, KOHCHITYUHOHHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb H JlP. B Y3KOM CMbICJle OHa paCCMaTpHBaeTCH KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npaBOHapYllIeHl1e B c<pepe MYHI1UHnaJlbHoro npaBOTBOp'leCTBa H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a OCYIl\eCTBJleHl-le OTJleJlbHbIX roCYAapCTBeHHbIX nOJIHOMO'IHii 2. B y3KoM CMbICJle OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB H AOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU Me- CTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH nepeJl rOCYJlapCTBOM OJlHOpOJlHa. OHa HacTynaeT npH oCYIl\eCTBJIeHHH opraHaMH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH KaK CBOI1X c06- CTBeHHblX, TaK H JleJlenlpOBaHHblx nOJlHOMO'lHH. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHOB H AOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH nepeJl roCYJlapCTBOM 6a- 3HpyeTcH Ha KOHCHITYUHOHHOH 06H3aHHocTH opraHOB H JlOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH C06J1IOAaTb 3aKOHbI H Ha rapaHTHHX I1X caMO- CTOilTeJlbHOCTH npH OCYIl\eCTBJIeHIUI CBOHX nOJlHOMO'lI1H B YCTaHOBJleHHbIX npeAeJlax H nepeJlaHHbIX OTAeJlbHbIX rocYJlapCTBeHHblx nOJlHOMO'll1fl. Co- oTBeTcTBYIOIl\He «AeJlHKTbI" 06pa3YlOT OCHOBaHHH KOHCTHTYUHOHHOfl OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H AOJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1U MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH. TaKI1M 06pa30M, B CHCTeMe OTpaCJleBbIX BI1J10B IOpHJlH'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH OHa MomeT 6bITb onpeAeJleHa KaK KOHCTI1TYUHOHHO- npaBOBail OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb. IIpH HcnoJlb3yeMoM nOAxOAe K KJlaCCH<pHKaUI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opra- HOB H JlOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH cJleJlYIOIl\HM H nOCJleJl- HHM BHAOM B CHCTeMe IOpHJlH'IeCKOfl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB H JlOJlmHOCT- HbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH HBJlHeTCH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeJl <p11- 3H'IeCKHMH H IOpHJlH'IeCKHMH JlHuaMH. KaK H nepBble JlBa BHAa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTII :noT BHA 06J1aJlaeT 3Ha'lHTeJlbHOM cneUH<pHKoi1 H 3aCJlyml1BaeT oc060- ro BHHMaHHH. 3.3. OTBETCTBEHHOCTb OprAHOB 1-1 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI-1I..\ MECTHOro CAMOynPABJlEHI-1f1 nEPEA tDI-131-14ECKI-1MI-11-11OPI-1AI-14ECKI-1MI-1 JlI-1I..\AMI-1 <peAepaJlbHbIM 3aKOH «06 06Il\I1x npHHuHnax OpraHl13aulU'l MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBJleHHH B PocnlHcKoH <peAepa[J1)} OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r. (KaK H pa- Hee AeMCTBYIOIl\I1H) COJlepmlIT 6JIaHKeTHYlO HOPMY 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH op- raHOB H AOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH nepeA <p11311'1eCKHMI1 H IOpHJlH'IeCKHMH JlHUaMH. TaK, B COOTBeTCTBI1H co CT. 76 3aKoHa OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHoB H JlOJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHiI nepeA <pH3H'IeCKI1MH H IOpHJlH'IeCKI1MH JIHuaMH HacTynaeT B nOpilJlKe. YCTaHoB- JleHHOM <peAepaJIbHbIM 3aKOHOM. .D:aHHail HopMa Tpe6yeT CI1CTeMaHI'IeCKOro TOJlKOBaHHH, nocKoJlbKY OHa He COLlepml1T KOHKpeTHKH B 'IaCTH OCHOBaHI1H 11 cOLIepmaHHH TaKoro palla OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, 3a HCKJlIO'IeHHeM «CTaTyca" -::t HopMaTHBHo-npaBOBoro aKTa (<peLiepaJIbHbIH 3aKOH), B COOTBeTCTBHH C KOTO- N pbIM :na OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HacTynaeT. - 
B MYHHL\HnaJlbHO-npaBOBOM JlHTepaType YTBepl\HJlOCb MHeHHe, 'ITO B CO- OTBeTCTBYIOll.\eM CTaTbe 3aKOHa YCTaHaBJlHBaeTCH B03MOmHOCTb npHBJle'Ie- HHH OpraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIUI K rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBOBOH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH. OCHOBaHHHMH .l\JlH TaKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH MOrYT CTaTb HapYllIe- HHe npaB IOpHl\INeCKI1X H <pH3H'IeCKHX JlHL\, npH'IHHeHHe HM JlH'IHOrO HJlH HMYll.\eCTBeHHOrO BpeAa B pe3YJlbTaTe He3aKOHHbIX .l\eHCTBHfl (6e3AeMCTBHSI) HJlH npHHSlTHSI He3aKOHHbIX pellleHHfl OpraHaMH HJlH l\OJlmHOCTHbIMI1 JII'IL\a- MH MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHSI. BOCCTaHOBJleHHe HapYllIeHHoro npaBa, a TaK- me B03Mell.\eHHe Bpel\a OCYll.\eCTBJlHeTCH B nOpHl\Ke, YCTaHOBJleHHOM rK PCP. TOT <paKT, 'ITO cooTBeTcTBYIOll.\He OTHOllleHHSI perYJlHpYIOTCH HopMaMI1 rpam.l\aHCKOrO npaBa, KaK npaBHJlO, SlBJlHeTCH rJlaBHbIM aprYMeHToM B nOA- AepmKY Te3Hca 0 TOM. 'ITO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHL\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH nepel\ <PH31'CKHMH H IOpHl\H'IeCKHMH JlHL\aMH HMeeT rpaml\aHCKO-npaBOBYIO npl1pOl\Y OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H nepel\ <pH3H'IeC- KHMH H IOpHAH'IeCKHMI1 JlHL\aMH HOCHT xapaKTep 'IaCTHOnpaBOBOM, nOCKOJlb- KY B HeM SlBHO BbIpameH 'IaCTHbIM HHTepec <pH3H'IeCKHX H IOpHl\H'IeCKHX JlHL\ B He06xol\HMOCTH BOCCTaHOBJleHHH HX nepBOHa'IaJlbHOrO (AO HapYllIeHI1H HX npaB H 3aKOHHbIX HHTepeCOB) COCTOHHHSI. 3THM, no MHeHHIO HeKOTopbIX aB- TOpOB, OHa OTJlH'IaeTCH OT ny6J11'I'IHO-npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, HacTyna- lOll.\eM nepe.l\ HaCeJleHHeM H nepel\ rOCYl\apCTBOM, B KOTOpOH npoCJleml'IBa- IOTCSI nOCJlel\CTBHH HapYllIeHHSI BamHbIX C TO'IKH 3peHHH rOCYl\apCTBa H 06- 491 ll.\eCTBa npaBHJI nOBel\eHHH . B nOMepmKY Te3Hca 0 rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBOBOM xapaKTepe OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 nepeA <pH3H'IeCKHMH H IOpHAH'IeCKHMH JlHL\aMH npHBOAHTCH TaKiKe nOJlo- meHHH cpel\epaJIbHorO 3aKOHa «06 06ll.\HX npl1HL\lmaX OpraHH3a!H MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH B POCCHMCKOM cpel\epaIH» H rK PCP. B COOTBeTCTBHH C KO- TOpbIMI1 opraHbi MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHSI Hal\eJlSlIOTCH cTaTycoM IOpHl\I1'Ie- CKOro JII'IL\a. a B pe3YJlbTaTe CTaHOBHTCH cy6ceKTaMH rpaml\aHCKoro npaBa H BblcTynalOT B rpamAaHCKo-npaBOBbIX OTHOllleHHHX Ha paBHbIX Ha'IaJIaX C HHbIMH Y'IaCTHHKaMH rpaml\aHCKOro 060pOTa - IOpHl\H'IeCKHMH H <pH3I1'IeCKI1- MH JlHL\aMH (CT. 12411125 rK PCP), a nOToMY K OTHOllleHI1S1M Mem.l\y HHMH npH- MeHHIOTCH rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBoBbie HOpMbI, B TOM 'IHCJle H peryJII'lpYIOll.\He 0'1'- BeTCTBeHHOCTh Y'IaCTlUIKOB rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBOBbIX OTiiOllIeHHfI. IIpel\noJlomeHHe 0 TOM, 'ITO 3aKOHOl\aTeJlb B AaHHOM cJlY'Iae "Bel\eT pe'Ib» (YCTaHaBJlI1BaeT B03MomHOCTb npHBJle'IeHHH) 0 rpam,!\aHCKo-npaBO- BOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCHl, HMeeT B cBoefl OCHOBe ell.\e KaK MHHHMYM ABa O'IeBHl\- HbIX 06CTOHTeJlbCTBa. Bo-nepBbIX, 3aKOHOl\aTeJlb HCnOJlb3yeT rpaml\aHcKO-npaBOBYIO TepMHHO- JIOrHIO npl1 onpel\eJleHIUI cy6ceKTOB, nepel\ KOTOpbIMH B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3aKO- HOM Hecyr OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHbl MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH (ynoJlHoMO- 'IeHHOM CTOpOHbI, HHCTaHL\HH OTBeTCTBeHHocHI). TaKOBbIMH BblcTynalOT cy6c- eKTbI rpaml\aHcKO-npaBOBbIx OTHollleHHH - <pH3I1'IeCKHe H IOpHl\H'IeCKl1e JII'IL\a. BO-BTOpbIX. TO. 'ITO cy6ceKTaMH. nepel\ KOTOpbIMH B COOTBeTCTBI1H C 3a- KOHOM HeCYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH (ynoJlHo-  N - 
MO'IeHHOii CTOpOHOi'l, HHCTaHQHei'l OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH), BbIcTynalOT cpH3H'IeC- KHe H IOpHJlH'IeCKJ.le JUlQa (a He rOCYJlapCTBO), YKa3bIBaeT Ha OJIHY H3 cYlL\e- CTBeHHbIX oc06eHHocTei'l rpamJlaHCKO-npaBoBoi'l OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH: rpam- AaHCKo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HBJIHeTCH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO Hapynm- TeJIH nepeJl nOTepneBIlIHM. rpamJlaHCKO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB H JlOJImHOCTHbIX JIHQ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHJ.lH J.lMeeT CJteaY10Ufue oc06euuocmu, 06YCJIOBJIeH- HbIe cneQHcpHKoi'l rpamJlaHCKOrO npaBa. 1. IIoCKOJIbKY rpamJlaHCKOe npaBo rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M perYJIHpyeT HMYlL\e- CTBeHHbIe OTHOIlIeHHH, TO J.I rpamJlaHCKo-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb paCCMa- TpHBaeMbIX cy6'beKTOB HMeeT HMYlL\eCTBeHHoe cOAepmaHHe, a ee MepbI (rpa>KAaHCKO-npaBOBbIe caHKIH) HOCHT HMYlL\eCTBeHHbIi'I xapaKTep. IIpJ.lMe- HeHHe rpamJlaHCKO-npaBOBbIX caHKQHi'I (Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH) BCerJla BJIe'IeT B03JIOmeHHe Ha npaBOHapYIlIHTeJIH (B llaHHOM CJIY'Iae opraHbI MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBJIeHHH) Bcex He6JIarOnpHHTHbIX, HeBblrol\HbIX HMYlL\eCTBeHHbIX nOCJIeA- CTBHi'I ero nOBeJleHHH 492 . TeM caMbIM rpamJlaHCKO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BbIOOJIHHeT CPYHKQHIO HMYlL\eCTBeHHoro (3KOHOMH'IeCKoro) B03J1ei'lcTBHH Ha opraHbI MYHHQHnaJIbHOM BJIaCTH H CTaHOBI-ITCH OAHHM H3 MeTOJlOB 3KOHOMH'Ie- CKOro perYJII'lpOBaHHH COOTBeTCTBYJOlL\HX 06lL\eCTBeHHbIX oTHOIlleHHM 493 . 2. rpamJlaHCKOe npaBO perYJIHpyeT OTHOIlIeHHH paBHonpaBHbIx H He3a- BHCHMbIX TOBapOBJIaAeJIbQeB, B KOTOpbIX HapYIlleHHe 06H3aHHocTeM OJlHHM Y'IaCTHHKoM BcerAa BJIe'IeT 3a C060M HapYIlleHHe npaB JlPyroro. TaKaH B3a- HMOCBH3b Y'IaCTHIiKoB rpamJlaHcKoro o6opoTa HMeeT CJIeACTBHeM TO nOJIome- HHe, 'Iro OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B rpamJlaHCKOM npaBe HBJIHeTCH OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TblO OJlHOrO KOHTpareHTa nepeA APYfHM, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO HapYIllHTeJIH ne- peA nOTepneBIllHM. II03ToMY HMYlL\ecTBeHHble CaHKQHH, B03JIaraeMble Ha npa- BOHapYIllHTeJIH - opraH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, 3J1eCb B3bICKHBalOTCH B nOJIb3Y nOTepneBilleM CTOpoHbI - cpH3H'IeCKOrO HJIH IOpl!,L\H'IecKOro JIHQa. 3TO OTJIH'IaeT MepbI rpamJlaHCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCT!1 OT HMYlL\eCTBeHHbIX no xapaK- Tepy Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTlI, HCnOJIb3yeMblx B OTpaCJIHX ny6.JUI'JHoro npaBa (HanpHMep, B yrOJIOBHOM HJIH aJlMHHHCTpaT!IBHOM npaBe), rAe OHH B3bICKHBa- IOTCH B JlOXOJl Ka3HbI (ny6JI1'I'IHOii BJIaCTH). J!J.IIllb HeMHome npeJlYCMOTpeHHbIe rpamJlaHCKHM 3aKOHOM CJIY'IaH B3bICKaHHH HMYlL\eCTBeHHbIX caHKQHM B AOXOA rOCYJlapcTBa (B 'IaCTHOCT!I, CT. 169 rK P<l» CBH3aHbI C oco60 3JJOCTHbIM Hapy- IlIeHHeM ny6JIH'IHbIX HHTepeCOB H npeJlCTaBJIHIOT c060ii HCKJIIO'IeHHe, He xa- paKTepHOe JlJIH rpamJlaHCKO-npaBoBoro ('IaCTHOnpaBOBoro) perYJIHpoBaHHH. 3, PeryJIHpyeMbIe rpamAaHcKHM npaBOM TOBapHo-AeHemHble OTHOIlIeHHH HOCHT 3KBHBaJIeHTHO-B03Me3J1HbIH xapaKTep. B CBH3H C 3THM H rpamJlaHCKO- npaBoBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH HanpaBJIeHa Ha 3KBHBaJIeHTHOe B03MelL\eHHe cpH3H'IeCKHM H IOpHAH'IeCKHM JIHQaM npH- 'IHHeHHOro BpeJla HJIH y6bITKoB, a ee npHMeHeHHe HMeeT QeJIblO BOCCTaHOB- JIeHHe HMywecTBeHHoH ccpepbi nOTepneBillero OT npaBoHapYIlleHHH. OTclOzra BbITeKaeT KOMneHcaQHOHHaH npHpOJla rpamJlaHCKO-npaBoBoii OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH, pa3Mep KOTOpOH JlOJImeH B npHHQHne COOTBeTCTBOBaTb pa3Mepy no- HeceHHblX nOTepneBIlIHM y6biTKOB, HO He npeBbIIlIaTh er0 494 . \0 N - 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHa MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH nOCTpOeHa Ha KOH- L\enL\HH nOJlHOrO B03MelL\eHHH ylL\ep6a, npWUIHeHHOrO B pe3YJlbTaTe npHHH- THH 3THM OpraHOM pemeHHH C npeBblmeHHeM ero KOMneTeHL\IUI. STOT npHH- L\Hn 03Ha'IaeT B03MelL\eHHe He TOJlbKO peaJlbHOrO, MaTepHaJlbHO Bblpa>KeH- HOro BpeJla, KOTOpbIH nOBJleKJlO npHHHTHe pemeHHH, HO H B03MelL\eHl1e YlL\ep6a, KOTOpbIH HeH36e>KHO B03HHKaeT B 6YJlYlL\eM B CBH3H C npHHHTHeM 495 AaHHoro pemeHHH 4. IIoCKOJlbKY B cq)epy rpa>KAaHCKOro npaBa BKJIlO'IeHbI H onpeJleJleHHble HeHMYlL\eCTBeHHble OTHomeHHH, npaBoHapymeHHH B :noH 06J1acTiI TaK>Ke Mor)'T nOBJle'Ib He6J1aronpHHTHble JlJlH opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH HMYlL\eCTBeHHble nOCJleJlCTBHH. rpa>KAaHCKOe npaBo npeJlycMaTpHBaeT cJlY- 'IaH HMYlL\eCTBeHHoro B03MelL\eHHH MOpaJlbHOrO Bpella. B TOM 'IHCJle 3a npH- 'IHHeHHble rpa>KAaHaM onpeAeJleHHbIMH npaBoHapymeHHHMH <jJH3H'IeCKJ.le H HpaBCTBeHHble CTpaJlaHHH (CT. I;)!. 1099-1101 rK P<l», KOTopble TO>Ke HBJlH- IOTCH MepaMJ.I rpa>KAaHCKQ-npaBoBoi1 oTBeTcTBeHHocTH 496 . 5.0CHOBHOii <jJYHKL\HeH rpa>KJlaHCKO-npaBoBoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opra- HOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH HBJlHeTCH KOMneHcaropHo-BoCCTaHOBJ.lTeJlb- HaH. OHa OTpa>KaeT copa3MepHOCTb npHMeHHeMbIX Mep OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H BbI3BaHHbIX AeHCTBHHMH (6e3J1eHCTBHeM) opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJle- HHH y6bITKOB, a TaK>Ke HanpaBJleHHOCTb B3bICKaHHH Ha KOMneHCaL\HIO HMY- 497 lL\eCTBeHHbIX nOTepb nOTepneBmero HopMa, YCTaHaBJlHBalOlL\aH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB H AOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlJ.lL\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH 3a BpeJl, npH'IHHeHHblii HX He3aKOHHbIMI-I JleHCTBHHMJ.I (6e3AeilcTBHeM), 3aKpenJleHa B CT. 1069 rK P<l> B pa3BHTJ.le nOJlO>KeHI-IH ero CT. 13, 16. B Teopln! rpa>KAaHCKOro npaBa BpeJl, npH'II-IHeH- Hblf! rOCYAapCTBeHHbIMH opraHaMH 1-1 opraHaMH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJle- HHH, a TaK>Ke HX JlOJl>KHOCTHbIMH JlHL\aMI-I, Ha3bIBaeTCH BpeJlOM, npH'IH- HeHHbIM aKTaMH BJlaCTH 498 . Oc06eHHocTb B03J10>KeHHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a STOT BpeJl 3aKJIIO'IaeTCH B CneL\H<jJHKe ero OCHOBaHJ.lH: npOTlIBOnpaB- HOCTb JleHHHH opraHOB 1-1 JlOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlHL\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH OL\eHIIBaeTCH He C TO'IKJ.I 3peHHH rpa>KJlaHCKOro npaBa, a C n03HL\HH aJlMH- HI1CTpaTI1BHOrO, KOHCTHTYL\110HHOro J.I Jlpyrl1x OTpaCJleH npaBa, HOpMbI KO- Toporo 6biJll1 HapymeHbI. IIpHMeHeHl1e HOpM rpa>KAaHCKOro npaBa CBH3bI- BaeTCH C <jJaKTOM npl-l'IHHeHIIH HMYlL\eCTBeHHoro BpeJla. TeM caMbIM JlJlH B03J10>KeHI1H rpa>KJlaHCKO-npaBOBoii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 Ba>KHO npOCJleAI1Tb ABa MOMeHTa: Bo-nepBbIX, <jJaKT COBepmeHHH He3aKOHHoro JleHHHH, npl1 STOM He3aKOHHOCTb onpeJleJlHeTCH C TO'IKH 3peHI1H HOpM aJlMI1HI1CTpaTI1B- Horo, KOHCTI1TYL\110HHOro H I-IHbIX OTpacJleii npaBa, H, BO-BTOPbIX, npH'II1- HeHHe IIMYlL\ecTBeHHoro BpeJla KaK YCJloBHe HacTynJleHI1H rpa>KJlaHCKO- _ 499 npaBOBOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 6. CYlL\eCTBeHHof! oc06eHHOCTbIO JlaHHOrO BI!,l\a OTBeTCTBeHHOCT!1 HBJlHeT- CH TO, 'ITO OHa HacTynaeT B CYJle6HOM nOpHJlKe. B cJlY'Iae HapymeHHH npaB H 3aKOHHbIX I1HTepeCOB <jJH3II'IeCKHX II IOpl1J1J.1'IeCKHX JlI1L\, a TalOKe npH'IIIHe- HI1H 11M BpeJla opraHbI H JlOJl>KHOCTHble JlHL\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H MO- rYT 6bITb npHBJle'IeHbI K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, <jJopMa H COJlep>KaHHe, npeJleJlbI r- N - 
H pa3MepbI KOTOpoii Onpel\eJlHIOTCH CYl\OM B COOTBeTCTBHH C l\ei'lcTBYIOli.\HM 3aKOHOl\aTeJlbCTBOM. PaCCMaTp!BaH BOnpOC 0 rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBoBoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opra- HOB H l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlH4 MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHMH, MbI HeM36emHO CTaJlKH- BaeMCH C npo6J1eMOIOr AeJlHKTOCnoco6HOCTH OpraHOB H l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JIH4 Me- CTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH B ccpepe rpaml\aHcKoro o60poTa (rpam.l\aHCKO-npa- BOBOH AeJlHKTOCnoco6HOCTH). Ee pa3pellIeHMe HMeeT KaK TeOpeTH'IeCKOe, TaK H npMKJIaAHOe 3Ha'leHHe. .D:OJlmHOCTHOe JlH40 He HBJlHeTCH cy6"beKTOM rpaml\aHCKOro npaBa H, CJIe- AOBaTeJlbHO, He MomeT 6bITb npHBJle'leHO K rpam.l\aHCKO-npaBOB0I1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTH 3a COBepllIeHHe rpam.l\aHCKOro l\eJIHKTa B CBH3H C OCYli.\eCTBJleHH- eM HM co6CTBeHHbIX nOJlHOMO'lHM. 3a HenpaBOMepHble l\eMCTBHH (6e3l\eHCT- BHe) AOJlmHOCTHoe JlH40 MomeT 6bITb npHBJle'leHO K yroJlOBHOH, al\MHHHCT- paTI1BHOH HJIM .l\MCUHnJIMHapHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. HO He K rpam.l\aHCKO- npaBOBOH. 3TO AaeT OCHOBaHHe HeKOTopbIM aBTopaM rOBopHTb 0 TOM, '1TO CT. 50 <pel\epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa «06 06li.\HX npHH4Hnax OpraHH3a41H1 MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH B POCCHMCKOH <pe.l\epa4HH» OT 28 aBrYCTa 1995 r., KOTopaH BocnpoM3BeAeHa B HOBOH peAaK4HM 3aKoHa OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r. (CT. 76), He COBceM KOppeKTHO CcpOPMYJlHpOBaHa B '1aCTH YCTaHOBJleHHH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTH l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlHU MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH nepel\ CPH311- 500 '1eCKHMH H IOpHAH'IeCKHMH JIHuaMH . B MYHH4ImaJIbHO-npaBOBOH JIrrepaTYpe 06li.\enpHHHTO yrBepm.l\eHHe 0 TOM, '1TO BCIO nOJIHOTY rpaml\aHCKO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH nepeA cpH3H'IeCKHMH H IOpH.L\H'IeCKI1MH JlH4aMH) HeCYT opraHbI MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJleHHH. B TO me BpeMH Bonpoc 0 rpam.L\aHCKOH .L\eJlI1KTOCnOC06HO- CUI opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH He TaK npoCT, KaK :3TO MomeT nOKa- 3aTbCH Ha nepBbIH B3rJlH!!. AHaJIH3 HopMaTHBHbIX npaBOBblX aKTOB cpe.L\epaJIb- HOro ypOBHH npHBOl\I'iT K BbIBOAY, '!TO B HI1X He BCerl\a a.I\eKBaTHO COOTHOCHTCH HOpMbl ny6J1H'IHOro H '1aCTHOro npaBa. HeTO'lHOCTH npHCYli.\H, KaK npaBHJlO, npaBOBblM aKTaM, HOpMbI KOTOpblX perYJlHpYJOT npaBOOTHOllIeHHH Ha CTbIKe npe.L\MeTOB OTpaCJleM npaBa, oco6eHHO KOHCUITY4110HHoro H rpam.L\aHCKOro, rAe Tpe6yeTcH IOpH.L\H'IeCKH rpaMOTHO Y'lfITbIBaTb npel\MeTbi peryJlHpOBaHHH H CO- AepmaHHe HOpM COOTBeTCTBYIOli.\HX arpaCJleM. B pHl\e npaBOBbIX aKTOB cOAepmaTCH HOpMbI 0 TOM, '1TO opraHbI ny6J1J'I'I- HOH BJlaCUI 06J1al\aIOT npaBaMM IOpH.L\H'IeCKOrO JlH4a, a COrJlaCHO l\pyrHM HopMaM AaHHble opraHbI HBJlHIOTCH IOfcHl\H'IeCKHMM JlH4aMH B opraHM3a4H- OHHo-npaBOBOH cpopMe Y'lpeml\eHHH 01. B :3TOH CBH3H HaH60Jlee nOKa3a- TeJlbHbIM npHMepOM HBJlHIOTCH HOpMbI n. 2 H 3 CT. 41 <pe.L\epaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa «06 06li.\HX npHHwmax opraHH3a4HH opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH B POCCHHCKOH <PeAepa4HH» OT 6 OKTH6pH 2003 r. N2 131-<p3, KOTopble Om,HB- JIHIOT opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH MYHH41maJlbHbIMH Y'lpem.L\eHHH- MH, npe.L\nHCbIBalOT HX rocY.L\apCTBeHHYIO perHCTpallHlO B Ka'leCTBe IOPH.L\H- '1eCKHX JlH4, pacnpOCTpaHHIOT Ha HHX Aei1cTBHe <pel\epaJlbHoro 3aKOHa «0 He- KOMMep'leCKHX opraHH3a4HHX» 502. B YKa3aHHbiX HopMax CcpOKYCHpoBaHbi npaKTI1'1eCKH Bce acneKTbI paCCMaTpHBaeMOM npo6JIeMbI. .D:JIH ee pa3pellIe- co N - 
HHH, CJleJlyeT_ rrpemJle BCem paCCMOTpen, COOTHOllleHHe 06ll\eM JfamJlaH- CKO-rrpaBOBOI1 rrpaBocrroco6HOCTH MYHHl.\HrraJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHH . 06ll\aH rrpaBocnoco6HOCTb MYHHl.\lmaJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHM 3aKpenJleHa HOpMaMH rry6J1WIHOrO rrpaBa (KOHCTI-ITYl.\I1ei1 P<l>, KOHCTI1TYl.\HHMH pecrry6- JUlK B COCTaBe P<l>, YCTaBaMH JlpyrHx cy6'beKTOB P<l>, YCTaBaMH MYHHl.\H- rraJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHfi 1'1 rrpl1HHTbIMH B COOTBeTCTBI1H C HHMH npaBOBbIMH aKTaMH). Mymll.\lmaJlbHble 06pa30BaHHH OCYll\eCTBJlHIOT OCHOBHYIO AeH- TeJIbHOCTb B paMKaX rry6J1wIHoro rrpaBa 1'1 TOJlbKO JlJlH pellleHHH ny6J1I1'IHbIX BOrrpOCOB BCTyrralOT B rpamJlaHCKHM 060pOT. YCJlOBHeM BCTyrrJleHHH MYHH- l.\HnaJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHM B rpamJlaHCKHM 060POT CJlyml-IT HaAeJleHHe HX CO- OTBeTCTBYIOll\ei1 rrpaBocnoco6HOCTbIO rpamJlaHCKO-npaBOBbIMI1 HOpMaTHB- HbIMH aKTaMH. fpamJlaHCKO-rrpaBOBaH rrpaBocrroco6HOCTb MYHHLlHrraJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHHM, TaKHM 06pa30M, 6a3HpyeTcH Ha ABYX Ha'IaJlaX. HeCMOTpH Ha TO 'ITO rpamllaHCKO-rrpaBOBaH rrpaBocnoco6HOCTb MYHHLlH- rraJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHfi AOCTaTO'IHO lllHpOKa rro cOJlepmaHHIO, Bce me OHa HO- CHT Crrel.\HaJlbHbIM, a He 06ll\11M (YHHBepcaJlbHbIM) xapaKTep. MYHI1l.\lmaJlb- Hble 06pa30BaHHH MorYT 11MeTb JIHlllb Te rpamJlaHCKHe npaBa 1'1 06H3aHHOC- TI1, KOTopble COOTBeTCTBYIOT l.\eJlH HX CYll\eCTBOBaHHH - OCYll\ecTBJleHHIO rry6m'I'IHO-rrpaBOBblx rrOJlHOMO'IHM. IIo:noMY HeKOTopble aBTopbI Ha3bIBalOT rrpaBocnoco6oCTh MYHHl.\lmaJlbHblx o6pa30BaHHM 5JleBOM, TO eCTb COOT- BeTCTBYIOll\elI l.\eJlHM HX c03AaHHH 1'1 JleHTeJlbHOCTH B 'IaCTHOrrpaBOBbIX OTHOllleHHHX MYHI1l.\lmaJlbHble 06pa30BaHHH He BbI- cTyrralOT KaK HOCHTeJlH ny6J1H'IHOM BJlaCTII. 3TO OJlHa 1'13 rapaHTHM co6J1IOJle- HHH HHTepeCOB HHbIX Y'IaCTHHKOB rpamJlaHCKOro 060pOTa, B3aHMOOTHOllle- HHH KOTOpblX C MYHHl.\HnaJlbHbIMM 06pa30BaHIIHMH rrOCTpoeHbI Ha paBeHCTBe 11 Apymx OCHOBOnOJlaralOll\HX npHHl.\lmaX rpamJlaHCKOro npaBa. B cJlyqae HapYllleHIIH rpamAaHCKHX rrpaB IIJIH HeHcrrOJIHeHHH 06H3aHHOCTeM K MYHH- l.\HnaJlbHbIM 06pa30BaHHHM B CYJle6HOM nOpHJlKe Mor)'T 6bITb npHMeHeHbi MepbI rpamAaHCKo-rrpaBOBofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII. TaKoe nOJlOmeHl1e MYHHl.\H- rraJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHi1 (KaK 1'1 Jlpymx rry6J1H'IHO-rrpaBOBbIX 06pa30BaHHM - POCCHMCKOM <l>eJlepal.\I-III. cy6'beKTOB POCCHMCKOM <l>eJlepal.\I-III) HBJlHeTCH 3a- JIOroM HOpMaJlbHoro CPYHKl.\HOHHpOBaHHH rpamJlaHCKOro 060poTa. B n. 2 CT. 124 fK P<l> 3aKpenJiHeTCH rrpaBHJlO, COrJIaCHO KOTOpoMY K MYHI1- l.\MrraJlbHbIM 06pa30BaHHHM, KaK K cy6'beKTaM rpamllaHcKoro rrpaBa, «npHMe- HHIOTCH HOpMbI, onpelleJlHIOll\Me yqacTI1e IOpHl1I1'IeCKHX JlHl.\ B OTHOllleHHHX, peryJIHpyeMblx rpam}\aHCKI1M 3aKOHOJlaTeJlbCTBOM, eCJm I1HOe He BbITeKaeT 1'13 3aKOHa I1JIH oco6eHHOCTeM JlaHHbIX cy6'beKTOB». BYKBaJlbHoe TOJlKOBaHHe JlaH- HOro rrOJIOmeHHH rr03BOJIHeT CJleJiaTh OJlH03Ha'IHbIM BbIBOJl 0 TOM, 'lTO, yqaCTBYH B rpamLlaHCKOM 060pOTe, MYHMl.\HnaJlbHble 06pa30BaHHH He CTaHOBHTCH IOpH- AH'IeCKI1MH JlMl.\aMII - K HHM JlHlllb «rrpI1MeHHIOTCH HOpMbI, orrpeAeJlHIOll\l1e Y'IaCTHe IOpHllH'IeCKHX JlHl.\ ...». A oroBopKa «eCJ!l1 HHoe He BbITeKaeT 1'13 3aKOHa I[JIH oco6eHHOCTeM LlaHHbIX cy6"beKTOB» HBJiHeTCH rrpoHBJleHHeM rrpH3HaHIIH oco6eHHOCTefi npaBOBoro CTaTyca MYHHl.\HnaJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHHM B rpamLlaH- CKHX rrpaBOOTHOllleHI1HX, YKa3bIBaH Ha TO, 'ITO HMeHHO ny6JIH'IHO-rrpaBOBaH 0\ rrpHpoJla 3TI1X JlHl.\ HBJlHeTCH rrepBOCTerreHHOM rrpH ero paCCMOTpeHHH. N - 
MYHIU.\maJIbHble 06pa30BaHHH B COOTBeTCTBHH C nOJlpa3J1. 2 pa3J1. 1 'I. 1 f1\ pcp HBJIHIOTCH OJlHHMH H3 JIHl.\, HapHAY C rpamJlaHaMH (<pH3H'IeCKHMH JII1- l.\aMH) H IOpHJlH'IeCKHMH JIHl.\aMH, 'ITO yme caMO no ce6e JleJiaeT HeB03Mom- HblM oTOmAeCTBJIeHHe MYHHl.\l1naJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1i1 H IOpHAl1'IeCKHX JIH1.\- HenpHMeHeHHe rpamJlaHCKO-npaBoBoi1 HOpMbl, aJlpeCOBaHHoi1 IOpHJlH'IeC- KHM JIHl.\aM, K OTHOllleHHHM C Y'IaCnleM MYHHl.\HnaJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHHl1 B03- MomHO B ABYX YKa3aHHbiX B n. 2 CT. 124 f1\ pcp CJIY'IaHx: eCJII1 HHoe BbITeKa- eT 113 3aKOHa HJIH oc06eHHOCTefl AaHHblX cy6'beKTOB. TaKI1M 06pa30M, f1\ pcp OJlH03Ha'IHO He onpeJleJiHeT npaBOOTHOllleHHH, B KOTOpblX Moryr Y'IaCTBO- BaTb MyHHl.\lmaJIbHble 06pa30BaHHH, npeJlYCMaTpHBaH JlBa CJIY'IaH, KOrJla TaKoe Y'Iacnle OrpaHH'IHBaeTCH. M36paHHbIM 3aKOHOJlaTeJIeM nOAxoA CJIeJlY- eT npH3HaTb OnpaBJlaHHbIM: npH CYIl.\eCTBylOIl.\eM MHoro06pa3HI1 rpa)KJ1aH- CKo-npaBOBbIX OTHOllleHHfl HeB03MomHO 3aKpenJIeHI1e npaBoBoi'i HOpMOfl ne- pe'IHH OTHOllleHHM. B KOTOpblX Moryr Y'IaCTBOBaTb .aaHHble cy6'beKTbl npaBa. B ::ITOH CBH3H oc060e 3Ha'IeHHe nplm6peTaeT npaBHJIbHOe npHMeHeHHe HOp- Mbl n. 2 CT. 124 f1\ PCP. M eCJIH CJIellOBaHHe HopMaM 3aKOHa Ha npaKTHKe TPYllHOCTefl He BbI3blBaeT, TO IOpHllH'IeCKI1 rpaMoTHoro Y'IeTa «oc06eHHOC- TeH" npaBOBoro nOJlOmeHHH MYHl1l.\11naJlbHbIX 06pa30BaHHM eIl.\e npeACTOI1T AOCTl1rH)'Tb. MCXOllH H3 oc06eHHocTei'i npaBOBoro nOJlOmeHHH MYHHl.\maJlbHbIX 06pa- 30BaHHfl K HHM He MOryT 6bITb npHMeHeHbI, B 'IaCTHOCTH, HOpMbl HeKOTopblX CTaTei1 rJlaBbl 4 f1\ PCP «lOpHJlH'Iec!Gle JlI1l.\a": CT. 49 «IIpaBocnoc06HocTb IOpH).\H'IeCKOrO JlH", CT. 50 «1\oMMep'IeCKHe H HeKOMMep'IeCKHe opraHH3a- l.\HW>, CT. 51 «focYAapcTBeHHaH perHcTpal.\HH IOpHAH'IeCKHX JlHl.\", CT. 54 «Ha- HMeHOBaHHe H MeCTO Haxom).\eHHH IOpH).\H'IeCKOrO JlHua", CT. 61-65. nOCBH- Il.\eHHbIX JIHKBH).\al.\HI1 IOpHJlH'IeCKOrO JlHl.\a. OJlHOBpeMeHHo B f1\ PCP H APYfJ.IX, H3AaHHbiX B COOTBeTCTBHH C HHM HOp- MaTHBHblX npaBoBblx aKTax, 3aKpenJIeHbi oc06eHHocTH Y'IaCTHH MYHHUH- naJlbHblX 06pa30BaHHM B rpam).\aHcKoM 060pOTe. HanpHMep. rpam).\aHcKoe 3aKOHOAaTeJIbCTBO BblJ1eJlHeT npaBOOTHOllleHHH, B KOTOpblX Moryr BblC'rynaTb HCKJllO'IHTeJIbHO YKa3aHHbie B rJlaBe 5 f1\ PcP cy6'beKTbl. YCTaHaBJII'lBaH ).\JlH HHX OC06blM npaBoBoM pemHM: B CT. 16 f1\ PCP - 0 B03MeIl.\eHHl1 y6bITKOB, npH'Il1HeHHblx rpamJlaHI1HY I1JII1 IOpHAH'IeCKoMY JlI1UY He3aKOHHblMH JleMCT- BHHMH (6e3J1eHCTBHeM) opraHoB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH I1J1H HX JlOJImHO- CTHblX JlHl.\, B CT. 115 f1\ PCP - 0 cy6CI1).\HapHoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH MYHHUI1- naJIbHorO 06pa30BaHI1H no 06H3aTeJIbCTBaM MYHHl.\HnaJlbHOrO YHI1TapHOrO npeJlnpHHTHH npH He).\OCTaTO'IHOCTH ero HMYIl.\eCTBa, B CT. 215 f1\ PCP - o npaBe c06cTBeHHocTH Mymll.\lmaJIbHblX 06pa30BamlH H T.l\. BamHblM YCJlOBHeM HBJIHeTCH TalOKe 06paIl.\eHHe K HopMaM APYfHX OT- paCJleH npaBa, KOTopble YTO'IHHIOT oc06eHHocTH Y'IaCTI1H MYHIUUlnaJlbHblX 06pa30BaHHM B KOHKpeTHblx npaBooTHollleHHHx (HanpHMep, <pHHaHcoBoro - B KpellHTHblX npaBooTHollleHHHx 505 H T.ll.) PeryJIHPyeMble rpam).\aHcKHM 3aKOHOAaTeJlbCTBOM OTHOllleHHH, 0 KOTO- pblX H).\eT pe'Ib B HopMe n. 2 CT. 124 f1\ PCP. nepe'Il1CJleHbl B n. 1 CT. 2 f1\ PCP. B 'Il1CJIe npo'Iero 3J1eCb rOBOpl1TCH 06 onpe).\eJIeHHH rpamJlaHCKHM 3aKOHOJla- o f'r\ - 
TeJIbCTBOM npaBOBOrO nOJIOmeHI1H yqaCTHIKOB rpamJlaHCKOrO 060pOTa. B co- OTBeTCTBm C n. 1, 2 CT. 125 rK P<l> OHM OT IMeH1 MYHII.{maJIbHbIX 06pa30- BaHI1i1 Moryr CB0I1M1 Jlei1cTBIHMI1 npl106peTaTb I OCYIl\eCTBJIHTb I1MYIl\eCT- BeHHble 11 JIl1qHble Hel1MYIl\eCTBeHHble npaBa 11 06H3aHHOCTI1, BblcTynaTb B cYJle OpraHbI MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H B paMKaX I.IX KOMneTeHI.{I1I1, YCTa- HOBJIeHHoi1 aKTaMI, OnpeJleJIHIOIl\I1MI1 CTaTYC 3UIX OpraHOB. lOpl1J1l1qeCKl1e me JIll.{a comaCHO n. 1 CT. 48 rK P<l> OT CBoero I1MeHI1 npl106peTalOT 11 oCYIl\e- CTBJlHIOT I1MYIl\eCTBeHHble 11 JIl1qHble HeIMYIl\eCTBeHHble npaBa, HeCYT 06H- 3aHHOCTI1. IIoCKOJIbKY Mymll.{l1naJIbHUe 06pa30BaHle npl13HaeTCH rK P<l> caMOCTOH- TeJIbHblM JIII.{OM, KOTopoe peaJI13yeT CBOIO npaBocnocooHoCTb qepe3 opraHbl ny6JI11qHoi1 BJIaCU1. TO Ha OCHOBaHl111 ICnOJIb30BaHHoi1 B TeKCTe CT. 125 rK P<l> CPOPMYJIbI «OT I1MeHW> MomHO CJleJIaTb BbIBOJl, qTO B pe3YJIbTare Jlei1cT- BI1i1 opraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H yqaCTHI1KOM rpam.llaHCKI1X npaoo- OTHOllleHI1i1 CTaHOBITCH Mymll.{MnaJIbHOe 06pa30BaHl1e B l.{eJIOM. B HaYQHbIX Kpyrax no oonpocy rpam.llaHcKoi1 npaBocnoco6HOCTI1 opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHIH CYIl\eCTBYIOT pa3JII1QHble TOQKJ1 3peHI1H. HeKOTO- pbIe YQeHbIe nOJIaralOT, '!TO opraHbl MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHI1H MorYT YQaCT- BOBaTh B rpamJlaHCKI1X npaooOTHOllleHI1HX caMOCTOHTeJIbHO, a He OT HMeHI1 MYHl1l.{l1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BamIH, 06JIaJlaH npaBaM1 cpl1HaHcl1pyeMblx C06CT- BeHHIKOM MYHll.{l1naJIbHbIX YQpem.lleHIi1 - IOpl1.lll1QeCKI1X JII1I.{ C orpaHI1QeH- HblM BeIl\HbIM npaBOM onepaUIBHoro ynpaBJIeHIH Ha 3aKpenJIeHHOe 3a HIMI1 I1MYIl\eCTBO 11 cy6cl1.lll1a pHOi1 OTBeTCTBe HHOCTblO YQpe.lll1TeJIH - MYHl1l.{lma.rrb- Horo 06pa30BaHI1H no I1X 06H3aTeJIbCTBaM. B 3T0i1 CBH311 pa3JII1QalOT JleHTeJIb- HOCTb opraHa. HaJleJIeHHOrO rpam.llaHCKOH npaoocnoco6HOCTblO, OT I1MeHI1 MY- Hl1l.{l1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H I OT C06CTBeHHOrO IMeHI1. B nepOOM CJIYQae np1 3aKJIIOQem1l1 Jlorooopa OT IMem1 MYHl1l.{HnaJIbHoro 06pa30BaHIH npaBa l'106H- 3aHHOCUI B03HI1KalOT y MYHl1l.{l1naJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHI1H, BO BTOpoM HOCI1TeJIeM npaB I 06H3aHHOCTeH CTaHOBITCH caM opraH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. TaR, Hanpl1Mep, OH 3aKJIIOQaeT JlOrOBOp JlJIH YJlOBJIeTBOpeHIH co6cTBeHHbIx "yq- pemJleHqeCKl1x» Hym.ll npl1 apeH)\e nOMeIl\eHI1H, OH me HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTh npl1 COBeprneHI1H JleJIHKTa. B nOJl06HblX cl1Tyal.{HHx MYHl1l.{l1na.rrbHble 06pa30- Bam1H HeCYT cy6cI.lll1apHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK C06CTBeHHI1K1 yqpemJle- HI1H B nOpHJlKe, npeJlYCMOTpeHHOM CT. 12011 399 rK p<l>506. J(pyme yqeHble CqI1TaIOT, qTO opraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H MorYT BCTynaTb B rpam.llaH- CKMi1 060POT, JleHcTBYH I KaK He060co6.rreHHbIe IOpl1J1MqeCKMe JIl1l.{a, HBJIHHCb OC06bIMI1 npeJlCTaBI1TeJIHMI1 MYHl1l.{l1naJIbHOrO o6pa30Bam1H, I KaK IOpl1,/\I1Qe- CKl1e JIl1l.{a. rJIaBHOe, QTO I1X JleHCTBI1H 06H3bIBalOT MYHl1l.{lmaJIbHOe 06pa30Ba- Hl1e 11 OHI Jlei1cTBYIOT B npeJleJIax cBoei1 KOMneTeHI.{1I1507. 06Il\ei1 QepTOH npl1Be.lleHHbIX n03111.{I1H HBJIHeTCH cpaKTI1QeCKOe «pac- Il\eDJIeHl1e» npaooBoro nOJIOmeHI1H opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H Ha JlBa JIll.{a: «BJIaCTHoe» 11 «He BJIaCTHoe» B 3aBICI1MOCTI1 OT ocyrneCTBJIHeMoi1 IM JleHTeJIbHOCTI1. OTCIOJla I1X HeOnpeJleJIeHHOCTb, nOCKOJIbKY, KaK 11 3aKOHO- JlaTeJIbCTBO, OHI OCTaBJIHIOT 6e3 OTBern MHome BonpOCbl: eCJII1 opraH MeCT- .- HOro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H 06JIa,/\aeT npaBaMI1 IOPI1J1I'IQeCKOrO JIl1l.{a (YQpem,/\e- n .- 
HUH). TO MOmeT JUI OH npu COBeprnemm JleJImITa HeCnl CaMOCTOHTeJIbHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb JleHemHbIM1 CpeJlCTBallU1, Y'H1TblBaH, 'ITO ero q)J-IHaHCUpo- BaHHe BeJleTCH Ha OCHOBaHUH HopMaTHBHoro npaBoBoro aKTa MYHHI.{lIlaJIb- HOro 06pa30BaHIH 0 6lOJlmeTe; B CBH3U C TeM qTO opraHbl MeCTHOrO caMoyn- paBJIeHUH C03J1aIOTCH cnel.{UaJIbHO JlJIH peaml3al.{l-H1 nOJIHOMOqui1 MYHUI.{I'I- naJIbHoro 06pa30BaHIH, HBJIHIOTCH cocTaBHoi1 «qaCnll.{ei1» Mymll.{HnaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHH, JleikTBYH OT ero IMeHH, a TaKme IMeH B BHJlY COJlepmaHHe HOpMbI n. 1 CT. 125 rK P<l>, HeHCHO, Ha qeM OCHOBaHO YTBepmJleHUe 0 TOM, qTO opraH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI'IH 06JIaJlaeT npaBOM BblcTynaTb B rpamJlaH- C!WM 060pOTe OT CBoero uMeHu, BeJlb TeM caMblM npH3HaeTCH HaJIHqUe y 3TO- ro opraHa HeKoTopoi1 06oco6JIeHHOii OT MYHII.{HnaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHH npa- Bocnoco6HOCTU. IIoJIaraeM, qTO npU3HaHle KaKoi1-JIu60 lIBoi1cTBeHHocul npaBOBoro nOJIOmeHUH opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHUH He IMeeT npaBO- BOro 060CHOBaHUH: JI106b1e Jlei1cTBuH opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHUH HB- JIHIOTCH JleHCTBHHM1 caMoro MYHUI.{UnaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHH no oCYIl\eCTBJIe- HUIO CBOHX nOJIHOMOqui1 UJIU no C03J1aHUIO YCJIOBuii JlJIH TaKoro oCYIl\eCTBJIe- mlH (B TOM qUCJIe B c<pepe rpamJlaHCKOro 060pOTa). B npOUIBHOM c.nyqae CTupaeTCH rpaHb MemJlY npaBOBbIMH cTarycaMH opraHa MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHUH U CTaTYCOM MYHnaJIbHOrO yqpemJleHIH, OCYIl\eCTBJIHIOIl\erO ynpaBJIeHqeCKHe CPYHKI.{UU . CpaBHI1BaH npaBOBble CTaTYCbl opraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH 11 IOpIJlllqeCKIX JIJ1I-I, MomHO 3aMeTHTb pRO Om./tU'lUU. 1. OpraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHllHMH C03J1aIOTCH MYHHl.\HnaJIbHbIMH o6pa30BaHHHM1 KaK yqaCTHIKaMH ny6JIUqHO-npaBoBblx OTHorneHlti. lOpH- JlI1qeCKI1e JIHl.\a C03J1aIOTCH cy6'beKTaM1 rpamJlaHcKoro npaBa. 2. OpraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIemlHM1 C03J1aIOTCH I npeKpaIl\alOT CBOIO JleHTeJIbHOCTb Ha OCHOBaHHlI ny6JIlqHO-npaBoBOro HopMaulBHoro aKTa - aKTa MYHIIl.\lmaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHHH. OpraH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH npHo6peTaeT npaBocnoco6HOCTb C MOMeHTa BCTynJIemlH B IOpllJ1UqeCKYIO CI- JIY COOTBeTCTBYIOIl\ero aKTa 0 ero C03J1aHJ1JI, TepHeT ee C YTpaTOi"1 aKTOM IOpllJ1UqeCKoti nIJIbI 509 . IIpaBocnoco6HocTb IOpllJ1UQeCKOrO JIUl.\a B03HI1KaeT C MOMema ero rocy- JlapCTBeHHoti perJ1CTpal.\1I1 I npeKpaIl\aeTCH C MOMeHTa BHecemlH B peeCTp IOpUJlUQeCKHX m'll.{ COOTBeTCTB)'IOIl\ei1 3aIll1CU (n. 2 CT. 51, n. 8 CT. 63 rK P<l>, <l>eJlepaJIbHbli1 3aKOH «0 rocYJla pCTBeHHoi1 erJ1CTpal.\J1I1 IOPIJIIQeCKI1X JIIl.\ U I1HJlI1BIIJ1yaJIbHbIX npeJlnpl1HHMaTeJIei1» 51 ). COfJIaCHO 3aKOHOJlaTeJIbCTBY rOCYJlapCTBeHHaH perJ1CTpal.\IH npe):lyCMO- TpeHa UCKJIIOQI'lTeJIbHO JlJIH IOpU,l\UQeCKIIX JIUl.\ U rpamJlaH-npeJlnpl1HHMaTe- JIei1, CJIeJlOBaTeJIbHO, JlJIH MYHIl.\lmaJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHHi1 Heo6xoJlHMOCTb B 1"3.- KOi1 perHCTpal.\J1J1 OTCYTcmyeT. IIOBTOpllMCH - B coomeTCTBIUI C n. 2 CT. 124 rK P<l> K MYHIl.\lIlaJIbHbIM o6pa30BaHI1HM npuMeHHIOTcH HOpMbI, onpeJleJIH- IOllUle YQaCTHe IOpl1J\UQeCKHX mm B OTHOllleHIHX. peryJIlpyeMblx rpamJlaH- CKIIM 3aKOHOJlaTeJIbCTBOM, B HeM He rOBopITCH 0 TOM, QTO opraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHIH. BCTynaH B rpam,I\aHCKIi1 060POT, npuo6peTalOT CTaTYC IOpllJ1UQeCKOrO mll.\a (KaKYIO-JII160 13 opraHI13al.\IOHHO-npaBOBblx cpOpM N n .- 
IOpUJ\UqeCKIX JUI,-\). UeJIU me, KOTOpbIM CJIymIT rOCYJ\apCTBeHHaJI penlCT- pa,-\UH IOpUJ\I1qeCKUX JIU,-\ (rrpOBepKa COOTBeTCTBUH yqpeJ\ITeJIbHbIX J\OKY- MeHTOB Tpe60BamlHM 3aKOHOJ\aTeJIbCTBa I T.,lJ..), B CJIyqae C opraHaMI1 MeCT- HOro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1H J\OCTuralOTCH C rrOMOl'-\blO 3aKperrJIem1H rrOJIHOMoqUM MYHI1,-\urraJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHIM B 3aKOHax U YCTaBe MYHI,-\ImaJIbHOrO 06pa- 30BaHUH U YKa3amIH B 3TUX aKTax Ha TO, KaKot'! opraH MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaB- JIem1H ICrrOJIHHeT Te IJIl1 I1HbIe rrOJIHOMOqUH OT UMeHI1 Mym1,-\maJIbHOrO 06- pa30BaHuH. 3aKoHHocTb 3TI1X rrpaBOBblx aKTOB CTpOro KOHTpOJIUpyeTcH op- raHaMIIOCTII,-\m1 U rrpoKypaTypbI 511 . 3. lOpI1J\I1qecKI1e JII,-\a C03J\alOTCH J\JIH yqaCTI1H B rpamJ\aHCKOM 060po- Te, OCYl'-\eCTBJIeHHH JII060ro BI1J\a J\eHTeJIbHOCTH, He 3arrpel'-\eHHoro 3aKOHOM (CT. 49 rK P<l». opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHUH C03J\alOTCH J\JIH ICrrOJIHe- HIH rrOJIHOMOqm'1, 3aKperrJIeHHbIX 3a MYHu,-\ImaJIbHbIM 06pa30BaHueM rry6- JII1qHO-npaBoBbIMU HOpMaTI1BHbIMI1 aKTaMI. IIpuqeM B 3TI1X aKTax YKa3bIBa- IOTCH CI1CTeMa TaKI1X opraHOB U IX rrOJIHOMOqUH. OTcYTCTBUe BJIaCTHblX rrOJI- HOMOqUM JIllIlIaeT CMbICJIa caMO C03J\aHue opraHa MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHuH. 4. B OTJIUqle OT opraHoB IOpuJ\UqeCKI1X JIUU, BJIaCTHbIe nOJIHOMOqUH KO- TOpbIX OrpaHUqeHbI paMKaM1 I1X OpraHI13a,-\I1U, BJIaCTHbIe nOJIHOMOqI1H opra- HOB MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHUH pacrrpOCTpaHHIOTCH Ha WI1POKUt'1 Kpyr rrOJ\- BJIaCTHbIX UM cy6ceKTOB. ,l{JIH OCYIl.{eCTBJIeHUH yrrpaBJIeHqeCKUX cjJYHK,-\UM MomeT 6blTb C03J\aHO I yqpemJ\emle (CT. 120 rK P<l», OJ\HaKO rrpu 3TOM OHO 6YJ\eT IOpUJ\I1qeCKUM JII,-\OM B opraHU3a,-\I1OHHo-rrpaBOBOM <popMe yqpemJ\e- HUH, a He opraHOM MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH. 5. BamHoM oc06eHHocTbIO rpamJ\aHcKoM rrpaBocy6"beKTHOCTI1 opraHoB Me- CTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHUH HBJIHeTCH nopHJ\oK npIBJIeqeHI1H IX K rpamJ\aH- cKo-npaBOBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. lOpI1J\l1qeCKle JIu,-\a HeCYT rpamJ\aHcKo- rrpaBoBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb caMOCTOHTeJIbHO. U JIIWb B npeJ\YcMoTpeHHbIx 3aKOHOJ\aTeJIbCTBOM CJIyqaHX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no ux 06H3aTeJIbCTBaM Hec)'T I1HbIe JII1,-\a (CT. 56. 115 U .lip. rK P<l». B cJIyqae C opraHaMU MeCTHoro caMO- yrrpaBJIeHUH BCIO rrOJIHory rpamJ\aHcKo-rrpaBoBoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIl, CBH- 3aHHot'1 C IX J\eHTeJIbHOCTblO, B YCTaHoBJIeHHoM rropHJ\Ke HeceT c03J\aBIi ux MYHI1,-\ImaJIbHOe 06pa30BaHue (CT. 16, 126, 1069, 1071 U .lip. rK P<l» . B TO me BpeMH qepe3 opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1H peaJI13yeTcH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb MYHU,-\ImaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHUH. IIYHKT 2 CT. 125 rK P<l> .110- rrycKaeT TaKoM Mexaml3M OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. OpraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- JIeHI1H CBOI1MI1 J\eMCTBI1HMU npu06peTalOT 11 oCYl'-\eCTBJIHIOT npaBa 11 06H- 3aHHOCTI1 OT IMeHU MYHI,-\ImaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHuH. MYHu,-\maJIbHOe 06pa- 30BaHue KaK cy6"beKT rpamJ\aHcKux rrpaBooTHoweHHt'I B03JIaraeT opeMH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a Bce rrpOJ1cxoJ\HI'-\ee Ha MYHu'-\maJIbHbIe opraHbI BJIaC- TI. IIpaBo U 06H3aHHocTb HeCTII OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B J\aHHOM cJIyqae HMelOT J\eJIempOBaHHbIM, onocpeJ\oBaHHbIM xapaKTep. OHa rrepeHeceHa Ha opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H. B TO me BpeMH llJIH IOpI1J\HqeCKOrO JII1ua. nOHH- Tle KOTOporo J\aeTCH B qaCTHOM rrpaBe, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HBJlHeTCH HeOT"b- eMJIeMbIM ero rrpU3HaKOM. OHO HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HerrocpeJ\CTBeHHO n CBOHM UMYl'-\eCTBOM. I\aK BI'IJ\HM, MexaHU3M rpamJ\aHCKo-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCT- n .- 
BeHHOCTH OpraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJleHHH He COBna,l\aeT C MexaH13MOM 513 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl-llOpH,l\WlecKoro JIII..{a MTaK, npaBOBbIe CTaTYCbI opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H I IOpl- ,l\WleCKHX JlI1L1 OTJlHqalOTCH ,l\OBOJlbHO CYll\eCTBeHHO. He yqHTblBaTb :no OT- JIHqHe B npaBOTBOpqeCTBe H npaBonpHMeHITeJlbHOM npaKTHKe - 3HaqHT HeTOqHO CJle,l\OBaTb HopMaM rK P<l> 0 qaCTHOnpaBoBoH npaBocnoc06HOCTII opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H, a B LleJlOM nO,l\MeHHTb ny6J1HqHO-npa- BOBYIO nplpo,l\y opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI-IH qaCTHOnpaBoBoi1, JII- waTb TaKHe opraHbI caMOM OCHOBbI I1X CYll\eCTBOBaHIH - OCYll\eCTBJIeHHH ny6J1l1qHOH BJIaCTH. TeOpeTl1qeCKOe o60cHoBaHl-le HMeHHO TaKoro pa3pellleHHH ,l\aHHOrO Bonpo- ca eCTb B TpYJlaX COBeTCKHX yqeHbIX-lOpICTOB. Hanpl1Mep. A.B. BeneoU"/(m06 11 C.H. Bpamyc'b (KoTopbIe no 06'beKTHBHbIM npHql1HaM He BH,l\eJll1 npIHLII- nl1aJlbHOH pa3HHI.{bI Mem,l\y opraHaMI-I rOCY,l\apCTBeHHOM BJlaCTl1 11 opraHaMH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH) qeTKO pa3rpaHl-lqHBaJl1 a,l\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHYIO 11 rpam,l\aHCKYIO npaBocy6'beKTHOCTb «rocopraHOB». II03TOMY OHI1 cTporo pa3- JIl1qaJIH OTHOllleHHH, perYJIHpyeMbIe rpamJlaHCKHM 3aKOHO,l\aTeJIbCTBOM, B KOTOpbIX yqaCTBOBaJll1 npe,l\npHHTl1H 11 OpraHI13aLll1H B KaqeCTBe IOpl1,l\l1qec- KHX JIHLI, H BJlaCTHo-opraHH3aLlloHHbIe OTHOllleHIH, B KOTopble BCTynaJIH op- raHbI ynpaBJleHHH, Ha,l\eJleHHbIe onpe,l\eJleHHOM KOMneTeHLlHeH. KJlacClqeCKHMH MomHO Cql1TaTb TeOpeTlIqeCKle nOJlOmeHI1H 0 TOM, qTO He TOJIbKO X03paCqeTHoe npeJlnpmrme, BbmYCKalOll\ee TOBap (B TepMI1HOJlOnm rK P<l> - KOMMepqeCKaH opraHH3aLlHH), MomeT 6bITb qeTKO OTrpaHHqeHO OT opraHa ynpaBJleHI1H (B COBpeMeHHOM TepMI1HOJlOml1 - opraHa roCY,l\apCTBeH- Hoi" BJlaCTl1 H opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1H). B TaKOM me Mepe no ,l\Py- nlM npH3HaKaM OTrpaHl1ql1BalOTCH 610JlmeTHbIe npe,l\npl1HTlIH I opraHH3aLlIm (B TepMIHOJlOrJ.IH rK P<l> - rocY,l\apcTBeHHbIe I MYHI1L1lmaJIbHbIe yqpemJle- Him), npe,l\CTaBJlHIOIl\l-Ie C060M caMoCTOHTeJIbHblH KOMI1JIeKC. IIpaBoBoii cpop- MOM HX BblcTynJleHHH B npaBOOTHOllleHI1HX HBJlHeTCH <popMa IOpl1,l\HQeCKOrO JIHLla. rOCYJlapCTBeHHbIe me opraHbI BbIcTynalOT B COOTBeTCTBYIOll\IX npaBO- OTHOllleHl1HX KaK TaKOBbIe, He Hym,l\aHCb B ,l\onOJlHllTeJlbHoi.. npaBOBOM cpop- Me. IIpe,l\npHHTl1H H OpraHI13al.{HI1 (3J1eCb - KOMMepQeCKl1e I HeKOMMepQeC- KHe opraHH3aLll1H B CMbICJle rK P<l» B KaQeCTBe yqaCTHHKOB npaBOOTHOllle- HHii: BbIcTynalOT KaK e,l\I'IHCTBO. CneLlHaJlbHbIe nOJlOmeHHH 06 opraHax IOp11- ,l\HqeCIGIX JII1I.{ I 0 npe,l\npl1HHMaTeJIbCTBe YCTaHaBJII1BalOT, qbH ,l\eii:CTBI1H I B KaKI1X npeJle.rrax 03HaqalOT BbIcTynJleHHe JlaHHOrO npeJlnpl1HTl1H I opraHl13a- LlI1I1 B KaQeCTBe YQaCTHHKa npaBOoTHollleHlIH. JIHWb BO BHYTpeHHHX OTHOllle- HHHX npeJlnpHHTl1H HJII1 OpraHI13aLlHI1 MorYT BbIcTynaTb OT,l\eJlbHbIe ,l\OJlmHO- CTHbIe JI111.{a. MHoe ,l\eJlO - rocY,l\apCTBeHHblii: opraH. IIpaBOOTHOllleHHH, B KO- TOpbIX OH yqaCTByeT. B 60JIbllll1HCTBe CJIyqaeB HBJlHIOTCH OTHOllleHHHM1 BJla- CTl1 H nO,l\QlHeHI1H (ny6.rrIQHbIe npaBOOTHOllleHI'IH). B 3THX OTHoweHHHX rocy- ,l\apCTBeHHbIii: opraH MomeT yqaCTBOBaTb JI160 KaK l.{eJIoe (qTO 6bIBaeT pe,l\Ko), JlI160 B JIll.{e CB0I1X CTPYKTYpHbIX nO,l\pa3,l\eJleHI1ii: 11 OT,l\eJlbHblX ,l\OJlmHOCT- HbIX J1111.{514. Pa3,l\eJlHH 3TH HJleH, HeKOTopble aBTopbl CnpaBe,l\JII1BO 3aHBJlHIOT o TOM, QTO «B CIJlY npHMoro YKa3aHIH nYHKTa 2 cTaTb1125 rK P<l> B rpam-  f'('\ .- 
JlaHCKIX npaBOOTHOllleHHHX nOJIHOMOqIH OpraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIe- HHH peam13YlOTCH B paMKaX HHCTIlTy-ra 3aKOHHOrO npeJlCTaBITe.nbCTBa»515. rpamJlaHCKO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OpraHOB MeCTIlOrO caMoynpaB- JIeHHH HeOJlHOpOJlHa. B TeOprm rpamJlaHCKOrO npaBa ee TpaJlMl.\HOHHO JIlcp- cpepeHl.\HpYIOT Ha OTJleJIbHble BHJlbI no pa3JIHqHbIM OCHOBam1HM. TaK, B 3aBI- CHMOCTM OT oco6eHHocTei1 KOHKpeTHbIX rpamJlaHCKHX npaBOOTHollleHHi1 (T.e. no OCHOBam1HM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH) BbIJleJIHIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3U npu- 'tu'lle'llue UJltYUjeC11UJe'll'llOZO IJpeou (COBeplll€HHe HMyecTBeHHoro npaBOHa- pYllleHMH) I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3U npU'tu'llC'IIue JlWpMb'llOlO IJpeou (BpeJla, nplqr1HeHHOrO JIHqHOCTII). IIepBbli1 BHJI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH HaM60JIee pacnpo- CTpaHeH B rpamJlaHCKOM npaBe M npHMeHHeTCH K nOJlaBJIHIOeMY 60JIblllIH- CTBY rpamJlaHCKHX npaBOHapYllleHHi1 B OTHOllleHHHX MemJlY JII06bIMH cy6"b- eKTaMH. OCHOBaHMH TaKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH MorYT npeJlYCMaTpr1BaTbCH KaK 3aKOHOM (B HeKOTopbIX CJIyqaHX H nOJl3aKOHHbIM aKTOM). TaK H COrJIallleHM- eM CTOpOH (JlOrOBopoM). BTOpOi1 BMJI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B03HI1KaeT TOJIbKO B OTHOlllemm cpH3HqeCKJ1X JIHl.\ (rpamJlaH-nOTepneBlllIX) H JIHlllb B CJIyqaHX, npHMO npe.nyCMOTpeHHbIX 3aKOHOM. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npMqr1HeHHe MO- paJIbHOrO BpeJla, KaK npaBHJIO, B03HI1KaeT He3aBI1CMMO OT BMHbI npMqI1HHT€- JIH, COCTOHT B JleHemHoi1 (HO He B HHOi1 MaTepHaJIbHoi1) KOMneHCal.\ml I ocy- eCTBJIHeTCH He3aBICHMO OT nOJlJIemaero B03MeIl.{eHHIO J'JMyeCTBeHHOrO BpeJla, T.e. CBepx Hero (CT. 1099-1101 rK)516. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH 3a I1MyecTBeH- HbI€ npaBoHapYlll€HHH MomeT 6bITb nOJlpa3J1eJI€Ha Ha OOlOIJOp'llYlO H lJ'IIeoo- l060p'llYlO. ,UoroBopHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- mlH npeJlCTaBJIHeT C060i'I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a HapyrneHHe JlOrOBOpHoro 06H- 3aTeJIbCTBa. OCHoBaHHeM ee HacTynJIeHHH CJI)"KHT HapyrneHHe JlOrOBOpa, T.e. COrJIallleHHH caMHX CTOpOH (KoHTpareHToB). IIoSToMY TaKaH OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb MOmeT YCTaHaBJIr1BaTbCH 11 3a npaBoHapyrneHHH, npHMO He o6ecne- qeHHble caHKl.\HHMH B JleHcTBYIOeM 3aKOHOJlaTeJIbCTBe. a B pHJle CJIyqaeB YBeJIHqlBaTbCH HJIH YMeHblllaTbcH no COrJIarneHHIO yqacTHHKoB ,!\oroBopa B cpaBHeHHH C pa3MepoM, npeJlycMoTpeHHbIM 3aKOHOM. BHeJlOrOBOpHaH OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb MMeeT MeCTO TOrJla, KOrJla opraH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHIH (npaBoHapyrnr1TeJIb) He COCTOMT B JlOrOBOpHbIX OTHorneHHHX C nOTepneBrnMM. OHa MomeT HCnOJIb30BaTbCH TOJIbKO B npHMO npeJlYCMOTP€HHbIX 3aKOHOM CJIyqaHX H pa3Mepax H Ha I1MnepaTMBHO YCTaHOBJIeHHbIX IM YCJIOBHHX. BHe- JlorOBopHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B03HHKaeT npH npHqr1HeHHH JIlqHOCTM I1JIM HMyeCTBY <pM3lqeCKOrO HJIM IOpHJlHqeCKOrO JIIl.\a BpeJla, He CBH3aHHoro C H€MCnOJIH€HH€M HJU1 H€HaJlJI€maIl.{MM MCnOJIH€HH€M opraHOM M€CTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHHH 06H3aHHOCTeH, JIemaHX Ha HeM B CHJIY Jlorooopa C norep- neBrnen CTOpoHOi1. B TeOpH1 rpamJlaHCKOro npaBa BHeJlOrOoopHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HepeJlKO Ha3bIBalOT TalOKe JleJII1KTHoi1, CBH3bIBaH ee B OCHOBHOM C 06H3aTeJIbC'l'BaMH H3 npHqr1HeHHH BpeJla (JleJIIKTaMH)517, KOTopble, no CYU1, H npeJlCTaBJIHIOT C060H <POPMY rpam.l(aHcKO-npaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. Ho c<pepa npIMeHeHHH Ta- It'\ KOM OTBeTC'l'BeHHOCTII B JleMCTBHTeJIbHOCTII lllHpe H OXBaTbIBaeT Bce cJIyqa1 n .- 
B03HI1KHOBeH1H rpam.l(aHcKoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B CI1J1Y HacTynJleHI1H 06CTOH- TeJlbCTB, npHMO npe.nyCMOTpeHHbIX 3aKOHOM (npl1 OTCYTCTBm ,1\OrGBOpa)518. ,UetkTBYIOIl.{ee 3aKOHO,1\aTeJlbCTBO pa3J1i1qaeT o6Il.{i1e i1 Cnel.\i1aJlbHble YC- JlOBI1H npl1BJ1eqeHl1H K OTBeTCTBeHHOCnl OpraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHIH 3a npl1qI1HeHle Bpe,1\a. K 06'UfU.M YCJWIJU.H.fI'! OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl13a npl1qIHeHl1e 519 Bpe,1\a OTHOCH: HaJll1ql1e Bpe,1\a ; npOnlBOnpaBHOCTb nOBe,1\eHi1H npi1ql1- HllTeJlH Bfa ; npi1ql1HHaH CBH3b Mey Bpe,1\OM i1 npoTl1BOnpaBHblM no- Be,1\eHi1eM ; BI1Ha nplqi1HI1TeJlH Bpe,1\a ,UJlH pemeHI1H Bonpoca 0 B03JImKeHI1I1 OTBeTCTBeHHocnl Heo6xo,1\i1MbI CJle.nyIOIl.{l1e cnel.\i1aJlbHble YCJlOBi1H. 1. ,Uei1:cTBI1H opraHoB 11 ,1\omKHOCTHbIX JIlIl.\523 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHlIH ,1\OJlmHbI 6bITb 06J1eqeHbl B <POPMY aKTa BJlaCT11 524 . B ,1\aHHOM cJlyqae peqb l1,1\eT He 06H3aTeJlbHO 0 KaKOM-JlI160 npaBOBOM ,1\OKYMeHTe o6Il.{ero JIl160 i1H- ,1\i1BI1,1\yaJlbHoro xapaKTepa - no,1\ aKTOM BJlaCTlI Heo6xo,1\i1MO nOHi1MaTb JlIO- 6oro pO,1\a ,1\eHTeJlbHOCTb YKa3aHHbIX JIlIl.\, KOTopaH BbITeKaeT 113 I1X cTaTyca 11 MomeT CBH3blBaTbCH B TOM qICJle i1 C cpaKTOM 113,1\aH11H npaBOBbIX aKTOB, a TaKme i1HOi1: ,1\eHTeJlbHOCTblO, HanpaBJleHHoi1: Ha peaJIl13al.\111O l.\eJlei1: 11 3a,1\a q, CTOHIl.{I1X nepe,1\ MeCTHbIM caMoynpaBJleHl1eM 11 B paMKax I1X KOMneTeHl.\ml. 2, AKT BJlacnl ,1\OJlmeH 6bITb cOBepmeH BI1HOBHbIM ,1\OJlmHOCTHbIM Jli1l.\OM IJlI1 rpynnoi1: JIIl.\, o6pa3YIOIl.{I1X KOJlJleri1aJlbHbli1: opraH. AKTbI BJlacnl CBH- 3bIBalOTCH C onpe,1\eJleHHoro po,1\a ,1\eHTeJlbHOCTblO, oCYIl.{eCTBJlHeMoi1: YKa- 3aHHblM1 JlI1l.\aMIi1 HOcHIl.{ei1: OpraHI13al.\110HHo-pacnOpH,1\I1TeJlbHbIt'1 xapaK- Tep. BnOJlHe JlOmQHO, QTO ,1\aHHble JlI1l.\a ,1\OJlmHbI 06J1a,1\aTb onpe,1\eJleHHbIM 06"beMOM BJlaCTHblX nOJlHOMOQl1j1. 3, ,UOJlmHOCTHble JlI1l.\a opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHH B COOTBeTCT- BIUI co CT. 1059 rpam,1\aHcKoro KO,1\eKCa P<l>, 13,1\aBaH aKTbI BJlaCTl1, ,1\OJDKHbl ,1\ei1:cTBoBaTb B COOTBeTCTBlnl co CBOI1Mi1 cJlyme6HbIMi1 o6H3aHHocTHMH. Snl o6H3aHHOCTl1 ,1\OJlmHbl npe,1\ycMaTpl1BaTbcH ,1\ei1:cTBYIOIl.{I1M 3aKOHO,1\aTeJlbCT- BOM POCCi1i1:CKOt'1 <l>e,1\epal.\I1I1 i1 cy6"beKTOB POCCi1t'ICKOii <l>e,1\epal.\I1I1, KpoMe :3Toro, OHi1 ,1\OJlmHbI KOHKpenI3i1pOBaTbcH B aKTax caMoro MecTHoro caMoyn- 525 paBJleHi1H . IOpl1,1\i1QecKoe 3HaQeHI1e pa3rpaHI1QeHi1H ,1\OroBOPHOt'1 I BHe,1\OrOBOpHoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHi1H COCTOHT B TOM, QTO cpOpMbI i1 pa3Mep BHe,1\oroBopHoi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 YCTaHaBJIlBaIOTCH TOJlb- KO 3aKOHOM, a <pOpMbI 11 pa3Mep ,1\OroBOpHOi1: OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII onpe,1\eJlH- IOTCH KaK 3aKOHOM, TaK I YCJlOBI1HMi1 3aKJlIOQeHHOrO ,1\oroBopa. IIp1 3a- KJlIOQeHl111 ,!\orOBopa CTOpOHbl MorYT YCTaHOBI1Tb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a Ta- Ki1e npaBoHapymeHHH, 3a KOTopble ,1\ei1:cTBYIOIl.{ee 3aKOHO,1\aTeJlbCTBO He npe,1\YCMaTpI1BaeT KaKoi1:-JlI160 oTBeTcTBeHHOCTl1, 11J111 BBeCTII IHYIO <pop- MY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, OTJli1QHYIO OT TOi1:, KOTopaH 3a ,1\aHHOe npaBoHapyme- Hle npe,1\YCMOTpeHa 3aKoHOllaTeJlbCTBoM. CTOpOHbI no ,1\OrOBopy BnpaBe TaK- me nOBbICi1Tb IJlI1 nOH13i1Tb pa3Mep OTBeTCTBeHHocnl no cpaBHeHl110 C YCTa- HOBJleHHbIM 3aKoHoM, eCJlI1 B HeM He YKa3aHO IHoe. Heo6xo,1\i1MOCTb pa3rpaHI1QeHI1H ,1\OroBOpHOi1: I BHe,1\OrGBopHOt'1 OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTl1 opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHi1H 06YCJlOBJleHa TaKme TeM, QTO \0 n .- 
BH,nbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH rrO,nqHHHIOTCH pa3JmqHbIM rrpaBHJIaM. TaK, eCJIH Bpe,n rrplqI1HeH OpraHOM MeCTHOrO caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH, He COCTOHIl.{I'IM B ,noro- BOpHblX OTHOlIIeHIHX C rrOTeprreBlIIl1M, OH B03MeIl.{aeTCH B COOTBeTCTBI1I1 CO CT. 1084-1094 rK P<l>. B cJIyqae me rrpHql1HeHHH Bpe,na HeHCrrOJIHeHHeM 06H- 3aHHOCTl1, rrpHHHToM Ha ce6H opraHoM MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH rro ,norOBO- py, OH B03MeIl.{aeTCH B COOTBeTCTBI1H co CT. 393-406 rK P<l> 13aKOHo,naTeJIb- CTBOM, perYJIHpYIOIl.{HM 3TO ,noroBopHoe rrpaBooTHolIIeHHe. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT xapaKTepa pacrrpe,neJIeHI1H rpam,naHcKo-rrpaBoBoM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII HeCKOJIbKHX JI14 pa3JIHqalOT oOJleey1O, cOJluiJapuy1O H cy6- cuouapuy1O OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. Ha TaKHe BH,nbl MOmeT rro,npa3,neJIHTbCH KaK ,noroBopHaH, TaK H BHe,noroBOpHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB MeCTHoro caMO- yrrpaBJIeHHH. .uOJIeBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 03HaqaeT, QTO opraH MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIe- HIH COBMeCTHO C ,nPYrI1M1 OTBeTQHKaMH HeCeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B TOQHO orr- pe,neJIeHHoti ,nOJIe, YCTaHOBJIeHHOM 3aKOHOM 11JIH ,noroBopoM. IIpaBI1JIa 0 11.0- JIeBoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH rrpHMeHHIOTCH, KOfJ1.a 1H0i1 BHJ1. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII ,nJIH HeCKOJIbKI1X cy6'beKTOB He rrpe,nYCMOTpeH 3aKOHOM (HHbIM rrpaBOBblM aKTOM) IJII1 ,norOBopOM. ECJII1 rrp1 3TOM 3aKOHo,naTeJIbCTBO I1JII1 ,nOroBOp He orrpe,neJIHIOT ,nOJI1 CTOpOH, OHH CQlTaIOTCH paBHbIMH, T.e. opraH MeCTHoro ca- MoyrrpaBJIeHHH HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B o,nI1HaKOBOM C ,nPYfI1MI1 OTBeTQI1- KaM1 pa3Mepe (CT. 321, 1080; rr. 2 CT. 1081 rK P<l». .uOJIeBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HMeeT 3HaQeHle 06Il.{ero rrpaBIJIa I rrpHMeHHeTcH Torlla. Korlla 3aKOHOlla- TeJIbCTBOM 11JI11 ,nOroBOpOM He YCTaHOBJIeHa COJII1,napHaH 11JI11 cy6CH,nHapHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH. COJII,napHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH HeCYT B CJIYQaHX, eCJII1 OHa rrpHMO rrpe,nYCMOTpeHa ,nOroBOpOM IJII1 YCTaHOBJIeHa 3aKOHOM. IIp1 COJII1,napHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Kpe,nITOp BrrpaBe rrpe,n"bHBHTb Tpe60BaHHe KaK KO BceM OTBeTQI1KaM COBMeCTHO, TaK 11 K JII060MY 113 HHX, BKJIIOQaH opraH MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH, eCJII1 rrOCJIe,nHI1i1 HBJlHeTCH o,n- mlM 13 OTBeTQHKOB. IIpI'IQeM TaKOe Tpe60BaHle MomeT 6bITb rrpe,n'bHBJIeHO KaK B rrOJIHOM 06"beMe HaHeceHHoro yIl.{ep6a, TaK 11 B JI1060i1 ero QaCTII. He rro- JIYQI1B rrOJIHoro y,noBJIeTBopeHHH OT O,nHOro H3 COJIH,napHblx OTBeTQIKOB, Kpe,nHTop BrrpaBe rro TeM me rrpaBI1JIaM Tpe60BaTb He,norrOJlYQeHHOe C oc- TaJIbHblX, KOTopble OCTalOTCH rrepe,n mlM OTBeTCTBeHHblMH ,no rrOJIHoro y,nOB- JIeTBOpemlH ero Tpe60BaHHM (CT. 323 rK P<l». COJIH,napHaH OTBeTcrneHHOCTb opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H MomeT npl1MeHHTbcH np1 He,neJII1MOCTII rrpe,nMeTa HeHCrrOJIHeHHOro 06H3aTeJIbCTBa (rr. 1 CT. 322 rK P<l» H rrpH COBMe- CTHOM rrpl1QlHeHlm «BHe,noroBopHoro» Bpe,na (Q. 1 CT. 1080 rK P<l». Cy6cH,nl1apHaH OTBeTcrneHHOCTb HBJIHeTCH ,norrOJIHI'lTeJIbHoi1 rro OTHOlIIe- HHIO K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, KOTOpyro HeceT rrepe,n nOTeprreBIIIIM OCHOBHOi1 rrpa- BOHapYlllIITeJIb (rr.1 CT. 399 rK P<P). OHa rrpl13BaHa ,norrOJIHHTb ero OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb, YCHJII1BaH 3aIl.{I1TY mrrepeCOB rrorepneBlIIero. IIpl1 3TOM opraH MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHH, Hecl1i1 TaKYIO ,norrOJIHHTeJIbHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, COB- ceM He 06H3aTeJIbHO HBJUleTCH COnpHQI1HHTeJIeM I1MYIl.{eCTBeHHoro Bpe,na, Ha- HeceHHoro rrOTeprreBlIIeMY - cpH3IQeCKOMY HJII IOpI1J1.HQeCKOMY JIIl\Y, a BO MHOfHX CJIYQaHX B006ll\e He COBeplIIaeT KaKIX-JIH60 rrpaBOHapYlIIeHHi1. t--- n .- 
Cy6n1J\lapHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb J\JIH HeCYll.{erO ee OpraHa MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHUH HacTynaeT B CJIY'Iae, KOrJ\a OCHOBHOi'1 OTBeT'IUK OTKa- 3aJICH YJ\OBJIeTBOpl1Tb Tpe6oBaHI1e nOTepneBlIIero JII160 nOCJIeJ\HI1i'1 B pa- 3YMHbli'1 CpOK He nOJIY'IUJI OT Hero OTBeTa Ha CBoe Tpe6oBaHle (a63. 2 n. 1 CT. 399 rK P<l». IIo:noMY no 06ll.{eMY npaBUJIY He Tpe6yeTcH, '1To6bI OCHOB- HOJ1 OTBeT'II1K BHa'laJIe OTBenlJI nepeJ\ nOTepneBlIIUM BceM CBOUM IMYll.{e- CTBOM, 11 TOJIbKO npl1 ero HeJ\OCTaTKe (T.e. BO MHOnlX CJIY'IaHX, no cyn1. npl1 6aHKpOTCTBe OTBeT'IUKa) K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU OblJI npI1BJIe'leH cy6Ci'IJ\lap- HbIM OTBeT'IUK (J\omKHuK). C TO'lKU 3peHI1H YCJIOBI1M HacTynJIeHI1H cy6CI1J\uapHoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCUI OHa, B CBOIO O'iepeJ\b, MomeT 6bITb pa3J\eJIeHa Ha HeCKOJIbKO BI1J\OB. B J\oro- BOpHbIX OTHOllieHUHX OHa 06bI'IHO HacTynaeT np1 OTKa3e OCHOBHoro OTBeT- 'lIma OT YJ\OBJIeTBOpeHUH npeJ\'bHBJIeHHbIX K HeMY Tpe6oBaHI1i'1 (He3aBUCI1MO OT Ha.JII1'1UH I1JIU OTCYTCTBUH Y Hero Heo6xoJ\UMOro J\JIH YJ\OBJIeTBOpeHIIH KpeJ\UTopOB UMYll.{eCTBa). TaKOBOM, HanpIMep, B Ci'IJIY YCJIOBI1M J\oroBopa MomeT 6bITb OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHa MeCTHoro caMOnpaBJIeHUH, BbICTY- TIl1BlIIero B Ka'leCTBe nopY'IUTeJIH (n. 1 CT. 363 rK p<l»5 6. Bo BHeJ\orOBopHbIX OTHOllieHUHX, Hanpl1Mep npl1 6aHKpOTCTBe IOpl1J\I1'1e- CKUX JII1l.\. cy6nlJ\uapHaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIe- HUH KaK yqpeJ\UTeJIeM IOpUJ\I'IeCKIX JIUI.{ HacTynaeT JIUllib npu HeJ\OCTaTKe y 6aHKpOTOB KaKoro-JIu60 UMYll.{eCTBa, cnoco6Horo YJ\OBJIeTBOpl1Tb UHTepe- Cbl KpeJ\IITOpOB (n. 3 CT. 56, n. 1 CT. 75, a63. 3 n. 2 CT. 105, n. 2 CT. 1074 rK P<l», U, CJIeJ\OBaTeJIbHO, npeJ\nOJIaraeT npeJ\BapUTeJIbHOe 06pall.{eHle B3blCKaHI1H Ha TaKOe I1MYll.{eCTBO. TaKoBa me B npl1Hl.{l1ne OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB Me- CTHOro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H - KaK co6CTBeHHI1KOB uMYll.{eCTBa MYHUW1TIaJIbHbIX YHIITapHblx npeJ\npIHTI1M. OC06blM CJIY'laM npeJ\cTaBJIHeT C060M cy6cl1J\l1ap- HaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb coocTBeHHuKoB Y'lpemJ\eHui'I, KOTopble OHI C03JIa.JIU I qalHaHCI1PYIOT, nOCKOJIbKY OHa HacTynaeT yme npu HeJ\OCTaTKe HaXOJ\Hll.{I1X- CH B pacnOpHmeHIII1 nOCJIeJ\HI1X J\eHemHblX cpeJ\CTB (n. 2 CT. 120 rK P<l». OHa npeJ\no.rraraeT Heo6xoJ\UMOCTb Ji.eJ\BapUTeJIbHoro 06pall.{eH1H B3bICKaHIH TOJIbKO Ha 3TOT BI1J\ IMYll.{eCTBa . B MYHUI.{UnaJIbHo-npaBOBOH HaYKe npeJ\npUHI1MalOTCH nonbITKU pa3pa- 60TKU np06JIeM cy6CI1J\I1apHOH 11 COJIUJ\apHoi'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB Me- CTHGrO caMoynpaBJIeHUH U rocYJ\apCTBeHHbIX opraHOB 528 . B '1UCJIe BamHeH- lIIUX npI1HI.{I1TIOB, Ha KOTOpbIX CTpoHTCH B3aUMOOTHOlIIeH1H I B3aI1MOJ\ei'lcT- Bl1e Mem.l\Y rOCYJ\apCTBeHHbIMI1 opraHaMU U opraHaMI1 MeCTHOrO caMoynpaB- JIeHuH. HaXO.IIHTcH npl1HI.{I1TIbI cy6cIJ\uapHocul U COJIuJ\apHocul. B YCJIOBI- HX, KorJ\a MeCTHbIMU c006ll.{eCTBaMU I ux opraHaMH OCYll.{eCTBJIHIOTCH He TOJIbKO BonpOCbI MeCTHOrO 3Ha'leHIH. HO 11 onpeJ\eJIeHHaH '1aCTb roCY.IIapCT- BeHHbIX nOJIHOMO'lHM, K TOMY me Korlla HeB03MomHO TO'lHO pa3rpaHU'IIITb MeCTHble I rocYJ\apcTBeHHble J\eJIa, pelliaeMble Ha MeCTax B uHTepecax Hace- JIeHUH, UX ycnelliHaH peaJIU3al.{UH J\OJImHa conpOBOm.llaTbCH MepaMI1 Ha OC- HOBe CO.JII1J\apHocul U cy6Ci'IJ\lapHocn1 MemJ\Y BceM1 TpeMH ypOBHHMU BJIa- cn1 U ynpaBJIeHI1H (<peJ\epaJIbHblMI. pemOHaJIbHblMU U MYHI1I.{HnaJIbHbIMI) B l.{eJIHX COJ\eMCTBIH C6aJIaHCI1poBaHHoMY pa3Bun11O TeppITOpIM. 0) f'('\ .- 
IIpUHl.\unbI Cy6CI,nlapHOCUI U COJm,napHOCUI paCCMaTpHBalOTCH B EBpO- nei1cKoi'1 xapu1I1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH 529 KaK OCHOBOnOJIaralOmHe I no,nJIemamle C06JIIO,neHUIO C y'IeTOM KaK eBponeilcKoi1 I1HTerpal.\Uu, TaK 11 BHyrpeHHero YCTpoi1cTBa rocy,napCTB, BXO,nHmUX B COBeT EBponbl. SUIM ,nBYM npUHl.\maM ,nOJImHbI COOTBeTCTBOBaTb U ,nBa BI,na OTBeTCTBeHHOCTU: cy6CJ-I,nuapHaH 11 COJIu,napHaH, npWieM He TOJIblW B c<pepe rpam,naHCKo-npa- BOBbIX OTHollleHMi'I, HO U BJlaCTHo-a,nMMHMCTpaTMBHbIX. rpam,naHCKUM Ko,neKC P<l> I EIO,nmeTHbIM Ko,neKC p<l>530 He npe,nYCMaT- pIBalOT CJIY'iau cy6cu,nuapHoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH PoCCUi'ICKOi1 <l>e,nepal.\UI I cy6'beKTOB POCCIMCKOi1 <l>e,nepal.\UM 3a HeHa,nJIemamee ICnOJIHeHMe 06H3a- TeJIbCTB opraHaMu MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHMH nepe,n cjJI13M'ieCKUMM U IOpl- ,nU'IeCKUM1 JIIl.\aMU no BUHe COOTBeTCTBeHHO cjJellepaJIbHbIX opraHOB rocy- ,napCTBeHHoi1 BJIaCUI J.lJI1 opraHOB rocy,napCTBeHHoi1 BJIaCUI cy6'beKTa POC- CUMCKOi1 <l>e,nepaUI1I1. STOT npo6eJI B npaBoBoM pery JIllpOBaHml B3aUMOOTHO- llleHHi'1 rocy,napcTBeHHblx opraHOB I opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIemlH npOUIBOpe'iUT Cl-ICTeMe npaBoBbIx rapaHulM MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH I HapYlllaeT OCHOBOnOJIaralOmUe npUHUI1DbI MX B3auMo,nei1cTBI1H H COTpy,nHM- 'ieCTBa - cy6cl1,nuapHocTI1 U cOJII1,napHocTM. COfJIaCHO CT. 16 II069 rK P<l> y6bITKJ.I 11JIH Bpe,n, npI'IUHeHHbIe rpam,na- HIHY IJII IOpM.1\H'IeCKoMY JIMUY B pe3YJIbTaTe He3aKOHHbIX ,nei1cTBui1 (6e3- ,neilcTBuH) opraHoB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIemlH JIl160 ,nOJImHOCTHbIX JIlIl.\ 3UIX opraHoB, B TOM 'iICJIe B pe3YJIbTaTe U3,naHUH alITa, He COOTBeTCTBYlOmero 3a- KOHY UJIH 11HOMY npaBOBOMY aKTY, no,nJIemaT B03MemeHMIO 3a C'IeT Ka3HbI MYHUl.\I1DaJIbHOrO 06pa30BaHMH. IIp1 3TOM B CJIY'iae npU'iMHeHUH y6bITKOB I Bpe,na opraHaM1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHUH B c<pepe BJlaCTHo-a,nMMHICTpa- TIBHbIX OTHOllleHui'1 rpam,naHe B OTJIll'Il1e OT IOpu,nI'ieCKUX JIIl.\ MOryT Tpe- 60BaTb KOMneHCal.\MIO U Mopa.rrbHoro Bpe,na. Ho B pH,ne CJIY'IaeB y6bITKH JIH60 Bpe,n rpam,naHaM 11JIU IOpI,nU'IeCKUM JIUUaM MorYT 6bITb npI'IHHeHbl opraHa- MI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH I1JI1 ,nOJImHOCTHbIMJ.I JIUuaMU 3TUX opraHOB BCJIe,nCTBHe HeHa,nJIemamero UCnOJIHeHI1H CO CTOpoHbI opraHOB rOCYAapCT- BeHHOM BJIaCUI npaBOBbIX rapaHuli1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHl1H JIl160 YCTa- HOBJIeHHbIX 3aKOHOM 06H3aHHocTei1. Ha npaKTMKe HepeAKU CJIY'iaM, KorAa opraHbl MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIemlH He nOJIHOCTblO 06eCne'II1BalOT YAOBJIeTBOpeHle OCHOBHbIX mM3HeHHbIX no- Tpe6HocTei1 HaCeJIeHUH Ha ypOBHe MUHMMaJIbHblX roCYAapCTBeHHbIX COUM- aJIbHblX CTaHAapTOB, BbInOJIHeHMe KOTOpblX rapaHulpyeTcH rOCYAapCTBOM nocpeACTBOM 06eCne'IeHUH MYHHl.\maJIbHbIM 06pa30BaHIHM MJ.lmIMaJIbHbIX MeCTHbIX 6IOAmeTOB. EbIBaeT TaK, 'ITO rpam.1\aHaM HJIH IOpJ'JAI'IeCKHM JIMuaM npU'iJ.lHHIOTCH y6bITKU BCJIe,nCTBle YBeJIH'ieHMH pacxo,nOB UJIlI YMeHblllemlH ,nOXO,nOB MeCTHoro 61OAmeTa, B03HUKalOmHX B pe3YJIbTaTe pellleHui'l, npI1HH- TbIX cjJe,nepaJIbHbIMH opraHaM1 rocy,napCTBeHHoi1 BJIaCUI JI160 opraHaM1 ro- cy,napCTBeHHoi'1 BJIaCTI1 cy6'belITa POCCUMCKOi1 <l>e,nepawm. IIp1 3TOM opra- HbI rOCYAapCTBeHHoi1 BJlaCUl, npUHHBIllle TaKHe pellleHMH, He nOJIHOCTblO KOMneHCHpYIOT AOnOJIHMTeJIbHble pacxoAbI MYHIUMnaJIbHbJM 06pa30BaHUHM, 0\ 'ITO HBJIHeTCH HapYllleHleM Aei1cTBYlOmero 3aKOHo,naTeJIbCTBa. n .- 
HeMaJIo nOJl06HbIX KOJIJIU3UM npmICXOJlIT npu OCYll.\eCTBJIeHlnl OpraHa- MU MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBJIeHIH nepeJlaHHbIX I.IM OTJleJIbHbIX rOCYJlapCTBeH- HbIX nOJIHOMO'iUM. He 06eCne'ieHHbIX B He06xoJlUMbIX pa3Mepax MaTepUaJIb- HblM111 cjJIHaHCOBbIMU CpeJlCTBaMU. 3aKOH YCTaHaBJIUBaeT, 'iTO TOrJla opra- HbI 11 JlOJI:lKHOCTHbIe mll.\a MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHUH HeCYT OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb 3a UCnOJIHeHUe rOCYJlapCTBeHHbIX nOJIHOMO'iIM B TOM Mepe, B KaKot'! 3TU nOJIHOMO'iIH 06eCne'ieHbI cooTBeTcTBYIOll.\UM1 opraHaMu rOCYJlapCTBeH- HOM BJIaCnl MaTepUaJIbHbIMU U cjJIIHaHcOBbIMU CpeJlCTBaMI1. OJlHaKO 3aKOHO- JlaTeJIbCTBO He YCTaHaBJII1BaeT, KTO 06H3aH B03MeCTl1Tb npl1'iIIHeHHbIe y6bIT- KI1 I1J1J1 BpeJl. Bonpoc 0 TOM, KTO KOHKpeTHO B YKa3aHHblX CJIY'iaHX HeceT OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb I B03Mell.\aeT y6bITKU B ccjJepe BJIaCTHO-aJlMI1HICTpaTlIBHbIX OTHOIlle- HI1M, HBJlHeTCH npIHl\UIII1aJIbHbIM. ITo 06ll.\eMY npaBIJIY POCcuflCKaH <l>eJle- pal.{11H, cy6'beKTbI P<l>. MYHI1L11'lIIaJIbHble 06pa30BaHI1H He OTBe'iaIOT no 06H- 3aTeJIbCTBaM JlPyr Jlpyra, 3a I1CKJIIO'ieHUeM CJIY'iaeB npl1HHTI1H IMU Ha ce6H COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\11X rapaHTl1M (nopY'i11TeJIbCTB). OJlHaKO B COOTBeTCTBI1J1 C KOHCTlITYl.{110HHblMI1 (CT. 13211 133 KOHCTI1TYl\UI1 P<l» 11 UHblMU npaBOBblMU rapaHTl1HMI1 JlJIH MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H I1MelOTCH Bce OCHOBaHHH KBa- JII<pUl\11poBaTb BbIIllenepe'iICJIeHHbIe CJIY'iau B Ka'ieCTBe rapaHTlIM (nopy- 'iITeJIbCTB). nplIHHTbIX POCCUMCKOH <l>eJlepal\11eM JII60 cy6'beKTaMI1 <l>eJle- pal\IUI Ha ce6H no OOH3aTeJIbCTBaM MYHHl.{IlIlaJIbHbIX 06pa30BaH11M. ITpeJlCTaBJIHeTCH, 'iTO ecm1 3aKOHOM HJII1 IIHblM npaBOBblM aKTOM npeJlY- CMOTpeHa 06H3aHHOCTb MYHIII.{lIlaJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1fl (opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H) B03Mell.\aTb y6bITKI1 JIH60 BpeJl. npl1'i11HeHHbIe 11M BCJIeJl- CTBI1e HeHaJlJIe:IKall.\ero I1CnOJIHeHl1H 06H3aHHOCTeM HJIH 06H3aTeJIbCTB opra- HaMI1 rOCYJlapCTBeHHOM BJIaCTJ1, a I1MelOll.\11XCH B HX paCnOpH:lKeHlnl cpeJlCTB HeJlOCTaTO'iHO. TO Cy6CHJIIapHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no 06H3aTeJIbCTBaM MY- HHl.{l1naJIbHbIX 06pa30BaHI1M JI160 opraHa MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH JlOJI:IK- HbI HeCTI1 B 3aBI1CI1MOCTJ1 OT BI1Hbl COOTBeTCTBeHHO opraHbl rOCYJlapCTBeHHOH BJIaCTlI POCCUMCKOfI <l>eJlepal\HH IJII'I cy6'beKTa <l>eJlepal\1111. ITpH B03Mell.\e- HJ1J1 B nOJl06HbIX CJIY'iaHX y6bITKOB lm1 BpeJla MYHII.{lIlaJIbHbIM 06pa30Ba- HI1eM OHO JlOJDKHO 6bITb HaJleJIeHO npaBOM perpecca COOTBeTCTBeHHO K POC- CI1flCKOM <l>eJlepal\IUI I1JI1 cy6'beKTY <l>eJlepal.{l1l1. AHaJIOrM'iHbIX B3rJIHJlOB npHJlepmUBaeTCH K.11. AMUpOCK06. C ero TO'iK1 3peH11H. Bce Tpl1 ypoBHH BJIaCTlI 11 ynpaBJIeHI1H B PoCCUflCKofl <l>eJlepal\IUI HecYT nepeJl rpa:IK,1\aHaMI1 cOJII1J1apHble 06H3aHHocTI1 B 'iaCTI1 YJloBJIeTBope- HIH OCHOBHblX :lKH3HeHHblX IlOTpe6HocTeM HaCeJIeHHH Ha ypOBHe He HI1:IKe MHHIIMaJIbHbIX rOCYJlapCTBeHHbIX COl\HaJIbHbIX CTaHJlapTOB. !1CXOJlH H3 npI1Hl\lIla COJII1J1apHOCTlI CJIeJlyeT yperYJIl1pOBaTb B 3aKOHO,1\aTeJIbCTBe npl1Hl\HnbI I nOpHJlOK com1J1apHOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTlI opraHOB Bcex Tpex YPOBHeM BJIaCTH 11 ynpaBJIeHI1H nepeJl cjJI1311'ieCKHMH pI1J1I'ieCKI1M1 JII- l.{aMH B ccjJepe BJIaCTHO-aJlMIIHI1CTpaTI1BHbIX OTHOilleHIUI . CommapHaH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb JlOJI:lKHa npIMeHHTbCH EO Bcex CJIY'iaHX, CBH3aHHblX C COBMe- CTHbIM npH'iIHeHHeM y6bITKOB I1JII1 BpeJla <p1311'ieCKI1M llOpHJlI1'ieCKIM JII- l\aM B pe3YJIbTaTe He3aKOHHbIX peIlleHIM I ,1\eMCTBHM (6e3J1eMCTBI1H) rocy- o  .- 
,lIapCTBeHHbIX 11 MYHl'!Ql1rraJIbHbIX OpraHOB l'! l'!X ,lIOJI>KHOCTHbIX JIl'!Q. YCTaHOB- JIeHl'!e COJIl'!,lIapHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI'I 6Y,lIeT crrOC06CTBOBaTb peaJIbHOM 3a- II.\I1Te rrpaB rpa>K.l\aH 111Opl1,l1I1'1eCKI1X JII1Q, a TaK>Ke rrOBbIIlJaTb OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb rrepe.l\ HI1MI1 roCY,lIapCTBeHHbIX opraHOB l'! opraHOB MeCTIioro caMoyrr- paBJIeHI1H, ,lIeJIaTb I1X COJII1.l\a pHble 06H3aHHOCTI1 60JIee Ha,lle>KHbIMl'!5a2. B HaCTOHII.\ee BpeMH B rrpaBOBOJ1 HaYKe 06CY>K,lIaeTCH rrp06JIeMa COOTHO- IlJeHI1H rpa>K,lIaHCKo-rrpaBOBOH l'! KOHCTl'!TYQI10HHO-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI'I rry6JII1'1HO-rrpaBOBbIX 06pa30BaHI1J111 opraHOB rry6JII1'1HOM BJIaCTI1 (rocy- .l\apCTBeHHbIX 11 MYHl'!Ql1rraJIbHbIX) rrepe,ll <p11311'1eCKl'!MI1 11 lOpl'!,lII1'1eCKl'!Ml'! JII1QaMI1. TaK, rro MHeHl1lO f.A. faaJlfu€ea, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a rrpl1'1I1HeHl1e Bpe.l\a, rrpe.l\YCMOTpeHHaH KOHCTl'!TYQI10HHbIM rrpaBOM (CT. 53 KOHCTI1TYQI1I1 P<I>, CT. 16 l'! 1069 rK P<I», I1MeeT caMOCTOHTeJIbHOe lOpl'!,lII1'1eCKOe co.l\ep>Ka- Hl1e 11 OCHOBaHI1H B03HI1KHOBeHI1H 533 . B rrO,ll,llep>KKY 3TOJ111,l1el1 rrpI1BO,llHTCH rrpaBoBble rr0311QI111 KOHCTI1TYQI10HHOro CYlIa POCCI1HCKOJ1 <PenepaQI1I1. Bo-rrepBbIx, OCHOBaHI1H 11 YCJIOBI1H KOHCTI1T)'QI10HHO-rrpaBoBoH OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 rocynapCTBa rrepell '1aCTHbIMI1 JII1QaMI1 OTJII1'1alOTCH OT OCHOBaHI1M - 4 B 9 rpa>K.l\aHCKO-rraBOBOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 . rrOCTaHOBJIeHI111 OT 1110HH 1992 r. N2 7-II 35 KOHCTI1T)'QI10HHbIM CY.l\ P<t> 06paTI1JI BHI1MaHl1e Ha TO, '1TO OCHOBaHl1eM B03Hl'!KHOBeHI1H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl'! rocynapCTBa B KOHCTI'ITYQI1- OHHOM CMbICJIe HBJIHeTCH rrpe>K.l\e Bcero HapYIlJeHl1e rrpl1HQl1rrOB KOHCTI1TY- QI10HHOJ1 rOCYlIapCTBeHHOCTI1. BO-BTOPbIX, caM yIl.\ep6, BbI3BaHHbIl1 He3aKOHHbIMI1 ,lIej.jcTBI1HMI1 opraHOB rOCYlIapCTBeHHOM BJIaCTl'1 B KOHCTI1T)'QI1HOM 11 rpa>KnaHCKOM rrpaBe xapaK- Tepl13YeTCH pa3JII1'1HbIMI1 rrpl13HaKaMI1 . B rrOCTaHOBJIeHl111 OT 1 lIeKa6pH 1997 r. N2 18_II 537 KOHCTI1TYQI10HHbIl1 CYlI P<I> OTMeTIlJI, '1TO, B OTJII1'1l1e OT rpa>KlIaHcKoro rrpaBa, B KOTOpOM ,lIeHcTByeT rrpl1HQl1rr I1C'II1CJIHeMOCTI1 YIlJep6a, Bpe.l\, rrpl'!'1I1HeHHbIM rocY,llapCTBoM. MO>KeT 6b1Tb peaJIbHO Hel'!C'II1C- JIHeMblM Bpe.l\OM. f.A. faaJlfu€e C'II1TaeT, '1TO pa3rpaHI1'1eHl1e KOHCTI1TYQI10HHO-rrpaBo- BOM II rpa>KlIaHCKO-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 He06xo,llI1MO OCYIl.\eCTB- JIHTb 11 rrpl1MeHI1TeJIbHO K TaKI1M I1HCTI1TYTaM KaK HeCOCTOHTeJIbHOCTb cy6'beKTOB P<I> 11 MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1H 53B . B orrpelIeJIeHl111 OT 14 HH- BapH 2000 r. N2 2_0 539 KOHCTI1TYQI10HHbIH CYlI P<I> 113 cO,llep>KaHI1H HOpM CT. 8, 35, 55 KOHCTI1TYQI1I1 P<I> BbIBeJI KOHCTl'!TYQl1oHHo-rrpaBoBOJ1 pe>KI1M cTa611JIbHbIX YCJIOBI1H X03HI1CTBOBaHI1H. 3aIl.\I1Ta 3TI1X QeHHOCTeJ1 orrpaB- lIblBaeT cYIl.\ecTBoBaHl1e TaKI1X I1HCTI1TYTOB, KaK HeCOCTOHTeJIbHOCTb (6aH- KpOTCTBO) rry6JII1'1HbIX rrpaBoBblx 06pa30BaHI1M. AHaJIOnl'lHblX B3fJIH.l\OB rrpII,ZJ;epml'!BaeTCH H.M. KOJlocoea. C ee TO'IKI1 3peHI1H, B Tex CJIY'laHX, KorlIa rrpaBOOTHOIlJeHI1H I1MelOT He '1aCTHOrrpaBOBOJ1, a rry6JII1'1HO-rrpaBOBOM xapaKTep, MO>KHO rrOCTaBI1Tb Borrpoc 06 OTHeCeHl111 .... 540 B03MeIl.\eHI1H rrpl1'1l'!HeHHoro yIl.\epoa K KOHCTl'!TYQI10HHbIM caHKQI1HM . Pe31OMI1pYH rrpI1BeneHHble BbIIlJe aBTOpCKI1e rr03I1QI1I1, MO>KHO rrpl1HTI1 K BbIBO.l\y 0 TOM, '1TO OTJIl'!'1l1e rpa>K.l\aHCKo-rrpaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 KOH- CTI1TYQI10HHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, B03HI1KalOII.\I1X 113 rrpl1'1I1HeHl'!H Bpe.l\a, ;- _ CTOI1T B OCHOBaHI1HX l'! YCJIOBI1HX OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, ee rrpaBOBOM pe>KI1Me ,  - 
caHKQHRX 11 QeJlRX. B OCHOBY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB MeCTHOrO caMoyn- paBJleHHR KaK OpraHOB ny6J1WIHOM BJlaCTH nepell cpH311'1eCKHMH H IOpHlIH'1e- CKI1MI1 JlI1QaMI1 nOJlO>KeH oOll.\l1i'i KOHCTI1TYQI10HHblM npl1HQl1n CYlIe6HOrO 00- >KanOBaHI1R JlIOObIX BJlaCTIiblX pellleHI1J1. PeaJll13aQHIO H)\el1 0 pa3rpaHI1'1eHI1H rpa>KlIaHCKO-npaBOBOM 11 KOHCTI1TY- QI10HHO-npaBOBOJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 3a npl1'1I1HeHl1e Bpella cpI1311'1eCKI1M 11 IOpHlIl1'1eCKI1M JlI1QaM MbI MO>KeM HaOJllOlIaTb B 3aKOHaX HeKOTOpblX CYO"beK- TOB POCCI111CKOM <PellepaQI1I1. TaK, B 3aKOHe EeJlrOpOllCK0I1 o6.nacTI1 «00 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OpraHOB 11 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR 11 lIOJl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1Q MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1R» OT 19 aBrYCTa 1996 r. N 75 (B pell. OT 27 HOROpR 2001 r. )542 <paKTI1'1eCKI1 BOCnp0l13BOllRTCR OCHOBHble nOJlO>KeHI1R rK P<P (CT. 16) B '1aCTII B03Mell.\eHI1R Yll.\ep6a. B COOTBeTCTBI1H co CT. 5 3aKoHa YObIT- KI1, npl1'1I1HeHHble B pe3YJlbTaTe HenpaBoMepHblx pellleHI1M opraHoB MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R I1l10Jl>KHOCTHbIX JlI1Q MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1R. cOBep- llIeHHR I1MI1 HenpaBoMepHblx lIeMcTBHl1, B03Mell.\aIOTCR I1MI1 B nOJlHOM OO"be- Me TeM npellnpl1RTI1RM, Y'1pe>KlIeHHRM, OpraHI13aQI1RM 11 rpa>KlIaHaM, KOTO- pblM npl1'1I1HeHbl 3TI1 y6b1TKI1, Ha OCHOBaHl111 pellleHI1R cYlla 11J111 apOI1Tpa>K- HOro cYlla 3a C'1eT CpellCTB opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHI1R. OpraHbl Me- CTIioro caMoynpaBJleHI1R, B03MeCTI1BllII1e YObITKH, npl1'1HHeHHble I1X paoOT- HI1KaMI1 I1JIH lIOJl>KHOCTHbIMI1 JlI1QaMH, I1MelOT npaBO npell"bRBHTb perpecc- HblM I1CK K 3TI1M JlI1QaM B COOTBeTCTBl111 C 3aKOHOM. B 3aKOHe KaJlY>KCKOM OOJlaCTH «0 MeCTIiOM caMoynpaBJIeHHI1 B KanY>K- CKOM 06J1acTII» OT 8 I1IOHR 1996 r. N 34 (B pel\. OT 26 IIIOHR 2003 r.)543 lIonOJl- HHTeJlbHO npellycMoTpeHa rpa>KlIaHCKO-npaBoBaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepell MeCTHblM cooOll.\eCTBOM. B COOTBeTCTBl111 co CT. 60 3aKoHa >KI1TeJlI1 MYHI1QI1- nanbHoro 00pa30BaHHR BnpaBe npell"bRBI1Tb I1CK K opraHaM MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHI1R B cJlY'1ae HeBblnOJlHeHI'IR 3TI1MI1 opraHaMI1 H !\OJl>KHOCTHbIMI1 JlI1Qa- MI1 YCTaHoBJleHHblx <pe!\epanbHbIMI1 3aKOHaMI111 3aKOHaMI1 KaJlY>KCK0I1 oOJla- CTI1 00R3aHHocTeM no OTHOllleHl11O K oTlIeJlbHoMY >KHTeJlIO MYHHQHnaJlbHoro 06pa30BaHHR HJlH K MeCTHOMY coooll.\ecTBY B QeJlOM. Ha nepBblM B3rJlR)\ 3aKO- HOllaTeJlb cYO"beKTa POCCHl1CK0I1 <PellepaQHI1, oCYll.\eCTBJlRR COOCTBeHHOe rpa>KlIaHCKO-npaBOBOe peryJlHpOBaHHe (3aKpen.nRR HOpMbl rpa>KlIaHCKOro npaBa B 3aKOHe cYO"beKTa POCCHI1CKOM <PellepaQHH), BblllleJl 3a npelleJlbl CBO- eM KOMneTeHQHH, <paKTII'1eCKH BTOPfHYBllIHCb B npellMeTbl BelleHHR POCCHH- CK0I1 <PellepaQHH (CT. 71-73 KOHCTHTYQHH P<P). OllHaKO CTOpOHHHKH pa3rpa- HH'1eHHR rpa>KlIaHCKO-npaBoBOH 11 KOHCTWI)'QHOHHOI1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a npH'1HHeHHe Bpella C'1HTaIOT, '11'0 B nOllooHbIX cJlY'1aRX cJlellyeT IOpHlIl1'1eCKI1 rpaMOTHo Y'1HTblBaTb npellMeTbI npaBOBoro perYJll1p0BaHI'IR H cOllep>KaHl1e HOpM OTpaCJlel1 npaBa 544 . B KOHCTIIT)'QI10HHOM 11 M)'HI1Ql1naJlbHOM npaBe cy- ll.\eCTBYIOT HOpMbl, KOTopble MO>KHO Ha3BaTb CMe>KHblMI1 C HOpMaMl1l1Horo OT- paCJleBoro 3aKOHOllaTeJlbCTBa. TaK, CT. 50 <PellepaJlbHOrO 3aKOHa «06 OOll.\HX npHHQHnax opraHH3aQHH MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHHR B POCCHHCKOM <Pellepa- QI1H» OT 28 aBrycTa 1995 r. 00 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHI1R nepell <p11311'1eCKI1Ml1l1lOpl1l1l1'1eCKI1MI1 JlI1QaMI1 OCHOBaHa Ha CT. 53 KOHCTHT)'QHH P<P, KOTopaR nOCBRll.\eHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a Bpell, npH'1H- (\f "'" - 
HeHHbIM lIeticTBHHMH OpraHOB rOCYllapCTBeHHOM BJIaCTH I1l10JImHOCTIibIX JIHQ. Ho 3Ta HOpMa I1MeeT I1HOM CMbICJI, qeM aHaJIOrl1qHble CTaTbl1 rpa:ll\,l\aHCKOrO KOlleKCa P<t>: OHI1 pOllCTBeHHbI, HO He TomlleCTBeHHbI. CMernaHHble HOpMbI, HBJIHHCb «rOMoreHHbIMH» (pOllCTBeHHbIMI1), He HBJIHlOTCH TomlleCTBeHHbI- MH 545 . J1 B CI1JIY CMemHOCTH BCTaeT np06JIeMa pa3rpaHI1qeHHH rpamllaHCKO- npaBOBOJ111 KOHCTI1T)'QI10HHO-npaBOBOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 546 llpHBelleHHble aprYMeHTbI n03BOJIHlOT CHHTb COMHeHI1H B KOHCTI1TYQI10H- Hocm paCCMaTpl1BaeMbIX nOJIOmeHI1M 3aKOHOB EeJIropollcKoM H KaJIymcKoM  547 OOJIaCTeH B CBeTe 113JIOmeHHoro nOllqepKHeM, QTO TpaKTOBKa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 op- raHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H nepell cPI1311QeCKHMI1 H IOpl1l1l1QeCKI1MI1 JIHQaMI1 I1CKJIIOQHTeJIbHO TOJIbKO KaK rpamllaHCKo-npaBOBofi OTBeTCTBeHHO- CTI1 npellCTaBJIHeTCH y3KOM 11 OllHOCTopOHHefi. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB BJIaCTI1 nepell <pH3I1QeCKI1MI1 JII1QaMI1 - rpamllaHaMI1 OTHOCI1TCH npemlle Bcero K c<pepe nYMI1QHbIX npaBOOTHOrneHI1J1 11 HOCI1T ny5JII1QHO-npaBOBOM xapaKTep, B lIaHHoM CJIYQae - KOHCTIITYQI10HHo-npaBOBOM. B TO me BpeMH :3T0 He I1CKJIIOQaeT B03MOmHOCTI1 I1X npl1BJIeQeHI1H K rpamllaHCKo-npaBOBOJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. J13JIOmeHHble TeOpeTl1Ko-npaBOBble XapaKTepl1CTHKI1 OTlIeJIbHbIX BI1l10B OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H lIOJImHOCTHbIX JII1Q MeCTIiOrO caMoynpaBJIeHHH 11 CYll.\eCTBYIOll.\l1e pa3HOfJIaCI1H cpelll1 YQeHblX 06 I1X alleKBaTHOCTH OTpaCJIe- BbIM Bl1l1aM CBHlIeTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 HaJIHQHI1 npOQHbIX CBH3eJ1 BHYTPH CHCTeMbI IOpHlIHQeCKOM OTBeTcTBeHHOCTl1, n03BOJIHIOll.\HX rOBopHTb 06 OTHOCHTeJIbHOM caMOCTOHTeJIbHOCTl111 KOMnJIeKCHOM xapaKTepe npaBoBoro I1HCTI1T)'Ta IOpH- lIHQeCKot'1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB I1l10JImHOCTHblX JII1Q MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHI1H. 
3AKl1tOLlEHE <PopMHpOBaHHe TeOpeTWleCKOrO 3HaHlUI 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB H ,lIOmKHOCTHbIX JIHl! MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHR B MYHHl!HnaJIbHo-npaBoBoil HaYKe HaXO,llHTCR nOKa ell\e Ha Ha'IaJIbHOM CTa,llHH. C HaCTORll\HM HCCJIe,llOBa- HHeM MomeT 6bITb CBR3aHO Ha'IaJIO HOBOro :3Tana B ero nocTpoeHHH, KOTOpblM xapaKTepH3YeTCR nepeXO,llOM 01' HeKpI1TH'IeCKOrO 0606ll\eHI1R BbIBO,llOB 06- ll\eM TeOpl1l'! npaBa 11 OTpaCJIeBbIX IOpl1.l\I1'IeCKI1X HaYK K c06cTBeHHoMY Teo- peTI1Ko-npaBoBoMY I1CCJIe.l\OBaHI1IO I1CXO,llR 113 C06CTBeHHbiX OTpaCJIeBblX l\e- JIeM 11 3a,llaq. JJ:JIR npO,llBHmeHI1R Bnepe,ll B nOC1'poeHHI1 TeopmI OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,lIOJImHOCTHbIX JII1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1R B MYHI1l!I1- naJIbHO-npaBOBOM HaYKe B HaCTORll\efl pa60Te pernaJII1Cb npem.l\e Bcero Me- TO.l\OJIOm'IeCKl1e np06JIeMbl. IJ:eHTpaJIbHOe MeCTO cpe.l\11 HHX 3aHI1MaeT npo- 6JIeMa nOHI1MaHI1R IOpl1,l1I1'IecKofl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. B npOl!eCce ee pellleHHR aBTopOM 6bIJI C,lIeJIaH BbIBO,ll 0 TOM, '11'0 onpeJIeJIeHl1e nOHRTI1R IOpl1Jll1'IecKoil OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B eJII1HCTBe n0311TI1BHOro 11 HeraTI1BHOrO acneKTOB He cno- c06cTByeT pellleHl110 npaKTII'IeCKI1X 3a,llaq. IT0311TI1BHaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb npe,llCTaBJIReT C060M caMOCTORTeJIbHOe npaBOBoe RBJIeHl1e 11 caMoCTORTeJIbHbIl1 npeJIMeT I1CCJIe,llOBaHI1R. OHa, Heco- MHeHHO, CBR3aHa C OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO IOpl1,l1I1'IeCKOM, HO xapaKTep :3TOM CBR- 311 He n03BOJIReT COrJIaCHTbCR C BKJIIO'IeHHeM ee B 06ll\ee nOHRTl1e IOpl1,l1I1'Ie- CKOJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B Ka'IeCTBe OJIHOrO 113 acneKTOB. IT0311TI1BHaR OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb H IOpl1J\l1'IeCKaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb .l\OJlmHbI I1MeTb CBOIO nOHRTI1f1- HYIO HH,lIHBI1,l1yaJIbHOCTh H KBaJII1<pHl!HpOBaTbCR KaK aBTOHOMHble .l\ecjJHHH- l\1-IH. Y3KI1I1, HeraTHBHbli\ no,l\XO.l\ K onpe,lleJleHHIO IOpH.l\I1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTH RBJlReTCR 60Jlee npHro,llHblM, 60Jlee npaKTH'IeCKHM, KOTOpbIM B TO me BpeMR He HCKJlIO'IaeT B03MomHOCTH CHHTe3a B paMKax e,llI1Horo nOHRTI1R pa3- JIH'IHbIX TeOpeTH'IeCKHX nO,llXO.l\OB H BbIXOJIa Ha HHTerpaTHBHoe BOCnpJUlTHe. ITo CBoeM CYll\HOCTI1 IOpl1!IH'IeCKaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb eCTb npeTepneBa- HHe cy6'beKTOM KaKHX-JIII60 He6J1aronpl1RTHblX npaBOBblX nOCJle,llCTBI1f1 B BH,lIe JIl1ll1eHIIMI1 OrpaHI1'IeHI1M JlI1'IHOro, OpraHl13al\110HHoro HJlI1 I1MYIl.\eCT- BeHHoro xapaKTepa. Ero 3aKOHHOCTb 11 HeOTBpaTI1MOCTh 06eCne'II1BaeTCR C nOMOIl.\blO IOpI1JII1'IeCKIIX Cpe.l\CTB, TaKIIX, KaK IOpl1.l\I1'IeCKaR o6R3aHHocTb, MepbI rocY.l\apCTBeHHoro npIlHym.l\eHIIR, npaBOnpl1MeHeHl1e, npaBooTHollle- Hl1e. ITmToMY HapR,lIY C npeTepneBaHl1eM npl1 onpe,lleJleHI1I1 nOHRTJ1H OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTI1 Hel136emHO I1cnoJlb3yeTcH 31'01' IOpl1,l1I1'IeCKI1J1I1HCTpYMeHTapI1l1 11 COOTBeTCTBYIOIl.\aH TepMIIHoJlOrHH.lOpl1,l1I1'IeCKI1 npeTepneBaHlle Bblpama- eTCH B B03HIIKHOBeHIIII 11 peaJIl13al\1I11 06H3aHHOCTI1 npeTepneTb He6J1aro- npl1RTIible npaBoBble nOCJIe.l\CTBI1H 3a He,llOJlmHOe nOBe,lleHl1e. 31'11 TeOpeTlI- 'IeCKl1e n0311l\I1H 6bIJlI1 nOJlOmeHbl B OCHOBY onpe,lleJleHI1H nOHRTI1H OTBeTCT-  BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I1.l\OJlmHOCTHbIX JlI1l\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIIR, pa3pa-  6OTaHHoro aBTopOM. - 
lOpytJlWleCKaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTh OpraHOB l'I JlOJl:iKHOCTHbIX JlytQ MeCTIiOrO calOynpaBJleHytH - 3T0 B03HI-IKHOBeHyte yt peaJlyt3aQI-IH B YCTaHOBJleHHOM 3a- KOHOM (YCTaBOM) nOpHJlKe 06H3aHHOCTyt Y COOTBeTCTBYIOll.\I-IX OpraHOB 1-1 JlOJl:iKHOCTHbIX Jll'IQ npe-repneTb npeJlYCMOTpeHHble CaHKQl-leM npaBOBOfi HOp- MbI MepbI npI-lHY:iK)\eHytH B Bl'IJle JlytIlleHytM ytJIyt OrpaHl1'leHytfl JlWIHOrO, ytMY- ll.\eCTBeHHOrO ytJlyt OpraHyt3aQytOHHoro XapaKTepa 3a HapYllieHyte YCJlOBytI1)\e- HTeJlbHOCTI-I no peaJlyt3aQI111 C06CTBeHH0I1 KOMneTeHQl1yt B pellieHytyt BonpOCOB MeCTIiOrO 3HaqeHytH yt oCYll.\eCTBJleHytlO OTJleJlbHbIX roCY,l(apCTBeHHblX nOJlHO- MOqytM. JJ:aHHaH cjJOPMYJlytpOBKa n03BOJlHeT ytHTerpytpOBaTb B OJIHOM JlecjJytHI-I- Ql1yt OCHOBHble nOJlO:iKeHytH Hayt60Jlee pa3pa60TaHHbIX KOHQenQI1MlOpl1J1ytqec- K0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt, BOCnpl-lHHTbIX MYHytQl1na.nbHo-npaBOB0I1 HaYK0I1, a,l(eK- BaTIiO onpeJleJlHTb npeJlMeT npaBOBoro perYJIIIpOBaHytH. Bbl.!\ep:iKaTb Me:iKOT- paCJleB0I1 xapaKTep TaKoro nOHHTytH yt 06eCneqytTb npytrOJlHOCTh JlecjJytHytQytyt KaK ,l(JlH HayqHoro ytCCJle,l(OBaHytH. TaK yt .llJIH npaBOBOM npaKTytKyt. <POpMHpOBaHyte yt cjJYHKQytOHHpOBaHyte ytHCTI-ITyTa npaBOB0I1 OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTyt opraHOB yt JlOJl:iKHOCTHbIX JlytQ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHytH npeJlYCMaT- pHBaeT HCnOJlb30BaHyte Bcel1 CJlO:iKytBIlIeI1CH B POCCytl1CKOM npaBe CytCTeMbI IOpyt)\HqeCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, BKJllOqaH OTpaCJleBble BHJlbl. IT03TOMY COBO- KynHocTb Btl.!\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHOB H JlOJl:iKHOCTIibIX JlytQ MecTHoro ca- MoynpaBJIeHytH 06pa3yeT CytCTeMY, 3J1eMeHTbI KOTOpOM HaXOJlHTCH BO B3aytM- OCBH3yt H B3aytMOJleI1CTBytyt. ITo MHeHHIO aBTopa, TaK0I1 nOJlXOJl K ee BOCnpI-lH- TytlO HY:iKHO OTHeCTyt K 06ll.\ytM MeTOJlOJlOmqeCKI-IM npl-lHQtmaM l'ICCJleJlOBaHI-IH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHOB yt )\OJI:iKHOCTHbiX JlI1Q MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI'IH. B npOllecce pellieHytH np06J1eM KJIaCCyt<pHKaQytyt IOpl-lJlytqecKofi OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTyt opraHOB yt JlOJl:iKHOCTHbIX Jlytl\ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHytH 6blJl pa3- pa60TaH nOHHTytMHO-KaTerOpl-laJlbHbIl1 annapaT, n03BOJlytBIlIytl1 06eCneql-lTb cjJYHJlaMeHTaJlbHOCTb ytCCJle)\OBaHytH yt nOJlHYIO nOHHTytMHYIO onpe)\eJleHHOCTb paCCMaTpHBaeMbIX HBJleHytfl. l{eHTpaJlbHOe MeCTO B CHCTeMe KaTerOpl111 KJlaC- Cyt<pytKaQHyt IOpH,l(ytqeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHOB yt ,l(OJl:iKHOCTHbiX JlytQ MeCTIiOrO caMoynpaBJleHytH 3aHytMaeT KaTeropytH «Btl.!\ OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI-I». B aBTopCKOM nOHytMaHytyt «BytJl IOpyt,l(ytqeCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI-I» - 3T0 npaBO- BaH KaTeropytH, KOTopaH 06pa3yeTcH Ha OCHOBe Bbl.!\eJleHytH oc06eHHOCTel1 co- Jlep:iKaHytH H cjJOpMbI OTJleJlbHblX 3J1eMeHTOB CHCTeMbI IOpHJlytqeCKOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTyt. ITpyt 3TOM ytMeHHO o606ll.\eHyte oco6eHHOCTefi yt COJlep:iKaHytH 1.1 cjJop- MbI qJOpMytpyeT nOHHTyte «BH,l( IOpytJlytqeCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW>. TaKytM 06- pa30M, BHJI IOpytJlytQeCKOl1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt npeJlCTaBJIHeT C060M npaBoBYIO KaTeropytlO, Bblpa:iKalOll.\Y1O nOJlpa3J1eJleHyte IOpH)\ytQeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII KaK HBJIeHytH (CytCTeMbl), 06J1aJlalOll.\ee oc06eHHocTHMH cOJlep:iKaHI1H yt qJOpMbI. COJlep:iKaHyte nOHHTytH «Byt,l( OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW> onpe,l(eJlHeTCH ero «Teo- peTytQecKytM oKpy:iKeHyteM», CBH3blO C JlPymMyt nOHHTytHMyt. TaKytMyt, KaK «<popMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt», «Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTW>, «caHKQytH». ITpI-lBO)\H B CHCTeMY nepeQI-lCJleHHble nOHHTytH, aBTop npytIlleJl K HeKoTopbIM BbIBO,l(aM, ytMelOll.\HM Ba:iKHOe TeopeTytQeCKOe yt MeTOJlOJlOmQeCKOe 3HaQeHyte. B QaCT- HOCTI-I, 6blJl CJleJlaH BbIBOJl 0 TOM, QTO CYll.\eCTByeT ytepapXytH <pOpM OTBeTCT-  BeHHOCTyt opraHOB l'I JlOJl:iKHOCTIibIX JlytQ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHytH, a TaK:iKe  - 
CytCTeMa cpOpM COCTaBJIHIOLQytX ee 3JIeMeHTOB - npaBOBblX Cpe.n;CTB I-! TeXHO- JIorytH. IIpaBoBaH <popMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OXBaTblBaeT MaTepytaJIbHYIO cpOPMY, B KOTOpOi1 BblpamalOTCH rocy.n;apCTBeHHoe ocym.n;eHl1e yt .n;onOJIHI1- TeJIbHble 05peMeHeHHH, B03JIaraeMble Ha npaBOHapYllurreJIH, H npOl,\eccy- aJIbHYIO <POPMY IOpyt.n;WlecKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHOB yt .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JII1Q MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHytH. Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHOB 11 .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JIytQ MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBJIeHytH npe.n;CTaBJIHeT c060i1 COOTHOllleHl1e KOJII1'IeCTBeHHbIX H Ka'IeCT- BeHHbIX napaMeTpOB rocy.n;apCTBeHHoro npI1Hym.n;eHytH. KaTeropHH MepbI BblpamaeT TaKoe B3al1MOOTHOllleHHe Mem.n;y 3TI1Myt CTopOHaMyt rocy.n;apCT- BeHHoro npHHym.n;eHytH, npyt KOTOpOM ero Ka'IeCTBO OCHOBaHO Ha onpe.n;eJIeH- HOM KOJIyt'IeCTBe. a nOCJIe.n;Hee eCTb KOJIH'IeCTBO onpe.n;eJIeHHoro Ka'IeCTBa. Mepa IOpyt.n;yt'IeCKOJ1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHOB yt .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JIytQ MeCTHO- 1'0 caMoynpaBJIeHytH - 3TO I1H.n;I1Byt.n;yaJIyt3I1pOBaHHoe cnpaBe.n;JII1BOe yt copa3- MepHoe npaBOBoe nOCJIe.n;CTByte IOpyt.n;yt'IeCK0I1 OQeHKyt KOHKpeTHoro .n;eHHHH (.n;eHTeJIbHOCTyt) nOCJIe.n;HytX. CYLQeCTBYIOT TaKme OCHOBaHHH .n;JIH nOCTaHOBKyt Bonpoca 0 BbI.n;eJIeHytyt HOpMaTI1BHoi1 H I1HCTytTYQytOHaJIbHoi1 <pOpM MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB I-! .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JIytQ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH. HopMaTHBHoii cpOpMOi1 MepbI IOpyt.n;yt'IeCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTII BblcTynaeT caHKQytH. He06xo.n;ytMOCTb npaBOB0I1 perJIaMeHTaQl1yt npaKTyt'IeCK0I1 peaJII13aQI1yt (npytMeHeHytH) COOT- BeTcTBYIOLQeH caHKQytl1 npytBo.n;ytT K cpOpMytpOBaHHIO npaBoro ytHCTytTYTa, K B03HytKHOBeHHIO ytHCTtITYQI-!oHaJIbHoH cpOpMbI MepbI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opra- HOB yt .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JIHQ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH, BblpamalOLQeJ1 He TOJIbKO caMY Mepy OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH (Mepy npI1Hym.n;eHytH), HO I-! «TeXHOJIO- rytlO" ee peaJIyt3aQytH. B MYHytQytnaJIbHo-npaBoBoH HaYKe ytcnOJIb3YlOTCH pa3JII1'IHble no.n;XO.l\bI K KJlaccytcpl1KaQHyt OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHoB yt .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JII1Q MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHytH. C<pOpMytpoBaBllIytecH B 06LQeJ1 Teopytl1 npaBa yt B 3aKOHO- .n;aTeJlbCTBe. HecMoTpH Ha 3Ha'IytTeJlbHOe MHoro06pa3yte aBTopcKytX TO'IeK 3peHytH no noBO.n;y oCHoBaHytJ1 KJIaccytcpnKaQytyt OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHoB yt .n;OJlmHOCTHbIX JII1Q MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH yt BbI.n;eJIHeMbIX Byt.n;OB OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTyt, ytx 06'be.n;I1HHIOT .n;re 06LQyte yt.n;eH: - CTpeMJIeHyte ytHTerpytpOBa Tb pa3JIyt'IHble no.n;xo.n;bI K KJIaccyt<pytKaQytyt OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB yt .n;OJImHOCTHblX JIytQ MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHHH Ha OCHOBe OTpaCJIeBoro no.n;xo.n;a yt no.n;xo.n;a, npyt KOTOpOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb COOTBeTCTBYIOLQytX opraHOB yt .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JII-!Q KJIaCCyt<pnQI-!pyeTcH no cy6'beKTY, nepe.n; KOTOpbIM OHI-! HeCYT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - KOHKpeTyt3aQytH cy6'beKTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 yt .n;ytqJqJepeHQl1pOBaHHbIl1 no.n;xo.n; K OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt opraHOB H .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JlytQ MecTHoro caMoyn- paBJleHytH B 3aBytCytMOCTyt OT ytH.n;ytByt.n;yaJlbHbIX oc05eHHocTeH npaBoBoro cTaTyca nOCJIe.n;HI1X. AHaJIyt3ytpYH co.n;epmaHl1e pa3J1I1'IHbIX no.n;xo.n;OB K KJIaCCl1cpytKaQHH OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB yt .n;OJImHOCTHbIX JlytQ MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHytH, Ha- Myt 5bIJI c.n;eJIaJI BbIBO.n; 0 TOM, 'ITO cYLQeCTBYIOLQyte KJlaCCHcpytKaQHyt OTBeTCT- \0 "'" - 
BeHHOCH1 Ha3BaHHbIX CYO'beKTOB J\a.neKO He 6e3yrrpe'IHbI, KOHl.\errTYaJIbHO l'I MeTOJ\o.nom'IeCKl'I He BbI,l\epmaHbI. PaCCMOTpeHHble rrOJ\XOJ\bI 6bI.n11 YTO'IHeHbI l'I J\orro.nHeHbI, a TaKme rrpeJ\JlOmeHa aBTopCKaR K.naCCl1CpI1Kal.\I1R OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 opraHOB H J\o.nmHOCTHbIX .nHl.\ MecTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHR. B 3aBHCHMO- CTH OT l.\e.neM H OCHOBaHHM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB l'I J\o.nmHOCTHbIX .nHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHHR MomeT ObITb rrOJ\pa3J\e.neHa Ha cPYHKl.\HOHa.nbHYlO H J\e.nHKTHYlO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. IIepBaR HMeeT CB0I1M OCHOBaHHeM HeJ\OCTH- meHHe pe3y.nbTaTa, He3cP<peKTIIBHOCTb J\eRTe.nbHOCTH, T.e. J\eJ1CTBHR (oe3- J\eiicTBHe), KOTopble He MorYT 6bITb KBaJIHcPHl.\HpOBaHbI KaK rrpaBOHapYllIeHHe H 'IaI.l\e Bcero <pOpMaJIH3YlOTCR KaK yrpaTa J\OBepHR Hace.neHHR, BTopaR - CO- BepllleHl1e OTBeTCTBeHHbIM cy6'beKTOM rrpaBOHapYllIeHI1R. PelliaR Borrpoc 0 B03MomHOCTH BI1J\OBOro oooc06.neHHR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 ,no.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l! MecTHoro caMoyrrpaB.neHI1R B CI1CTeMe BI1,nOB lOpH,nI1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl1, aBTOp rrpl1ll1e.n K BbIBO,ny, 'ITO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb opraHOB H J\o.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l! MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaB.neHI1R B l.\e.nOM (BO BceM MHoro06pa3HI1 BI1J\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 paCCMaTpl1BaeMbiX cy6'beKTOB) He MomeT rrpeTeHJ\OBaTb Ha BHJ\OBYlO caMOObITHOCTb HI1 B TeOpeTl1'IeCKOM, HI1 B rrpaKTI1'IeCKOM rr.naHe. MomHo rOBOpl1Tb .nl1ll1b 06 OTHocHTe.nbHoM caMOCTO- RTe.nbHOCTH, ooocoo.neHI1H rrpaBoBoro HHCTI11)'Ta - I1HCTHTYTa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTI1 opraHoB 11 J\o.nmHOCTIibIX .n11l! MecTHoro caMoyrrpaB.neHI1R, T.e. COBO- KyrrHocTI1 rrpaBoBblx HOpM, pery.nl1pYlOI.l\I1X OTHOllleHI1R lOpl1J\I1'IeCK0I1 OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHoB 11 J\o.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaBJIeHI1R. 3TOT HHCHITYT RB.nReTCR KOMrr.neKCHbIM, B HeM rro rrpeJ\MeTIiOMY rrpl13HaKY OO'beJ\I1HeHbI pa3Hooopa3Hble rro CBOeJ1rrpl1pOJ\e rrpaBOBble HOpMbI. B ero oc- HOBe .nemaT HOpMbI KOHCTI1TYl!110HHOro, aJ\MI1HI1CTpaTI1BHoro, MYHI1l.\l1rra.nb- HOro, rpamJ\aHcKoro 11 J\pymx 0-rpac.neJ1rrpaBa. PacKpbIBaR TeOpeTI1KO-rrpaBOBbie xapaKTepl1CTI1KI1 OTJ\e.nbHbIX BI1,nOB lOpl1J\I1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH opraHoB 11 J\o.nmHOCTHbIX m.ll! MeCTHoro ca- MoyrrpaB.neHI1R, HaMI1 c,ne.naHbI c.ne.nylOI.l\l1e BbIBOJ\bI. 1. IIocTaHoBKa BOrrpoca 00 ooocoo.neHI1H ({MYHI1l!lIIa.nbHo-rrpaBoBOM» OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B CI1CTeMe oTpac.neBbix BHJ\OB lOpl1,nI1'IeCKOM OTBeTCTBeHHOC- TH B Ka'IeCTBe caMOCTORTe.nbHoro BI1,na I1MeeT rroJ\ Co00I1 HeKoTopble OO'beK- TI1BHble OCHOBaHI1R, K KOTOpbIM J\o.nmHbI 6bITb OTHeceHbI rrpemJ\e Bcero crre- l.\11<pI1Ka cOJ\epmaHI1R 11 <pOpMbI 3TOM OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. JJ:aHHaR Crrel.\HcPl1Ka orrpeJ\e.nReTcR l!e.nblO 3T0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTl111 Hal10o.nee RpKO rrpORBJIReTCR B rrp0l.\eJ\ypHoM (rrpol!eccya.nbHoM) pemHMe, oTpamalOI.l\eM aTMoccPepy J\eR- Te.nbHOCTI1 Bcex Y'IaCTHI1KoB oTHOllleHl1ii, B paMKax KOTOpbIX B03HI1KaeT l'I pea.n113yeTCR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB 11 J\o.nmHOCTHbIX mIl! MecTHoro ca- MoyrrpaB.neHI1R rrepeJ\ Hace.neHl1eM, a TaKme oc06eHHOCTRX rrpaBoBoro HH- CTI1TYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB H ,no.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l! MecTHoro caMoyrr- paB.neHI1R rrepeJ\ Hace.neHl1eM. B OT.nI1'Il1e OT Bcex rrpO'II1X BI1J\OB OHa pea.nH- 3yeTcR rrocpe,nCTBOM I1Crro.nb30BaHI1R Hace.neHl1eM COOTBeTCTBYlOlliero rrpa- Ba, a He rrpaBOrrpl1MeHeHHR. 2.0TBeTCTBeHHocTb opraHoB l'I J\O.nmHOCTHbIX .nHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoyrrpaB- .neHl'IR rrepeJ\ rocy,napcTBoM MomeT paCCMaTpl1BaTbCR B llIl1pOKOM 11 Y3KOM t- "'" - 
CMbIc.ne. B lllJ1pOKOM CMbIC.ne OHa npeJlCTaB.nHeT C060M cOBoKynHocTb pHJla OTpac.neBbIX BHJlOB oTBeTcTBeHHocTH, TaKI1X, KaK yro.nOBHaH, a)\MI1HI1CTpa- TI1BHaH, KOHCTHT)'UI1OHHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb H Jlpyme. B Y3KOM CMbIc.ne OHa paCCMaTPlBaeTCH KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npaBOHapyrneHl1e B ccjJepe MYHHuma.nbHoro npaBOTBOp'leCTBa 11 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 3a OCYIl\eCTB- .neHHe OTJle.nbHbIX rOCYJlapCTBeHHbIX no.nHOMO'lHJ1. B Y3KOM CMbIc.ne OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHOB H Jlo.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MecTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1H nepeJl rOCYJlapCTBOM OJlHopOJlHa. OHa HaCT)'naeT KaK npl1 OCYIl\eCTB.neHHI1 opra- HaMI1 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHI1H CBOHX C06CTBeHHbIX, TaK 11 npl1 OCYIl\eCTB- .neHHI1 Jle.nerl1pOBaHHbIX (nepeJlaHHbIX) no.nHOMO'lI1M. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb op- raHOB 11 Jlo.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1H nepeJl rOCYJlapCTBOM 6a311pyeTcH Ha KOHCTHTYl.\110HHOii oOH3aHHOCTI1 opraHOB H Jlo.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHHH C06.JIIOJlaTb 3aKOHbI H rapaHTI1HX I1X caMO- CTOHTe.nbHOCTI1 npl1 ocyweCTB.neHI1I1 CBOI1X no.nHOMO'lI1H B YCTaHOBJIeHHbIX npeJle.nax 11 nepeJlaHHbIX OTJle.nbHbIX rOCYJlapCTBeHHbIX no.nHOMO'lI1M. COOT- BeTCTBYIOIl\l1e "Jle.nI1KTbI» 06pa3ylOT OCHOBaHHH KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOM OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 Jlo.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1H. TaKI1M 06pa30M, B CI1CTeMe OTpac.neBbIX BHJlOB IOpHJlI1'leCK0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 OHa MOmeT 6blTb onpeJle.neHa KaK KOHCTI1T)'l.\HOHHO-npaBOBaH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. 3.0TBeTCTBeHHocTb opraHoB H Jlo.nmHOCTHbIX .nHl.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- .neHI1H nepeJl cjJI1311'leCKI1MI1 11 IOpl1J1I1'leCKI1MI1 .n11l.\aMI1 TalOKe HeOJlHOpOJlHa. B cl1.ny oc06eHHocTeM npaBOBoro cTaT)'ca opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaB.ne- HI1H OHa MomeT B03HI1KaTb H3 ny6.nI1'lHO-npaBOBbIX 1.1 'laCTHOnpaBOBbIX OT- HOrneHI1M. TIpl1 3TOM B nepBOM c.nY'lae opraHbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1H 11 HX ,l\o.nmHOCTHble .n11l.\a BblcTynalOT KaK HOCI1Te.n11 B.naCTHbIX no.nHOMO'lI1M, BO BTOpOM - KaK paBHonpaBHbIe Y'laCTHI1KI1 (11.n11 npeJlCTaBI1Te.n11 MYHI1l.\I1lla.nb- HOro 06pa30BaHHH) rpa)KJ\aHCKOro 060pOTa (cy6'beKTbI rpa:iK!laHCKO-npaBO- BbIX OTHOrneHI1M). YTBepJlI1BIlleeCH B MYHI1l.\l1na.nbHo-npaBOBoH HaYKe MHeHl1e, cor.naCHO KOTOPOMY OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 11 Jlo.nmHOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MecTHoro caMO- ynpaBJIeHI1H nepeJl cjJI1311'leCKI1MI1 11 IOpl1J1I1'leCKI1MI1 .n11l.\aMI1 OTOmJleCTB- .nHeTCH C rpamJlaHCKO-npaBOBOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO, HBJIHeTCH 3a6.nym.n;e- Hl1eM. TIpI1Hl.\I1ll OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 nepe.n; cjJI1311'leCKI1MI1 11 IOpl1.n;I1'leCKI1MI1 .n11l.\aMH 06eCne'lI1BaeTCH HHCTI1TYTaMI1 KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHO-npaBOBOH H rpam.n;aHCKo-npaBOB0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1. OT.nI1'll1e rpam.n;aHCKo-npaBOB0I1 11 KOHCTI1TYl.\110HHOii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, B03HI1KalOIl\eHI13 npl1'lI1HeHI1H Bpe.n;a cjJI13H'leCKI1M 11 IOpl1.n;I1'leCKI1M .nHl.\aM B pe3y.nbTa-re He3aKOHHblX .n;ei1:cTBI1M (6e3.n;eMCTBI1H) HJII1 perneHHH opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHHH, COCTOHT B OCHOBaHI1HX, YC.nOBI1HX :'JT0I1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1, npaBOBOM peml1Me, KOTOpbIl1 B03HI1KaeT npl1 ee pea.n113al.\l1l1, CaHKl.\I1HX l1l.\e.nHX. MeXaHI13M rpamJlaHCKO-npaBoBoi"1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 opraHOB 11 .n;o.nm- HOCTHbIX .n11l.\ MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1H He COBna.n;aeT C MeXaHI13MOM OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTI1 IOpl1J1I1'leCKOrO .n11l.\a. lOpl1,l\I1'lecKoe .n11l.\0 HeceT OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb HenOCpeJlCTBeHHO CBOI1M I1MYIl\eCTBOM. B c.nY'lae me COBepIlle- HHH opraHOM MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1H rpamJlaHCKO-npaBoBoro .n;e.nI1KTa co "'" - 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, no CYll.{eCTBY, HeceT MYHytQHna.nbHoe 06pa30BaHyte. TaK KaK B3bICKaHyte 06pall.{aeTCR Ha ero (MYHytQl1na.nbHoro 06pa30BaHHR) Ka3- HY. TIOCKO.nbKY B rpa>K.n;aHCKI1X npaBOOTHOllJeHytRX no.nHOMO'lytR opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHI1R pea.nyt3YlOTCR B paMKax ytHCTI1TYTa 3aKoHHoro npe.n;CTaBytTe.nbCTBa, rpa>K.n;aHCKo-npaBOBaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.neHytR ytMeeT .n;e.nerHpOBaHHbIji, onocpe.n;OBaHHbIJ1 xa- paKTep. 4.0TCYTcTByte 3aKpen.neHHoro B POCCl1jkKoM 3aKOHo.n;aTe.nbCTBe HHCTH- TYTa cy6nI,ZJ;ytapH0J1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTyt POCCytJ1CKOJ1 <Pe.n;epaQytl1 yt cy6'beKTOB POCCytJ1CK0I1 <Pe.n;epaQytyt 3a HeHa.n;.ne>Kall.{ee ytcno.nHeHyte 06R3aTe.nbCTB op- raHaMyt MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJIeHytR nepe.n; cPyt311'1ecKytMyt H IOpH.n;H'IecKytMI1 .nJH.(aMyt no BytHe COOTBeTCTBeHHO qJe.n;epa.nbHbIx opraHoB rocy.n;apcTBeHHOJ1 B.naCTyt H.n11 opraHoB rocy.n;apcTBeHH0I1 B.naCTH cy6'beKTa POCCytJ1CK0I1 <Pe.n;e- paQytyt npoTytBope'lytT cytCTeMe npaBoBbIx rapaHTI1f1 MeCTHoro caMoynpaB.ne- HHR, HapYllJaeT TaKyte OCHOBono.naralOll.{yte npytHQytnbI ytx B3aytMo.n;eJ1CTBytR, KaK npytHQytn cy6cyt.n;ytapHocTyt H npytHQytn co.nyt.n;apHocTyt. 8TO onpe.n;e.neH- HbIJ1 npo6e.n B npaBoBoM pery.nytpoBaHl1yt B3al1MOOTHOllJeHytJ1 rocy.n;apcTBeH- HbIX opraHoB yt opraHoB MecTHoro caMoynpaB.neHytR, rocy.n;apcTBa H MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaB.neHytR B Qe.nOM, KOTOpbIJ1 Tpe6YeT Bocno.nHeHHR. 
npMELlAHSI 1 06 06Uj"x np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" MecTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" B POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": we- AepanbHblOi 3aKOH OT 28 aBrycTa 1995 r.11 C06paH"e 38KOH0A3TBIlbCTBa PoCC"OiCKOOi weJlepa- LI"". 1995. N!! 3. CT. 3506. 2 06 o6111wx np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" B POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": we- AepanbHblOi 38KOH OT 6 OKT"6pR 2003 r.11 Co6paH"e 3aKOHOAaTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi we.o.epa- LI"". 2003 r. N2 40. CT. 3822. 3 W"HJJ,fIn"Ha M.,lj. CTBJ\01" IOp"JI"eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": y"e6Hoe noc06"e. - M., 1998. C. 9. 4 ranaraH M.A. MeTO)J,011or...."'IecKe npo6J1€MbI 06llte Teopa.U.t IOpLll,lJ,"'IeCKOO OTBeTCTBeHHocrn no co- BeTCKOMY npaBY II YronOBHa" OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb: npo6neMbi cOJlep"'aH", YCTaHoaneH", pean"38- LI"". - BopOHe",: 1'13J\-SO BopoHe",cKoro rocYA3pcTBeHHoro YH"Bepe"TeTa, 1989. C. 10: TapxoB B.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nO COBeTCKOMY " rpB>KJ\BHCKOMY npaBY. - CapaTOB, 1973. C. 7. 5 nepSOHa"aJ1bHO pa3BJIIT....e nOIlY'-lJIII1" T€OpLotLil yr0I10BHO OTseTCTSeHHOCTJII .... LIIMyw.ecT8eHHo (rpa>KJlBHCKo-npaBOBOO) OTBeTCTBeHHOCT", " TonbKO B nOCneJIYlOlileM IOp"JI""BCKa" OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb CTana npeAMeTOM "3y"eH" 06111eOi Teop"" npaBa " p APyr"x OTpacneBbix npaBO- BbiX HaYK, npe>KJ\e scero BJ\M"H"CTpaT"BHoro " TIJYAOBOrO npaBa. 6 1101/X1>e D.C., Wapropo,l1CK"i1 M.,lj. Bonpocbl Teop"" npaBa. - M., 1961. C. 314-318; RBW' fl.C. 06- lI\B TBOIJ"R npaBa. - n, 1976. C. 276. 7 CM., Hanp"Mep: Cn060,l1,uKOB H.A. IOp"JI""BCKa" " 06111eCOLl"anbHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"C- TeMe M"poBooapeH,eCK"X Ka"eCTB COTpYJlH"Ka opraHOB BHyTpeHH"X Jlen II M"poB033peH'BC- Ka" xynbrypa n"'HOCT" COTpYAH"Ka opraHOB BHyTpeHH"X Aen " nyT" ee <jJOpM"pOBaH"". C60p- H"K Hay"HbiX TPYJlOB. - M"HCK: AM MBA P6. 1992. C. 68-69; KoconanOB P. 11. , MapKoB B.C. CBO- 6oAa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M.. 1969. C. 68. 8 flei1crO.3. CaHKLI""" OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY npaBY. - M.. 1981. C. 121, 218-222. 9 CnBJIyeT OTMeT"Tb, "TO Aa",e CTOPOHH"K" OJlHoro "3 YKa3aHHblX B033peH"Oi no-pa3HOMY B"JlRT CYlilHOCTb IOp"A""BCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" " nopoOi no A3HHOMY Bonpocy HaXOJ\RTC 6n"",e K BbI- BO,AaM CTOpOHHLIIKOB npOntBOn0110>KHof1 TO"IKJII 3peHLIIS1. 10 M.A. WaprOpoJlcK"Oi BnocneJlCTB"" OTKa3anCII OT A3HHoro nOH"MaH"" IOIJ"JI"'BCKOO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCT" " BOCnp"Hn APyroe ee OnpeABlleH"e, KOTOpoe COCTOO1T B paccMoTpeH"" IOIJ"JI",eCKoOi OT- BeTCTBeHHOCT" KaK OOR3aHHOCT" npaBOHapYW"TBn" npeTepneTb Mepbl rOCyA3pcTBeHHoro np01- HY>KJ\eH" B <jJopMe n"weH"Oi 1l"'Horo "11" "MYlI\eCTBeHHoro xapaKTepa (WapropoJlCKUi1 M.,lj. Ae- TepM"H"3M" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTbl1 npaBoBeJleH"e, 1968. N!! I. C. 46). 1'l1otPtpe D.C., WaprOpO,l1CK"i1 M.,lj. BonpOCbI Teop"" npaBa. M., 1961. C. 314-318. 12 CaMOUjBHKO I1.C., tPapYKW"H M.X. CYlI\HOCTb IOP"JI""BCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B COBeTCKOM 06. lIIeCTBe. - M., 1974. C. 6. 13 Cn"pOHOBfl.l1. Teop"" npaBa" roCYJlapCTBa. - M., 1996. C. 285-286. 14 XantpUHa P.O. 06111ee y"eH"e 0 npaBOOTHOWeH"". - M., 1974. C. 320. 15 fO;;MaH-'lepaaHIOK B.11 O"epK TBOp"" rOCYII3pCTBa" npaBa. - M , 1996. C. 307-308. 16.l1BHWCOB IO.A. 06l1\B" Te0p0111 npaBoHapyweH"" OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". - n. 1983. C. 130. 17110</Jtpe D.C. B"Ha " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTcKOMY npaBY II COB. roc. " npaBO. 1972.  9. C. 3-39: 110</Jtpe D.C. rpa>KJ\aHcKoe npaBO' 1'136paHHble TpYAbi. - M , 2000. C. 502-504 18 CparyCb C.H IOp"JI,,'ecKBII OTBeTCTBeHHocTb" 381<0HHOCTb. - M., 1976. C. 4. 19 CparyCb e.H. YKaa. CO". C. 4-5. 2OR.."fl.C. npaso" COl!"an"3M. - M.. 1982. C. 136. 21 flei1cr 0.3. CaHKl!""" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTcKoMY npaBY. - n, 1981. C. 102-103. 22 6axpax,lj.H. MM"H"CTpaT"BHall OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb rpa>KJ\BH B CCCP. - CBepJ\llOBCK, 1989. C. 24. 23 CaHranoB AI1. TeopeT""BCK"e Bonpocbl yronoBHoo OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". - n: 1'13J1-BO Ilrv, 1982. C. 18; fanaraH 11.A. MeTOJlOnOr""eCK,,e npo6neMbi 06111eH Teop"" IOp"A,,"eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHO- CT" no cOBeTCKOMY npaBY.11 YronOBHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np061leMbi cOAep",aH"", YCTaHoBne- 01"", pean"aaLl"". - BOpOHe",: 1'13J\-BO Brv, 1989. C. 18-21. 24 AneKceee C.C. npaBO: onbiT KOMnneKcHoro "CCneJlOBaH". - M.. 1999. C. 74. 25 AneKceee C.C. np06neMbi Teop01" npaBa. T. 1. - CBepJ\llOBCK, 1972. C. 381-382. 26 ca3b1neB C. T. IOp"JI",ecKall OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - KpacHO"PCK, 1985. C. 95-96. o Lr\ - 
27 TaM "'e. 28 WWH,l1R1JMHa M.. CTBJ\01" IOp"JI,,"eCKOo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": ABTope<jJ. JI"cc... KaHA. IOp".Q. Hay<. - M., 1996. C. 7. 29 CaMOUjeHKo I1.C., <PapYKwuH MX OTBeTcTBeHHocTb no COBBTCKOMY 38KOHOJlaTenbcTBY. - M., 1971. C. 67-68. 30 CpafiHuH RM. YronOBHa oTBeTCTBeHHOCTb " ee OCHoaaH"e B COBeTCKOM yronoBHoM npaBe - M., 1963.C. 11. 31 He,l16afino n E. COBeTCK"e cOLl"an"CT","cK"e npaBOBbie HOIJMbI. - JlbBOB, 1959. C. 99. 32 cO/",l1aHOBa M.C. IOp"J\01"ecKa OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb: OCHOBaH"e, B01j\bI, Cy6b€KTbI: l!01ccmKaHA. IOP"JI. HaYK. - M., 1998. C. 21. 33 ArapKoB M.M. 063aTenbCTaa no coBeTCKOMY rpa>KJ\aHcKoMY npaBY. - M., 1969. C.44. 34 cparycb C.H. IOp"J\01"ecK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb" aaKOHHOCTb. - M., 1976. C. 4-5. 35 CaMoweHKo I1.C., <PapYKWUH M.x. YKa3. co,. C. 58. 36l1ocpcpe O.C. rpa>KJ\aHCKOe npaBO. 1'136paHHble TpyJlbl. - M., 2000. C. 473-475. 37 ManeuH H.C. npaBOHapyweH"e: nOH"T"e, np01""HbI, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1985. C. 135. 3IJManeuHH.C. YKa3. Co-. C. 134-136. 39 AneKceeB C.C. 06111a Teop"" cOLl"an"CT,,"eCKOro npaBa. Bbln. 2. - CBepJlllOBCK, 1964. C. 184-189. 4°AneKceee C.C. 06l11aTeop01" npaaa: B2T. - M., 1981. T. I. C. 277. 41 KoconanOB P., MapKOBB. CB060Jla" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1969. C. 68. 42 KpaCHOB M.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B c"CTeMe HapoJlHOro npeJlCTaB"TenbCTaa. - M., 1992. C. 14. 43 MaT)'3oB H.I1. Jl"'HOCTb" npaBo. - CapaTOB, 1989. C. 196. 44 He,l16afino nE. C"CTeMa 1OP"JI,,"eCK"X rapaHT"o; np01MeHeH" COBeTCK"X npaBOBbix HOpM /I npaBoBeJleH"e. 1971. N. 3. C. SO-51. 45 Ha38pOB c.n. a IOp"JI,,"eCKOM acneKTe n03"T"BHOO COLl"anbHoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHocT" II COB. roc. "npaBo. 1981.  10. C. 29. 46 nRraKOB fl.B. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY TPYJlOBOMY npaBY II COB. roc. "npaBO. 1981. 12.C.31. 47 TapxOB B.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY rpa>KJ\aHCKOMY npaBY. - CapaTOB, 1973. C. 4-7. 48 Ha38poe c.n. a 1OP"JI"eCKOM acneKTe n03"T"BHOO COLl"anbHOO OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01/1 COB. roc. "npaBo. 1981.  10. C. 29. 49 AcreMupDB 3.A. nOH"T"e IOP"JI""BCKOo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II Cos. roc. "npaBo. 1979.  6. C. 59. 50 KY/1PRBljeB B.H., na3apeB c.M. A"CLI"nn"Ha" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: nYT" YKpenneH"" /1 COB. roC. "npaBo. 1981.  6. C. 69. 51 Ko6elj HI. CoLI"BnbHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMB npeJlynpe>KJ\eH"" npaBoHapyweH"i1 Ha npeJlnp""T"" II COB. roc." npaBo. 1978.  3. C. 88. 52 CTporOBu M.C. CYlilHOCTb IOp"JI,,"eCKOO OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" /1 CoB. roc. " npaBo. 1979.  5. C. 72, 74, 75. 53 MacneHHUKoB B.A. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb B CTPYKTVPe npaBOBoro CTBryca 1l""HOCT" II npaBOnOlJ!'- JlOK" npaBosoo; CTaTyCn""HOCT". 1979. N2 5. C. 166. 54 KpbllloBa 3.r. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb np01 nOCTaBKaK npoJlYKLI"" "TOBapoB II Coo. roc. "npaBO. 1983. 3.C. 56. 55ManeuHH.C. YKa3. CO". C. 134. 56 cOr,l1BHOea M.C. YKa3. C. C. 35. 57 KOBaneB M.11. nOHT"e npeCTynneH"" B COBeTcKOM yronoBHOM npaBe. - CBelJAllOBcK, 1987. C.16; 153. 58 Bapyn nA., fPR3UH I1.H. HeKoTOpble xapaKTep01CrnK" npasosoo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II Y"eHble 38n,,- CK" TapT. YH-Ta, 1982. Bbln. 609: np01HLI"n OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B COLl"MbHOM ynpaBneH"". C. 91-92. 59 f1e>1Cr 0.3. CaHKLI"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 228-229. 60 TaM ",e. C. 218-223. 61 PaAbKO T.H. IOP"J\01"ecKa OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb KaK 06l11aR q,opMa peM"38L1"" COLl"anbHblX <jJYHKLI"i1 __ npaBa II TpYJlbI Bblcweo; CneJlCTBBHHOO WKonbi MBll CCCP. Bbln. 9. - BonrorPBJI, 1974. C. 17. t..t'1 -- 
62 BurpYK H.8. BbicrynneH"e Ha aacep,aH"" "Kpyrnoro CTOlla- no np06neMaM IOp"JI,,"eCKOOi OTBeT- CTBeHHOCT" II rOCYA3peTBO" npaBO. 2000. 1'12 3. C. 21. 63 KpaCHOB M.A OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMe HapOAHoro npeJlCTaBUTenbCTBa - 2-e "3J1. - M., 1995. C. 26. 64 BurpYK H. B. OCHOBbi Teop"" npaBoBoro nOnO>KeH"" n""HOCT" B COLI"M"CT""eCKOM oolllecTBe. - M., 1979. C. 9. 65 06UjaSl Teop"" npaBa " rOCYJlapeTBa: Y"e6H"K I nOJl peJl. B. B. JlB3BpeBa. - 2-e "3J1., nepepa6. "Llon. - M.: IOlJ01cTb. 1996. C. 101. 66 EMenbRHoB AC., '1epHorop H.H. W"HaHCOBo-npaBO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M.: W"HaHcbI" CTa- T"CT".a, 2004. C 40. 6706UjaSl TeOp01" npaBa " rOCYJlapcTBa: Y"e6H"K I nOJl peJl. B.B. Jla3apeBa. C. 242. 68 06111 TeOp01 rOCYJlapcTaa " npaaa: AKaJleM""BCK"Oi KYPC: B 2 T.I nOJl peA nlJO<!>. M.H. MaI)"eH- KO. T. 2. Teop" npaBa. - M.: 3elJLlMo, 1998. C. 600. 69 KpaCHOB M.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CIo1CTeMe Hapo,(l,HOrO npe,(l,CTaBIo1Te11bCTBa (MeTO)J.0I10rW"leCl<lo1e nOJ\XOJlbl). - M.: I'IHCT"TyT rOCYJlapcTBa " npaBa PAH, 1995. C. 6. 70 CopocJJ.;K. AnX"M"" <jJ"HaHCOB. - M., 1998. C. 50-51. 71 neucr 0.3. YKa3. C. C. 122. 72 KpaCHOB M.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CIo1CTeMe Hapo,(l,HOrO npe,(l,CTaBIo1Te11bCTBa (MeTOJJ,0I10rW"leCKlo1e nOJ\XoJlbl). - 2-e "3J1. - M., 1995. C. 10. 73 na38peBB.B. nO"CK npaBal/>KypHM POCC"OiCKOro npaBa. 2004. 1'127. C. 5-6. 74 nocroBOU H.8. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO POCC"". - M.: HOBbiOi IOp01CT, 1998. C. 322. 75 WyrpuHa E. C. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB "JlOn"'HOCTHbiX n"LI MecTHoro caMOynpaBneH" II Poc- C"OiCK"Oi IOP"JI""eCK"Oi "'YlJHan. 2001. N2 I. C. 109-111. 76 KocrlOKOB AH., Konblcoaa e.r. MyH"LI"nMbHo-npaaoBbiB OTHoweH"R - OMCK, 200 1. C. 172-183 77 BbI,l1pUH 11.8. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO POCC"". - M., 2004. C. 22-25. 7B MRnKoBCKuu C. C. IOp"JI,,"eCKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb " MeCTHoe CaMoynpaBneH"e B Pocc"i1cKoOi weJ\BpaLl"": TeopeT",eCK"e" npaBoBbie acneKTbI: ABTOpe<jJ. J\01CC. ... KaltO,. IOP"JI. HaYK. - EKa- Tep01H6ypr, 2004. C. 6-7. 79 KHR3eB C.p,. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MYH"LI"nanbHOM npaBe: Bonpocbl Teop"" " npaKT""" II >KYPHM pocc"i1cKoro npaBa. 2005.  6. C. 82. 80 neWUH H.n. MYH"LI"nBnbHOB npaBo: CxeMbi " KOMMeHTap"": Y"e6. nocoo"e. - M.: CTaTyT, 2001. C. 240. 81 TaM ",e. C. 241. B2 TaM "'e. C. 242. 83 TaM "'e. C. 243. B4 TaM ",e. C. 244. 85 KpaCHOB M.A OTBeTcTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMe HapoJIHOro npeJlCTaB"TenbCTaa. - M., 1995. C. 26. 86 6a6"eB B.I1. Cy6bBKTbI MBCTHoro caMoynpaBneH" " "X B3a"MOJleOicTB"e. - M.: I'IA .BOCTO"- HbiOi py6e",., 2000. C. 162. 87 TaM "'e. C. 162. 88 TaM >KB. C. 162. 89 TaM ",e. C.162-163. 90 /(paCHOB M.A OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B c"CTeMe HapoJlHOrO npeJlCTaB"TenbCTBa. - M., 1995. C. 26. 91 AMup6eKOB K.I1. IOp01J\01"ecK 3all\01Ta MBCTHoro C<lMoynpaBneH" " OTBeTCTBeHHocTb ero op- raHOB" JlOn"'HOCTHbiXIl"LI: A"cc... KaltO,.lOp"JI. HaYK. - M., 2001. C. 8. 92 TaM ",e. C. 13. 93 TaM "'e. C. 23-24. 94 TaM ",e. C. 78. 95 MYHuljunanbHOB npaBO POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K AI1 ByaOB I nOJl peJl. nlJO<!>. H.C. COH- ,l1afJfI. - 2-e "3J1., nepepa6. "Jlon. - M.: IOHI'ITI'I-AAHA, 3aKOH" npaBo, 2002. C. 529. (\f  -- 
96 TaM "'e. C. 529. 97 TaM ",e. C. 531. 9B neWWH H.n. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO. - M., 2001. C. 243. 99 TaM ",e. C. 248. 100 newuH H.n. MYH"LI"nanbHa <jJ"HaHCOBa C"CTeMa POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlBpaLl"": Hay".-npaKT"'. noc06"e. - M.: wopMyna npaBa, 2000. C. 97. 101 MYHwljunanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"K All" BY30B I nOJl peJl. A.M. H"K"T01Ha. - M.: IOHl-lnl-l!AHA, 3aKoH " npaBO, 2000. C. 380. 102 TaM "'e. C. 375-380. 103 AMup6eKOB K. IOp"JI",eCKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MYH"LI"nanbHblx 06pB30BaH"Oi " nIJOKYIJOIJCK"Oi HBJ\30p II npaBO " "'''3Hb. 2000. N2 31. C. 12. CM. TaK"'e: nOCrOBO;; H.B. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npa- BO POCC"". - M.: HOBbli1lOl)01cT, 1998. C. 322-233. 104 HY,l1HeHKO n.A. AOCPO'Hbli1 OT3b1B JlenyraTa, Bbl6opHoro Jlon"'HOCTHoro n"LIB MecTHoro C<lMO- ynpaBneH"" - KOHCT"TyLl"OHHblOi Jlen"KT /I KoocruTyljWOHHo-npaBosaR oTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: npo- 6neMbi POCC"". onbiT 3apy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKbHa. - M.: 1-13J1-BO Mrv. 2001. C. 391-395. 105 KonOCOB8 H.M. KOHCTIo1TYUI-tOHHaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCCIo1f1CKO 4>eJ\epaul-tlo1; OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb opraHOB rOCY,lJ,apcTBeHHof1 BJ1aCTI-t H JotHbiX cy6beKTOB npaBa 3a HapyweHLlle KOHCTl-tTYLlIo1OH- HorO 3aKOHop,aTBIlbCTBa POCC"OiCKOi1 WeJlepaLl"". - M.: rOpOJleLl, 2000. C. 93. 106 MJ'H"ljunanbHoe npaBO POCC"OicKOOi weJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K JIll" BY30B I noJl peJl. npod>. H.C. 6001- A3. C. 531. 107 BwrpYK H.B. AKTyanbHble np06neMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHO-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0630p Hay"- 01011 KOH<jJepeHLI""1/ rOCYJlapCTBO" npaBO. 2002.  2. C. 115. 108 cOrABHOea H.A. YKBa. CO". C. 115. 109 fomapoB I1.B. 3alll"Ta npaB " CB060Jl "BIlOBeKa " rpa>K,o,aH"Ha B cy6b€KTax POCC"OiCKOOi we- JlepaLl"" C "cnOnb3oBaH"eM Mep <jJeJlepanbHoro BMewaTenbCTBa. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBneH" MBA Pocc"", 2004. C. 85. 110 Cy"unWH A. C. KOHCT01TyLl"OHH (YCTaBHa) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB roCYJlapCTBeHHOOi Bnac- T" Cy6b€KTOB Pocc"i1cKOOi weJlepaLl"'" rOCYA3pcTBeHHo-npaSOBbie Bonpocbl. - M.: IOp01cnpy- JleHLI"R, 2003. C. 113. 111 DBcenRH )/(.11. AKTyanbHble np06lleMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHoCT": o63op Ha- y"HoOi KOH<jJepeHLI""11 rocYJlapeTBO" npaso. 2002. No 2. C. 115. 112 BurpYK H.B. YKa3. C. C. 117. 113 foo,apOB I1.B. KOHCT"TYLl"OHHble OCHOBbi <jJeJlepanbHoro BMewaTenbCTBB np01 3alll"Te OCHOB- HbiX npaB " CBoI5oJl "enOBeKa" rpa>KJl8H"Ha B cy6b€KTax POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl"": ABTOpe<l>. JI"CC...l\OKT.lOp01J\. HaYK. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBneH"" MBll Pocc"", 2004. C. 24. 114 MYHU/.jI1nanbHOe npaso POCC"i1CKOi1 WeJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"KJIIl" By30B I nOJl peJI. nlJO<!>. H.C. 6oHJ\BpsI. C. 531; MYHwljunanbHOB npaBo: Y"e6H"KAIl" BY30B I nOJl peJl. A.M. H"K"T"Ha. C.378. 115 cw 6nep B.C. nOH"T"e KaK nlJOLleccl/ BonpocbI <I>"lloco<jJ01", - M., 1965. N29 C.48. 116ApceHbeBA.C., cw6nepB.C., KeIQJoec.M. AHan"3pa3B"BBlOlilerocnOHT". - M., 1967. C. 53. 117 30TOBA.<t>. CTIJYKTypa Hay"Horo MblWneH"". -M.. 1973. C. 131. 11B '1e{JHOT"OP H. H. IOp"JI,,"ecKB" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB " JlOn"'HOCTHbIX Il"LI MeCTHoro C<lMO- ynpaBneH"" (Bonpocbl Teop"")' ABTOpe<jJ. j\01CC. . KaltO, IOp"JI.HaYK - M.. 1999. C. 7. I 19 <t>B,l!eeB B.I1. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO POCC"": Y,e6H"K. - M., 1994. C. 143. 120 TaM >KB. CM. TaK"'e. Kyra.pWH D.E., <t>B,l!eeB B.I1. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaso POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepa- LI"": Y"e6H"K. - M., 1997. C. 404. 121 Ta60nuH B.B. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO. - M.: AKBJ\eM MBll Pocc"", 1997. C. 158; nblnuH B.B. npeJlCTaB"TenbHble opraH'" MBCTHOro C<lMoynpaBneH"": l!01cc... KaHJI. IOIJ"J\. HaYK. - M., 1996. C. 133; MOKees M. M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBoB OTBeTcTBeHHoCTb opraHOB " JlOn"'HOCTHbIX Il"LI MBCTHorO CaMOynpaBnBH"": l101cc... KaHJ\. IOIJ"J\. HaYK. - CapaTOB, 2003. C. 56. 122 B ,lJ,aHHOM CI1Y'"1ae nOHmJlle "'npol.l.eccyanbHble HOPMbI;p;. MblIo1CnOJ1b3yeM B Wlo1poKOM CMblcne 3TO- m CJ10Ba, ....TO 03Ha"'l8eT nOHIo1MaHJlle noJJ. npoueccyanbHblMIo1 HOpMaMLil He TOJ1bKO Tex npaB08b1X HOPM, KOTOpble peryn"IJYIOT nJlOK CYJlonlJO'taBOJlCTBa, 010 " Tex, TO onpeJlBnIOT BHeCYJle6- HYIO nlJOLleJlYPY HaCTynneH"" He6naronp""THbIX npaBOBbiX nOCneJlCTB"Oi All" opraHOB "n" Jlon",- "'" lr1 - 
HOCTHbiX Il"LI MBCTHoro C8MoynpaaneH"". Pe% "JIeT, Hanp01Mep, 0 nlJOLleJlYpe pocnYCKa npeJl- CTaBLIITe11bHoro opraHa MeCTHoro CaMoynpaBl1eHLllfI, orpeweHJ1L11 OT A011>KHOCTIo1 rl1aBbi MYHLllLlIo1- naJIbHoro 06pa308aHIo1S1101 T.n. npoUeCCyaJlbHble HOpMbI perYl1lo1pytOT B 3TO "'IaCTIo1 nOPfl,(l,OK I-tHI-t- LlIo'IantBbI nplilMeHeHJ1f1 COOTBeTCTBYIOLllItIX MeP, YCJ108l-tfl .., CpOKLil COBepWeHJ1 He06xoALIIMbix npOLlBJIYlJHblX JleOiCTB"Oi, rapaHT"" npaB Cy6b€KTOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" " LJI. 123 0 pol11-t 101 3Ha....eHl-t101 OITeXH0I10rlo1J1 npLIIH'Y)KAeHJ1s:1n B tOp""A....ecKo OTserCTseHHOCTIo1 CM.: cpa- TyCb C.H. IOp"JI""BCKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb " 38KOHHOCTb. - M., 1976. C. 80, 81; 06Ujal1 TeOlJ" rocYJlapeTBa" npaBa: AKBJ\eM""ecK,,i1 KYPC: B 2 T.I nOJl peJl. nlJO<!>. M.H. Mal)"eHKO. T. 2. Teo- P" npaBa. - M.: 3epLlano, 1998. C. 594 (aBTOIJ maBbi 0.3. lleOicT). 124 nOCTOBOfi H.B. MYH"LI"n8llbHOe npaBO POCC"". - M.: HOBbiOi IOp"CT, 1998. C. 322. 125 M)'HUljlfnanbHoe npaBO POCC"": Y"e6H"K AIl BY30B I nOJl peJl. nlJO<!>. A.C. npYJIH"KOBa, npo"'. A.M. H"K""'Ha. - 3-e "3J1., nepepa6." Jlon. - M.: IOHIiITIiI-AAHA, 3aKoH" npaBo, 2004. C. 271. 126 newuH H.fl. MYH"LI"nanbHOO npaBo: CxeMbi " KOMMBHTBIJ"": Y«e6. noc06"e. - M.: -CTaTyT-, 2001. C. 240. CM. TaK>Ke: MYHuljunanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"K All" ay30B I nOJl peJl. A.M. H"K"T"- Ha. - M.: IOHIiITI-1-AAHA, 3aKoH " npaBo, 2000. C. 373 127 M)'HUljunanbHoe npaBO PocC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K AIl ByaOB I nOJl peJl. nlJO<!>. H.C. 6001- II3IJ". C. 529 128 nOp,po6Hee 06 3TOM noOiJleT pe"b B n. 4.1 HaCTO"lIIero "CCnBJIOBaH"". 129113MafinOBB EB. IOp01J1""ecK,,e MBxaH"3MbI "HCT"TyTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B C"CTeMe MBCTHoro caMoynpaBneH": Aucc. . . KaHJJ,. IOP01J\ Hay. - M.. 2003. C. 72. 130 MYHuljUnanbHoe npaBO: Y"e6H"K I nOJl peJl. A.IiI. KOBaneHKO. - M.. 1997. C. 163. 131 BbI,l1(MH I1.B., KOKOTOB A.H. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO PoCC"": Y"e6H"K. - EKBTep01H6ypr, 1997. C.119. 132 YBapo8 AA 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" opraHOB MeCTHoro C<lMoynpaBneH"" II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHO- npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi Pocc"", onbiT aapy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb- Ha. C. 366. 133 TaM "'e. C. 366. 134 WyrplfHa EC. MYH"LI"nanbHOO npaBO: Y"86H"K. - M.: TK Ben6", npocneKT, 2004. C. 292. 135 KOMBP08 C.A. 06111a" TeOlJ" rOCYII3PCTBa" npaBa. - M., 1997. C. 361. 136 WyrpuHa Ee. YK83. co". C. 292. 137 TaM ",e. 138 TaM >KB. 139 TaM >KB. 140 fpl1ropbeB B.B. npaaoaoe peryn"IJOBaH"e ropoJlCKoro X03"i1cTBa B POCC"OiCKOOi WBJ\epaLl"" (KOH- CT"TYLI"OHHble" MYH"LI"nanbHble acneKTbl): A01CC... KaHJJ,. lOp"'!\' HaYK. - M., 2004. C. 136-137. 141 KpaCHOB M.A npo!jneMa OTBBTCTBeHHOCT" B MeCTHOM caMoynpaBneH"" II MeCTHOO caMoyn- paBneH"e: CoopeMeHHbli1 POCC"OiCK"Oi onbiT 38KOHOJlaTenbHoro peryn"IJOBaH. Y"e6. noc06"e I nOJlpeJl. K.w. WepeMeTa, 1'1.1-1. OB""HH"KOBa. - M., 1998. C. 188-189 142 3TOT TelJM"H "cnOnb3yeTC" B n"TepaTYpe All" 0603Ha,eH"" cy6beKTa, nepeJl KOTOpblM HBJ\O Jlep"'aTb oTBeT (CM., Hanp"Mep: fPRAYHOBa fl.l1. COLl"anbHa" OTBeTcTBeHHOCTb n""HOC'" B YC- IlOB"X pa3B"Toro COLl"an"3Ma. - K"eB, 1979. C. 32). KpacHoB TpaKTyeT ero w"pe. Hanp"Mep, rpB>KJ\aH"H B cny"ae HapyweH"" npaBOBoOi 06"aaHHOCT" Jlep"'''T OTBeT nepeJl OnpeJlelleHHblM rOCYJlapeTBeHHblM opraHOM. Ho IOp01J1,,"eCK" 001 HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeJl rocYJlapeTBoM B LlenOM 3a BbinonHeH"e CBO"X orn.3aHHocTeOi (KpaCHOB M.A YKa3. CO". C. 25). 143 KpacHOB M.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMB HapoJlHorO npeJlCTaB01TenbCTBa (MBTOJlOnor"'ec- K"e nOJ\XOJlbl). C. 25. 144 HBJ\O OTMeT"Tb, "TO B TaKOOi nocTaHOBKe npo!jneMbI, a "MeHHO B C"CTeMe, BonpOCbI xnacc"<jJ,,- KaLtlo1Io1 OTBerCTBeHHOCTI-t opraHOB "" ,D,011>KHOCTHbiX I1Io1Lt MeCTHoro caMoynpaBl1eHfI B tOPJII.ALII"'Iec- Koi1Il"Teparype elile He paCCMaTp01Ban"Cb. 145 Bblwe Y"'e 06palilanocb BH"MBH"e Ha TO, "TO B HaCTO"lIIee BpeM" B cneLl"anbHOOi n01TepaTYpe Ha611lOp,aeTC" JlOCTaTHO BonbHOO 06palllBH"e C npaBOBblM" KaTerOp""M", B pe3YllbTaTe "ero Hepe.w::o TepMIo1HbI tlBlo1.D,bI OTBerCTBeHHocra.t Xl opraHos LII ,D,OI1>KHOCTHbiX 11101lJ, MecTHoro caMoynpae- l1eHl-tfllo1 O:C:POpMbI OYBeTCTBeHHOCTW> Io1Cn01lb3ytOTC KaK CIo1HOHLilMbi. 146 fanaraH I1.A AAM"H"CTpaT"BHa OTBeTcTBeHHOCTb B CCCP (rOCYJlapcTBeHHOO" MaTep"anbHO- npaBOBOO "CCneJlOBaH"e). - BopOHe"" 1970. C. 4. 4-  -- 
147 KepUMOB.o,.A W"nOCO<jJcK"e np06neMbi npaBa. - M., 1972. C. 278. 148 A<PaHaCbeB BI. Hay"HOB ynpaBneH"e OOllleCTBOM (on biT C"CTeMHoro "CCnBJ\OBaH,,"). - M., 1973. C. 7. 149/ljep6aK A 11. npaBoB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb JlOn"'HOCTHbiX n"LI annapaTa rocYJlapcTBeHHoro yn- paBneH"R - K"eB, 1980. C.31. ISO neTenwH A. 11. npo6neMbi npaBoBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B COLI"an"CT"'BCKOM 06111eCTBe. Y'e6 noc06"e. - OMCK, 1976. C.39. 151 AneKceeB C.C. CTPYKTypa COBeTcKoro npaBa. - M., 1975. C. 49. 152 KyracpwH O.E.. 4>B,l!eeB B.I1. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K. - M., 1997 C. 5 153 AneKceeB C.C. 06111"e TeopeT",eCK"e npo61leMbi C"CTeMbi COBeTcKoro npaBa. - M., 1961. C.61-70. 154 AneKceeB C.C. npooneMbi TeOp01" npaBa: Kypc lleKLI"Oi: B 2 T. T. 1. - CBepJlllOBCK, 1972. C.134-135. 155 neTenwH A 11. YKB3. CO". C. 41. 156 06111a TeOp01" npaBa xnacc"<jJ"LI"pyeT IOp"J\01"eCK"e <jJaKTbI no paan""HbiM OCHOBaH"M. OJl- Ha "3 xnacc"<jJ"KaLl"Oi nOJlPa3J1en"eT IOp01J1""eCK,,e <jJaKTbI Ha npOCTble, CnO>KHble " anbTepHa- T"BHble. CM., Hanp"Mep: Bu"BHKO AM MemJl npaBoBoro peryn"poBaH" cOLl"an"CT""BCK"X 06u.!ecTBeHHblx oTHoweH"Oi. - CapaToB, 1974. C. 107; I1caKOB B.c. IOp"JI""BCK"e d>aKTbI B POC- C"OiCKOM npaBe: Y"e6. nocoo"e. - M., 1998. C. 26. 157 MapKoea EI1. AAM"H"CTpaT"BHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb JlOn"'HOCTHbiX Il"LI B CCCP: ABTOped>. JI"CC. on KaHJ\.lOp"JI. HaYK. - M., 1976. C. 12. 15B 061118" TeOp01" npaBa " rOCYJlapCTBa: Y"e6H"K I nOJl peJl. B.B. llaaapeea. C. 244-246. 159 MapKoea EI1. YKB3. CO,. C. 12. 160 '1epHorop H.H. IOp"JI,,"eCKB" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB" JlOn"'HOCTHbIX Il"LI MeCTHoro CaMO- ynpaBneH" (BonpoCblTeop""): A"cc. on KaHJ\. IOp"JI. HaYK. M., 1999. C. 62. 161 MapKOBa EI1. YKa3. CO". C. 12. 162 CaMollleHKO I1.C.. 4>aPYKWWH M.x. YKaa. CO". C. 125. 163 AneKceeB C.C. CTPYKTypa COBeTCKoro npaBa. C. 90. 164 TaM "'e. C. 49 165 B }"Je6Hoi1I1Io1Tep3TYpe "'IaCTO He npoBOAI'fTGSI pa3J1Llli:1 Me>K,Ay MeTOJJ,aMJllIo1 nPi'teM8MIo1 nOOHaHIo1f1. KnacC"<jJ"KaLl"IO" JlPYr01B np"eMbi aCTO Ha3b1BB1OT BCeOOlII01M" MeTOJ\BM" nroHaH" (CM., Hanp01- Mep: TeopURrOCYII3peTBa "npaBa/noJlpeJ\. H.I'i. MaryaOBa" A.B. ManbKO- M., 1997. C. 26-27). 166 .o,eHUCOBC.A, CMUpHOBn.n. Teop01" rOCYJlapeTBa"npaBa: KypcaaTOpeK"xneKLI"Oi.'J. 1. - TIO- MeHb: BeKTop 6YK, 1999. C. 8. 167 Konocoea H.M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B PoCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb opraHOB rOCYJlapcTBeHHOOi BnaCT" " "HbiX cy6beKTOB npaBa 3a HapyweH"e KOHCT"TyLl"OH- HorO 3aKOHOJlaTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi <PeJlepaLl"'" - M.: rOpoJleLl, 2000. C. 109. 168 Hepe.D.Ko Ael1eHHe OTseTCTBeHHocnt Ha BVI.AbI no.a,MeHeTCfI no.o.pa3.AeJ1eHlo1eM Ha B(.t,AbI C3HK- Ll"0i. TaK, Hanp01Mep, aBTOI)bI y"e6H"Ka no rpB>KJ\aHCKoMY npaBY nOJl pep,aKLI"ei1 A.n. CepreeBa " IO.K. ToncToro, nOJIPa3J1ell" rpa>KP.aHCKO-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha JlOrOBopHYIO " BHe- JlorOBopHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb (TaKOB JlBIleH"e BneTC 06111enp01aHaHHblM B rpa>KJlaHCKo-npa- BOBOOi Hayxe), n"wyr: .AoroBopHa" npeJlcTaBn"eT Co60Oi C<lHKLI"IO 3a HapyweH"e Jloroool)Horo 063aTenbCTBa. BHeJlOrOBOpH "Meer MeCTO TOrJla, KorJla cooTBeTCTBYlOlIIa C<lHKLI" np01Me- HeTCfl K npaBOHapYWIo1Tel11O, He COCTOflllteMY B .o.orOBopHblX OTHOWeHlo1f1X c nOTepneBWl-tM>:>. npe.anOCbl.nKO TaKora OTO>K.O,eCTB11eHJ1S1 flBllSleTCfI nOHJ1MaHLile tOpt.1JJ.I.1"'1eCKO OTseTCTBeHHOCTIo1 KaK CaHKUl-tl-t, npLIIMeHfleMO K np3BOHapYWJ1TeJltO B Be Boo.nO)!{eHLllfi Ha Hero .o.onOJ1HIo1TeJ1bHO rpa::«.D.aHCKo-npaBOBO 06S13aHHocTVI 101I1Io1I1Io1WeHIo1f1 npt.1Ha,a,ne>KalL!.ero eMY rpa>l<.D,8HCKOrO npasa (CM.: fpaJ<:QaHcKoenpaao:Y"e6H"K. -4-e"3J\., nepepa6. "Jlon./noJlpeJl.A.n. Cepreeaa,IO.K. Ton- CTOro. - M.: npocneKT, 1999. T. I. C. 532, 534). 169 CM., Hanp"Mep: 06111aR Teop" npaBa " rOCYJlapCTBa: Y"e6H"K / nOJl peJl. B.B. lla3apeBa. C.246. 170 fleficTO.3. CaHKLI""" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 130. 171 KpaCHOB M.A npo6neMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B MeCTHOM caMOynpaBneH"". C. 188-189: YMHO- t!"\ 8. 1_T"TYLI"OHHble OCHOBbi COBpeMBHHOrO POCc"i1cKoro <jJeJlepan"3Ma. - M., 1998. t!"\ - 
172 fOHapOB I1.B. 3Bl11"Ta npaB " CBOOOJl "BIlOBeKa " rpa>KA3H"Ha B cy6WKTax Pocc"i1cKoOi we- JlBpaLl"" C "cnonb3OBBH"eM Mep <jJeJlepanbHOro BMewaTenbCTBa. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBfleH" MBA Pocc"", 2004. C. 85; OacenRH )1(.11. AKTYanbHble npooneMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBoBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0030P Hay"HoOi KOH<l>epeHLI"" II rOCYA3IJCTBO " npaBO. 2002. N2 2. C. 115; ey.,,,n"H AC. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" (YCTaBH"") OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB rOCYA3PCTBeHHoi1 BnaCT" cy6beKTOB Pocc"i1cKOOi WeJIBPBLI"'" rocYJlapCTBeHHo-npaBOBbie sonpocbI. - M.: IOp"cnpYAeH- LI", 2003. C. 113. 173 fpa}/(/J,aHCKoe npaso. Y"86H"K. - 4-e "3J1., nepepa6. " Jlon. I nOJl peJl. A.n. CepreeBa, IO.K. TonCToro. - M.. npocnexr, 1999. T. 1. C. 534-548; fpa}/(/J,aHcKoe npaBo: B 2 T. TOM I: Y,e6- H"K / OTB. IJeA. flpo<jJ. E.A. CyxaHOB. - 2-e "3J1., nepea6." Aon. - M.: 6EK, 1998. C. 433-438. 174 CM. nOJlpo6Hee nap8J"pa<jJ 1.2 HacTORlileOi pa60TbI. 175 Pe% O1J\eT nlJe>KJ\e BCBro 0 HopMOTBop-<eCKOOi npaKT"Ke MYH"LI"nanbHblX oopaaOBaH"Oi. TaK, B CT. 66 YCraBa ropoJ\B Tynbl 3aKpenneHo: .0TBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHoB" JlOn>KHOCTHbiX Il"LI MeCT- HorO caMoynpaBneH"R nepeJl HaceneH"eM ropoJla pean"ayeTc B B"Jle npaBa nOcneJlHero Ha Bblpa",eH"e HeJlOBep01" cooTBeTCTBylOlII"M opraHaM "Bbl6opHblM Jlon"'HOCTHbiM n"LlaM. wop- MaMIo1 OTBeTCTSeHHOCTI-t opraHOB 101 .o.OJDKHOCTHbiX I1J1U MeCTHoro C3MoynpaBl1eHLllfI RBll'RtQTCs:I OT- 3b1B AenyraTa TYllbCKOOi ropoJlcKoOi AYMbI, AOCI)O'iHOB npeKpallleH"e nonHOM"Oi TynbcKoOi ro- POJlCKOi1 AYMbi "n" rnaBbi ropoJ\B- (YcTa8 ropoJla TYllbi OT 13 MapTa 1997 L II Tyna Be'epHR 1997.26 MapTa). CM. TaK>KBCT. 273 61OJl)KeTHoro KOJleKCa P<!J Of 31 "lOn 1998 r. N2 145-w3(peJl. OT 23.12.2003 L) II C06paH"e 38KOHOJ\BTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOO WeJlepBLl"'" 1998. N2 31. CT. 3823. 176ct>"noco<!JcK"U 3HLI"KIlOnBJI""BCK"0i cnoBapb. - M.: I'IHWPA-M. 2000. C. 66. 177 B ,(I,aHHOM CI1Y'"1ae pe"'lb HAeT 0 BI-\O.3X HeraTIo1BHof1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT(.t. 178 KonOC08a H.M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHaR OTBeTCTBeHHOcTb B POCC"OiCKOi1 weJlepaLl"": oTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb oprBHOB rOCYA3PCTBeHHOOi BnaCT" " "HbiX cy6beKTOB npaaa 3a HapyweH"e KOHCT"TyLl"OH- HorO 3aKOHOJ\BTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi WeAepaLl"'" - M.: rOpoJleLl, 2000. C. 26" 31. 179 W"H,l1Rn"Ha M.p,. CTBJI"" 1OP"JI,,"eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": Y"e6. nocoo"e. - M.: KH""'HbiOi M"P, 1998. C. 50. 180 Wyrp"Ha E.C. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO: y"e6H"K. C. 293. 181 06Uj"" Teop"R npaBa " rOCYII3peTBa: Y"e6H"K. - 2-e "3J1., nepepa6. " Jlon. I nOJl 001il. peJl. B.B. Jl83apeaa. - M.: IOp01cTb, 1996. C. 241. 182 KpaCHOB M.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMe HapoJIHoro npeJlCTaB01TenbcTBa (MBToJlOnor",ec- K01e nOJIXOJlbl). C. 170; 187-188. 183 KOMMeHTap"u K weJlepanbHOMY 38KOHY "06 06l1\01x np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" MeCTHoro C<lMO- ynpaBneH" B POCC"OiCKOO weJlepaLl",," I nOJl peJl.IOA T01XoM"poBa. - M., 1997. C. 215. 184 ct>"noco<!JCK"U 3HLI"KIlOnBJI""eCK,,i1 cnoaapb. - M.: I'IHwPA-M, 2000. C. 422. (578). 185 ferenb f. 3HLI"KIloneJl"" <jJ01nOCO</>CK"X Hayx. T. I. naparpa<jJ 133. np"Me"aH"e. 186 p,eH"coB IO.A. 06111aR TeOP"R npaBoHapyweH"R " OTBeTCTBeHHocm. Jl.: 1'13J1-BO JlrY, 1983. C.34. IB7 TaM ",e. C. 132. 188 neUCT 0.3. CaHKLI"" " OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTcKoMY npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 103. 189 ct>"noco<!JCK"U 3HLI"KIlOnBJ\01"eCK"Oi Cnoaapb. - M.: I'IHWPA-M, 2000. C. 489. 190 fpa}/(/J,BHCKoe npaBo: Y'IB6H"K. - 4-e 1-t3.D... nepepa6. "Aon.1 nOJl peJl. A.n. Cepreeaa. IO.K. T onCTO- roo - M.: npocneKT, 1999. T. I. C. 534. 191 TaM >KB. 192 fpa}/(/J,BHCKOe npaso POCC"". 06l1\B acTb: Kypc lleKLI"Oi I OTB. peJl. O.H. CBJI"KOB. - M.: IOp"CTb, 2001. C. 671. 193 CM. naparpa<l> 1.2 HaCTO"lIIeOi pa60TbI. 194 CM. TaK>Ke: KOHCTUTyLI"OHHOO npaBO: Y,e6H"K.- 2-e "3J1. nepepa6." Jlon. 10TB. peJl. B.B. J1a- 38peB. - M.: IOp01cTb, 2004. C. 141. 195 YCTaB ropoJla TYllbl OT 13 MapTa 1997 L/I Tyna Be"epH"R 1997.26 MapTa. 06pamM BH"MBH"e Ha TO, I.jTO B ,lJ,aHHOM CI1Y"43e B QD.I.1H Ps:u:I. nOCTaS11eHbI RBl1eHIo1f1 pa311L11tjHoro nOpflJJ,Ka, KOTOPble MO- ryr 6b1Tb COOTHeceHbI KaK 06U1,ee lo1....aCTHoe, KaK flB11eHLlle LII c:popMa. TaK, OT3b1B AenyraTa eCTb He "'ITO (.tHoe, KaK .o.ocpo'"lHOe npeKpallteHLlle ero nOI1HOMo"'llo1i1i. n03TOMY B paCCM3Tpt.1saeMcit CTaTbe, B CY\!!HOCT", pe"b "JlBT 06 OJIHOM He6narOllp01"THOM npaBOBOM nOCneACTB"" - JlOCPO'HOM npe- KpallleH"" nOnHOMO""Oi, KOTopoe "MeeT paan""HYIO <jJ01JMY: AIlR JlenyraTa - OT3b1B, AIl npeA- CTaB"TenbHOro opraHa - POCnyCK. \0  -- 
196 AMWp6eKOB K.11. 101)01J1,,"ecKaR aalll"Ta MecTHoro caMOynpaBneH" " OTBeTCTBeHHocTb ero op- raHOB "Jlon>KHOCTHbiXIl"LI: A"CC...KaHJ\.IOIJ"J\. Hay.. - M., 2001. C. 36. 197 neucrO.3. CaHKLI""" OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 130. 198 fanaraH I1.A MeTOJlOnOr""BCK"e npooneMbi oolileOi Teop"" 101)01J1,,"eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" no COBeTCKOMY npaBY /I YronOBHa" OTBeTCTBeHHocTb: npo6neMbI, COJlep",aH"e, YCTaHOBneH"e, pe- an"3aLl"". - BopoHe"" 1989. C. 11. 199 MapKC K., 3HrenbC cPo Co" - 2-e "3J1. T. 1 C.158 200 AeHucoB IO.A 06111a Teop".. npaBOHapyweH"R "OTBeTcTBeHHOCT". - Jl.: 1-!3J1-BO Jlry, 1983. C.132. 201 neuCr 0.3. CaHKLI"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBBTCKOMy npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 130. 202 CM.: IOpUJ1wec""" npoLleccyanbHa <jJopMa. Teop " npBXT"Ka I nOJl OOlil. peJl. n.E. HeJl6aOi- no, B.M. ropweHeBa. - M., 1976; TeopuR IOp"Jl",ecKoro npoLlecca/ nOJl peJl. B.M. rOpWeHeBa. XapbKoB. 1985: nporacoB B.H. OCHoabi oowenpaBoBoOi npoLlBCcyanbHoi1 TeOp01". M.. 1991. 203 fopweHeB B.M., UJaxOB 11.8. KOHTPOllb KaK npaBOBa Q><>pMa J\BTenbHOCT". - M., 1987. C. 65. 204 AneKceeB C.C. 06l11a TeOp01" COLl"an01CT""eCKoro npaBa. Bbln. 2 - CBepAllOBCK, 1964 C. 190 205 W"'iARnUHB M..o.. CTM"" 101J"J\"'BCKOi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": Y"86HOB nocoooe. - M.: KH""'Hbli1 M"p, 1998. C. 30. 206 YronOBHoe npaBO PoCC"OiCKOi1 WeJlepaLl"". 06111a" "aCTb: Y'e6H"K I nOJl PBJI. A.I-!. Papora. - M.: IOp"cTb, 2004. C. 73. 207 WUH,l1RrJUHa M.A. YKa3. CO'i. C. 64. 20B 3a;JHenpoBCKBR M.B. OCYlIIecTBneH"e IOP"J\01'eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" " COLl"an"CT01'eCKaR 38KOHHOCTb: l!01cc. ... KaHJ\.lOp"JI. HaYK. -M., 1984. C. 77. 209 WU/(ljRnwHa M.A. YKa3. CO'i. C. 54. 210 fopweHeB B.M. Cnocoobl " opraH"3aLl"OHHble <jJOIJMbI npaBOBoro peryll"poBaH" B COLI"an,,- CT,,"eCKOM OOllleCTBe. - M.: 101J"J\,,"ecKa" n"Teparypa, 1972. C. 100-104. 211 YronOBHoe npaso POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl"". 06111a "aCTb' Y'e6H"K I nOJl peJl. A.I-1. Papora. C.74. 212 KOBeWHwKOB E.M. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. - M.: HOPMA, 2000. C. 235. 213 KPBCHDB M.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMB HapoJlHoro npeJlCTaBurenbcTBa (MBTOJlonor"'ec- K01e nOJ\XOJlbl). C. 93. 214 E.A. ll"wKoBcK"i1 "MeHyeT "X -cnoc06aM" pean"3aLl""'. CM. nOJ\jJOOHee: /.JWWKOBCKWU E.A. n03TL'lBHafl JII nepcneKTJIIBHas:l OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MexaHLII3Me COLllo'l311bHoro KOHTPOJ1s:1: ):ll-tCC. ... KaHJ\. IOp"JI. HaYK. - H""'H"i1 HOBroPOJl, 2003. C. 48. 215 f/wnuHcKwuA.A WOIJMbI pean"3aLl"" 101)01J1""8CKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": ABTOpe4>. J\01CC. ... KBHJI. IOIJ"J\. Hay.. - CapaTOB, 1999. C. 4, 5. nUnUHCKWU .ll.A WOpMbI pean"3aLl"" IOP"JI""BCKOOi OT- BeTCTBeHHOCT". - TonbTT": 1-!3J1-BO BY"T, 1999. 216 CM.: Aarenb n.C. YronOBH8" non"T"Ka " npoolleMa n03"T01BHoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" /I npOOlleMbi cOBeTcKoOi yronoBHoOi non"T"K". - BIlBJ\01BOCTOK, 1985. C. 71. 217 CM.: nUnwHCKUU A.A Peryn"T"BH8" <jJYHKLI"" KOHCT01TyLl"OHHOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" /1 KOHCT"TY- Ll"OHHOB" MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO. 2003. N2 4. C. 21. 218 EMBnbRHOB AC., '1ePHorop H.H. W"HaHCOBo-npaBOBa.. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M.: W"HaHCbI " CTaT"CT"Ka, 2004. C. 152. 219 683bJne8 c. T. IOP"Jl",scxaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - KpaCHO"peK, 1985. C. 90. 220 Ha3apo8 c.n. COLl"8Il"CT",eCKoe npaBO B C"CTeMe COLl"anbHblx cB"aeOi. - M.,1976. C. 296. 221 3a;JHenpoBCKa M.B. OCYl!.leCTBneH"e 101)01J1""8CKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" " COLl"an"CT"'eCKaR 38KOHHOCTb: llucc. ... KaHJI. IOp"JI. HaYK. - M., 1964. C. 68, 89. 222 WUH,l1RnUHa M.A. CTBJ\"" IOp01J1",eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". C. 63-64. m c83bJnea c. T. YKa3. CO". C. 96. 224 WU/(ljRnUHa M.A. YKaa. CO'i. C. 118. 225 CTporOBu, M.C. Kypc COBeTcKoro yronOBHoro npoLleCC<I. - M., 1958. C. 519-520; '1enbljOB M.A COBeTc."Oi yronOBHbli1 npoLlscc. - M., 1951. C. 417; nepnOB I1.A.l-!cnoIlHeH"e np"rOBopa B COBBTCKOM yronoBHOM nlJOLlecce. - M., 1963. C. 10-11. 226 CrpY"KOB H.A. Kype "cnpaB"TenbHO-TpYJlOBOrO npaBa: npo61leMbi 06111ei1 "aCT". - M., 1964. C.47. r-  - 
227 ARpax R C. I-!cnonHeH"e np01rOOopoB no ynK PCwCP II Hoooe yronoBHoe " yronoBHo-npOLlec- cyanbHOB 38KOHOp,aTenbCTBO PCwCP. - Ka38Hb, 1961. C. 190-191. 228 3TOT TelJM"H "cnonb3yeT M.A. W"H,D;In"Ha,paCCV>KJ\B" 0 101J01J1"'eCKOM nlJOLlBCC€ " 1OP"JI,,'eCKOOi nlJOLlBCcyanbHoOi <I>o1JMe (CM.: W"",l1RnUHa M.)].. CTBJ\"" IOp01J1,,"eCOoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01: Y"e6. no- cOO"e. - M., 1998. C. 48-64). a TeOP"" IOp01J\01,eCKOro npoLlecca " IOP"Jl""BCKOi1 npoLleccyanbHOO <I>oPMe CM. nOJ\lJ06Hee: IOpIV1U"BCKaR npoLlBCcyanbHa" <Jx>pMa. TBOP" " npaKT"Ka I nOJl OOlil. peJl. n.E. HeJlooOino, B.M. r opweHeBa. - M., 1976; c)'THeB B.B. r PB>KJ\BHCK01H npoLlBCc KaK OJ\01a "3 <I>oPM pean"3aLl"" IOP"JI""eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B anory pa3B"Toro COLI"an"3Ma: A"cc. ... KaHA lOp"'!\' HayO. - 5IpocnaBIlb, 1981; TBOP" IOp01J1,,"eCKOrO nlJOLleCC<l I nOJlpeJl. B.M. fopwfmeBa. - XapbKoB. 1985; f7p0raeoB B.H OCH06bI 06u!enpasosoOi npoLleccyanbHoOi TBOp01". - M., 1991. 229 WUH,l1RnUHa M.)].. CTBJ\01" IOp"JI",ecKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". C. 132. 230 06UjaR TBOp01R rOCVII3peTBB " npasa. AKBJ\eM""BCK"Oi xypc: B 2 T.I nOJl peJl. nlJO<l>. M.H. MaIJ'BH- KO. T. 2. Te npaBa. - M.: 3ePLIMo, 1998. C. 613. 231 CM.: 06UjaR Teop,," npaBa" rOCYA3peTBa: Y"e6H"KI nOJl peJl. B.B. J1a3apeBa. C. 247. CM. TaK- "'e: 06111aR TeOlJ"" rOCYJlapcTBa " npaaa. AKBJ\eM""eCK"Oi KYlJC' B 2 T.I nOJl peJl. npO<!>. M H MalJ'eHKO. T. 2. Teop01" npaaa. - M.: 3elJl.\ano, 1998. C. 613. 232 CrporOBU" M.C. CYlIIHOCTb IOp"JI""eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHoCT" /I COBeTCKOB roCYJlapeTBO" npa- BO. 1979. N2 5. C. 72-77. M)'HUljwnanbHoe npaBO: Y"e6H"K I nOJl. peJl. A.I-!. KOBaneHKo. - M., 1997. C. 163. 233 AMwp6eKOB K.I1. IOp01J1,,'ecKa 38l11"Ta MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ero op- raHOB "lIon"'HOCTHbiX n"LI: Aucc. . . KaHJI. IOP"A HaYK - M.. 200 I. C. 78. 234 no noBOJIY nnlOpaIl"3Ma nOJ\XOJlOB K nOH"MaH"1O npaBa B.B. fla38pes n"weT: ..B nlJOLlecce no- 3HaHl-ts:! scer.o,a cyllteCTByeT B03MO)KHOCTb YB11e"'lbCfI KaKo-TO o,(l,HoCi CTOpoHOLii s:lB.neHIo1. npeB03- HeCTIo1 ee, He 3aMeTJIITb JIII1Io1 npeHe6pe"'lbApyntMIo1. OTCtO,IJ,a pa3Hble onpe.o.eneHIo1f1 npasa, "'ITO ca- MO no ce6e Jla"'e He nnoxo, ecn" nlJ013TOM He O1CKa",aeTC" 06W11" KapT"Ha, ecn" TaKoe OJIHOCTO- poHHee onpeJ\€J1eHLlle He npeTeHAyeT 3aMeHLIITb Bce ,(I,pyrlo1e, CTaTb e.nLIIHCTBeHHO npaBlo1l1bHblM, "rpaTb ponb BceOOlilerou. AYMaeTC", TO aHanor""Hbie npOLlecCbI CSOOiCTBBHHbI " Teop"" IOP"- JI,,"eCKOO OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". CM.: 061118" Teop01" npaBa " rOCYJlapeTBa: Y"e6H"K I nOJl peJl. B.B. Jl83BpeBa. C. 101. 235 LlUWKOBCKUtf E.A. n03L11TIo1BH LII nepcneKTLIIBHafl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MeXaHIo13Me C()lU1al1bHoro KOHTpon: A"cc. ... KaHJ\. IOP"JI. HaYK. - H""'H"Oi HOBrOpOJl, 2003. C. 74. 236lOpLo'l)J.l.1"'1eCKaJ;I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HepeAKo paccMaTpa.1BaeTCfI B Ka..,eCTBe KOMnl1eKcHoro npaBo- Boro cpeJlCTBa, T.e. IOp"JI""BCKOrO MexsH"3Ma, coCTlIIBro KaK "3 cpellCTB-YCTaHOBneH"Oi ("01- CTpYMeHTOB), TaK " "3 cpeJlCTB-lIeH"Oi (TeXHonor"Oi). CM.: np06neMbI npaBOBbiX CpeJlCTS /I np06neMbi TeOp01" rOCYA3peTBa" npaBa: Y"e6. nocoo"e. - M.. 1999. C. 321 "liP. 237 CM.: EMenbRIlOBAC., '1epflOTop HH W"HaHCOBo-npasOB8" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 2004. C. 75-76. 238 EMenbRHOB AC. '1epHOrop HH YKB3 CO". C.77. 239 WUH/I."nWHa M.)].. YKa3. CO". C. 25. 240 EMBIlbRHOB AC., '1epHO/"op H.H. w"HaHcoBo-npaBosa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. C. 87-88 241 AneKCeeB C.C. 06111a TeOp"" COLl"an"CT",ecKoro npaBa. Bbln. 2. - CBep,!J.l10BCK, 1964. C. 184-189. 242 AnBKceee C. C. 06l11a" TeOp01 npaBa: B 2 T. - M., 1981. T. I. C. 277. 243 KO>KeSHWKOB C.H. rOCYA3peTBeHHOB np"HY>KJIeH"e: ocooeHHOCT"" COJlep",aH"e II COBeTCI<OB rOCYJlapcTBo "npaBo. 1978. N2 5. C. 52-53. 244 ApJJ.awKuH B.)].. a np"HY>KJIeH"" no cooeTcKoMY npaay II CoB. roc. "npaBo. 1970.  7. C. 37. 245 ca3b1neB c. T. IOp"A""BCKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - KpacHopcK, 1985. C. 95-96. 246 KpaeaB"UKOB O.A. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, MBPbl38l11"TbI" caHKLI"" B cOBeTCKOM rpa>KP.aHCKOM npa- Be II C60PH"K y"eHblX TlJYlIOB. Bbln. 27. - CBepJlllOBCK, 1973. C. 11. 247 ManeuH H.C. npaBoHapyweH"e: nOHRT"e, np"""HbI, oTBeTCTBeHHocTb. - M., 1985. C. 135. 248 CaMOWBHKO I1.C.. <PapYKWUH M.x. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY aaKOHOA3TenbcTBY. - M.. 1971. C. 58. 249 CparyCb C.H. CnOpHble BonpoCbllOlJ01l1,,"eCKOOi OTBeTcTBeHHOCT" II COB. roc. " npaso. 1973. 4.C. 33. 250WuH/I."nUHaM.)].. YKa3. C. C. 21. 251 AneKeeeB C.C. MexaH"aM npaBOBoro peryn"IJOBaH"R B cOLl"an"CT""eCKOM rOCYJlapeTBe. - M., 1966. C. 150. co  -- 
252TBM >KB. 253 KO»:eeHwKoe C.H. rOCYJlapCTBeHHoe np"Hy.«.£IeH"e: OCOOeHHOCT" " COJIBp>K8H"e /I CoB. roc. " npaBo. 1978.  5. C. 52-53. 254 nblnUH B.B. YKaa. C. C. 134. 255 ey.,unwH A. C. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa (YCTaBHa) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB rOCYJlapcTBeHHoOi Bnac- T" Cy6WKTOB Pocc"o;cKoOi weJlep8LI"". rOCYJlapcTBeHHo-npaSOBbie Bonpocbl. - M.: IOp01cnpy- JleHLI", 2003. C. 18-19. 256 J.1.o.etO pa3rpaHJII"'IeHJIIS1 OTserCTseHHOCTIo1  JIIHblX Mep rOCY.Q.apcTBeHHoro npt.1Hy>K.O.eHJII OTCTal-t- B810T 101 npeAcr3BJIITe11L'I KOHCTLIITylJ,LIIOHHo-npaBOBoi:1 HaYIG1. CM.: AKryanbHbJe np06lleMbi KOHCTI-t- TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": ooaop Hay"HoOi KOH<jJepeHLI"" /I rOCYII3pcTSO" npaBo. 2002. N2 2; OecenH )1(.11. rocYJlapeTBeHHo-npaBoBOB np"Hy.«.£IeH"e" KOHCT"TyLl"oHHo-npaBo- Boe nl)01Hy.«.£IeH"e KBK ero OTpacneBa pa3HOB"JlHOCTb II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOO " MYH"LI"nanbHoo npaBo. 2005.  I. C. 12-20. 257 flewcr 0.3. CaHKLI"" B COBeTC>;OM npaBe. - M., 1962. C. 25. 258 OJKeroB C.I1. CnOBapb PYCCKorO "3b1Ka. - M., 1986. C. 297. 259 WUHA"rJuHa M.A. YKa3. C. C. 16. 260 Cnoeapb "HOCTpaHHblX CnOB. - M.. 1964. C. 575. 261 ca6aee B.K. HOpMbI npaBa II 06l11B" TeOI)01 npaBa: Kypc lleKLI"Oi I nOJl peJl. B.K. 6a6aeBa. - H. HOBroPOJl, 1993. C. 300. 262 fly"uH B. O. TeOpeT",eCK"e np06lleMbi pean"38L1"" KOHCT"TyLl"OHHblX HOpM. C. 68. B aTOM aHa- "'IeHLllIo1 ynoTpe611f1eTC repMH "caHKLlIo'ISJ» J1 B .o.ef1CTBytOl..LleM POCCLotL71CKOM 3aKOHo.a,aTenbCTBe. 263rpa>K,o,aHCKOe npaBO: Y"e6H"K: B 2T.IOTB.peJl. npo",. EA CyxaHoBa. - T.!. C. 427. 264 CM.: rpa>KJl8HCKOB npaBO: Y"e6H"K. - 4-e "3J1., nepepa6. " Jlon. I nOJl peJl. A.n. CepreeBa. IO.K. ToncToro. - T. I. C. 533; nonoBfl.fl., WeprwHA.n. YnpaBneH"e. rpa>K,o,aH"H. OTBeTcTBeH- HOCTb. - 11., 1975. C. 38. 265 CM.: nwronKuH A. e. HOpMbI COBeTCKoro COLl"an"CT,,"eCKoro npaBa " "X CTpyxrypa II BonpocbI 06111eOi TBOP"" COBeTcKoro npaBa. - M., 1960. C. 185: OBcenRH )1(.11. rocYJlapeTBeHHo-npaBoBoo np"Hy.«.£IeH"e " KOHCT"TyLl"oHHo-npaBoooe np01Hy.«.£IeH"e KaK ero oTpaCneBa" pa3HOBUJlHOCTb /I KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOe " MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBo. 2005 No I. C. 19-20. 266CM.: CaMoUleHKo I1.C. OxpaHa pe"'''Ma aaKOHHOCT" COBeTcKoro rocYJlapeTBa. - M., 1960. C. 72. Konocoea H.M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B Pocc"o;cKoOi WeJlepaLl"": OTBeTcTBeH- HOCTb opraHOB rocy.o.apcTBeHHoi1 B11aCTIo1 VI JIIHblX cy6beKTOB npaBa 38 HapyweHLlle KOHCTIo1TYUI-'I()H- HorO 38KOHOJ\BTBIlbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"". - M.: rOpOJleLl, 2000. C. 110; 112-113. 267 flewcr 0.3. CaHKLI"" B COBeTCKOM npaBe. C. 28. 268 AneKceeB e.e. 00uIa" T8OI)"" COLI"anUCT"'BCKoro npasa. Bbln. 2. - CBelJJIIlOBCX, 1964. C. 164-189; fleiicr O. 3. CaHKLI"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 60-72. 269 KY/1PRB/.JeB B.H. 3aKOH, nocTynoK, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1986. C. 295-296. 270 fleOicr 0.3. CaHKlt"" "OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTcKOMY npaBY. C. 60-72: 96. 271 KY/1PRB/.JeB B.H. 3aKOH, nOCTynOK, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1986. C. 296. 272 AnBKceeB C.C. COLl"anbHa" LleHHOCTb npaBa B COBeTCKOM 06111eCTBe. - M., 1971. C. 378; Ma- neuH H.e. npaBoHapyweH"e: nOH"T"e, np01""HbI, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1985. C. 148-149. 273 AneKceeB C.C. 06l11B Teop"" cOLl"an"c..,'ecKoro npaBa. Bbln. 2. - CBepJlllOBCK, 1964. C. 188. 274 Teop"" npaBa" roCYII3pcTBa I nOJl peJl. B.B. Jla3apeBa. - M., 2001. C. 191. 275 WUHA"nUUHa M.A. YKB3. co,. C. 25. 276 KYPblnee C.B. CaHKLI"" KaK 3neMeHT npaBOBOO HOpMbI II COB. roc." npaBo. 1964. N. 4. C. 49. 277 J],aneKO He BCKa caHK YCTaHasl1lo1saer Mepy tOplotA....eCKO OTsercTseHHOCTlo1, He rOBOps1 Y'K€ 0 TOM. "'ITO 3Ha"'lIo1Tel1bHOe KOI1L11"'1eCTBO .o.eYiCTSYtOl..LlLotX npaB08b1X HOpM He Io1MeeT KllaCCIo1"'1ec- KOo; TpeX"neHHOOi CTPYKTyIJbI (r"nOTe3a - JI"cnoa"LI"" - caHKLI")' CaHKLI"eOi Mo"'eT 6b1Tb J\aJKe HopMa B Ltel1OM, a BO MHorLIIX HOpMax CaHKUl-t101 OTCyrCTBYIOT,l.jTO C3MO no ce6e ellte He 03Ha"'l8eT OTcyrCT8L11f1IOpc.1.Q.Lo'I....ecKO OTseTCTseHHOCTIo1 3a x HapyweHLlle. 2786aKaeea 0.10. 4>VlHaHcoBo-npaBOBa OTBeTCT8eHHOCTb KaK BHA IOpI1.Aw..eCKO OTserCTBeHHOC- T" 3a HapyweH"e TaMO"'eHHblX npaB,," IllOp"cT. 2004.  11. C. 46. 279 nOp,po6Hee 06 3TOM CM.: flewcr 0.3. CaHKLI"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTcKoMY npaBY. - M., 0\ 1981. trt - 
280 HeCKOJlbKO pe>Ke tOpALII"'IeCKafl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nO.n.pa3.a,eJlfleTCfI Ha B(.t,AbI B 3aBIo1CLllMOCT OT MeTO.o,a npylHy;«AeHVlSI, Io1cnOI1b3yeMoro npt.1 ee peaJIlo13aUIo1. npt.13TOM YKa3b1BatOTCfI Te >Ke caMbie B01J\bI OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" (CM., Hanp"Mep: 68xpax .o,.H. Ao.M"H"cTpaTUBHa.. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1999. C. 4.). AaHHoe cOBnBJ\eH"e B01J\OB OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" np" xnacC"<jJ"KaLl"". KB3BIlOCb 6b1, no pa3HblM OCHOBaHLllSIM npoVlcxo.o,T noTOMY I "'TO OJJ,HIo1M 1013 npLll3HaKOB OT.o,eJ1bHblX MeTO.Q,OB nplilHY'K- JleH"" YKa3b1aaeTC OTpaCnb npaBa, onpeJlenlOlI\B nJlOK np"MeHeH" ero Mep. 2B 1 06UjaSl TBOp01" npaBa " rocYJlapCTBa: Y"e6H"K I nOJl peJl. B. B. JlaaapeBa. C. 246. 282PeBeHKOn.l1. YKaa. CO". C. 76. 283 M)lHUljUnanbHOB npaso POCC"iiCKOOi weJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K All" BY30B / nOJl peJl. npo<!>. H.C. 6001- A3. C. 531. 284 Wyrp"Ha E.C. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO: Y"e6H"K. C. 293. 285 Ca6""e8 B.I1. Cy6bBKTbI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBlleH"" " "X B3a"MOJleOiCTB"e. - M.: I-1A "BOCTO"- HbiOi Py6e"'-, 2000. C. 162. 286 MOKeeB M. M. KOHCT"TyLl"oHHO-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB "JlOn"'HOCTHbiX Il"LI MeCT- HorO caMOynpaBnBH": A"cc... KaHJI. IOP"JI. HaYK. - CapaTOB, 2003. C. 76. 287 Ta60fluH B.B., "epHorop H.H. MecTO" pCllb MYH"LI"nanbHoro npaBa B C"CTeMe POCc"OiCKoro npaBa II MeCTHOB npaBO. 2002. N2 3-4. C. 9-12. 2BB "e'UHa H.A.. 3nbKUH/I. n. C. 06 yrOIlOBHo-npoLleccyanbHoOi " rpa>KP.aHcKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" // COB. roc. "npaBo. 1973. N. 9. C. 34. 2B9 Kypuc n.M., CKaK)'HOB 3.11. K Teop"" OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" rocyII3pcTB B Me>KJ\YHapoLlHoM npaBe II npaBoBeJleH"e. 1973.  2. 290 AeaKbRH C.A. r ocYJlapeTBeHHo-npaBoBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II CoaeTcKoe rocYJlapeTBo " npaBo. 1975.  10; 3pa>Ke8CKaSl T..o,. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb no COBeTcKOMY rocYJlapeTBeHHoMY npaBY. - BOPOHB>K, 1980; 3pa>KeBCKaR T .0.. OTBeTCTBeHHoCTb no cOBeTCKOMY rocYJlapeTBeHHoMY npaBY // npaBOBBJleH"e. 1975. N23. 291 flY'lUH B.O. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MeKaH"aMe peBn0138L1"" KOHCTUTYLl"" II npaBO" "'''aHb. 1994.  1: WOH T..o,. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa.. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb // rOCYJlapeTBo" npaBo. 1995. N. 7; Kono- coea H.M. KOHCTTYU.OHHafi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb - caMoCTOflTel1bHbI B tOiJI1,AI.1...ecKoo OTBeTCT- BeHHOCT" II rOCYLlapcTBO" npaBo. 1997. N2 2;" Jlp. 292 'iepHorop H. H. 101J01J1,,"ecKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB " JlOn",HOCTHbiX Il"LI MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH"" (BonpoCbI reop",,): ABTOpe<jJ. J\01CC. ... KaHA IOP"JI. HaYK. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBne- 01"" MBA Pocc"", 1999. C. 9; 686""eB B.I1. Cy6bBKTbI MeCTHoro caMOynpaBneH"" " "X B3a"MO- JleHcTB.,.. - M.: I-1A "BOCTO"HbiOi py6e",., 2000. C. 163; 113M8unoea EB. IOp"J\01"ecK"e MexaH"3- Mbi VlHCTIo1TYTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT B CVlCTeMe MeCTHoro C3MoynpaBl1eHLllfI: ,l:lLIICC. ... KaH.a.. tOpIiI.Q.. HaYK. - M., 2003. C. 118; WyrpuHa EC. MYH"LI"nanbHOe npaBo: Y"e6H"K. - M.: TK BBIl6", npo- cneKT, 2004. C. 293. 293 BOpO>KeUKUH EM. noCneJlCTB"" npaBoHapyweH"" B ceMeHHOM npaBe // CoB. roc. " npaBo. 1973.  3. 294 TIOTUH .0..8. npaBoBbie np06neMbi IOp"JI,,"eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" HanoronnaTenbUj"KOB: AB- TOpe<jJ. JI"CC.... KaHJI. IOP"JI. HaYK. - M., 2003. C. 17. 295 KapaceBa M.8. W"HaHCOBoe npaBO: Y"e6H"K. 06l1\B "aCTb. - M., 1999. C. 181; IOcryc 0.11. 4>Io1H8Hc08O-npaBOBas:I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb HaJlOrOnI18Te11bLlla.tKoo-opraHJ13all.LllL:i: ABTOpe. ,(I,LIICC... KaHA. IOP"JI. HaYK. - CapaTOB, 1997. C. 12-13; BU""UIJKUU.o,.B. Cy6bBKTbI Hanorosoro npaBa. M. 2000. C. 53; Cepl1lOKOBa H.B. W"HaHcOBo-npaBOBa OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb: CTaHOBneH"e " paaB"- T"e: ABTOpe<jJ. JI"CC. ... KaHA. IOP"JI. HaYK. - TIOMeHb, 2003. C. 13; caKaeBa 0.10. w"HaHcoBo- npaB03S1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb K8K BI1JJ, tOP'1,(1,LII"'IeCKof1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTVI 3a H8pyweHJ1e T8MO)l(eHHblX npaB"n IiIOp01cT 2004. N2 II. C. 48; EMenb""oB AC.. 'iepHoropH.H. w"HaHcoBo-npaBO OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M.: w"HaHcbI "CTaT"CT"Ka, 2004. 296 30noryxUH AB. Teopem,ecK"e acnBKTbI pa3B"T"" "HCT"TyTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" 3a HanorOBbie npaBoHapywBH"" B Hayxe POCC"HCKOro npaBa //3aKOHOJlaTBIlbCTBo " 3KOHOM"Ka. 2003.  8. 297 CM.: Pa3fUflbJJ.l1eea M.D. H8JlOrOBafl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B CIo1CTeMe tOP'1JJ,W'.ecKO OTBeTCTBeHHOC- T" II npaBOBeJleH"e. 2002.  5. C. 130; COTbiPOB C.E. w"HaHcoBo-npaBoBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. ABTope<jJ. JI"CC. ... KaHA. IOP"JI. Hay.. - M., 2003. C. 20; noeeTKuHa H.A npo6neMbi npaBOBoro o6ecn",eH"" 61OLl>KBTHoH oTBeTcTBeHHocTUl1 w"HaHcOBOe npaBO. 2003. N. 4; nunuHcKujij.o,.A. KaparenbH8" " BOCCTaHOB"TenbH8" <jJYHKLI"" HanorOBoH oTBeTcTBeHHocTU//lOp01cT. 2003.  8. m Kpox"Ha IO.A Teopern"eCK"e OCHOBbi <jJ"HaHcoso-npaBoBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" /1 >KYPHan POC- c"OiCKoro npaBa. 2004. N2 3. C. 88. o \0 -- 
299 O6lJjaR TeOp"" npaBa " rocy.<\apeTBa: Y"e6H"K / nOJl peJl. B.B. JlaaapeBa. C. 176- 177. 300 YMHOBa 11.A. KOHCT"TYLI"OHHble OCHOBbi COBpeMeHHoro POCC"OiCKoro <jJeJlepan"aMa. - M.. 1998. C. 219-220. 301 MYH"tjlfnanbHoe npaBO POcc"OiCKe;; weJlepaLlO1": Y,eOO". JIll" BY30B / nOJl pe.<\. npo<l>. H.C. 6001- A3P". C. 531. 302 B"TPYK H.B. AKTyanbHbie np06neMbl KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": o63op Ha- y"HoOi KOH<jJepeHLI"" /I r ocy.<\apeTBo " npaBO. 2002. N!! 2. C. 115. 303 corp,aHOBB H.A YKa3. CO". C. 115. 304 fOHapoe I1.B. 3alll"Ta npaB" CB060Jl "BIlOBeKa "rpa>KJ\BH"Ha B cy6beKTax POCC"OiCKOOi we- JlepaLl"" C "cnonb30BaH"eM Mep <jJeJlepanbHOro BMewaTenbCTBa. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBneH" MBA Pocc"", 2004. C. 85. 305 C}"I"nUH A C. KOHCT"TYLI"OHH (ycTaBHa) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB rocy.<\apeTBeHHo Bnac- T" cy6beKToB Pocc,,':;cKoOi weJlepaLl"". rocy.<\apcTBeHHo-npaBoBble BonpOCbI. - M.: IOp"cnpy- JleHLI", 2003. C. 113. 306 AKryanbHble npo6neMbl KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01: o63op Hay"HoOi KOH<jJe- peHLI"" /I rocy.<\apcTBo" npaBO. 2002 N!! 2. C. 115. 307 TaM ",e. C. 117. 308 fOHapoe I1.B. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHble OCHOBbl <jJeJlepanbHOro BMewaTenbCTBa np" aalll"Te OCHOB- HbiX npaB " CBOOoJl "enOBeKa" rpB>KJ\aH"Ha B cy6beKTax POCC"OiCKO':; weJlepaLl"": ABTope</>. JI"CC. 'n JIOKT. IOp01Jl. HaYK. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBneH" MBA Pocc"", 2004. C. 24. 309 K03nOBa E.l1n Kyraq,"H O.E. KOHCT"TYLl"OHHOe npaBO POCC"": Y"eOO"K. - 3-e "a.<\.. nepepa6. " Jlon. - M., 2002. C. 42-43. 310 B POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl"" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, HanaraeMa B CYJle6HOM nOpRJlKe, pean"3yeTc B paMKax KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOrO, rpa>KJ\BHCKoro, a,QM"H"CTpaT"BHorO" yronoBHOro CYJlOnpO"aBOJl- CTBa (,. 2 CT. 118 KOHCT"TyLl"" PW). B paMKax 3T"X B"JlOB cYJlonpO"3BOJlCTBa pean"3ylOTcR He TonbKO OJIHO"MeHHbIB B"JlbI OTBeTCTBeHHocT", 010" Te, KOTopble He OOecne"eHbI TaKOBblM CYJlO- npO"3BOJlCTBOM (<jJ"HaHCOBaR. TaMo"'eHHaR. BOJIHa. 3eMBIlbHa"" T.n.). 311 B IOp01Jl",eCKOOi n"TepaTYpe BCTpe"aIOTC aBneH" OTOM,",O ()JeJlepanbHblOi 3aKOH C"CTeMa- TJ13J1pyeT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B cc:pepe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBl1eHJ1f1 B 3aSLIICJ1MOCTLil OT Cytib€KTOB, '"" npaBa HapytlJBHbI (CM.: RpoweHKO AA KOHCT"TyLl"OHHaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMe MeCT- HorO caMoynpaBneH"" II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: npOOneMbl POCC"", onbiT aapy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKbRHa). He OTP"LIB" caMe;; 01JIe" B np"HLI"ne, OTMe- T"M. OJlHaKO. ",0 TaKO':; BbIBO,ll He CneJlyeT HanMYIO "3 TeKCTa WeJlepanbHoro aaKOHa. 312 B 3aKOHOJlaTenbCTBe cy6beKTOB POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"" xpyr TaK"x cy6beKToB Bblrn"JI"T "Ha- 'e. TaK, Hanp"Mep, YCTaB I-1pKyYCKOOi 06naCT" onpeJlen"eT B ,,,cne TaK"X cy6beKTOB "rocy.<\ap- CTBeHHyIQ BnaCTb" " "MeCTHoe coo6llleCTBO- (YcTaB I-1PKyYCKOOi 06naCT" OT 19 HBap" 1995 r. CT. 42). 313 CM. Hanp"Mep: KOMMeHTap";:; K WeJlepanbHOMY aaKOHY "06 06111"x np"HLI"nax opraH"aaLl"" MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH" B Pocc",:;cKoOi WeJlepaLllf. C. 213; PeBeHKoJl.A. nOnHOMO"" <jJeJle- panbHblx opraHoB " OpraHOB cy6beKTOB WeJlepaLl"" no 38KOHop,aTenbHOMY peryn"poBaH01IO op- raH"38L1"" MBCTHoro caMoynpaBlleH" II MecTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e: COBpeMBHHblOi POCC"OiCK"Oi onbiT 38KOHOJlaTBIlbHoro peryn"IJOBaH"": Y,e6. noco6"e I nOJl pe.<\. K. W. WepeMeTa. 1-1.1-1. OB'''H- H"KOBa. - M., 1998. C. 76. 314 ca6"ee B.I1. Cy6bBKTbI MeCTHOro caMoynpaBneH"" " "X Baa"MOJle':;CTB"e. C. 162. 315 MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K JIIlR ay30B I nOJl peJl. npo<jJ. H.C. 6001- A3P". C. 531 316 ca6"e8 B.I1. YKaa. C. C. 162-163. 317 BnaCTb. 1995. N!! 10. C. 37. 318 '1epHOrop H.H. IOp"JI,,"eCKB" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB" JlOn"'HOCTHbiX n"LI MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH"" (BonpOCbI Teop""): A"cc... KBHA. IOP"JI. HaYK. - M., 1999. C. 10. 319 EMenbRHOB H.A., EMenbRHOBa r.c. MeCTHoe caMOynpaBneH"e B POCC"':;CKO':; WeJlepaLl"": Kypc neKLI"':;. - M., 2001. C. 322, 327. 320 MOKeeB M. M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBBHHOCTb opraHoB "JlOn"'HOCTHbIX n"LI MeCT- HorO caMOynpaBI1eH": A"cc. n KaHA. IOp01Jl. HaYK. - CapaTOB, 2003. C.76. 321 AMUp6eKOB K. IOp01J\01'BCKaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MYH"LI"nanbHblX 06pB30BaH"Oi " npOKYpopCK"Oi ...- HBJ\aop// npaBO" "'''3Hb. 2000. No 31. C. 12. \.0 ...- 
322 Ta60fluH B.B. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. C. 158-159. 323 MYH"ljunanbHoe npaBo POCC"OiCKOOi <!JeJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K JIll" BY30B I nOJl peJl. npo<l>. H.C. 6001- A3P". C. 531. CM. TaK>Ke: MYH"Ij"nanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"K JIll" By:30B I nOJl peJl. A.M. H"K"T"Ha. C.375. 32411rHBTIOK H.A, 3aMoTaee AA, nBBflYWKUH AB. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"K. - M.: 3AO IOc- T"LI"H<jJoPM, 2004. C. 294-295. 325 B 38KOHax cy6beKToB POCC"OiCKO;; <!JeJlepaLl"" " aKTaX MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH" "cnonb3y- eTC" pa3n""Ha" TepM"Honor" JIIl 0603Ha""H" Kpyra n"LI, KOTopble COCTaBn"IOT MBCTHoe co- 06ll!eCTBO (MecTHoe HaCBIleH"e, HaceneH"e MYH"LI"nanbHoro 06pa30BBH") 326 K03noeB £.11., KyratPUH O.E. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOe npaBO POCC"": Y"eOO"K. - 2-e "3J1., nepepa6. "Jlon. - M.: IOp"cT, 1999. C. 76-126; npo6neMbl KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" (no MaTep"anaM KOH<jJepeHLI"" Ha IOp"JI""eCKOM <jJaKynbTeTe) II BeCTH"K MfY. Cep" 11. npa- BO. 2001. No 3. C. 124. 327 neW"H H.11. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO: CxeMbi " KOMMeHTap"". C. 248. 32B PeBeHKo 11.11. YKaa. C. C. 76. 329 AMUp6eKOB K. IOp01JlO1,ecKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MyH"LI"nanbHblX 06pa30BaH"Oi " npOKYPopCK"Oi HBJ\30pllnpaBo ""'''3Hb. 2000. No 31. C. 12. 330 06 06l11"x np"HLI"nax opraH01aaLl"" MeCTHOro caMOynpaBneH B PoCC"OiCKOi1 weJlepaLl"": <!Je- AepMbHbIi1 3aKOH OT 60KT"6p" 2003 r. N2 131-<!J31IC3 PW. 2003. No 40. C.. 3822. 331 KonocoBa H.M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCC"OiCKOOi <!JeJlepaLl"": OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb OpraHOB rOCYAaPCTBeHHoiil BJ18CTJII  JIIHblX cy6beKTOB npaBa 38 HapyweHJ.1e KOHCTJIITYLl.Io10H- HorO 3aKOHop,aTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKO;; WeJlepaLl"". - M.: rOIJOAeLl, 2000. C. 24. 332 H.M. KOflOCOBB nO,OpB3Jlen"eT IOp01JlO1"eCxyIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha B"JIbi no opraHaM, B03IlaralO- Il.lM OTBeTCTBetlHQCTb. Ha STOM OCHOBaHJIIJII OHa BbUJ,e11f1eT: a) OTseTCTBeHHOCTb. B0311araeMYtO op- raHaM" roCYA3PCTBeHHOOi Bnacm; 6) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb S03naraeMyIO cYAe6HbIM"" "HbIM" IOp01CJ1"K- Ll.IoI)HHbIM opraHaMJ.1; B) OTBeTCTSeHHOCTb, K KOTOpoiil npa80HapYWJIITenb npJIIBl1eKaeTCS13,£I.MJIIHJ1GT- paT"BHblM" opraHBM" (CM.: KonOCOBa H.M. KOHCmTyLlO10HHa" OTBeTCTBBHHOCTb B POCC"i1CKO;; <!>e- AepaLl"": OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb OprBHOB rOCYA3peTBeHHOOi BnacT" " "HbIX Cy6beKTOB npaBa 38 Hapywe- H"e KOHCT"'YLI"OHHOrO 38KOHOABTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi WeAepaLl"'" C. 24). 333 SneeTb. 1995. No 10. C. 37. 334 Cepreee AA. np06neMbl KOHCT"TyLl"OHHO-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B C"CTeMe MeCTHoro caMOynpaBneH" II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi POCC"", onbiT 3a- py6e"'HbIX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 359. 335 KpaCHOB M.A np06neMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B MeCTHOM caMoynpaBneH"". C. 188-189. 336 Hanp"Mep, OJ\HB " Ta "'e Mepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" - pocnYCK npeJlCTaB"TenbHoro opraHa MeCT- HorO CaMOynpaBI1eH"" Mo"'eT 6blTb np"MeHeHa no npOLleJlype "OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" nepeJl rocy- AaPCTBOM JIIIlJII «OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJII nepe.a, HaC€l1eHLlleM». 337 '1"{»<J'H B.E. rOCYAapCTBeHHoe" MyH"LI"nanbHoe ynpaeneH"e: Y-Je6H"K. - M.: IOp"CTb, 2004. C.31O. 338 C,,"uljKuii B.A. Peryn"poBaH"e OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B c<jJepe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH" II KOH- CT"TyLlHOHHble " 3aKOHop,aTBIlbHble OCHOBbl MBCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" B POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepa- LI"". M., 2004. C. 288-289. 339 WBb/Pee B.C. K aHan"3Y KaTerop"Oi Teoper",ecKoro" 3Mn"p,,"eCKOrO B Hay"HOM n03HaH"" /I BonlJOcbI <jJ01noco<l>"". 1975. No 2. C. 3. 340KonHUHn.B. A"aneKT"Ka KaKnor"Ka "TeOp"" noaHaH"". - M., 1973. C. 132-133. 341 .lIeHucoB IO.A. 06l11B Teop npaBOHapyweH"" "OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". - 11.: 1-13J1-BO JlfY. 1983. C.14-15. 342 HeKoTOpble aBTOpbl nOJlPB3J1en"IOT IOp"JI""ecKYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha B"JIbI: KOMneHcaLl"OH- HyIO" penpeCC"BHYIO no .cnoc06y B03J1eOicTB"', no cym, pe% "JleT 0 Tex "'e Bup,ax, 0 KOTOpbIX n"can 0.3. f1eficT, OJlHaKO OCHOBaH"e, KOTopble aBTopbl KIlBJ\YT B OCHOBY TaKoOi Knacc"<jJ01KaLl"", "Hoe. CM: .lIYXHO H.A, I1BaKUH B.I1. nOH"T"e " B"JlbI IOp"JI,,"eCKOO OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II rocy- ABlJCTBO" npaBO. 2000. No 6. C. 15. 34311ewCT 0.3. nOH",,,e " B"JlblIOP01JlO1,eCKOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II Teop,, rocYAapcTBa " npaBa: Kypc neKLI"Oi I nOJl peJl. M.H. Map"eHKO. - M., 1997. C. 464. 344 J/eiiCT O. 3. CaHKLI"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTCKoMY npaBY. C. 130. 345 TaM "'e. C. 131. (\f \0 - 
346 3J1eCb pe% "JleT 0 TeOp"" BJ\M"H"CTpaT"BHO-BOCCTaHOB"TenbHbIX Mep, aBTopbl KOTOPOo; He np"3HalOT BOCCTaHOB"TenbHbIB Mepbl MepaM" OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". (caxpax,Q.H. AJlM"H"cTpaT"B- Ha" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. - M., 1999. C. 8.) 347 '1epHorop H. H. IOp"JI,,"ecKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB " Jlon"'HOCTHbiX Il"LI MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH": Y,e6. nocoooe. - 6narOBellleHCK, 1999. C. 11. 348 TaKOo; BblBOJlnpOT"BOpe""T HeKOTopblM, Y"'e paHee BbICKa3b1BaeMbiM Ha CTpaH"Llax IOp01J\""e- CKOo; n"TepaTypbl TO"KaM apeH" no .<\aHHoMy BOnpocy. TaK, A.P. EpeM"H, paccY>KJ\a 0 KOHCT"- T)f1..tOHHOC1 OTseTCTBeHHOCTIo1 B cQ>epe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBl1eHLllfI, JIICXO.Q.LIIT L113 Toro, "'ITO [fB tOpVl.ALII\jeCKof1 HaYKe CI10>KJIII1OCb pa3.nel1eHVle ecex 8V1Aoe tOpVl.o.JII"'IecKof1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJII Ha penpeCC"BHble " MaTep"anbHbIB". 001 np"xOJl"T K BblBOJlY, "TO KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb He MO>KeT 6blTb OTHeceHa HJII K OAHOMY J113 3TJIIX 8HA08, a 3Ha"IJIIT I :aTO OC06bl BWJ, topJIIAJII- 'eCKOo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" (CM.: EpeM"'H AP. npo6neMbi onpeJleneH" KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBO- BOO; OTBeTCTBeHHocT" B c<jJepe MBCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" /I KOHCT"TyLI"OHHO-npaBOBa OTBeT- CTBeHHOCTb: npOOneMbl PoCC"", onblT aapYOO"'HbiX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. - M.: 1'13J1- BO Mry. 2001. C. 375). 349 AKTyanbHble np05neMbi KOHCT"TYLl"oHHo-npaBOBoo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0630P Hay"HOo; KOH<jJe- peHLl""11 rocyp,apCTBO" npaBO. 2002. NQ 2. C. 117. 350 '1epHOrop H. H. IOp01J\,,"ecKa" OTBeTCTBeHHocTb opraHOB " JlOn"'HOCTHbiX Il"LI MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH"" (BonpoCbI Teop""): ABTope<jJ. JI"CC. ... KaHA. IOP01J\. HaYK. - M.: AKa.o.eM" ynpaBne- H" MBA Pocc"", 1999. C. 9. 351 lIepHorop H.H. IOpJll.a,LII"'IecKafi OTseTCTseHHOCTb opraHOB JII AOI1>KHOCTHbiX I1J11lt MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH" (BonpocbI Teop",,). - 6narOBellleHcK, 2000. C. 64. 352 CepreeB AA AKTyanbHble npOOneMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHO-npaBOSOO; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0630p Ha- y"HOo; KOH<jJepeHLI"" II rocy.<\apeTBO" npaBo. 2002. N!! 2. C. 119. 353 Taoon"H B.B. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO. - M.: AKBJ\eM" MB,!\ Pocc"", 1997. C. 160; ABaKbRH C.A. AKTyanbHble np06neMbl KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npasoBo':; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npa- BOB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06nBMbI Pocc"", onbiT 38py6e"'HbiX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. nlJO<!>. C.A. ABaKb- Ha. C. 17-18; JleB"'H B.<I>., n"n"neHKo C.r. CooTHoweH"e KaTerop"':; "OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb" " "KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb" B IOp"JI,,"eCKo':; xapaKTep"cT"Ke MeCTHoro caMoynpaBne- H" II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHO-npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: npo6neMbi Pocc"", onblT aapy6B>KHbIX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 384; MOKeeB M.M. KOHCT"TYLI"'OHHO-npaBoBa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb opraHoB" JlOn"'HOCTHblX n"LI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBI1eH": A"cc ... KaHA. IOP01J\... HaYK. - CapaTOB, 2003. C. 77. 354 CM.: MYH"LI",nanbHoe npaBO POCC"':;CKOo; ()JeJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K JIIl BY30B I nOJl peJl. npo<J> H.C. 60HJlapR C. 531; MYH"LI",nanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"K JIll" BY30B I nOJl peJl. A.M. H"K"T"Ha. - M.: IOHI-1T1'1-AAHA, 3aKoH" npaBO, 2000. C. 378. 355 CM.: EMenbRHOB H.A MecTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e B POCC"o;CKO':; ()JeJlepaLl"''': KOHCT"TyLl"OHHO- npaBoBo':; ""HCT"TyLl"OHanbHblo; aHan"3: l101cc. ... JlOKTOpa IOp01Jl. HaYK. - M., 1998. C. 290; KOM- MeHTap";:; K ()JeJlepMbHoMY 3aKOHY 06 06l11"x np"HLI"nax opraH"38L1"" MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- neH"" B POCC"':;CKOo; weJlepaLl"'" . C. 215; neWJ<H JI.H. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBo: CxeMbi " KOM- MeHTap"": Y,e6. noc06"e. - M.: CTaryr, 2001. C. 243. 356 CM.: 6a6"'"eB B.I1. YKaa. CD". C. 163; 113Ma;:;noBa E B. IOp01J\,,"ecK"e MexaH"3MbI "HCT"ryra OT- BeTCTBeHHOCT" B C"CTeMe MecTHoro caMoynpaBneH"": A"cc. ... KaHA. IOP"JI. HaYK. - M., 2003. C. 118; Wyrp"'Ha EC. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"K. - M.: TK Ben6,,; npocneKT, 2004. C. 293, 295-298, 311-315; ConoBbeB C.r. MYH"LI"nanbHo-npaBoBa OTBeTCTBBHHOCTb MeCTHO- ro npeJlCTaB"TenbHoro opraHa: cOJlep",aH"e " aKTYMbHbIB npo6neMbi /I rOCYJlapeTBeHHa BnaCTb " MeCTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e. 2004. N2 2. C. 5-8; ,QonrononoBB M.C. MYH"LI"nanbHo- npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi npaBoBo.-o peryn"poBaH" " pean"3aLl"": A"cc. ... KaHA. IOP"JI. HaYK. - T IOMeHb, 2005. 357 AM"p6eKOB K. MeCTHoe caMoynpaBneH01e B C"CTeMe ny6n,,"HOH BnaCT". r apaHT"" npaB " npo- 6neMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" /I npaBO" "'''3Hb. 2000. N2 30. C. 18. 35B Wyrp"Ha E C. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo. - HOBOC"OOpCK, 1995. C. 24. 359 TaK, Hanp"Mep, E.C. Wyrp"Ha paHee BblCKa3b1Bana TO"KY 3peH", cornaCHO KOTOPOo; OTBeTCT- BeHHOCTb opraHOB MeCTHOfO caMoynpaBneH" nepeJl HaCBIleH"eM no CYLl\BCTBY He "BneTC OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTblO tOPIo1.D.L1"'1eCKO JII. 60l1ee Toro, VlHCTLIIl)'T .Q.aHHOL:1 OTBeTCTseHHOCTJII He COOTBeT- CTByeT OCHOBBM KOHcmTYLI"'OHHoro CTPO" POCC"':;CKO':; WeJlepaLl"" (Wyrp"Ha EC. MYH"LI"- nanbHOe npaBO. - HOBOC"6,,pcK, 1995. C. 24). BnOCnBJ\CTB"" OHa Bce 60nee nOCneJlOBaTenbHO CTana OTCTa"BaTb "JlelO BBeJleH" B OTpacneBYIO Knacc"<J>"KaLl"'1O IOP"Jl""eCKOO OTBeTCTBeHHO- cn1 HOBoro BJ1,Aa - MyHJllu.LllnanbHo-npaBOBO OTBeTCTSeHHOCTJII, KOTopyK) OHa paCCMaTpLilsaeT, KaK OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeJl HaceneH"eM (CM.: Wyrp"Ha EC. OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHoB "  \.0 - 
-:;t \0 - JlOn"'HOCTHbiX n"LI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" II PoCC"OiCK"Oi IOp01Jl,,"eCK"Oi "'ypHan. 2001. N. 1. C. 109-111; WyrpuHa EC. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo: Y"eOO"K. - M.: TK Ben6,,; npocneKT, 2004. C. 293, 295-298, 311-315; WyrpuHa EC. OCOOOHHOCT" KOHCT"TyLl"OHHQ-npaBOBoOi" MYH"LI"- nanbHo-npaBoBO OTs€rCTBeHHOCTJII opraHoB  AOll>KHOCTHbIX I1J11lt MeCTHoro caMoynpaBl1eHJII /I KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOe " MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBO. 2005. NQ 5). 360 ,lI,eoop"HAM. ()J"noco<J>"" non"T"Ka. - M., 1961. C. 581. 361 Ta6ono'H B.B. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. - M.: AKBJ\eM"" MB,!\ Pocc"". 1997. C. 160. 362 TaM ",e. C. 158-159. 363 KonocoBa H.M. KOHCT"TYLI"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb OpraHOB rOCYAapCTBeHHoiil BJ18CTJII  J'1HblX cy6beKTOB npaBa 38 HapyweHJlle KOHCTJIITYLl.Io10H- HorO 38KOH0A3TenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"". C. 55. 364 YBapoB AA 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" opra><OB MecTHoro C8MoynpaBnBH" II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npa- BOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np05neMbi Pocc"", onbiT 3apy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C.368. 365 EP€M"H AP. np06neMbi onpeJleneH"" KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B c<jJepe MeCTHoro caMoynpaaneH"" /I KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: npo6neMbi Poc- C"", onbiT aapy6e"'HbiX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. AaaKb"Ha.C. 376. 366 MYH01tj"naflbHoe npaBO POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K JIll" BY30B I nOJl peJl. npDQ>. H.C. 6001- A3P". C. 531. 367 CM.: MJn<"""naJJbHOe npaso POCC"OiCKOOi <PeJ\epaLl"": YH"KJIIl" ayaOB I nOJl pel\. nlJO<!>. H.C. 6oH- ,o,aP". C. 531; MYH"tj"nanbHoe npaBo: Y"e6H"KJIIl" BY30BI nOJl peJl. A.M. H"K"T"Ha. C. 378. 368 EMenbRHOB H.A. MeCTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e B Pocc"OiCKO':; ()JeJlepaLl"": KOHC'''TyLl''OHHo-npa- BOBOOi " "HCT"TyLl"OHanbHbIOi aHan",,: A"cc. ... JlOKTOpa IOP"JI. HaYK. - M., 1998. C. 290; KOM- MeHTap"Oi K ()JeJlepanbHoMY 38KOHY -06 06lll"x np"HLI"nax opraH"38L1"" MeCTHoro caMoynpaB- neH"" B Pocc,,':;cKOOi WeJlepaLl""". C. 215; neWJ<H JI.H. MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBo: CxeMbi " KOM- MeHTap"": Y"e6. noc06"e. C. 243. 369 113MaiinoBa E. B. IOp"JI""eCK,,e MexaH"3MbI "HCT"TyTa OTBBTCTBeHHOCT" B C"CTBMe MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBneH"R A"ccepTaLl" Ha CO"CKaH"e y"eHoOi CTeneH" KaHA".aaTa IOp"Jl""eCK"X HaYK. - M., 2003. C. 114. 370 lIepHorop H. H. IOpJIIAJII"'IeCKafl OTBeTCTseHHOCTb opraHOB ..., AOI1>KHOCTHbiX I1J11lt MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH"" (BonpOCbl Teop",,): ABTope<jJ. JI"CC. .'. KBHJI. IOp01Jl. HaYK. - M., 1999. C. 9; 'IePHo- rop H.H. np06neMbi npaBoBoo OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" rocy.aapcTBa, ero opraHOB" cnY"'8l11"x: "Kpyr- nbiOi cTOn-11 rocYJlapCTSO" npaBo. 2000. N2 3. C. 23-25. 371 ca6ue8 B.I1. YKa3. CD". C. 163. 372113MaiinOBa EB. IOp"JI",ecK"e MexaH"3MbI "HCT"TyTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B C"CTeMe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH": A"cc. ... KaHA. IOp01JI. HaYK. - M., 2003. C. 118. 373 WyrpuHa E.C. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO: Y"e6H"K. - M.: Aello. 1999. C. 296. 374 TaM "'e. C. 295. 375 'IeOOTapeB f.H. COOTHoweH"e KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBOOi "MYH"LI"nanbHo-npaBOBOOi OTBeT- CTBeHHOCT" B c"CTeMe MeCTHoro caMoynpa8neH" /I PoCC"OiCK"Oi IOp01J\01'eCK"Oi "'ypHan. 2002 No 4. C 37-41 376 TaM ",e. C. 293. 377 MOKee8 M.M. KOHCTJIITYL\1010HHo-npaeoBafi OTseTCTseHHOCTb opraHoB JII A01l>KHOCTHblX.I1J11LJ. MeCT- HorO caMOynpaBneH01: A"cc. ... KaHA. IOp01Jl... HaYK. - CapaToB, 2003. C. 77. 378 KH"3ea C.,lj. KOHCT"TyLl"OHH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MYH"LI"nMbHOM npaBe: BonpOCbl Teop"" " npaKT"K" II >KypHan POCC"':;CKoro npaBa. 2005. No 6. C. 84. 379 BaraHOBa H.A I-1HCT"TyT OT"blBa Bbl60pHblX Il"LI MecTHoro caMoynpaBneH": ABTOpe<jJ. JI"CC... KaHJI. IOP"JI. HaYK. - nepMb, 2004. C. 13-14. 360 'Ie60TapeB f.H. YKa3. CO". C. 41. 381 KHR3eB C.,lj. YKa3. CO". C. 82-83. 3B2 WrypHeB AE KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaaOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 38 "a(j"paTenbHble npaSOHapywe- 01"" B POCC"OiCKOO weJlepaLl"'" -l'1pKYTCK, 2004. C 101. 383 KHR3eB C.,lj. YKa3. CO". C. 82-84. 384 BRTK"H ,lj.<I>. npaBOBbie np06neMbi onpeJleneH"" CTaTyCa " KOMneTeHLI"" MYH"LI"nanbHblX 06- pa30BaH"Oi " opraHOB MeCTHCJrO caMOynpaBneH": ABTOpe<jJ. JI"CC. ... KaHA. IOp01Jl. HaYK. - EKB- Tep"H6ypr, 2005. C. II. 
3B5 POMaHOB AH. np06neMbi 3aKOHo.<\aTenbHoro peryn"poBaH"" MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" B POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"": ABTope<jJ. JI"CC. ... KaHJI.lOpUJI. Hayo. - EKaTep"H6ypr, 2003. C. 17. 386 CM.: nocTaHooneH"e KOHCT"TyLl"OHHoro Cma pw "nO Jleny 0 npOBepKe KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOCT" oTJlenbHbIX nOI1O",eH"':; ()JeJlepanbHoro 3aKOHa "06 06111"x np"HLI"nax opraH"38L1"" 38KOH0A3- TBIlbHbIX (npeJlCTaB"TBIlbHblX) " "cnonH"TenbHbIX opraHOB rocyp,apcTBeHHoOi BnaCT" Cy6bBKTOB POCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl""" B CB"3" C 3anpocaM" rOCYA3pCTBBHHoro C06paH"" (l'ill TYM3H) Pec- ny6n"K" Caxa (5IKyr") "COBeTa Pecny6n"K" rOCYA3peTBeHHoro COBeTa - XaC3 Pecny6n"K" A/!,blre""oT4 anpen" 2002 r. N2 8-n II C3 P<I>. 2002. N2 15. CT. 1497. 387 CM.: Oco60e MHeH"e CYJlb" KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOro CYA3 POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"" H.B. B"TpYKa no .<\eny 0 npoBepxe KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOcm OTJlenbHbIX nono",eH"Oi 3aKOHa KpaCHo"pCKoro KpaR a no- PH,D.Ke OT3b1Ba ,lJ,enyraTa npeACTaBJIITeJ1bHorO opraHa MeCTHorQ caMoynpaBJ1eHLllfl lt JII 3aKOHa Ko- pIIKCKoro aBTOHoMHoro OKpyra..O nOp"JIKe OT3b1Ba .<\enyraTa npeJlCTaB"TBIlbHOro opraHa MeCTHO- ro caMoynpaBneH", BbIOOpHoro Jlon"'HOCTHoro n"Lla MeCTHoro caMoynpaBlleH"" B KOpllKCKOM aBTOHOMHOM oxpyre" II C3 PW. 2002. N2 14. CT. 1374. 388 npJ1 60Jlee rl1y6oKoM aHa1U13€ MO>KHO BblflBJIITb HeKOTopble pa311J11"'1Io1 B nOHflHtflX KOHCTJIITYL.J.JII- OHHafl OTBeTCT8eHHOCTb, "KOHCTLilTYlI,L-tOHHo-npaBOBafl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb», "OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B KOHCTJIITYlI.JIIOHHOM npaBe. 389 AKryanbHble np06neMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01: 0630P Hay"HOOi KOH<jJe- peHLI"" II rocy.<\apCTBO" npaBo. 2002. N2 2. 390 fl}"iUH B 0 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MexaH"3Me pean"3aLl"" KOHCT"TyLl"" I npaBO ""'''3Hb. 1992 No I; KpaBeLlI'i A. WOpM"poBBH"e pOCc"':;CKoro KOHCT"TyLl"oHHoro KOHCT"TyLl"oHan"3Ma (npo- 6neMbi Teop"" " npaoT"K"). - MocKBa-HoBoc,,6"pCK, 2002. 391 K03noBa £.11., KyratPUH O.E. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOe npaBO POCC"": Y"eOO"K. 3-e "3J1., nepepa6. " Jlon. - M., 2002.; KonocoBa H.M. KOHCT"TYLI"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCC"OiCKO':; ()JeJlepa- LI"": OTBeTcTBeHHocTb opraHOB rocYA3pcTBeHHo':; BnaCT" " "HbiX cy6beKTOB npaBa 3a Hapywe- H"e KOHCT"TYLI"OHHorO 3aKOHOJlaTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKO':; weJlepaLl"". - M.: rOpoJlel\. 2000; Mo- KeeB M.M. KOHCT"TYLIOHHo-npaBoBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHoB "JlOn"'HOCTHblX n"LI MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH": A"cc. ... KaHJI. IOpHJI. Hayo. - CapaTOB, 2003; WOH,Q. T. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" OT- BeTcTBeHHocTbl1 rOCYJlapCTBO" npaso. 1995. NQ 7. 392 neiiCT 0.3. CaHKLI"" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no cOBeTcKoMY npaBY. C. 218-223. 393 ABaKb"H C.A. np06neMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOSOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" (no MaTep"anBM KOH- <jJepeHLI"" Ha IOpHJI,,"eCKOM <jJaKynbTeTa Mrv). C. 125; WOH,Q. T. YKa3. pa6. C. 36-37. 394 3paJKeBCKaR T.,Q. np06nBMbI npaBOBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" rocYJlapcTBa, ero opraHOB " CIlY>Ka- lII"X: "Kpyrnbli1 CTon. "'YpHMa -rocy.<\apCTBo" npaBo.11 rocy.<\apcTBo" npaBo. 2000. N2 3. C. 26. 395 B"'Horpa,n,OB B.A np06neMbl oxpaHbl (38l11"TbI) KOHCT"TYLI"" POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"" " 0001- CT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOe" MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBo. 2003. No I. C. 2. 396 neSf.fH B.C1.>., nMnHneHKO C.r. CooTHOWeHJlle K8TerOpJ.1t1 «OTBerCTBeHHOCTblt JII «KOHCTJIITYlI.Io10H- Ha" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb" B IOp"JI",eCKOOi xapaKTep"CT"Ke MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" II KOHCT"- TyLI"OHHO-npaBoBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: npo6neMbi Pocc"", onbiT 3apy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 382. 397 fOHapOB 11.8. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb OprBHOB rOCYJIBPCTBeHHOOi BnBe- T" Cy6bBKTOB POCC"OiCKO':; we.<\epaLl"'" - M.: AKBJ\eM"" ynpaBneH" MBll Pocc"", 2002. C. 7. 398 earnaii M.B. KOHCT"TyLI01OHHOB npaBO POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"'" - M., 1977. C. 31. 3paJKeBCKBR T.,Q. np06neMbi npaBoBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" rocYJIBPCTBa, ero opraHoB " cny>Kalll"x: "KpyrnbiOi CTon. "'YpHana ..rOCYJlapeTBo" npaBo- II rocy.<\apcTso" npaBO. 2000. N2 3. C. 26. 399 B"'HOrpa,JJ,OB B.A np06neMbl oxpaHbl (38l11"TbI) KOHCT"TyLl"" POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"" " KOH- CT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOe" MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. 2003. No I. C. 2. 400 K03fioea E.11., KyratP"'H O.E. KoHCT"TyLl"OHHOe npaBO POCC"": Y"e6H"K. - 3-e "3J1., nepepa6. "Jlon. - M., 2002. C. 43; 46. 401 TaM "'e. C. 63. 402 TaM "'e. C. 48. 403 KonOCOBB H. M. YK83. CO". C. 110. 404 BUHOrpa,n,OB B.A. np06neMbl oxpaHbl (3alll"TbI) KoHCT"TyLl"" PoCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"" " KOH- L!"\ CT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II KoHCT"TyLl"OHHOB " MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo. 2003. \ ' 0 No I. C. 2. " - 
405 KonocoBa H.M. YKa3. CO". C. 103. 406 B"HOrpaljOB B.A np06neMbi oxpaHbI (38l11"TbI) KOHCT"TyLl"" POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"" " KOH- CT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHoe" MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. 2003. No 1. C. 2. 407 n"nHUHcK"j;j p'.A. Peryn"T"BHa" <jJYHKLI" KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II KOHCT"TyLl"- OHHoe " MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. 2003. No 4. C. 21. 40B AKTyanbHble npOOneMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBoBoOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": oroop Hay"HoOi KoH<jJe- peHLI"" /I rocy.<\apcTBo" npaBo. 2002. N. 2. C. 115. 409 TaM "'e. 410 TaM "'e. 411 TaM ",e. 412 np06neMbl KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" (no MaTep"anaM KOH<PepeHLI"" Ha IOp"JI",eCKOM <jJaxynbTeTe) /I BecTH"K MfY. Cep" 11. npaBo. 2001. N. 3. C. 124. 413 CepreeB AA nproneMbl KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B C"CTeMe MeCTHorO caMoynpaBneH" II KoHCT"TyLl"OHHO-npaBOBa>I OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi POCC"", onbiT 3a- py6B>KHbIX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A ABaKbHa. C 360. 414 YBBpoo AA 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH" II KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npa- BOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi Pocc"", onbiT 38py6e"'HbIX crpaH I nOJl peJ\. C.A. ABaKbHa. C. 366-367. 415 nUCKOT"H M.I1. nOn"T,,"eCKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb paOOTH"Ka annapaTa rocy.<\apCTBeHHOrO yn- paBneH" B cOLl"an"CT,,"eCK"X CTpaHax IlllOKnBJ\ Ha Me>KJ\YHapOJIHOI' Hay"HoOi KOH<PepeHLI"": .QTBeTcTBeHHocTb COTIJYJlH"Ka rOCYA3PcTBeHHoOi BJlM"H"CTpaLl""'. - BapwaBa. 1975. 416 C06POBB H.A. 3pa;KeBCKB T.p'. YKa3. CO". C. 84. 417 KOJIIXoea H.M. YKa3. C. C. 21. 41B KpaBeLlI1.A WopM"pOBaH"e POCC"OiCKOro KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOro KOHCT"TYLI"oHan"3Ma (nprone- Mbi Teop""" npaKT"K"). - MocKBa-HoBoc"6,,pCK, 2002. C. 257-258. 419 KpaBeLlI1.A. WOpM"pOBaH01e pocc"i1CKoro KOHCT"TYLI"OHan"3Ma (np06neMbi Teop"" "npaKT"- K"). C. 259. CM. TaK>Ke: HeCMeRHOBB C.O. K sonpocy 0 KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOi1 OTBeTCTBeHHocm /I KOHCT"TyLl"OHHoe " MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo. 2002. No 4. C. 20. 420 BUHOrpa,l10B B.A. OCHOBaH"e KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" 113aKoH0A3Tenb- CTBO: npaBO JII1 6"aHeca. 2003. N. 2. C. 55. 421 Konocoea H. M. YKB3. CO". C. 16, 21. 422 CepreeB AA KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCC"i1CKOi1 weJlepaLl"" /I KOHCT"TyLl"OH- Hoe" MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo. 2002. N. 4. C. 23-24. 423 BUHOrpa,l10B B.A. nproneMbi OXpaHbI (38l11"TbI) KOHCT"TyLl"" POCC"iiiCKOiii ()JeJlepaLl"" " KOH- CT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOe" MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo. 2003. No I. C. 3. 424 ny"UH 8.0. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B MeXaH"3Me pean"38L1"" KOHCT"TyLl"" II npaBO" >K013Hb. 1992. No I. C. 34. 425 BUHorpa.a,oe B.A YKBa. CO". C. 4. 426 TaM "'e. C. 3. 427 fOH'apOB 11.8. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHble OCHOBbl <jJeJlepanbHoro BMewaTenbCTBa np" aalll"Te OCHOB- HbiX npaB " CBOOOJl "enOBeKa " rpB>KJ\aH"Ha B Cy6bBKTaK POCC"OiCKOi1 WeJlepaLl"": ABTope..,. JI"CC. ... JlOKTOpa IOP"JI. HaYK. - M.. 2004. C. 20 428 YMHoea I1.A KOHCT"TYLI"OHHble OCHOBbi COBpeMeHHoro pOCC"OiCKoro <PeJlePM"aMa. - M., 1998. C. 218-221; A...-.p6eKOB K.I1. IOp01J\01"ecKa" 38l11"Ta MeCTHOro caMoynpaBneH"" " OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb ero opraHoB "JlOIl>KHOCTHbIX n"LI: A"cc. ... KaHA.lOp01J1. HaYK. - M., 2001. C. 30-47. 429 AMup6eKOB KI1. YKa3. CO,. C. 8-9. 430 TaM "'e. C. 30. 431 TaM "'e. C. 8-9; 47. 4321'1MeHHO TaxylO xapaKTep"cT"XY .<\aeT M.p'. W"'IARnUHa KOHCT"TYLI"OHHOi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". CM.: W"'IARnUHB M.p'. CTBJ\"" IOp"JI,,"eCKoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": Y"e6. nocro"e. - M.: KH""'Hbli1 M"p, 1998. C. 23. 433 AMup6eKOB KI1. YKa3. C. C. 48. \.0 \.0 - 
434 TaM "'e. C. 8-9. 435 CMeWeHJlle 3ntX BJ1eHJII npJIIBOAJIIT K TOMY. "'ITO npOJIICxo.o.JIIT nQJJ.MeHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJII 3a He- HBJIIle"'alilee OCYLI\eCTBneH"e BnacT" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO 3a npaBOHapyweH"e. AaHHa TeHJIBH- UHfI OT'-leTI1J11BO npOflBImeTCs:lB 3aKOHo.o.aTeJ1bCTSe JII MYHLllLl.lo1nanbHblX HOpMaTJIIBHo-npaeOBbiX aK- Tax, KorAa e.a,LIIHCTBeHHbIM OCHOBaHJlleM OT3b183 AenyraTa npe,ACTaSLIITel1bHOrO opraHa MeCTHOrO caMoynpaBneH", BbI6opHoro JlOn"'HOCTHoro Il"Lla MBCTHOro CaMoynpaBneH" CTaHOB"TC TonbKO COBepweH"e 3T"M cy6beKTOM npaBoHapyweH"R B pe3ynbTaTe HaceneH"e MYH"LI"nanb- HarO 06pa30BaHJllflI1L11WaeTC B03MO>KHOCTJII HenOCpe.a,CTBeHHO BJ1J11f1Tb Ha n0110>KeHJlle Ae11 B MY- H"LI"nanbHOM 06p830BaH"" B CnY"Be HeJl06poCOBeCTHoro, He3<J1<PeKT"BHoro OCYllleCTBneH" BJ18CTHbiX nOJ1HOMO"'lJllf1 opraHaMJII JII.o.omKHOCTHblMJIII1J11lt8MLII MeCTHoro caMoynpaSl1eHJllfI. 436 JleiiCTO.3. CaHKLI""" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb no COBeTCKOMY npaBY. - M., 1981. C. 218-223. 437 Wyrp>lHa EC. YKa3. CO". C. 295. 43B TepM"H npOLleccyanbHblo; pe"'''M" B Hay"Hbli1 OoopOT Boon M.A. nepnOB (nepnoB M.A. npo- LleccyanbHblo; pe"'''M paCCMOTpeH" yronoBHblX Jlen Ha nneHYMaK BepxOBHblx CYJlOB II COBeT- CKoe rOCYJlapeTBO" npaBo. 1972. N!! 1. C 101-108). 439 MYH"LI"nMbHoe npaBO POCC"": Y"e6H"K JIll" BY30B I nOJl peJl. npo<jJ. A.C. npYJIH"KOBa, npo..,. A.M. H"K"T"Ha. C. 271 440 AKTyanbHble npOOneMbi KOHCT"TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBOo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0630P Hay"Hoo; KOH<jJe- peHLI""11 rocyp,apCTBO" npaBO. 2002. N. 2. C. 115. 441 AB,l1eeHKOBB M.. AMuTp>leB 10. KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBoBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B Pocc"" I no Ma- Tep"anaM CaHTa hit: www.ydmilrier.ru/txl/OO07.htm. 442 AKT'fBnbHble np06neMbl KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBosoi1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 06aop Hay"HOo; KoH<jJe- peHLI""11 rocy.<\apCTBO" npaBo. 2002. N. 2. C. 115. 443 M.A. WUHJJ,Rn"'HB comaCHO OTpacneBoi1 KIlacc"<jJ01KaLl"" IOp"JI,,"eCKOo; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" BbI- Ael1f1er KOHCTLIITYUYlOHHbIf1, rpIDK"lJ,aHCKJllf1, TPYAoBOC" a.D,MJIIHJIICTpantBHblC1 JII yr0110BH npOltecc. CM.: WUHJJ,RnuHB M.A. YKB3. c. C. SO. 444 Teop,, IOp"JI,,"eCKoro npoLleccal nOJl peJl. B.M. fopweHeea. - XapbKOB. 1985. C. 153. 445 WUHJJ,Rn"'Ha M.A. YKa3 CO". C. 51. 446 TaM ",e. C. 52. 447 nOJlP06Hee 0 np"HLI"nax ,,36"paTenbHoro npaBa CM.: 1136upaTenbHDe npaso" O136"paTenbHbli1 npOLlBCC B POCC"o;CKOo; weJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"K JIIl BY30B I OrB. peJl. A.A. BeWHKOB. C. 23, 33-43. 448I-1cKIlIO'eH01e COCTaBnReT rpa>KJl8HCKO-npaBoB OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. rpB>KJ\aHCKOe npaBo pery- I1J11pyeT OTHOWeHJllfi paBHonpasHblx JII He3aBJIICLIIMbiX TOBapOBJ1a.£J,ellbLles, B KOTOpblX HapyweHJlle 06aaHHocTeo; OJIH"M y"acTH"KOM Bcer.<\a Bne'eT aa co600; HapyweH"e npaB JlPYroro, y"acTH"- Ka. TaKa" B38"MHa CB"3aHHOCTb y"aCTH"KOB rpa>KJl8HcKoro roopoTa "MeeT CneJlCTB"eM TO no- 110>KeHJlle, "'ITO rpHCKo-npaBOBafi OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Bl1s:1eTCS1 OTBeTCT6eHHocTbtO O.D.Horo KOHTpareHTa nepeJl Jlpyr"M, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO Hapyw"Ten nepeJl nOTepneBw"M. noaTOMY JIIMyw.eCTBeHHble C8HKL.J.LIILII, B03.naraeMbie H8 npaBOHapYWJIITeJ1, 3.a,eCb B3bICKJIIBatOTGS:I B n0J1b3Y nOTepneBwei1 CTOpOHbI. npeJlYCMOTpeHHble rpa>KJl8HCK"M 3aKOHOM cny"a" B3b1CKaH"" "MYllle- CTBeHHbIX caHKLI"O; B JlOXOJl rOCYJlapCTBa (B "aCTHOCT", CT. 169 rK PW) CB"3BHbI C oc060 anoCT- HbiM HapyweHJlleM ny6.nw-IHblx LIIHTepecoB JII npe.a,cTaBJ1f1IOT c060Ci JIICKJUO\jeHLlle, He xapaKTepHoe JIIl rpB>KJ\aHCKO-npaBOBoro ("aCTHonpaBoBoro) peryn"poBaH"". TaKOe npeJlCTaBneH"e 0 np"- poJle rpa>KJ\aHCKO-npaBOBOO; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT", W"POKO pacnpOCTpaHeHHOB B HaYKe "rpB>KJ\aH- CKoe npaBO-, He MewaeT, OJIHaKO, ee npeJlCTaB"TenM onpeJ\Bn"Tb rpB>KJ\BHCKO-npaBOByIO OT- BeTCTBeHHOCTb KaK OAHY J113 <PoPM rocy.o.apcTBeHHoro npLIIH}f)I<AeHJllfI, COCTOflUJ.YIO 80 B3b1CKaHLllJII CYJlOM C npaBOHapyw"Ten" B nOnb3\! nOTepneBwero "MYllleCTBeHHblX CaHKLI"o;, nepenaralOlII"X H8 npaBOHapywJ.1Tells:l HeSblrO)J,Hble J.1MylJ.tecTseHHbIe nOCl1e.a,CTBLilfI ero noeeAeHJIIs:I LII HanpaBJ1eH- HbiX Ha BOCCTaHOBneH"e HapyweHHoo; "MYllleCTBeHHOO; c<jJepbl noTepneBwero (CM.: fpa>KJ\aH- eKOe npaBO: Y,eOO"K I OrB. peJl. npo<jJ. E.A. CyxaHOB. C. 431 ). 449CM.: 686u"eBB.I1. YKa3. cO'. C. 162-163. 450 H.A. EMenbRHOB " T. C. EMeflbRHOBB paCCMaTp"BaIOT Bce B"JIbi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" opraHOB " AOll>KHOCTHbiX I1J11lt MeCTHoro caMoynpasl1eHVlfI nepe.a, HaCeJ1eHlo1eM, rOCYAapCTBOM, Q>JII3V1"'1eCKJII- MJII JII IOpIo1J],VI\jeCKJIIMJllIIJIIltaMlo1 KaK KOHCTJIITylJ,VlOHHo-npaeOByK) OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb_ npJII 3TOM B K8- 'eCTBe <jJOpM OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" JlOn"'HOCTHbIX n"LI nepeJl rOCYJlapeTBOM BblJlenIOT yronoBHYlO, BAM"H"CTpaT"BHyIO " JI"CLI"nn"HapHYIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb (EMenbRHOB H.A., EMenb"HOea T. C. MeCTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e B POCC"o;CKOo; weJlepaLl"": Kypc neKLI"o;. - M., 2001. C. 322 " 327). 451 npJII3TOM Cl1e.a,yeT Io1MeTb B BJIIAY, I.jTO He Bee J113 nepe"'lJIICJleHHblX 8.o.08 OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJII B paB- 0100 Mepe Hecyr "HJI"B"JIyanbHble " KonneKT"BHble cy6bBKTbI, B C"1ly pa3n"""0; B "X Jlen"KTO- r--- \0 - 
cnoco6HOCTLil. TaK, HanpJIIMep, cy6beKTOM yrol1oBHof1 OTBeTCTBeHHOCH1 8 COOTBeTCTBlo1101 C AeCi- CTBytOl..LI.JIIM yrO.nOBHblM 3aKOHOM MOryr 6b1Tb TOl1bKO .a,OmKHOCTHble IlJllu,a MeCTHoro caMoynpae.ne- HJllfI, HO He KOI1J1erLllanbHble opraHbI. 452 KOMMeHTap";:; K WeJlepanbHOMY 3aKOHY ..06 06111"x np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH" B PoCC"OiCKOOi weJlepaLl""-1 nOJl peJl.IO. A. T"XoM"poBa. - M., 1997. C. 218. 453 686"'eB B.I1. YKa3. C. C. 162-163. 454 686U'eB B.I1. YKa3. C. C. 162-163. 455 WyrpUHB EC. YK83. C. C. 293; KonocoBB H.M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B Pocc"Oi- cKoOi WeJlepaLl"": OTBeTcTBeHHocTb OprBHOB rocy.<\apcTBeHHoo BnaCT" " "HbIX cy6beKTOB npaBa 38 HapyweH"e KOHCT01TyLlHOHHOro 3aKOHop,aTenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"'" - M.: ropOJleLl, 2000. C. 55; fipoweHKO AA KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B c"CTeMe MeCTHoro caMoyn- paBneH"" II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi POCC"", onbiT 3apy6e",- HbiX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 388. 456 J1eSf.fH B.C1.>., nMnMneHKO C.r. COOTHOWeHJlle K8TerOpJllt1 «OTseTCTseHHOCTblt 101 «KOHCTJIITYUIo10H- Hafl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb n B tOpH,AJIIl.jecKoCi xapaKTepJIICTLilKe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJ1eHJIISt 1/ KOHCTJII- TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbl POCC"", onbiT 3apy6e>KHbIX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 381-382; fipoweHKo AA KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B C"CTeMe Me- CTHOro caMoynpaBneH"" II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBoBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi Pocc"", onbiT 38py6e"'Hblx CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 388. 457 MyH01tjW>8nbHOO npaso Pocc"..cKOOi WeJlepaLl"": Y"e6H"KJIIl" BY3QB I nOJl peJl. nlJO<!>. H.C. 6oH,D,a- p". C. 531. CM. TaK>Ke: CepreeB AA npOOneMbi KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npaSOBOOi OTBeTCTBBHHocm B C,,- CTeMe MecTHOro caMOynpaBlleH"" II KOHCmTyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb: npOOneMbi PoC- C"". onbiT 38PYOO"'HbIX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 359-360. 458 MOKeeB M. M. KOHCTJIITYUIo10HHO-npaBooafl OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB JII AOll>KHOCTHbiX I1Io1U MeCT- HOro caMoynpaBneH": l101cc. ... KaHA. IOp"JI. HaYK. - CapaTOB, 2003. C. 77. 459 EMenbRHOB H.A.. EMenbRHOBB r.c. MeCTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e B POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"'" Kypc neKLI"". - M., 2001. C. 322; 327. 460 MYH"LI"nanbHOB npaBo: Y"e6H"K JIIl IOp"JI",eCK"X syaoB I OTB. peJl. A 11. KOBaneHKO. - M.: Ho- BblOi IOp"cT, 1997. C. 164; KOBewH"KoB EM. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. - M.: HOPMA, 2000. C. 235; AMUp6eKOB K. IOp"JI,,"ecKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MyH"LI"nanbHblx 06paaoBaH"Oi " npOKY- popeK"Oi HBJ\30p II npaBO " "'''3Hb. 2000. N2 31. C. 12. 461 KOBewH"KOB EM. MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. C. 235. 462 AA1I1pOOKOB K. IOp"JI""ecK OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb MyH"LI"nanbHblx O(;P830BaH"Oi " npoxypopcx".. HBJ\30p.11 npaBO" ""'aHb. 2000. N. 31. C. 12. 3aMeT"M, "TO K.I-1. AM"pOOKOB He06ocHOBaHHO orpa- H,,""BaeT (CY"'BeT) COCTaB Cy6beKTOB TaKO" OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". 1'13 Hero <jJaKT,,"eCK" "CKIlaIOTC<I Bbl60pHble A011>KHOCTHbie 1l101u,a MeCTHOro caMoynpaB.netA1f1, KOTopble, Bblpa>Kas:lCb fl3blKOM aBTopa, Hecyr OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb nepeJl roCyp,apcTSOM B n"Lle PYXOBOA01Ten" BblCwero "cnOnH"TenbHoro Op- raHa rOCYA3PCTBeHHOOi BnaCm cy6beKTa POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"" (,. 3 CT. 49 WeJlepMbHOro 38KO- Ha -06 06l11"x np"HLI"nax OpraH"38L1"" MeCTHCJrO caMoynpaBneH"" B POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlBpaLl"". OT 28 BBrycTa 1995 r. C "3MBHe",,"M" OT 4 aBrycTa 2000 r.; CT. 74 3aKOHa OT 6 OKT"6p" 2003 r.). 463 KpaCHOB M.A. npo6nBMa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" B MeCTHOM caMoynpaBneH"" /I MeCTHoe caMoyn- paBneH"e: CoBpeMeHHbIi1 POCC"OiCK"Oi onblT 38KOHo.<\aTBIlbHorO peryn"poBaH. Y"e6. noco6"e I nOJlpeJl. K.w. WepBMeTa, 1-1.1-1. OB""HH"KOBa. - M., 1998. C. 194. 464 KpacHoB M.A YK83. CO". C. 194. 465 TaM "'e. C.188-189. 466 AMUp6eKOB K.I1. IOp"JI",ecKa" aalll"Ta MeCTHoro caMoynpaBlleH" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ero op- raHOB" JIOn>KHOCTHbiX n"LI: A"cc. ... KaHA. IOp"JI. HaYK. C. 30. 467 KpaCHOB M.A YKa3. CO". C. 194. 468 EMe/lbRHOB H.A MeCTHOB caMoynpaBneH"e: np06neMbI, no"cK01, peWeH"". - MocKBa- TYlla, 1997. C.439. 469 fopO)/(BHUH B.A. npo6neMbi npaBOBoro cTaryca opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" B Pocc"Oi- CKoOi ()JeJlepaLl"" II MaTep"anbi 35-Oi Me>KJ\YHapOJIHoOi Hay"HOOi CTYJleH,eCKOOi KOH<jJepeHLI"" «CTyJleHT" Hay"HO-TeKH,,"eCK"Oi nporpecc..: YnpaBneH"e. rocyp,apeTBO" npaBO. - HOBOC,,6"pCK, 1997. C. 108 470 KOMMeHTap";:; K WeJlepanbHOMY 38KOHY ..06 06111"x np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH" B POCC"OiCKOOi We.<\epaLl""'" C. 74. co \0 - 
471 J1eBt1H B.C1.>., nWJHneHKO c.r. CooTHoweHLlle KaTeropLilCi ((OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb» LII ((KOHCTJIITYLl.Io1OH- Ha" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb' B IOp"JI",eCKOOi xapaKTep"CmKe MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH" II KOHCT"- TyLl"OHHo-npaBOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi POCC"". onbiT 3apy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 382. 472 AMUpOOKOB K.I1. IOp01Jl"'ecKa 3all\01Ta MeCTHoro caMoynpaBlleH" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ero op- raHOB "JlOn>KHOCTHbiX n"LI: A"cc. . . KaHA. IOp01Jl Hay. C. 108. 473 KonOCOBa H.M. KOHCT"TyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCC"OiCKOOi ()JeJlepaLl"": OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb oprBHOB rocyp,apCTBeHHOOi BnaCT" " "HbiX cy6beKToB npaBa 3a HapyweH"e KOHCT"TyLl"OH- HorO 3aKOH0A3TenbCTBa POCC"OiCKOOi ()JellepaLl"". - M.: rOpOJleLl, 2000. C. 8. 474 AMUpOOKOB K.I1. IOp"JI"'ecKa 3alll"Ta MeCTHoro caMoynpaBlleH" " OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ero op- raHOB" JlOn>KHOCTHbiX n"LI: A"cc. ... KaHA. IOp01Jl. Hay.. C. 108. 475 AeaKbRH C.A. rocy.o.apCTBeHHo-npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II CoseTCKoe rOCYJlapCTBO " npaBo. 1975. No 10. 476 WOH T..L/. KOHCmTyLl"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II r OC\'llapcTBO" npaso. 1995. No 7. Konocoaa H.M. KOHCTJIITYL.J.1010HHa OTseTCTBeHHOCTb - caMocToflTellbHbI SJIIA IOplo1J],...ecKo OTBeTCTBeHHOCTJII /I rocy.aapcTBo" npaBO. 1997. N!! 2. 477 AKTyMbHble npo6neMbi KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBOBOOi OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0030P Hay"HOOi KOH<jJe- peHLI"" /I rocyp,aPCTBO" npaBO. 2002. N!! 2. C. 115. 478 TaM ",e C.115. 479 KpaCHOB M.A. YKa3. CO". C 194. 480 AMUp6eKOB K. IOp01Jl",ecKa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MYH"LI"nBllbHblX OOpa30BaH"Oi " npoxypopcK"Oi HBJ\30P II npaBO" "'''3Hb. 2001, N!! 31. C. 12. 481 YeapoB AA 06 OTBeTCTBeHHocm oprBHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBnBH"" II KOHCT"TyLl"oHHO-npa- BOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbl Pocc"", onbiT 3apy6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABa'b"Ha. C.369. 482 YeapOB AA YKa3. CO". C. 369. 483 ABaKbRH C.A AKTyBllbHbIB np06neMbi KOHCT"TyLI"OHHo-npaBOBO" OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": 0630p Ha- y"HoOi KOH<jJepeHLI""11 rOCYllapcTBO" npaBo. 2002. N!! 2. C. 120. 484 AMUpOOKOB K. IOp01Jl"'ecKa,, OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb MYH"LI"nBllbHblX oopa30BaH"Oi " npOXYPopcK"Oi HBJ\30P II npaBO" "'''3Hb. 2001. N!! 31. C. 12. 485 CM. nOJlP06Hee: .L/"ffiTKOBCKU" M.ID. np06neMbi HBJ\eneH"" opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBne- H" OTJlenbHblM" rocYJlapCTBeHHblM" nonHOMO",,"M": A"cc. ... KaHA. IOp01Jl. Hay.. - EKaTep"H- 6ypr, 2001. 486 Hay"Ho-npBKm'eCK"" KOMMeHTap"Oi K KOHCT"TyLI"" Pocc""cKoOi weJlepaLl"" I nOJl. peJl. B.B.lla- 38peBa. - M., 1997. C. 565. 487 TaM "'e. C. 566. 488 YsapOB AA 06 OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" oprBHOB MeCTHoro CBMoynpaBnBH"" II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npa- BOBa" OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: np06neMbi Pocc"", onbiT 3apy6e"'HbIX CTpaH I nOJl peJl. C.A. ABaKb"Ha. C. 369-370. 489 KpaCHOB M.A. YKa3. CO". C. 194. 490 CornaCHO CT. 16" 1 069 rK P<I> ytiblTK" "n" BpeJl, np"""HBHHble rpa>KJ\BH"HY WI" IOp"JI",eCKO- MY n"LlY B pe3ynbTaTe HB3BKOHHbIX JleOiCTB"Oi (OO3J1e"CTB"") opraHOB MeCTHoro caMoynpaBne- HIo1 11J1160 A011>f(HOCTHbIX I1J11L.J. 3TX opraHOB, B TOM ...LIIClle 8 pe3Y11bTaTe 3AaHfI HeCOOTBeTCTsylO- l..LI.ero 3aKOHY J1111J11 JIIHOMY npaBOBOMY aKTY aKTa opraHa MeCTHoro caMoynpaBl1eHJII, n(),(l)le>KaT B03MellleH"1O 3a C"eT K83HbI MYH"LI"nanbHOro oopa30BaH"R Tpe60BaH"e 0 B03MellleH"" y6b1T- KOB "n" Bpella, np"""HeHHblX B c<jJepe ynpaBneH", npeJlb"BneT <I>"3,,"eCKOB "n" IOp"JI",ec- Koe n"LlO, npaBa KOTOpOro HapyweHbI. B CYJl OOlileOi IOP"Cj\01KLI"" "n" B ap6"TpaJKHblOi CYJl no nOJlBeJlOMCTBeHHOCT". AaHHbIB Tpe60BaH" "BI1<IIOTC rpaJKJ\BHCKO-npaBOBbIM" " np" "X pac- CMOTpeH"" np"MeH"IOTC" COOTBeTCTBYIOLlj"e HOpMbI rK PW. Aena no TBK"M Tpe60BaH"M OTHe- ceHbI K llenaM B c<jJepe ynpaBneH". 491 SnacTb. 1995. N!! 10. C. 37. 492 fpaJl<Jl,aHCKOB npaso: Y'e6H"K I OTB peJl. npo<jJ. EA CyxaHOB. C. 430. 493 :aTO weT OCHOBaHLile LIIHorAa He BnOI1He TO"lHO Ha3b1BaTb rpa>K,lJ,aHCKo-npaBOBYIO OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb 3KOHOMJII"'IecKof1. B HeOTOpbIX topHJU1"'1eCKX pa60Tax nOHTJllIO ((3KOHOMJII"'eCKa OTB€TCT- BeHHOCTb» nblTanJIICb TalOK€ npLII.JlaTb OCo6bl CMbICn aK CaMOCTQflTe.nbHOCi pa3HOBHOCTJII M- M"H"CTpaT"BHo-npaBOBOOi (ny6n""HO-npaBOBOOi) OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" opraH"aaLl"Oi ( x030pra- 0\ \.0 - 
H08). LotMelOl..LI.eCi LotMylJ.teCTBeHHOe cO.nep>KaHJlle 10111101 Bl1eKyl..Ll.eCi AI1H HJIIX He611arOnpJIISnHble no- CneJlCTB" (WTpa<jJbI, B3"MaeMbie B JlOXOJl rOCYJlBPCTBa (61OJ\>KeTa), np"HYJI"TenbHa" KoppeKT"- poBKa OT'-leTHbIX ,o.aHHbIX nyreM JIICK11IO"'IeHLotSl J113 HJIIX onpe.nel1eHHbIX cee..a.eHJllf1 0 Bbln011HeHLllJII 38- 11301"':;, YMeHbweH"e 61OA>KeTHoro <jJ"HaHc"pOBaH" " T.n.). TaKO':; nOJ\XOJl, xapaKTepHblH JIIl npe.a,CTaBLIITeI1eCi KOHLl.em..tu1 «X03f1J1CTBeHHoro npaBa» JII HeKOTopblX JIIX COBpeMeHHblX nOCJ1e.a,o- BaTel1ef1, TepfieT CMblCJ1 B YC110BLotSlX pblHO'-IHOf1 3KOHOMJIIKJII. 4941-13 3Toro OOlilero npaB"na "MeIOTC" OTJlBIlbHble "CKIlIO"eH", CB"3aHHbIB C S03MO"'HOCTblO YBe- n"'eH" paaMepa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" (Hanp"Mep, np" B03MellleH"" BHeJlOrOBopHoro BpeAa B CO- OTBeTCTB"" C a63. 3 n. 1 CT. 1064 rK PW) n,,60 ero orpaH""eH" (npMO YCTaHOBneHHble 38KO- HQM Ha OCHOBaH"" npaB"na n. 1 CT. 400 rK PW). 001" OOb"CH"IOTC" CT"Myn"PYlOlileH HanpaBneH- HOCTblO rpa>KJ\aHCKo-npaBOBoro peryn"poBaH". KOTopoe, no OOlileMY npaB"ny pernaMeHT" HOpMaJlbHbI€ 3KOHOMJIII.jeCKLile OTHoweHLllfI, npJll3BaHO, npe>KJJ,e Bcero, n06}')KAaTb Y"'IaCTHLilKOB "MYLI\eCTBeHHoro 060pOTa K JlO6pOCOBBCTHOMY BbinonHeH"1O CBO"X 063aHHOCTeH. 495 new"H H.JI. MYH"LI"nanbHa <jJ"HaHCOBa" C"CTeMa POCC"':;CKOH WellepaLl"": Hay"Ho-npaKT"- 'eCKoe nocoo"e. - M.: <l:>opMyna npaBa, 2000. C. 97. 496 f paJl<Jl,8HCKOB npaBO: Y"e6H"K I OTB. peJl. npo<!>. E.A. CyxaHOB. C. 430-431. 497 HapMY C aT"M rpB>KJ\aHCKo-npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb BbinOnH"eT TaK>Ke cmMYIl"PYlOlI\YlO (op- raH"3aLlOHHYIO) <!JYHKLI"IO, nOCKonbKY n06Y>KJ\aer y"aCTH"KOB rpa>KJ\aHCK"X npaBOOTHoweH"H K HBJIIle",allleMY noBeJleH"IO, " npeJlynpeJ\01TenbHO-Bocn"TaTenbHYIO (npeBeHT"BHYIO) <J>YHKLI"IO (CM., Hanp"Mep, n. 2 CT. 1065 rK P<I». KpoMe Toro, OHa, KaK" BCKa IOp"J\01'eCKa OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb, OCYLl\eCTB""eT WTpa<jJHyIO (HaKaaaTenbHyIO) <jJYHKLI"1O B OTHoweH"" npaBOHapyw"TeneH. 498 np"MepaM" TaK"X He3aKOHHbIX 8I<TOB BnaCT" MOryT 6blTb peweH" 0 n"weH"" rpB>KJ\BH"Ha "n" OpraHJII3aLl.Lot npaea nOI1b30BaTbCfI 3eMeI1bHblM Y"'IacTKOM, 0 CHoce CTpoeHJII. 06 J113bflTJIIJII KaKO- rO-Il60 LotMylJ.teCTBa LII T.n., KpoMe Toro. aTO MOryT 6blTb <J>aKTJII"'IeCKe .nef1cTBJII. HanpaBl1eHHble H8 peaJIJll3aUYIto npJIIHflTbiX peWeHJllf1. 499 KYH An. npOT"BonpaBHOCTb" B"Ha B 05"38TenbCTBax no BoaMellleH"1O BpeJla, np"""HBHHOro rpa>KJ\aH"HyaKTaM" BnaCT" II npaBOBBJleH"e.1984. N2 3. C. 92; ,lI,epeBRro B.M. rOCYJlapCTBeH- HOB ynpaBneH"e " rpa>KJ\aHCKO-npaBOBaR OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb II COB. roc. " npaBo.1985. N21. C.121-131. 500 KOMMeHTBp";:; K weJlepanbHOMY 38KOHY "06 06lll"x np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBneH"" B POCC"HCKOH <l:>eJlepaLl"".1 PyKOBOJl"TBIlb aBTOIJCKoro KonlleKT"Ba " OTBeTCTBeH- HblH peJlaKTop lOA T"XOM"pOB. C. 224. 501 CT. 4, 20" lIP. WBJIepanbHoro 3aKOHa "06 06l1\01x np"HLI"nax opraH"3aLl"" 3aKOH0A3TBIlbHbIX (npeJlCTaB"TenbHbIX) " "cnonH"TellbHbIX opraHOB rocYllapCTBeHHOO BnBCT" cy6beKToB POCC"H- CKOH weJlepaLl"".11 C3 PW. 1999. N!! 42. CT. 5005. 502 a HeKOMMep"eCK"X opraH"3aLl"X: <1:>3 OT 12 "HBap" 1996 r. N2 7 -w3 (B peJl. OT 2 4>BBpan 2006 r.) II C06paH"e3aKOHOllaTBIlbCTBa Pw. 1996. N2 3. CT. 145; 1998. N!! 48. CT. 5849; 1999. N!! 28. CT. 3473; 2002. N2 12. CT. 1093; 2002. N!! 52 ('iacTb II). CT. 5141; 2003. N!! 52 ("aCTb I). CT. 5031; 2006. N2 6. CT. 636. 503 no 3TOMY sonpocy CM.: 6a(j"eB 8.11. Cy6beKTbI MecTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" "X B3a"MoJleH- CTB"e. - M.: 1-111 "BOCTO'HblH py6e",., 2000; cpaTycb C.H. Cy6beKTbI rpa>KJ\BHcKoro npaBa. - M., 1950; fOPOJK8H"H BA nOHT"e " oc06eHHocT" npaBOBoro CTaTyCa cy6beKTOB MeCTHoro caMO- ynpaBnBH" B PW: e6.-MeTOJl""' noco601e. - HOBoc,,6"pcK, 1997; fpW"opbeB B.B. npaBoBOB peryll"poaaH"e ropOJlCKOrO X03HcTBa B POCC"HCKOH weJlepaLl"" (KOHCT"TyLlO1OHHbIB" MYH"LI"- I1MbHbIB acneKTbl): Aucc. ... KBHt\- IOP"JI. HayK. - M., 2004; Jla3apeBcmil H.I1. CaMoynpaBneH"e. MenKa 3eMCK"" eJl"H"LIB. - cn6. 1903; nOK{JOBCK";:; 11.A. I-1CTOP"" p"McKoro npaBa. - 2-e "3J1. - neTpOrpBJ\, 1915; lJ",epuHC.H. Kypc rocYA3PcTBeHHOH HaYK". M., 1894; nocToeo;; H.B. Me- CTHoe caMoynpaBneH"e: Y"e6. noc05"e. - Moo 2002. 504 fpaJl<Jl,8HCKOe npaBo: Y"e6H"K. 'iacTb 1 I nOJl peJl. A.n. CepreeBa, lOX TonCToro. - M.: npo- cnBKT. 1997. C.172. 505 c/O.J\JKeTHb/;:; KOJ\BKC PoCC"HCKOH <l:>eJlepaLl"" (CT. 76" 77) II C3 PW. 1998 N!! 31. CT. 3823. 506 KOMMeHTap";:; K rpB>KJ\aHCKOMY KOJleKCY PocC"HCKOH WeJlepaLl"", "aCT" nepBOH (nOCTaTeH- HblH) I PyKOBOJ\"TenbaBT. Konn. "OTB. peJIBKTOp JI-p IOp"JI. HaYK, npo<jJ. O.H. CBJ\01KOB. M.: IOp,,- JI,,"eCKa" <jJ"pMa KOHTpaKT; I-1H<jJpa, 1997 C. 261; fpa>KJ\aHCKOB npaBo: Y"e6H"K: B 2 T.I OTB. peJl. npo<jJ. E.A. CyxaHOB. C. 283. 507 fpaJl<Jl,8HCKOB npaBO: Y"e6H"K. 'iacTb 11 nOJl peJl. A.n. Cepreesa, IO.K. TonCToro. C. 175. 508 C8B"H B.I1., MeAQn830B K.JI. K Bonpocy 0 COOTHoweH"" HOpM KOHCT"TyLl"OHHoro" rpB>KJ\BH- CKoro npaBa B POCC"HCKOM 38KOHop,aTenbCTBe /I KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOe " MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBo. 2005. No1. C. 41. o r--- - 
509 06 ap6"Tpa>KHOOi npoLleccyanbHoOi npasocnoc06HocT" opraHOB ny6n"'Hoo BnaCT" CM.: KOM- MeHTapui1 K Ap6"TpaJKHOMY npoLleccyanbHOMY KOJleKCY POCC"OicKOO WeJlepaLl"" / nOJl peJl. B.w. KoBneBa, M.K. IOKoBa. - M.: 000 rOpOJleLl-"3J1aT»,2003 C. 143. 510 CPeAepanbHbli13BKoH OT 8 aBryCTa 2001 r. N. 129.w3 -a rocyp,apcTBeHHOOper"cTpaLl"" lOp'" JI""BCK"X n"LI" "HA"B"JlyanbHblx npeJlllp"H"MaTBIleOi» (c "3M. " Jlon. OT 23 011001", 8, 23 AeKa6- psi 2003 r.. 2 Ho"6ps1 2004 r.) /1 C3 P<!J. 2001 r., N2 33 ('1acTb I). CT. 3431. 511 CM., Hanp01Mep: nOCTaHOBneHUe npaB"TBIlbCTBa P<!J 06 yYBep>KJIeH"" nonO"'eH"" 0 nOP"JIKe BeJleH"" <jJeJlepanbHoro per"CTpa HOpMaT"BHblX npaBOBbiX aKTOB Cy6b€KTOB POCC"OiCKOOi <jJeJle- pall"". OT 29 Ho"6ps1 2000 r. N. 90411 C3 Pw. 2000. N2 49. CT. 4826: npuKa3 M"HlOcTa P<!J "06 yYBep>KJ\eH"" peKOMBHAaLl"Oi no npoBeJleH"1O IOp"JI01"ecKOOi 3KcnepT"3b1 HOpMaT"BHblX npaBOBbiX aKTOB Cy6b€KTOB POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"'" OT 29 OKT"6ps1 2003 r. N2 27811 6lOnne- TeHb M"HIOCTa P<!J. 2003. N2 11. 512 TaKOOi nOJ\XOJl Hawen OTpaJKeH"e B npaBonp"MeH"TenbHOOi npaKT"Ke. CM.: nOCTaHOBneHue nneHYMa BC PW" BAC PWOT 1 ".on" 1996 r.  6/8 a HeKOTOpblX Bonpocax, CB"3BHHblXC np"- MeHeH"eM "aCT" nepaoOi rpa>KJIBHcKoro KOJlBKca P<!J» (n. 12) 116BC PW. 1996.  9; nOCTaH08' neHue npe3"J1"YMa BAC Pw OT 27 Ma" 1997 r. N2 2703/96" T.A. 513 nOCT080i1 H.B. MeCTHOO caMoynpaBneH"e. Y"e6. noc06"e. - M., 2002. C.87. 514 eHKOB A.B. rOCYA3IJCTBeHHa" COLl"Mlo1Cm"eCKa" co6cTBeHHOCTb. M. -Jl., 1948. C. 621-654; cpa- T}'Cb c.H. Cy6WKTbI rlJaJKJ\aHCKoro npaBa. - M., 1950. C. 95-115. 515 fOPOlK8HUH B.A. YKa3. CO". C. 21. 516I1cKIlIO"eH"e COCTaBn"eT B03MellleH"e MQlJMbHOro BpeJIB rpa>KJ\BHaM-nOTpe6"TenM, KOTOpoe ,lJ,onycKaeTcSI TOJ1bKO npl1 Han""'I"LII SHbI KOHTpa-eHTa-ycnyro.o,aTe.nSl " B03MO}KHO KaK B ,AeHe)!(HOH, TaK" B "HoOi MaTep"MbHoOi <jJopMe, 010 cBepx np01""HeHHoro "M "MYlIIBCTBeHHoro BpeAS (CT. 15 3a- KOHa 0 3BlII"Te npaB nOTpe6"TeneOi. CM.: C3 PW. 1996. No 3. CT. 40. CM. TaK>Ke n. 25 nOCTaHOBne- 01"" nneHYMa BepXOBHoro CYA3 Pw OT 29 CBHT"6p" 1994 r. (B peASKLI"" OT 17 "HBap" 1997 r.)"0 npaKT"Ke paCCMOTpeH"" Cyp,aM01 Jlen 0 3alll"Te npaB I1OTpe6"TeneOi» IlcBC PW. 1995. N. 7; 1997. 1.N23). 517 a JlBIl"KTHbiX o6"3aTBIlbCTBax CM. nOJ\lJ06Hee: ArapKOB M.M. c003aTenbCTBO no COBeTCKOMY rpaJKABHCKoMY npaBY. - M., 1940; CMUpHOB B. T., C06aK A.A. 06111ee Y'eH"e 0 Jlen"KTHbiX 06,,- 3BTenbCTBax B COBeTCKOM rpa>KJlaHcKoM npaBe. - Jl.. 1983; CPneiiw"lJ E.A. 063aTenbCTBa "3 np"""HeH"" BpeA3" HeOCHOBaTellbHoro 06oralLleH"R - M., 1951. 518 rpa>KJIBHCKOO npaBO: Y,e6H"K I OTB.peA. npo<l>. E.A. CyxaHOB. C. 434. 519CaMO nOHT"e BpeAS paCKpblBaeTC" B CT. 15 rK P<!J. B CT. 151 rK pw pacKpblBaeT nOH"",eMO' panbHoro BpeAS. B caMOM 061L1eM B"Jle BpeJl KaK ycnoB"e HacrynneH" rpa>KJ\aHcKo-npaaoBoo OTBeTCTBeHHocm oxapaKTep""OBan npo<jJeccop M.M. ArapKOB KaK -BC"KOO YManeH"e Toro "n" "Horo n""Horo "n" "MYlIIeCTBeHHoro 611ara. (CM.: fP8)1(,/J,8HCKoe npaBo I nOJl peJl. M.M. ArapKo- Ba,ll.M. reHK"Ha. - M., 1944. T.I. C. 328). 520 np01 :HOM nOJl npomBonpaBHocTblO nOBeJleH"" I1OH"MaeTC" HapyweH"e HOpMbI npaBa " Cy6b- eKHtBHoro npaBa nOTepneBwero. 521 B p,aHHOM cnY"Be P",b "JIeT 06 06bBKT"BHOOi OOCnBJ\OBaTenbHOOi IOIJ"JI"'BCK" 3Ha""MOii B3B"MO- CB"3" Me>KJ\y <J>aKTOM npoT"BOnpaBHoro nOBeJleH"" "Hacryn"Bw"M BpeJlOM. KpoMe 3TOro, cylI\eCT- B€HHrn ....epToH ,aaHHoH B3aIo1MOCBSl3L11 flBJ1S1€TCSI TO, "'ITO GylltecTByeT HenocpeACTBeHHafi nIo1Ha - npoT"BonpaBHoe nOBeJleH"e, KOTOpeR BbI3b1BaeT KOHKpeTHOB CneJlCTB"e - HacrynneH"e BPBA3. 522 nOJ\lJ06Hee 0 cOJlep",aH"" 3T"X KaTerop"Oi CM.: cP8ruHCKUi1 M.11., BUTpRHCKI1i1 B.B. AorOBOP- Hoe npaBO. 06111"e nOI1O",eH"". - M., 1997. C. 570-613. 523 B COOTBeTCTB"" co CT. 1096 rK P<!J BpeJl, np"""HeHHblOi He TOnbKO rp8>KJ\aH"HY, HO TaK"'e " IOp"JI",eCKOMY Il"LlY B pe3YllbTaTe He3aKOHHblXJleOicTB"0i (6e3J1eOicTB"") rOCYA3pcTBeHHblX op- raHOB, OpraHOB MecTHoro caMoynpaBl1eHLllfI " "X ,lJ,OI1)f{HOCTHbiX I1"U. B03MeutaeTCfI 3a C'IeT COOT- BeTCTBeHHO Ka3HbI POCC"OiCKOOi WeJlepaLl"", Ka3HbI cy6beKTB POCC"OiCKOOi weAepaLl"" "n" Ka3- Hbi MYH"LI"nanbHoro 06pa30BaH". np" 3TOM P",b "JIBT KaK 0 He3aKOHHblX JleOiCTB"X (6e3J\eOi- CTB""), TaK " 06 "3J\aH"" aKTOB, He COOTBBTCTBYIOlll"X "aKOHY "n" "HOMY npaSOBOMY aKTY. nne- HYM BC P<!J " BAC PW OT 1 ".on" 1996 r. N. 6/8 JIM COOTBeTCTBYlOlLI"e pa3b"CHeH" no nOBOJlY cy6bBKTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT". B n. 12 nOCTaHOBneH"" npeJlYCMoTpeHo: "m npeJlbBneH"e rpa",- MH"HOM IUt IOpt.1JJ."'IeCK"M IIJ11UOM Io1CKa HenocpeACTBeHHo K rocy.napcTseHHoMY opraH}! JII.nJII K opraHY MeCTHoro caMoynpaB11eHIo1f1, AonycntBWeMY cooTseTcTBYIOUl.ee HapyweHLlle, He MO>KeT I CJ1Y>K"Tb OCHOBaHlo1eM K OTKa3y B npvlHS1T" LIICK060ro 38S1B11eHIo1J1 IIJ1160 K ero B038paUl,eHJllIO 6e3 paCCMOTpeH"R B 3TOM CnY'Be CYJl np"BneKaeT B Ka'eCTBe OTBe""Ka no Aeny COOTBeTCTByIO- lLI"Oi <jJ"HaHCOBbiOi "n" "HoOi ynpaBOMD'eHHblOi opraH. np" YJlOBnBTBOpeH"" "CKa B"blCKaH"e Jle- ::- _ He:>KHblX CYMM npoLll3BO,lJ,LIITCfI 3a C"'IeT cpeJJ,CTB COOTseTCTSYIOw,ero 61OA>KeTa, a npLil OTCyrCTBLII" L- JleHe"'HbiX CpeJlCTB - 3a C"eT "Horo "MYlLIeCTBa, COCTaBn"lOlilero COOTBeTCTBYlOlLIyIO Ka3HY', 
I 524 CneAyeT OTMeT"Tb, 'TO HepeAK" cny"a". Korp,a OpraH MBCTHorO caMoynpaBneH" np01BneKaeT- CSI K Orn€TCTB€HHOCTJII 3a 6e3.AeHCTBe, T .e. 3a HeCOB€pWeHlo1e onpe.n.el1eHHblX JJ,ef1cTBJlli1. B pe- 3Yl1bTaTe KOToporo rpa>K,!J,aHaM LllIOPI,'U:U""'IeCKLilM IIIo1Lt3M MO>K€T 6b1Tb npJII"'IHeH MaTepLllaJ1bHblH BpeJl. Ero B03MellleH"e rpa>KJ\aHe " IOp"Jl""eCK"e n"LIB TaK>Ke BnpaBe Tpe60BaTb B CYAe6HOM nope. np"MepOM TaKoro 6e3J\e;;CTB"" Bn"eTC He"ononHeH"e oprBHaM" MecTHOro caMO- ynpaBneH" CBO"X 063BHHOCTe;; no y60pKe Tepp"TOp,,;; HaCeneHHblX nYHKTOB OT CHera, MYCO- pa, no TennOCHa6",eH"1O "'HnblXAOMOB 01 T.A. 525113Maiinoea E.B. IOp"JI""eCK"e M8XBH"3MbI "HCT"TyTa OTBeTCTBeHHOCT01 B C"CTeMe MecTHoro caMoynpaBneH": A01cc.... KaHA.lOp"A. Hayx. - M., 2003. C. 139. 526 TaK, Hanp"Mep. M3p01 r. OpeH6ypra nopy""nacb 3a 6yrypycnaHcK";; xe60KOM6"HaT nepeA KOMMep"eCK"M 6aHKOM. KpeA"T He 6b1n CBOOBpeMeHHO B03BpalLleH, " CYA no "CKY 6aHKa apec- ToBan C'BTa nopy""Ten - OpeH6yprCKoo M3p"". 527 B Teop"" rpa>KJ\aHCKoro npaBa OT cy6C"A"BpHO;; oTBeTCTBeHHOCT" np"HTO OTn",aTb OT- B€TCTBeHHOCTb AOII>KHKa 38 ,Qef1CTBJ1S1 TpeTbJ1X 11J1lJ,. KOTOpaS1 J1MeeT MecTO B Tex CJ1Y'"1as1X, Kor- 113 "cnOnHeH"e 06"3aTenbCTBa B03no"'eHO JlDn"'H"KOM Ha TpeTbe n"LlO (CT. 313 rK PW). BOT- n"""e OT CyOC"JI"apHOro AOIl>KH"Ka, TpeTbe n"LlO He CB"3BHO C KpeA"TOpOM rpa>KJ\aHCK"M npa- BOOTHoweH"eM. B C"1lY 3TOro KpeA"TOp, no 06lL1eMY npaa"IlY, Mo"'eT npeAb"BnTb CBOO Tpe- 6oBaHLlle, BbiTeKalOUl.ee "3 Helo1CnOIlHeHLllfi LllIILII HeH8A/le>Kaw,ero LIICnOI1HeHJllSI 06sl3aTellbCTBa, TOl1bKO K CBoeMY ,lJ,OI1:>KHIo1KY, HO He K TpeTb€MY ll"lI.Y I KOTopoe He Io1CnOllHLIII10 JIIIlIo1 HeH8A/le>Kaw,t.1M 06pa30M "CnQllHW10 06fl3aTel1bCTBO. B TaKX CJ1Y'"1as1X ,lJ,OIl>KH"K HeceT oTBeTCTBeHHoCTb nepeJJ. KpeJJ.LllTOpOM 3a HeJIICnOIlHeH"e "11" HeH8A/le>Kaw,e€ "CnOIlHeH"e 06f13aTeJ1bCTBa TpeTbLilM 11"- LlOM (CT. 403 rK PW). 52B AMup6eKOB KI1. IOp"A,,"ecKa 3alll"Ta MBCTHorO CBMoynpaBneH"" " OTBBTCTBeHHOCTb ero opra- HOB" J\On"'HOCTHbiX Il"LI' A01cc. ... KaHA. IOp01A. Hayx. - M., 2001; /13Maiinoaa E.B. IOp"JI",eCK01e MexaHLII3MbI "HCTryra OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1 B CLilCTeMe MecTHOrO caMoynpaB11eH"SI: AJ1cc. ... t::aH,A.. IOp"JI. Hayx. - M., 2003: MOKeeB M.M. KoHCT"TyLl"oHHo-npaBoaa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB " AOIl"'HOCTHbiX n"LI MecTHoro caMoynpaBneH": A"cc. ... KaHA. IOpl1Jl. Hayx. - CapaTOB, 2003. 529 EBpOneiicKaR xapT MBCTHOrO caMoynpaBneH"" ETS N2 122 (CTpac6ypr, 15 OKT"6p" 1985 r.) /I C3 P<T>. 1998.  36. CT. 4466. 530 c/OJ1;KeTHb/ii KOAeKC POCC";;CKO;; <T>eAepaLl"" II C3 P<T>. 1998. N. 31. CT. 3823. C "3M." Aon. 53' AMup6eKOB KI1. 1OP"J\"'eCKa 3alll"Ta MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneH"" OTBeTCTBeHHocTbero op- raHOB" Aon"'HOCTHbiXIl"LI: A"cc. ... KaHA. IOp"A. Hayx. C. 98. 532 TaM "'e. 533 fa,D,JKueB f.A. K Bonpocy 0 paarpaH""eH"" KOHCT"TYLI"OHHO-npaBoBOO "rp8>KJIaHCKO-npaaoBO;; OTBeTCTBeHHOCT" II KOHCT"TYLI"OHHo-npaBOBa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb: npo61leMbi Pocc"", onbiT 3a- py6e"'Hbix CTpaH I nOA peA. C.A. ABaKbHa. C. 61. 534 fa,D,JKUeB f.A. YKa". C. C. 60. 535 CM. nOCTaHOBneH"e KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOro CyA3 P<!J "no p;;ny 0 npoBepKe KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOCT" nOCTaHOBneH" COBeTa M"H"CTPOB POCC"OCKO;; weAepaLl"" OT 17 "lOn 1991 roII3 N2 403 a Mepax no pean"38L1"" Pacno"'eH" npeACeJ\BTen" BepxoBHoro COBeTa PC<!JCP" npeAce- A3Ten COBeTa M"H"CTPOB PCwCP OT 8 "lOn 1991 r.  1554-1 .0 AononH"TenbHb/X MBpax no <jJOpM"poaaH"1O rOCYA3IJCTBeHHblx Xe6HblX " AWr"x npoAoBOnbCTBeHHblX peCypcOB B 1991 ro- AY. OT 9 "IOH 1992 r.  7 -n " nocTaHoBneH"e npaB"TenbcTBa POCC";;CKO;; weAepaLl"" -06 ynopAO"eH"" ToprOBn" llerKOBblM" aBTOM06"nM" no LlBIleBbiM 'eKaM " LleneBbiM BKIla- 113M Ha Tepp"TOp"" POCC";;CKO;; weAepaLl"'" OT 24 HBap" 1992 rop,a  4311 BecTH'" KOHCT01- TyLl"OHHoro CYA3 POCC";;CKO;; weAepBLI"". 1993. N2 2-3. 536fa,D,JKueBf.A. YKa". CO".C. 61. 537 CM. nOCTaHOBneH"e KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOrO CYA3 Pw . no Aeny 0 npoBepKe KOHCT01TyLl"OHHOCT" OTAenbHblx nono",eH";; CTaTb" 1 WeJIBPBnbHoro 3axOHa OT 24 Hoo6p 1995 rop,a "0 BHeceH"" "3MBHeH";; " AonOnHeH";; B 3axOH POCC";;CKO;; weAepBLI"" ..0 cOLl"anbHo;; 3alll"Te rpa>KJ\aH, nOJ\Beprw"xc" B03Ae;;cTB"1O pBJ\"aLl"" BcneACTB"e KaTacTpo<l>bI Ha 'iepH06b1nbCKO;; A3C. OT 1 AeKB6 1997 r.  18-n IIC3 POCC";;CKO;; <T>eAepaLl"". 1997.  50. CT. 5711. 53B fa,D,JKUeB fA YKaa. C. C. 62. 5390npeAeneHue KOHCT"TYLl"OHHoro CYA3 P<T> .no 3anpocy MOCKoBcKoro 0611aCTHoro CYfJj3 0 npo- BepKe KOHCT01TyLl"OHHOCT" OTAenbHblx nOllo",eH";; cTaTe;; 1 " 3 weAepanbHoro 3aKOHa 06 06ecne,eH"" KOHCT"TyLl"OHHblX npaB rpa>KJ\aH POCC";;CKoH weAepaLl"" ",,6"paTb " 6b1Tb "36paHHblM" B opraHbI MecTHorocaMoynpaBneH". OT 14 "HBapR 2000 r. N2 2-0. TeKcT onpeAe- neH"" O<I>"LI"BnbHO ony6n"KoBaH He 6b/n. 
540 Konocoea H.M. KOHCT"TyLI"OHHa OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb B POCC"HCKOH <l>eJlepaLl"": OTBeTCTBeH- HOCTb OpraHOB rocy.naPCTBeHHof1 B11aCT" Lot JIIHblX cy6beKTOB npaBa 3a HapyweHlo1e KOHCT"Tyw-tOH- HorO 3aKOHop,aTBIlbCTBa POCC"HCKOH <!JeJlepaLl"'" - M.: rOpOJleLl, 2000. C. 121. 541 a npaBOBoM pe"'''Me OTBeTCTBeHHOcm 3B BpeA np"""HeHHblH opraHaM" rocYAapcTBeHHoH Bna- cn." OpraHaM" MeCTHoro caMoynpaB11eH"fI " LotX .o.Ofl>KHOCTHblMJIII1LotLt3MJII, CM.: r pIDKJJ,a.HCKoe npa- BO Pocc",,- 06"3BTenbCTBeHHoe npaBO: Kypc neKLI"H I OTB. peJl. O.H. CBJI"KOB. - M.: IOp"cTb, 2004. C. 802-808. 542 c/OnneTeHb 6enropOJlCKOH o6nacTHoH llYMbi. 1996. N. 15. 543 8ecTb. 1996. 13 ''101l. 544 CaBuH 8.11., MeA0n330B K.fl. K Bonpocy 0 COOTHoweH"" HOpM KOHCT"TyLl"OHHOro" rpa>KJ\aH- CKOro npaBa B POCC"HCKOM 3BKOHop,aTenbCTBe II KOHcmTYLl"OHHOe" MYH"LI"nanbHoe npaBO. 2005. N2 1. C. 39. 545 fa,D,JKUeB fA YKa". C. C. 60. 546 ABaKbRH c.A. AKTYBnbHble np061leMbi KOHCT"TyLl"oHHo-npaBoBoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCT": o63op Ha- y"HOH KOH<jJepeHLI""11 rOCYAaIJCTBO" npaso. 2002.  2. C. 115. 547 B TO >Ke speMSl3aMeT"M, I.jTO aHaJ1Lot3 HOpMaT"BHblX npaSOBbiX 8.KTOB Pa311J11I.jHOrO ypoBHfI npl1BO- ,lJ,LotT K BblBO.AY 0 TOM, "'ITO S HIo1X He scer.o,a npaBJIIl1bHO COOTHOCflTCSI HOpMbI ny6mt"'lHOrO " "'IaCTHO- ro npaBa. HeTO'HOCT" np"CYlII", KaK npaB"no, npaBOBbiM aKTaM, HOpMbI KOTOIJblX peryn"PYIOT npaBOOTHOWeHLotfl Ha CTblKe OTpaCJ1ef1 npaBa. oco6eHHO KOHCTLotrylJ,LIIOHHOrO" rpIDK,O,aHCKoro npa- Ba, rJle Tpe6yeTc IOp"Jl""eCK" rpaMOTHO y""TblBBTb npeJlMeTbiperyn"poBaH" " COJlep",aH"e HOpM OTpacneH. 
orl1ABl1EHE BBeAeHMe .......................................3 rnaBa 1. TeopeTMKo-npaBoBble OCHOBbl IOpMAM'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM opraHOB M AOn>KHOCTHbIX nM4 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHMfI . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1.1. MeTOAOJlOrlo14eCKIo1e np06JleMbi 06L.l.\eH Teoplo1lo1 IOplo1AIo14ecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIo1 ...,....,....,.......,.6 1.2. COBpeMeHHble TeHAeH41011o1 B <pOpMlo1poBaHIo1Io1 Teoplo1lo1 IOplo1AIo14ecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIo1 B MYHIo14Io1naJlbHO-npaBoBoH HaYKe . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . , .24 1.3. nOHflTlo1e 101 CYL.l.\HOCTb IOplo1AIo14ecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIo1 opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 " .33 rnaBa 2. npo6neMbi KnaccM<pHKa4MM IOpMAM'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM opraHOB M AOn>KHOCTHbIX nM4 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHMfI , . . . . . . . . . , . .46 2.1. Clo1cTeMHblH nOAxOA KaK OCHOBa KJlaCclo1<pIo1Ka41011o1 IOplo1AIo14ecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIo1 opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MecTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 ..........46 2.2. OCHOBHble KaTeroplo1101 KJlaCclo1<pIo1Ka41011o1 IOplo1AIo14ecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIo1 opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 ,......., .55 fl 2.3. OCHOBaHIo1f1 KJlaCclo1<pIo1Ka41011o1 IOplo1AIo14ecKoH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTIo1 opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 
rnaBa 3. TeopeTMKo-npaBoBafl xapaKTepMCTMKa OTAenbHblX BMAOB IOpMAM'IeCKOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM opraHOB M AomKHOCTHblX nM4 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBneHMfI , . . . . . . . . , , , .93 3.1. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 nepeA HaCeJleHlo1eM .......... .93 3.2. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 nepeA rOCYAapCTBOM . . . . . . . . . .113 3.3. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb opraHOB 101 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jllo14 MeCTHoro caMoynpaBJleHIo1f1 nepeA <p10131o14ecKIo1MIo1 Io11Oplo1AIo14eCKIo1MIo1 Jllo14aMIo1 ,............,....,........ .124 3aKnlO'IeHMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 npMMe'laHHfI , .. .. . , . , . , . , . , . .. .. .. .. .. .. , . .. .. .. .150 
HaHOO HaQa'J-I.,e YepHorop H.H. IOPI-IAI-IYECKA5I OTBETCTBEHHOCTb OPfAHOB 1-1 AOJl>KHOCTHbIX Jll-Ill MECTHOro CMOynPABJlEHI-I5I (TeOpen'Ko-npaBOBble npo6lleMbI) I-1A "lOp"cnpYAeHLI". 111024, MocKBa, yn. AB"aMoTopHa, 50 www.jurislzdat.ru. e-mail: jurisizdat@yandex.ru Ten. (495) 673-1291. 778-9764 <l>opMaT 60><90/16. fapH01rypa JoumalC rle"'laTb o4>ceTHas:l. 6YMara ra3eTHaSi T01p"'" 500 aKa. ne". n. 11,0. 3aKa" Orne"'laTaHO 8 QAO AtneC1-21