Text
                    II \ I . n . t t ) I I \1 \. I "
.. / I I' " ,tl I \ . II \
I \' 1 ' . .  I,.. } I r I  I r I ) '. J I }  I I \ I I I ' I, I Ii
, , I I ' I. ' , I l' I . I. I I t  \ I I . 1 \  I "
I, !. I \ I. ! I I I I ,I I 1 { I I ' , r . r,' t ( i I I'" I I '
t 1'1 \ I) ;1' \ 'II {\ I, \  i (I I III 1 I r . I' , 1, ; f I {Il'ill r } .1\1
,1,1 I' -,\ ',)'\11 '.lI'fJI", q" '}\' fll'r LIlt I II/II I\tll/I ". (It '\ /11/'/)/
, J j I (It / ' .' ; II, f I 1 , I' ,'I j j I ,,' I J f ' ,. I I I I , - , I I ,'; I', ,,' ',I I
{H " ,I"d ..',,I) rf''lII,11 ,I ( I II r 1 / i /tl I, I I" )'\\' "f' '/, I' I ),' .  r:;. 11'/)'
1'1 ! I r I r ' ) " ' 't , I , q "I ( j " ,'J' " (, j ,' f I/I} I" I ,',
", (fl ,1,ljfl,',' f IJJlt;II' I '))('\"'II"" l'IIII\jlr', {)"lJ. '1111\ ,1,.' ,t l
I tl' t, {, jl, (t\ II ({' I ii 'I" II I/, {r l "I ' I [ I j ijl{ I} "I'p/ t IJ'«, ! I .. , (I ,I,', 1 ' ' " 't' I " I, '
",1' 1 ,', I ) , ' I '" "' / ) { 'i' ",ll j " J II 'l " ( 'Jt' , '  " 1 \ " /
\ 1 I " II I ' I ( , I 'I) 1 I )}" " I'II} I Iftl I \: ( I r I, I
, ,";,,llfll'),,(/I/f f(/.\'J'Jl;'1 ;(/1 1 ;/ ;,\I'I,:'r'";,II "/'J))/f(\ ({/j/H\"};V( I' I,' ','t' II} 1>'\',"'/)
/i\rl'I J  'i/II/';(I} ) t/lI)'r(11 ( 'itfJI,ld' ( ( / ':!';:"; 7JI.':\f'I(\11 I'I'//')(I,)\/I, ( ':', l,lf;" :l I'! ;;
I} ,'/ I lj ( 1 'f' I \') II,r I1 1 , ,', I f/I, ,'"/P,' " ' I  / I Ij I}. ,'J I ,I I r ' (1', I J
', ( f,r 1, \ , 1 'j ('P \\ l lltt(, I, /'/)'(1 d.' ,(, ,I! / ( d'lll I "\.;) I)J , l /ll ( l/ ,II, 'I') '\ (' , 1'1 r J dl'l' \I' , 
'\''I") )' 1(( II , I J ({' }I" \/'.ljl'1tl '},) r \1 (j ) , II /  If
)J/\"! I )jll\" J., "I'(dl\".' {I"I,I ,!}'f'I(})i"r/!/fJ fl!III\' ',Iri I tlj f\1
I t) 1 (1/(,)Ij(1 \( 11'\('({lr 11,'11' ((II 1111() (I\)J,{j ,';l/d1jlll ,d  i'll' hI}
.,rj I,,,/i" ( " , /I' / '(' I " I I/I'I'T/i l ' / ' II I , , \'I(} ,I ( I' I 'T Ir , I"I ( , ( ' I I I) ', J , ' ';'''1 )
I' I") 'I'  ,. I ( / " 'I  I ) (J ' " " ) I 'I I  ' , "I ), '
rr}r '\ }II," I,'I(', ,/,II'/(\ f (' , l)fJ/'11 IO" J i)">j;\ r' J I j (j'll, l'I)IIfl I, /J'o i' " f ,',.! It
'(I,}'I I,}, r (\{tll /' 1 ') 1 '(\ I) t\ IJJ I 1}1 'l(,l' ( 1 1"1, If 1[1 ldjl( (/,t { '!' jl ." 11
11,' 1\'1 ),..1\', 1,"', ,1.;, IX '" ' , (,,(/'I,/! "i l ',/"ll'1i",lj l l 'I' ';U'" 1"(','('" I "('"
:;'I::i" ::':'i,'l%;;I: ( i: I '(h(;,; \; t i( ( \J ,; !i' } (/: \ I\;I,I I , ) '\t   l ' I )0J I :?II.; I 'lt:\I!t , } ) 1r{ / :,1t,11J ) }f\%((;)/;I, ,\:1.','1:;,' : / : ', 'J, /' " <:.Iy::) r;' 1 :: ) , /r
'I I '" ,,' , ' ( { I { ' \, ' "" ' " ( .\ / ,,, , ) (,,', " ' ( I
WJ'<uJ/"Vrl,r:l,lll/.'lfl)\J(f'!IZ);I}f::11/1'\;iff11 ?'Jd{/,\'II/ {:,,I/'//'t;)'f.J,'J' ,} (",', ,\ vJ!t,.1
{{r \ N 'j trlll'I ( ?), / ,r",!I'I)IJr.'I/'1 .'J,J','1r/X'I} '},tl'",\r.t,.'IJ.{'IIJ11 1:/,).d, .1'/ '.';",','f' J ,I ;",/':
"I") / ) 1\' I'{ , II' I,." ( "I', ,1',,1 .!(.,.}(.,/.r',\j' " / \"."" / 1 ,I, "' f. JI./I'J" "1,"')')' ,,',' ,\
I I" I I I,' "I ,f' (.. , / I I I ,.'1{ I, (IF '. I J ( III I I II l' ( 'I h I ( .1 d (I' (
1;/Ft"l(fJ,'\)"/' \t,!'(t/'/A(lJ'lr{d!I.' / '}III'(;'l());(r4)!(t,)1{};:I1';)(f /'1 :1, / J (It, ;',1< :"/"i"
I ',)' \' 1/, 'J /I} I ,I: \ {(, ! \}.r, . { ft! (,'11 ")I}\J,,\J,I,,< 11(li(;t/IJil 1 ,,'.' ,\J'(l/h
"' I '! \., (j 'I\"'III'I (r/:'lf' i l.'1 I)'JI JII / 'I I ,,( ,,';' (j:.r.('!'f'I, Jt'l} ( I 1 II' ,I./ ."t, Ilf '. ."r ) "II'
" I  ',( ,r ( t" '/'('r(F, I 'l 1",,(("1 (I't "IIF'jl l' I .':"f}j').)  r .,,1 .11, '/ ('d,I,'
\,?/ \ I}se:'/(;":;':ft't"9:/'i: I III:; / '  />?}/ !) , ;:J:;>:,I:;\ { '; f ; ( i;YI« I 'i::(; ';'i': I !'t.;I, : :,,:'i'/: ':::'r;'.,: . (:;;} I O' I{I/
I ') ,( 'I \ ,) '"J' '" II' 'I '} {'J ' ,,(( I,..,!,) \ . 'II. y' ,," / II I' "J V I IN f f ,
{' ! J,. (,i I Ii rl/l l ( f 'Jl" J,lilf.O'{f',, / 'ICI"I))'i.,t"'/jffl) '"{{(fll,,,, ',t\;'1 {J' f ' I 'V'
'1/ J "'dlll'I'}'I{ \ 'f'YIIlI'  \!/}'/'I\I/«(Jrl/"I"I)/I"I(/I(.J. I ',Ji(J,II., ,.I','f'll "J"r' I
;« I ' '. )  1/,/1 1 1,' tf' ( ' '' I f.1{t l '(')'IIJJ I ;' / {'' "J', : / "J 't,ll'" , , "I,"!( r /t'fl,{i'l ; 1 ' / "" 1 ') I '}I/I 11 ' 1111, "f"
'I  I II I '} i " ) (fl I) 'IJ I , I If 1"{I', f" 'I f ll 'I' (I \ 1,11 /1 ' (I \. If'''11
) III',,!",'!II! ,1'11, ;'I,'{?,!,I \ ,'tt;"(.',f(."":/(I'f (. oI,\,\!, !j'/(JI,,,/I, II;, ";\1 ':'O'JI./h'i.\\ /w ,,;,.J ;,(", I, " II ii/(I '1/' ,
. 't/] l iI}U,qb)I/\'{ilfV:J i ;%1 "/I{.I'I)JJif:P!I:;7ifJ;';1,:r{\:;#f;'}!I;t, ,/1:; ,II/I"; J, 7 "'\;,;;'\;:/if;(,, r' ii
// j !/ I' f " , , '\t, llli' I )I:( l lf(/( f; ( I}\) '.If } ',' I) " ,\}/l J  !l tl/il {\ ? l l.l' I ,lr' ( } j ':!( }:l J ! /;); ,fi(rl(( ,( ) I;! : ,I l > 'If \ ' '1'  '\ j (, . 'II t t ";1 l?lj' ;" )
I , ( I' /' I ,'I, , ! ' 1 '1 ' I ! ") I ,I d l. t .  (l 1" " ,',1 I' \ ) '/1 I' ' ( ;, ,
1.".",'1 ( \ "( ,1 ''-'/ I" '11'fI(I'I", /1['/ C I(, " [ i' " h,Ii I "I'''I/I''\'rql'J',: / ' "( 1 '1 / "1  (" 1 '/",1'1' I I'I'I!', ' if' ) :,' . 1/.' 1 ',"1,
,llh' {I 1(, f. t I' \,1\" 'f f I', I' f)/f' 1{I"'/,1d/'1.1 'III (/J(i '/,( IrIJ"" 1/ , / ,
f,l, er)," f( ,l \1l'lt//! f;l Jf\ t ;;-<1 J )')I.;"I,' :/),,:)(.t1111r!/ :"( )/:,!t';,/l (r}!(1 />I" I : 'IJ ,:j.' I, l'" {I/; 1"\
{, il)h (i"(:/) I ;f{',}:" }/I/'/'t'd ''[':(,{I)( J 11..( 1.;'11 1 ,.Ii (, if //}{I/'( /1/ r J II} , ; "'/'' 1,'1/1'.
d/I 1/(I'I(" /( ,'),J>I) )IJ {, 1 I 1 , II ! I',\  it r ":J'l J;/ ;i./,(L, 1 , (/, 1 , It;1 I,\'r; 1({/,i} fl'nt it l , I/\ ,'; f/,:J t I((,J  1, J ;r .' .,
"/1 /I'/,';I\" !f;, ;'/ L', ;{>/'{I'J;lllfr,: f  iA!{'!J,fl'l, 1(')/t/ , /\ ( J) (I .(\1,!  [' J ),} /1,i 'I/(!(" If : ()I}(1, \:II',
hl"JIIJ,}I(\,it,t l \/ {fIt', ;,1 JjJI}'j.,\(J,I)(,,"(t'I{I, 11J\(I>IJr\(t {\ 1/, Il,' f I /1 ,'11,I)f{,f l "/, (I
};qJ)(J/JJoI\'It111(\(I'jl I 1\I,Id,)I,ll('J'/{J\()II'J/I"/111\Ed"dl\'14(J'J,'I/)Itl1 1 1,)V'If" 'J'!I( II{ )J/,I'( I
(i::r). ,,:;I, 'II,,!/ 1/'1'v"I,',{"J.; ,1:1)' \ (:/ 'I; ,ft)/, 1,';I?I'il} /i/( (, 'd'rJ!{\f/1 .'/ i,l.' }) / {/'f r/( (, /111(' '
;,'{tj:1 .'1: )  '{If,' /,},h) }/ '{lj:IJ\i'\ II,}' i}J,1"1, it '%j ,"&"I,,jl,)I/I\!tl/l"f;.'(\ " ")' 1,lt'J'{,
Jt1J' '" 'III ) " I,','},! ,Ie, V" ',,(,; 1'1 I ;1) fl'I'PI,!I'.r'\'A'((y 'II ,'hj/l:f:'i.lI:;f,J,I'\" J \r/ " '" t'. ,.'I I' '.;, ('1/',';'; I<
,1/(",r,f.",:r,! ,I ;11.' ( { '/1I:,; / , , '1 :/II" " (': /1"fV'J}I/(Y,'Ij,: , ( ( ,,;.\lI" J ,) ) , \ :;t.dfPH: '1,.':/ 'I'!i "0'(' (,!, 0' 1 ". .... !(lI! (, )) , I ,,'I I
"I. h)"I),}. ,ft I\rl ' /}J\'1rif'I/J\)f 11\1 ,I" lq/1 \/Jl 1 , ( :,1 \/}j'JI' j (/"I\lrt l .
!(, !' I i ,; lilt (I )I ( ' I I,/y l{i l <\(J\:I! I /)( ,l ( '/ ;,i';"N/1!j/I J ,:/,:,1' I (  '1 ( ';:I;+(II I /); IiI, ';'t( I ': I " I ') . I!'';:' ! '()' I:!! I. , Y f l,/I)II:I I ';' i '
, I'," 1'/ ,,'" 1"""(."/1.,,1 i'l')' y,1'1 II , 1/' 1 ' /)\," Ii II. /," ( , . , /)'\1,(1'
fll 'i' , '  i.!'i:j I':I/,I,.'{il)) }(ff/( ".\;)mjl""'" \11/(,'/,1 I,(.r '.u"1 ' ,\ II (..\, ll( ,I)' (1,1,' ,I, II g,,' I  \",1 '\'\/,I
){ 1'1/;' :;: '/1 ;";'! l ;1 " ,""'" I f;"I'" "Wl) '(II,!/( 1f)'II:,"'/I!-I{111 t,.(t0./') I ':,,'Il//' ,,,. , 'I'II' /'1' "
:il(:';':{ I )'Wil:{j' , "I ,%';df1( J ':I J 'fjM/I)iIiJ(i4}j/ll)/({i;l '>:o,i>;:,.','i J .;I:«:f; ) (;' .
\ 'I),'!; i'fJ)I, (" , ,\,')"J1'I(\;;'/ /"I(dt?J(),d/ll!. "'11/!J;(li"\: ,i f") 1," ", (1'),1,
,\(;{;r;(I"r{(2llj;,t:\ 'I 11J.'}Ii$f.;tn0;/.11://;;,{f;A:/ry,:,[:Jf;\I:\ :f1,%i;Ir '.'1At/;j ;/.r:t
,(II,\() II\tljJ Yf?'i:;;)/ ,/ ,1'il':I.;)!111(.I') (/ /)(r/1/!i!l f :i;H(M!J I" I, I'll ;)1, 'ii'!'\1 \);,'.1: :
I/,';','I): I?;{' l:)'II/)/ 1',';<W!J;J;'i!' 1/lif1JII<;;!\ B)f/r,IJf:/ 'l 1 ;'/),:;1(:/ 1,;;/ I /:I:('.r/'I//?<:)ytl,{{!:) ,
,/,'1'1 ,f" 'if ( II ,; " " I', ')1'1 ( " I i'J I), (,\'l, J)!j" 1 IWi: Jr,r,'( ( ,./ ( ',,/), /11 " I ,/'" ," , "fi,;( l.\; II JJ/" ,1, 
: ) i/l,fIJf;(\"I'JI:((.:J'(;fi(j '!I:IJI,: J II)/ { ";< I(NI. I 1/!J,!)lA::!M';f{;I: ) {,.,; J Ifli!.:/ I i)i"'\ \ J;' ) ':)\I)(?W:;,'/r j ';rfll! I ';I',
1(,,1'1 1 ,1 " ' ( I ")}' I ")I!III\t" ,1' ( '\'J ( (, , "I'/J{I ','11' 11 1 ) I ,1," ( '," I 1,I,,''l (f!>"(, , "')) I I I 'I (
If, I {I) ' (til(t(/" 1 I ( I I I )/,1, I ,JI I' I It /, 'I) I
,)O: , ; .': ','I /)'11 1 / 1 )(II!I;' 1/\,'1  'I ,,' ,/ J'j:J I/'II,; I ;':,';I.'I  /)J '1 l fli'f III  ',J/ ;:;; ,'( !:'I(I) ) '! '(Jill, ) ! ;J 
{II, I' If/J"I'/f }I(r",' 1)/(I"I(JI. I "lt ) 't' (III}I Ilr l !/ f 'r 1)'1 (/II J "I I I "Jd' /,jj, J'"
',) ) I ) , " I ' r I I I ) J 'I II I II ') ) I I (,. ( ' I
I I, (I / fr,1 , I I') '; r I I ((f ! ( '1' I I) , ' I '
r' / , r' ; } I "IJ I I II (
;. I ,} I
/1
,
.! I I --;:... I....... I --L,.-.., "t'!- _ -_ ft1 - ,
( I ' , '" .. I
I ' " (; f. " , / '. I) "I '\ ':", '" 'I r) ,f,' .
\ ,I 'II ! 1,\ ,'i II I I'j "  l I I \ . I) I J I I I. 1 I,
I ." I .' f ,' ) . (I , "I, , /  II. 'I II " I  II r" , , 'I 1 f II I I , , " I I '1) j h , ! I" \ ( , \ r I' I . ,
, 'J I'  I ' . /I I I '(" I ,.j I " ) ' ' . I III, f '
If " / '" ,,111 / "' / i'il/I ( llt'! , ", ' I ! , ' 1 "/'/l\I!I'r l .,lll I I ' , (
'/ I ' '.' I I " ,. ) ,  \ 'IL ) /I . 1 ' 'fI' ( 1 ' (1 ' I ' '\" ,1"" 1 \ ' I I
',t'l 'I, i I ' , .., "'''1'(/ 1 .' j'I(\f/!/, Il'JJJ r 'f' ) I \' II "':/'J.f I, I. " / \\f iii II
I ," }fl,r/J' \ j,,( ',I', . ,II.'  1 1 \' ,'N\f 1 ) )1 1 I ,,(qfl;i ,1 ',\',1 '1 1 ,1 I, II\J).\'I )
, t't f Ilffl;'I) (I ,/f({ / I r'J":' III' ',Iq ',,!.I "(Jlli) I. I) , (fl, ((" ".' J ' J ' I Irfl.) !
r" t !rl l " r" II' '0 ' ," l J ,. J "(I I (If 1 ' II' I' r  ( ,, } I ( " \'Id ,I 1
I , ) :1, I , "/jl ! ',' j ll', , 11 (/, .' M 'I,II , 'J/\," /J rl/!' , (I. , " II , ,IJ, ,
( / I  ( It) 1 I /..f:.IB "'jI T 'I' \  "
\( ,'\/",.1/, ( ..... J' }, tit. Ir'l flll./'/r.1 {',
, .. ) ' \ "I, ( ' I I:, I' .!&,,' r ) "1" ] I "'' ,. (r. ,,' a I II} I, I. ,I }'" I 
, " ", \ 1 t/ll', I, 1'1 , ,...... t I ' r , , "f' L;i'
'1\'1 1 ' t ' "f/( !'I,\ 1 1 1,1,ry,{." I\/;'i" 1" J Ir, "'I i (,',(,',' , , "I' ,I 'I I '. 1'1' 'i' ," J r "
,II III " {I,;I,Io)t)I ) \/in"l j '( I '{f,j'oI,,f l ' 'im i zitu",uI\':A"'" ."',,' \1\ ;') (1 '1;1':"" " '.,.
pf 111 I I,!, ' J l)r ' , ( j I . ,ll \ ' , :T,iAiJ.J.I;m.&f. fff (I' l I / I f. II' I j
I!,;' /I"/II I 'r/j/' ' ! " I '(\\II/"'.1 l'r/I I' , 1.' I( I, f lljJi' J ; ( ' I I). ! Jfrtl l ,.)I I ,I/I\\! <1 1 '" ,/ '1'
,, ) 'sIll 'ft ( III. (I'",/J-J. " I '\rji f) ' { ' If'J r'fl'(I,I I " 1'/ 1 ,11 1 ,"
("I't 1 1 '<1 I."/'/(d' '.1, ,tfilj',lf(-""):,!,IJ'I{' {!tl ",1, ;"II""I'(',I() ',Jl\\'\};((IIJr(,\" /'/" J;Ii Id,ft
}j/l, 1 Jlq l ll' , l'I' (\' ,I' 1,',!.1t I, di' I 'lf.}ill"J I II', I lrll'J'{'. 'I .\IJ , "I,,1 1 ,:/"1i l l}."jl{ \ "jl{\,I{dJf' If I;
I) f' '//',11 'r ,r " t l ' (I '" I I' Ii "f \ I ( ' ' I i " )
, I' j/ j l)j'{) I .'.ltll'I)\'\ (I' ;,' ,\I/"I( i1r/"//)I I ,J)V frl,./'" J\\I' I ';;;f/J I /'/'/ 11,',' / 1',/// l:jJ'd' , '  '
If' I ' I ' I ) f {{ '( I J I It, ,,, '/r II I I . ( 11' ) li' 'I I ' ,. ' I, r' I 1 1 I I I ) I "
, I';, ,'.t' ' 11 \ ",rl'fl'I" I",t' "i ll 'II, ! I II I'(' 1,:/. ('(J) 1".Ji,,! 1,I1{, , 'f', "I ( r, ('r"
', I 1..,,1' 1 ,Iff " ( \f) ) ' " I ' 1/ [(' 1 '111''/ ,II ) " I '" I 'i II J' . r ' '
, "f ' I '}'" 1 " , III ' \ , ,', ' I ' {I r (I
\' ( JI\ { ' "( I ' \ !I I I iI 'n 1 ( " \", Ii I I " , , ;, )' if) " II J II "", ,
!:\'/!\i 1 1. ':'/I;IIII/'" ',I'/tl):]({'Jj'II'I/I{}/'(11tf/I'rI/r.JI,I,I,;l")/l'/' Iii: f 'JI , ' 'rj'' :(';) I?
I'f r(/ f I 'f. I , I)") ! ., /} 1,'/', ,'I; t, "' 1 '.'1 1 ' II (' I',', I, " Sill, 1(1, 1/,1, "JII trl ,
'I' ) I } IJ"'I/"""I I """, ';I'r/"\I,,l,\','f.{' ."('IH'd// (}), ,;,'. r" fl',,) ',/,". ."
,( IJJ' ,I,) J I ) '" '1. J! 'I .I, ", ' J I' \ { , "r, ! '/' if I.' 1 'I } f I " I If, I I \ ,1.,/' \ I! I, I ) f( '. ,: " (f
, I' I , , I I/ Il{ I I 1 ',I I {'" ' ' .. t' , r 'J"' , I "r I I ' I ' / r I j . I ," , r
, ,' III 'I (, I' ( I d') I I,'. ,I I "'I 'If")' ' I r ','." ,t ' 'I II,:'. ", l'l! \ I I','.,' I { " "
 ' II " " 1'1. / , 1 (1 ,'( 'rl I' ',J f' )1 ,', , ) /' ..' I '
}, I ,J , ) ' \ I " t jl fi ' , / ' I /'1,' I I, , , " " " "I; I,) , 'I I I I' ,I. ,  , ,. r If
" ' ( 'I I I II i J ,J " " - ,! /("" / ,
1,/ ( If' 1/'" 1"I",I;.r'I'f\I' ' \ .JA. II 1'1.\ i "J ' , " I ' 1.1,,11/')'(; J 
J II \/ \ f' I' 1'1' j ',i 1. I I ,"1' )I;J , , j' I 1'1.' ( .1 1'1 ., I .' I
' l r'I;)' \:;.,Yi:'3;J};11::/'I;\;'."''{\ ,\ ,. AI, r/I\'.' r:i:''''::;''II';I;'<.',;:.'(i:U)',',r;1
I' ,I, 1 1J / !1: 1 ( " , f"'}:' I 'jl ) , ' jl ) U I, " I II/I,! V .'1 ", I,) 111, {( j : , J1 III',' . 1:'/ " 1('. f/'I
, ' \ I I /" I .' 1 " \ { ,' ,I :' I' " ,i' } 1,' I, ," If t' ,
' I I ., . f . I rJ I ' I I " , I 'I I, , I I " I \ 'I 1 I I' I . ,
Ii ,I 11',',f"/I, , I rri' . I , / II , (I,", ',' , { I
l.\1 «( /11 li/'td, I W If{ it ,j ) ,,'/, rJ I
,', '/(J j ' \ {( I /:' /; J (rftf 'i ", I . ?, .) I ( Ii t) ":X'(/I' / I'r I J fjj
(' I f ) } I ( . , '. , I' ,,', I ' l.
1 I ,(') r'\,t I { j 1 t I / ,',' : II 1\ 1/ I '/I"t{, ()
. ," I I ) it!} j:) , ( "'\',"" /, I,J II 1. 1 '1"  I ., ') , 'I' ,11\; ! I' G 'II !/I/ /}; "1)/ I)l,
rl? I " 1 }(\'/ j IJ'){ 1 'II'\:I '. "'{IJliff) t  ((;Ji,\!{llj; i f\l,b"Y i) :i 'fl/ \ !;i; ; ;)'/1 ) :'1 >(,(1: \ I J /((I\ r;;\:), '(l/,:I, 'I"
I '{/f ) ' ' {  \': '\,;\' ,(:)t ( t),(:':; ' I) I \ J} !{" \';)I';f;\ 't ' ('J ?' ( \ I I /t/r,'; S;dI.lh:"ICr t:! '/';.t; ' J ! \,;";1 ,,)(/,r>:1 ( : / ( 1' , 1!,(Jj'f " I,(:
{ 'I' ' I ' '1/1 ; '/1 I II (, 'f/,f "j ( ", /1('11 , .1/'/1.,1" f / j! ' I ,.'I(' I, Ir,'I" I I
I '.',I(I (IJ, ) 1,lltl'!, III/li,') J/)I I ')'I'/. . ' 1 )11",'.'?\" ) r'\J1/}J"//'I:I/( I "}' I,ll,.,'.',. :)1,1/ .f/'Ii' l 1),1,
1 1" I'f ( (II ) I " rl ! ' Ir \' I  U I I f ( f I" , ., t " I '11 ;. :. r \ )'.t,1 . f
' I . I, 1/' AJ. \ ' ' '; ' 1 )(' 'II J I ,. II , \ I'\" / (\" ,: l 'I : ;:, ( I I , I /II ' 'r r, ,'1'."1. J:. c. , , I' \
I I\ I I' { 'I I ,I!" I I' 1111"'1 " , I,} I' " 1_ ( I l J ' ,
( ,. ! I I'l, IIrl' I' \1 'II;" 1(" ,f' \j} '/'f'I"' ")'/" I :" d(I' "f.f.,JI' 1'1
: ; fill' ,,i{ },/'I', l;j'I"II(I,'.I'.', ,,/,'(,,','11 1,'"'!/,,'.j'J.I'I/'\:Jilr';r',','f,,,',I',f,H ,I
'f' f,'J) )",7, I, 'I ""I .j I ,/, 1..1 II ,,' /l'I{(I/ :"t 1(I,fJl/l/)'.I; ..J:'{! I.,'\tl r:) J),.'l:" II' "I .
'1 1 II' I/-'II,J!!J" i fl 1/,'1 I' ,I, I( ,'1,1 I l(;lll'fl ; ))1).'.' ,'" I', (,JI,'t r' r;,\t "'r"/,,(('" :1 d, , 1/'1 { I,
I ,;. (', I I) , ( 1"' 1 ' II) II fl/ "I }',I ,I , ' II( f(' f !. ',', J " ' I 'J/"!r{q ' \ ' .n ,'} , C) I . i i ' ) ; 1 :1/ 7 ' I! I '. I " /('11 ,.ij , I, 1 ) ((;' I 'l ,/ iI' \, ,). , /I " , II q 1/ I r Ij "
f Jlr I (' V" III ('. I'" 1'/', [ ',(, (' , "(I II . " ,'/!' I
IJ/ J '('!"/;'f,;'\','i{Jh;f"!:"'//!'/"J :;/I({'/{I'I'/\\<"t'I,,{,t,.,1:(,',;,,)JI;, :"J,,'/"I:;:"'I/'I,:I/, J{
r) ' 'J \J.',II[", t'i.' ,1;r'/'}II.,)I/}' I f' I r,i I,,; \ ("",{ I.  "II J "I I', //)' d
" '" "" ',\;'/;i(f,I':(/I'1 r.'\)j,.'?:,c :;; ,:i I, \; 1/ ill,):! ,}!; j\;\' :;:, ''I':;'' / '.'!; >\':,': ':I>'i!,:, ;1 I, \ I "i;.? ' ,\, ),1 , I\
:.:III I llf}/fl/"('\J/ IJ; / II {t/llf:: }," , 1)," '/(:: ;\.'1,/,',',:). ),."I,!, ,(",.I:I; )";'/, I!I, '/<' I I, '.,;, \ 'i.: i\'r", l (I '
,I!:,. j'''4 ,'t', ) 11/1"'I'/! / I' S \ {':'/ ,,' J  I(i I"   Ir I, I, ,'. ,
t Ir,.1 ,1/,11'/1{( "I';l} I I dJ r f/r ,I Ili1 I f 1"" tit' rfl l",': I { I! r J 1'1 J J., 1 1 , 1 'I ft'" i I' I,' {i,
'(I , ' I( l/ , t i ) ' ; ( i6:/'/!II) 1(:;);(: ';:1 1 ;.'1,;1 ii!!: , !"''(':"I;J%:"') I,jl' :/, J ,?( I):!/., {r;:\; ;'III:),>','/f ,  :/"1(('1;; / : ii',
"f! ''I '-!I /1 If I' ('i" 'I I  ,/" \, ' (, 111 1 'J )1 I 'J I ('II 'I I I. f 1(.\ r{ .' " ' ( } /I< \[ 1)' "
I \'( l\ifrr.'tl':lr'i/r,i,J/ !'r'.1:'r/'c\\III),JI/,/.(') 1(1/"Ij',,/ ,(,!/\\r/rl/((I\.": fY(I/I'r l :t'II,l j (;, I' II
.' I, .r\( ;>/,.,,<:,.:,.', II\i ,/ft<,: , >/: I <';r;;;;r;; (I .':'i( /1/:!.1 ,r:,,> '.':J\?,N;::\((di;J (Ii,!',: 1 /,H J
I \1,. /;, Jf UJt,:\ -:,II( \:,\I ;)/ t ?/,..,;) [I) 1)/1/,,1; /\'I/<t!f;I ,I' tl;('; IJ, I;), I, {,,' ;"lfl;!/)i'III' (', 'I \ " ,');(IJ\,J(I'I:\II:111;;/" I
,1f:ll ?'! S: i ;K[iI!'':[. \<;i,: /:,\;;J(1::,i;: f ,M;\;:1.X(:' ( lr;::;:/:r',,\j\hj(';il«(}Y/':: :,/' '<" ;
 ;Ilfll/ l r!)f, ,(II/'.d,d ) {I(.'( ''''. 'JI")"t(I).I/('II( f(II\f'}'/r' "/II,r' [I
I, ,\' It I fll'l ( '} () If))( f/ f )I( il'li'e(" I »;  l 'I '11(1; J,'r or 1";'} I 'iJ !  If ,( (II 11':\');' ,,/',/',,(111'("1 ,.f
'('/1) Ir}'{( 1,1 (1/lflf I/.,t jjtJf(,,,lti/' '/t."'111\'J \}I' I. !( , '1'1,,1, ) IP If :I"','/If , If '
,I,f 1/'flll,,;,:r1tt , },I\f,')rf,./,;(,II1(.I/l"ll/tl J '}lc'.flll(,I/': I, /, '" :"f'!',rr'f 'r,(",/,\ifj!J'r,1! I.'
} It.' /1)1;, I,I )f);.(,'jl:: '/ (,.. \/I/) 'j//",:f)!J) in dJf(\11 '!'I)','; :.III{(""'! ,',I J";/jl l l },/() fl\:If ; IJi 1'1
J \' [ I] 'rIJ f ' ( 'i( l t'I()'I/(('Jli/ i i ' ',ll:, l ll f 1 ( ,Ji ( f,I," ( 1 J 1' / ' (,f\'J"/;( " / -r:""J/', ) !, ; (\",Y, 1'{ljJ'(H / 1 J tf
( '" 1'(;1' r,( t' 'I' , )(, i' , ,( I"" 'II iI.' I ' '! ' ,
\  r: 1.;I,i/ li,'j'!I(1 i:(r} ! IJ'd " ,jt ) f,> Ir;J;/II/II( /11,J ( : j /r./' I' }',/1} ) r/;lfl'." J ".' ,'II'I; I }(' I ,'{ /, ( //J I 1,1
I ,1 " ;,. I. ',! 't. 1'1 I ' " I'I " I ( I' I /' "r I {II 'I I,' , , I I ' j l'
/ I ,/ I "',f'}'/ r }/(,.>}J I') I, I'( {'I ,'(,h II (t, ' "/I f' 1,1,;11 i /r ,\ () ) J I: ,,I  , "if I'
\ '{ / I _  _____ lot It ..., ......  "1'1 l'....'r-''"f''!tI -r- .... .,.-;w44""'f1'1" - . I
11.,1 I' } I " f \, ,
,/ (( 'I " , ) , " "I \ I ' I ' I 'r " J, / { I' C ( ,
',' J ' , I/'I  'I" IIII(' fl ,I II) I" 'f f' I Jro ,I"
. I ( (f ( I 1 I I I' t I ) j! I 't(l , I '
I 'I:', (II I If I / l I J I( I' I I, J {
,
I
,


nCHxonorll'JeCI<IIi1I1HCTIITYT PAO OC\(OBCKIIH rOpocKOi1 nCHXOnOrO-nearOrH'JeCKIli1 liHCTIITYT C.6.MAJIhIX. M.C.EfOPOBA. T.A.MEillKOBA OCHOBbI nCMXOfEHETMKM MOCKBa "3nHl-\aBp'" 1998 
Y.l{K 159.91/92(0758) EDK 88.3s173 M20 nPE,QlilcnOBIiIE MaJIhlx CD, EropoBa M.C, MellIKOBa T.A. OCHOBb! M20 nCllXOI'eHenna,. - M.: 3mwmp, 1998. - 744 c. ISBN 5-7939-0007-1 Y.II.K 159.91/92(075.8) EEK 88.3J173 IICHXOI'eHeTHKa (Hint rCHeTHKa nOBcAeHHH qeJIOBcKa) HBJIH- eTCH HayqHOH AHCl\linJIHHoi'i, HenOcpeACTBeHHO CBJl3aHHOH C H3Y- qCHHeM np06JIeMbi COOTHOlllemlH 6HOJIOn,qeCKOrO Ii COl\HanbHO- ro B nCHXIIKe '1eJIOBCKB nCHXOI'CHeTliqeCKlle HccneJl,OBaHHH C ca- MbIX ncpBblX pa60T Ii no CCH AeHb npCCJIeJl,YIOT OJjHY maBHYIO l\enb nOHWlb npH'!HHbl npOHCXO)KACHHH IIHAlilliiAyarrbHblX pa3- nHqliH, BbIHCHIiTb porrb HacneACT8CHHbiX H CpeJl,OBb!X q,aKTopOB, JIC)Kal1\IiX B OCHOBC YJjIlBHTCJIbHOrO HCCXQACTBa mOl\eii no caMbIM pa3HbiM xapaKTcpHCTlfKaM - OT '!acroTbl cepJjCqHblX COKp a l1\e- HHH If BpCMeHH peaKl\HH 110 CKOpOCTH OBJlaACHIiH HaBbIKaMH, OT naMSlTH Ii BHIiMaHI1S1 JjO ycnewHoCTI1 06yqeHHSI II HHTCJmeKTa, OT yp08HH nCIIXOAHHaMli'leCKOM aKTH8HOCTH Ii oco6eHHOCTCM MO- l\IiOHarrbHoro pearHpOBBHI1H AO '1epT rrHqHOCTII. 3apo:.ulBillHCb B Cepe,!1HHe XIX BCKa H Cq,OpMHpoBaBillllcb KaK caMOCTOHTeJlbHaH AIICIJ,HnnllHa B nepBoH qCTBCPTH XX BCKa, reHCTHKa nOBeACHI1H 11 B HaCTOHl1\Ce BpeMH ocraeTcH HCKJllOqIlTeJlb- HO MHaMH'!Hoi! 11 He06b1'1aHHO 6blCTpO Pa3BHBaIOl1\eHCH 06JJaCTblO 3HaHHH. IIOCJIeAOBaTeJIbHo paclImpHcTcH ee TeMBTHKa, cOBepllleH- CTByroTCJI MeTO,!1bI HCCJlCJI,OBBHHSI, nOCTOHHHO aCCHMI1JIHPYIOTCH AO- CTH)KeHHH CMe)KHbIX o6rraCTcH II, rrrBBHOe, IIpOBOJjHTCH OrpOMIJBH 3KCnepl1MCHTBJIbHaH pa60TB, 110 pe3ynbTaTaM KOTOpoil e)KCrO.n:HO ny6JIliKYlOTCH COTltl{ CTaTeR If MOHorpaljmH. KpaCHOpC'IIIBbIM npH3HaHHcM JjOCTII)KCHHH reHeTHKH 1I0Be- )!eHI'!SI HBJlSleTCH pacTYl1\IIH HHTCpCC nCHxonorOB K nOM 06JIaCTH 3HaHliH Y)Ke ABBIJO 06061l1alOIIJ,He 0630pbl, 1I0CBHl1\eHHblC caMoR pa3HoH nCIiXOJJOrliqeCKOH IIpo6JIeMBTHKe, BKJIlOqalOT 8 ce6H ana- 1m3 nClixorCHCTIIW:CKIIX IfCCJ1CJjOBaHHH KaK OAI1H 1f3 8a)KHb1X pa- KYPCOB alJamna nCHXIiKI'! 'IerrOBeKa. B nOCJIeAHee JjCCHTHJIeTUe B npOrpaMMbl Me)KAynapOA\iblX Konlj)cpeHl\IIH, nOCBSll1\eHHbIX OpO- 6nCMaM HHLJ;HBHAyaJlbHbIX pa3J1I1'1Hii, rfCflXOIWfli1l IlHqHOCTH, nCHXOnOrl111 pa3BI1TI1H, l1enpeMeHIJO BKJ1lOqBIOTCSI JjOKnaAbl, no- CBJ!meHHbJe nCJlxoreHCTflqeCKIiM HCCJlC.I\OB3HHHM, yrJly6n SlIO lL\tlM HaWIl npe.I1CTaBJleHHH 0 nCHXOJlOrH'IeCKI1X 33KOHOMepIJOCTSlX B HacrOJlUJ,eM Y4e6HOM nOC06:H.H H3J10)J(eHbl OCHOBHbIenpHHUMf1bl II 1l0l\XOl\bI !( 113YQeHHIO pOlJll HaCJIeJJ.CTBeHHOCTff If Cpel\bl I' <jJOp>lHpOBaHHII IIHI\IIBHl\YaJlbllblX oc06eHHOCTeH nCIIXOJlornqeCKHX IIIlCIIXo<jJ113110nOrl1qeCKIiX Xap3KTepffCTl1K qeJIOaeKa. COl\epJKaHHe noc0611J1 OTpaJKaer COBpeMeHHoe COCTOJlH!le nCHXOreHeTHKW 11 COOTBeTCTBycr'IJ]e6oBaHHHM rocy.u.apCTBtHHOro 06palOBaTeJlbHOrO CT3HI\apTa Bblcwero npo<jJCCCIiOHanbHoro 06pOBaHH}I no KYpCy "nCHXOreHeTI-UCa" KHllfa Ilpel\Ha3HaqeHa JlJIH npenOl\aB3TeneH II CTYl\eHTOB nCHXOnOrnqeCKHX <jJaI<YJIhTeTOB By30B. Pel1eH3elITbl: 1\0KTOp IlCIIXOJlOfllqeCKHX HaYK, npolj>eccop, aI<3I\eMIiK PAO B.B Py61108, 1\0KTOp Mel\lIl1HHCKHX HBYI<, Ilpo<jJeccoP, qneH-!(Opp. PAMH B.I1.IIy3blpeB Jf30lJHue ocy1llecm6J1eHO npu no()()epJICKe MUHUcmepCmBlJ HOYK" U meXHOJlOZuU P<l> ISBN 5-7939-0007-1  C E MaJlblX, M.C EropOBa, T.A,MewKoBa, 1998 @ O<jJOpMJIeHHe,OpllfIIH3JI- M 3KeT. 3AO "lhLJ;aTeJIbCTBO "3nIlAaBp", 1998 3 
K CO)J(aJteHHIO, 13 Hawei:i CTpaHe reHeTlIKa nOBe.n:eHHJI 'lenOBe- Ka fI,0 CIfX nop He non:yqlma .l\OlI)J(HOro npl13HUHlfII, a ec .l\OCTIIJKe- HHSI H3BeCTHbl iIllWb Y3KOMY Kpyry CneUl1aJtHCTOB. Ao HefI,aBHerO BpeMeHH 130 BCe" CTpaHe 6b!110 nHWb HeCKonbKO BbICllllIX yqe6HblX 3aBC)J.eIlIlH, 13 KOTOpblX qHTaJlHCb KypCbI lIeKl\I1H no 3TOH IUIcl\lInJIII- HC, a IIInepaTypbl, n03BOnSlIQll\eii caMOCTOSlTeJlbHO n03HaKOMHTbCSI C 3TOH o6nacTblO 3HUHHH, npaKTII'IeCKH He 6b1J10 H !leT. PaBoTbl OTe'leCTBeHHblX nCIIXOJlOroB*, OTly6J1HKOBaHHble 13 nOCJlel\Hee )J.eCjj- TIIJIeTHe, npCI\CTaBnSlIOT C060H HaY'lHbIe MOHorpaqlllll, He paCCqH- TaHHble Ha HenOI\I'OTOBJleHHOrO 'lHTaTeJIJI, a nepeBO)J.Hble pa60TbI, B KOTOpblX H3naralOTCH OCHOB!>! reHCTHKH nOBel\eHIIJI** Bo-ne p BblX , , nOCBSlI.QeHbJ 60J1ee 06ll\!!M reHeTHqeCK!!M np06JICMaM, 11 n03TOMY rCHeTIIKa nOBel\eHIIH B HHX npel\CTaBrreHa BeCbMa K p aTKo H 130- , , BTOpbIX, Hanl1CaHbI B Ha'laJIe 80-x rO,1(OB H He MorYT l\aTb npe)J.CTaJJ- J1eHIlSI 0 COBpeMeHHOM COCTOSlHHH 6blCTpO pa3BHBalQll\eiicSI 11 MeHJI- lOll\eticSl 6YKBaJlhHO C Ka)J(l\bIM )!.HeM o61IacTH 3HaHHJI. .II.JlJI Toro 'lT06bl BocnonHHTb nOT np06en, H Hanl1CaHa 3Ta KHHra. UpH nO,l(rOTOBKe KHHrH MbI BH.IJ,elIH CBOIO l\enb B TOM, '1TO- 6bl B I\OCTYTIHOH !jJ0PMC paCCKa3aTb 06 HCTOPH!! pa3BHTI1S1 reHe- THKif ITOBC.I\eHI1H, TCOpenf'IeCKifX npl1HLU!!Jax, Ha KOTOpbIC OHa OTlHpaCTCI!, MeTO)J.ax IICCJIe)1oBaHHI!, BXOI\JIll\HX 13 ee apCeHaJl, II pe3YJlbTaTaX, C KOTOpbIMH oHa npHlllJIa K KOHl\Y XX BeKa. KpaTKIIH HCTOpll'leCKIIH 0630p (qaCTb I) n03BOlISleT npe)J.- CTaBIfTb cc6e JlorHKY pa3BHTI1H reHeTIlKH nOBe.IJ,eHI1J1. HeKOTO- PbJH aKljeHT Ha I1CTOPIl!! pa3BIITIIH OTCqCCTJJCHHOii rCIlCTHKIf nO- Be)1eHIIH qenOBeKa C,l\eJIaH HaMH HaMepeHllo, nOCKOJIbKY OHa, 13 OTlIH'IHe OT HCTOpHIi 3ana,l(Hoif reHeTIlKIi nOBel\eHI'!SI, npaKTllqeC- KII He OCBell\anaCb B nHTepaTYpc. B qacnl II KHHI'II 113nO)J(eHbl OCHOBHbIe nonO)J(eHIIJI 06ll\eif reHeTHKII, npllqeM OCHOBHoe BHHMaHHe y.I\eneHO np"HUHnllanb- HblM nOJIO)J(eHIIHM KOnllqeCTBeHHoif reHeTHKII, nocKonbKY IIMeH- HO Ha HI1X 6a311PYlOTCH Bce IfCCJIC)J.OBaHIIH, npOBOiJ)lUllCCSI B reHe- TIIKe nOBe,n;CHI1H qenOBeKa. 3TOT MaTepHan JlBJIHeTCH TOH 6a30ii, 6e3 OBJla.n:eHHJI KOTOpO!!. HeB03MO)!(HO npaBltJIbHOe nOHUMaHHe I.(elICH, 3aa'l II MeTOOB nCHXOre1JeTHKII H KOTopaH He06xoIUIMa IJ)lH npaBHJlblfOH HHTcpnpCTaI.(HIi pe3YJlbTaTOB 3KcnepllMeHTanb- HhlX HCCJle)J.oBaHHH. B qaCTH III onl1CaHbl 3KCllCpHMCHTaJ!bHble MeTOl'bl reHeTIf- KH nOBe)1eHHH H MeTO)J.b1 CTaTHCTII'IeCKOrO aHaJIU3a, KOTopble 13 HeH IICnOJIb3YlOTCJl. qaCTH IV-VI KHHrH nOCBHll\eHbJ H31(0)!(CHII1O II HHTepnpeTa- IjIlH orpoMHoro 3MnHpH'IeCKOrO MarepmlJIa, HaKOIUlCHHoro B reHe- HIKe nOBel\eHIIH nO'ITIi 313 100 JleT. B qaCTH IV npC)J.CTaIU1eHO PaJ- BepHYToc onucaHHe rCHeTlt'leCKHX IICCJleJ.(oBaHHH KorHHTIfBHbIX xa- paKTcpHcTHK H oc06eHHOCTeH, OTHOCSlll\HXCSI K TeMnepaMeHTY H nHqHOCTHOH c!jJepe B '{aCTH V)1aH HaH601Iee nOJIHblH Ha ceroll.- HI!IllHHH ,n;CHb 0630p no HCCJlc,n;OBaHI1HM IICIiXO!jJH3HOJIOI'II'leCKI'!X xapaKTepllCTHK. B '/aCTIi VI KHl1rH aHaJIII3lfpYeTCH BKnM rCHCTHJ<;11 nOBe)J.eHHH B IICCJle,n;OBaHHe npoI.(ecca pa3BHTIIJlI1 paccMaTpIIBaIOT- OH ee B03MO)J(HOCTHIJ)lH H3Y'leHIIH cpe,n;bI pa3BIITI1J1. HeCMOTpH Ha TO, 'ITO lUIana30H TeM, 3aTParl1BaCMblx 13 KHII- re, '1pe3BbI'laHHO WlipOK, 60nbillOH Kpyr Bcnpocoa, CBjJ3aHHbiX C reHeTliKoif nOBeJl.eHIIJ/, - rCHeTllKa nCHXII'leCKHX 3a60JIeBaHHIt, reHeTHKa IIOae)1eHIiH )J(HBOTHbIX H T.,n;. - OCTal1CH 3a paMKaMH 3TOH KHHrH, nOCKonbKY 6oraTci:illlHH MaTepHan, HaKonl1eHHblif B 3THX 06JIacnx, Tpe6yeT H3.l\aHIIH OT,n;eJIbHbIX yqe6Hb!X noc06ifti. IIpe)J.MeT reHeTlIKI1 nOBe,n;eHliH (npHpo,n;a HiflUlBIIJI,yanbHblX pa3JIHqHH a oco6eHHoCTJ/X nOBe)1eHHH qenOBeKa) no CBoeH CYTH Tpe6yeT Me)!(illICljHnJlIIHapHOro nO,l\xo,n;a, 13 KOTOpOM 6bIJ!II 6b1 HHTerpHpOBaHbl 3HaHIIH caMblX pa3HbIX Jl;IiCI.(HnJlHH - MoneKY- JlHpHOH 61101101'1111, reHeTIIKH, 6110MCTpllll, aHTponOITonm, !jJ11311- ol1orHII, nCIIXOJlOrIlH. I1x nOHJlTllifHblH annapaT HeIl36e)!(HO npH- XO.!lHTCJI npHBJlCKaTb npll OnllCaHIiH nCHxoreHeTH'leCKHX Hccne- ,!J;OBalfHH .II.)[JI TOro 'ITo6b1 no He 3aTpY,l(HHnO 'lTCHHJI \I He CTa- JlO npenSlTCTBlleM B nOHHMaHIIH KHl1rH, Mbl BKJIIOqllJl1I B Hce OC- HOBonOnaralOll\He CBCfI,eHHSI 113 CMeJK/IbiX 06naCTcii HaYKIJ, KOTo- pble lfe06xoJl.HMb! IJ)lJl IIpaBlIlIbHoro BOCnpHJlTIIH 113JIaraeMOl'0 MaTcpllana. AHaiIln 3KcnepllMeHraJIbHblX IICCrreJl.OBaHHH Tex IIJIH I1HblX xapaKrepllCTIlK Bcer,n;a npe.!lBapJlCTCH onllcaHlieM nCHXOIlOrllqec- 5 .. POJ1b H3cne.n;CTBeHHOCTH H cpeJJ.bl B q,OpMHposaHHH RHJJ,HBHAYaJIhHOC- TH qenOBeKa ITO.l\ pel\. 11 B PaBHq'l1\ep60 M., 1988, Me EtOpOBa reHeTHKa nOBc.n.eHIHI. nCHxonorWJ.eCkHH acneKT. M. 1995, feHentK3 nOBC.l1eHJUI kOnlrlfe- CTBeOHblH aHaJlH3 nCHXOJ1OfH\leCKHx, " nCHx0<pH3HOJIOrH'IecKHx npHJHakOB B OH- ToreHe,e nO!! pe!!. C E MilJIblX M, J 995 .... $ cIJorem., A MOTynbckH. reHe1'"HKa "IenOBCKa M., 1990 (nepe&oJ( kHHrH, H1..l13HHOH B 1986 r). P neaOHTHH qeJlOBeqeCKa H"JrHBH.1I.ya.nbHoCTb HaClIe.LICTBeHHOCTb H cpe.l1a, M., 1993 (nepe:ao.n. KHHrH, H3.n:aHHoH B 1982 r) 4 
Koro (Hnl1 nCllxo(jlM3HonOrHqeCKOrO) cO,!\epJKaHII )TIIX xapaKTe- pMCTIIK 11 Toro TeOpeTM'leCKOro KOHTeKCTa, B paMKax KOToporo OHII 6bInH Bbl,!\enCHbI (B nCHxonorllH HHTennCKTa, nClIxonOrllll nll'lHOCTII, nCHXOJlOrHH pa3BHTIIJI, ,!\H(jI(jIepeHl(MaJlbHOH nCIIXQ- (jI1I3HOJIOrlm II T ,!\.). De3 )Toro HeB03MOJKHa KoppeKTHaJi IIHTep- npeTat.(IIH l\aHHblX reHeTHKH nOBe,!\eHHK. CrpeMCb npe,!\OCTaBMTb qllTaTcnlO KaK MO)J(HO 60Jlee non- HYIO IIH(jIopMal\HIO 0 ,!\OCTHJKeHIIKX reHeTIIKH nOBe,!\eHI1K qeJlOBe- Ka, Mbl BKJlIOqHJlI1 B KHMry H KJlaCCHqeCKYIO (jIaKTOJlOrHIO (npOBe- peHHYIO B l\eCHKax HCCJlel\OBaHHH H He BbI3blBaIOII1YIO COMHeHI1H B ec 1\0CTOBepHOCTII), II pC3ynbTaTbi caMblX nOCJle,!\HHX IICCJle,110- BaHllli, KOTOpbIM eII1e npCI\CTOHT Bbll\epJKaTb npOBepKY BpCMe- HeM, 110 6e3 KOTOpbIX HeB03MOJKHO nOHKTb TeH,11eHl\IIH pa3BHTHK COBpeMeHHOH reHeTlIKII nOBel\eHH. B CB"311 C 3TIIM npll nOl\ro- TOBKe KHHrH Hcnonb30naJlIICb KaK 0606II1aIOII1l1e pa60Tbi (PYKO- BOI\CTBa, MOHorpa(jlHH, 0630pbl), TaK H OTl\enbHble 3KcnepHMeH- TaJlbHble pa60Tbl, 0606II1eHHe pe3YJIbTaTOB KOTOpblX 6blJlO Bbl- 1J0JlHeHO aBTopaMH .n.aHHOH KHllrH CnC.I\yeT TaKJKe QTMeTHTb, '1TO Mbl HCnOJlb3yeM KaK CI1HO- HHMH'IHble )l.Ba Ha3BaHHK onHCbIBaeMOH 06naCTH 3HaHHJI - "nCJ1XoreHeTHKa" H "reHeTtfK3 nOB.e,lleHH 1.JenOBeKa". IIpH4HHbI 3Toro COCTOJIT B cneI\YIOIl.\CM B 20-e rO.I\bl o6naCTb HCCne.I\0Ba- HlfK npHpOAbI HHJ/.HBHJ/.yanbHblx pa3nWIHlf B IJOBeAeHqeCKlfX OCO- 5eHHOCTKX qeJIOBeKa II JKHBOTHblX Ha3bIBaJlaCb reHeTI1KOH nOBe- AeHHK. Ha3BaHlle "nCHxoreHeTIIKa" nOJlBIIJlOCb B Haqane 50-x ro- .I\0B B 3ana.I\HOeBpOfJeiicKOH II aMepMKaHcKoii reHeTHKe nOBelle- HHK MK 0603HaqeHIIJI 05nacTH IICCJleIlOBaHHH, HanpaBJleHHblX Ha 113Y'IeHI!e Hacne)J.OlJ.aHII" nCHXOJJOrH'IeCKHX xapaKTepHcTHK qeJlO- BeKa OHO npocYII1ecTBoBano He,110nro II YJKe B 60-x rOAax npaK- TH'IeCKII nepeCTano ynoTpe6nKTbCJI B MllpOBOH nHTepaType no reHeTHKe nOBelleHHJI B POCCHH Ha3BaHHe "nCHxoreHeTHKa" He HCqe31I0 H npOI\OnJKaeT MCnOJIb30BaTbCK HapK.n:y C 06II1enpHHK- TblM B ,n;pyrHx CTpaHax HaHMeHOBaHlfeM "reHeTHKa nOBel\eHI1K '-IeJJOBeKa". OTMeTHM TaKJKe, '1TO TepMHH "nOBel\eHlle" B reHeTHKe no- BelleHIlK tpaKTyeTc" MaKCHManbHO WHpOKO. OT aKTHBHOCTII OT- l\enbHOro HeHpOHa 1\0 JlH'IHOCTHbIX qepT qeJIOBeKa. IT03TOMY npaK- TH'IeCKIi Bce ypOBHII (jIYHKl(HOHllpOBaHIIK, CBJl3aHHbie C AeKTenb- HOCTbIO HepBHOH CIICTeMbI, MorYT JlBJIJlTbCJI 06beKTaMH H3Y'le- 6 HIIK reHeTHKM nOBelleHlIK. 3TO Hawno CBoe OTpaJKeHHe M B MaTe- p"anax, npHBoAHMblX B )!;aHHOH KHllre HapKI\Y C nCHxoreHeTH- qeCKHMII MCCnel\OBaHHJlMH HHTeJUIeKTa H yrllx nCHXOJlorHqeC- KHX xapaKTepl1CTHK '1HTaTenb HaHl\eT JIlCCb CBeAeHHJI H 113 OTHO- CIITeJlbHO MonOAbIX, HO IIHTeHCHBHO pa3BMBalOII1HXCK OtpacneH reHeTMKH nOBe)!;eHIIH - nClfxo(jlll3110JIOrllqeCKOH reHeTHKI1 H HeiiporeHeTHKII. ITCI-IXOreHeTMKa BKnlOqella Hel\aBHO B 06pa30BaTeJIbHbfH CTaH;rapT nOMOTOBKI1 IICMxOJlOrOB B Ka'leCTBe caMOCTOKTenbHOH yqe6HOii I\IICI1HnJlHHbI. .II.aHHa KHHra BJlJleTCK yqe6HbiM noc0611- eM no KYpCY nCHxoreHeTHKH JI,JIJI CTYl\eHTOB H aCnl1paHTOB nCMXO- JJOfHqeCKI1X (jIaKYJJbTeTOB OI\HaKO HaM XOTeJJOCb 5bl HaAeJlTbC, qTO KHHra 6Y)!;eT MHTepeCHoii H nOJIC3HOH M /I.llil/Wyrllx CIlel11/anH- CTOB M nOCJlYJKHT HM BBe)!;CHlleM B HenpepbtBHo pa3BIIBaIOtl(yroCJI II 6eCKOHeqHO YBneKaTeJIbHYIO 06naCTb HaYKI1- B rCHeTHKY nOBelle- HH '!eJIOBeKa. rnaBbll, 6, 10, 11,12,13 HaTIIICaHbI C.D MaJIbtX; rnaBbl2, 3, 4, 14 - T.A.MeUIKoBoii; rJJJBbl 7, 8, 9, 15, 16 - M.C EropolJ.ojj, maBa 5 - cOBMeCTHO T.A.MewKoBoH, M.C.EropOBoH H C.E.MaJlbIX 
qacmb I KP ATEA.ff MCTOPilE rEHETllliH rrOBHllE 
rnABA 1. KPATKAS! IiICTOPJ,lJ rEHETIiIKJ,IJ nOBE,QEHJ,lJH reHeTIIKa nOBeAeHIIR qenOBeKa cpaBHIITenbHO HCAaBHO wOJK!lJIaCb KaK caMOCTORTeJIbHaSl HaY'IHaSl AIICQHnJIHHa, liTeM HC MeHCC OHa HMCCT CBOlO 60raTYlO npeAbICTOpHlO, TCCHO ncpe- nnCTCHHYro C paJBIITHCM rCHCTMKIf qCJJOBCKa. .llCTOPHH reHCTHKII AOCTaTO'lHO nOAPo6HO onHcaHa, nOJTOMY B AaHHoi1 rrraBe Mbl oc,aHOBltMCJI TOJIbKO Ha C06blTIIRX, HCTlOCpeACTBeHHO CBJl3aH- HblX co CTaHOBJICHIICM rCHeTIIKII TlOBCJjCHltJl KaK caMOCTOHTeJlb- HOH HaYKH. OJjHHM H3 HCTOKOB reHeTHKH nOBCAeHIIH, TaK )I(e KaK H rClle- TltKI1, HBnHeTCH TCOpHH 3BOJllOQIIH, pa3pa60TaHHaH q..II.apBltHOM B XIX BCKe. CYTb JjapBHlloBCKOH Toopnn JaKJUO'lae-rcl! B CJ1CJ.!yroLQCM Bo-nepBblx, Y oc06eH BHYTpH KBJKJjoro BHl\a Ha6J1lOJjaeTCJlII3MeH- qHBOCTb no lOpcjJOJIOrH'IeCKHM II cjJII311OrrOrHqeCKHM npH3HaKBM, npltqCM 3Ta H3MeH'II1BOCTb B03HIt\(ae-r cnyqaHHbIM 05paJOM Bo- BTOpbIX, 3TB H3MCH'IltBOCTh HacrrCJjYeTCH. B-TpCTbHX, B CBmH C or- paHHqeHHOCTblO Hc06xol\HMbIX PCCypCOB OC06H JjaHHoH nonynH- 111111 60pIOTCH 3a 1Jbl)l(HBallIlC. Hall50rree npl\cnOC06ncHHbIe BbDI{It- BalOT II OCTaBnSlIOT nOTOMKOB, 06JlB,l1aIDLQHX TCMH JKC rrpHJHBKaMH. B pe3YJ1bTaTC TaKoro CCTCCTBeHHoro oT6opa HaH60rrec npHcnoco6- JIeHHbIX oc06eH npcJjcTaBIlTenH JjaHHoro BHl\a Bce nyqwe aJjanTH- PYJOTCSI K YCJlOJ!HJJM oKpYJKaIOLQeii CPC.!];b'- TaKHM 06pa30M, B DCIIO- Be McxaHH3Ma 3BonIOQHII nCJKaT '!pH cjJYHAaMCHTarrbHblX cjJaKTO- pa - H3MCH'IHBOCTb, HaCJIeACTBeHHOCTb II CCTeCTBeHHblH OT60p. II }:IapBHH nOHHMaJI, '1TO cjJeHOMeH HaCJJeI\CTBCHHOcrn I'!rpaeT CYLQe- CTBeHHYIO pOJIb B BOJDOI1HOHHOM npOI.\Ccce. Ol\HaKO npCJjCTBBne- HHH 0 HaCnCI\CTBCHHOCTH*, CYLQCCTBOBaBlllltC B TO BpeMR, pa60TBJIH npDTltB ero TeopHH. .. COrJIaCHO 3THM npen.CTaSJ1eHIUiM, HRcne.n:CTBeHHOe BeIlleCTBO pO.LIJ1TC- nei{ CMeWHBaeTC,," y nOTOMC'I'S8 nO.lI.06HO )I,BYM B3alu.topaCTBopHMblM :iKH,!J.KO- CTSIM (TeopHSI cmlTHOH Hacne,nCTBeHHOCTH) 11 
OCHOBHoe B03pa)l(eHHe npOTHB 3BOJI1Ol\HOHHOH TeopHH }];apBHHa 6blJI0 BbllJ,BHHYTO <I>..II.)I(CHKHHCOM. ECJIH HaCJIe,ll.CTBeH- Hble 3JICMeHTbl p0,ll.HTeJIeH CJIHBaIOTCR, TO npH3HaKli B nOCJIe.I\YlO- I'!X nOKOJIeHHHX ,lI.On)l(HbI HMeTb npOMe)l(YTOqHbIH xapaKTcp H B KOHQe KOHl\OB HCXOMble npH3HaKH ,lI.0J1)1(HbIIlC'Ie3aTb. CJIe,ll.OBa- TenbHO, 3TH npll3HaKH He MorYT 5blTb 05'beKTOM eCTeCTBeHHoro oT6opa (TaK Ha3blBaCMblH "KOlliMap .II.)I(eHKilHca"). H JIHIlIb OT- KpblTHe f.MeH.neneM AIICKpCTHoro xapaKTepa Hacne.I\YeMOCTii CHJlnO B03pa)l(eHHe .II.)I(eHKHHCa, nOCKonbKY 6blJIO YCTaHOBlleHO, '1TO HaCne,ll.CTBeHHble :mCMeHTbl HC cnHBaIOTCH, a coxpaHHIOTCH HCH3MeHHbIMH OT nOKOJICHIIH K nOKoneHHIO. llOHBJIeHHe 3BOJIIOl\IIOHHOH Teoplili .nano TOJIqOK IICCJle.no- BaHIIJlM lj>eHoMeHa lIacne.nCTBeHHOCTI1. .II.0 nORBneHII" KOHl\em.\IIU .II.ap1JHlla lj>eHOMeH HaCneJl,cTBeHHOCTH npaKTII'IeCKH He IICCJ1eJl,O- BaJICJI, XOTR rHnOTe3bI 0 npHpo.ne H3CJIe.l.\CTBeHHOCTH BbICKa3bI- BaJIHCb. B OCHOBe 3TIIX rHnOTe3 Jle)l(aJI MHorOBeKOBOH OnbIT Bbl- paHBaHHJI KYJlbTYPHbIX paCTeHI1H It p33BeAeHilli CKOTa, KOTO- pblii nOKa3b1BaJI, qTO nYTeM H36i1paTeJIbHOrO CKpCHBaHHJI MO)l(- HO YJIY'IIlIaTb copTa H nopOlJ,bl. .II.3BHO 6blJI0 3aMeqeHO H TO, qTO Y JIIO.l.\eii MHorlie qepTbI, BKJIIO'IalOlIe He TOJIbKO BHelliHOCTb, HO H oc06eHHOCTH nOBc).{eHIIJI, nepc.nalOTCJI OT pOMTeJIeH nOTOMKaM. lly6mlKal\HJI B 1859 ro).{y KHHrll "IIpoHcxo)l(.l.\eHHe BH.l.\OB nYTeM eCTeCTBeHHoro oT6opa" npoll3Bena peBOJIIOI.\1I1O B B033pe- HIIIIX yqeHbIX H npHBeJla 1\ llI1\p"KOMY pBcnpOCTpaHeHltlO 1\ npM- 3HaHHlO H.nei1 .II.apBHHa. O.lUlHM 113 BB)I(HblX nOCJIe.l.\CTBHH 3TorO C06bITnJl CTano np06Y)I().{eHl1e HayqHOrO HHTepeca K npOIlCXO)l(- .neHIlIO qeJIOBeKa II nOHHM3HHe ero npllHaAITeJKHOCTH K )l(HBOTHO- MY MHPY. H.ne" npHCllOC06HTCJIbHOrO 3HaqeHH" nCIIXHKH, BbllJ,- BHHYTaH q.}];apBIIHOM, HMena 60nbwoe 3Ha'IeHHe H AITJI P33BH- THH nCIfXOJIOrHII. OTKpblTble }];apBHHOM 3aKOHbl BOJIIOI.\HH no- CTaBltJ!H ncpeJl, nCMX0J10Tlleii 33)\3'!y OnpeJl,eneHJ.lH Jl,BH)I(yll.\HX CHJ1 nCHXII'IeCKOrO pa3BHTHJI, COnOCTaBJ1eHIUI nCHXHKH JKHBOTHblX II 'IenOBeKa. IIo.l.\ BJ1IUIHHeM H).{eH q..II.apBI'!Ha B03HHKnH TaKHe 06- naCTH I1CHXOJIOrHII, KaK nCHX01l0flfJl pa3BIITlIJI H cpaBHHTeJIbHaR nCHXOJIOnl". Ha TeOpemqeCKHe KOHlIenl\HH nCHXOJIOrHIl pa3BIITHR TeopHH 3BOJIlOI.\IIH OKa3ana npRMoe BnHRHHe: TeOpHJI peKanHTY- 1IJlI.\IIH, c(jJopMynHpOBaHH3R CT.XOnJIOM H .II.JK.I:;OJl.l.\YHHOM, oc- HOBbIB3naCb Ha 6HoreHeTI1qeCKOM 3aKOHC 3.feKKe1lR, cornaCHO KOTOPOMY 3apO.l.\b1IllH BbICIlIHX JKHBOTHblX nOBTopHIOT, B COKpa- 12 U.\eH HOM BH.ne, 3Bon1Ol\H1O npe.nIllecTBYIOll.\HX )l(HBOTHbIX 1j>0pM. ITo TeopllH peKanHTy1IRI.\IfH, B xo.ne HHIJ,HBH.!I.yaJ1bHOrO pa3BIITlfR pe6CHOK TaKJKe npOXO.l.\HT 3Tanbl 3BOJIlOl\110HHOrO npOl\eCCa II KyJlhT)'pHoro p33B1lTIIII '1enOBe'leCTBa. HeCKOJIbKO 3a6eraJi BnepeA, MO)l(HO OTMeTHTb, qTO, no MHe- HlilO cOBpeMeHHoro HeMel\KOrO 3BOJUOI.\HOHHCTa 3 Mailpa, nORBne- IIlIe BOmoI.\HOHHOH TeOp1111 npOH3Beno KOHl\enTyanbHYlO PCBOJllO- I.\H1O, nOCKOJIbKY npHBe110 K 3aMCHe THnOflOrHqeCKOrO MbllllJIeHHR noI1YJlJll\HOHHbIM (BapHal\IIOHHbIM) (Whitney G.,1990). HCTOpHlO pa3BIITHR reHeTHKH nOBeAeHHJI qeJIOBeKa ycnoB- HO MO)l(HO pa3J1,emlT'b Ha '1eTbIpe OCHOBHblX ncplloJl,a: 1) 1865-1900 - 3apOJKAeHHe reHeTHKH nOBeAeHHH '1e- JIOBeKa; 2) 1900-1924 - CTaHOBJIeHHe reHeTIIKH nOBe.J\eHH K3K caMoCTOJlTeJIbHOii HayqHOH AIICl\HnJIHHbI; 3) 1924-1960 - HaKOnJleHHe 3MnllpHqeCKOrO MaTepHaJla; 4) C 1960 no HaCTORll.\ee BpeMR - cOBpeMeHHblH 3Tan. KpaTKo oxapaKTcplnyeM Ka)l(,1\blli H3 3TH X 3TanOB II qYTb 6011ee nOAP06HO OCTaHOBHMCJI Ha I1CTOpHH pa3BHTHJI reHeTHKH nOBe.l.\eHHJI qCnOBeKa B POCCHH. 1.1. 3apO)l(){eHHe reHeTHKH nOse.l.\eJlHK '1eJlOBeKa <I>.fanbTOH 6blJl OAHHM H3 nepBblx, KTO YBH.neJl B 3B0111O- l\HOHHOH TeopHH MHOJKeCTBO nepcneKTH8, KaCalOll.\HXCR qeJlOBCKa H nCHxonorHH B 1865 rOAY B )l(YPHane "Macmillan's Magazine" <I>.raJ1bTOH ony6nl1KOBaJI CTaTblO, B KOTOpOH OH 060cHoBbIBan IIAeIO HaCJIe.l.\CTBeHHOCTH TanaHTa II B03MO)l(HOCTH yny'lllleHlI" qe-  * JIOBeqeCKOH npHpOl.\bl nYTeM p33MHO)l(eHIIJI o.napeHHblX JIIO.l.\eH . IIo3AHce, B 1869 roJl,Y, <I>.raJIbTOH nOI.\P06Ho 1I3JIOJKHn C80H B3rnJl.!l.bI B KHHre "Hereditary Genius, its Laws and Consequences"**, KOTopaH CTaJIa OCHoBononaralOLI.\eii AITJI reHC- Tl1KII nOBe.l.\eHHR qeJIOBeKa. 01< BnOCJIe,lI,CTBHH 3TH HJ],eH 6ynyT J'[OJIO:IKeHbI <D raJ1bTOHOM B OCHOBY eBreHHKH - O,ll,HOrO J{) HanpaBJleHHH HCCJ!ellOB3HHH 8 reHeTHJCe l{.TJOBe"a .. PYCCK';\ ne-pe90a Kmu' "HacneJJ.:CTReHHOC'Tb Tana\\Ta., 38KQHi:.l « no- cnc.aCTBHR" 6bln BnepBbIC ony6JIUKOB3H B 1875 ro,!:\y 13 \. 
B IICH OnHCalIb! nepBble MnHpHqeCKUe HCCne)(OBaHH Ha- CJIe)(yeMocTII nOBe)(eHI1 qeJIOBeKa. <1>.fanbTOH npe)(npHHJlJI no- nblTKY onpe,l\eJIIITb U H3MepllTb ceMeHHoe CXO,l\CTBO )(JlJI ,l\Ocn!- JKeHHH B caMbIX pa3HbIX C<pepax - OT 1OpU,l\H'IeCKOii H penHrll03- HOH ,l\eTenbHOCTH lIO cnOC061I0CTeH K rpe6JIe II 60pb6e. <1>.raJIb- TOHY Y,l\anocb nOKa3aTb, qTO: 1) BepoTHoCTb npOBneHI1H TanaH- Ta B ceMbX BbllIa1OHXC JI1O,l\eH HaMHoro Bb!We, qeM B 06we- CTBe B l.\enOM; Z) BepoTHoCTb Toro, '{TO pO.lI;CTBeHHHK BbJ,lIaJOe- rocJI qeJIOBeKa 6y)(eT TarraHTnl1BblM, B03paCTaeT no Mepe YBerrll- qeHH CTeneHH pO)(CTBa. 3TH OTKpbITH n03BOJIHlIII <1>.fanbTOHY C03,l\aTb nepBYIO MaTeMaTl1'1eCKY1O MO.lI;eJlb ceMeHHoro CXO,l\- CTBa - Cq,OPMYJIl1pOBaTb "3aKOH pOD;OBOH HaCne,l\CTBeHHOCTH". 3TOT 3al\OH lIOBOJlbHO XOpOUJO onHCbIBan npOHBneH1fI1 !j>aMIIJIb- Horo CXO,l\CTBa, O,l\HaKO He 6bIJI OCHOBaH Ha rJry60KoM nOHHMa- HI1H ,l\eHCTBHTenbHbIX MexaHlI3MOB HaCJIeI\CTBeHHOCTI1, KOTopoe CTaJIO B03MOJKHbtM lIIlIIlb B Ha'larre l\Bal\l.\aTOrO BeKa, noeJle nepe- OTKpbITI-IH K KoppeHCOM, r..II.C<PPIl30M II 3.qepMaKoM 3aKoHOB MeHl\e!IR. C I'!MeHeM <1>.faJIbTOHa C1J3aHO II C03l\aHHe MeTOAH'IeCKO- ro apceHarra reHeTHKII nOBe)(eHHJI - OT exeM 3KcnepllMelITanb- Horo HCCJIe.lIOBaHHH 1\0 MeToD;OB MaTeMaTllqeCKOro alIaJIII3a .lIaH- HbIX .II.nJl HCCrre.lIOBaHI1H 3aKOHOMepHOCTeH Hacne,l\CTBeHHOCTlI 11 H3MeHqHBOCTH <1> rarrbTOHOM 6bIJIH pa3pa60TaHb! OCHOBbI BapH- aQHOHHOH CTaTlICTIIKII, B TOM qHCne pH,l\ BaJKHbIX CTaTIlCTHqeC- KHX MeTO,l\OB, KOTopbIe IIcnorrb3Y1OTCH 1\0 CIIX nop (HanpHMep, perpeCCI10HHbIH H KOppeJIHl.\IIOHHbIH aHaJIH3). OlIHOH 1I3 3acrryr <1>.rarrbTOHa MOJKHO CqHTaTb ero HlIe10 (Galton F , 1875) 06 HCnOJIb30BaHI111 6mt3HeQOB .lIJIH BbIJleHe- HH pOJ!H HaCJIelICTBeHHOCTH. B l\aJIbHeHWeM no npHBeJIO K pa3pa6oTKe 6JIH3HeQOBOrO MeTOl\a, KOTOpblH H B HalliH I\HH HBJIneTCH OI\HHM H3 OCHOBHblX npl1 113y'leHHII BOIIRHHH HaeJIel\- CTBeHHOCTH II Cpel\b! Ha !j>OpMlIpoBaHlle IIHI\HBII,l\yaJlbHbIx pa3rrllqllH. lfMeHHo <1> ranbTOH nepBblM npHMellHJI OCHOBHOH MeTO- ,l\ll'leCKHH npIleM, KOTOPb!M reHeTHKII nOBe)(eHI1 qerrOBeKa nOJIb3YIOTC H CerOI\HR. COrJIdCHO <1> raJ!bTOHY, '1T06bI OQeHllTb BnHHlle HaCrre,l\CTBeHHOCTH Ha nCIiXOrrorHqeCKlle xapaKTepHcTH- KII, He06xo,l\llMO KaK MOJKHO 60nee TOqHO KOrrHqeCTBeHHO Ol.\e- HHTb 3TH xapaKTepHCTHKH H 3aTeM conOCTaBI1Tb 0l.\eHKH y n1O- 14 j J lIeH C H3BecTHOH CTeneHbIO POI\CTBa (y 6rrIl3HeQOB, pOlIHTeJIeH H jleTeH H T.,l\.). ):\n peweHII nOCTaBJleHHbIX 3a.lIaq <1>.fanbTOH pa3pa6a- TblBarr H MeTO,l\bl 113MepeHH nCHXH'IeCKUX IiJYHKQIIH qenOBeKa (OCTpOTa oyweHIIH, BpeMS! peaKl.\HH H TJI,.), KOTopbIe CJlYJKlInH jlnH ol.\eHKH HH,l\IIBH)(yaJIblibIX pa3nHqllll MC)J(,l\Y JIIOl\bMH. Ha- npHMep, HM 6bIJI C03)(ali cnel.\lIanbHblii CBIICTOK (CBHCTOK faJIb- TOHa) i\JlJI onpcjleJleHH BepXHero nopora cnyxa. 3TH Hccne.zr.OBa- HHH <1>.fanbTOHa 3anOJKIIJlH OCHOBbI nCIIXOJIOrlm HHlIHBHlIyanb- HbIX pa3nH'IIIH H nCIIXOMeT)JHKH. TaKHM 06pa30M, <P.fanbTOH onpelIenllJI OCHOBHbIt no,DJ(O- jlbI II nOHJlTIIS!, KOTopbIe CTanH I\eHTpanbHblMIi TeMaMH reHeTlIKH nOBe):\eHIIH. JI1060nbITHO, qTO B TO)J(C BpeM" B POCC",I, B 1865 ro)(y, B JKypHarre "PyccKaS! cTapllHa" 6bInH ony6nHKoBaHbI OqCPKH B.M.<1>nopIlHcKoro "YcoBepIlleHcTBoBaHHe II BblpO)J(.zr.eHHe '1e- nOBeqeCKOrO pO,l\a" (B BH.zr.e oTi\eJlbHOH KHHrH 113.zr.aHbl B 1866 ro.l\y), B KOTOpblX TaKIKC pa3BftBaJOTCH IInCIf YC(}BepUJe/JcTBOBa- HH "qeJ!oBe'lecKoH nOpOl\bI". no MHeHHIO OTC'ICCTBeHHblX HCTO- pllKOB HaYKH H reHeTI1KOB, 3Ta pa60Ta 3anOJKHJIa OCHOBbI OTe'Ie- CTBCHHOH MeI.UII.(HHCKOH reIiCTIlKH. OD;HI1M 113 Ba)J(HbIX Cpe.zr.CTB YCOBepweHCTBOBaHIiJi paC!>I B.M.<I>J!opIfIiCKIf!I C'IIfTan TaKo» C03HaTeJlbHI>IH nO.l\60p c}n- pYJKeCKI1X nap, KorAa naTOnOrHqeCKoMY npH3HaKY OI\HorO H3 cynpyroB npOTI1BOCTOIIT HopManbHblH npH3HaK Apyroro. "Bbl- 60p cynpyroB npH 6paKOCOqeTaHHI1 npe.zr.cTaBJ!JleT O.l\HH 113 BaJKHbIX rllrHeHHqeCKHX BonpOCOB, caMoe cywecTBcHHoe YCJlO- BHe lIlIH yrrY'JIIJeHIIJI nopo)\bI. aT Ka'leCTB cynpyroB Hcnocpe.zr.- CTJJeHHO 3aBilCHT H Ka'leCTBa nOTOMCTBa". - nl1weT B.M.<Pno- pIlHCKHll. ITo ero MHeHHIO, no.zr.06HblH no)(60p ocna6J\JlCT IInH Bo06e YCTpaHJleT .l\e4JeKT 60rrbHoro po.zr.HTeJlJl, COOTBeTCTBeH- HO, BO BCeM IIaCtJIeHI1H qllCJlO 60J!bHb1X YMeHbIlleTCH H TeM ca- MbIM "nopOlIa ycoBepIlleHcTByeTcH" OH D;eTaJlbHO paCCMaTpll- BaeT B03paCT BCTynneHHH B 6paK, HpaBCTBeHHbIe H <PH311'1CC- KHe KaqCCTBa II onllCblBaeT 6pa'lHbIe KOM6HHaQHII, KOTopbIe npHBO,lIT K nOBJleHHIO He6naronpHTHbIX npH3HaKOB y no- TOMCTBa. Oc060e MeCTO B pa60Te B.M <PnopHHCKoro 3aHIIMa- eT aHanH3 BJ\mIHIIJI 6mI3KOpOl\CTBCHHbIX 6paKOB Ha 3,lIOpOBbe nOTOMCTBa. 15 
1.2. CTBHOBJleHHe reHeTHKH nOBeJ(eHHSI 'IeJlOBeKa KBK CBMOCTOSlTeJIbHOii HaY'IHOii .lIHCnHllJIHHbI JIB BHHMaHl1e MHorHX HCCJIeJ(OBaTeJIeH, npell.nOql1TaIO!l(IJX KOHT- ponlipyeMblii reHeTl1qeCKHii 3KCnepl1MeHT nO.llCqeTY KoppeJI'-lHi1 Me)!{II.Y Ha5J1IO.lIaeMb1MIJ nepeMeHHblMIJ. no Mepe pa3BIITIJ 3KcnepHMeHTaJlbHOH reHCTIJKH HaMe- THJlC paCKOJI MeJK.!I,y npell.CTaBHTeJlJlMIJ 6HOMeTpHqeCKOH I1IKOJlbl 11 reHeTHKaMH, KOTOpbli1 B Te'leHlle J(eCHHJleTHH OKa3bIBaJl 50Jlb- 1lJ0e BJlHJlHHe Ha pa3BI1TI1e HaYKI1. CTOPOHHI1KH 5110MeTpIl'leC1<0- ro nOll.xo.lla, B qaCTHOCTH, <p.faJlbTOH, K ITHpCOH 11 HX nocJlell.o- lJaTenll, I1HTepeCOBaJIHCb npeI1MY!l(eCTBeHHo KOJIl1qeCTBeHHblMH 113MepeHHJlMil HenpephIBHo I13MeHIO!l(HXC npIf3HaKOB. OHII npe- YBeJlHqliBaJlIi ponb MeJlKHX Ii HenpepbIBHblX H3MeHeHI.H If IIrHO- pHpOBaJIIf 3HaqeHlle CKaqK006pa3HbiX H3MeHCHHii, OTpmaJlH ,!\I1CK' peTHOCTb HaCJIe.n;CTBeHHOCTII. MeTo.n;bl perpeCCHH H KOppeJl'-lI1H HBIIHJlHCb OCHOBHbIMH CTaTlICTlJ1leCKIIMH IIHCTpYMCHTaMH EHo- MCTpHKaM 5bIlIO H3BeCTHO, '1TO BapHal.\H MHOrHX BaJKHbIX xa- paKTcpHCTHK BJlHeTC HenpepbIBHoii; OHH BH.n;eJlH, qTO TaKa He- npepbIBHaJi BapHa'-ll1J1 XOpOl1l0 05'bcHeT nOCTeneHHOCTb eCTe- CTBeHHOrO oT60pa B TeopHH .II.apBI1Ha CTOpOHHHKIf 6110MeTPH- qeCKoro nOlJ;xo,!\a CqHTaJIl1, qTO MeHlJ;elIeBCl<lie 3aKOHbl, BbIBCI\CH- Hble H3 OnbITOB C ropOXOM, HC npl1MeHI1Mbl K CJlOJKHblM npli3Ha- KaM BbrCI1IHX opraHH3MOB, pacnpeJ(eneHHe KOTOpbIX COOTBeTCTByeT HOpMaJlbHOMY. C .n;pyrOH CTOpOHbI, MHOrO'lHCJIeHHbIe 3KCnepHMeHTbI re- HeTI1KOB nOIJ;TBCpJK.n;aJlH OTKpblTble MCHJ(eJIeM 3aKOHbi H CBHJ(e- TeJlbCTBOBaJlI1 0 J(IICKpeTHOM xapaKTcpe HaCJIe.n;CTBCHHOCTH 113 31'0ro CIICJI,OBaJIO, qTO l1J(eH nOCTenCHHOCTIl H3MeHeHI1H B npO'-lec- ce eCTecneHHoro oT60pa 6blJla 011l1160'lHOH CKopee, B OCHOBe 3BOJIIOl.\HH JIeJKaJlH CKaqK005pa3Hbie HaCJlCJ(CTBeHHble H3MeHe- HIIJI - MYTa'-lHH. B CBH3H C pa3HOH O'-leHKOH pOJIII HenpepbIBHOH H IHICKpeT HOH 113MeH'IHBOCTH B 3BOJlIO'-l1l11 nOJleMIII<a MeJK.!I,y npe.n;CTaBltTe- JIMI1 .n;BYX I1IKOJI-reHeTHKaMH II 6HOMeTpl1KaMH - 050CTpl1- JlaCb Cne.n;CT1JUeM 3TUX .n;UCKYCCHH CTaJlO 1jJ0pMHpoBaHHe K 20-M ro,!\aM KpaHHe HeraTHBHOrO OTHOllieHIIH K TCOplilf .II.apBHHB, II JllIl1Ib 3aTeM npOlf30l1lJlO nOCTcneHHOe npll3HaHHe pOJIH eCTeCTBCH Horo oT60pa reHeTH'IeCKI'!X BapHaHTOB B 3BOJllOl.\HH. ):\JlH nOHHMaHHJI npHpo.n;bl HcnpepbIBHOH H3MeHqHBOCTI1 He06xo.n;HMO 5blJl0 06'beIl.HHHTb 06a nOjI,XOlI.a, '1TO H npOll30l1lJlO B pBMKax KOHI1enu,1111 MHOJKeCTBeHHblX !jJaKTopOB. B [9[8 roll.Y 17 B 1883 r. faJIbTOH npe.ll:JloJKIIJI Cne'-lHaJIbHOe Ha3BaHI1e AJ]JI HaYI<H 06 YJIY'IllieHIIH nOpO.n;bI qeJIOBeKa - "eBreHHKa". ECJlH ne- peBOII.IITb CJIOBO "eBreHHKa" 6)'KBaJlbHO, OHO 03Ha'iaeT HaYKY 0 "pOJKlleHHH nY'II1IHx". EBreHHKa npeAJ]araeT npHMeHHTb MeTOll I1CKYCCT1JCHHOH CeJ1eKl.\HH K '1enOBCI<Y, AJ]H TOro 'IT06bI BocnpoH3- BOJ(HTb nOTOMCTBO C JKCJlaTCJlbHbIMII npH3HBKaMH. O.n;HaKo KB- KHe npH3HaKil JKCJlaTCJlbHbl, a KaKl1e HeT? ITpo!l(e OTBeTIITb, Ka- KHC npH3HaKH HC)!{e,laTeJIbHbI (CJIenOTa, CJIa60YMHc H T..n;.). B 3a- BHCHMOCTH 01' Bbl60pa TOH HJlH HHOH 3al\aqH, B CBrCHHKe MOJKHO BbIl\eJIIITb )l.Ba HanpaBJleHII - n03HTHBHYlO H HeraTHBHYlO CBre- HHKY YCHJlIIH n0311THBHOH eBreHIIKIl HanpaBJleHbl Ha nOMO!l(b 6paKaM, llalO!l(HM l.\eHHOC AJ] 06!l(eCTBa, OJ(apeHHoe H 3)J.opOBoe nOTOMCTBO; l.\CJlb HcraTHBHoH eBrCHHKI1 - C03,!\aHHC npCnJlT- CTBHH AJ]JI 6paKoB, .n;aJO!l(HX Jl,c!jJeKTHBHoe nOTOMCTBO. <P.faJlbTOHa MOJKHO OTHeCTH K CTOpoHHHKaM n03HTHBHOH CBreHIlKII, TorJ(a KaK 3a.n;a'lll, nOCTaBJlCHHble B.M.<PJIOpHHCKIIM, CXOllllbI C 3al\a'laMIl HeraTIIBHoH CBrcHIlKH H COBPCMCHHOH MC,!\H- I.\IIHCKOH reHeTHKII. BOJicc nOJl,p06HO Ha HCTOpllH eBreHH'IeCKO- ro )l.BHJKeHII MbI OCTaHOBHMCH qYTb n03JKe. B 1866 ro.n;y 6blJla ony6J1HKoBaHa pa60Ta C 113J10JKeHHCM !jJYH,!\aMeHTaJIbHbIX OTKpblTIIH f.MeHJl,eJIJI, KOTOpblH YCTaHOBHJI 3a- KOHoMepHoCTIi nepe.n;a'lH HaCJle.n;CTBeHHbIX 3all.aTKOB, HO 31'a pa60 Ta, K COJKaneHHIO, He 6blOa Ol.\eHeHa COBpeMeHHIIKaMH. OCHoBHOH 3acnyrOH r.MeH.n;eJlH 6billO OTKpblTI1C J(IIcK]JeTHOrO xapaKTepa Ha- CJle.n;CTBCHHOCTH <PaK111qCCKH HMeHHO f.MeH.n;enb BIDIeTCJI OCHO- BOnOJlOJKHHKOM reHeTHKU, XOT JIeTOHC'IIICJIeHlle reHeTHKII Be.n;CTC C 1900 rOlla - MOMeHTa ny6JIHKal.\HH pa60T K.KoppcHca, f.):\e!jJ- pI13a,3.qcpMaKa. BTOpH'IHOe OTKpblTHC B 1900 r. 3aKOHOB MeH.n;cJlJI CTIIMY- JlHpOBaJlO MHOrOqHCJlCHHbIe 3J<cnepl1MeHTaJIbHble HCCJleIl.OBaHH H lI.aJlbHcHIIIYIO pa3pa60TKY TeopHH J(IICKPeTHOH HaC!Ie,!\CTBCHHO- CTII. C 3Toro MOMCHTa reHeTHKa Ha'laJIa pa3BIIBaTbCH 6bICTpblMH TeMnaMH. K 1910 ro.n;y B03HHKJlI1 ,!\eCJlTKII JIa60paTopHH BO MHO- rHX CTpaHax MHpa, B TOM qHCJIe H B POCCHH. feHeTHKa npHBJleK- 16 
6blJla ony6JIHKOBaHa CTaTbJl P.<I>I1111epa "The correlation between relatIves on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance" (FIsher R., 1918), B (<OTOpOH 6biJIII H3J\O)I(eHbi OCHOBbl HOB oro nO.l\XOi\a K np06J1eMe. KOHl.\enL\ilH MHO)i(CCTBCHHbIX <paKTOPOB OnHpaeTCH Ha II.Ba OCHOBH1,IX nOJlOJKeHilW I) !jJaKTopbl, KOHTpOJlllpYlOll\He KOJmqeCTBeHHble npH3Ha- KiI, HaCJlcl\YIOTCH B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3aKOHaMH MeHlI,eJlH, 2) BJlHJlHHe 3THX <panopoB Ha npH3HaK HOCI1T KYMYJIHTIIB- Hblii xapaKTep, a BKJlai\ Ka)l(II,Ot'o H3 IHIX B H3MeH'IHBOCTb npH3HaKa HaCTOJlbKO MaJl, qTO BJlHJlHHe Jl,HCKpeTHblx reHO- THI1H'IeCKHX rpynn CTaHOBUTCH Hepa3J1UqHMbIM. TaKHM 06- pa30M, Ha OCHOBe JUICKpeTHOH H3MeHqHBOCTH reHonma MO- JKeT B03HHKaTb HenpepblBHaJI 1t3MeH'IHBOCTb !jJeHOTltna (Ma- 3ep K., }:\)I(IIHKC .II.)I(.,1985). KOHl.\emUIJIIdHO)l(eCTBeHHbIX !jJaKTopoB CTana TeOpCTH'leC- KOH OCHOBOH HOBOii Hay'IHOH Jl,HCL\l1l1nltHbI - KOnltqeCTBeHHoH rCHeTHKl1. KOnH'ICCTBeHHaJI reHeTIIKa OCHOBblBaeTCJI Ha npei\- CTaBnCHHH 0 TOM, qTO MeHII,CJIeBCKHii MexaHH3M i\IICKpeTHoro HaCne.!lOBaHHH npHMeHHM H K HenpcpblBHO pacnpell.CJICHHblM cnOJK- HblM npH3HaKaM. UPOHCXOJI,HT :no B Tex cnyqaHX, KOr.!la HecKonb- KO rCHOB, Ka)l(l\blH H3 KOTOpblX .!Ian He6onbillOH 3!jJ!jJeKT, npll COBMeCTHOM .!ICiiCTBHH C03.l\aKJT Ha6nlO.!IaeldbJe Pa:JJIHqjjJl lde)!(lJY HH.!IHlJlI.n:aMH B nonynJIL\HII. EcnH Ha npll3HaK OKa3bIBalOT BJIHH- HHe 60Jlee 3-4 reHoB, TO Ha6mo.!laeMbie B nonynJlL\HII cro BenH- 'lltHbl pacnOJIaralOTCH Ha HopManbHoii raYCCOBOH KpIlBOH. <I>YH- i\aMeHTaJIbHOC nOJlO)l(CHHC KOJIII'ICCTBeHHOH reHCTHKH COCTOIH B TOM, qTO nOJlHreHHblC (TO CCTb o6ycnoBncHHble BJIHHHHCM MHO- rHX reHOB) pa3nll'lHJI Me)l(lI,y IIHII,HBH.!IaMIl MorF npllBOi\IITb K !jJeHOTHnHqCCKlIM pa3JH!'IHHM. Cpell.OBbie !jJaKTOpb! TaK)Ke MorYT BJlHHTb Ha Ha6nIO.!IaeMYIO B nonyJlHL\HII H3MeHqIlBOCTb. <I>YH.!I.aMeHTanbHoe 3Ha'leHHe .!I.iJJI rCHCTHKH nonYJIHI1HH, B TOM qHCnC II .!I.iJJI reHeTIiKH nOBe.!leHH!I qeJlOBCK1!, I1MenO i\OKa3a- TenbCTBO B 1908 roll,Y oCHoBonOnaralOll\eH TeopeMbl nonynJlL\iI- OHHOii rCHeTHKiI, nonyqllBlUeii BnOCJIei\CTBHiI Ha3BaHHe "3aKoHa Xap.!lH-BaHH6epra" (no IIMeHH aHrJllIHcKoro Id1!TeMaTIIK1! XapJI,H iI HeMeL\IWrO Bpaqa BaHH6epra, He3aBilCI1MO i\pyr OT II.pyra OT- KpblBIllltX TOT 3aKoH) ITpaBllJlo XapJI,H-BaHH6epra onHCblBaeT oco6oc COCTO!lHlle paBHoBecHH, 06ycnOBJ1eHHOC CJIY'laHHbIM cKpell(lIBaHileM, II 06'bJlCHJIeT, nOqeMY OT nOKOJleHIt!l K nORo- 18 nCHlt10 He B03paCTaCT qaCTOTa BCTpeqaCMOCTH .!I.OMItHaHTHblX reHOB B 1921 ro/l,y C PaiiTOM 6bIJI pa3pa6oTaH MeTOi\ "K03<p!jJH- Lll1eHTOB nyTeil", KOTOpblH OKa3anCJI qpe3Bbl'laHHo 31J!jJeKTIIB- HblM /l,JIH CTaTIlCTHqeCKOrO aHanlt3a npllql1H I'! CJIe.!l.CTBl1ii B CHC- TeMe KoppenltpYIOll\ltX npI13HaKOB. CornaCHO 3TOMY MCTO/l,Y, JJIO- 60e CTaTHCTlI'leCKOe BblpaJl<CHHe MOJl(HO npell.CTaBIITb 11 Blt.!le JI,H- arpaMMbl MeToJ.\ "K03<p!jJHL\lteHTOB nYTeH" no cYll1eCTBY npe.!l- CTaBJIeT C060H 1!Hanor aHanHTltqeCKOH reOMeTpl1H B CTaTHCTlIKe (11H q ,1978). AHanl13 nYTcH n03BonHeT nOJlyqaTb pe3YJlbTaTbl 60nee 3KOHOMHbiM cnoc060M no cpaBHeHHIO C Tpa.!l.ltLlHOHHblMIt IJpHeMaMII B /l,aJIbHCiiwe/l1 3TOT MeTOi\ nOJIY'llln WllpOKOC pac- npocTpaHeHlle B reHCTHKe nOBe/l,eHItJl. DJIaro.!lapJI MeTO/l,aM KOJ1HqeCTBeHHoH reHeTHK11 nOBItJIaCb B03MO)l(HOCTb OL\CHHBaTb rCHeTlt'leCKlte II Cpe/l,OBbIe KOMnOHCHTbI tjJeHoTHIJllqCCKOH IUICnCpCl'!1I nCI1XOJIOrHqeCKHX npH3HaKoB. DO- nee nO.!lp06HO MeTO/l,bl KOJlHqeCTBeHHoH reHeTHKII paccMalpllBa- IOTCH B rJ1aBe 6. B 3TH JKC rOll.bl (KoHel.( XIX - Ha'laJIO XX BeKa) CKna/l,bl- BaJlaCb CIlle O.!l.Ha HOBaJi caMOCTO!lTeJIbHaJi HayqHa i\HCL\HnnH- Ha - 31(CnepHMeHTaJlbHaH nCItXOJIOrHJI, IICTOpli1O KOTOpOH MO)l(- 110 OTCqltTbIBaTb C MOMeHTa nOJlBJleHI1H B 1874 r KHItI'1t B.BYH- .n:Ta "OcHoBaHIIH <p1t31t0JlOrnqCCKOH ncItXOnorHI1" B 1879 ro/l,y B BYH/I,T C03/1,an f(CIIXOJIOI'HqecKYIO na60paToplllO, a 3aTeM H HH- CTIITYT KcnepHMeHTaJ1bHOIi nCIIXOJIOrHH npH JIcHnL\HrCKOM YHH- BepCItTeTe, B KOTOpbIX CHCTCMaTlI'leCKIt npltMeHJlnHCb 3KCnepl1- MeHTanbHble MeTO/l,bI II,JIH IIccne/l,OBaHIIH nCHXHqeCKI1X npoLleccoB ()K/I,aH A.H., 1990). ITo311.Hee BO MHomx CTpaHax nOJlBI1J10Cb 60nb- woe KOJmqeCTBO nCItXOJlOrl1qeCKHX J1a60paTopIlH, B KOTOpblX IIH- TeHCIIBHo BeJIIICb 3KCnep11MeHTaJ1bHblC ItCCJIe.!l.OBaHItH BblCWItX I1CRXl1qeCKHX !jJYHKL\HH, - nOi\ PYKOBO.n:CTBOM f.366HHrapa, o KIOJ11,ne, 3.KpeneJ1HHa, 3.EneHnepa II ApyrHx. CJICII.YCT oTMeTHT1" '1TO 3KcncpllMeHTaJlbHaH nCHXOnOrHJI 61,lJla HaL\eneHa Ha HCC1Ie.!lOBaHIIC 06Illl1X 3aKoHoMcpHocTeii nclt- XIIKII, B TO BpeMH KaK Ha6nlOi\aeMble B 3KcnepllMeHTe ItHJl,HBH.!IY- aJlbllble pa3J]II'IH MeJK/I,Y 1110/1,1,1.111 CqllTanl'!Cb He 60Jlee '1eM OWll6KPii H3MCpeHHJI. O):{IlaKO no Mepe pa3BI1TI1H 3KcnepllMeH- TaJI1,HOIi nCHXOJlOrll11 Y)I(e caMH ItHJl,HBlii\yanbHble pa3nH'IHH CTa- JlH npeJ.\MeTOM HCCne/l,OBaHHJI nCHXOJIOrOB (A.DHHe, .II.)I(. K3TIen, 19 
B !lITepH, A.<D.Jla3ypCKIiH HAP ). BCneA 3a <D faJlbTOHOM, BbIA- BI'!HYBIllIIM I1AelO n:CTHpOBaHIIR nCIiXIPJeCKHX rpYHKl1HM, A EHH3 npeiI,JIoJKl1n cepmo TeCTOB il,JIJlI1CCJIe)],OBaHI1R nl1'1HOCTlI, a B 1905 mAY 6b1J1a ony6nHKoBaHa pa3pa60TaHHaJlIIM, COBMeCTHO C l' CH- MOHOM 11 B.AMpll, "WKana IIHTenJIeKTyanbHoro pa3BI1THJI" 3TH TeCTbl 6blnl1 C03AaHbi MR 113yqeHI1J1 HHAHBHAyaJIbHblX oc06eHHO- CTeH JIIOAeH 11 6b1JII1 nepBbIMH 3KCnepl1MeHTaJIbHblMH MeTOAaMH CKJIaAbIBaBweMCR B TO BpeMR nCI1XOIIOrHH J1HI\I1BHAYaJIbHb!X pa3- I1l1qHM (AHrprpepeHl\HallbHOH nCHXOIIOn1l1). IIpaKTJI'JeCKI1 O,L(HOBpeMeHHO 6wnl1 pa3pa60TaHbi OCHOBbl rpaKTOpHOrO aHallH3a (Pcarson K., 1901, Spearman c., 1904), OKa3aBwero 60nbwoe BnHHHlIC Ha pa3BHTI1e He TOllbKO nCllxOJIO- nlH, HO H reHeTlIKI1 nOBeAeHHJI. ITcpBOHa'lallbHO rpaKTopHblM aHanH3 HcnOllb30BallcH MR HCClle)],OBaHHH CTpYKTypbl HHTellneK- Ta Ha6JIIOAaBWHeCJI KoppellHl1l1H MeJKAY pa3Hoo6pa3HbIMH Tec- TaMH, II3MepJlIOll(HMII YMCTBCHHble cnOC061J0CTH 'IenOBeKa, npl1- BellH Hccnel\OBaTeJIeH K MblcnH, qTO Bce 3TH pa3Ho06pa3HbIe Te- CTbI 113MepJllOT OAHO 11 TO JKe CBOMCTBO. B 1904 rOAY 'i.CnHpMcH BblCKa3an MblCJlb 0 TOM, qTO MO)((HO AOKa3aTb CYll(eCTBOBaHHe OAHoro rpaKTopa, AHarHOCTllpyeMoro pa3Hoo6pa3HblMH TCCTaMH YMCTBeHHblX cnoc06HoCTeH. <DaKTopHblH aHanll3 - 3T0 MeTO)], Hccne)],OBaHIiR BHYTpeHHeH CTpYKTypbl KOBapHal\HH 11 KoppellH- l\Hit, nOMOralOll(IIH onpel\enHTb OCHOBHble BIIHHHHH, HJIlI '!JaKTO- pbl, JIe)((all\lle B OCHOBC BapHal\HH H3yqaCMOro rpeHOMefla. HeCMOTpH Ha TO, qTO HOBbie HanpaBneflHR, B03HI1KIllHe B reHeTlIKe H nCHxonorHH, B Ha'lane XX BeKa TOllbKO rpOpMHpOBa- JIHCb, nOTefll1l1allbHoe 3HaqeHHC 3TI1X AIICl\lInnHH MH nOHI1Ma- HHJI npllpOAbl qeJIOBeKa 6b1J1o OqeBIlAHO HMeHHO TorAa Ha'la- JIIICb nepBble I1CCJle)],OBaHHR HacneAyeMOCTI1 nCI1XOJIOr\1qeCKHX npI13HaKOB, MHorHe 113 KOTOPW( 6bIJIII npOBe)],eHbl B paMKax eB- reHHqeCKOrO HanpaBnefll1H. ITepBoe ,neCHTHJIeTHe Haillero BeKa 03f1aMeflOBaJlOCb 6yp- IIblM paJBI1T1ICM eBreHIIKII, KOTopaR C!jJOpMHpOBaJlaCb KaK Hayq- Hoe lIanpaBlleHl1e, CAellaBlllee MHoroe MR nOHllMallHR pOJIH re- Honma B rpOpMl1pOBallHI1 HIIAI1BHAyaJlbHblX pa3JIHqHH, HO no- 3.n:Hee CHHCKaJlO BeCbMa HeOAHOJfla'IHYIO penYTal\HIO EBreHHCTbi CqllTaJlH, qTO MIIOrl1e 3a60JlCBaHHR (CJIa60YMlle, CKJIOHHOCTb K anKOrOJIII3MY 11 T A) reHeTl1qeCKH o6ycnOBJleHbi 11, cneAOBa'feJlb- HO, nOJJJl.aIOTC5i KOHTpomo eBreHHqeCKI1MII cpeACTBaMH TaK, 20 nporpaMMa npaKTllqCCKOIi eBreHHqCCKOH nonHTIiKIf, 0,!t06pcHHaR COBeToM AHrnl1HCKOrO EBreHHqeCKOrO 06ll(ccTBa, )],eKnapl1pOBa- Jla, '1TO rIIaBllble cpe,nCTBa YCKopellllJl COl\lIaJIbHOrO nporpecca nYTeM ynY'IIllCHIIR BpO)((AeHHbIX CBOHCTB paCbl COCTOJIT B YBellll- qeHHH nOTOMCTBa pOAOB C BblCOKIIMH cnOC06HOCTJlMH H, Ha060- pOT, YMeHblllCHlUI nOTOMCTBa pO)],OB C HH3KIIMH cnoc06HOCTRMIi. llpaKTlI'IeCKHe M epbl II:IIH OCYIl1eCTBJIeHHR 3THX l\eneH npeAYc- M aTp I1B ami I) OrpaHlfqelllfe pa3MHO)((eHIIH 6e3Ha)],e)((Ho-,nelj!eKTIIBHbIX TllnOB nYTeM cerperal\IIH H cTepH.'1II3aL\HII, 2) OrpaHH'ICHlle pa3MepoB ceMbll; 3) KOHTponb JaqaTIIH, 4) Bbl60p cynpyra no onpe)],eJIeHHblM KpIfTepIlHM, 5) OrpaHllqeHHe HMMllrpaL\IfH, KOTopaH MO)l(eT nOHH311Tb paCOBble Ka'leCTBa HaL\HH H T.,!t. 060CTpCHI1e BO MHoniX cTpaHax COl\l1anbllblX II 3KOHOMH- qeCKHX npo6neM nocne nepBoH MHpOBOH BOHHbI nopo,!tIlJIO oco- 6blH IIHTepec K eBreHllqeCKHM nporpaMMaM. HaH60Jlee llll1pOKOe pacnocTpaHeHl1e eBreHllqeCKlie lI,neli nOJIyqHJIH B CIlIA. eHT- pOM eBreHH'JeCKOH nponaraH)],bi cnY)((Hn fOCYAapCTBeHHblH ap- XHB eBreHHKH no)], PYKOBO)],CTBOM 'i E .II.aBeHnopTa, npIlHHMaB- 1lI11H caMoe aKTIfBHoe yqaCTHe B 1jJ0pMllpOBaHIflf COL\lIaJIbHOH no- JIHTI1KH B OTHOllleHl{1I IIMMllrpal\HI1, B qaCTHOCTH, B C03AaHHH CI1CTeMbl pa3peUJCHI1H H 3anpeIl1eHHH Ha Bbe3)], B CIlIA Tex I1JIIf I1HblX Hal\HOHanbHbIX rpynn. YCIIJlHJI, KOTopble npeAnpHHIIMa- JlHCb MR OrpaHHqeHIfH HMMHrpaQIIH, 6blllll AOCTaTOqHO 31j!1j!eK- THBllblMH B 1924 roJl,y KOHrpeccoM CIlIA 6b!J1 npHHJIT I1M- Mlirpal\HOHHbIH OrpaHl1qllTeJlbHbIH aKT .[(JKOHCOHa, COrJlaCHO KOTOPOMY nOOIl1pRJIaCb IIMMHrpaL(IIH HOPAHqeCKOH HIIII aHr- JlOCaKcoHCKOH pacbl If OrpaHl1qllBanaCb HMMllrpal\I1H BbIXO,n- I1eB 113 lJOCTO'lHOH If !O)/(1I0H ElJponbJ, H oco6eHHO IIMMHrpa- I1HJI eBpeeB fpaJK)],aHe C06CTBCHHOH CTpaHbl TaK)((e He 6b1nll 060H)],e- Hbl BHIfMaHHeM eBreHIlKOB B 1907 roJl,Y B lilT aTe HHAllaHa (CIlIA) 6blll npllHJlT nepBblii 3aKOH 0 npllHy,!tHTenbHoii CTCPM- JII13aQltH B 1937 rOAY .II.)((OPA)((I1J1 CTaJla 32-M H nOCJlejI,HlIM llITa- TOM, npHHRBllIl1M JaKOII 0 eBreHllqeCKoi! CTepl1J1113al\HH. EOJIb- WI1IJCTBO llITaTOB BKmoqanO B cnHCOK nOKaJaHIiH MJI npIIHYAII- TeJIbHOH CTepHJlIIJal\lm OJlHrorppeHHIO, nCHX03bl, KpHMIIHaJIbHble 2 I 
HaKJIOHHOCTlI, xpOHHqeCKHH aJIKOrOJIH3M, 3nHJIenCHlO, npOCTHTY- l\HIO IIlI,p. AHaJlOrHqHblC 3aKOHbl 06CYJKI\aJlIICb 11 B eBponeilcl{HJ( cTpaHax, HO BCTpeTHJ1i1 CHJIbHOe conpOTHBJIeHHe. B EBpone no- ,l106Ub1H 3aKOH 6blJl npl'!HRT TOJlbKO B rHTJIepOBCKOH fepMaHHII B 1933 roJl,Y H 1IIIIpOKO npHMCHRJICR B Te'leHlfe nOCJle,l1YIOrn;lIx 12 JIeT BHa'lane 3aKOH npHMemmcH MJI cTepllnH33l\HH YMcTBeHHo H .pH3HqeCKIf HenonHOl\eHHbiX Jl,eTeH, a 3aTeM If MR CTepHJIH3al.\IIH npel\cTaBlfTeJ1CH pa3J1H'IHbIX 3THH'IeCKIfX rpynn, TaKHx, KaK eB- pell, nOJ1RKH, PYCCKlfe. B 20-30-e rO,l1bf B f epMaHHH flpOBO.D.HnHCb wHpoKlle 6nll3Hel\OBble Ifccne.D.OBaHIfJl, KOTopbIe flOOrn;pRJIHCb H,l1eOJIOraMH .pBWH3MB H l\eJIblO KOTOpblX 6blJIO 060CHoBBHHe Te3lfCa 0 paco- BOM npeBOCxO,l1CTBC HeMel\KOH Hal\IfH. PJI.D. HeMel\KHX Y'IeHbIX-re- HeTHKOB npHHJlJ11f IfAeOJIOrHIO q,awH3Ma II nbITaJlHCb nOABeCTH flO.D. Hce HayqHYIO 6a3Y. MHome 6nll3Hel\bl CTaJllI JKepTBaMII H3Y- BepcKlIx 3KcnepHMeHToB, KOTopble npoBol\HJ1 B KOHl\I1arepe Oc- BeHl\HMa Bpa'l H03eq, MeHrenc. TaK, MR I1CCne,l10BaHHR Te'leHHH 3360JIeBaHlIH n0,l10nbITl1blX 3apaJKaJII1 THIPOM H ,l1pyrHMI1 60ne3- HHMH IToIIIITlfqeCKlie C06bITlfJl 30-40-x rr. B fepMaHIIH CIIJlhHO flOBJIlfJlnll Ha 06rn;eCTlJeHHOe H HayqHOe MHeHHe BO BceM Ml1pe. ITocJle npOB03rJIarneHHJI HeMel\KHMH H3l\HOHaJ1-COl\HanHCTaMIi npOrpaMMhl, npe.l\ycMaTplfBaBweH CHa'laJla CTepllJ1H3al\HIO II 3B- TaHa3I1IO, a 3aTeM MaCCOBble y6Hi1cTBa, HaY'IHOe H 06rn;eCTBeHHOe MHeHHe B II,pymx cTpaHax oCYAl1no eBreHlfqeCKl1e IfCCne.l\OBaHIfJl, OTHoweHlle K HIIM CTano BCIO.D.Y npeAB3J1TbIM. K KOHI.IY 1930-x rr. eBreHH'IeCKOe ABIfJKeHl1e, KOTopoe BO BceM HayqHOM Ml1pe 0.l\H03Ha'lHO aCCOl\lIl1pOBanOch C rpy6blM nOnpaHl1eM npaB qeJ10BeKa, npaKTI1'1eCKIf npeKpaTHno CBoe cy- rn;ecTBOBaHl1e. qTO JKe KaCaeTCJI HaY'lHblx IfCCJ1e,l10BaHHH, Haqa- rblX B paMKax eBreHlf'/eCKoro ABIf)/(eHHJI If oplfeHTHpoBaHHblx Ha nOHCK reHeTlI'leCKliX ,l1CTepMlfHaHT HHl\lIBHAyaJlbHblx pa3J1H'IHH, TO OHH 6bIJIH npO.l\OJlJKeHbl B reHeTHKe nOBe,l1eHHH. L10B* - nOJIIICI1MnTOMHblH I\HarH03 CXOACTBa (Simens H., 1924). DblJIO nOKa3aHO, '1TO Ha,l1eJKHaJi IIAeHTH.pHKaUHJI 3HrOTHOCTlt** 6J1lf3HeUOB B03MO)l(Ha TOJlbKO Ha OCHOBe conOCTaBJleHHH 60JIb- woro qHCJla .pH3H'IeCKHX npH3HaKOB (QBeT rJla3, l\BeT Bonoc, q,opMa Hoca, ry6, yrneH, rpynna KpOBH I'! T.,l1.). Tor,l1a JKe r.CH- MeHC npeAJlOJKHJI IICnonb30BaTb l1J1H 11CCJIe.l\OBaHI1H He TOJlbKO M3, HO H .II.3 6JIH3Hel\OB. 3TOH ny6J1I'!KaQHeH f' CHMeHC 3anOJKHJI OCHOBbI HaY'lHoro npl1MeHeHI1H 6JIII3HeUOBoro MeTO,l1a B reHeTI1- Ke qeJlOBeKa. ITOJIBneHHe MeTOAB nonHCHMnTOMHoro CXOII,CTBB II pa3BH- TIle MeTO.l\OB 113MepeHI1J1 B 3KcnepHMeHTB.rrbHOii nCI1XOnOrll11 CTH- Mynl1pOBaJIO 6J1H3HeUOBble HCCJle.l\OBaHHJI B rCHeTlIKe nOBe,l1eHI1R. .0:0 3TorO MOMeHTa B I1ccneAOBaHHJlX l1aCJle.l\CTBeHHOH 06YCJlOB- JleHHOCTII nCHXOnOrnqeCKHX XapaKTepHCTIfK '1arn;e BcerO ncnonb30- BaJiCH CeMeHHblH MeTOA. TaK, HanpnMep, ern;e B 1904 r0.D.Y KapJI ITHpCOH npOBO,l1HJI HCCJIelI,OBaHHJI CXO,l1CTBa YMcTBeHHoro pa3BH- THH y CH6cOB***. OKa3aJ10Cb, '1TO Km(jJ(jJI1QHeHT KOppenJlQHH YPOB- HJI YMCTlJeHHOTO pa3BIITHH, KOTOpbIH l\IIarHocTHpOBaJICJI no OQeH- KaM yqHTeJleH, cocraBHJI MJI 6paTbeB 0,52. TaKoii ypoBeHb CXOII,- CTBa COOTBeTCTBOBaJI ypOBHIO CXOACTBa no .pH3I1qeCKI1M xapaKTe- pIlCTlIKaM, Ha OCHOB1IHIII1 '1CTO K.ITl1pCOHOM 6bIJI Ci\enaH BbIBO,l1 o BJII1J1HHII HaCJIelI,CTBeHHOCTIi Ha ypoBeHb YMcTBeHHoro pa3BI1- THJI (Pearson C., 1904). Pa3BHTI1e nCIIXO,l1HarHOCTl1qeCKHX MeTO- .LIOlJ ,l1aJID B03MOJKHOCTh IICnOJIb30BaTb CTaH.D.apTI13IfpOBaHHble TeCTb!. B O,l1Hoii 113 TIepBblX pa60T C IIcnOJlh30BaHHeM TeCTa EHHe- CI1MOHa 6bIJIIf 06HapY)l(CHbI 1I,0CTaTO'lHO BblCOKl1e KOppeJlSlUIIH (0,61) MeJK,l1y cH6caMIf (Gordon K., 1919). B nepBbIx 6JII13HeUOBbix I1CCJIeII,OBaHI1J1X 113Y'laJlH, Kal( npa- BlfJIO, II OA110nOnblX, 11 pa3HonoJlbIx 6m13HeUoB (FlIller J., Thomson W., 1978). B 20-30-e rOAbl, nocne nOJIBneHHJI AOCTa- TOHO H8t/.e)f(HbIX MeTOi\OB }1;M8rHOCTMKII 3MrOTHOCTI1, 'lHC'JIO 6JJ113- HCQOBhIX I1ccJIep,OBaHHH 3HBqHTeJIhHO YBeJII1'1l1noCb. HccnelI,OBa- JlaCb HaCJICACTBeHHaJi 06YCJIOBneHHocTb Mop.ponOnl'leCKI1X 1.3. 3Tan HaKOnJIeHHlI 3MnHpH'IeCKOrO MBTepmlJlB . )].Ba HJlIi 60nee nOTOMKOB. pOiK.l1.eHHMe OT MHOrOnJlO,WIOH 6epeMeH}{O tTH. Pa3JHPiamT MOHo:mr011-JblX (M3) (.of .D.H3HrOTHbIX ()t3) 6J1H3HeU08 M3 6nHJ HeUbl IiMeEO"r 100% 05ll(HX reHOB, a){3 - OKOnO S{f/o 061.l.!H:< reHOB. .... ilpHHa,roleJKHOCTE. k 011HOMY H3 Jt8yx TffIlOB 6JTH1HCUO!r - M3 UllH.lt.3 u. nOTOMICU OllHHX 'H Tex 1I'e po.aHTeJ1efi (6paTM1 Ii CeC1pbl). B 20-e rOAhI f.CHMeHcoM 6hIJI pa3pa6oTBH CPB8HI1TCJ]b- HO Ha,l1e)l(HblH MeTO,l1 l1,l1eHTI1q,HKaQIIIf M3 II .II.3 6ml3He- 22 23 
npll3HaKOB qCJIOBeKa ( Dahlberg G, 1926, DYHaK B.B., 1926; Vcrschuer a , 192711 ,lIp.), .lIepMaTOrJIHljIlIKH (Newman H., 1930, Vershuer 0, 1933, BOJIOU;KOii M B, 1936 H Jl,p), oco6eHHocTeH cep.lleqHO-coCY.lIHCTOii CHCTeMbl (Ka6aKoB H E, PbIBKHH H A., 1924; Vershuer 0., 1931132, MaJIKOBa H H , 1934 II .lip) II MOTOpHKII (Frischelsen-Kohler 1., 1930, Lehtovaara A., J938, MllpeHOBa A.H. H .lip.), HHTeJIJIeKTa (Tallman G , 1928; Holzinger K , 1929 Ii .lip.) H JlIi'lHOCTHbIX xapaKTepllcTHK (Carter H, 1933, Newman H, Freeman F., Holzinger J., 1937 II .liP.). Mbl He 6Y.lIeM nO.llp06HO OCTaHaBJIIIBBTbCIl Ha :JTHX pa60Tax, nOCKOJIbKY qaCTb 113 HIIX HMe- eT JlHWb HCTOpH'IeC1<Oe 3HaqeHlle, a )l,pyraJl - aHaJlll3HpyeTCJI B nocJIe)l,YIOll\Hx rrraBax KHllrH OCTaHOBHMCR mUllb Ha TCX IICCJIe- )l,OBaHIIJlX, KOTopble HMeJIH npllHI[HnllaJlbHOe 3HaqeHlle,ll,JlR pa3- BHTIIR relleTIIKH nOBe)l,eHHJJ qeJIOBeKa. K TaKI1M pa60TaM npeJK)I,e Bcero OTHOCJlTCR nepBble HCCJIe- )l,oBaHHR npHeMHblx .lIeTeH CYTb MeTo)l,a COCTOHT B conOCTaBJIe- HI1II )l,eTeH, pa3J1yqeHHbIX np" pOJK,ljeHHH co CBOHMII 6110JIOrHqCC- KHMH pO,ljCTBeHHHKaMlt II BocnHTblBalOll\HXCR B CeMbJlX npl1CM- HbIX pOI\HTeJIeH, C ,ljCTbMH, KOTOpblX BocnllTblBalOT 6110JIonlqec- Klle pO.I\I'!TeJlII. HaqaJIo I1CCJIe,ljOBaHI1HM nplleMHbIx i\creii n01l0- JKI1J1a ony6JI11KOBaHHaR B 1919 ro.l\Y pa60Ta K.fopI\OH, B KOTO- POH 6blJlO nOKa3aHO, qTO CXO.I\CTBO nOKa3aTe1lei1 I1IITeJI1IeKTa (r=0,53) cH6cOB, BOCI1I1TblBalOll\IIXCJI B npHIOTax, npaKHlqeCKH He OTJIH'IaeTcJI OT CXOI\CTBa CII6cOJ!, JKIIBYLlIIIX ,ljOMa. B 1928 ro.I\y 6blJIa ony6JIIIKOlJaHa pa60Ta, BblnOJIHeHHaH no KJIaCCHqeCKOMY BapHaHTY MeTO.I\a "nplleMHbIx i\eTeii". ABTOp 3T0l1 pa60Tb[, E EapKc, nOKa3aJIa, qTO K031j1Ij1Hl[I!CHTbl KOppeJIU;HH nOKa3aTe- JleH IIHTeJlJleKTa npHeMHblx .lIeTeii H HX npHCMHblX pO.I\IITeJICH 3HaqllTCJlbHO HHJKe (r=0,07 - MR OTlIa H r'=O, 19 - Mil MaTepH), 'IeM COOTBeTCTBYIOll\He KOppeJIIl11HH C 6HOJlOrllqeCKIIMI1 pO.I\HTe- mlMH (0,45 H 0,46 Mil OT1\a II MaTCpl1 COOTBeTCT.BeHIIO). B Hallll1 .I\HH MeTOi\ nplleMHblx l\eTeH WllpOKO I1Cn01lb3yeTc B reHeTHKe nOBe.I\eHIIR qacTHblM BapHaHTOM MeTOAa npHeMHbIX .I\eTei'i MOJKHO CqHTaTb MeTO.I\ pa3JIY'leHHblx 6J1H3lieUOB ITepBoi'i pa60ToH, B KO- TOpOH IICnOJIb30BaJlC 3TOT MeTO.I\, 6blJl0 HCCJIe,li,OBaHHe X.HhlO- MaHa, CD CDpllMaHa II K.XOJI3I1Hrepa, BbInOJlHeHHOe B 1937 fO,li,Y (Newman H et aI., 1937) B 3ToH. CTaBWei'i KaCCHqeCKOH, pa60- Te BnepBbre HapJl,li,Y C Bbl60pKOii M3 Ii .II.3 6JIH3HeOB, BOCnHTbI 24 BaalInlX.CJI BMeCTe, I1CCJJe,li,OBaJIOCb 19 nap M3 6J1113HeUOB, BocnH- TbIBaBWHXC paJ.l\eJIbHo. EJlH3HCUbi BbInOJlHJIH p.I\ CTaH.I\apTH- 30BaHHblX IiHTeJIJleKTyaJlbHblX Ii JlliqHOCTHblX TeCTOB TCCT CT3H- 1jI0pi\a- DIIHe, CT3HIjIOP.D.CKHH TeCT 1\0CTIIJKeHIIH, JIIi'lHOCTHbIH on- pOCHIiK BVI\BOpTCa-M3TTblOca, onpocHHK TeMnepaMeHTa II pJl.D. .l!Pyn!X TeCTOB HecMoTp Ha TO, qTO K031jJIjIHUIICHTbi KOppeJ1- UI1I1 pa3JIY'IeHHbIX M3 6J1H3HeLlOB 6blJ111 HeCKOJIbKO HIIJKC Tal<HX )j(e 1<0IjIIjIIIl\HeHTOB M3 6JI113HeU;OB, BocmlTblBaBWIIXC BMeCTe, ace JKe OHII 6h1JIl! 3Haq1lTeJ1bHO Bblwe, qCM Y .[(3. MeTO.I1 pa3J1Y- qeHHblX 6JIH3HeU;OB n03BOJIHeT oCYLlIeCTBllTb B 3KCnepllMeHTc npaK- Tl1qeCKIi lI)(eaJlbHOe pa3.I\eJIeHHe reHeTlI'IeCKHX II cpei\oBblx IIC- TOqHH1'OB BapllaTHBHocTH 11 nOCTOHHO IICnOJIb3yeTc B reHe- THKe nOBe.D.eHH TaKHM 06pa30M, C 20-x nO 60-ble rOl\bI 6blJIH pa3pa60TaHbI OCHOBHble MeTO.I\bl reHeTHKI1 nOBel\eHH H 110JIY'IeH 061IllIpHblll 3KcnepllMe!lTaJIbHblH MaTCpHaJI, KacalOlUlIHCJI caMblX pa3HblX oco- 6eHHoCTeH '1eJIOBeKa - OT MOpljlOJlOrllll )1,0 CJJOJKHblX. H KOMnJ1eK- CHblX ncnxOJIOrll'leCKHX xapaKTplIcTI1K. 1.4. COBpeMeHHI.IH )TIIn paJBHTlI1I reHeTHKH 1I0BeAeHHII Bo BTOpOH nOJloBIIHe XX aeKa K01lff'JeCTBO HCCiIej10BaTe- JleH, 113yqalOll\lIx Ilp06JIeMbl HaCJle,li,OBaHIIJI nCHXOJlOrH'IeCKIIX xa- paKTepllcTHK, JHaqHTeJIbHO YBemIq,lBaeTcll. B 1960 rOAY C03.I\a- eTH HayqHOe 06ll\eCTBO "ACCOl.\lIa1\lIJ1 reHeTHKH nOBe,li,eHH" (BehavIor Genetics ASSocIation) C C06CTBCHHblM JKypHBJlOM "fe- HCTIIKa nOBe,li,eHHH" (BehavIor GenetIcs) HMeHHo 1960 I"O.I\ MOJK- 110 CqHTaTb oljlllU;lIaJlbHOH .I\aToi! npHJHaHHJI reHeTlIKH 1l0Be)l,e- HI1 caMoCTORTeJlbHOI1 06J1acTbIO HaYKH OCHOBHIlJ! qaCTb YCIIJ1Hii B reHenJKe nOBCJleHIIJI B 60-70-e rO,li,bl 6blJla HanpaBJleHa Ha HCCJlCI\OBaHlie pOJII1 rCHOTHna H cpe- .I\11 B ljIopMHpOBaHHH HHI\HBI1,li,yaJIbHbIX pa3J1Hql1H B KOfHHTHB- HOH I'! JlH'IHOCT!lOH cljlepax. B Ha'laJle 80-x rO.I\OB HHTepec IICCJlC- .1IOBaTenei! npHBncxBIOT BOJMOJKHOCTH MCT0.I\OB reHeTHKH nOBC- i\eHIIH I\JJ Il3yqeHHR Cpel\br KaK H3BeCTHO, ceMeiiHoe CX.O.I\CTBO 06YCJloBileHo KaK reHeTllqeCKIiMli, TaK 1\ cpe.n:oBblMH ljIal-:TOpaMH MeTO.llbl KOJIH'IeCTBeHHOH reHeTIiKH .I\alOT Ii03MOJKHOCTb pa3.I\e- JlHTb BJIHHl1e 3TUX ljIaKTopoB TaK, HanpHMep, conOCTaBJleHlle 25 
CXO.!{CTBa npl1CMHblX pOJJ:HTe!ICH H JJ:eTeH n03BOJIJleT Ol1eHHTb pO!Ib CCMeHHOH CpC.!{bl. ITOJJ:06Hble HCC!Ie.n:OBaHH nOKa3anH BaJK- HYIO pO!Ib Cpel\OBblX BJIlIHI1H B $OpMllpOBaHHI1 IIHJJ:HBHAyaJIb- HblX pa3JIHq1lH. HMeHHO reHeTI1Ka nOBel\eHII cblrpana OCHOB- HYIO pOJIb B YCTaHOBnCHIUI Toro ljJaKTa, 'ITO l\eHCTBlle cpeAOBblX $aKTopOB Ha nCllxl1qeCKOe pa3BltTHC HeO,IJ.HHaKOno M q!IeHOB OAHOIt CeMblt. OKa3aJIOCb, qTO 113MCH'IHBOCTb nCHXOnOrH'IeCKI1X xapaKTepllCTI1K B 3Ha'JHTeJIbHOH CTeneH11 06YC!IOaneHa YCIIOBH- Mil JKH)HII (pa3Hble )!,PY3bH, YBJIeqeHIIH, HH)!,I1BHAyaJIbHbIH JKH3- HeHHblii onbIT), pa3nHqaIOWHMHC Y JJ:eTeH OAHOH ceMbH. Pa3JIH- qalOWllifc onbIT npHBO,IJ.HT K pa3!IHq1lJlM B nOBe,IJ.eHItIi. B 3TH JKe rO,IJ.bI 60!IbWOe BHIIMaHlle HCC!Ie,1!OBaTe!IeH B re- MCTKKe nOHc.a;eHlfl! nplfH!ICK8er npo6neM8 pa3BHTHIi. Pa60Tbl, no- CBWCHHble I1CC!IeI\OBaHIiIO BrrHHHH rCHeTl1qeCKHX II cpe,IJ.OBbIX ljJaKTOpOB Ha $OpMHpOBaHHe I1H,IJ.HBHJI.)'aJIbHbIX oc06eHHOCTeH nCHXOJlOrHqeCKHX H nClIxo1jJH3110nOrl1'1eCKHX xapaKTepHCTHK B xo)!,e pa3BIITH,)!,0 CHX nop 3aHHMalOT ueHTpanbHOe MeCTO B re- HeTI<KC IIOBe.a;CHHJ/. XapaKTepll3YJI COBpeMeHHblH 3Tan pa3BHTHJI reHeTHKII no- BC.!{eHH>I, HCJIb3J1 He KOCHYTbCJI nOJlBlleHH>I HOBhIX MeTO):(OB reHe- TIIKH noneAeHH, nnllJlHHe KOTOpblX Ha pa3BI1TI1C HCCnCJI,OnaHHii B .!{aHHOH 0611aCTI1 TpY,IJ.HO nepCOueHI1Tb. IIpe)l(.Qe Bcero - 3TO MeTO)!, aHaJIII3a CQenneHII>I. IIpl1 Ha- JIlI'I11H .!{aHHbIX 0 nOCJIeJJ:oBaTellbHblX nOKOrreHIIJlX MOJKHO onpe- Ae!IHTb cTeneHb CUenlleHH MCJKAY napaMH !IOKYCOB, qTO .!{aer B03MOJKHOCTb IIcnonb30BaTb JIerKO BbII!BJIHCMhIe rCHbI B Ka'JCCTBe MapKepOB .QPyrHx rCHOB, onpeJJ:eJI>lIOlI\IIX Te HJIII IIHbie npll3HaKII qeJIOBCKa (Ott J , 1985). MeToJJ: aHaJIH3a Cl1enJIeHH n03BOIIJleT JIOKall1l30BaTb reHbl, CBI!3aHHble C HaCneACTBeHHbIM 3a60nCBaHH- eM IIJIlI KaKI1M-JIII60 IlHbIM I!BHO BhIpaJKeHHblM npH3HaKOM. Pa3BHTHe BbI'IHCIIHTellbHOH TeXHIlKIi CTHMYJIHpOnano IIC- nOJIb30naHI1e B reHeTHKC nOBeAeHHJI MeTO,IJ.OB MHOTOMepHoro re- HCTllqCCKorO aHall113a. ITpll reHeTll'JeCKOM aHall1l3e nCI1XOnOrll- qeCKllX II nCHxoq!lt3l1onorH'JeCKHX xapaKTepllCTHK oc06eHHO HH- TepeceH aHMI13 HHTerpaJIbHbIX XapaKTepllCTIIK, nOCKonbKY B nCH- XOJIorl'!1I MHonIC nCIIXOrrOrHqeCKI1C ljIeHOMeHbl BbIJlBIIJlIOTC Ha OCHOlJC aHanll3a B3allMOCBJl3eif MeJKJJ:Y pa3!IH'IHbIMII nepeMeHHbl- Mil, KaK, HanpHMCp, ljIaKTop "g". HCnOJlb30BaHHe MHorOMepHoro reHeTH'IeCKOrO aHanl'!3a JJ:aeT B03MOJKHOCTb Ol1eHHTb npHpoJJ:Y 26 j B3aHMOCB>l3eH pa3JIllqHblX xapaKTepHcTHK, n TOM '1l1cnc H OTHO- CI!!11I1XC K pa3HbIM ypOBHM npOJlBJleHlI1! ljIeHOTllna (OT 6110XH- MflqeCKOrO JJ:O nCHXOIIOrH'fCCKoro). Dorrbwoe BnHJlHHe Ha pa3BHTlle MHorOMepHoro reHCTllqCC- Koro aHaJIH3a OKa3arra TeopH lIaTeHTHbIX nepeMCHHblX. ITol\ MOJJ:cnJlMII C naTCHTHb!MH ncpCMeHHbIMU nOHHMaeTCJI conoKyn- HOCTb CTaTHCTHqCCKUX Mo.!\eJleif, onHCbIBalOlI\IIX H 06'bI!CHSlIO- !.!1UX Ha6nfOAaeMble JJ:8lfHble !IX JanIlC!IMOCTblO OT HeHa6J11ol1.8e- MbIX (JIaTeHTHbIX) ljJaKTopOB, KOTOpb!e MorYT 5bITb peKOHCTpYII- pOnaHb] C nOM:O!.!1blO onpcAeneHHbIX MaTCMaTHqCCKHX MeTOJJ:OB. npHMepOM MOJJ:eJIU C naTCHTHbIMl1 ncpCMeHHbIMH MO)l(eT CJlY- )I(I1Tb ljJaKTOpHbIH aHaJIH3. B 1969 rOAY K.HopecKor npc./UfO- J/{II!I HOBbiM MeTO.l\ ./UfJl npoocpKl1 rHnOTe3 0 CTPYKTYPC .l\aHHblX. 3TOT cnoc05 "HawynblBaHIIJI rHnOTC3" norryqllJl Ha3BaHI1C KOH- IjJllpMaTopHoro $aKTopHoro aHaJlll3a. B OTJIII'Jlle OT TpaI\IIIUI- OHHoro HCCJleAOBaTemCKOrO (3KCnJIOpaTOpHoro) Bapllal!Ta ljJaK- TopHoro aHaJ1ll3a OCHOBHOH npllHl1l1n KOHIjJHpMaTOpHOrO ljIaK- TopHoro aHaJlH3a COCTOHT B TOM, '1TO IICClleAOoaTeJleM B Ka'le- CToe rllnOTe3bI (anpHopH) 1jI0pMHPYeTCJI CTpYKTypa O)l(u)!,aeMOH MaTpHUbl ljIaKTopHbIX HarpY30K (CTPYKTYPHaJl rllnOTe3a), KOTO- paJi 3aTeM nOl\BcpraeTCH CTaTHCTllqeCKOH npOBepKe. 3Ta oc05eH- HOCTb KOHljJupMaTopHoro ljIaKTOpl!OrO aHaml3a, TaK )l(e l<aK B03- MO)l(HOCTb cpaOHCHHJI ljJaKTopHbIX CTpYKTYP HCCKOJIbKHX rpynn Ha6I1IOJJ:eHI1H, IIMeJIa 50JIbWOe 3HaqCHlle M reHeTH'JeCKoro aHarrll3a B 1977 rOJJ:Y HUKonac MapTHH H JIHH.lI.OH H03 (Martin N., Eaves L.,1977) ycnewHo BOCnOJIb30BaJlHCb nOI\XO- AOM K.HopecKora AliI! reHeTIl'lCCKOro aHaJIIl3a KOBapllaQHoH- HbIX CTPYKTYp. MOl\eJIb JII1HeiiHblX CTpYKTYPHbIX CooTHoweHIIH K.Hopcc- Kora H cooTBeTcTBYlOll\aJl BbI'IHCJIHTellbHaJl nporpaMMa LISREL (LInear StructlIral RELation), nORBIlBIllal!CJI B 1973 rOJJ:Y, Jl,a!lll B PYKII IIccneAOoaTeJIJlM n 06JtacTiI rCHCTHKl1 nOBeAeHHJI MO!11HbIH HHCTPYMCHT .lIn reHeTl1qeCKOrO aHaml3a KOBapllal1l'!OHHbIX CTpYKTYp. Ha'IIIHal! C 80-x rOJJ:OB LISREL - O.!{Ha 113 HaH60JIce 110nYJtpHbIX KOMnblOTepHbIX nporpaMM, I<OTOpaSll\aeT n03MOJl(- HOCTb npOBepTb caMble CnO)l(Hb]e mnOTC3bI. B 3TOM naparpaljle Mhl JII1Wb KOCHYJlIICb Tex OCHOBHbIX .!{O- CTlI)I(CHIIH COBpeMeHHoro 3Tana pa3BHTHK reHCTI1KH nOBeI\CHHJI, )(OTOPbrM 11 nOCBJI!11eHa npeMaraeMaJi 'IlfTaTCJIIO KHllra. 27 
1.5. MCTOP"" paJBHTH" reHeTHKH nOllel1.eH..1I B POCCH" Mei1Hbli1 nMCT Jl,JIJI HCCKonbKHX npI13HaKOB, TlinOJIOrMqCCKHi1 nHCT 11.11." }I3yqeHH" OI1.HOpOI1.HblX TMnH'ICCKHX rpynn, PO.!lOBOH 6HO- rpaljJUQCCKHH JIHCT, l1.eMOrpaljJHqeCKMH ceMcHHblH JIHCT H ceMCH- Ho-po11.0CnoBHYIO Ta6JIHIY. B 1922 ro.l\Y B MOCKBe H K.KoJIbl.\oBbiM 6bIn OCHOBaH "Pyc- CKUH EBreHHQCCKI1H )KYPHan", KOTOpblH KOHconllAllpoBan .!lOC- TaTOqHO pa3Ho06pa3Hoe CBreHHqeCKOC .l\BIOKeHHe. Bccro ycncno BblHTH 7 TOMOB (1922-1930 rr.) JKypHana. .II.nJl OpraHM3 a l.\HH CBreHl!qCCKHX I1CCnCl\oBaHHH 6blJl C03.l\aH H CnCI.\HanbHblH OT.l\en J1pH HHCTHTYTe 3KcnepHMcHTanbHoH 6110JIomll. H.K.KonbI.\OB .l\0- CTaTO'lHO WHpOKO nOHHMan 3a.!laq" CBreHIIKH Ii BKnlOQaJI B Hee HC TOJIbKO COCTaBJICHHe reHCaJlOflfH, HO I{ rcorpa<jJ1{1O 60JlC3HCH, BHTaJIbHYIO cTaTMcTHKY, COl.\l1aJlbHYIO fllrHeHY, rCHCTMKY nCIlXH- qeCKI{X oco6eHHOCTCH qCJlOBCKa, H3yqCHI1e THnOB Hacne.l\OBaHHJI L\BeTa rJla3, BOJlOC I{ T..l\. B 3TH )/(e rO.l\bl IO.A.<I>IIJIHn'lCHKO B J1CHJ1Hrpa.u;e opraHlf30- Ban ElOpo no eBreHIIKC IIpH KOMIICCMH no 113YQeHHlO eCTeCTBeHHblX IIpOH3BOl1.HTenbHbIX CI{JI POCCHH !!pI{ POCCHHCKOH aKa.u;CMMM HaYK II Haqan H3.n:aBaTb "H3BCCTH" DlOpO no eBreHI1KC" EBrCHHQeCKOe .l\BIIJKeHHe B CCCP J1POCYIl\CCTBOBaJIO HeI\O- Jlro, nOCKOJlbKY lleJIII .l\BIf)!(eHII!I He COOTBeTCTBOBanH oljJHllHaJIb- HOH l{.l\eoJIonlll K 1930 rol1.Y CBreHIlKa B CCCP npeKpaTHJIa CBoe CYIl\CCTBOBaHHe. EBrCHH'IeCKOe I1.BH*C....e 19 HO!l6p!l 1921 rOl\a B MHCTHTYTe 3KcnepHMCHTaJIbHOH 6HO- norl1l{ npoillno nepBoe 3aCCAaHile pOCclfHcKoro HayqHoro CBre- HllqeCKOrO 06Il\CCTBa Ha 3TOM 3aCCI\aHliH npel1.Cel\aTenCM 06ll\e- CTBa Obln 1136paH Bbll1alOll\HHC!I ollonor H K KOJlbl.\OB B l1.aJlb- HeHwcM B pa60Te 06ll\eCTBa npllHIIManll yqaCTHe HC TOJlbKO 6HO- norH, MCI1.I1KH, HO H npe.n:cTaBIiTemll1.pyrHx HaYK, B TOM QHCJlC H J1CHXOJlOrl1 TaK, HanpHMep, B 1922 roJl,y r.H "leJlnaHOB, OCHOBa- Tenb nepBoro POCcl{HCKoro HHcTIITYTa nCHXOJlorHH, I1.Ba)\(l1.bl Bbl- cTynan C .n:OKna.n:aMH Ha 3aCcI1.aHHH PyccKoro EBTCHHqCCKOrO 06- ll\eCTBa Ha 20-M 3ace.n:aHHH oOll\ecTBa B ljJeBpaJle 1922 rOl\a OH BblCTynHJI C .n:OKJlaI1.0M "3HaqeHHe faJlbTOHa /\OJI cOBpeMcHHoi1 HaYQHOH nCIIXOnOrH!1", a 1J MapTe HM 6blJl c.n:enaH .n:OKnal1. Ha TeMY "ITpOOJleMa KynbTypbl TaJlaHTOB (pOJlb HaCJlCI1.CTBeHHOCTI1 H BocnHTaHH!I)" "lennaHoB Obln l1.al1eKO He el\HHCTBeHHblM nCH- xonorOM, npllHHMaBWHM Y'laCTlle B paOOTC PyccKoro EBreHl{qec- KOTO 06Il\eCTBa TaK, B 1923 ro.n:y C .n:OKJlaI1.0M "K Bonpocy 06 3KcnepHMCHTal1bHO-nCIIXOJlOTIIQeCKOM HCCJlCI1.0BaHHH JlHI.\ oco60 Ol1.apeHHbIx B HHTeJlJlcKTyaJlbHoM OTHOIllCHHH" Ha 3aCe,1(aHHH 06- Il\CCTBa BblcTynaJl A.IT.HCQaeB, HeCKonbKO n03)\(e - f.H Poccc JIIIMO C .n:OKnaI1.0M "B3r11!111. Ha cOBpeMeHHoe nOJlO)/(eHIlC Bonpoca 06 Hccnel1.0BaHilil HHTCJIJleKTyanbHblx cnocooHocTeH". CBOHMII TnaBHblMIi 3a)la'laMH PyccKoe EBreHHQeCKoe 00- Il\CCTBO CqHTano. I) myQeHHe 3aKOHOB HaCJlel1.CTBeHHoH ncpeAaQI1 pa3Hblx CBOHCTB, KaK HOpMaJlbHbIX, TaK 11 naTOJIOrHqeCKHX; 2) YCTaHoBncHHc HaCJlcl1.CTBeHHblx pa3nHql!H no HOpMaJIb- HbIM H naTOnOrHqCCKHM CBoHcTBaM pa3HbIx npo<jJeccHo- HanbHbIX 11 COI.\UaJlbHblX TlmOB; 3) HCCJlel1.0BaHilc 3K30reHHblX H 3H)J.orCHHbIX BJlHJlHHM, on- pel1. eJI !lIOIl\HX pa3BI1THe npH3HaKa; 4) 'l3yqelllle nJlo.n:OBHTOCTII Tex I1J1H IlHblX TlmOB. .II.n!l pewcHII!I 3TIIX 3a)la'l PyccKoe EBreHH'IeCKOe Of;Il\eCTBO npc.n:nonarano opraHII30BaTb c60p MaCCOBblX CTaTIlCTHqCCKIIX l1.allHblX no cTJ)oro MeTOl1.lIqCCKH 060cHoBaHHbiM H olJ;Hoo05pa3- HbIM cxeMaM ITnall noceMeHHoro CBreHII'JeCKOrO 06CJlCAOBaHH!I BKnlOqaJl B ce6J1 ceMcHHbIH nHCT )lJIJI OT.IJ,CJlbHblX npll3HaKoB, cc- HCTOP"" 6J1HJHeI(OBbIX HccnCI1.0BallHH IIepBblc ny6J1I1KallHH pC3ynbTaTOB 6m<3Hel\OBbIX HCCJleI1.0- BaHIIM B POCCHH OTHOCJlTC!I K Ha'lany 1900-x rO)lOB. 3TO pa60Tbi C A CyxaHoBa, T.H IOI1.IIHa, B B EYHaKa, f.B.C060JIeBOH B 1900 rol1.Y C A CYXa.HOB ony6J1HKoBan pa60TY "0 nCIIX03ax y 6m13HeL{OB", B KOTOpOH npOaHaJJlBllpOBan 30 cnyqaeB CXOll.CTBa nCHX03a y 6nH3I1eI.\OB. 3TY pa60TY B .n:anbHcHwcM npo.n:OJIJKHJI l' H IO.n:HH, KOTOpbIii onllcaJI YJKC 107 cJlyqaCB nCHX030B y 6mB- HelloB H3 3THX 107 cnyqaeB B 82 cJlY'la!lx 6blJIH 60JlbHbI 06a 6JIH3Hc!.\a, a B 25 cnyqa!lX - TonbKO O.n:HH 113 napbl. OJ\HaKO CllCTeMaTHqCCKlle IICCJIe)lOBaHHJI 6J1H3Hel\OB Ha'la- JlIICb TOJlbKO B 1929 r0I1.Y B MeJl.HKO-6110JIOrH'ICCKOM HHcTIlTYTe (B 1935 roJl,y OH 6blJI nepellMeHoBaH B Me.n:HKo-reHeTllqeCKHH HI{CTIITYT). 28 29 
OCHOBHa$l 3a.I\a'ia IIHCTIUYTa. no MHeHlllO ero .1\HpeKTOpa C I'.JIeBHTa, COCTOllJIa "B pa3pa60n:c C TOqKH 3peHHH reHeTIJJ<1I1I CMeJKHblX C HelO HaYK (6HOMeTpUlI, lIHTOJlonm. 6lOiIorHiI pa3BiI- TIi)!, 3BOJJJOl1J10HHOrO yqeHHH) npo6ncM Me.1\Hl\HHbl, aH'I}>onOJlorJlII iI nCilxonomH, paBHO KaK paJpa60TKa np05neM TeOpeTH'IeCKOii aH- TponorCHeTilKII" (neBilT c.r ,1936, cTp.5). MHCTIITYT npH.1\epJKH- BalICR KOMnJIeKCHOl'O nO.1\XO.1\a K peweHillO nOCTaBneHHblX 3all.aq, II.JUI qero B HeM 6blJIli OTl<pbIUI cneA)'lOlI.\HC OTlI.eneHII$I: reHeTilKH, l\HTOJIOrHH, MexaHIlKH pil3BIITHII II HMMYH06110nonm, BHYTpeHHHX 60lIC3HeH. nCHXOJIOrlfli. TeM He Mellee OCHOBHbIM HanpaBJJeHHeM IICCJlell.OBaHHH I1HCTIITYTa 5blJlO IICCiIell.OBaHHe ponll reHeTllqCCKIIX H cpe.n:OBblX BmlHilHM B 3TII01I0rliH 601lC3HeH. B HHCTHTYTe H3Y'Ia- JIaCb HBCJICl1.CrneHHaR 06YCJIOBJIeHHOCTh pJliJ,a 3a60JIeBaHHH, TaKHX, HatJpHMCp, KaK 6a3CII.OBa 60ne3Hb (C.f.JICBHT, M.A PbIBKI1H), 6pOHXHaiIbHaR aCTMa (H.H.Mam<OBa), CBHYXOII.1\H3M (H.D.nIlXl\H- Cp), Ji3Ba JKenY,'I)(a H lI.BeHal1.l1BTHnepCTHOH KHWKM (A.E.JIelnlH), .1\Ha6eT (C.r.neBHT, JI.H.ITecilKOBa) H II.Pynle. Pa60THHKaMII I1H- CTlUYTa 6b!J111 nonY'ieHbl I'!HTepeCHbie lI.aHHble 0 pOIlH HaCJJell.- CTIICHHOCTII B cjJOpMllpOBaumr 41H3lfoJIorHqeCKIfX oco6eHHOCTeH .IleTCKOro B03paCTa (JI.j{.EOCHK), CTpoeHHH HCKOTOpblX OT.IlCJ10B KOCTIIOH CHCTCMbl (H.E.fYPCBl1q), OC06CHHOCTeii 3IICKTpoKap.1\IIOr- paMMbl(I1.A.PbI1JKIIH, H.E Ka6aKOB) B IfHCTlfrYTC TaK)KC 60JIbWoe BHHMaHHe Y.IleJ1RJIOCb pa3pa60TKe MaTeMaTHqeCKHX MeTO.IlOB aHa- Jllf3a 6JI113HeQOBbIX HCCJlell.OBaHIIH (M B.MrHaUCB). ITcllxOJlOmqCCKOe HanpaBJJCHHC pa60T B03rmtBI1n A.p.ny- PIlS!, KOTOpblH PY](OB0II.IIJI nCHXOJlOrHqeCKHM OT.IleJleHileM I1H- CTlITYTa (neBI1T C r ,1934) B I1I1CTIITYTe npOBOII.I1J1HCb IICCJIe.1\OBaHilH HaCJlC.1\CTBeIlHOH o6ycnOBJ1CHHOCTIl MOTOpHblX rjJYHKl\l'!ii, pa3J1II'iHbIX rjJOpM naMJlTII, YPOBHR nCI1XII'IeCKOrO pa3BIITIIJI, BHHMaIlH, oc06eHHoCTcH HIITeJ1- JlCKTa. Oc06eHllo IIIlTepeCHbI HCCJle.IlOBaHHH no aKTHBHoMY B03.I1eii- CTBHIO Ha 'JeJlOBeKa, npoB0.1\IIBwcec corpY.IlIIHK3MH HHcTIITYTa. Pe'!b l1.I1eT 06 IIcnblTaHIIH MCTO.IlOB nI1TaHH, Jle'leHIIR II 06YQCIIHR. ,lJ,nJl nO.Il06HOrO p0.1\a HCClJe.IlOBaHHif I1CnOJlb30BaJIH MCTO.II "KOHT- pOJJbllorO" 6nH3Hea, C nOMOIllblO KOToporo npoBepHJlacb 3rprpe](- TH13HOCTb pa3J1H'IHbIX MeTO.l[OB 06Y'IeHHH rpaMOTC (A.H.MHpeHo- lJa), pa3BHTIIJI KOHCTpYKTlIBHOH .l[eTelJbHOCTH .IlOIllKOllbHHKa (B.H.Kon6aHOBCKIIH; A.P.JIypl1J1, A.H.MHpeHOBa) OCTaHoBIIMC 601ree nOll.P06HO Ha nOCJlC.II.HCH pa60re. 30 \ KaK nl1wYT C.f.JIeBIIT II A p.nypHH B CTaTbe "feHeTHKa II nell.3rOrH" (JKypHaJJ "3a KOMMYHHcTH'JecJ<oe npOCBell.\eHllc" or 2 .1\eKa6pR 1934 rOll.a), MHonle nC.1\arorll .1\OlliKOnbHbIX yqpeJK.1\CHHH B03J1aralOT 60JlbllllIC Hai\eJKJl,bI Ha I1CnOJlb30BaHIIe TeXHH'ieCKOrO KOHCTpYHpoBaHHH B .IlCTCKOM caA)'. O.IlllaKo Y HIIX B031111KalOT Bon- pOCM 0 MeTO.1\ax 06YQeHIIJI - KaKoii 113 HHX HaH60Jlee 3!jJrjJCKTIIBeH )J.JI pil3BHTIIH KOHCTpYKTHBHOii .1\eUeJ1bHOCTIl pe6CHKa (I<OnlIpOBa- Hlle BblCTpoeHHblX rpllrYPOK, nOCTpoeHHe no KOHTypHblM MO.IleJJM, CBo60.l\IIOe KOIICTpYHpOBaHl1e I'! T..II.). .II.JUI OTBCTa Ha 3TOT Bonpoc 6bInO npOBell.CHO Cnel\HaJIbHOC IICCJle.1\OBalllle nHTIl nap M3 6J1113- lIeLlOB. EJJH3I1el\b] 6b1JJIl pa3i\eJlCHbl Ha .lI:Be rpYI1nbI, npljqeM napT- lIepbl KaJK.1\OH napbI OKa3anllCb B pa3HblX rpyrmax. 3TH rpynnbl 06yqaJIIICb pa3HbiMil MeTO.1\aMIl. .II.eTJlM H3 nepBOH rpynnbI B Te'lC- IIHe II.BYx C nOJIOBIlHOH MeCRl\CB npelI)IaraJIOCb npoCTO KonlipOBan nocrpOCHllble 113 Ky611KOB rpllrypKH .L(PyraH rpynna 6nIl3Hel\OB 06yqaJIaCb KOHCTpYKTIIBHOH i\CHTeJlbHOCTiI .IlpyrllM MeTO.IlOM. HM npe)l.lJaranOCb CTpOIlTb aHaJIOrnqllble rpllrypKI1, 110 pa3l1Hl\a 3aKIIIO- qaJIaCb B TOM, qTO MOAeJJH, no KOTOpbIM OHH .IlOJlJKHbl 6bJJ\1I CTpo- HTb' OKnCHBaJIlICb 6yMaroii, H pe6elloK .IlOJI1l(CH 6bIJI MbicneHIIO pa- 306paTb I1X Ha COCTaBJIlOlI.\He JIeMeHTbl H YJKe nOCJle TaKOrO alla- JlI13a nO.1\bICKaTh Hco6xo.1\HMble Ky6HKH. ITo OKOHqaHIIH TpCHHpOB- ](H O](a3B.IJOCb, qTO '1J1ellbl napbl, 06yqaBllIHCCH no BTOPOMY MeTOA)', H3MIIoro onepCJKaJlII CBOHX napTHepOB. TOr.1\a KaK .Il0 TpeHHpOBKH 06a 'IJIeHa napbI nOKil3bIBaJIlI O.1\lIlIaKOBble pCJYllbTaTbl. 31'0 Hccne-- .l\OB3HHe nOKaJBJIO, qTO TpellHpOBKa, COCTOJlll.\aR 113 MHOrOKpaTHO- 1'0 nOBTopeHIIR npOCTbIX HarJlJl!\HbIX OnCpal\HH, He MBMa 33MeT- Horo pa3BHTlI$I KOHCTpYKTHBHoii .IleJlTenbIlOCTH pe6eHKa. 06yqc- Hlle, onllpaBWeec.<l Ha CJ10)J{HbJli, ell(e He pa3BHTblH Y pe6cHKa, Ha- TJI.1\Hblii allaJIl]3, nplIBCIIO ]( 3Haql1TCllbHOMY paJBIITHIO KOHCTpYK- TltBHbIX onepal\IIH (JIYPIlH A.P., MHpeHOBa A.H., 1936). PJI KOHKpcTHbrx IICCJIC.n:OB311I1H, npoBe.n:cHHblX COTpY.l\HJI- ](aMH MCAHKo-6i1onOrHqeCKOrO HIICTIlTYTa, 06cYJK.l\aeTCH TaK>I<e 13 COOTBeTCTBYlOlI.\HX pa3AeJlax .1\aHHOH KHHrll. Bo05Il1e cne.IlYCT cKanrb, 'Ira Me.n:IIKo-6I1oJIorll'leCKl1ii, a BnoCJJe.1\CTBIIH Me.1\HKO-reHeTlI'ICCKlIii, HHCTlITYT 6bIJI YlIlIKaJIeH )l.lI1I CBocro BpCMeHH KaK no l\eJIJlM, TaK H no pe:JYJIbTaTaM pa60n.l, KOTOpaJl npOBOtufJIaCb era COrpy,a:HIIK3MH. Donee 700 nap 6nllJlle- I<OB BceCTopOllHe H3Y'IaJIIICb Me.1\IIKaMH II nCIIXOJIOraMIl HIICTIITYTa. CYIlICCTBOBaBllIaR B IIHcTIITYTe CI1CTeMa OKa3allHH BceX 811.1\OB aM. 31 
6yJlaTopHOH II CTaQHOHapHOH Me,lJ,IIQIIHCKOH nOMOll\H 6JIH3HeQa!,j 06CCne'lHBaJ!a nOCTO>lHHOe Ha6ruo,lJ,eHHe 3a KaJK,lJ,OH 06CJIellyeMoii napoli. ITpH HHCTHTYTe 6b1JI C03,lJ,aH H cneQl1aJIbHblH .lleTCKHH Call. M>I 6JIH3HeQOB, rll.C OHH HaXO,lJ,IIJIHCb no,lJ, nOCTO>lHHblM Ha6JIIO.lle- HHeM Bpa'leiill nCI1XOJIOrOB (JIeBIIT C.f.,1936). K COJKaJIeHiIIO, C06bITH>I, pa3BepHYBililleC>I BOKpyr reHeTHKH (B nepllO,lJ, 3aCIIJIbJl B 6HOJIOrH'IeCKOH HaYKe l' ):(.JIblceHKO) B 30-e rOJJ:bI, He 060IIIJ1l! H Me,ll,llKO-reHeTllqeCKIIH HHCTHT)'T B 1936 ro):(y HaqaJIaCb OTKpblTaJI TPaBJI>I C f lJeBIITa II IIHCTIITYTB B LleJIOM' 'lTO npllBCJ10 K ero 3aKpbITHIO JIeTOM 1937 rO,lJ,a. B 1938 ro):(y C I'.JIcBHT 6b1JI apToBaH H BnOCJIe,lJ,CTBHH paccrpeJI>lH. IToCJIe 3Toro IICCJIeAO- BaHII>I no reHeTHKe nOBell.CHHH B CCCP npeKpaTIIJIIICb H JIIIll\b nOCJIe OCJIa6JIeHHJi II03HQIIH T..II. J1b1ceHKO B 60-e rol1J>l H8yqH8n pa- 6ma B 3TOM HanpaBJICHll1I CTMa OnJiTb B03MOJKHOH. B0306HOBJIeHl1e OTe'leCTBeIlHbIX nCIIXOreHeTllqecKllX IICCJIe- i\OBaHI1H CBH3aHO C I!3Y'lcHHeM npHpO,lJ,bI MeJKHIli\lIBHAyanbHblx pa3J1l1'lHH CBoiiCTB HepBHoH CHCTCMbI. 3TH IICCne,l10BaHI1J1 61>1JIII Ha- qaTb! COTpY,!l,l!lIK8MH HI1I1 wll\eii 11 nCl!arOTI1'1CCKOH nCI1XOJIOHm* B JIa60paTOpIIH D.M.TenJlOBa - B.):( He6bIJIIIl\blHa, a C 1972 rO.lla npo,l10nJKanllCb (nol! PYKOBO,l1CTBOM H B.PaBllq-Il\ep60) YJKe B cne- LlJ!aJIbHOH JIaQOpaTOpllll, OCHOBHOH 3aM qeH KOTOpoii 6bIJIO npOBe- .lleHlle nCIIxoreHCTlI'IeCKHX lIccnCi\OBaHHii. TeopeTII'lecKoH 6a30ii Ha'laBIllIIXCIlI1CCne.llOMHJIH CJJYJKl1na KOHQcnl\IIJi CBOHCTB HepBHoH CHCTeMI>I (CHC), paJpa60TaHHa>l D.M.TennoBbIM Hero yqeHIIKOM B.):( He6blJIlIl\bIHI>IM ITpeJl,CTaBneHIIJI 0 6a30BOM, BpOJK,l1eHHOM xa- paKTepe CHC nOCJIYJKllnll no6Y,ll,llTenbHbIM MOTIIBOM ,II,J1Il HCCJIei\O- BaHH>I ponll HaCJIeJl,CTBeHHbIX !jJaKTopOB B <jJOpMHpOBaHHH HH,lI,IIBII- .!1)'aJ!bHbIX oc06eHHOCTeH HepBHOH CHCTeMbI. 3Tallbl IIYTH, IlpOHi\eHHOrO na60paTopHeH B 70-80-e rO,l1b1, npei\CTaBnHIOT C060H nOcne,l10BaTenbHbIH nepeXO,l1 OT H3Y'leHHH npllpO,lJ,bl CHC KaK <jJlI3110nOrllqCCKOH OCHOBbI IIH,!I,I!BIli\yaJIbHO- CTH K aHanH3Y COOTHOilleHIIH CBOHCTB HepBHoii CIICTeMbl C nCltXo- norH'!eCKIiMII xapaKTcpllCTIIKaMIi II K 113Y'leHHIO ponH HaCJIeJl,- CTBeHHblX II Cpei\OBbIX !jJaKTopOB B <jJOpMllpOBaHHII IIHi\IIBH.llY- anbHoro pa3Ho06pa311H BceB03MOJ!(HbIX nCIIXOJlOrl1qeCKIIX II nCII- Xo!jJlI3110nOrll'leCKIIX xapaKTepHcTIIK qeJIOBeKa. oj< HblHe - nC"XoJ10r"\fCKHH HHCTHTyr POCCtn1CKOH AKa.aeMHH 06paJo- IIpaKTllqeCKIl Bce IICCnell.OBaHIIJI, npOBOi\HBililteCJI B JIa60- paTOPIlH B 70-e rOi\bI, 6b1JII1 Hal\eneHbl Ha npOBepKY ynoM>lHYTO- ro npe,l1nOJIOJKeHUJI 0 BpOJK,l1eIiHOM, HaCJICi\cTBeUHO 05ycnoBJIeH- HOM xapaKTepe HH,l1I1BII,lJ,yanbHbIX oco6eHHOCTeil <jJYHKQIIOHUPO- BaHIIJI QeHTpaJIbHOH HepBHOH CIICTeMbI, JIeJKall\lIx B OCHOBe CHC (llInHXTa H.<D., 1978; 1111l6apoBcKa f.A , 1978; Bacl1JIel\ T.A., 1978 H i\p.). B Te JKe roi\bI Ha'!aJIII pcrllcTpnpoBaTb 6H03JIeKTPII- qecKYIO aKTlIBHQCTb M03ra y 6lHBm;QOB, BHllqaJIe B Ka'!<XTBe O,l1- Horo n3 HHi\HKaTOpoB CHC (PaBllq-mep60 H.B. H,l1p ,1972; 1llJIJJXTa H.<D., 1972,1978; WII6apoBcKaH f.A., 1978), a 3aTeM H KaK caMOCTOHTeJIbHblH 61103J1eKTpllqCCKIIH !jJeHoMeH (MeIJlKOBa T.A, 1976, DeJleBa E.IT., 1981; faBpHill H.B., 1984) IIpHMeHeHHe TeXHHKIf Bbl}!,eJIeHHIl Bb!3BaHHbIX nOTCHI.\HaJlOB (BIT) n03BOiIllno nO)l.OHTII K aHanmy HaCJIei\YcMOCTli Heiipo<jJ1I3110- nOrH'IeCKI1X MexaHH3MOB ncpepa60TKI1 IIH!jJ0pMaI.\IIH ITepBaH pa- 60Ta B nOM Hallp3JJJIeHHH 6bIJIa nOC1JJlll\eHa aHaJIH3Y 3pHTeJlbHbIX BIT (MaplOTHHa T.M., 1978). B i\aJIbHeiiIlleM COIICOK IICCJIe):(yeMbIx HeiipoIjl1l3110JlOrn'lKHX nOKaJaTeJleH paCIllllpJlJICJI 3a CqeT BIUIIO'Ie- HHJI TaKIlX nOKB3aTeJIeH, KaK cnYXOBbIC BIT (K0'ly6eH 6.H.,1983), nOTeHl111aJIbI M03ra, CBJl3aHHbie C i\BHJKeHlleM (MaJIbIX C.D., 1986), YCJIOBHaJi HeraTI'!BHaJi BOJIHa (MaJIbIX C 6., 1990). ITcllxOrCHeTH'IeCKlle IIccnei\OBaHIiH CaMOCTOJlTeJlbHblX nCI'!- XOJIOrH'leCKI1X xapaKTepHcTHK nOHa'laJ1Y npOBO,l1l1nl1Cb B COOT- BeTCTBIIII C TeOpeTHqeCKI1MI1 npei\CTaBneHIIJlMII i\H<jJ!jJepeHQl1aJIb- Hoii nCHxoIjJH3HOnOrHH, qTO npOJlBJIJlJIOCb B oplleHTal\liI! Ha ,lJ,1I- HaMHqeCKlle, a He Ha cOl\epJKaTeJIbHbIe xapaKTepHCTIiKII CmlCOK IIccnCllyeMbIx xapaKTcpllCTHK npaKTl1qeCKIi IICqepnblBaJICH OCO- 6eHHOCTJ!MII 06ll\HTeJIbHOCTH, TpeBOJKHOCTIi H JMOI1HOHanbHOCTIl (EropOBa M.C., CeMeHOB B.B.,1988). C HaqaJIa 80-x rOl!OB nCIIXOJIorHqeCKaJ! np06JIeMaTnKa B Uccnc.n:OBaHIIIlX JIa60paTopilU HaqnHaCT MeHJlTbCH. OCHOBHblM npe,lJ,MeTOM HCCJIei\OBaHI1J1 CTaHOBHTCJI KorHIITIIBHbIe xapaKTepH- CTHKH - I1HTeJlJIeKT H KorHIITHBHble cnoco6nOCTI'! (CM 0630P EropOBa M.C., 1988). C 3Toro BpeMeHII JKClJepllMeHTanbHble IIC- Cnei\oBaHIiJi npOBO,l1J1TCH BHe 1'eOpeTH'IeCKOrO KOHTeKCTa )l.H;jJ;jJe- peHl\lIaJIbHOH nCHxo;jJH3110JIOrllll, npH coxpaHeHIIH npei\CTaBJle- I1HH 06 HepapXllqeCKOM cTpoeHIIH HH,lJ,HBHi\yanbHocTIi. B03MOJK- 110ii nepcneKTIIBoH CTaHOBHTCJ! cOBMecTHbIH nCllxOreHCTI1'!ecKHH 8Hanll3 nCIIXOnOrHqeCKIIX H nCHxo!jJIi3110nOrH'IeCKIiX xapaKTepH- 33 BaHHJI: 32 
CTI1K, TO eCTb paCCMOTpeHile ncuxoljJ113HOn01'l1'1eCKI1X xapBKTe- pllCTIIK KaK onOcpe.l(YIOlL(e1'O 3BCHa MCJK.l(Y reHOTJmOM 11 nCJ1XO- nOrJ.I'IeCKHMH oc06eHHOCTSlMIl. B KOHl\e 80-x 1'O,!!.OB OI\HOH 113 OCHOBHbIX TeM 06CY)KJJ.eHIIH B nB60paTopHH CTaHOBIiTCH Bonpoc 0 Cnel\HIjJHKe nCllxo1jJ113110JJ01'H- qect<HX H nCHxonOTH'IeCKJIX npHJHaKOB qeJIOJ3CKa, BKJJJO'IaeMbIX B reHeTllqeCKOe Hccne,!!.OBBHlle, B CBH3H C TeM qTO HaKBnJ1I1BaIOTCH l\aHHble, CBI1,!!.eTeJIbCTBYIO/.Ul1e 0 3aBHCHMOCTH MeXaHI131of0B HaCJIell,- CTBeHHOH ,!!.eTCpMI1Hal\lm nCHX0J10rH'IeCKIIX IIIICI1XOIjJH3H0J10rH'.ec- KIIX npIl3HBK01J OT IIX nCI1XOJIOrH'JeCKOH CTpYKTypbl. Ell\e B 1978 r. T.A.ITaHTeJ1eeBOH 6blJ10 nOKB3aHo, '1TO re- HeTH'IeCKIIH KOHTpOJIb napaMeTpOB ceHCOMOTOpHOH II,CSlTeJIbHO- CTII 06HapYJKHBaeTC>\ JJIIWb HB ypOBHe BblCOKOH aBTOMaTII3aL\lill HalIblKa. To1'.L\a JKC B IICCnelJ,OBaHll1I T.M.MapIOTJiHOH 6blJ!0 06- HapYJKeHO, qTO 1'eHeTII'JccKH!\ KOHTpOJIb napalofeTpoB 3pl1Tenb- HbIX BIT MeHSleTCH B 3aBHCI1MOCTH OT 3KcIIepHMeHTaJlbHOH CHTY- al\llH, B KOTOpylO BKJIlOqeH HccnelJ,ycMblH napaMeTp. llCCnell,OBa- Hl1e reHeTllqeCKo!\ o6ycnOBJ1eHHOCTII L\eJ10CTHbIX (cHcTeMHblx) nCHxoIjJH3110nOrH'IeCKI1X o6pa:JOBaHlIH, KaKOBbIMI1 HBJ1HIOTCSI 060- pOHHTenbHaSl II oplieliTHpOBO'IHaH peaKl\HH (Koqy6eH D.ll.,1983): TaKJKe nOIl,TBcplJ,l1JIO 3aBliCHMOCTb xapaKTepa HaCJ1eIJ,CTBeHHO H .n:eTepMHHal\11II OT Cnel\HIjJHKH I1cCnelJ,yeMoro 3BeHa COOTBeTCTBY- lOIl.\eH peaKl\HH. Han60nee OTqeTJIHBO YKa3aHHaH 3BBHCI1MOCTb BbI9BHnaCb npl1 HCCJ1enOBaHIfIl nOTeHl\HanOB M031'a, CBH3aHHbJX C nBHJKeHl1elof (ManbIx C.B ,1986) OKa3anocb, qTO 1'eHeTHqeCKI1H KOHTpOJIb napaMeTpOB ITMC.II. Ha OI\HO H TO JKe, no 611OMexaHH- qeCKOH cxeMe, I\BH)I(eHlle 3aBilCHT OT lofeCTa, KOTopoe 3TO .n:BH)/(e- Hlle 3aHlIMaeT B nCIIXOJlOrll'leCKOH CTpYKType i\eHCTBIIJI. reHeTH- qeCKIiH KOHTponb 60nee BbIpa)l(eH, KOrlJ,a jl,BHJKeHHe nUWb cpe,!!.- CTBO BbInonHeHHH, a He l\enb l\eHCTBIIH. TaKHM 06pa30M, 3TI1 )laHHble CBI1AerenbCTBYIOT 0 TOM, qTO IjJCHoTillIllqeCKH OIl,I1H H TOT )I(e nCllxo1jJH3110nOrH'leCKHH npH3HaK, TO eCTb npH3Hat<, I1MelOll\l1H O)lHH II Te )l(e BHeWHlle npOHBJleHIIJI MO)J(eT CYll\eCTBCHHO pa3nll'laTbCH no CBoeH nCHX0J10rllqCCKOH CTpYKType Ii, COOTBeTCTBCHHO, no COOTHOCHTeiIbHDIofY BKnBi\Y TeHO- THIIH'IeCKIIX 11 cpenOBblX AeTCpMlmaHT B ero BapliaTIIBHOCTb ITOCTpOCH\le al!aJlOrHqHblX JKeCTKHX JIa60paTopHbiX cxeM !J.JIH xapaKTepl1CTHK, OTHOCHIl\HXCH I( K01'HHTHBHOH cljJepe, B03MO)J(HO JJHWb JIlTH HBH60nec 3J!CMCHTapHblX OC06CHHOCTeH. TeM He MeHee, 34 BapbHpOBaHHe B na60paTopHbiX YCJIOBHJlX nCI1XOn01'HqeCKOR xa- paKTCPH(:THJ<1I JJpH coxpaHeHHH HeH3MeHHOH BHeWHeH KapTHHbl Ae- HTeJIbHOCTH i\OCTHraeTCH, HanpliMCp, 113MeHeHI1eM CTeneHIt Hayqe- !!HH B 3TOlof CJIY'Iae COOTHoweHne reHeTH'IeCl(ltx 11 cpe,!!.oBblX q.aK- TOpOB B H3MeHqI1BOCTI1 aHaJll1311pYeTCJI i\nJl O,!\HOHMeHHbIX nCHXO- JJorHqCCKHX xapaKTepHCTIIK, 3aperHCTplipOBaHHbiX AO 11 nocJle Ha- yqeHHH ITPII 3TOM, KaK npaBI1JJO, 1JbIHBJIHeTCH MellbwaH p01lb 1'eHe- TH4eCKOH COCTaBJJHtOll\CH npll 60JIee BblCOKOH CTcneHI1 OBJ1aj1,eHIiJi HaBblKOM (MaJlblX C.D. H II,p., 1993; Ma1ykh S. et aI., 1993). }:(aHHble 0 B03paCTHOHII,HHalofHKe 1'eHeTllqeCK01'O KOHTpoml nOBeneHHH qeJ101JeKa TaK)Ke 1'OBopHT 0 3aBHCHMocrH HaCJ1e.L\- c'fBeHHOH !\CTepMHHal\HH OT nCI1XOnOrHqeCKOH CTpYKTYPbl I\3Y- qaeMOrO npH3HBKa, nOCKOJIbKY MexaHH3Mbl peaJIH3al\HII nCHXO- JlOrli'leCKOH q.YHKl\HH MeHHIOTCH B OHT01'eHe3e. 3KcnepHMeHTanb- Hble IICCJ1eIl,OBaHI1S1 A.P.JIYPHI1, npOBelJ,eHHblC Cll\e B 30-e rO)lbl, nOKa3anH, qTO Ha pa3HblX 3Tanax OHToreHe3a OAHOH II TOH )l(e nCIIXHqeCKOH IjJYHKl\HH BJII1J1HHe reHeTllqeCKIIX ljJaKTopoB OKa3bI- BanCH pa3J!H'IHbIM, qTO, nO e1'o MHeHHIO, CBH3aHO C KaqecTBeH- HOH nepecTpoHKOH nCI1XH'IeCKOH neHTeJJbHOCTII pe6cHKa. TaKHM 06pa30M, caMa J10rllKa HayqllOro jl,BH)J(eHHSI npHBeJIa K opraHH3al\liH nepBoro B Poccmi JIOH1'HTIO,!\H01'O HccneAOBBHHSI 6JIH3HCl\OB, KOTopoe 6b1no HaqaTo B JIa60paTopHII B03pacTHOH nCHxoreHeTHKII IIclixoJ1orH'!ccKoro liHCTfITYT'I PAO B /986 ro.L\Y. JIO!!rIlTIOAHOe npocnC)J(HBaHlie pa3BHTHJI 6m\3Hel\OB 6blJI0 3aA)'Malio KaK nOnblTKa nOi\OHTH K peweHll10 O)lH01'O H3 OCHOB- IIblX BonpOCOB B03pacTHoH nCI1XOJJOrHH - Bonpoca 0 TOM, Ka- KIiC ljJaKTopbl, rCHCTH'leCKHe liJlH CpC.l(OBble, Ii B KaKoii CTenCHII 06eCneqHBalOT npeCMCTBeHHOCTb pa3BHTlIJI B HaCTOHlL(eC BpeMH JIOHrlfTlOAHOC IICCJIeAOBaHHe npOnOJI)I(aeTCH, ero l\eJJb - BbIHC- HCHHe xapaKTepa rCHCTHqeCKoro KOHTpOJIH nCIiXOJJOrl1qeCKHX H nCHxoljJ1i3ROnOTll'lCCKHX npH3HaKOB qeJ10BcKa B npOl\ccce I1HAH- BI1AyaJIbH01'O pa3BHTHH. .................. """"",.""'" .............. .........,;,'""".:" i':. TeoPIJJI 3lfQJIIOI.\Jrn q..II.apBffHa - OJf.llH 113 Hc...OKOB reHeTII- kit nO)J;eH.'.'1J);OBe!,a;ITOJ[l!ne!IIIe 3BoIlIOl\HQI!f!OH TeopllH a.nQ TOJl'lOl4:RCCJIe.n;OJ\llIftUO ljJeHoMHa Hacne,ll,cTBeHHOCTH, no- , 'i'i':','::!'.!";:.: ,...."::"" .;c" .:c, ",:,;;;,,.,",.:,:. "1;), "."';"":;,., ,'_' 35 
CKOJIbKY B OCHOBe MeX8HH3WB 3BOJIJOl\HH JleJKaT H3MCH'UlBOCTb, HacJle.n;CTBeHHOCTb H CCTeCTBCHHbfJt DroOp. B HCTOpltH pB3BHTHJI TeHermm nOBeJl,eHJlS1 '1eJlOBeKB 1010)1(- HO Jl,OCTBTO'lHO YCJ10BHO BI>I.n;eJIHTb '1eTblpC OCHOBHblX nepHOJl,a, I) 3apo:I/CdeHUe ZeHemUKU 1108eOeHUR 'IeJl08eKa. OrpOMHYIO pOJIl, Ha 3TOM 3Tane pa:JBI/THH reHermcH nOBe,l{eHllSl C1>IJ"PaJDI pa- GOTbI  fa.JIl>TOHa. Ero paGOTbI nOCBJllI(eHbl He TOJlbKO 3MnHpll- '1eCK}!M HCCJlC.lIOBRHHR.M HaCJle)I,CTBCHIlOCTH qOBe;J.eHHII 'IeJlQBeKa, HO H pR3pa6oTKc OCH08HblX MCTOJnl'lCCKlIX npReMoB Mil 113Y'Ie- HHJ/ H,aCJ1c.D;0I!BHHJ/ nCHXOJJprH'ICC,/(WI- X3paJqepHCTHK.lI. 3TOM nanc 6J,JJIH onpCJI,eJIeHId OCHOBHbIc'noJI,XO,llbI H nOH1ITH1i reHeTII- KH nOBell,eHHJI '!eJ)OBeKa. 2) CmaH06J1eHue zeHemUKU n06eoeHUR 'leJl08eKa KaK CaM!>- Cm(JR»1eJ1bHOU HaylUtOj'J OUCIjU1lJlUHbl. 3TOT 3Tan xapaKTepH3yercJI C03,!t8Hl1eM KOHl\enUHII MHO)l(CCTBeHHbIX 4IaKTOpoB, KOTOpaJi 06'beJl,JUIHJIa nO)tXO,llbJ TeHeTHKOB H 6HOMCTpHICOB. ICOJIl\enIJ,IIJI MH01KCCTBeHHbIX cjJalITOpOB OIlIIpaeTCJI Ha npeJl,CTB!lJJeHRe 0 TOM, '1TO MeHJI,eJleBCKHH MexaHH3M JnlCKpeTHOrO HaCJleJl,OBaHHII npl'!- MeHRI" II K lIenpepbtBHO paC!IpC,!teJIeHHIdM CJIO)J(HbIM npH3HaKaM. YHJI,aMeHTaJIbHOe nOJIOJKeHHe KOHl\CnI.\HH 3aKJI1OtJBCTCli B TOM, qTO nOJIHreHHbIe pll3J1H'IIIJI Me1KA)' HHJI,HBIIJI,aMH MOryT npHBO- .1lIITb K 4IcHOTllnH'ICCKHM p83JIHtJHJlM. 3) 3man H(lIWIIJI{!HUR 3MI1UpU'leCIWZO MafflePuaJ/Q. Ha 3TOM '\ 3TBne6LIJIH pa3pa6oTaHbI AOCTaTotJHO Ha,a:CJKHbli:: MeTOJl,I>I HJI,eH- TIUlmKaQIIH 3HrOrnOCT;J 6JIH3HCI.\OB, '1TO nOBJ1eICJIO 3a C060R 3Ha- 'IHTeJlblJbIH pOCT 6J1K3HeI.\OBbIX HccneJl,OBaHHi!. B 3TO 'JI:e BpeMJI BnCpBl>le 6b1J1H HCnOJlbJOBaHbl MeTO.ll:bl nplieMHbll( !teTeii H pa3JIY- qCHHbJX 6mnHel\OB. ITepHOJl, C 20-x no 6O-e ro.ll:bl xapaKTepll3YeT- CII pa3pa6OTKoi!' OCHOBHbU MeTO,!tOB reHeTIIKH nOBe)J,CHHII H }lB- KOnJIeHlleM 06wHpHoro 3MnHpH'ICCKOrOMaTl:pllllJ1l1. 4) C 1960 ro,ll,a, C IoI0!oleHTa C03,l1,aH}!1I "AQllaQIIH reHeTH- I(H nOBCl!eHHJI" MOJl(HO HllintHaTb OTC'Ier '1CT11epTOTO, C06peMeH- HOZO "mal1a ptl:16Um ZceHl!muKU 1106edeHUli. 31'0 BpChllI 6ypHoro paJBHTHIi reHeTlI'IeCKHX HCCJleI!OBaHHi! pB3Hoo6pll3HbIX nCHXOJlO- rH'IeeKIIX npH3HaKOB. 13 Ha'lane 80-1( rOIIOs HHTeJlCC HCCJIC1l0Ba- TeJlCH npHBJJeKaIOT'B03M01KHOCTH reHeTIll(H nOBeJl,eHHII Mil H3Y- '1CHHJI cpe.ll:bl. B 3TH JKe ro,llbl CHTPa.JII>HOe IoIeCTO B reHeTmce no- Be)];eHHII 3aHHMaeT np06J1CMa pa3BHTHJI. nOIlBJlJlIOTCJI " HOBbIe J(eTO)U>1 HCCJJC)tOBaIiKiI. 36 qacmbII 8JIEMEHTAPHhIE OCHOBhI OBIII;EH rEHETHKH .. 
B 'taCTH II B O'teHb C)!(aTOH ljJopMe npllBO.ll:JlTCH OCHOBHble CBep.eHHJl H3 06JI3CTH o6ll1eJ1 reHeTHKH. MbI CTapaJUlCb no B03- MO)!(HOCTII ynpocTHTb H3J10)l(eHHe, qT06bl mo6oi1 'lHT3TeJIb, B TOM qHCrre He J.\MeIOII\HH CneI1HanbHOI'O 06pa30BaHliR, MOl' f)OrryqllTb TOT MHHHMYM CBeJ\CHI1H, KOTOphtH He06xo)l;J.\M AJIR ajl,eKBaTHoro BocnpllJlTHR !j>aKTHqeCKOrO MaTCpHaJIa H MeTOi\OJlOrHH reHeTHKH nOBei\eHHR. IIpl1 no.n.roTOBKe 3T0i1 qaCTH Mbl COqJIH B03MO)J(HbIM He 06palI\3TbCJI K nepBOHCTOqHHKaM, a HCnOJIb30B3Tb MaTepHaJIb! pH,!!a 113BeCTHhlX H 061I\enpH3HaHHbIX PYKOBOi\CTB II MOHorpa- IjJHH no 61!oJIOTlIH I! reHCTHKe*, JIHWb oTo6paB H CTPYKTYPHPO- BaB MaTepHaJI B COOTBeTCTBHH C 3ai\aqaMH KHl!rl!. I ,.. EJiOJlOrH'IeCxm1 JRQHKJlOneJJ:H'tJeCKHH CJ10Bapb. M . 1989, fPHlI M , Ct'8YT Y, Teiirrop,l{ DHorromw, B 3 T M , /990; J1eeoHTHH p qenOBe'IJeCKa.A HH,DJ!BH.llYaJIhHOCib HacneJ1CTBeHHOcn. H cpe.n.a M. 1993, MIOHTQHr A feHeTH1<3. M, \967, OreJIb <!>, MoryJIbCKH A feHeTHKa qeJIOBeKa. B 3 T M, 1990; pMaH fl., f1apcoKc IT feHerex. rrOBe/J;eKK1I U 3BOmol(H1I M., /984 U IW 39 
rJ1ABA 2. npIo13HAKIo1 B nOnYJ1f1LtIo1f1X 4) cnoc05HoCTb CB050JJ;HO H cJlyqaHHO Cl(pell(HBaTbCJI MCJK- lXY c050if (;vu! p33JJ;eJIbHOnOJIblX OpraHII3MoB). ITplliil\Hn cB050JJ;Horo H CJIY'IaHHOrO CKpell(lIBaHIIJI B no- nyJlJI[(HJlX MOJKeT HapYlllBTbCJ/, tCJ1H oDpa30BaHHe nap no I(al(o- MY-JI!lDO npll3Hal(Y npOIlCXO):(I1T He cnyqaHHO. HanpliMep, B qe- JIOBeqeCKHX nonYJIJll\IIJlX HMeeTCJI TeH.n;eHl\IfJl K HeCJIyqaHHOMY nO.1\DOPY cynpy)J(CCI(HX nap no POCTY. B reHeTHKe TaKoii HeCJIY- 'Ia"HblH no):(50p nap HOCHT Ha3aaHHe "accopmamU8Hocmb". Ha- nplOlep, B OTHoweHliH pOCTa rOaOpJlT, 'ITO B nonYJ1>tl\I1H cYLl(e- CTByeT accopTaTHBHOCTb no POCTY. HaJIII'Ilie IIJlI1 OTCYTCTBl1e accopTaTHBHOCTII MO)f(HO npOBepHTb, Ol\eHHBaJl CXOJJ;CTBO cyn. pyrOB: eCJI!! KOppenJll\HJI no .1\aHHOMY nplf3Hal(Y 5mnKa K HYlIIO, rOBOpJlT, '1TO aCCOpTaTlIBHOCTb OTCYTCTByeT; CCJIH KOppeJIJll\HJI OTJIII....aeTCJI OT HYJIJI, 3TO 03HaqatT HaJIHqlfe accopTaTIIBHOCTII (nOJ\pOOHee 0 KOppeJIJll\IIJlX CM. B maBe 5 II B pyKOBo.n;CTBax no cTaTllcTIfKe). ITonYJIJll\1111 He HBJUI10TCH CTaTH'IHLIMIf 06pa30BaHIfHMH. B HIIX nOCTOHHHO npOHCXOJI,JIT npOl\eCCbl lIIrpal\lIlI, HMeIOTCJI KO- JIeOaHUJI pOJKJ\aCMOCTH 11 CMepTHOCTI1. 3T11 npOl\eCCb( npUBOJ\JlT K 113MeHeHllIO '1IfCJIeHHOCTI1 nonYJ1J1l\IiH H 113MeHeHHIO qaCTOT BCTpe'laeMOCTH pa3JIH'IHbIX npH3HaKOB. ITOCKOJILKY 'lCnDBeJ( OTHOCHTCJI K OJJ;HOMY 1f3 BH.110B )J(HBbIX OpraHH3MOB, JllISi Hero TaJ()j(e xapaKTepHO oopa30BaHlle nonYJIJI- Wta. ITOMHMO OHOJIOrn....eCKHX np"'1HH, Ha tjJOpMHpOBaHHe qeJIOBe- 'IeCK!lX nonYJIJI[(HH aJIHSlIOT H pa3JIHqHble CO[(I'!aJ!bHble tjJaKTopbl. qenoBeqeCKl1e nonyJlJll\HI'! Mor)'T I1MeTb pa3JIH'IHYIO qIlCJIeHHOCTb. TepMHH "nonYJIJI'<HJI" MO)J(HO J1PI1MeHHTb K HaCe.rreHHIQ TaKllX Me- ranOJIHCOB, KaK MOCKBa HJlII TOKI1O (a KOTOpbIX e)J(elU/eBHO npo- !ICXOJI,JIT npOneCCbI MI1I-pal\HII, npllBOJI,JIII(He K 06HOBJIeHllIO 1\ H3- MeileH!l1O "HCJIeHIIOCTH 3a CqeT nplfToKa IfJIIi OTTOKa llaceJIelUfH), H I( He60JIbWHM co06Ll(eCTBaM HJIIf nJIeMeHaM, HaCeJIRIOlI1l1M 3aM- KIl)'TbIe TeppHTOpHH, HanpliMep, B ropHoH MeCTHOCTH. 3aMKHYTble nonYJIRl\IIH HOCRT Ha3BaHlle U30)!JIm08. H30JlJlTbI B '1eJIOBeqeCKHX nonYJIJlI1H>tX MorYT BCTpeqaTbCJI He TOJlbKO B reorpatjJllqeCKH 1130- JlHpOBaHH!oIX MeCTHOCTSlX, HO If BHYTPff KPYIIHblX nonYJIJ/I1HH, ecJIH KaKlfe-TO rpynnbl Jl10.n;CH, CKaJKeM, no peJlllrn03HblM IfJIH 3THII'IeC- Kif'" npH'IIiHaM, He CMeWlfaaJOTC C OCTaJIbHOH nonymll\HeH. Cpe.n;H npeJl,CTaBH1'eJleH JII050" nOnYJIJlL\1111 HaOJIIOJ\aeTC onpe.n;eJIeHHa U3MeH'lU80Cmb, TO eCTb pa3Hooopa311e npH3HaKoB 41 Ka)J(J]bIH )J(IIBOH OpraH!!]M, B TOM '1!1CJIe If qeJIOBe'leCKIIH, OOJIaJ\aeT l\cnblM HaoopOM npHCYII(HX CMY caOHCTB. HeKOTopble Ii3 HHX JlBJIJlIOTCJI 06Ll(HMIf J\JIJI Bcex npe.n;CTaBIfTCJIcii Jl,aHHoro alfJ\a (8UOOCnel./lIcPlI'leCKUe oco6eHHocmu). HanpHMep, KaJKl<blH npeJJ;CTaBIfTeJIb BIiJl.a Homo sapiens OTJlH'IaeTCH OT npeJ\cTaBH- TeJICH Jl.PyrHX BIIJl.OB cnoco6HoCTbIO K npJlMoxo)J(.n;CHI1JO, OTCYT- CTBl1eM BOJIOCJlHOrO nOKpoBa Ha OOJIblUeH qaCTH Tena, BblCOKO- pa3BlfTblM HHTeJIJIeKTOM Ii cIIoc06HOCTLIO K pe'leBOH KOMMYHH- Ka,<lIl1. 3TO Bce aHJ\ocneL\lftjJH'IeCKHe oc06eHHocTII. Ka)J(J]bIH IfHJ\HBIIJI., nOMIIMoBII):(ocnel\HtjJH'IeCKIIX xapaKTepnC1'l1K, 06JIa- ):(aeT [(enblM Ha50poM HH,l{IfBHJJ;yaJIbHbDl, npHcYII.\I1X TOJIbKO eMY, Ka'lCCTB - :no UHQU8uiJYl./J/bHO-Cl1el./ucPU'leCKUe oc06eHilocTH. Bcc oco6eHHocTIf, npHcYlI1lfe Jl,aHHoMY IfHI<HBIf.11Y - 11 BIf.n:ocneL\H- tjJHqCCKI1C, H HHJl.I1BII.n;yaJlbHble - B rCHeTI1Ke nplfHSlTo HaJbl- aaTh I1pU3HaKaMu. BHJ\bI, HaCeJI"JOII(HC 3eMJ1IO, oopa3YIOT C006Il{eCTBa, TO eCTb npOCTpaHCTaeHHO-IIpeMeHHbIe OO"eJJ;IIHCHHSI. ITpH'IHHOH 06pa30BaHI!JI co06111ecTB JlBJIJlenJl O.llllHaKOBaJi npHcnoco6J1eH- HOCTb oc06eH K OnpeJl.eJIeHHblM 3KOJIOrl1'1CCKHM yCJIOBIIRM. Ha- npllMep, B nYCThIHRX He I!CTpeqaIOTCJI JKHBOTHbIe, 6HOJIOrl1S1 KO- TOpblX Tpe6yeT BblCOKOH BJIaJKHOCTII KJIHMaTa. OJJ;HOH H3 pa3- HOBIIJI,HOCTeH co0511(ecTa SlBJIRCTCJI nOI1YJ/RI./UR. ITOCKOJlbKY reHe- TIIKa nOBe.l1eHIIJI pa60TaCT B OCHOBHOM Ha ypOBHe nonYJIJ!l\IfH, paCCMOTpHM, KaK onpeJl,CJIReTCJI :no nOHJlTlle B reHCTI1Ke. B WHpOKOM CMbICJIe nOIlJlTHe "nonYJIRl\HSI" MOJKIlO npH- MeHI'!Tb K JII060H cOBoKynllocTlf KaKI1X-III160 06z.eKTOB. B 6HO- JIor!!1I H reHCTHKe nonYJIRnlfJlMIl C'IHTaIOT coo5Ll(ecTaa oc06eH 0.1\1101'0 BI1J\a, 3aHHMaIOIl1He onpCJl.eJ1eIlHYIO TeppHTopllJO. Oc- HOBllbiMIf npl13HaKaMli reHeTHqCCKOH nonynSll.\HH (Ha3b1BaeMOH TaKJKe iJeMOM) RBJIRIOTCJI 1) npHHaJ(JleJKHOCn ocooeH K OJl,HOMY BIIJ1Y; 2) npocTpaHcTBeHHo-BpeMeHHoe CJl.HHCTIIO; 3) CX0.11CTBO 3KOJIorlf'leCJ(IIX nOTpcoHOCTeH; 40 
Y ee 'meffOB H3MeHqRBOeTb 'lenOBe'!CeKOli nOnYRJll1HH neTl<O 3a. MCTHTb, CenH nOCMOTpen Ha TOJIny JIlOAeH. HapJl}l.y C BHAo- e ne l\11IIm'leCKIlMII nplI)HaKaMR Ka)K.n:bIH HHi\HBH}I. 06JIa.a.aeT YHHKaJIbHblM Ha60pOM npH3HaKOB, nplleYLI1I1X TOJIbKO eMY B pe3YIlbTaTe B Tonne mo.a.eil npaKTII'!eCKH HeB03MO)KHO 06Hapy- )KIITb .n:BYX o.a.IIHaKOBbIX HHIUIBH.a.OB. HHi\HBHi\bl pa3iI\lqaIOTcJI He TOJIbKO no BHeWHeMY CTpOCHHIO - no l\OeTY Bonoc H rIla3, POCTY II TeJIOCJIO)KeHlfJO, HO If no oco6eHlWCTHM rrOBe,a;effI1H- MaHepe rOBopllTb, nOXOll.Ke, )KeCTHKymll\HI1 11 T.n. B 3aOlfCHMOCTII OT Tllna 113MeH'IIIBOCTI1 0 JlonYJIJll\I1J1X MOJK- HO BblAeJIHTb rrpH3HaKH i\BOHKOro pO}l.a. O,IWH H3 HHX xapaKTe- PH3YIOTCJI iJucKpemltblM, TO eCTb npepblBlICTblM PH.a.OM 1!3MeH'IH- BOCTII. 3TH npH3HaKH BCTpe'laIOTCH B orpaHHqeHHOM '1HCJIe Ba- pllaHToB, pa3nll'lHH MeJKi\Y HH}l.HBII.a.aMH qeTKO Bblpa)l(eHbl, H npOMeJKYTO'lHble q,OpMbl OTCYTCTBYIOT. ITpIl3HaKJ! TaKoro pOJl,a OTHOCJlT K 1<aTcropllH Ka'lecm«eltllbIX Hx cLI1e Ha3bIBafOT Kaqe- CTBel!HblMIf nOJlHMopIj>H3MBMH. BHeUlHHe ycnOBJfH OTHOCHTe1!j,- HO MaJIO I1JIII nO'ITiI COBCCM He BJII1HIOT Ha HX npOHBlICHHe K TaKHM npH3HaKBM OTHOCHTCJI, HanpHMep, rpynnbl KpOBIi Y '1e- JIOBeKa. HOCHTeiIll pa3HbiX BapliaHTOB Ka'!eCTBCHHbIX npH3Ha- KOB B nonYJIJll\HH MoryT BCTpe'laTbCJI C pa3HOH '1aCTOTOH MO)i(- HO BcnOMHHTb, qTO JIIOAI1 C pe3YC-OTjJiHjaTeJIbHblM q,aKTopOM KpOBH BCTpeqalOTCJI rOpa3}1.0 peJKe, qeM C pe3yc-nOJlO)i(IITenb- HbIM. KpOMe Toro, qaCTOTa BCTpe'laeMOCTH BapHaHTOB o.a.Horo H Toro JKC npH3HaKa B pa3HbiX nonYJIHl\HHX 06bl'lHO pa3JIHqaeT- CJr. HB pHcYHKe 2. J npe}l.CTaOJJeH JIpllMep pacnpe,!\eJJeHIIJI '1ac- TOT BCTpeqaeMOCTII HaH60nee H3BeeTHblX rpynn KpOBH CHeTC- MbI ABO 0 nonYJIJll\IIJlX PYCCKliX 11 KopeHHblX JKHTCJIeH AOCTpa- JIIIH. MOJKHO 3aMCTHTb, qTO qaCTOTbl BeTpC'IaeMOCTII Bcex qe- Tblpex rpynrr KpOBl1 0 3T1IX nonYJIJll\HHX OTnllqaIOTCJI. Cpe,!\H npH3HaKOB '1eJIOBeKa, TaK ImH HHaqe CBJl3aHHbiX C nooe.ll.eHI1CM (B WHpOKOM CMblCJIe), npl13HaKOB KaqCCTIleHHbIX, I1MCIOLI1HX .zurcKpeTHbllf XapBKTep 113MCH'IIIBCeTII, nO'!TH HCT. If3 Tex, '1TO lie cBH3aHbI C rpy60H naT0J10rHeH, Hall60J1ee H3BeCT- Hbl )l;Ba, IIMCIOLI1l'!e OTHOllleHHe K ceHcopHOH qYBCTBIITeJIbHOeTI'!. 3TO qYBCTBIITeJIbHOCTb K OKYCY lj>eHHJITHOMO'leBHHbl (OAHH JIIOi\1I OLI1YLI1aIOT BKYC 3Toro BeLI1eCTBa, a i\pyrHe - HeT) H l\BeTOOaJl cnenOTa - i\aJIbTOHH3M (HeKOTopble JIIOi\H Hecnoc06HbI pa3JIII- qaTb OT.n.enbHbIe l\BeTa enCKTpa) DOJIbWI1HCTBO)Ke 113BeCTHbiX 42 ::1 1 40  3a 20 10 o A B AB _ )ll('HT&'If Poc:;MH m atiopMfElHblAocTpanotii o PucynoK 2,] Lfacmombl 6Cmpe'laewcmu zpy"n KpO«U CUCmeM&1 ABO 8 nonYMl- !jUllX KopeHHblX J/CUnu?heu Aecmpanuu u :JfCumeJleu Poccuu HB CCrOJl.HIIWHl1ii AeHb npOCTbIX Ka'leCTBeHHbIX npH3HaKOB qe- JIOBeXa CBJl3aHO C 6HOXHMHqeCKIIMII q,aKTopaMII KpOBII HJIII Ha- cnCACTBeHHblMH aHOMaJIIIHMH, He HMelOLI1HMII 3Ha'iHTeJIbHbIX npO>lOJIeHliH 0 nooei\eHHH. qacTo KaqeCTBeHHbIe nOJIIIMopq,H3Mbl, KOTOpblM conYT- CTBYIOT onpe,!\eJIeHHble oc06eHHocTH nOBe,!\elH!Jl, CBJl3aHbI C pa3J1l1qHblMH HaCJIel\C1'BCHHbIMH aHOMaJII1J1MI1, npl100AHll1HMII K J1crenepaTlfBHblM 113MeHCHIIJlM 0 I1eHTpaJIbHOH HepOHOH CIICTC- Me, conpOBQ)Ki\aIOIl\HMCH HapyweHIIHMH nOBe,!\eHHJI. npllMepa- MH TaKHX nOJIHMopq,H3MOB, 3aTpat'HoaJOLI1I1X nOOC)1eliHe, HBJI>I- IOTCH q,eHI'!JIKeTOHYPHH - HapyweHHe MeTa60J1H3Ma, np"00i\JI- Il\ec K TJI)i(eJIOH YMCToeHHOH OTCTaJIOCTH, II xopeJi feHTlIHt'TO- Ha - AereHepaTHBHoe 3a60JIeBaHHe HepBHblX KJIeTOK, npHBOAH- LI1ce K HenpOH3BOJIbHbiM ABI'!JKeHHJlM, H3MeHeHIIHM J1l1qHOCTH H nOCTerreHHO HapaCr81OLI1eMY eJla60YMIfJO. OCHOBHa>l Macca nooe.n;CH'IeCKHX xapaKTepHCTHK qeJIOBe- a OTHOCI1TCJI KO OTOPOH KaTeropll1l rrpH3H8KOO, 06JtaAalOLI1I1X IicnpepbI8H.oii, IIJIH KOJlUqeCm8CIiIiOU, H3MeHqllBOCTbIO - KOHmUHY- 43 
aJ/bHocmblO npOJlBJJeHHH. ITO,D:06HYIO 113MeHqllBOCTb MbI Ha6mo- ,D:aeM B TaKIIX Mopq,OJJOrH'IeCKIIX npIlJHaKaJ\, KaK pOCT, Bec, QBeT BOJIOC H KO)l(H, II B TaK\U nOBe,D:eH'IeCKIiX npH3HaKax, KaK IIH- TeJ1J1eKT, qepTb! TeMnepaMeH'Ta II T.,D:. Bce 3Ha'ieHIIH Ka)l(,D:Oro 113 3TIIX npll3HaKOB MO)l(HO pa3MeCTIITb Ha HeKOTopOH Henpe- pbIBHOH WKaJ1e. OqeHb BblCOKlre II O'leHb HII3KHe JHaqelU1J1 npH- 3HaKa, KaK npaBIIJIO, BCTpC'IaIOTCH B nonYJIJlQIIJlX pe)l(e, qeM cpe)\IIJle. qacToTa :BCTpeqaeMOCTII rex 11J111 IHlblX 3HaqeHI'!H npll3HaKa MO)KCT 6MTb nOJl,C'IHTaHa II npe,D:CTaBJIeHa B BIlAe pacnpe,D:eJIeHHH, KOTopoe npe.n:CTaBJJJleT C060H cOBoKynllOCTb 3Ha'leHJlH KOJJJI'IeCTBeHHoro npHJHaKa H COOTBeTCTBYlOwHX HM qaCTOT. qacToTHoe pacnpe)\eneHJle no npH3HaKY, npOJlBJIHlOwe- MY HenpepblBHYIO 113MeH'IIIBOC'Tb, npJlMepHO COOTI!eTCTBYeT KPII- BOH HOpMaJIbHOrO pacnpe)\enelll'!JI (PHCYHOK 2.2). DOJ1bIUI1HCTBO IUQJjeif nonaJjaeT B CpelJ;H101O '1acn pacnpeJjeneHlli!, a lIa eTO xpa- JlX, npeACTaBJ]JIlOwHX KpaHHlle CTenellH Bblpa)l(eHHOCTH npH3HaKa, OKa3bIBaCTCJI J1I!Wb MaJIaH '1aCTb nonYJJJlQHI1*. qacTo npl1 OQeHKe KOJIH'IeCTBeHIIMX npIl3H3KOB MbI nonb3Y- eMCJI Ka'leCTBeHHbIMH KaTerOpHJlMII, TaKI1MH, KaK "BbICOKIIH-HH3- Knit", "CHJIbHbIH-CJJa6blii", "TCMttbtH:-CBeTJIblii" H T.n BcnOM. HI1M H3BeCTI-lb!H npHMep »3 nCHxoq,H3HOJIOrHlI. JIlQ.!1eH qacTo .n:e- J1J1T Ha HMelQWHX CHJ1bHMH H Crra6b!H Tim HepBHOi! CI1CTeMbl, 0.1\- HaKO TaKoe .!1enelHle YCJJOBHO. B 3TII rpynnbI nonap;alO'T TOIlbKO JJJOj(JI C Kpae:B pacnpe)<eneHIIJI, TOT)<a KaK C3M napaMeTp CHJJbI- CJ1a60CTH H3MepJleTCH no HenpepbIBHoH wKarre, H B nonYJJJlQHII BCTpe'laIOTCH Bce 3Ha'leHIIH, Ha'lHHaH aT KpaHHeH CJJa60CTJI He- pBHOH ellCTeMbI II 3aKallql1Bal\ KpaHHHMIl 3Ha'ieHIIJlMH CllrrbI. ToqH/) TaK )l(e BeCbMa YCJJOBHO .n:eJJeHHe JIJO.I\eH Ha 3KCTpaBepTOB H HHTpOBepTOB. 111060e TJln0J10rllqeCKOe .n:erreHHe He onHCblBae-r nOJJHoii KapTIIHbI Jl3MeHqHBOCTH no KOHTHHYaJlbHOMY npH3HaKY. CYWeCTBYCT ew.c O.l\Ha KBTeTOplli! npJlJHBKOB, JBalfMalO- waH KaK 6b! npOMe)Kyro'lHoe nOrrO)l(eHHe Me)l(!1.Y KaqeCtBeHHbl- MH nOJJIIMopq,H3MaMIi H KOJ1I1'1eCTBelUIbIMH, KOHTllHyaJJbHblMH npH3HaKaMII. Pe% JI.I\eT 0 npUJHm<ax c ltopOZ08b!M JifiljJeKmoJ,.. BHeWHe 3TII npll3HaKH lfanOMIIHalOT KaqeCTBeHHble nOJ1lIMOp- :J(; 33 30 27 2' 21 N j8 15 12 9 3 0 (80:90] <;;;70 11001101 (':1<1:1301 > 1<0 IQ (70:80] (90:100] (110,120J (130;1401 PUCYHOK 2.1 Tucmozpa.M.Ma pacnpeoeJ/euWI 'lacmom 6CmpeqaeMOCmu npU3HOKa 6 cJ/Y'Iae KOHmUHYQJlbltOU U1Me"qUBOCmU (K03rpifiuueHm uumelUleK- ma - IQ; N - '1UCJ/O U110U8U008 8 oaHHOM KJ/aCCe U1MepeHuu) tPH3Mb!, TO ecn OTJJHqalOTCH AIICKpeTHblM xapaKTCpOM UPOJlB- nellilH. OpraHII3M JlH60 HeCCT Jl,aHHblH npll3HaK, JIH60 HeT. qawe acero rrpHJHaK:i!MII C nOpOrO:BblM iPljJeKToM JlI3J1I1IOTCJI pa3ll11'1- HbIe 3a6oJIeBaHIIH, HanpllMep, caxapHbIH ,D:Ha6eT, 6pOHXH:i!J1b- Ha aCTMa HJ111 WII30q,peHII, a TaK)Ke pa3J1H'IHbIe BpO)l(.n:eHHble aHOMaJ1HII pa3BI1THJI - aIl3H",eq,aIIlIH, spina bifida (aHOMaJIHII QeIfTpaJ1bHoii: HepBHoH cHcTeMbI), JaH'IbSl ry6a, BOJ1qbJl naeTb H .n:p .II.JJJI 3TIIX 6QJJe3HeH H nopoKoB pa3BHTIIJI Ha6mo.a;aIOTCi! '1eT- XHe aJIbTeplfaTIIBHble pacnpe.!!.eneHUH, no.n:06lfble pacnpe.!!.eJ1e- H«fiM no KaqeCTBCHHblM /IOJUlMopqIlI3MaM: J.!Hj(JlBH.!!. JIH60 crpa- JJ;aeT AaHHbIM 3a60IleBaHlleM, JIn60 Her. O.n:HaKO Tlfn HacJte.n:o- B3HIIH npH 3THX 3a60J1eBaHIIHX OKa3bIBaeTCH 6JJII)Ke K Tllny Ha- CJJe!J.OBaHHJI KOJIIf'leCTI!eIfHb!X npH3HaKOIl. B 3TOM cJlY'Iae 1010)1(- HO CKa3aTb, qTO nopor HBJIHeTCH YCJ10BHOH rpaHnt(eH B HOp- M3.JJbHOM pacnpe.a;eJJeHIIII npH3HaKa, paJJI,enJllOl.I(eH, C o.a;Hoii CTO- pOlfb!, nOpa)l(eHHblX, " e .!1PyroH - HenOpa)KeHHb!X, HO npe.!!.- pacn0J10)l(eHHhlX K 3a60JIeBaHHIO IIH,!{IfBII.I\OB. ITpH IICKOTOpblX 3a60neBaHHJlX rpaHH!ja Me)l(,D:Y HOpMOH H naTOJlOmeH npocJJe- 45 . nOllpo6Hee 0 paJfls.1lfHhlX BH1l8X pacnpe.rr.eneH}{ MD:>KHO Y3H8Tb H3 pYKO- BOlICTB no 6HOJIOrWIeCI\OH cral'HCTHKe. Cu., HanpHMep, POKHUKHH n <b "E:H()- J10n1QeCKB.A CTaTHCTHKa". MHHCJC, ;973. 44 
JKJ1BanCJI .nOBOJJbHO qeTKO, OC06eHHO npH Bp0JK.I(eHHbIX aHOMa- JIJ.JX pa3BIITH, Tor.na KaK np» J1;pynfx OHa CKopee pa3MbITa H BCCbMa YCJlOBHa. TaKHM 06pa30M, npl'!3HaKIf C noporOBblM 34J- 4JeKToM CKopee MorYT 6bITb OTHeceHbl K K8nroplUf KO)Hfqe- CTBeHHblX nplf3HaKOB qCnOBeKa. COOTBCTCTBeHHO, .lI,1IH HIfX 6y- I!)'T cnpaBeMIfBbl Te JKe 3aKOHOMepHOCTIf HaCneJ1;OBaHIfH, '1TO If .nnH 06bIqHbIX KOHTHHyaJIbHblx npH3HaKoB. rnABA 3. rEHET4ECKAR OCHOBA npOCTblX KA 4ECTBEHHbiX np3HAKOB. MA TepAIlbHbllit CY6CTPATHACnEACTBEHHOCTH 1. qeJ1oe'lJ(,,!el}H,!\IfBllJlbl 05pa3YI\)Ipo06I1(eCTBa, "nyJIJll\IIIf' . ..'" . ":':"::)::"::""'::'",:",,:,:,,"::'"i'::'1',""":,:;,,'.': . "''''''':::::.' )!' 2. BIIYTJLJl f1onY}J}ll\lljjcyecTBytT MeJ/(Jljl,l.!uBH)(yaJJ'bHaJi 113Melj:'IJiaOl;Tb. .., '. """""""",,,,,,,,,,'.,::::ii".:',::t":"1':::':i',:",'.""",::., ". """'''''''''''''::'':'.'':' """:i"":"'i":::"'" i ':: ",. . .... 3 "H3MeiI'IHaOCTb :g nOyiUlI.iH;x'/,(eT IfOC1b II.;PT... 'Hblif(npepbIBHCTJ.IH) }J KOHTHHYaJIbHbl1! (HenpepidBHl>lii)xaPIIK- . Tep. .II.J1J1 6onJ.WlfuCTBa nClfXOJIOrUQecK».1(.,'npIf3HaKOB xapaK- :..;repHa Henpep' . OCT);!.... ""'::,,:,: OCTJI OT . ace CBOHCTBa J10BeKa ) MOryr 6bITb pll3Aenf Ha ABa KJ1acca: JI,I'ICK-' Pe'l'HoilIl3MeH'IH1!<1CTH COOTBeTCTBYI\)T KaqeCTBeHHble npR3HIIKH, ':lenpephIBHOil- KOJiH'Ii!l::nC!lHble.,Qco60e MetTO 3aHI!Ma1OT Opll- 3HaKIf ?op.rOBblM ekrQM. IToxapaKTepy I13MeH'I1JB<)CTH OHIf'., COOTBeTCTBT .Ka'leCTBeHHbIM nplf3Hli1ta, 1:10 Ha- ..' CfI?BaHlfS -= !,'!!IH)((e K KOJIII'lecneHHblM. '. ' '::;,:",',., BapHallTblllJ1H pl13HbIe 3Ha'leHI!.I!.ItIJj!3Haj(0/1 B 1I0nYJ1i1- ,.,!!'Pf.BCTpe'lil::W;rg,1! C pll3HOH '1aCTOToli. .,.,' ,."'.' .,.,... 6. ITonYill.\IIl{ He saIDnOTCII CTa,,6I1J1bHblr,l1f 06pa30BaHHH- Mil. B CBJl31:J C npolleccaMH MlII']Jal\HIf':'1f3MeHelJIfJlMII pOJK,ltaeMO- CTR II cMepTHocTIi If HeKoTopblMII Jl,pyrHMH npOaeCCaMH 'I/leCTO-", T8 BCTpCqae!r!oCTlf pli3mplH npff31fllKOB B nonYJIR4ffH MOJKeT H3MeHJlTbC,,:":' ,'. "'" IIporpecc cOBpeMcHHoH reHeTHKIf BnnOTb 1\0 OTKpbITHJI MOllCKYJlHpHblX OCHOB HaCJIeACTBeHHOCTH o6eCneqHna, B OCHOB- HOM, pa60Ta reHeTI1KOB C Ka'leCTBeHHblMH 1I0JWMOPQ>1I3MliMII, nocKol1bKY 3aKoHoMepHoCTII Hacl1eAOBaHHJI :HI\X nplf3HaKoB .ao- CTaTO'lHO npOCTbJ H 60nee ;l\OcTynHbJ IIi1J1 reHeTI1'1eCKOrO aHa- 11I13a I1MeHHo C reHeTHqeCKOH OCHOBbl Ka'leCTBeHHbIX npH3Ha- KOB Mbl II HaqHeM H3JIOJKeHlle, a 60nee CJIOJKHble MexaHH3MbI HaCJTe!l:OBaHI!JI KOR/!'1CCTBeHHbIX npll3HaKOB paCCMOTIJJlM HeCKonb- KO n03JKe, TeM 60JIee qTO B OCHOBe HacnelloBaHIf If Tex 11 IIPY- rllx JIeJKaT 01<1IH H Te JKe 3aKoHoMepHoCTH, BnepBble OTKpblTble fperopOM MeH.l\eneM. 1. 3aKoHbi MeH,QeI1S1 l.l. r.MeHlteJlb Hero onblTbl ,l.l,onroe BpeMH MaTCpllaJ1bHblH cy6CTpaT H3CJIeACTBeHHOC- TII npeJ1;CTaBnJlnC>I rOMoreHHblM BeD.\eCTBOM. C'IHTa110Cb, qTO HaCJ1eItCTBeHHoe BeD.\eCTBO p0.l\IfTeneii CMeillI!BaeTC>I y nOTOM- CTBa nOAo6HO ABYM B3aHMOpaCTBOpHMblM JKHJ1;KOCTJlM. B COOT- BeTCTBHH C nOH TO'lKOii 3peHHII rIf6plf.l\bl, TO CCTb OpraHl!3Mbl, nonyqeHHble B pe3ynbTaTe 06'be.l\llHeHI1 HaCileACTBeHHoro Ma- TepRana pa3JIIf'lalOII1I1XCH Q>OPM, J1;OJIIKHbl npe.l\CTaBnTb C060H He'lTo npoMC)/(YTOqHOC A!e)/(t!y pOI<I1TeJl!lMIf. H ,t(eiiCTBHTenbHO, MHOrHe rH6plIJ1;bl COOTBeTCTBYIOT TaKHM npeACTaBneHliHM. Y )!(HBOTHbIX H Y qCnOBeKa BeD.\eCTBO HaCneJ1;CTBCHHOCTI! CBH3bIBa- 1IH c KpOBblO. OTCIOJ1;a H3BeCTHbie Bblpa)((eHIIH - "OOJlYKPOB- HbIH", "qHCTOKPOBHbIH", coxpaHIfBWHeC>I AO HaWI1X AHeH. 46 47 
OJl,HaKO B KOHl.\e XIX BeKa HeKoTopLIe HccneJl,OBaTeiIH Ha- 6JDOJI,aiIH Y rH6pHJI,OB TaKYIO 113MeH'IJlBOCTL, KOTOPYIO HeiIbJJI 6blJI0 06'bJlCJlI!Tb C TO'lKJI JpeHHB KOHl.\enQHH 0 HeJl,eiIlIMOCTII II rOMoreHHOCTII HaCiIe)\CTBeHHbIX Ja.naTKOB. O.n:HJlM 113 3THX IICCiIe- .n:OBaTeiIeH 6bIJI fperop MellJl,eiIL. f.MeHJI,enb nepBblM nOKa3an, '1TO HaCJle.n;CTBeHHbIe 3a.n;aTKJI He CMeWJlBaIOTCJI, a nepe.n;aIOTCB H3 nOKOJIeHHB B nOKOJIeHHe B BII.n;e HeHJMeHHblX Jl.HCKpeTHblX eJl.}J- HI!l.j. HaCiIe.n;CTBeHHbIe e.n;HHJll(b! nepe.n;aIOTCB '!epeJ MYJKCKlle JI JKeHCKlle nOiIOBble KJleTKJI - 2Q.Membl. Y KaJK.n;OH OC06H HaCJIe)J,- CTBeHHble eJl.}JHHl.\bI BCTpeqalOTCJI napaMI1, Tor.n;a KaK B raMeTax Haxo.n;HTCB iIJlWb nO O.DJ!OH eJI.HJlHl.\e Jl3 KaJKJI.OH napLI. f.MeH.I.\eiIb Ha3BaJI eJl.}JHHI.\LI HaCiIe.n;CTBeHHOCTII "3iIeMeH- TaMil". B 1900 ro.n;y, Kor Aa 3aKOHbI Meu.n;eJIB 6b1JIH OTKpbITbl nOBTopHO H nOiIY'IlIiIJI npllJHaHHe, eJl.}JHHl(bl HaCJIe.n;CTBeHHOCTH 6bIJIH Ha3BaHbI "$aKTopaMH", B 1909 ro.n;y AaTCKI!H Y'ICHbIH B.HoraHceH Jl,aiI HM .n;pyroe HMB - "rcHbl", a B 1912 ro.n;y aMe- pJlKaHCKJlH reHeTHK T.MopraH nOKa3aiI, '1TO reHbI HaXOI\JITCJI B XpoMocoMax. C qcro JKC HaqHHaJI CBOI! Hcc.neAOBaHI!B f.MeH.!leJIb? Ycnex r.MCH.n;eJIB DO MHorOM 06YCiIOBiIeH YAaqHblM Bbl60pOM 3KcncpH- MeHTaJIbHOrO 06'beKTa. f.MeH.!leJIb pa60TaJI C pa3JI1!'!HbIMH cop- TaMH ropoxa. ITo cpaBHeHHIO C .n;PYrHMH paCTeImBMI1 ropox 06JIa- Jl,aeT pBJI,OM npel1MyeCTB AlIB npOBeJl,eHIIB 3KCnepJlMeHTOB no CKpeHBaHHIO. Bo-nepBbIX, copTa ropoxa '1CTKO pa3iIHQaIOTCB no pJlJl.)' npll3HaKOB (no 03Ha'iaCT, qTO r.MeHJI,eJTb 3Kcnep1lMeHTJlpO- Ban C KaqeCTBeHHblMIi npJl3HaKaMH, nOJIHMopqm3MaMII). BO-BTO- PbIX, ropox BDnBeTCB caMoonbIJIHlOHMCJI paCTeHlleM, TeM caMblM nOMepJKIIBaeTCJI qJlCTOTa copTa, TO eCTb coxpaHeHHe npll3HaKa H3 nOKOJIeHIIH B nOKOJIeHJle. B-TpeTLIIX, MOJl(HO nYTeM IICKYCCTBeH- Horo onbmeHIIH cKpelIBaTb paCTeHHJlII nOJlyqaTb HYJKHb!e rH6pH- lIPl. fH6plf.ll.bl TaK)I(C MOJ'YT p;aBBTb nOTOMCTBo, TO ceTb HBJIRIOTCH nJlOJl,OBItTbIMII, qTO, KCTaTH, BCTpe'lae-rCH He BcerAa. HHorAa rH6- Pl!J(bI npH OTJI,aJICHHOM CKpeHBaHHH 6eCnJJO.DJ!bl. f.MeHJJ.e.nIO YAaJIOCb nOlJ;o6paTb TaKl!e napbl KOHTpaCTHpy- IOHX npH3HaKOB, KOTOpbIC, KaK 3TO 6bIno YCTaHOBneHO n03JKe, 06JIap;aIOT npOCTblM TltnOM HaCITe)\OBaHHB. f.MeHAcnH IIHTCpeco- BaJIJI TaKlie npll3HaKlI, KaK $opMa CeMJlH (fJIBJl,KaK HJ111 MOpHHII- CTaJl), OKpaCKa CeMJlH (JKenTaK HJIH 3enCHaJl), OKpaCKa I.\BeTKOB (6eJ1bIe IIJIH OKpaweHHble) II HeKOTopbIe .n:pyrJle. 48 IIOJl,06Hbie onblTbl no rJl6pHI\Jl3al.\HI1 paCTeHJlH He paJ npo- BOl\lIJIHCb II .n;0 r.MeUl\eJlK, HO HI1KTO He cMor nonyql1Tb TaKHX Bee06beMnlOHX AaHHbIX, a rrraBHoe, YCMOTpCTb B HJlX 3aKOHO- MepHOCTIi HaCneI\CTBeHHOCTII. Cne.n;yeT oc060 OCTaHOBIITbCK Ha TeX MOMcHTax, KOTopble 06eCne'lIlJIH r.MeHl\eJDO ycnex, nOCKOJIb- KY ero Hccne,!(OBaHlle MOJKHO cql1TaTb 06paJI.\OM npOBe,!(eHIIJI BCK- Koro HaY'/Horo 3KcnepHMeHTa. ITpeJKJI.e QeM HaqaTb OCHOBHble 3K- cnepHMeHTbI, r.MeH.n;enb npOBCiI npCJl.BapHTeJIbHOe IIccne)\OBaHHe KcnepHMeHTaJIbHOrO 06beKTa H TII1aTeJlbHO cnnaHHpODaJI Dce 3K- cnepJlMeHTbl. OCHOBHblM np1iJIl.\HnOM IIccne.n;OBBHIIH 6bIJIa n03Tan- HOCTb - Dee BHJlMaHl!e CHaqaJIa KOHl.\eHTpltpOBaJIOCb Ha O.n;HOH nepeMeHHOH, QTO ynpOaJIO aHaIT1I3, 3aTeM r.MeHJI,eJIb npJlCTY- nail K aHaJIJl3Y .n;pyrOH. Bce MeTO.n;IIKII CTpOJKaHWe C06J1IOJI,anJlCb, qT06b! He DHOCHTb JlCKaJKeHHK B pe3YJ1bTaTbI; nonyqeHHble AaH- HbIe TaTeJIbHO pen!CTpl1pOBaJIHCb. f.MeHJI,eJIb npOBen MHOJKC- CTBO 3KcnepllMeHTOB JI nonyqHJI Jl.OCTaTOqHOe KOJ1I1'1eCTBO AaHHbIX iiJlH 06ecne'leHIIH CTaTHCTl1qecKOH Jl.OCTOBepHOCTIi pC3ynbTaToD B BbI60pe JKe 3Kcnep1lMeHTaJ1bHOrO 06'beKTa r MeH)1eJDO, )1eHCTBU- TeJlbHO, DO MHorOM nOBe3J10, nOCKonbKY Ha HaCne)10BaHHH OTO- 6paHHbIX HM npll3HaKOB He CKaJbIBaJIl1Cb HeKOTopbIe 60nee CJlOJK- Hble 3aKOHOMepHOCTII, OTKpblTbie n03)1Hec. 1.2. MOHor1l6pHJ\Jloe CKpeHBaHHe H nepBLIH 3aKOH MeHJ\CJIII H3Y'laJi pe3ynbTaTbI CKpeIIBaHJlH pacTeHHH C aJIbTepHa- TIlBHb!MH npHJHaKaMII (HanpHMep, CeMeHa 2JlaOKUe- CeMeHa MOp- UjllHucmble, 1./6emKII 6e"b - 1./8emKU oKpaw£HHb), f MeH.n;enb 06- HapYJKIIJI, qTO rl16pHI\bl nepBoro nOKOneHHJI (FI), nOJlyqeHHble C n01>l0l11blO IfCKYCCTBCHHOrO OlIb/JIeHlfR, He RBnHIOTCR lIp01>lCJKyrOq- HblMI! MCJKJI.)' Jl.BYMJI pO.n;I!TeJIbCKHMJI $OpM3MII, 3 B 60nbWJlHCTBe CJ1Y'laeB COOTBeTCTBYII.JT OJI.HOH 113 HHX. HanpllMCp, npH CKpel!- RaHim paCTeHI!H C OKpaweHHbIMH II 6eJlblMI! I.\BeTKaMI! BCC nOTOM- CTBo nepBOro nOKonCHHH HMeJIO OKpaweHHbIe l\BeTKH (Ta6JIVoI.\3 3.1) TOT npH3HaK pOIlHTenH, KOTOPb!M 06JIa.n;aJIH pacTeHIf nep- Boro 1I0KoneHIIJI, f.MeH.n;CJ1b Ha3Bail OOlolUHallmHbW (OT JI3TI!HCKO- ro dominans - rOCnOJl,CTBYIOI!H). B npHBeJl,eHHOM npliMepe AO- MHHaHTHblM npHJHaKOM 6YAeT HaJIHqHe OKpaCKI! y I.\DeTKOB. 49 
aT xcnepHMC)jTaJI!>HO nOnY'lCHHbIX nl5pIIJlOB Y>Ke nYTeM caMoonbIneHI!JI f MeH.D.eJIb nOJJy'mn nOTOMCTBO BToporo nOKone- HHR (F2) 11 05HaPY>KI!JI, 'ITO 3T1I nOTOMI<H He RI3JIJlIOTCJI Oro1HaKO- BblMI! 'IaCTb H3 HIIX HeceT npI!3HaK TOrO pOro1TeJ1bCKOrO paCT<:- HIIJI, KOTOpbIH He npOJIBIIJICR Y m5pH.D.OB nepBoro nOKOJleHIIJI. Ta- KIIM 05P!l30M, npll3HaK, OTCyrCTBOBaBIIIHH B nOI<OJIeHHH FI, B)jOBb npOJlBHJICJI B nOKOneHlI1I F2. f MeHJleJTh Cl1eJIaJI 3aKJI1O'IeHlle, '1TO 3TOT npll3HaK npllcyrCTBOBaJI B nOKOneHl!1I FIB CKpbITOM Bl'!lJ:e. f.MeH)lCnL HII3BaJT ero pet{eccu8Hbw (VT n3TlfHCKoro recessus- oTcTynneHHc, yJl,aJlCHlle). B HaIIICM npHMepe PCL(CCCII8HbIM fipH- 3HaKOM 5yAYT 5eJIbIe UBCTKII. TaIJ/luqa 3.1 CxeMa MOHOZu6puQHOZO CKpU8aHWl r MeHoellR (KOHCTaHTHblMH), a qaCTHqHO ;:(3JJ1I TaKOe >Ke pacU\enJIeHHe, KaK H nl6pllJlbl FI (3 ;:(OMIIHaHTHbIX HII I peL(eCCIIBHbIH) 3acJIyra f MCHJleJIJI B TOM, qTO OH nomm: TaKHe COOTHO- WC!{IIJlllpil3HIIKOB B nOTOMCTBe MorYT 6MT!> TOJIbKO CneJlCTBl1eM CYlL(eCTBOBaHIIJI 060co6neHHbIX II HeIl3MeHRIOlL(HXCR e/l.llHIIL\ Ha- cne.n:CToeHHOCTII, ncpel1aBaeMbIX C nOJIOBbIMIi KneTKaMIl OT no- KOneHIIJI K nOKOJIeHll1O f MeHAenb BBeJl 6YKBeHHbie 0603Haqe- HI'JI .IJ)1J1 )lOMHHaHTHoro II pel.leCCHBHoro <paKTOPOB, npllqeM Jl,0- mmaHTHwe 0603HaqaJIHCb 60JIbIIIHMH 6YKBUMH, a pCl.leCCHO- HbIC - ManeHbKIIMH. HanpliMCp A - L(BCTKH oKpaIlleH)jwe, II - I.lBCTKII 6CJlble; B - ceMeHa rnaAKllc, b - ceMeHa MOPU\H- HI'!CTblC BblBOAbl MeHAeJlJl CBOAIIJIIfCb K cnellYIOU\eMY. ITOCKOJIbKY IICXOAHbIe copTa JlBJlJlIOTCJI 'iHCTbIMH (HC paclL(en- lIJ1IOTCJI), 3TO 03Ha'iae-r, qTO Y copTa C AOMHHaHTHbIM nplI3Ha- KOM 110JIJKHO 6LITb ABa Jl,OMHHaHTHLIX <paKTopa (AA), a Y cop- Ta c peU;CCCI1BHblM nplf3HIIKVM - ABa pel1eCCH/JHblX (all) 2 IIOJIOBbIe KJleTKIl co.n:epJKaT TOJIbKO OAIIH <paKTop (y )lOMH- HaHTHoro - A, Y peQecclIBHoro - a). 3 PaCTeHRJI ncpBoro n01<OJIeHIISI FI cOl1epJKaT no OAHOMY !j>aK- TOPY, nOJIY'IeHHoMY '!epe3 nOJlOBblC KJleT1<H 01' KaJKAoro H3 pO.IJ;HTene/l, TV CCTb A If a (Aa). 4. B nOKonCHl111 F I <pa1<TOpbl HC CMeWHBaIOTCSI, a OCTalOTCSI o6oco611eHHblMH 5 OI\I1H 113 (jJaKTopOB 110II1HHpyeT Hall IIpyrHM 6 rH6pH,!\bI Fl 06pa3YIOT C paBIIoii qaCTOTOH ABa pO)\a nOJlOBLIX I(JICTOK' O.l\HII 113 HHX CDJlepJKaT <paKTop A, )!,pyrite - a. 7 IIpH OnnO.!iOTBOpeHHIl JKCHCKaJl nOnOBaJi KneTJ<a Tuna A 6y- ACT IIMeTb paBHbIe waHCbI COeAIIHHTbCJI K3K C MYJKCKOH no- J)OBOI1 J<JIeTKOit, HeCYlIlcR <paKTOp A, TaK 11 C MYJKCKOH 1<JIeT- I(OH, HecYlL(eH <paKTop a To JKe CnpaBe.IJ)1HBO II .IJ)1J1 JKCHCKliX nOJIOBblX KneTOK THna II. 31'0 MOJKHO npeJlCTaBHTb B Billie Ta6nllQbl (Ta6JIHL\a 3 2) H3 Ta6mlL\bt S1CHO, qTO B03MOJKlfbi 4 pa3J1HqHblX KOM6HHa- Ulf/j 113 KOTOpLlX JnIWb O.IJ;Ha He COllepJKIIT ,QOMlfH3HTHvro 4>al<- TOpa, n03TOMY B 3TOM CJIY'Iae 6Y.!ieT Ha6nJOIJ:aTbCSI pel.(eCCHB- HblH npH3HaK OCTaBIIIHeCJI 3 l(oM611HaL\HII AaAYT paCTeHIIJI C .!iOMII!{aHTHbIM nplt3HaKOM, H3 KOTOpLIX O.IJ;Ha 'laCTb (AA) AaCT B AaJlbHCH1IICM KOHcTaHTHoe, HepaClL(CnJlSlIOlL(eCCJI nOTOMCTBO, a nOKonEH IlOJIY4EHIIIE IlOTOMCTBA nHAIGI  . x 0 ..-- .......... 0- " 1...""""""", . .L ACMlarm-wf IFI} cao:n.nwe " .'_-3"""," 2-e naalE!lM! (1111....113A"'T11- ""'"" .......",., ('2) . . . 0  . ontOw. tj1I :1) """"""'" """"""'" - o .1"18C1b . . . .- JIlIIIIIBmM ...,..,....., . . . . 0 0  (F3} - -- - .- ACMIBmt.e ....,. 31 -.. - 0 f MeHAeJIb npOBeJI l.lenyK> CepllIO aH3JIOrll'iHbIX onbITOB C p!l3HblMII napaMII aJIbTepHaTHBHblX npll311aKOB II BCJlKIIH pa:! Tll\a- TeJlbHO nOAC'IIITLman coornOIlleHHe paCTeHIIH C Jl,OMHHaHTHblMIl II pel.{eccl1BHblMH nplf3HaKam Bo Bcex CJIY'I3J1X 3lfaJJH3 nOKa3an, 'iTO OTHOIlleHlle .!iOMIIHaHTHbIX npH3HaKOB K peQeCCIfiIHLIM B nOKV- JIeHHIl F2 COCTaOJIRJlO npltMepHo 3 I B TpeTbeM 110KoneIiHII (F3), nOJIY'IeHHOIol TaKJKC nYTeM ca- MOOnbIJIeHIISI paCTeHIIH 113 nOKOneHHJI F2, OKa33JIOCb, '1TO Te pa- CTCIIHJlII3 BToporo nOKVJIeIlIlJl, KOTopLie HeCJIH peL\eCCI1BHbIH npH' 3HaK, AaJIiI ilepacU\enJJSlIOlL(eCCJI nOTOMCTBO, paCTeHHJI C 110MH- HIIHTHblM npH3HaJ<OM 'iaCrn'IHO OKa3a.JIIICb lIepacU\enJIJII{)lL(IIMHCR 50 5 I 
OCTaBWlleCJI 2 'faCTH OnJlTb AaAYT paCmenJleHlle B OTHoweHlI1I 3:1 (CM. Tal<)j(C Ta6i1HQY 3.1). B cDoeH pa60Te f.MeH.n:enb He C!)JOPMYJIHpOBan HHKaKIIX 3a. KOHOB, KOTOpb!e ceH'laC WllpOKO 113BeCTHbl noJl, IIMeHeM 3aKOHOB r.MeHJ.\errJl. 3a Hcro 3TO CAeilaJIH J.\Pyrlle IICCJIeAOBaTenll, KOTopbIe nOBTopHO OTKpbIJIIi Mell)J;eJIeBCKlle 3aKOHOMepHOCTII. TeM He MeHee OCHOBOnOJIaralOlI\lIe 3aKOHbi reHeT!l1<1I no npaBY HOCJlT IIMH !IX nepBOOTKpbIDaTeJIJI. Ilep6blu 3aKon Men()eJIR, URU 3aKOH paCUjenneHUR, <jJopMYJmpyeTcR TBK. ITpH 06p330BaHHH raMeT npOIlCXOiUlT pa3J.\eJIeH!le napbl HaCneJl,- CTBeHHblX pOJ\IITeJIbC!mX !)JaKTopOD, TaK '1TO B KaJK,!l;YIO raMeTY nOna){aeT TOJIbKO OAIIH 113 HIIX. COrJIaCHO 3TOMY 3aKOHY, npH- 3HaKH AaHHoro opraHII3Ma Ae-repMI'!HHpYIOTCR napaMIl DHYTPeH- HIfX ljIaKTopOB. CaMoe rJlaDHOe B OTKpblTll1l f.MellJ.\eJlH - no AeMOHCT- paQIIH Toro, '1TO rl16pMbl FI, lIeCMOTPJI Ha DHeWHee npOJlBJIe- Hlle JlIIWb OJl,HOrO npll3HaKa, 06pR3YIOT raMeTbl 60JIee '1eM 0A- IIOTO TilDa, KOTopbIe C paBHOH '1aCTOTOH HeCYT KaK J10MHHaHT- Hblii, TaK II pel.(eCCHDHbIH !)JaKTOPbJ. ITpeJK.l\e C'IIITaJlOCb, '1TO rI16pl1J.\bI, KOTopble Ha npaKTllKe 'faCTO npeJ.\CTaBJIIIlOT C060H npo- MeJKyrO'fHble Ij!OpMbl, 06pa3YJOT nOJlODble KJICTKH, TaKJKe 06naJ.\a- IOLQlle npOMeJKYTO'lHOH KOHCTI1TYQl'!eii. f.MeHJ.\eJlb JKe nOKa3aJ1, '1TO HacneJl,CTBeHHble eiUlHlIl.(bl nOCTOJlHHbI II CKpeTHbI. 01111 ne- peJl,alOTCJI B Hell3MeHHOM BIIAe H3 nOKOJIeHIIJI B nOKOJleHlle. Ollit lie 113MeIlJlIOTCJI, a JIlIlllb neperpynnllpoDbIBalOTCH. 3KcnepHMeHTbI f.McHJ.\eJIH no CKpelI\lIBaHHIO paCTeHllii c OJ.\HOH napOH aJlbTepHaTIIDHblX npll3HaKOD SlBJIHIOTCJI npllMepOM MOHozu6pu()IIOZ0 cKpI!UfU6aHUJI. 1.3. Ta6JruI(a 3.2 B03MOJICHbie KOM61IHal/uu I1pU MOIIOZU6pu()HOM cKpe- Uju«aHUU CKpemllDaHHe oco6eH, HecyUlI'!x l\Be napbl pa3i1HqalQ1I\1IXCH npll- 3HaJ<OB (HanpIlMcp, rJIaAKHe I'! OlIROnpeMeHHo JKeJlTble ceMeHa II Mopml'!HIICTbIe II OJ.\HOBpCMCItHO 3eJIeHb/e ceMcHa) HOCIlT Ha3Ba- Hl1e OUZU6PuOHOZO cKpeUju8aHl<R. .II.onycTIIM, qTO 011HO POJ.\HTCJIbCKOC pacTeHlIe HeceT .n:OMH- HaHTHbIe npJi3HaKIi (maAKl1c JKeJlTbIe ceMeHa), a J.\pyroe - pc- QecCIIBHbIe npll3HaKlI (MOpmIlHHCTble 3eJleHbie ceMeHa). f.MCH- J.\Wb YJKC 3H3JI, KlUmc npH3HaKH ;J;oMHHaHTHbl, H TO, 'ITO B IIOKO- rreHlI1I F I Bce paCTeHIIJI IIMenl1 rmW,Kl1e JKenTble ceMeHa, He 6bIJIO Y,lIIIBIlTenbHo. f.MeHJ.\en" I1HTepecODaJIO paCIl1enneHHe npll3Ha- KOB BO BTOpOM nOKoneHIIII F2. COOTHOrnCHlte pa3Hblx COqe-raHHH npH3HaKOB OKa3aJ10Cb TaKHM: rJIB.!Vmx J!(eJJTblX - 9, MOPmHHIICTbIX JKenTblX - 3, rJlaAKIIX 3erreHbiX - 3, MOPmllHI1CTblX 3crrCHbIX - I, TO eCTb 9:3:3'\. TaKHM 06P330M, B nOKOJIeHlI1I F2 nOHBIIJlOCb l\Ba HOBblX CO- 'leTaHI1" npIl3HBKOB: MOpmHHI1CTble JKeJITble 11 rnBAK"e 3crreHble. Ha OCHODaHl111 3Toro f.McHJ.\errb c.aCJIaJI 3aKiIlOqeHHC, '1'1'0 Ha- C!Ie)\CTBeHHbIC 3a){aTKH P0J.\HTeJIbCKIIX paCTeHHH, KOTopble 06be- I\I1HHrrHCb B nOKOJIeHll1i FI, B nocnC.!lJlOmllX nOKOJleHHJlX PaJ.n:CJlJI- IOTCH II Be.nyT ce6H HC3aBHCI1MO - KaJKJ.\blii npl13HaK H3 OlIROH napbl MOJKe-r COqeTaTbCJI C iIl06b1M npH3HaKOM 113 J.\pyroH napbl. :;)TO OTKpblTHC r.MCHJ.\errH nOJlyqHrrO Ha3BaHHe 6mopozo 3aKOHa MeooeJUl, I/JIU I1PUltliWIa 1le3a6UCWoIOZo paCl1peJeJleHUJI. PaCmenneHHe np" ,lIIIrHGpl1J.\HOM CKpCIt1I1BaHHH TaKJKe MO)J<- 110 cc6e npe)\CTaBIITb B BHJ.\e Ta6JII1QbI, ccrrl'! AOMIIHaHTHble lj!aK- TOPb! 0603HaQllTb 6YKB3MH A II B, a peQecclIDHbIe - a II b. Tor- J.\a pO){IITeJlbCKlle Ij!OpMbl 6YJ.\YT AABB II aabb, HX raMCTbl- AB II ab, a rH6pH)\bl ncpBoro IIOKOneHIIJI Fl - AaBb. CooTBeT- CTBeHHO, y 3THX rll6pll.n:oB B03MOJKHbl '1eTblpe THna raMeT, QTO II npeAcTaBneHO B Ta6rrllQe 3.3. 3anl1Cb TaKoro p0J.\a (B BII)\e Ta6JIHQbl), KOTOpoii Mbl nOJI13yeMcH YJKe BTOpOH pa3, HOCHT H33BaHl1e peuremxu lle/mema. OHa n03DOJlJleT CBeCTl! K MHHHMYMY OWII6KII, KOTopbIe MorYT D03- HIIKHYTb npl1 COCTaBJIeHIIH Bcex B03MOJKH11X COQeTaHIiH raMeT. Hall60JIee Ba)J(HOC nOJIOJKeHlle, crrMYlOmee H3 BToporo 3a- J(OHa MeH;J;eWr, COCTOIfT D TOM, qTO HacnC)\CTBeHH1/e </JaKTopbl 53 II: My>o<c_ ra........ A . I: I: I . CKpeBBHHe H BTOpoii JBKOH MeRJl,eJJlI YCTaHODHB 3aKOHOMepHOCTil paCmenrreHIIJI npll CKpelI\IIBa- HHJlX no 011HOH nape BJlbTepHaTIIBHblX npll3HaKOB, f.Mell)J;eJIb ne- pelIleJI K 113yqeHllIO HacneJ.\OBaHIIH I\BYX nap TaKIfX npH3HaKoB. 52 
Ta6nuqa 3.3 B03MO:JICHble KOM6uHalluu npu iJuzu6puiJIWM CKpel/lU8aHUU MYIKCKM& raM8Tbi AS Ab all ab AS jj ... QI AI> :I " .. QI S lIS '" u :z: ;E ab ..................... . .0.".............. ,. .__ .. mo. nOJIOBbiX ICJJOJ(' (I'aM) napHbte HO- pacxo]JJITCJI, H, B l(8)K)J.oit raMe 6b1Ba- ",-,;,';,",{,+",',' OJl,Ha 113 RilX. ", ., - B npouccce 96pa30llaHa,I raMer H3CJ1e.n , (PeICOM611ti), 1;i3H3KOB Y nOTOMCTBa. AI! Ab all ab AS AS AS AI! AS Ab all ab Ab Ab Ab Ab AS Ab lIS ab all all all aB AI! Ab all at> ab ab ab ab 5. IIK I< lIooblM 2. XpOMOCOMHaR TeOpi'lR HacneCTBeKKOCTM 2.1. XpQMOCOMHOH TeopHH lIaCJ1CI\CTBeHHOCTIi l' 0, qTO opraHH3Mbl COCTOHT 113 KJIeTOK, BnepBble 6b1JIO 06HapYJKeHO eIl\e 0 XVII BeKe, HO JII1Wb B 1831 roilY 6b1JIa OT- KpbITa rJIaBHeiiwaH qaCTb KJIeTKII - KJlCTOqHOe HllpO Bnoc- JIe,!lCTBIII1 BbIJlCHI!JIOCb, '1TO HIlPO TaKJKe IIHcpcpepeHUHpOBaHO II COCTOHT H3 pa3JIH'IIIb!X KOMnOHeHTOB B 1848 ro,!lY 6blJII1 onep- Bble onllcaHbl Hall60JIee BaJKHbie cro KOMnOHeHTbI - XpOMOCO- MbI, o,!U!aKO HX OC06CHHOCTH II CPYHKUUOHaJJbHOC 3HaqeHUe Ha- qanH aKTIIOHO H3Y'IaTb JIHWb B KOHl(e XIX oeKa TepMHH "XpoMocoMa" 6YKBaJIbHO 03Ha'laeT "oKpawHBaIO- ll\eecH Teno". ,l1eJIo B TOM, '11'0 XpOMOCOMbl nOrJIOIl\aIOT II Y.n:ep- JKIJBalOT HeKOTopble KpaCI!TeJII!, 6JIarOilapH '1elolY IIX JlerKO Bbl- HOnJlTb U Ha6J1IOAaTb nOli MI!KpOCKonOM. B He,llcnJlIl\UXCH {meT- Kax XpOMOCOMbI, KaK npaBI!J10, He OIl,!lHbI, II JIl!llIb npl1 ,!leneHI!II KneTOK OHII qCTKO 0603HaqalOTCH KaK TcnbUa cneUHqmqeCKOii CPOpMbl (pI!CYHOK 3 I). C pa3BIITI1eM H cooepweHcTBooaHHeM MHKpocKonHH CTaJJO B03MOJKHbiM Ha6J1IOAaTb nooe)J.eHl1e XPOMO- COM B npOl1ecce 06pa30oBHIIJI rBMeT iI npH OnJIO.llOTBOpeHlI1I EIl\e B 1875 rOilY 6blJI0 06HapYJKeHO, '1TO B npol1ecce on- JIO,llOTBOpeHI'!JI npoHcxoAHT CJIHJlHHe O,!lHOH MY)I(CKOH II OAHOH )!(HCKOH nOJIOBblX KJIeTOK, npHqeM npOIICXOAHT CJJI!HHHe JjiJep JliiUCKneTKII II CnepMHJI B 1880-x rOAax 6b1JJO onlicaHO nOBeAe- HHe XpOMOCOM 00 opeMH ,!leJleHUH KJIeTOK, U nHWb B Ha'laJIe 1900- x ro,llOo, YJKe noene nooTOpHoro OTKpblTUJI 3aKOHOB MeH- ,lIeJIH, 6blJlO 3BMe'lCHO 1l0pa311TCJIbHOe CXOJ/,cTBO MeAf,'{Y nepe)J.a- 'IeH MeHJ/,eneoCKHx cpaKTOpoo U nOBelleHlJeM XpOMOCOM 80 opeMH SS CKpCll\IIOaeMbIX COpTOB !tpH 06pa30BaHHH raMeT MorYT 06pa30- BblBaTb HOBbie CO'leTaHUJI, HJJII peKOJ.I6uHup06amb 3HaqeHlle OTKpblTHH MellJ\eJIJI, K COJKaJ1eHHIO, He 6blJI0 oue- HeHO np!! ero JKII3HII BCpOJITHO, 3TO 061>HCHJlJIOCb TCM, qTO B TO BpeMJI eIl\e He YAanOCb onpe,!leJIHTb CrpYKTYPbl 0 raMeTax, '1Cpe3 KOTopble OCYIl\eCTBJIJleTCH nepe)J.aqa HaCJJC.IICTBeHHblX cpaKTopOB OT pO,!lHTCneH K nOTOMKaM TOJIbKO K KOHIW XIX BeKa B CBH31t C nOBblweHHeM pa3pelllH1OIl\eii cnoc06HoCHI MIiXpOCK0I10B CTaJIlt BCCTHCb Ha6JIIOAeHHH 3a nOBC,!lCHHeM KJIeTOqHblX CrpYKTYP BO BpeMJI onJIoJl,OTBOpellllJlII AeJIeHIIH KJleTOK, qTO npUBeJJO K C03Aa- 111110 XPOMOCOMIIOH Teopull HaCJle,llCTBeHHOCTU. . ................. ." n ......."..., , ...... . .....-............, ......... . . .....".., ........... ......... ...,..-........ . .-.;..;.-;.......... ',';'0;";'0;'-'-';"-"'-'-' ........... ............. m. loT.cpLlTHe )J.IICQ xapaKTepa npilHa,II.JICJKilT r.MeHlJ;emo 2. Hacne)J.CTBeHHble ep,HHHQLl nepejl,alOTCII H3 nQKOJle!!H B nOItOneHHe B HeH3McHHOM' BH.rof:: ' "".,.. '. ,...-- .... 3 IIpH3HaKH OpraHIf3Ma .lteTepMffpytQr.;i napalo{H ,H.Ii- "O;;;"'::''!'i'',_ r ClIe)J.CTBCHHbIX C./tHHill\. ' 54 
>  9 ;\  If: III " , ... '\.; . PUCYIIOK 3.1 XpOMOCOMbl OpQ3oljJWlbl 03a. IIP0rjCCCbI, npoHCxO.ll:II/.QHe B KJJeTKaX BO BpeMJI MHT03a I{ MeiiQ3a, no MHorOM noxoJKI{, HO pe3YJlbTaTbI nOJlY'IaIOTCH co- BepweHHo pa3J1HqHblMI! (PIiCYHOK 3.2). Mum03 - 3TO T3KOe l\eJleHHe 1<neTQqHOrO "Apa, npH 1<0- TOpOM o6pa3YIOTcJI 06a I\OqepHHX HApa C Ha60paMI! XpOMOCOM, udeHmU'IHblMlI Ha60paM pO,!{IITenbCKoH KneTKH. BMecTe C ,IJ.eJle- HHeM ",IJ.pa npo"cXOAIiT " ,IJ.eJleHI1C !\!lTOnna.3Mbl Ha. JJ:JJe paBHbIe '1aCTII, H BOCCTaHOBJJeHHe KJlCTO'lHOif MeM6paHbI. MHToT"...ec- Koe ]l.eJleHHe npHBO]l."T K YBeJl"qeHIlIO ql{CJla KJleTOK, 06ecne'lI\- Ba npol.\eccbI pOCTa, pereHepal.\l1H H 3aMe/.QeHHH KJleTOK Y Bcex BblCWIIX JKHBOTHblX H pa.CTeHl1H, MeU03 - 3TO npOl.\eCC Jl,eJleHIIH KJleTO'lHOrO HApa C 06pa- 30BaHHeM '1emlpex ,IJ.O'JepHIiX Jl,IJ.ep, KaJK.!\oe "3 KOTOpbIX CO,IJ.ep- JKIIT «d80e MeltlUe XPOMQCOM, qeM HCXO,IJ.Hoe JlI\PO, n03TOMY ero eIl.\e Ha3!.1BalOT peOYKIjUOHltblM (OT ./taT. reductio - YMeHb!lJe- HHe). IIpH Mf:H03f: B po.n:HTeJlbCKOH KJleTKe clJa'laJIa npol1cxo- ]l.HT O,!\HOKpaTHOe YJJ:JJoeHl1e XpOMOCOM (KaK B MIIT03e), HO BCne1l 3a 3TMA! cne.ll)'JOT ,!J.Ba I.\HKna lI,!IepHblX (II KJIeTO'lHbIX) ,lteJIeHIIH - nepBoe i\eneHHe MeH03a H BTopoe ,IJ.f:neHHe MeH03a. Pe,ltYK!(HH qllcna XpOMOCOM npOIfCXO,!\HT YJ!(e B npOllecce nepBoro ,lteJIe- HHJI MeH03a. TaKHM 06pa30M, npll MeH03e H,!\pO ,!\enI{TCJI JJ:JJaJK- ]l.bl, a XpOMOCOMbl Y,!J.BaI{BaIOTCH TOJIbKO O,ltHH pa3. B pe:JYJIbTa- Te o6pa3yeTc" qeTblpe KJleTKH, B KOTOpblX '1I'!CJlO XpOMOCOM B JJ:JJa pa3a MeHbIUC, qeM B pO,!\I{TenbCKOH. MeH03 06eCne'lHBaeT COXpaJIeHlle B pH1IY nOKOJleHHU no- CTOHHHoro '1I1CJIa XpOMOCOM Y BII,!\OB C nOJlOBbIM pa3MHOJKeHI{- eM. B CBJl311 C TeM, qTO npl{ onJIoJ{OTBOpeHHH npOlfCXO,!\I{T CJUI- "Hlle MaTcpHIiCKoro II OT!(OBCKOro "Aep, HX XPOMQCOMbl o6'be- ,!\I1H>lIOTCJI. ECJII'! 6bl B npOl.\eCce 06pa30BaHI{H raMeT He npollc- X01lJlJlO pe.ll)'KQIIH '1l1crra XPOMOCOM B)l.BOe, TO npH CJIIIHHHIl ra- MeT B npoQecce 0Ili10,ltOTBOpeHHH qllcrro XpOMOCOM ,ltOJlJKHO 6!.1J10 6b! f!enpepblBHO Y8eJlHqIfBaTbC" If npl1BO,!\IITb K MCKaJKellll10 BH- ilOBbIX CDOHCTB nOTOMCTDa. . 06pa30BaHII" raMeT 11 OnJIo,!\oTBopeHHH. HI! OCHOBaHHH 3THX HaOJIlOilCH"U 6blJIO BblCKI!3aHQ npCllnOJlOJKeHl{e, 'ITO HMelfHO XPOMOCOMbI HBJlHIOTCJI HOC'ITCJlHMIf MeH]l.eJleBCKHX lj!aKTopoB. 3TO npHBerro K lJ0311HKHOBCHHIO XpOMOCOMHOif TeopHIf Ha- CJIC,l\CTBeHHoCTIl. ITOCKOJlbKY XpOMOCOMbI npe,l\CTaBJIJlIOT C060H rJIal!HbIH Ma- TepHaJlbHblU cy6CTpaT, 06YCiWBJlHBalO/.QHH CXO,IJ.CTBO Me)/(.lI)' no- KOJIeHIIJlMH II ne)l(aIl.\uif B OCHOBe 6110JlOrHqeCKOH H3MeH'IUBOC- TH, Oqellb B!lJl(HO 3HaTb, KaK De,!\YT cc6" XpOMOCOMbl B pa3JIllq- HbIX KJlf:TKax. 2.2. ,l{Ba THlla KJleTQ'IHOro .l\eJJ(HHJI B 1879 ro,!\y 6blJIH onllcaHbI npoQcccbI, IIPOHC)[Qi\JIIl.\He B JlApe npH 06pa30BaHilil itBYX lIiteHTHqHbIX KneTOI<. ITOit06HbIe ,!\eJleIlHH KneTOK npOI1CXO,IJ.JlT BO DpeMJI npOQeCCOB pOCTa II pe- reHcp a l1HH TKaHeJ!. B J 887 rOilY 6b1no BblCKa3aHO npe;:uJoiIQJKe- HHC, '1TQ B npoQccce o6pa30BaHHJI raMeT oCY/.QecTBnJleTCJI APY- rOM THn KneTOqHOrO .l(eiIeHI1SI. eJleHHe ncpBoro Tllna, xapaKTepHoe JI,IIH npoQeccoB pa3- MHOJKeHIIJI COMal'H'IeCKIIX KJIeTOK, TO eCTb KJleTOK Terra, 6bliIO Ha3BaHO MwtJ030M, a 1IeJleHlle BToporo THna, npllBO.ll:JlIl.\ee K 06- pa30BaHilIO IIOJIODbIX ICJleTOK (raMeT), nOJlY'iHJIO Ha3BaIiMe Meu- 56 2.3. XpIIMQC()MbI '1eJ10lleKa )l(H3Hb mo60ro opraHM3Ma, .l\JIH KOToporo xapaKTepeH no- JIOBOH nYTb pa3MHOJKeHII", B TOM qHCJlC H opraHII3Ma '1eJlOBf:Ka, HaQHHaerc" C MOMCHTa CJlI{HHI{JI Marepl1HCIWii H OTQOBCKOU nOJlo- 57 
POAHTebCKaA Kn9TK3 C ABYM.FI napaMH xpOMOCOM CTaBJIeT XpOMOCOMa, OTnH'IHaJi no CTpoeHHIO H Q>YHKl\HHM, H ee Ha3blBalOT Y -XPOMoCOMoit Ha P»CYHJ<aX 3 3 11 3 4 (a H 6) npc,lI- CT3.BneHbl XpOMOCOMbl '1enOBe1<a. »ToreHeTlIJ<H pa3J1HqalOT 1<a)l(- ,lIyro napy no B»ewHeMY BII.n:y KaJ< 6bl "B J111l\O" H npllnllcblBalOT KaJKAOH nape CBOi1 HOMCp. "QO'-tSPHM8 kJ1eTK a. MMT03 2.4. PeKOIltOHHal1U!I Xpl)IOCOItl B npouecce 06pa30BaIJR!I nonOBblX KJleTOK I AeneHM8 MeM03a (pe,QYK ,,'.""'00) O,!\Ha 113 rOMOJIOrll'lHblX XpOMOCOM nOJlY'IeHa KaJK)lb!M If3 Hac OT OTlIa, a ApyraH - OT MaTepll. ITpl1 06pa30BaHHI! raMeT rOMOnOm'lHbIe XpOMOCOMbl C6J1HJKaIOTCH (KOlfblOzupYlOm), rpYI1I1I!- PYJlCb B naphl, II 3aTCM pacxO)J,JITCH no paJHblM nOJIOBblM KJ1eTKaM 3T0 npOHCXO.ll:llT upH ncpBOM ,lIeneHHH MCH03a. OqeHf, B8JKHO, qTO qJlCHhl KaJKJI,OH napbI XpOMOCOM COBcpwalOT 3TOT npoLiecc He3a- BHCHMO OT ,lIPyrllx nap. B pe3YiIbTI!Te XpOMOCOMbl, YH8CJICJI,OB8H- Hhle OT OTl\a H MaTepll, nepepacnpcJI,eJIIOTCJI no raMeTaM, npo- I'!3BO,lll1MbIM HX rrOTO(fWM, COBepweHHo cJIyqailHo, 06pa3YJ! HO- BblC CO'leTaHHH XpOMOCOM, OTnll'lHbie OT TCX, '1TO CYll\CCTBOBaJIH B pO)UITCJIbC1<IfX raMeTaX, CJIlIRHHC KOTOpblX lI:aJIO J!(1!3Hb ,lI8HHOMY 'IenOBeKY 3Ta pe/wM6'lIIa'lW/. XpOMOCoM npllOOAHT II K PCKOM611- HaLili1f HaXOt\JIllllIXCJI B HlIX H:nOB, 8 CJICIJ;OBaTeJIbHO, K B03H111<HO- BeHIIIO HOBbIX CO'leTaHIli1 npH3HaKOB H yaeJlllqeHHIO reHeTlI'IecKO- ro pa:moo6pa:JIiR. II AeneHHG Meo3a (MAeT no nny MMT03a 003 peAYK- 4"" "HC11S "POMOCOM) 6. MeM03 AO\.lepHHe w:nenH (c-8M8- ffJbJ), B HOropWX B ABa pa33 MeHbwe xpoMOCOM. B raMe-- Tax >:poMOCOMbI HenapHbI PUCYHOK 3.2 CxeMa MumOJa U .leUOJa Bbrx KJIeTOK - raMeT B RHQCKJICTKC CTOJIbKO IKe XpOMOCOM, CKOJIbKO » B cnCpMaTOJOI'!,lIe, II OHII TaKoro ",e pa3Mepa, HeCMOT- pJi Ha pa3HHQY B pa3MepaX C3MOrO cnepMa'r03011i1a II RHQCKJleTKH. '!licno XpOMOCOM B raMeTaX B lI.Ba pa.3a MeHbWe, qeM B KJleT1<aX TeJIa B KJlCTKaX TCJ1a '1ellGBeKa 46 XpOMOCOM (23 napbl) - no OWUloWJllbn'l Ha60p XpOMOCOM. COOTBeTCTBtHHO, B nonOBbIX KlIeT- KaX If X BnOJIOJmHY MCHbWC, TO CCTb 23 - no zawlOuoHblU Ha60p XpOMOCOM B Tex KncTK3x, KOTOpWC peJI!lTC!I }VI» npO>l3BO,llCTB3 raMCT, MO"'HO ila6JJ]{),lIaTh XPOMQCOMbI, crpynmlpooaHHbrc B napbl Xpo- MOCOMb!, COCTaBJIR!Qll\He napy, Ha3b1BaIDT ZOMO.Q02/lWIblMJL OH11 CXOJl,Hbl no cTpoe'HlilO 11 HecYT Hacne.a,cTBeilllblH MaTepnan, onpe- i1eJIBIOII(HH O.l\H11 " Te JKe npJ.l3HaKJ.I. I1CKJlIO'ICHHe COCTaOJlJlIOT TOJIbKO oonOBbIe XPOMOCOMbl, KOTopbre y ",eHll\IIH HBJIBIOTCH nap- HblMn II nOXO)l(HMH 00 CTpOCHlllO (HX Ha3bIBaJOT X-XpoMocoMaMH), Y My",q"H JKe IIMCCTCH TOJlbKO o.n:Ha X-XPOMocoMa. ITapy ell co- 58  ' ) -C , » .  ,,'* , , .,. 'l , I'./' ; "''''. . '#p . ,"\ ,;'" \ 'I PUC)lHOK 1,3 t!>omozpaq>IJ.1I XpOMOCOJlI '1ellO- 8eKa lJ3 nep60Z0 C006UjeHUJ/. 6 KOmOpOJII IWHcmamup06tJJ/OCb Ha1IW/ue 6 KJlem'(Qx '1el108elW 46xpOMOCOM (1956 zoo) S9 
)) ,! n 3' U U II u U A )f II ai ar 16 ., II n II Ai U. t, " " IfU a , n XI nn OTell MaTb (tUKiUUUAII raMeTbi pOAHTel1eM (ra- MO"l\HbI Ha6op) POAIoITeTlbCKMe KJreTICM C AHnflOM,AHb4M Ha6opoM XpOMOCOM ., 116 j\JI\n ICIIlluiI UII' .loA ...... . " t5 PUCYHOK 3.4 Kapuomull MYJK:'1UHbl (a) U JK:eHUHbl (6) Ha pllcYHKe 3.5 CXeMaTl1qecKIl 11306paJl(eH npoQecc 06paJo- BaHHJ! raMeT B ,D.BYx nOKOlleHHJ!X (POJl,HTeJllI " nOTOMOK). XPOMO- COMb! MaTepH II oTlla oKpaweHbI 1I0-paJHOMY, qTo6b! MOJKHO 6bl1IO YBI1AeTb npoQecc pe\CoM6I1HaQHH. Ha cxeMe Xopowo BI1J1,Ha aHa- 1I0rHJI MeJKJJ:Y nOBeJl,eHHeM XpOMOCOM IIPH 06pa30BaHHH raMeT H MeHAeJJeBCKOH peKOM6HHal(l1eH npl1 MrH6plIJI,HOM cKpelQIIBaHHII. MeHAemo Jl,eHCTBHTellbHO IIOBC3110 B TOM OTHOWeHHI1, qTO H3Y'Ia- eMbre 11M npl13HaKII OTHOCI1JIHCb K paJHbIM XpOMOCOMaM. ECJIH 6b! IIpl13HaKH IIpHHa,!()1eJKaJIlI OI\HOH XpOMOCOMe, npHHl(I111 HeJaBI1CII- Moro paCllpeJl,elleHHH He c06moJl,allcJI 6bl, H IIpH3HaKI1 nepel\aBa- 1I11Cb ClIenJleHHO O.l\llH C lI,pyrl1M. "'n110HAHbli' Ha60p xpo- MOa:IM 8 KneI'ICaX noTOMIC3 C])C])CIDOO TM"bI raMeT noTOMKa PUcyHOK 3.5 PeKoM6uHaljUJI XpOMOCOM 8 I1pOljecce 06pa308aHUJI caMem 8 08YX 110KOJleHWlX Kpecm. 3TOT MexaHII3M n03BOllHeT rOMOJIOrll'lHbIM XpOMOCOMaM 06MeHlIBaTbCJI yqaCTKaMIi. Ha pl1cYHKe 3.6 CXeMaTI1'1eCKH 11306- paJl<eH npoQecc KpOCCI1HrOBepa II peKOM6HHal.\HII reHOB, pacnollo- JKeHHbIX B OI\HOH H TOH JKe XpOMOCOMe. IIoHJ!THO, qTO napb! re- HOB, l\ocraTOqHO Jl,aJIeKO pacnOJIOJKCHHbIe lI,pyr OT lI,pyra, Jl,OllJKHbI peKOM6HHHpOB3Tb C 601lbUleil BepOJlTHOCTbIO, qeM 611H31(0 pacno- 1I0Jl<eHHbIe reHb!. 2.5. CIenJ1eHHe H KpoccHHroBep B TOM cnyqae, Kor.n:a rCHbI pa3Hblx npll3HaKoB pacnollara- I()Te$! B oJI,Hoil XpoMocoMe, HX HaJblBalOT ClfCIl/ICHHbWU. 0.I/,H3KO He ClIeAYCT AYMan, 'iTO ClIenneHHb!e reHbI HaBeKH CBJ!3aHb! lI,pyr C Jl,pyrOM. Ha CaMOM Jl,eJIe IIpllpOJl,a npe,!l,)'CMO'l'pena MexaHH3M, no- 3BOJIJll()lQHH 3TI1M reHaM HHOrJl,a peKOM6HHHpOBan, npllBJI,a, eCIDI OHH He CJIJlWKOM 6J1H3KO pacn01l0JKeHb! B XpOMOCOMe. .II.cno B TOM, qTO reHb! pacnOJIaraJOTCJ! B XpOMOCOMax J111- HeHHO no BceH IIX .!I.IIHHe. B npOllecce MeH03a npl1 KOH1>I0ral(1I1I rOMOJIOrl'!qHblX XpOMOCOM C03AaJOTC$! YClIOBI1H Jl,1IJ! B03HHKHOBe- HIIJI npOllecca, IWTOpblH HOCIIT HaJBaHHe KpOCCUl/206ep, 1111H l1epe- 60 2.6. rCHeTH'ICCKali )'HHKWlbHOCTIo HH,!I,HBll,lla KpOCCHHrOBep ell1e 601lbWe YBelll1qllBaeT BepOJlTHOCTb pel(oM6HHal1HII reHOB, TeM CaMb!M YBCJIH'iIlBaJi reHeTHqeCKOe pa3Ho06pa3He nOTOMCTBa. ElIaroJl,apJ! McxaHH3MaM peKoM6l1Ha- 61 
I1HH, reHM MaTepH II OTl1a .1JIIWb BpeMeH- HO COqCTaIOTC B opraHH3MC nOTOMKa, 'iT06bI BHOBb pa30ihllCb Y)I(e B ero no.1JO- BbIX KJleTKaX II lIaTb HOBbIe CO'leTaHHJI B ero lIeTJlX II T .n: PCKOM6I1Hal\IIH HBJlJleTCJI OCHOBHblM IICTO'lHHKOM reHeTll'!eCKOH H3MeH'iHBOCTH B nonYJIJll\HH ECJIII Y'IeCTL, qTO B Ka)l(lIOH KJleTKe 'leJIOBeKa HC I1.BC napbI "POMOCOM, KaK B HallJHX CXeMaTHqeCKHX npHMepax, II 23 napbI, TO MO)l(HO npeliCTaBHTb ce6e, HI!- CKOJIbKO BeJlHKO 'IIICJIO pa3Ho06pa3HbIx co- '1eTaHHH XpOMOCOM 1\ reHOB, B03HHKalOll.\IIX B Pe3YJIbT3Te peKOM6HHalum. IIonoMY Y)f(e OliHa TOJTbKO peKOM6HHal\H XpOMOCOM II reHOB HaCTOJIbKO YBeJIII'IHBaeT reHeTl1qCC- Koe pa3Hoo6pa3He, '11'0 BO BceH qeJJOBeqeC- KOIf nonYJTl\IIH npaKTII'IeCKIl HeT .nayx re- HeTII'leCKH OJIHHaKOBblX J1IOlieH (He C'IIITaJl, KOHeqHo, MOH0311rOTHblX 6J1H3Hel\OB, KOTO- pbIe no CBOCMY npOIlCXOJK)1eHIlIO reHeTH- '1eCKH HJI,eHTII'IlibI - nOllp06Hee 06 3TOM CM B maBe 5). IIo BbIpa)l(eliHIO cOBpeMeH- HOro 3MepHKaHcKoro HCCJlelIoBaTeJJ, OllHO- 1'0 113 Be)1Yll\HX Cnel\HaJTHCTOB B 06JTaCTII 1'eHCTIIKII nOBe.n:eHII, P06epTa IIJJoMHHa, KaJKl1.bIH 113 Hac eCTb YHI1KlLTbHbIIf 1'eHeTII- 'IeCKIli! 3KcnepllMeHT, KOTOpblH HHKOr)1a 60JTbWe He nOBTOpIlTCJI. Y'IeHbIe no.n:C'II'!TaJlII, '11'0 qHC.1JO B03MO)l(HbIX COqeTaHHH re- HOB '1eJTOBeKa COCTa8J1eT 3 10", TOr)1a KaK '1HCrro JKHBWHX HI! 3eMJIe JJlOlIelf 3a BCIO HCTOPIfIO '1eJlOBe'leCTBI! COCTI!BJJJleT 7 J 0 10 , '1TO HI! lIeCJlTKH nOp)1KOB MeHbllJe IIo3TOMY npl!KTHqeCKII HI! 3eMHOM wape HI1KOr)1a He 6bIJlO, HCT H He MO)f(eT 6bITb My" mo- AeH C O)lllHaKOBbIM Ha60poM reHOB .II.a)l(e BepOJITHOCTb Toro, 'lTO AeTll O)1IIHX II Tex )l(e pO)1HTeJJeH (He C'IHTaJl, KOlle'lIlO, MOH03I1roT- HbIX 6m13He110B) 6YlI)'T IIMeTb OlIlIHaKOBbIH Ha60p reHOB, paBHeT- CJI OlIHOMY wallcy Ha 64 TpHJ1J11I0Ha B03MO)f(HOCTeH. Tal' '1TO Ka)l(- .n:bIH H3 Hac reHCTHqeCKIi YHlllCaJIeH 62 fl.. . B HOCIIMII eJJ;HHHl\illaCJI: !( IOTCJl !;:fP)/,KTYPJ>I I(JIeT()'IIIOrO II.IWI! - xp6MI>CO' " """""i" "2 XpOMOCOMbI JlerKO MOrYT Ha6JI1O.u.\\TJ>CA B;lI.eJUllIIlIXCII KJIeTKax.B KJlmaX TC<JIaqg,!J;epJldf'1I JJ;HnilOHroIblit (.zuIOHHOIt) HaUOP XpOMOCOflj- Ka)J(JI.aJl'XpOMOCOM3.J11l 'IHyro" ce ceCIJJi!HcKyiOJfPOMOMY (roMJ!orll'J"Me xpoMocdMbI). B nOJIOBblX KJIeTKaX c0,Il,epJKI!TcJI ranJIORA!' ) 1I1!-', Ijop ItpOMOM ,.,., ,., "." . ..'''3. B JIFax reM 'leJXOBeKa )(POMfOM (23, lJapbl). 4. GYll\cmYeT)];IIa THIla KiI\;TO'lHOI'O,Zl,CJIeHRII .,.... MHTOS II' Me!!03 ITepBI>IiI X3paKTepeH ,!J;JIJI AeJleHHJJ8PMaecKllx KJle- TOll', BTO»O!! npOIlCX0A'lT;JPIl OOJl330'll1!-HHit:nom;B"X KJleT(»(, (r3MeT). ..,."""",..',j':;' S. IIpllMHTo3e XP(}OCN" H a3TeM pac< XOAATCII no AO'leplllIM KJIeric1!-,!Io!., B pe3ynb!i!,Teoqp1I-3yroTCII ,lJ,Be KiIeTX,II,a6coJIlOTHO HJI.eI\TIj'lHble poJJ;HTeJIbCKOil '..... 6. ITpllMeH03expoMOCOMbI Y OJJ:H!! paa.,,,HO 33- ,:reM ,!J;Ba, H'KJIa. kJIeTO'lHbIX ITp" "(!PROM .u.ene- , HUH (pe.Iij'KUHOHffOM) roMOJIOI'mUIe xpo aitHblM 05-, p330MpaCXOAHTCii no pM KlIeTKaMiB JI.eJIeImeMeH()3a lfaIlOllIIH3CT IlIIT03. B Pe3YJIb'!'ltTC Mcii03a"oopaaY!I1CJ{ 'IeTblpC p,O'lepHIIX K!J.eTJ(II CTaroIOll,,!J;llblM lIaPOpQMXPQMOCOMj;:ii"i';" 7 IIpol\ecc peKOM6I1Hal\HII XPOMOCO¥ "1'''' pe.a;yKLI.80H- 110M AeJIeHIIHCOO'I'Be'rCTBYeT peKO¥6I1HII,!H MeJieJJxe.<"" "",UH3cJICACTBeHHOCTH, """"''''''''.:'.'' \", . y" 8. EJJ;HI;IHl\LI U3CJIC.u.CTBCUt!0CTH' \la.3L1S$OTcli:J:"eH3MH'" paClIonaI'IlIOTCII .lI.J{HjHO B XpoMoMax.reHbl, paciJOJIOJKC1P' able B 011808 XpoMocoMe, H33b113aJOTCJI;l.\eri:jtHbllil.lI. """y"""y,:""',9cc,,,.GueOJleHHbIC rCHLI" MOryT peKOMOHRBPOB3Tb 611aI'OAapA npoLI.eccy "PH t)TOpOM npoXO)(llT 06H Y'l3- q4MH M rOVOnOI:H'IHLlMII xpolloMaMII 10 npoJ.(cccpeKoM6Hi*WIH. aTjf>CHoreHem'lCKolt 83 aeTu'lcclCoil YHHKaJIbHOctH8H,ll,llBIlAOB. '" ,i;',t:;:;... .... '-".;',,:;::::,.._. b fI. . A 8 B b B b A fI. 8 8 B b B. b PUCYHOK 3.6 PeKoM6ufimJWl i!el(()(J ({ npolJecce KpOCCUlI2o&epa e B MeD03e, II npIIB9Mi,K" 63 
3. MoneK}'l1ApHble OCHOBbl HacneCTBeHHOCT PUCY"OK 3.8 KOMl1neMeHmapHoe cmpoeHue jZHK 3.1. .II.HK - MaTepHBJlLHall cy6cTaHUHR reHOB qT06bl Bce npOL\eccb!, omlcaHHble B npel\bII\Ywl1X pa3l\e- nax, MOrJlH ocyweCTBJlJlTbCJI, MaTepHaJIbHaJi cy6cTaHl\IIJI, 113 KO- TOpOH COCTOJIT XpOMOCOMbl, ,!\OJlJKHa HMeTb I\De oc06eHHOCTIf. Bo-nepBbIX, OHa 110JIJKHa 6LITL cnoc06Ha nOCTOJlHHO y.u;naIlBaTL- CJI, COXpaHJlJI 60JILWYlO TOqHOCTb Bocnp01f3Bel1eHHJI. BO-BTO- pblX, OHa 110JlJKHa .n:aBaTb MHOJKeCTBO pa3J1I1'1HblX OPM, TeM caMLIM 06eCneqHBaJi cYwecTBoBaHlie 6eCKOHeqHOrO pa3Ho06pa- 3HJI reHOB, npeJl,CTaBJleHHblX B npHpOJl,e. DbIJIO nOKa3aHO, '1TO B COCTaB XpOMOCOM BXO.!\JIT .u;na BH.n:a MOJleKYJl - MOJleKynbI 6eJIKa H iJe30Kcupu60HYKlleWlOilou KUCllombl ()J,HK). 11 6enOK, H .lI.HK 06nal1aJOT YKa3aHHLIMI1 CBOHCTBaMIi. CHaqaJIa npei\llOJlaranH, '1TO OCHOBHOH reHeTllqeCKOH cy6cTaHL\II- CH JlBJlJleTCJI 6enOK. .II.Bal1L\aTL pa3J1H'IHbIX aMHHOKIICJlOT, BXOI\JI- IL\HX B MOJIeKYJlb! 6eJIKOB, MorYT l\aBaTb 6ecKoHeqHOe P33Ho06pa- 3He COqeTaHI1H, KOTopoe MOJKeT JleJ<\aTb B OCHOBe pa3H006pa3liJi reHOB. 11 TOJlbKO B HaqaJIe SO-x rOI\OB 6bIJIO 1\0K33aHO, '!TO HOCIi- TeneM reHeTli'leCKOH IIH.popMaL\HIi JlBJlJleTCJI .II.HK. OKaJaJIOCb, 'ITO .II.HK caMa no ce6e, He3aBliCliMO OT 6enKa, cnoco6Ha nepe- HOCIiTb Hacnel\CTlJeHHYIO HH.popMaUI1IO 113 OI\HOH KneTKn B .l\py- ryIO, TOrl\a K3K 6enoK 6e:! .II.HK noro He MOJ<\eT. .lI.HK IIMeeT MOJIeKYJIJlpHOe CTpoeHlfe, 06eCne'lIlBaIOlL\ee cnoc06HOCTb K y.u;noeHIlIO II K 06pa30BaHllIO MHOJKeCTBa pa3HO- 06pa3HLIX .pOPM. MOJleKyna HYKJIellHOBOH KHCJ10Tbl IIMeeT .pop- MY HIITII, npe.l\CTaBJlJIIOweH C060H l.\enL HYKJlCOTIII\OB (PIlCYHOK 3.7). KaJKJI,blii HYKJleOTHI\ COCTOIIT 113 Tpex qaCTeH: aJOTHCToro .oc-.orILUKI4C1Drj, PUCYIIOK 3.7 CmpoeHue lIenu HYKlle- omuiJ06 HK OCHOBaHHJI, yrJlCBol\HOrO KOMnOHeHTR H .poc.popHoii KIICJlOTbI. OT.I\eJlLHblC HYKJleOTH!l.LI B HYKJIenHOBblx KIICJIOTaX Coel1HHeHLI !l.pyr C IIPyroM qepe3 .pOCOPHYIO KOCJlOTY npOqHOH XOMHqeC- KOH CBJl3LIO. YmeBOI\HLIH KOMnOHeHT B .II.HK npel1CTaDJICH ca- xapoM - lIe30KcHpn6030H. CaxapHLIH H .pOCOpHblH KOMno- HeHTbl Y Bcex HYKJIeoTH!l.OB O.I\HHaKOBbI, qTO JKe KaCaeTCJI OCHO- BaHHH, TO CyweCTBYIOT qeTbIpe THna OCHOBaHHH: aiJelluH, lfumo- 3U11, zyallull U mllMUII. .II.JlJI npocTOTbl HX qaCTO o603HaqalOT 6YK- BaMn A, , r II T. OqeHL BaJKHO, '1TO MOJleKYJla .II.HK 06pa30BaHa He O.D.- HOH, a Jl,BYMJI HI1TJlMH, KaJK.D.aJl 03 KOTOpLIX HMeeT TaKoe CTpoe- HHe. HUTH COelll1HJlIOTCJI MeJKJ\Y co6oii CJla6LIMH BOIlOpOIlHblMH CBJl3J1MI1 qepe3 OC.HOlJaHHJI. fIapbl OCHoBaHHii nOJl,XO!l.JlT I\Pyr K I\pyry, KaK KnlOq K 3aMKY ITpll 3TOM a!l.CHIIH ocerl\a CTOHT B nape C TI1MHHOM, a ryaHI1H C QHT03HHOM (A-T, f-IJ;, PHCYHOK 3.8). EJlarollapJl TaKOMY KOMnlleMellmaplloMY CTpOeHI1IO, 3Ta I\BOHHaJi HHTL cnoco6Ha TOqHO Bocnp0l13BOl\HTb ce6J1, 06pa3YJl I1AeHTH'lHble .u;noHHLle H"TH. CxeMa cTpoeHHJI .II.HK, H30eCTHaJi KaK IIBoHHaJi cnUpaJlb <t>.YoTcoHa H .II.)!(.KpHKa, nOKa3aHa Ha pHCYHKe 3.9. ITpH pel1JIuKalfUU (Y.D.BOeHIIH) .II.HK CJla6Lle BO!l.OpO.D.HLle CBJl3H MeJK!l.Y OCHOBaHHJI1I1 PBYTCJI, H IIBe nOJlYMoJleKYJIbl pac- XOI\JlTCJI, KaK 3aCTe)!(Ka-MOnHHJI, H Ha KaJK!l.oii H3 HIIX I\OCTpall- BaeTCJI HOBaJi KOMnJleMeHTapHaJi nonOBHHKa. B pe3YJlLTaTe Mbl IlorryqaeM ABe MOJleKYJlbI .II.HK, a6COJIIOTHO I1l\eHTl1qHLIX HC- XO!l.HOH. OIlHa HMeeT cTapylO npaBYIO CTOPOHY H HOBYIO JleBYIO, a I\pyraJl, Hao6opOT, - cTapyIO JleBYro It HOOYIO npaoylO (pl1cy- HOK 3.10). MOl\enb YOTcoHa-KpI1Ka lIaCT npaoilono.D.06HOe 06'bJiCHe- HHe cnoco6HoCTH reHOB 11 XpOMOCOM TOqHO BocnpOH300!l."TL ce6J1 B MltT03e, '1TO npHBO.I\HT K 06pa30BaHI11O I\O'lepHI1X jCJleTOK TO'lHO 65 rr... " OCHotAHHI: yr,1l:1oO.I rILUlDlCJIOn OQIOUJlHI yraN! OCIfOLOfIU \'uno ..x.PHU 1010014 ..... 64 
T3.Koii >Ke reHt:-rH'ecKoii XOHCTHTYQHII, '!TO Ii MaTepIlHCX!UI. ECTeCTBeIiHO, '1TO B KiTCTKe nOT npol.{ccc 3HaqllTCnbHO cnO>KHec, '!eM nOl(a3aHO Ha cXeMC. B MOJICKYJIe .II.HK 60JIbWOe 3Ha- '1eHlfe I1MeeT TO, B KaKOH nOCneJl,OBa- TeJIbHOCTIl pacnOJIO>KeHbI OCHOBaHHJI. Hanpm.fep, Y'IaCrOK .n;HK I/J BOCbMH OCHOBaHIIH MO)((eT BblrJlJl.!len KaK fA TTf A, a MO>KeT 11 HHa'le- TTTfAA II T..!I. ITOCKOJIbKY OCHO- BaHH!! pacnOJlO)((CHbl B MoneKYJle .II.HK JIHHeiil/o, o.1l.Ho 3a l\PyrilM, '!IIcnO pa3- nll'!HbIX cxeM pacnOJIOJKeHHJI ,lI,JIJI Ka1l(- i1.0ro OCHOBaHHII npaKTH'IecKH Heorpa- HH'!eHHO. 3TO Cl'aHOBHTCH OC06CHIJ0 JlCHO, ecnll y'!ecTb, '1TO B COCTaB 0.1\- HOH MoncKynbI .II.RK 1<XOT COTHH TM- e!!q OT.!IeJIblJbIX HYKJIeOTHI\OB. .II.aJKe Y npllMIfTIIBHeMwero JKIIBoro OpraHlI3- Ma - 6al\Tepll0ljlara - B coeTaB 1.10- JIeKYJIbl .n;HK 1<XOI\IIT OKOJlO 200 TbICJ('! HYKJleOTIII\OB, Y BbICWIIX )((IIBOTHbIX me 'IIICJlO BO MHOI'D pa3 60Jlbwe. TaxlfM 06pa30M, '1l1cno oCHoBaHIIH cpaBHIi- TCJIbHO HeBeJIIIKO - Bcero '1eTblpe, '!HC- JIO B03MOJKHbIX KOM6HHal.{IIH - orpoM- PUCYHOK 3.9 HO EcnH npC.!ICTaBIITb ce6e, '!TO OI\IIH MOOeJib cmpoeHUR HK reH BKIIIOqaeT 500 nap OCHOBaHIIH, TO 1W YomcOIlY U KpUKY qllCIIO B03MO)KHbIX cxeM pacnOJIO)l(eHIiJi COCTaBHT 4500. TaKI/M 06pa30M, Bcero 'IeTbIpe oCHOBaHI/JI ITO- 3BOJlJllOT e03.!1aBaTb orpOMHoc 'JI/CJlO pa3Hoo6pa3HbIX COqCTa- HHM II TeM caMbIM 06ccne'!HBaIOT eYIl.\eCTBOBaHlie BceB03MoJK- HbIX rCHOB. """':=- ( r.. .. +. '" n."...- 4mImm . ... .... r-==¥," - ,.,. A 6 ., "' mmff.., . "Jj""' ';::::' IDDJfffif : : : & / , _.. ", ......... -- P- ... .  r PUCYHOK 3.10 PeIVlUl<a'lWi H K no AlooeJIu YomcOHa-KpUKa onpC.!IeJleHlle reHa Bce eIl.\e TPYJI,HO. OJl,HO 113 1I03MO)((HbIX onpe- .!IeJIeHIIH reHa paCCMaTpIlBaCT reH l(aK el\llHIII.{Y IjIYHKI.{IIII MOJK- Ho cKa3aTb, '1TO zeH - Jmo ne60.nbwoiJ Y'IaCntOK XpOMOCOMbl, 06- .nai)aIOUjuu onpeoe.neHlwu 6UQXUMWleCKou f/JYHKlfueu U OKa3616alO- UjuiJ C7U'1JmPU'leCKDe 8.lIURHue I/IJ c80ficnt6a Qc06u. ITOCKOJIbKY 6bIJIO H3BeCTHO, '11'0 OT reHoB 3aBHCRT CTpYICTypHble, IjIJlJHOJIOrH'JCC- KIIC II 61'!0XHMIi'lCCKHC npll3HaKII, 6bIJIO npeAJIO)((eHO onpeJl,c- JIJlTb reH XaK HallMeHbWI1H Y'IaCTOK XpOMOCOMbl, 06YCJIOBJlIIBa- IOWIIH CIIHTe:! onpe.!leJIeHHOrO npo.ayKTa. KaKoH )((e npo.ayKT CHH- Te3llpyeTCJI II pe3ynbTaTe ,lI,CHCTBIiH reHa? EII1e B 1908 r0.I\Y aHfJIlIHCKHIi Bpaq Ap'IH6aJll,I{ fappol\, 113Y'Iafl HeKoTOpbIe "BpO)J(J\CHHbIC oWII6KII MCTa60JIH3Ma", Bnep- Bble BbICKa3aJ1 rilnoTc3Y 0 CBJl3f! Mexc.ay reH8MIf If </JepMeHTaIH. (<1IepMeHTbI - 3TO cncQIlIjIII'IeCKIlC 6emm, npllcYTCTBYIOWIlC BO BCCX JliHBb!X ICnt:TJ(ax IIIfI'paJOJlII!e POJIL 61fOJlOril'!ecKlI)( KaTaJnl3a- TOpOB. C nOMOWbID ljIepMeKToB oCYII.\eCTBnJlIOTCJI Bce npOl(eCCbl 06MeHa BeweCTB II 3HeprllH II )((HllbIX opraHH3Max). H TOJIbKO no- II qepe:l 40 nCT nepBbIe pa60Tbi B 06naCTli MoncKYJIJlpHOH reHe- TIIKII nOJ1TBepMJIH rHnoTc3Y A.fappoAa. fllnoTe:!a "reH -ljIep- MeaT!>, HJ1H, QTO npaBlfflbHee, fO reH ------6'enoK t ', arcrHlfecK" 03Hatla. CT, '1TO reHbI CO.!lep)l(aT IIHljlopMal.{HIO 0 nOCJIeJl,OBaTeJIbHOCTH aMIIHOKIICllOT D 6eJIKax, If npOJIYKTOM i1.CJlTeJlbHOcrn reHa RIIJIJICT- CJI onpeJJ,eJleHHbIH 6eJ10K. 3.2. Onpe.!leJJeHHe reHa, OCHOIIIIBSI IjIYHJ(I\HSI rella HCCMOTpfl Ha TO, qTO MHoroe YJI(e Tcnepb H3BecTHO 0 CTpO- eHIIH XpOMOCOM, 0 CTPYKTYPC II IjIYHKQIIJlX .II.HK, .!Ian TOqHOe 66 67 
3.3. feHeTllqeCKH" KOj( naMI1 no TpI1 11 3aTeM Ka)f(Jl,YIO "TpOHKY" oCHOBaHI1H nepeBOAHT B KOHKpeTHYIO aMHHOKI1CJ10TY H B KOHKpeTHblH 6eJ10K. MexaHH3M CHHTe3a 6eJ1Ka B KJTeTKe qpe3BblqaitHo C1!OJKeH. OH npej(lIo1!a- raeT yqaCTHe APyroro BHAa HYKnellHoBblX KHcnOT - PI160HYK- neHHoBoll KHcnOTbl (PHK) II pl(a KneTO'lHblX CTpYKTYP BHe .n:pa KJ1eTKI1 (noAP06Hee 06 3TOM CM B rnaBe 14 II pa3JmqHbIX cne- l\lIaJIbHblX PYKOBo.n:CTBax no reHeTHKe). PacilllfrppoBKa reHeTH'IeCKOrO KOAa 6b.1na OCYillecTBneHa B pa60Te c HI1311lllMH AOAepHbIMIl OpraHI13MaMH (npOKapIlOTa- Mil). COBpeMeHHble MoneKYJIpHO-reHeTH'IeCKHe HccneAOBaHI1, BeAYilllleCJI Ha 06"eKTax 60Jlee BblCOKoro ypOBHjj OpraHH3al\J1II (3YKapIJOTax) nOKa3aJlH, '1TO CTpoeHHe reHa II npllHl\Hn C'IHTbl- BaHII!! IJHIjJOPMBI1I1H Mil cHInen 6enKB y 3YKapl1oT OTJ1JlqaCTCjj OT TaKOBoro npoKapHoT. OKa3anOCb, '1TO reHbl YKapHOT cOAep- JKaT KaK KOAl'!pYlOillHe yqaCTKII, KOTopbre HecYT IIHljJopMal\1I1O AJlji CIIHTe3a cneUllljJHqeCKOrO 6eJ1Ka (OHI1 6blJ1JI Ha3BaHbJ 3K30- H{1MU) , TaK H HeKO.l\llPYlOillHe (Ha3BaHHble UHmpOHilMu). HanpH- Mep.> MoneKyna 6enKa OBanb6YMIIHa COCTOHT 113 386 aMI1HOKHC- JIOT. ITpll TpHnneTHOM KOAe lia KaJKAYIO aMI1HOKHCJIOTY j(OJ1JKHO npllXOAIITbCJI no Tpll HYKJ1eOTI1Aa, cooTBeTcTBcHHO, reH OBanb- 6YMIIHa j(oml\eH 6bIJI 6bl COCTOjiTb H3 1158 HYKneOTHl(OB Ha caMOM .Ilene reH OBaJIb6YMHHa npHMepHo B ceMb pa3 ,IJ,IlIIHHee - 7900 HYKneoTIIAoB. 6JIaro.l\apiJ cYlI\eCTBOBaHHIO HHTpOHOB, reHbl YKapHoT MO- rYT HeCTI1 HHq,opMalllllO AJliJ Ko.n:HpOBaHlljj He TonbKO OAHoro cne- llHrpHqeCKOrO 6emm, KaK Y npOKapHOT, HO, B 3aBilCHMOCTH OT cne- l\H.pIlKH TKaHH, B KOTOPOH OHII IjJYHKl\IIOHHPYIOT, pC3ynbTaToM IIX j(CjiTenbHOCTH MOJKeT 6blTb CIIHTe3 pa3HblX 6eJIKOB. B nOCne.aHCM cnyqae HHljJopMal\Hjj, 3aKOAIJpOBaHHaji B AaHHOM reHe, CqHTblBa- eTCjj npH yqaCTHH KJleTO'lHOrO MeXaHI13Ma, KOTOpblH HOCHT Ha:ma- Hlle cnnaUCUHZa (noAP06Hee 06 3TOM CM. B maBe 14). IhaK, OCHOBHOH cpYHKUHeH reHa JlBJ1!JeTCji KOj(npoBaHlle IIH- q,opMaUIIII, Hc06xOAliMOH lI)jiJ CI1HTe3a Cnel\IIIjJH'IeCKoro 6eJIKa. KaKI1M JKC 06pa30M HHcpOPMallHiJ 0 nocneAOBaTeJIbHOCTII oCHoBaHIIH .II.HK npe06pa3yeTcJI B nOCJIej(OBaTenbHOCTb aMH- HOKHCJIOT B 6enKax? ECTb Bcero qeTblpe pa3nHqHbIX OCHOBa- HlliJ - A, 1', f, , a B COCTaB 6enKoB BXOAjjT 20 pa3JIII'IHbIX aMIIHOKHCJ10T. Ecnl1 6bl O.D.HO OCHOBaHHe onpel\en!JJIo nonOJKe- Hire o.1\Hoii amHOKIICJIOTb! B nepBH'!Hoii CTpYKType KaKorO-TO 6cJ1j(a, TO B COCTaB nOrO 6eJIKa Morno 6bI BXOl\lITb TonbKO qe- Tblpe BHAa aMIIHOKllcnOT. EcnH 6bJ KaJKAajj aMIIHOKlicnOTa KO- Jl,HpOBanacb .D.aYMjj OCHOBaHHJlMH, TO qllcno B03MOJKHblX nap COCTaBmmo 6b! 4' = 16. 3Toro TaKJKC He.D.OCTaTOqHO AJljj KO./UI- pOBaHlfiJ 20 aMIlHOKIICJlOT. TOflbKO KO.1\, COCTOJ/illllii 113 Tpex OC- HOBaHlIll, Mor 6bl 06eC!le'lHTb BKnlO'IeHlle BCCX 20 aMHHOKHcnOT B COCTaB 6eJIKa, nocKoflbKY qHCJIO B03MOJKHblX TpIl!lneTOB 3AeCb 4' = 64 TaKIIM 06pa30M, KaJK.1\OH aMIlHOKHCJlOTe AOnJKHO COOT- BeTCTBOBaTb Tpl'! nocneJl,OBaTcnbHblX OCHOBaHlljj .II.HK. 3T 3aBJlCMMOCTb MeJKY OCHOB<lHI!JlMII 11 <lMHHOKHCJIOT<I- Mil H3BeCTHa no).\ Ha3BaHlieM 2e1JemU'/eCK020 Kooa. ):\OKa3aTenh- CTBa TPHnneTHOCTII Ko).\a 6bIJIH nonyqeHbl B 1961 ro.D.)l <l>P3HCII- COM KpHKOM. OCHoBHhle oc06eHHOCTI1 reHeTllqeCKoro I<o).\a MOrYT 6blTh cljJOPMYJIllpOaaHbl cne).\YlOillHM 06pa30M. I AMI1HOKHCJlOTa KO.D.IJpyeTCjj TpHTIJIeTOM OCHOBaHHH B nonH- HYKJleOTIiAHOH l1eTII1 .II.HK. 2. KOA JlBJIJleTCiJ YHI1BepCaJlbHbIM. Y Bcex JKHBblX opraHH3MoB 0).\- HII 11 Te JKe TpII!lJ1eTbI KOJl,llpYIOT OJ(HH H Te JKe aMIIHOKIICJIOTbl. 3. AMHHOKHCJlOTa MO)!(eT KOJl,llpOBaTbCjj 60nce qeM OAHHM TpHn- neTOM (HanoMHIIM, 'ITO qllCJlO B03MOJKHblX TpHnJ1eTOB 64, a qHCnO aMI1HOKIICJ10T 20). 4 KOI\ He!lepeKpbIBaIOIl1I1HCJI, TO eCTb KaJKJ\oe OCIIOBaHlle MO)!(eT npHHa,IJ,lleJKaTh TOJIb!(O O.D.HOMY TpHnJ1eTY (PHCYHOK 3.11). MexaHH3M CIIHTC3a 6eJIKOB B KJjeTKe CqllTblBBeT nOCJICAO- BaTeJ!bHOCTb OCHOBallHH B O).\HOII nOJIOBHHe MoneKynbI .II.HK rpyn- :(A_I:lrtIir!r11, HO He  A T PUCYHOK 3.11 TpUl1JIemllblU HenepeKpblGalOUfu(;CJl 2eHemU4eCKUU KOiJ 68 BblBOAbi ,.',' ,.,.:",.,.A.,.,;!\1i,I\;ret>Ha.n:..l!hllol' ,cy6crpaToM HaCJIeJI,CTBeHHOCTII ,",JIJI- IOTCJ! MOJIeKy .. . . . . .Jl!.i e30J{CHpHoOHYKJIeHHOBOR KKCJIOTLl (jIJU< .. ). "...,., ......- "..,',"" ,':,,;. ." '. 69 
, 2. Monetcyltt./ ,lJ;HK clIoco6HI(' Y.Q;lloemoo C OOJI/,lIIoii TO'JHOCTl>IO 8 .' ... ."., ,,:::::i,.:..:,}.fOJIeKYJlLI ,lJ;HK C!JOH 06pa30bll!a1'1.6etKOHe'l- ,  pa:!He pa31t"'IHbIX.. . "" r::,i:::::,:,,::iir4. ',lJ;HK eT C0601t'IYKneOTll)J,OB, IICOCTaB ,., 1£OTOpblX . ICOMI10HeJ/T3 -tpQHlJjj, yrJJeBO.lnl, 83 OT11CToe OCHOBaHJJe (1I,lIeHJU!, rylUlHH, TIIMHiI QHT03HHP::,:;,;:,;' ". S." MOIleICYJIa ,lJ;HK COCTOHTH3 IUIYX rtOJlHfl:YKJICOTIfJUlM QelIeIt, 'IepC3 1130TllcThIe OCIIOBIIHIIA, H HJ4et:1'KOM- . oe CTpOeIlIIe: aUDH  IIHTAMH 06pa3YJOTcA TOJI/'- MIJH (A-1)ilI'Yi!IIH:HT031111(J'.Q). '. feH H.?PMIIUIIAK OJ? TCA lIocJ}e,!(g: !H0c;I.1O OCHOBaHHK .:"JJ;.K' ";':;":',;:"::"';i.'.':!:::":,';,,.,. '" ",:);,:,;,;::,' "];: '9'II O IIHoA cjlYHKeliffit-.',!18JI11eTCA kOJl,llPOBal;l"e HH cjlop . CIICQHcjlH'ICCKOro(!eJIKa. 8. AMHHOkMCnO'l1>lAIIJl CHHTC3a 6eJ1)(II KO!tJipYIOTCII yPlIlI- .'a.,!pCHoBalUlit B uenN .II.HK (reueTH'I"!:I ICoiV. 4. feNW . XpoMOCOMax. Myral.lMM 4.1. nOHlITH1i JIOKYCII H IIJIJleJllI. MHO*KTBeuH...e lI.IL1IeJIH. TOMO:JIU'OTHOCn. U J'eTepo:JIltOTBOCTIo KaI( YJKC rOBOpHJTOCb, !'eHb! B XpOMocoMax pllCl10JIllrlllOTCJI JlHHCQHO. MCCTO 8 XpoMOCOMC, B KOTOpOM pllCnOJIOJKeH MHHblH rc", I1II3/,IBaeTCII 1I01<YCOM. B OJl,llOlol H TOM JKe JIOKyce Y oco6cn Onpe,!(eJIeJlHoro BH.Wl MOryr pacnoJtaJ'8T/'CJI OAHHIIICOBbJC reHIJ, HO BO MHorHJt CJlY'IIIJIX JIOKYC He OTJIH'IaeTCIi nOJl,06HblM nOCTOJlH- mOM, H B HeM pacnOJIllrlleTCJI TOT HJIH HHOi! BllpHIIHT ,!\IIHHoro reHa. 061J'IHO 3TII 811pllllHTbl OAHoro H Toro )J(e reHII CJl.O.ll:HbI MeJK,U,y 00601i, Jl.on H He lI)J,eHm'lHbI. TluCHe pIlJJIH'IHMe COCTOJl- HHJI JIOKYca HOCRT HII3B8HKe a.vrelleD. qaCTo JI)IJI onpC)l.eJIeHHOrO JI01CYca H3BecTllbI JIIIlllb 1\88 8JIJIeJIJI, TO CCTb .Q;IIC bTq)HaTIIBHbIe cjI0PMI,I OJl,lloro reRa, OJl,llIllCO Hepe;UCH CJJy'laK, KOr)l.a AAHHMH JIO- KYC BCTpC'IaeTCJJ B ueJlOM pJlJl,e p83JIH'IHLlX COCTOJJHIlIi, H TOr)l.a MOl KMecM 1l.CJI0 co aJ/M/lJWU. fCHbI, YHElCJIe,l\OBaHHbIe OT pO)l.Hl'eJJeii H pacnO"lIralOlI.\H- CCJl B nape rOMOJIOrK'IHLlX XpOMOCOM, Moryr 6L1T/, O.ll:HOH II Toll 70 I: I I :KC aJIJIeJIbHOii cjI0pMLI (HllnpIlMep, 06a )l.OMHH8HTHbi - AA - H"II 06a peUCCCHBHbI - aa), II TorAa no 3TIIM reHaM '1CnOBCK, HX HOC"TeIl/', 6Y,!\eT ZOMo:tUZOmHblM. ECJ1H reHb( npe,!\CTIIBJICHbl )l.BYMK pIl3JIH'IHblMH aJUICnhHbIMII qlOpMaM" (Aa), '1eJIOBeIC 6y- ,!(eT zemepo:tIROmHblM no )l.aHHOMY reHY. TaKKM 06pa30M, KII)J(- Jl,blH IIHJI,"BH,I\ IIMCCT 8 COOTBeTCTByroll.\KX JIOKycax napy IIMe- nCH, paCnOJIBralOlI.\HxCA B rOMOJIOOl'lHWX XpOMOCOM8X. ITPII MliO- :KCCTBeHlIOM 3JIJIeJJH3Me B nonYJIAQHH MorYT BCyPC'IaTbCJI pa3- Hble aJ1JlCJIII, H HX pa3nll'lHLle CO'leTaHIIA Y OT,I\eJJLHbIX HH.lI:HBII- )l.OB 6YAYT p;IIBaTb pa3KbIe IlpH3H8I<1I. ITpKMepOM MHOJKCCTBCHHOro aJ1JIeJIll3Ma Y tJenOlleKa MorYT 6bIT}, TaK Ha:lblBaeMbIe KJIaCCH'IecKIIC rpynnLl KpOBIi CKCTeMbI ABO. K11i '1enOBeK HMeeT O.ll:HY K3 '1eTbIpeX rpynn 1Cp0BK nOH CHCTeMbl. PII3JIII'I"JI MeJK.ll,y rpynn8MII 06ycnOllJIeHLI )1;eIiCTBHCM Tpex MHOJKecT!leHHblJl aJIJIeneii - HX 06b1'1110 Oa03HII'IIIIOT KaK 1\ I" " i. 3m aJIJIenH B nonYJIIII.\HII Moryr )l.llBlln. lllecTh pIlJJIH'IHbIX COqeTaHIiH (yPli THna rOM03HroT H yPH mna rer-epD3HrOT). fpynn8 KpOBH A: I) rOM03HrOTbl - lA IA; 2) rercp03HroTbl - IA i. fpynn8 KpOIlH B: 3) rOM03I1rOTLI- I" P; 4) reTep03HroTbi - Pi. fpynn8 KpOIlH 0: 5) rOM03HrOTbl - ii. fpynna KpOll1l AB: 6) rer-ep03HroTbl - IA P. JIJOJI,II C rpynnoH !Cp08H 0 - no llceI'.n:a rOM0311I'0TbI, JIIO,!(II C rpynnoii KpOBII AB - no BCer)l.a renp03HrOTbI, II cpeJl,ll JlIO- )1;eii C rpynnaMII A H B MorYT BCTpe'l8n.cI K rOMO- K I'CTep03H- rOTbI. .II.OMHHKpOB8HIIJJ B ,!\aHHOM CJIY'Iae He lIa6JI1O,I\.8eTCJJ, HO lIeT II IlpoMeJKYTO'IIILlX cjI0PM, H JDO,!(II C TIlnOM ICpOIIII AB O,!(llO- BpeMeHHO npoABJlJlIOT npH3HBKK rpynm>l A K rpynn... B. 4.2. retlllwe M}7aJUn1 HCCMOTpIi HII 60JILWYro TOtJHOCTb penJIHlCal.\HH .II.HK BO BpCMJJ npOI(eccoB MIIT03a II Mc/fo3a. BpCMJI OT BpeMeHH HCK3- 71 
6e)!(HO B03H"KaIOT 0ll1!16KH, KOTopbIe npllBOAJlT K 113MCHeH"1O nOCne,D.OBaTeJlbHOCTII HYKneOT",D.OB B ,",enH HK, IIJI" ze/J/Jbl.M MymarlUJIJI! MYTa,",HH MO)!(eT npeACTaBJIHTb C060H 3aMeHY 0A- HOH napbl OCHOBaH"H Ha ,D.pyrylO, nOTepIO OAHoro HJI" HeCKOJlb- KIIX HYKneOTIIJI,OB "JIll, Ha050pOT, A05aBneHI1e AOnOnH"TeJIbHblX HYKneOT"AOB, ITpli nOM XYAll1I1M BapllaHTOM 6YAeT nOTepH Hn" A05aBneHI1e O.l.lHorO I1JI" ABYX HYKJICOTI1AOB. B 3TIIX CJIyqaHX paMKa C'IHTI>IBaHHJI TpllnJIeTOB HeII35c)!(HO CABl1raeTCJI Ha OAHO- ABa OCHOBaHI1J1 BnpaBO I1nl1 BJIeBO, II Bce nOCJleAYIOII1l1e Tpl'!nne- Tbl 6YAYT Cq"TbIBaTbc>! HenpaBHJIbHO, ECJII1 )j(e Bbmanll "JIll ,D.O- 6aBHJI"Cb cpa3Y Tpll OCHOBaHI1J1, TO H3MeHeHIIH KOCHYTCJI 1II1111b O,D.HOi1 aMHHOKHCJIOTbl, a BC>! OCTaJIbHaH ,",enb OCTaHeTCH BepHOH. feHHbIe MYTal\H", B03HHKalOII1He B raMeTax, OKa3bIBaIOT pa3H006pa3Hoe AeiicTBlle Ha opraHH3M. MHorlle 113 HIIX neTaJIb- Hb!, TaK KaK BbI3bIBalOT CJI"IlIKOM ccpbe3Hble HapYll1eHIIJI pa3BH- HIH, If3BecTHo, HanpHMep, qTO y qeJIOBeKa OKOJIO 20% 6epe- MeHHocTei1 3aKaH'II11JaIOTCH eCTeCTBeHHbIM B(,(KIiAbIll1eM B CpOKIl AO 12 HeAeJlb, II B nOJIOBI1He 3THX CJIyqaeB 06HapY)!(IIBaIOTcH aHOMaJIl111 HaCJIeACTBeHHoro annapaTa, 05YCJIOBJIeHHble, Bnpo- '1eM, He TOJIbKO reHHblMI1 MYTa,","HMII. feHHaJi MyTa,",HH MO)!(eT npliBeCTI1 K TOMY, qTO AaHHOMY JIOKYCY 6yAeT COOTBeTCTBOBaTb l1eCKOJIbKO aJIJIeJIeH. 3TO YBe- JI"'1I1BaeT reHCTllqeCKOe pa3H006pa3"e " nOBbllliaeT KOJII1'1e- CTBO reTep03IIrOTHblX oc06eH. ITpeAnonaraercJI, qTO Bce reHe- THqeCKlle nOJI"Mopljl"3MbI B03HHKJlI1 H3-3a 3aMeHbI, nOTepl1 I1JI11 A06aBneHI1J1 HYKJIeOT"AOB B npOI1CCce JBOJIIO,",HI1. EOJIbll1HHCTBO reHHbIX Myral\"H pe,",eCC"BHbI no OTHOllIe- H " " l' 1110 K HOpMaJIbHOMY aJIJIeJIIO. aK"e MyraHTH(,(e anneJIII MO- rYT Q"PKYJIHpOBaTb B nonYJlH111111 B re'leHHe MHOrnX nOKoneHHH, nOKa HM He Y.I.IaCTC>I BCTpeT"TbC>I II npO>lBIITbCJI. BpeMJI OT Bpe- MeHI1 MorYT B03HIIKaTb H AOMI1HaHTHbie My-raHTHble aJ1Jlcnl1, KO- TopbIe cpa3Y JKe AaIOT 31j11j1eKT. MYTa,","", npOIlCXOAHII1l'!e B COMaTll'leCKIIX KJIeTKaX, Ha- CJIe,D.YIOTCH TOJIbKO TeMIi KJIeTKaMII, KOTopbIe 06pa3YIOTCH "3 MYTaHTHOH KJIeTKI! nYTeM MIIT03a. OH" MOrYT nOBJIHJlTb TOJIbKO Ha TOT opraHlI3M, B KOTOpOM OHI1 B03HIIKnH, HO co CMepTblO OC06HI1C'Ie3aIOT H3 reHoIjIO",D.a nonYJIJlI.\HII. ITpH HeKOTopbIX CO- MaTllqCCK"X Myral.\HJlX B03H"KaIOT KJIeTRII C I10BbIll1eHHOH CKO- pOCTbro poc-ra, qTO npllBOAHT K B03HI1KHOBeHilIO onYXOJIeH. 72 4.3. XpOMocoMllble aHOMaJlHH ITOMIiMO reHHblX nepecTpoeK, reHHbIX MYTa,","H, B03MOJKHbl nepeCTpOHKI1 11 Ha YPoBHe XPOMOCOM, KOTopbIe OTnl1qaIOTCH OT HopManbHoH peKoM6I1HaIlHH, npOHCXO)l.JlII1eH B MeH03e. XPOMO- COMHble nepeCTpOHK" MorYT npO"CXOAHTb H B npeAeJIaX OA"OH XpOMOCOMbI, " MeJKAY XpoMocoMaMH. BHYTP" XpOMOCOMbl B03- MOJKHbI nonpJl 'IaCTl1 XpOMOCOMbl (JI,eJIell">!), YABoeHHe yqaCTKa (AYnJI"Kal\HJI), nepeBepTbIBaHHe OTAeJIbHbIX yqaCTKOB XPOMOCOMbl Ha 180' (HHBepcHH) H HeKOTOpb!e APyrHe 113MeHeHIIJI. K MeJKXpO- MOCOMHbIM nepeCTpoHJ<aM OTHOCJlT 06MeH yqaCTKaM" MeJKLlY HC- rOMOIIOr"'IHbIM" XpoMocoMaMH, KOTOpbIH "3MeH>!eT pacnoJIo)!(c- H"e reHOB B rpynnax Cl\enneH"JI (TpaHCJlOKal\"JI). XPOMOCOMHble I1epeCTpOHKH, nOLl06HO MYTal.\"JlM, MorYT np"BOAIITb K pa3JIHqHblM YPOACTBaM HJIlI liMen JIeTaJIbHbIH IIC- XOA, HO B TO JKe BpeMH OH" HBJIJlIOTCH McxaHII3MOM, 06eCneq"Ba- IOII1HM AononHHTCilbHbIH "CTO'lHHK H3MeH'IIiBOCTH B 3BOJllOl\IIH, KpoMe nepecrpoeK B caMHX XPOMocoMax, CYII1CCTBYIOT xpo- MOCOMHbIe aHOMaJIHH, CBH3aHHbIe C HepaCXOJl(AeHl1eM XpOMOCOM B MeH03e 3TO npIlBOA"T K TOMY, qTO B raMeTe MOJl(eT He XBaTan KaKOH-1I1I60 XpOMOCOMb! HJI" HMeTbCH JIIIll1HJlH. DOJIbll1I1HCTBO ra- K"X aHOMaJIHH npHBO.lll1T K rn6cnH nnoAa eII1e Ha paHH"X cra.lll1- HX pa3B"THH, OAHaKO HeKoTopbIe HCpaCXOJKACHl1J1 XpOMOCOM o6yc- JIOBJI"BaIOT poJl(AeHHe aHOMaJIbHblX "H.III1BIIAOB, KOTopble HBJIJlIOT- CH JKI13HeCnoco6HbIMI1 Hal160Jlee 113BeCTHbIMH "3 HHX JlBJIJlIOTCH iUOAH C nHll1HeH 21-i1 XpOMOCOMOH - 60JIbHble C CHHApOMOM .II.a- YHa. BbDK"BaIOT TaKJI(C JlIO.III1, KOTopbIe HMCIOT HeXBaTKY I1JIH 113- 6b1TOK nOJIOBbIX XpOMOCOM. B",IBOAW L I'CH1>I B xpoUOOOMax pacnonollCcHbi JI11HCKHO. MeeTo B XpOMOCOUC, rAe pacnonOllCeH AIIHHbDl reR, HaJblBaeTCli nOKYoo",,"", 2. Pa3n"'1Hble2£'I'!?IIH1!,!I,9pro nOKycf\ H<;ICIIT Ha3BB- ". Hue BJIJIenell. 3. JlBJleHHe, np" KOropOM ABHHOMY nOKYcy B nonYJIJJI:\H" I>IOJl(eT co 60JIec ABYx aJIJIeneH, Ha3bmaercll MHO- Jl(eeTBeHHblI>I aJIJIem13MOM. 73 
JlJlMH M H N. fOM03HrOTbl MM IIMelOT rpynny KpOBH M, rOMO- 3HrOTbi NN IIMelOT rpynny KpOBH N, a TeTep03HrOTbI MN IIMe- lOT rpynny KpOBII MN. PaCCMOTpHM 3aMKHyryIO '1eJIOBe'lecKYIO nonyrullnllO, B KOTO- POH IIMeeTCJI KaKoe-TO KOnH'IeCTBO aJIJIeJIeii M H KaKOe-TO KOJIH- '1eCTBO aJIJ1eneH N. B npliHUllne, qaCTOTa BCTPeqaeMOCTH aJlJIe- neH M II N B nonYJlJIlUIH MO)l(eT MeHJITbCSI OT 100% M, KOrjl,a BCJI nonyJlJII.\HSI IIpeJl,CTaBJIeHa TonbKO rOM03HrOTaMH MM, lJ,0 100% N, KOrjl,a BCJI nonYJIJIQHSI npeJJ;CTaBneHB rOJJbKO rOM0311rOTaMII NN ECJIH aJIJIeJUI BCTPe'lalOTCR C Ol\llHaKoBoit '1aCTOTOH, TO '1a- CTora BCTpeqaeMOCTH Kanoro H3 HIIX COCTaBHT 50%, HJIII 0,5. ITpe,lUlOnO)l(HM, '!TO B HaweH nonymlI.\HH npCTaBJleHbI He TOJlb- KO rOM0311rOTbi o.!Oloro TIIna, a Bee Tpll TIIna CO'leTaHHH aJUle- neH, II qaCTOTa BCTpeqaeMOCTH Kaqoro aJIJIeJlR CQCTBBJlJleT 0,5. ITOHHTlfO, '11'0 B TaKoii nonYJIJIQHII C pllBHoll BepoRTHOCTbIO 6yiJYT np0l13BOl\llTbCJI raMeTbI. HccYll\lle a1JJIem. M H aJIJl'e1Ib N, TO een. qaCTOTbi BCTPe'laeMOCTH 3T11X raMer TaKJlCC 6YlIYT pallHbl 0,5. ECJII! 6paKH B 3TOii nonYJIJIQHII npOHcxO,!\RT cnyqaHHO, TO MbI Mo- )l(eM BOCnOJTb30BaTbCli peWeTKOH ITeHHera H H306paJIITb qaCTory 06paJOBaHHJI rOM03HI'OT II Tlm:p03HI'0T B CIIeJIY1OG.\eM nOKOJ1eHHII (BepOSITHOCTII nepeMHOJICaIOTCSI): 4. HOCHTem. Ol\llH1IKOBbiX BJIJI!meH B rO!:,OJlOrH'IHbIX xpo- MOCOMax HaJblB1IeTCR rOM03HrOTHbiM. HOCIITeJ1b pa3HbiX aJlne- JJcii- reTep03HrOTlfbiM. 5. OWII6KH, B03HHKalOIJ.\IIe B nponeccc YJl,BOeHHSI (peIIJIllK1I- Ql!H) ,l{HK, npHBO)),llT K reHHblM MYTal\HIIM. "., .6.XeHHble Myral.\HH ?oii 3MeHeHHJI B nOCJ1enOBaTeJlbHOCTi'.HYKJI,THlJ,OB .II.RK (ia!=H"I!I:!!epll".,1IJI1I .l.\06aBJ1eHHc). .". .",'.., ,. ,..."."....,.., 7. feHHble MYTBUHJI\ IIpOIlCXOJl,IIU,\lIe B raMeToreHe3e, TO eCTb npll 06pa30BallHH raMeT, ecJIlI olll!He n!=T3JJb!j.I>I, YBCJJfk 'II!BalOT l'efteTHqecKoe paJHooGp<l3He, tiOBhlWlllOT KOJlllqeCTBO reTCpo3l1roT, npKI\p)),IIT K.!!P3HHKlloBeHHIO "'HOJl(e!U!oro a.1I- JIeJ1H3Ma.. ",,', '", ,Jl npoU.,,,,!=03a MOryr . HItH xpo- MOCOM, OTJlHqalOG.\HecK OTHOPMaJIbHOii peKoMG TepK Y'Iac;J]:\B, HX YABo!=!We, HHBepCHSI II AP.), BOpJICHO I!$1J(e ,He-.' paCXOneHHe rOM0J10mqHblX XpOMOCOM BO peJJ;yt(I.\HOH- Harp Jl,eJlCII, ' ,., "., " 5. reHbl B nonysulL-IMRX, 3aKoH XapAM-BaiilH6epra Ta6J11ua 3.4 B rJlaBe 2 MhI paccMoTpeJIH HeKOTopbIe oc06eHHocTH no- nYJIJll.\lIH H OCHOBHbIe THnbl np1l3HaKOB. B HaCToRU,\eH rnaBe MhI n03HaKOMI1nHCb C 3aKOHaMH MeHlJ,enJl, BDeJlII nOHSITHe reHa H clj1oPMYJlMpOOaJIH OCHOBHhIe nOJlOJICeHIIH XpOMOCOMHOH TeopHH lIaCJle,l\CTBeHHOCTH. ITorrpo6yeM Tenepb COBMeCTHTb I1MelOU,\He- CJI Y Hac CBeJl,eHIIH H paCCM01'peTh oco6eHHOCTH pacnpOCTpaHe- IIMK He npH3HaKOB, a reHOB B nonYJ1HQHSlX. Korila MbI aHaJIH311- pOBaJIH MOHO- H ,l\HrH6pllJtlloe CKpeU,\HBaHHe II pHCOBa.1Il1 pe- WeTKY ITeHHeTa, Mhi HMeJUI ,!I;eJIO C OTJI,eJlbHOH ceMbeii II nOTOM- CTOOM OT elJ,HHH'IHorO CKpeU,\HBBHHSI. Teneph HaWIIM 06'beKTOM 6Y,l\eT nonymll.\IJJI. B KaqeCTBe Y,I\06Hoii MOlJ,e1IH paCll.\enJleHHR no OI\HOH nape aJlJleJleH MO)l(eT CJIY)I(HTb HaCJIelJ,OBaHHe rpynn KpOOM CIlCTeMbI MN. fpynna KpOBH nOH CHCTeMbI onpeJteJlReTCSI ABYMJI aJlJle- 74 __ra_ MpcKIM f'IIlWIW 0,5M 0,5N 0.5M 0,25 MM 0,25 MN 0,5N 0,25 MN 0,25 NN Mbl BHl\IIM, '!TO qaCTOTbI BCTpe'laeMOCTH rOM0311rOT (MM II NN) COCTaBJlIIIOT no 0,25, TOrjl,a KaK '1BCTOTa BCTPe'laeMOCTH rerep03HrOT (MN) B ,!{DB paJa Bblwe - 0,5. qacToTbI JJ<e BCTpe- qaeMOCTH KBJIClI.Oro aJIJleJlR (M II N) 6YlIYT nO-npe)l(HeMY OJl,llHa- KOBblMH - no 0,5. COOTBeTCTBeHIIO B cJleJl,YK>G.\cN nOKOJIeHHH nOM nonyJIJIQHH (F2), npll coxpaHeHHH cnyqaAHOcrn 6paKoo, 6y- IJ.YT OnJITb nonyqCHbl Te )l(e coorHOWeHIIJI. 15 
B peaJIbHblX nonynJlHJlX, KaK npaBHno, Ha6nlOAalOTCJI ca- Mble pa3nHqHbIe 'IaCTOTbl BCTpe'laeMOCT" anneneH, K TOMY )l(e Me)l(.I\Y anJIenJlMH MorYT cymecTBoBaTb OTHOllIeH"JI .l\OMHHaHT- IJOCTII H pceCCIIBHOCTI1, 11 reTepOJl\rOTbl no BHellIHeH Bblpa- )l(eHHOCT" npH3HaKa MorYT COBna.l\aTb C 1l0MHHaHTHbiM TII110M rOMOJllrOT, TO eCTb qaCTOTbl BCTpe'laeMOCT" caMoro np!l3HaKa 6Y.l\YT OTJIH'IaTbCJI OT qaCTOT BCTpeqaeMOCT" rOM03"rOT H re- TepOJHrOT. Pa36epeM eme O.l\l!H npllMep, CBJl3aHHb!H CO BKyCOBOH '1YB- CTB"TenbHOCTbIO. Kor.l\a Mbl rOBOp"n" 0 .lI:HCKpeTHOH I1JMeHq"BO- CTlI, Mbl ynoMHHaJIH 0 cymecTBOBaHII" .l\Byx TI1110B nIOllei!, HMelO- lI.\HX pa3HYIO qYBcTBIiTenbHOcTb K BKYCY !jJeHI1J1T"OMO'leBHHbI (<1>TM) 3Ta 'IYBCTBIlTenbHOCTb 3aBI1CHT OT O.l\HOrO reHa, npCIl- CTaBneHHOrO napoH aJIJlenci!. .II.oMHHaHTHbIH aJInenb l' onpellenJl- eT 'IYBCTB"TenbHOCTb K BKYCY <1>TM, a peeccHBHbli! aJIlIenb t - OTCYTCTB"C '1YBCTBI1TenbHocTII. TaKIIM 06pa30M, rOM03HrOTbI tt He OlI.\YlI.\aIOT ropbKoro BKyca <1>TM, TOr.l\a KaK rOMOJl1rOTbl IT " reTep0311rOTbI Tt ero omymaJOT. OnJlTb npe.l\CTaB"M ce6e "Jonl1- pOBaHHylO qCIIOBCqecKYIO 110I1ynJlt\HIO, B KOTOpOH 6paK" oCYlI.\e- CTBIIJlJOTCJI cnY'Iai!Ho, a qaCTOTb! BCTpeqaCMOCTIl anllencH T H t COCTaBnJlIOT 0,6 " 0,4 COOTBeTCTBeHHO. ECTecTBeHHo, '!TO qaCTO- Tbl raMeT, HecYmllx .l\aHHbIC anncn", 6yAYT TaKHMII )I(C, H Mbl onJlTb MO)l(eM H306pa3"Tb C I10M0lI.\blO pellIeTKH ITeHHcTa 'IaCTO- TY pa31I"'1HbIX COqCTaHHi! aJUlclIci! B 110KOJleH"" F I 3aMeTHM, qTO B cYMMe 3TO COCTaBnJleT e)(!1HHl\Y. EcnH pac- cMoTpeTb qaCToTY BCTpe'laeMOCTIl caMoro npll3HaKa, TO OKaJKeT- CJI qTO B .l\aHHOH nOI1YJlJIIIH qlleno nIOllei!, He omymaIOlL\I1X BKYC <1>TM, COCTaBl1T 16%. Tenepb nocMoTp"M, KaKOBbl 6yAYT raMeTbl, npOHJBO.ll:HMble H01JbIM nOKoneHHeM. rOM03HrOTbI 1'1' npOll3BO)1JlT JI"llIb raMeTbl T"na T; reTep03"rOTb! Tt C paBHoH BCpOJlTHOCTblO npO"3BO)1JlT raMeTbl 060llx TllnOB (1' H t); rOM03"rOTbl tt npOH3BOAJlT JlHllIb raMeTbI Tl1IJa t. CnelloBaTenbHo, qaCTOTbI BCTpeqaeMOCT" raMeT T H t 6yAYT enc.l\YJOlL\IIMII: l' = 0,36 + 1/2'0,48 = 0,6; .t = 0,16 + 1/2'0,48 = 0,4. OTCIO.l\a JlCHO, qTO qaCTOTbl aJIneneH I1P" 3aMKHYToCT" nonyilJI"1I H cIIY'IaiiHOCT" 6paKoB COXpaH"JlHCb H B CJIeIlYIO- llIeM nOKOneH"H. Bee 3TO MO)l(eT 6blTb 3anHcaHO B Billie 6YKBeHHbiX Bblpa- 1KeHHH. ECilH qaCTOTbI anneneH 060JHaqHTb 6YKBaMH p " q, TO Mbl MOJKeM 3an"CaTb, qTO B nonYJlJI"1I p + q = I. PellleTKY IIeHHeTa ,!UIJI anncneii Tilt MbI MO)l(eM npellCTaBI1Tb TaK: Ta6]lUa 3.6 Ta6J/ua 3.5 >KeHct(WQ (IM8T101 M)'}KCKtlG raMGTbI pT qI p. p'TI pq.\ ql pqTI q'1I )KeHCkk4& raU1n1:.1 My*CKMe raMeTbi 0,6T 0.4 t 0.6 T 0.38 TI 0.24 TI 0.41 0,24 IT D,16 It TaKIlM 06pa30M, MbI MO)l(eM 3amlcaTb, '!TO eYMMa qaCTOT BCTpe'laeMOCT" pa31I1IqHbiX 311rOT paBHa: p2 + 2pq + q2 = (p + q)1 . TaKIlM 06pa30M, B nOKOJIeH"" F I 'IaCTOTbI rOM03HrOT H reTep03"rOT 6yAYT Cne.l\YIOlL\"MIt. IT = 0,6 1 = 0,36; Tt = 2'0,40,6 = 0,48; tt = 0,4 2 = 0,16 3Ta 4IopMYJIa OTpa1KaeT pacnpell.eneHHe rOM03"rOT " reTe. p03IIrOT B nonynJlI1"H. aHa 6blJla BnepBbIe npeJlllOJKeHa B 1908 rOilY IlBYMJI HCeneIlOBaTeilJlMII, MaTeMaTHKOM fXapllH H BpaqOM B BaiiH6eproM, He3aBI1C"MO Ilpyr or ilpyra. 76 77 
ClJop"')'POB,oHa XapJI,H- 'I CJIeroll.\eM: I:'ii'! ,.". .. .." , 1. ITpH OnpeAeJIeHHbI"YCJIOBHSlX (3aMKHYTOCTb nonYJIJI- .1IKH, OTCYTCTBHe oT6opa ii "',' HHJI raMeI) 'IaCTO- '" TbI aJlJIeJIeH COXpaH,TCIi H3 nOK OKOJJe.!llfe. ,:,,}IaCTOTbI BCaeMOCTH rOMO- H reTep03HrOT yen-, HaBJIHBII!QTC)I' a O}}8I<0JIeHHCH UmA P " 2 .pq . ";",..",,,,,,,;,,,,.,,-,,.,,,,, ",..,.,., . .....,.,..".,.,I",.,.,' fAABA 4. fEHETM"IECKME OCHOBbl KOnW-IECTBEHHOM M3MEH"IMBOCTM Bo BTOpOH rJIaBe Mb! KOpOTKO OnHCaJIiI nYTb MCHn;CJlCBe- KOH rCHCTilKH C MOMCHTa OTKpbITHSI Jl,HCKpCTHblX en;HHIlU Ha- CJIen;CTBeHHOCTH iI n;o n03HaHHII MOJIeKYJIJlpHOH npllpOll.bI reHa. MbI cneQ"aJIbHO OTpaHII'IIIBaJIHCb paeCMOTpCHlleM Ka'lCCTBCH- HblX npIl3HaKOB, nOCKOJIbKY MexaHII3Mbi HX HaCJICII.YCMOCTII H H3MeH'I"BOCT" MorYT 6bITb npen;CTaBJIeHbl B BI1,lJ,e .a;OCTaTOqHO npOCTblX cxeM. IIpIl3HaKII, )J,JIJI KOTOpbIX xapaKTepHa n;HCKpeT- HaJi il3MCH'IHBOCTb, 06bI'IHO KOHTpOJIHPYIOTCSI On;ilHM-,lJ,BYMJI rJlaBHbIMI'! reHaMiI, Y KOTOpbIX MO)l(eT 6bITb ,lJ,Ba IIJIH HeCKOJIbKO aJlJlCJlCH, a BHeWHHe YCJlOBilJI OTHOCHTCJlbHO MaJIO HJII1 nO'ITH COBceM HC BJIIlIlIOT Ha CTeneHb HX npOJlBJIeHHJI. HanOMHIIM CIl\C pa3 npHMcpbI TaKilX npH3HaKOB Y 'IeJIOBCKa. 3TO pa3J1I1'1HbIC rpynnbl KpOBH, QBCTOBali CJlCnOTa, HeKOTopble HaCJIell.CTBeHHbIC aHOMaJIllII. Hc TaK npOCTO 06CT0l1T ,lJ,eJIO C KOJIl1qeCTBCHHbIMII, KOH- THHyaJlbHblMIi npll3HaKaMII, 06JIaAalOIl\IIMII HenpepbIBHOH 113- MCH'IHBOCThIO, TaKHMH, KaK pOCT, BCC, UBCI KOJl{H H T.n. HanOM- HHM, qyO 60JIbillHHC'rBO IfHTCpecYIOIl\HX HBC nCIfXOJIOTH'ICCKHX xapaKTepHcTHK (HHTeJIJIeKT, TeMnepaMeHT H T.n;.) OTHOCilTCSI IIMeHHO K :3TOH KaTeropHH npH3HaKoB, II eeH'IBC MbI nepcxoJl,l'l/o( J( paecMoTpeHHIO BonpocoB, CBII3aHHbiX C rCHeTHKOH KOJ!H'Ie- CTBeHHbIX npH3HaKoB. 1. KOnM'IeCTB&HHaJI M3M&H'IMBOCTb M M8TOAbi 88 OnMCaHMJI 1.1. 113MepeHHe KOJlII.'IecTBeRHblX npH3H8KOB 78 HTBK, Mb! YJKC 3HBeM 0 CYIl\eCTBOBBHilH n;BYX TllnOB 113- MeHqHI!OCTH. )J;HCKpeTHBJI, HJIH KaqeCTBeHHBJI, H3MeH'IHBOCTb 79 
80 ca ,!J;ereii 6Y,!J;eT XapIiKTep"30BaTLCH Cpe.llHHM HHTeJIJ1eKTOM B npe,!J;eJIaX 01' 90 ,!J;O 110. Bee nOKa3aTeJJI1 HHTeJlJIeKTII MbI MO- )lCeM pa36HTb Ha KJIaCCbI, HanpHMep, C warOM B 10 6aJIJIOB, H npe,n:cTaBHTb '1HCJIO ,n:eTeH, nonaOWHX 0 KaJl()J:blil: KJlaCC H3Mepe- HHH, 0 BH)];e ,n:HarpaMMbI (PIlCYHOK 4.1a). 3Ta ,n:HarpaMMa npe,n:- CTaOJIJleT C060H paenpeJl,eJleHHe '1aCTOT pa3J1I1'1HblX BeJIH'lI1H IQ B 06cJIe)];00aHHOii rpynne. TaKoe pacnpeJl,eJIeHHe "aCTOT 01'- paJl(aeT KOJl"IIeCTBO JJ;eTeH, nOnaBWI1X 0 KaJl()J:bIH KJlaCC 113Mepe- HHH. ECJIH pa36I1eHHC Ha KJlaCCbl C)];e1IaTb 60Jlee ,n:p06HbIM - C warOM B 5 6aiIJIoo, TO pacnpe,!J;eJIeHHe 6YAeT TaKIIM, KaK nOKa- 3aKO Ha pllcYHKe 4.16. ITOCKOJILKY B 3TOM cJIY'Iae "KCJIO lmac- coo B ,lJ;Ba pa3a 60JlbWe, '1eM B npeJU>IJIYlI(eM, '1HCJIO AeTeH, no- naBWIlX B KaJK.zu,lH KJlaCC H3MepeHHH, 6YAeT MeHbwe, '1eM B npe- )J:bI.l\YlI(eM npHMepe, H 1jI0pMa paenpeAe1IeHHIl 113MeHHTCII- OHO 6YJ!.eT 60JIee nJIOCKIIM. Ho ecJJH OXBaTHTb H3MepeHIIIIMH B ,lJ;Ba paJa 60JILWe ,!J.e-reii, MbI CHOBa nOJIY'IHM pacnpe,!J.eJleHHe, noxo- )l(ce no 1jI0pMe Ha nepooe, HO HeCKOJlLKO 60JIee CrJlaJl(eHHOe, HanOMHHalOII(ee KPHBYJO HOpMaJILHOrO pacnpe)teJIeHIIJI. Tenepb npeJI,DonOJl(HM, liTO TaKHe H3MepeHHil HHTeMeKTa ML! npOBeJlH B Tpex pa3J1H'IHblX rpynnax Jl,eTeH. OJl,HY rpynny nYCTb COCTaOIiT )];eTH, 06Y'laIOII(HecJl BO BcnOMOraTe1IbHbIX WKO- Jlax, BTOpYJO rpynny - Jl,eTII, 06Y'laJOlI(Hecli B enell,llllJlLHbIX II(KO- JIax Mil o)tapeHHbIx i1.eTeii, H TpeTblO - J!.eTK, 06Y'IaIOII(HeCIi B MaCCOBbIX IllKOJIaX KaxoI'O pOJla paCnpe.JIe1leHHJI MbI MOJl(eM nOJIY'lHTb7 Ckopec acero, OCHOBHaJi Macca ,Il,eTel!: H3 BcnOMO- I'a1'e1IbHblX WKOJI 6YAeT IIMeTb HeBbiCOKHe 6aJ1J1bI HHTeiIJIeKTa, HIIJI(e Cpe.llHerO B nonYJIJlQHH. O,ll,apeHHblC )teTH 6yJtYT, Hanpo- THB, xapaKTepH30BaTbCli 60Jlec BbICOKHM HHTeJlJIeKTOM; Jl,eTH Jke H3 MaCCOBbiX WKOJl, BepoliTHo, nOKaJKYT pe3YJlbTaTbI, 6J1H3- KHe K Cpe,ll,HenonYJIIIQlloHHblM. Ha pHcYHKe 4.2 npe)tCTaBJleHbl pacnpe.lleJleHHJf, KOTopbIe COOTBeTCTBYIOT TpeM rHnOTeTIf'leC- KHM rpynnalol 06CJ1e,ll,OBaHHbIx. KaK MbI BH,n:HM, 3T1I TpI1 '1aCTOT- HblX pacnpeAeJleHIIJI OTJIl1'1alOTCJI HeKOTopbllolH OC06CHHOCTIIMH. KaKoBbI Jl(e HX KOJIH'IeCTBeHHble XapaKTepHcTHKH? Bo-nepBLIX, Bce TPH paCnpeAeJleHlI1I no-pa3HOMY pacnOJlOJKeHbI Ha II(KaJIe H3MepCHIIII, TO eCTL OHH OTJIH'IaIOTCIl 110 cBoeii QeHTpaJlbHoii TeHACHQHII. BO-OTOPblX, OKR pa3JIH'IaIOTCIi no pa36pocy 3IJa'le- HHH - eell" B Jl)IYX oT06paHHblX rpy"uax (JJ;eTH H3 BeIlOMOI'/!- TeJIbHblX WKOJI H OJl,apeHHble )teTH) pa36poe 3Ha'leHHH BOKpyr 81 orpaHHq"BaeTCJI pll,n;OM qeTKO Bblpa)f(eHHbIX npH3HaKOB, He HMe- IOII(HX npOMeJKYTO'lHbIX IjIOpM. HenpcpbIBH3J1, HlI" KOlIH'IeCTBCH- HaJl, 113MCHqHBOeTb, npeJl,nOJlaraeT cyu<eeTBOBaHHe HenpepblB- Horo pJl,ll,a ncpeXO)tOB OT M"HlIMaJlbHOH Bblpa)l(eHHOeTlI npll3Ha- Ka !to MaKCHMaJ1bHOil (eM. P"CYH](II 2.1 H 2.2). ITpeJK!te qeM ncpeHTII K aHanl13Y ljIaKTopoB, npHBOAJlU<HX K B03H"KHOBeHHIO HenpepblBHoH "3MeH'II1BQCTH, Heo6xo!\HMO oc- TaHOB"TbeJi Ha MeTo,n;ax, KOTopble npllMeHJlIOTCIl MJI onHCaHHJI 3TOH "3MeHq"BOCTI1, 11 paccMOTpeTb OCHOBHble CTaTI1CT"qeCK"e nOHJlTII, e KOTOpblMH pa60TaeT KOJlHilCeTBeHHaJi reHeTHKa, H reHeT"Ka nOBeAeHHJI B qaCTHOCT". JII060H KOrr"'IeCTBeHHblii npll3HaK MO)f(HO 113MepJlTb C pa3- 110H TOqHOCTbIO, B 3aBI1el1MOCTil 01' noC'raBneHHoH 3a!taqli II Toro "3Mep"TeJlbHOrO HHcTpYMeHTa, KOTOpblM "cerre!tOBaTeJlb pacnOJlaraeT. POCT MO)J(HO 113MepHTb C TOqHOCTbIO AO caHTH- MeTpa, Bec - C TO"lHOCTbIO Jl,0 rpaMMa, 110 B nocrre.n:HeM crry- 'lac, nOJKBJlYH, oWH6xa H3MepeHH.IJ nepexpoeT YKa33HHYIO TOq- HOeTh, " TaKoe "3MepeHlle Beca OKaJKeTCJI npOCTO 6eCCMbJCrrCH- HblM B nel1XOrrOrHH TaKJKC eYlI(eCTBYIOT "3Mep"TelIbHble "HCT- pYMeHTbl, qau<e Bcero TeeTbI, 11 I1CCrre,n;OBaTerrb caM pewaCT, "ITO II KaK 113MepllTb 11 C KaKoil TOqHOeTblO Bec Tpe50BaHHII K nCHXOlIOrl1qeCK"M "3MepeHHJlM B reHeT"Ke nOBeAeH"JI OCTaIOT- eJl TeMH JKe, KOTOpblM l\OJIJKHbI YAOBlIeTlJOpJlTb nCHxOA"arHQC- TH'lecKHe npo/(c.l\)'pb! - Hap,eJKHOCTb, BaJIHp,HOCTb, pCnpCJCHTa- THOHOCTb (no,n;po6Hee 05 3TOM MOJKHO Y3HaTb "3 PYKOOO,n;CTB no lIe"XO!\HarHOCTlIKe). IIoclIe Toro KaK Bbl6paH neHXOlIOI'"'1eCKHH KOHC'l'pYKT, C KOTOpblM pa60TaeT I1CClIe!toBaTeJIb, Bbl6paHbi M<:TO- ,n;bl "3MepCHI1I1 11 CnJlaHltpOBaHa Bbl60pKa "CCrre!toBaHHJI, MOJKlIO npllcTynaTb K pearrbHblM "3MepeH"IIM. qTO MbI nOJIyqHM B pc- 3ynbTaTe? KOHeqHO )f(e, TOT eaMblH pll,n; HenpepblBHOH H3MeH'lH- BOCTI1, a KOTOpOM Mb! CTOllbKO I'OBOpl1llll. 31'01' pJlp, MOJKHO npep,- CTaBlITb B BI1,n;e pacnpe,!J;cneHIIJI qaCTOT BCTpeqaeMOCT" pa3,111'1- HblX Benll'l"H "3Y'laBweroeJl np1l3HaKa. HanpllMep, npoBo,n;"TCJI 1t3MepeH"C HHTenlIeKTa (0 6aJInax IQ - K031j1!jJHlI"eHTa "HTCnrreKTa) y !teTeil 10 lIeT B nonYlIlIQIIH JKItTeJIeil HeKoero ropoJJ:a. CKopee Bcero, OKaJKeTCJI, qTO He6oJlb- wall qaCTb ,n;eTeil 6YAeT IIMeTb OTHOCHTeJIbHO HH3KHe 6arrJlbi HH- TeJInCKTa - 70-80 6aJlJIOB; KaKaJl-TO, TO)f(e He601IbWaJl, qaCTh- OqeHb BbleOKlIe 6arrrrbI - 120-130" Bblwe. OCHOBH3J1 JKe Mac- 
a 014 -..,-- a 0,12 + I 01 t 008 006 00. 002 6annbJ IQ O.M I I 0,25  .,( , \  7 ""I "t , O + I I . 20 BO .. tOO ". '" ". '" 0 " ;1;  N '" " ;! .. OJ $ g  '"   0 ... .. OJ '" " '" .... ,. .. .. C>     " " :!     6 C 1.4 T I ." j 0.1 008 O.M I 0,04 I 002 +- 6annDlIQ 0 0   OJ '" " ;:\ .. " :!:  <'I  0  .. N  0 '" ,. ,. .. .. '"   " ;!  -  B 0,14 I 0,12 0' + 008 t o,oe f 004  0,02 fJannbllQ 0 1, , I I I 0 ;1; ::J OJ '" 0 ;! .. OJ $ 8 C! " OJ '" 0 ... .. OJ '" " '" ... ,. '" .. '" ;!   " " ,., ,., ..       K4t........,. I1HTennHTI CI. 35 i 6 03 , 1),15 t i m 021-  I m 0.15 + 7 '.1 Qosl .  70 75 &0 85 IfO 115 100 10 110 115 ," 12 13Q 1"3 140 Ko:J4lqJMUMeHT MH1'enneKT8 PucynoK 4.1 'laCflJOmUble pacnpeoeJlemm nOI<a3ameJleii UHmeJIJIeKma c pa3ubw pa36ueuueM Ha K.aCCbl UJMepeUUu l\eHTpaJIbHOH TeHAeHl\HH HeBeJlIIK, TO B rpynne HeOT06paHHblX l\eTeH (MaCCOBble I1IKOnbl) pa36poc 3aMCTHO BbJWe. 82 PUCYHOK 4.2 'lacmomllble pacnpeoelleliUJ/ I1pU U3MepeuUJlX KOJrjJq;u/{ueHma tIIl- meJIJIeKma 8 2pynl1ax omo6paHHblX (a, 6) Ii Heom06paHHblX(O} iJemeu 83 
1.2. XapaKTepHCTHKH nempBJILHOH Tell,!\eHUHH 1.3, XapatcrepHCTHKH pll3fipoca CYIl.{CCTBYIOT Tp" MepbI UCHTpaJIbHOH TeHJI,CHUIIII, 'lapaK- TCPll3YIOIl.{ile 1l1050c pacnpe.n:encHlie. Hx He CnCJI,yeT CMell.{iI- BaTh, nOCKDlIhKY nonY'IaCMhle C ilX nOMOll.{hlO oLleHKII MorYT H He COBnaJl,aTb (PHCYHOK 4.3). ITepBaH - 3TO MoiJa, 111111 HaH60- nee '1aCTO BCT))e'laIOIl.{CCCJI 3Ha'leHHe npll3Haxa. MOlla COOT- BCTCTBYeT BepwllHe pacnpcn.CJlCHHJI. BTopaJi xapaKTepHCTllka - MeiJualU2 - npeJl,CTaBnJleT C050H TakOC 3Ha'leHlle, Bb!we iI HHJKe KOToporo pacnonaralOTcH pe3ynbTaThI 50% JIJOJI,eH. H HaKolieLl, Hall50JIce '1aCTO IICnOJIh3yeMaJi II 113BCCniall BceM JtapaKTcpllc- TIlKa - 3TO cpeiJHee, TO ccn cpCJI,Rce ap"IjJMcTHqCCKOe, onpe- Jl,eJIJieMOe nYTeM CYMMllpOBaHHJI Bcex 3Ha'leHIIH 113MepJlBWerOCJI npH3HaKa II Jl,eJIeHIIII nonY'ICHHOH CYMMhI Ha '1HCJlO 05CJIeJl,OBaH- HhIX. )J,mI HCKOTOphlX pacnpCJI,CnelutH MOJl,a, MeJI,HaHa H cpeJl,Hee pa3JIH'IaIOTCJi, ,!\JIJI HeKOTOpblX - COBnaJl,alOT (no TaK Ha3blBa- CMoe HOpMaJlbHOe pacnpeJl,eJleHlle). ECIIII pacnpeJl,eJIeHHe aCIIM- MCTpH'IHO, TO eCTb IIMCe-r JI.J1HHHbIH "XBOCT" C OAHOH CTOpOHbl, MOJl,a, MelIaHa " CpC,!!HCC 6YJI,YT 3HaqHTeJJ"HO OTJ1H'IaTbCH. "' )J,mI xapaXTepllCTIiKH pa36poca 3Ha'iCHHii BOlCpyr cpeJI,Hero qalL\c Bcero nOJIb3YIOTCJI nOl(a3aTeJIeM oucnepcuu. J{HcnepCliJi npc.n:CTaBJIlleT C060H cpcJl,Hce apHIjJMeTII'IecKoe KBa.npaToB p3JHO- CTeH Me Ha6JIJOt\aeMbIMH 3Iia'leHIIJlMH II cpeJI,HciI BeJIlI'IHHoii: 2 L(Xi- X)2 a n-I EcnH MHorHe 3Ha'ieHIIH CHnbHO OTJIII'IaIOTCH OT cpeJI,Hero, /IIICnepCHH 5Y.l\e-r BblCOkoil, a pacnpeJl,eneHHC paCT"HYTbIM. ECJIH ",e 3Ha'ieHIIH npH311at(a y o6cneJl,OBaHHblx HH.l\HBHJI,OB rpynnli- PYIOTCJI B6JIII311 cpcJI,Heii BeJIH'IIIHhI, TO Jl,IICnepCIIH 6YJl,CT 11113- Kolt B HaweM npHMcpe pacnpe/lCJICHHe OLleHOK HHTennCKTa II OTCTaIOlL\IIX, Ii O/lapCHHblX /leTeH xapaKTepll3YCTCJI npHMepHO O/lllHaKOBOii IICBblCOKOH Jl,HcnepcHeil, Ii pacnpe/leneHlI1I OTJIII'Ia- IOTCH nHWb ueHTpanbHOil Tell.LIeHUHCH; TpeTbe pacnpe.l\enCHl1e (JI,eTH 113 MaCCOBbIX WKDn) 60nee pacnHYTO II xapaKTepl13YCT- CJI 60JIee BbICOkOIi Jl,IICnepCHeH. .II.ml onllCaHIIJI p3J6poca 1010)1(- HO nOJlb30BaTbCJI H /lPyroii xapaKTepHCTHkOii - CmGHoapmHblM OmKJIOHeHueM, BeJIII'IIIHa KOToporo paBHa KOPHIO KBBJJ.paTHOMY H3 Jl,HCnepCHII. '" 1.4, Me1U'pynnollWe H Me*IIII.lIIIBII,IQ'ILIILHLle p83JlH'lH1I " MOJKIIO npoBoMTb 113MepeHIIH B CaMb/X pa:IJIH'IHbiX rpyn- naJl JIIOJI,eH - Y Jl,eTeii II B3pOCJIbIJl, Y I\(YJK'II1H H JKeHIl{HH, )xHTe- JlCH I'OpO.llOB H ccnbcl(oii MeC'J'IIOCTH, H BCJilXHii pa:J 1\(1)1 6y.llcu nOJlY'IaTb pacnpeJl,eJIeHIlJiI, xapaxrepH3YlOll{lIeC>I CpeJl,HI1MH H .lI:I'!CnCpCIIJlMH. Pa:JJlH'IHJiI Me nOJlY'laeMblMI'! pacnpeJl,eJleHHJI- 10111 MOrYT 6b1Tb CylQCC1'BCHHblAlIl IIJIH l!ecYlQeITBCHHblAlIl. qall{C BCCI'O B nCHXOnOI'II'IeCKHX IIccne.l\OB8HHJlX OCHOBHoe BHIIM8HHe YAeJIReTCJI np06J1eMe MeJKrpynnoBbix pa3J1HqHA, 06YCJlOBJlCH- HbIX nOJlOAl, BOJpaCTOMIl T.n., II, xax npa.BIIJIO, OCHOBHOH BcnH- qIiHOH, C KOTOpOH pa60TalOT IICCJleJl,OBaTeJlH, JlBJIReTCJI cpeJl,- Hee 3Ha'leHHe H3Y'laeMoii xapaKTcpHCTIIKII B KaJK,/l;OH 1t3 rpynn. fCHeTlIXY nOBC.lleHHJiI 60JlbWC HHTepeCYIOT lIe pa3JlH'IJtR MeJK,/l;y rpynnaMH, a P33J1HqHJI MeJK.n:y OTJI,eJlbllbiMII HHAIIBH.lIaMH BHYT- pH rpynnl>I, n03TO..y 8eJIH'IHHa Jl,HCnepCHH, xapaKTCpll3YlOIl.IaR 85 "t '" " ... ! PUCCYHOK 4.3 OCHo8Hble xapaKmepUCmUKllljeHmpanbHou meHOeHIjUU '1acmomll02o pacl1peiJeJ/el/llJl 84 
BeJlHqHHY pa3JIHqllii B rpynne, npelJ.CTaBJJeT JJ:JI" ncmwreHeTH- Ka caMOCTOHeJJbHYIO L1eHHOCTb. BeCb MaTeMaTHqeCKHH anna- paT COBpeMeHHOH reHeTHKH nOBelJ.eHlI paCC'IHTBH Ha pa60TY C )l;l'!cnCpCH>IMH. BblBOAbl I. Tpe60JIIIHHSI K ncnxOJIOm'lecxHM 113MepeHMJlM B reHe- TItKe nOllelleH"" toOl'BCTytB)'lQ'j' OCHOBHWM 'TJ!e60B8HH"M n:F!UOMeTpHKH (HOC'Th; BaJJHJJJtOC'tb, OC'Th). 2. "'PacnpeACJleHHJI '1aqoT B,qpe'laeMOC!'" pa31111'111b1X K01lll- '1ecTBeHKWX 3H8'fCHI!H lIpH3HI!KB II rronymllVfH XapllX'!'epH3yJOTC11 .n;sYMII CTBTHCTH'IecKIIMIt BeIpIq,,,,H - I.\CHTJ!aJ1bHOii reHJl,eH- eii (MOlla, loCe.n;HaHB, cpe,II,Kee) II pa36pOCOM 3HaqeHllii BOKpyt' cpe.n;Hero (JI,I!CnepCIIII). 3. lIcnepcml XapaKTepll3YeT BWe pa3JUl- '11\11 (1I3MeH'IIIBOC'Th, BapHaTHBHoCTb). 4. FtfiemKa nOBe,l\eHHIIII3Y'l!leT npl!po)l;Y IIH,!I,KBUJlYam.HbIX Pa:JHR'Al ii . 2, HaCJ1eACTBeHHocTb M cpeAa KaK <t>aKTOpbl B03HMKHOBBHMR KOI1M'IeCTBBHHOM M3MeH'IMBOCTM KaK MI,l BII)I;eJIll, CYll\eCTBYIOT npH3HaKH. J<OTopble }!MeIOT npOCTOC 0IJ.H03HaqHOe COOTBeTCTBHe reHaM (rpynnbl KpOBH, Ha- npHMep), H cpe.LIa He oxa3bIBaeT HHKaKoro BJlIIJlHHJI Ha npOHBJle- HHe TaKI1X npI13HaKOB. qeJlOBeK, 06JlaJl,alOIl\IIH aJIJIeJIJlMH rpynnbI KpOBlI A, npll JJI06bIX 06CTOHTeJJbCTBaX 6Y)l;eT IIMe'!'b 3TY rpynny Kp01JH, B Kal<oii 61,1 cpel\e OH HH HaXOJI,HJICII. Ho Tal<lIe nOJIHOCTbIO reHeTH4eC!<l1 .l(eTepMHHllpoBaHHble npHJHal<H JlBJJlllOTCII cKopee IICKJIlOqeHlteM, qeM npaBlIJ10M. EOJJblllHHCTBO Jl(e npH3HaKoB qeJIO- BeKa eCTb pe3YJlbmam 830UMooeucm8Wi 2eH08 c rjJoKmOpaMU cpeobl. fIpll3HaKIf, J1fl KOTOpblX xapaKTepHa HenpepblBHall H3MeH411- BOCTb, Kal< npaBIIJIO, 06YCJIOBJIeHbi COBMeCTHblM .l(eHCTBllcM AInO- 2UX 2eH08 U rjJaKmopo8 cpeobl. HaCJIeJ\YeMocTb TaKHX npH3HaKoB HaJblBaIOT nOJIHreHHOH. 86 I 1 2.1. FeHoTun H cjleHoTun B reHeTI1Ke cYll\eCTBYIOT )l;Ba OqCHb Ba)l(HblX nOHJlTIIJI. 3TO nOHIITH 2eHomuna U rjJeHomuna. MbI yJl(c 3HaeM, qTO HaCJICIJ.CTBeH- Ball KOHCTlITYUHH CKJIal(bl13aeTCH 113 60JIblllOrO '1HCJIa pa3JIUqHblX reHOB. Bc cOBoKynHoCTb reHOB )l;aHHoro opraHII3Ma Ha3bIBaeTCH ero 2elJOmunOM, TO eCTb nOHIITlle reHOTlIna H)I;eHTlI'IIIO nOHTIlIO rem:rn'JeCKOH KOHCTHTYUHI1. CBOH reHOTlln (Ha60p reHO!!) Ka)f(lI.hI!i qenOBeK norrY'laeT B MOMeHT 3a'laTl!JI 11 Hecer ero 6e3 BCJ1KI1X 113- MeHeHIIH qepe3 !!CIO CBOIO )((H3Hb. AKTHBHOCTb reHOB MOJl(eT Me- HJlTbCII, HO HX COCTaB OCTaCTCJI HeH3MCHHbIM. Or nOHHTI1J1 reHOTHIJ crreJ\YeT OTJIII'IaTb .l\Pyroe CXO,lUloe no- HJlTlle - 2eHOM. reHOMOM Ha3bIBaeTCH cOBoKynHocTb reHOB, xa- paKTepHall JJ:JIJI ranJJOUAHOro Ha60pa XpOMOCOM OC06H )l;aHHoro BII.l(a. B OTJIllqlle QT reliOTHna reHOM JlBJI»eTCJI xapaKTeplICTI1Ko!i BHAa, a He OT.I\CJJbHOH oc061I. tPel/omul1 JKe npe)l;CTaBJJJleT co60il mo6b1e npOJlBHeHIIJI opra- HII3Ma B Ka)f(lI.hI!i MOMeHT erO Jl(1I3HI1. <DeHoTHn BKmoqaeT B ce6» II BHelllHHH BII.n;, H BHy-rpcHHee CTpoeHlle, If 1jJ113lfOJIOHI'JecKHe pe- aKUHI1, II JII06ble cjJOpMbI nOBeAeHI1J1, Ha6HIOAaeMble B TeKYIl\HH MOMeHT. ECJJH reHOTHnbI HaCJIeAylOTcJI H OCTalOTCII HeH3MeHHblMH II TeqeHlle Jl(I1JHII HHAHBI1)1;a, TO q,eHOTHnbl He HaCJIe)l;YIOTCII - OHH pa3BHBaIOTCJI II »BJIllIOTCII CJle)l;CTBHeM HaWIIX reHOTHnOB JIl1ll1b B onpe.n:eJleHHoii Mepe, nOCKOJIbKY 60JIblllYlO pOJIb B CTaHOBrreHlI11 cjJeHOTlfflOB HCpalOT ycnoBIIH BHCUlHeii cpel(bl. Becb npOl.\ecc pa3BIITH OT OIlJIO.n:OTBopeHHOH lliiueKJJCTKH ,!J;O B3pOCHoro oprallH3Ma npOHCXOJI,HT He TOJIbKO nO)l; nenpepbIB- HMM perYJIHpYIOUjIlM BJlHJlHHeM rellOTHna, HO II nOA BJIUJlHHeM MHOJl(eCTBa pa3JJH'IHbIX YCJJOBHH cpe.n:bI, B KOTOpbIX >laXO,ll.HTCjI paCTYll\lfH opraHU3M. IT03TOMY Heo6blqaHHaJi H3MeH'IIIBOCTb, CBOHCTBeHlla )((HBbIM opraHlI3MaM, 06YCJIOBJIeHa He TOJlbKO or- pOMHblM pa3Ho06pa3HeM reHOTItnOIl, B031fIfKalOIl\HM BCl1e)l;CTBHe peKOM6lfHal.\HH rCHOB H MYTal.\110HHOrO npOl.\ecca, HO B 3I1a'lH- TenbHOH CTeneHH 06'1ollCHHeTC H TeM, qTO OT)I;eJlbHbie I'!H)J,HBH.D,bI pa3BHBaIOTC» B pa3JIH4alOIl\HXCJI YClIOBIIJlX cpe)l;bI C .l(aBHIIX flOp I!Ae'!' nOJIeMHKa 0 TOM, qTO Ba)l(HCC Mil q,op- lompOBaHHJI OpraHI!3Ma - cpe.l(a IfJJI! reHeTII'IeCKaJl KOHCTHTYUHJI Oco6eHHO OCTpbIe cnopbI paJrOpalOTCJI TaM, r)l;e )l;eJJO KaCaeTCjI 87 
nOBe.tIeHIIK 'IeJlOBeKa, ero nCHXOilOrlfqe(3<HX xapaKTepllCTIfK- TCMnepaMeHTa, YMCTBeHHblX cnoc06HocTeH. He CJlY'IaIiHO, '1TO IIMeH\{O C Bonpoca 0 npHpOAc YMCTBeHHOH oAapeHHoCTIf Ha'la- JII1Cb IfCCJle.c:OBaHHSI B 06J1aCTfi reHCTI1KH '1eJIOBeKa. <I>.faJIbTOH nepBblM B HayqHOM 'l'paKTaTe nOCTaBHJI pll,!J;OM napy nOHJlTHH, KO- Topble B Toli If JIll IIHOH $opMe He CXO.QSlT co C1'paHlfl.l HaY'IHOH JlHTepaTyp b1 1l.o HaWHX MeH. 3T0 nOHSlTIIJI "nature and nurtlIre" TO eCTb "npHpOJl,a II YCJlOBI'!SI BocnIlTaHI1S1". ' feHeTJIKOB, H reHeTJf!(OB nOBeAeHIIR B '1aCTHOCTII, 'IaCTO yn- peKalOT B OTplluaHH:1I pOJIII cpenb!. a Mal<O TaKoR ynpeK cOBep- llleHHO He 060CHOBaH. O)J.IIHM 113 OCHOBHblX nOC1)'JlaTOB reHeTJlKII SlB1lJICTCSI Te311C 0 TOM, qTO cjJeHomlOl npeoclml8!lRem c060u pe3YJ/b- mam 83aUMooeUCm8rlJl l>,e;>ICoy zeHOmUn01>t u cpeooii. B npouecce 3Toro 1J3aIlMO,lleHCTBIIR II B03HJlKaCT TO MlJoroo6pa3He !/JeHOTllnll- qCCKI1X npOJlBJIeHHR, KOTOpOC XapaKTepHO .lJ,TISi 60JIbllIIIHcrna npll- 3HaKOB '1eJlOBeKa, OTHOCR!l\I!XCJI K KaTeropll1l KOJll!qecrneHHbIx I! 06pa3]'IOll\I!X HenpepbIBHbIH PJl.!l. H3MeHqHBOCTII. 2.2. B031fllKHOBeHHe I<()JIH'Iet:TBeHHOH H3MeU'IHBDCTH non AeiicTBueM nOJ1HMepHblx feUDB, feueTH'IeCI<BllJUlCnepcHIi reHaMI1, 11 IIX nepenaqa TalOKe oCYll\eCTBJlJleTCJI B COOTBeTCTBlI1I C TeMII JlCe MClI)I;eJleBCKIiMIi 3aKoHaMIi, CnpaBe.wrnBbIMII .lJ,TIJi Ka'le- CTBelUlblX npli3HaKOB. 3TO oTKpbITlle, CBJl3aHHOe C liMeHeM f HllJlbccona-3JIe, C03.QIUIO npOqltJ,IH !jJYH1\aMeHT .lJ,TIJi AaJlbHeH- Illero pa3BIITIIJI reHeTHKII KOJIH'IecTBeHHbIX npH3HaKoB. r.HIlm.CcoH-3JIe 113Y'IaJI HaCJle.QOBaHHe 0KPacKH 3epeH Y nllleHHUbI Ii OBca Ii npll I\I!rll6pllMoM pacll\ell1TeHHH nOJlY'IaJI, B OTJJII'Ilfe OT YJlCe 3HaKOMoro HaM COOTIIOllleHIIJI 9:3:3: 1, oc060e co- OTHomeHHe- 15'1. 15/16 3epeH 6blJlH OKpallIeHHbIMIi H JllflUb 1/16 - 6eJlbIMH. TaKoe paCII;emleHlle f.HIIJlbcCOH-3JJe 06bRCHI'!JI CXOJl,Hb!M Jl,eHCTBlleM HeCKOJlbKHX reHOB. TaKlle reHbl Ha3bIBalOT nOJIUMepHblMu. 3T0 03Haqacr, 'Ira .IUIa 1f1I1I 601Ice rCHOB Bbl3bffia- lOT pa:3BIITlle OJUloro 11 Toro JlCe npll3HaKa. ECJ1II Mbl BcnOMHHM pe- llleTKY ITeHHeTa AJIJI .n:ltrn6pH,!J;Horo paCll\enJleHHII (Ta61l11ua 3.3), TO YBI!AItM, '1TO BO Bcex KJleTKaX, KpOMe OMOH, 06J13an:JlbHO npllcyrCTBYeT XOTJI 6b! OJl,llH .QOMlllfaHTHbIH IUIJleJIb - TOJlbKO o.u;Ha KO/of6/fHau,JlJI JlBJlJleTCJI nOJ1IiOCT},JO peQeCCI1BHOH. OTCIO)J.a CTaHOBI!TCH SlCHbIM, nOqeMY paCll\emreHIIC, nony'leHHOe f .HI'IJI\'c- COHOM-3J1e, COOTBeTCTBYeT OTHOWeHHIO 15:1: nSlTHa,!\UaTb reHOTIf- nOB, co)J.epJICalI\lIx .aOMHHaHTllbIe aJIJIeJII!, .aaJIli oKpallleliHbIe 3ep- Ha, If JlH1IIb O.QIIH rCHOTl'ln, npe/J.CTaBJlJlIO!l\1I1i c060ii IJ.BOHHOH pe- u,eCCHB, .QaJ! 6eJlb!e 3epHa, no CBoeMY !jJeHoTllny 3Ha'iIfTeJtbHO OT- JlI1'1alOII;lteCSI OT OCTaJlbHbIX. ECJlIt nOJIIIMepHbIx reHOB He lJ.Ba, a TpI1 (TPHTlI6pIIMOe paClI\enJIeHlle), TO peIlleTKa 6y.c:eT JlMeTb 64 KBal\PaTa, Ii OTIJlTb TOJlbKO OJUlH 1!3 ItIlX 6YAeT COtICpJl\an, 170JlH<)- CTLIO peQeCCJlBltblH reHOTlfn. COOTBeTCTBCHHO, 63 KBa.n:paTa 6Y.l\YT HeCTI! XOTSI 6b! OJl,ll\{ AOMIfHaHTHbIH amreJIb, II paCll\enJleHlle orca- JlCeTCH 63: I. TaKoe pacll\enJlCHlle TaKJlCe 1I0JIY'IaJl f.HI!JlbCCOH- 3rre 8 CBOIIX 3KcnepliMeHT3X. I1plf IIOJllfMepHOM HaClIe.QOB8HHH 31j>Ij>CKTbl AOMIiHaHTH},!X rCHOB MorYT 6blTb IJ.B0JlKOrO pOAa. B 0MJlX cJIY'IaJlx OKa3b!8a- CTCSI .n:ocTaTOqHblM nplicYTcTBIiSi oJ:[Horo )J.OMHHaHTHoro aJIile- JlH, '1T06bI npli3HaK MaKCHMaJIbHO npOHBIIJICJI- n06aBJleHliC 11.0- nOIIHIfTeJlbHbIX .c:oMIIHaHTHblx aJlJleJIeH He OKa3bIBaeT 33MeTHO- ro 3$$eKTa. B 3TOM cJlY'lae B03HIIKaJOT paCll\enJIelillJl Tllna 15: 1 IIJIH 63: I, B KOTOPI,[X He 6bIBaeT npOMe)](YTO'lHbIX KJlaCCOB. Ho cYII\CCTByeT H .QpyroH BapHaHT neHCTBI'!JI nOllltMepHblx reHoB, Korna 34J4JeKT TeM 60JlbIlle, '1eM 60JlbIlle nOMJlHaHTHblX aJIJle- JleH B reHOTJlne. HanplfMep, KOM6I1HaJlH Aabb 6y.aCT AaB3Tb 89 3a6y.n:eM Ha 8peMH 0 BJlI10HHII !jJaKTopoB Cpeltbl Ha !/JeHOTlI- nll'leCKlle npOJl8J1eHI1J1 II OCTaHOBI[MCR TOJlbKO Ha np06rreMc co- BMeCTHoro AeHCTBIiH MHOrl[X reHOB, KOTopoe caMO no ce6e IIpH- BOAIIT K KOJlHqeCTBeHHoR HJMeHqIfBOCTII. MbI Y)f(C YI10MHHaJIlt, '1TO B nepoble rOAb! paJBJlTHK MeH,!{e- JleBCKOH reHeTlfKH OCHoBHoe BHHMaHlle 61,[JlO y.u;eJlCHO H3Y'IeHIfIO HaCJleAODaHIIR KaqeCTBeHHbIX nplf3HaKoB. Bcc nonblTKH npoaHa- rrMJlIpOBaTb HaCJ!eIl.OBaHlle KOJlI!'1CCTBCHHbIX npH3HaKOB (BbIcoTa CTc6J1J1 Y paCTeIIJlH, paJMepbI JIIICTbCB, .lJ,TIliHa !COJIoca H T.n.) Ha- T3!IKIIBaJIIIC}' Ha MHOJKeCTBO 3aTPY.1UJeHHH, rJIaBHbIM 113 KOTOPblX 6b1J1a HCB03MOJKHOCTb pa3J1H'IIITb pa3Hble KaTeropll1f nOTOMCTBa. 113MeH'IHBOCTb B F2 MaJIO '1eM OTJIIi'laJIaCb OT H3MeHql'!BOCTJI B FI. .II.eJlo B TOM, qTO rH6plfAbI FI no KOJlH'IeCTBeHHbIM npl13HaKaM 3aHlfMalOT npOMCJlCYTO'lHOe nOJlOJICeHlle MeJICAY PO!UUCJlHMII. 3Ta TeH.QeHQIIR COXpaHJleTCSI If B nocnelJ.YIOll\JlX nOKOJJeHI1S1X. JIHWb B 1910 rolJ.Y 6blJIO 06HapYJKeHO, qTO rcOJIllqecTBeHHbIe npll3HaKII 06ycnOBJJeHbl TO'lHO T3KIIMII JKe pacU(enJIJlIOII;HMHCR 88 
MY>KCKMe raMeTbl IOTC ITyCTb aJIJ1eJIIi AI 11 A, Bbl3blBalOT YCIIJ1eHlle npl13HaKa, a lumeJIH a, II a, - ero oCJJa6J1eHlle. Tenepb nocMoTpIlM, KRKoe no- TOMCTBO MorYT AaTb feTep03l1roTbl A,R,A,R,. 3anOnHilM pewCTKY DellHeTa M AllrH6pIIAHOro cKpel1\lIBaHHH (Ta6JIHlJ;a 4.1). 11.ppbl, npOCTaBJIeHHble B npaBoM HH)J(HeM yrny KaJK,!lOH KJJeTKI1, YKa3blBalOT Ha KOJIII'ICCTBO anneneH, YCHnH1JalOI1\HX npH- 3HaK, B KaJK,!\OM reHonme. Mbl BIII1HM, qTO 60JIbWe Beero KJleTOK OKa3aJ10Cb C L\H.pPOH 2. IIpel1CTaBHM 3TO B 81111e Jl,HarpaMMbl, B KOTOpOH B OTl1eJ1bHbiX cTon6L\ax 06bei\lIHCHbi reHonmbl C OAHHa- KOBblM KOnH'IeeTBOM aJlJIeneH-ycHJJIITeneH npll3HaKa: T<l6J1ul{a 4. I PetuemKa nCIll/cma o.'lR oucu6puOiloco CKpeUI!l8aHUH 6 CJ1y'we nOJIII- AfepHOcO OeiiCln8UJl zelID6 60nce Cna6b1H 3.p.peKT, qeM KOM6I1HaL\H AAbb IIJ1H KOM6I1HaL\lIJ1 AaBb H T.I1. IIOHTHO, qTO HaH60JIbWHH 3.p.peKT 6Yl1eT y KOM- 6I1HaL\HH aJ]J1eJleH AABB, B HaI1MCHbWI1i1 - y KOM611HaUHH aabb. COOTBeTCTBeHHO, B nOM cnyqae npH rH6pHi1H3aL\1111 nOnHOCTblO 110MIIHaHTHoil .pOPMbI C .pOPMOti, nOnHOCTbIO peL\eCCHBHoti, Mbl nonyqHM p,!l npOMe)J(yrO'IHbIX KJIaCCOB. B Cnyqae l\eilCTBIIH MHOJKCcrBB reHOB pa3J1HqHble CTeneHM npORBJleHH npH3HaKa .paKTl1qCCKII 06YCJlOBJ1eHbl TOH )Ke CRlOiI Jl,HCKpeTHOCTblO reHCTH'IecKIIX .paKTopOB, '!TO H B Onb!TaX MeIlAC- JIR C KaqeCTBeHHblMH npH3HaKBMH, OJ]:HaKO 8HeWHe 3.p.peKT 6Yi1eT BblpB)J(aTbCJI B HcnpepbIBHOH H3MeH'II1BOCTI1 - qeM 60nbwe ,!lOMH- HaHTHblX anneJ1eH B reHOTllne, TeM CTeneHb Bblpa)KeHHOCTI1 npl1- 311aKa CllnbHee, II Ha06opOT. PC3YJIbTaTOM COBMecTIIoro i1CHCTIJUR reHOB Ha OAHH II TOT JKe npH3Hal< 6YAeT HOpMaJIbHOe pacnpeJ]:ene- HHe npll3HaKa B nonYJIJIL\HII. DOnee HarnRI\HO npOL\eee 803HIIKHO- BeHII HOpMaJIbHOrO pacnpei1eneHItJl npll3HaKa MO)KHO npOl1eMOH- CTpHpOBBTb lIa npuMepe. B03bMCM cnY'laii AI1rH6pHAHoro CKpell\HBBHHJI, TO ecrb npH- Mep AeilcTBIIJI Aayx He3aBHCHMbiX reHOB, l<a)J(Jl,bIH 113 KOTOpblX HMeeT napy anJleJIeH. 06a reHa 06YCJIOBJlHBalOT pa3BI1THe OI1HO- fO U Toro )Ke npM3HaKa, J.p.peKT1>I OTl\eJlbHbIX aJlJIeJIeH CYMMHPY- 90 A,Az :Ji .... o. ::Ii A j Bo 2 .. .... o. :s: " a,AI " % .. JiE a,a, AtAr A,ii, a,AI a,al A,A, A,a r ',A, ajar A,A, A,A, A,Ar AlAr . , 3 , A,A, A 1 ' 1 a,AI iI,a r A,a i 3 A,., A,., A,a, , , 1 A,Ar A I ,-, alA, a,1I1 alAr 3 a,Az a,A I -,A, 2 , 1 AtAZ A"I ',A. II', 1,1 1 a l ' l I j 8: , II j a , 2 1 1 0 6 A,a,A,a, s ',A,.,A,  j! 0 4 A."',,, A,",', a, ',A,A.,A, o  t; = a1al3z ',a,A,A, A,y"A,  " ,.  .,A,A,.. A.¥,A,  .,a,A,a,  a1a, A....,", A.A,A.,a, A,A,A,A, a,a..:a,3z 0 1 2 3 4 CTeneHb B"'PU8HHOCTM np M :iH3Ka PUCYIIOK 4.4 B03HUKIJ08eIJue KOJluecmeellltOii U3MeHqU60CmU I1pU oU2u6pUOIWAf CKpeUflieaHUU IIOJJyqeHHa HaMH AHarpaMMa HanOMI1HaeT rliCTorpaMMY HOpMaJIbHOrO paCnpeAeJleHIIH MH I1HTI1 rpal1aL\IIH (KJlaCCOB) KaKO- ro-ms50 npll3HaKa. Ha OCH a6clJllcc 0603Ha'ieHO KOmlqeCTBO aJl- J1eneH-YCHmneJleH, KOTOPOMY COOTBeTcTByeT oIlpel1eJIeHHaH CTe- neHb Bblpa)J(eHHOCTH npH3HaKa, a Ha OCH Op,!lIlHaT - Ha6mo,!lae. MaH qaCTOTa )I,Jl!I KaJK,!\orO H3 KJlaCCOB. He BJI,aBaJiCb B nOAPo6HO- CTlI, OTMeTHM, qTO '1aCTOTbI I :4.6:4: I cooTBeTcrnYlOT K03.p.pHlJ U - eHTaM pa:lJlo)J(eHH 6HHoMa HblOToHa (a+b)'. IIpH mo60M KonH- qeCTBe nap reHOB 11 'IaCTOTbl rpa!1:alJHH KOmI'IeCTBeHHOrO npH3Ha- Ka B nOTOMCTBe 6YAYT coorneTCTBOBan K03.p.pHL\l1eHTaM pa3no- Jl(eHHR 611HOMa HblOTOHa (a+b)" Mbl npl1BeJlII IJpHMep, B KOTOpOM CYMMHPYIOTC <p<peKTbl Bcero Jl.BYX Jl.ByxaJlJleJlbHblX reliOB. ECJlH TaKHX rCHOB 6Yl1eT TpH, TO KOJlH'1eCTBO KJIaCCOB YBeJlH'II1TCJI 110 7, a "HCJlO B03MOJKHbiX KOM6HHaUl1H COCTaBIlT 64, M qeTbIpCX reHOB Mbl 6YAeM I1MCTb 9 91 
2.3. Pa1JlH'IHble THULl B3aH"OeiicTBH" reHOB JleT Y'IaCTBOBaTh B paClI\enJIeHlIl1, TeM MeHbllle B nOKoneHIIH F2 6Y,I1eT I\OJIJI oc06eH, CXOJl,llblX C IICXOI\HbIMH pOiU'In:.nbCKHMH <»op- /,IaMI1, IIPH 3TOM qaCTOTbl rpMal\HH KOilHqeCTBeHHOro npH3HaKa 6YJlYT COOTBeTCTBOBaTb K03<»<»Hl\HeHTaM pa3J10)J(eHHJI 6HHOMa HbIOTOHa. OMUHUp081lH1U! u 1U!1IOJIIIDe iXuuuuqw6tuUle. qHCTO 3MJInm- HblH XapaKTep B3aIlMo"eiicTBII reHOB BCTpe'laeTCJI 1l0CTaTO'lHO pe)Il<O, qall\e Beero KapTHHa JlBJlJleTCJI 60JIee cnO)J(Hoi!. .lI.JUI HeKO- TOPb!X reHOB Moryr HMeTb MeCTO y)J(e H3BCCTHbie HaM 3<j!<»eKTbI AOMHHHpOBaHH. ITpl1 3TOM CTeneHb AOMHHHpOBaHH MO)J(eT OTJIIi(- qaTbC M pa3HbIX reHOB. B H3BeCTHbiX HaM onbITax f.MeHlleil OIlIlH H3 aJIJleneH nOJIHOCTblO nOAaBnlln ApyroH, TO eCTb I1MenO MeCTO 110JlllOe OOJUUHup06Qflue. OiU'IaKO MOryT BCTpe'laThCJI II napbI aJIiJe.neH, Mil KOTOpblX AOMHHaHTHoCTb II pel\eccHBHOCTb He npo- JlBnJlIOTCJI B nOJDIOH Mcpe. 3'<0 cnY'laH HeIlOJIHOZO OoMUflup08allWl, HJlH 1<000JUUHallmllOcmll. B cnY'lae HenOJDIOro AOMHHHpOBaHHJI re- Tep03HrOThI 06na.n:a1OT npOMe)J()'TOqHbIM <j!CHOTllnOM MeJl()j)' pOiU'I- TeJIbCKIIMH !jJopMaMII. 3nucma3. B3aHMOl\eHCTBOBaTh Moryr He TOJlbKO amJeJIH OA- Horo JIOKyca, HO II amJeJIl1, pacnOJIo)J(eHHble B pa3HbiX JIOKycax. B TaKHX cnyqUX rOBOpllT 06 3I1ucmamU'leCKOJU HJIH npOCTO 3l1ucma3e. ITpH 3nHCTa3e npHcYTCTBHe OllpClleJIeHHOrO reHa (IIMeHHo ero Ha3bIBaIOT 3I1HCTaTllqecKHM) nonHOCTblO no.n:aB- neT 3!jJ<j!eKT IIcilCTBH ,!ijIyroro reHa, pacnoilo)J(eHHoro B llpyroM nOKYCC (noAaBJIeMbIH reH HOCHT Ha3BaHlle nmOCTaTHqeCKoro). CnoJH:IUM x/HjJeKmbl 63I1l1.MoOeUCm8U11 U/UHI. Boo6w.e !jJeHOTII- nHqeCKlie IIpIl3HaKH, nOJlHOCTblO KOHTpOJIHpyeMbIe napoH anJIe- neH, pacnOnOJKeHHbIX B OAROM reHHOM iloKyce, TO eCTb nOl\06Hbie TeM, C KOTOpbIMH HMen lleJIO r.MeHAeJIb, cpal!HIITeJlbHO pe)Il<O BCTpeqaJOTCJI B npHpO)'le. DOJIhlllHHCTBO npH3HaKOB onpCi\eJIJleTCJI InaHMO/l,ei1CTI\HeM HeCXOII!>XHX reHOII, HaXOA\l.II\HXCII II pa3HbiX no- Kycax. ITpll 3TOM 3<j!<j!eKTbl B3allMO/l,eHCTBIIJI Bcero KOMnneKca re- HOB, onpe/l,eJlIOIlIHX /l,aHHblH i\JeHoTHnH'IeCKIIH npll3HaK, Moryr BKJIIOqaTl, KaK 3MJIT\lBHbIH KOMIIOHeHT, TaK H pa3J1H'IHble CTene- HlillOMIIHHpOllaHI1 H 3nllCTaJ. B3aI!MOl\eHCTJ!YJOII\He reHbI Moryr K3K YCIIJIHBaTb 3i\Ji\JeKT /l,ei1CTBIIJI KaKoro-nH60 reHa, TaK H oCJla6- JlJlTb ero. B peJYJlbTare KpHBbie pacnpeAeJleHHJI reHOTllnOB B no- TOMCTBc He 6YAYT CTOJIh lIlleaJIbHO COOTBeTCTJ!OBaTb KpHBOH HOp- M3JIbHoro pacnpeJleJIeHII, KaK npll '1HCTO 3lll\HTHBHOM HaClleAO- 93 KilaCCOB \I 256 KOM6I1Hal\Hii H T.lI. ITpOCTOH 1I0l\C'leT 1I0Ka3bIBae-r, qTO npl1 yacllllqeHl11I 'IHClla nOKYCOB H arrJIeneH C CYMMHPYlOllIHM- CJl 3i\Ji\JeKToM Jl,eHCTBII Ha onpelIeileHHbIH IIpH3HaK 'IHCJIO B03- MO)J(HbIX reHOTHIIOB HapaCTaeT OqeHb 6bICTpO. TaK, eCJIH npe"no- JIO)J(HTb, 'ITO reHbl KaKOrO-JII160 KO!lll'leCTBCHHOro npHJHaKa pac- 1I0JIaraIOTC I! 20 JIOKycax H HMeIOT 110 4 aJIJleJlJI, TO KOnH'IeCTBO rCHOTHnOB 6y.n:eT COCTaBilJlTb 10 20 . ITOHJlTHO, 'ITO '1aCTOTHa mc- TorpaMMa CTeneHH BblpaJICeHHOCTH npHJHaKa npll TaKOM KOIIII'le- CTBe rCHOTHnOB 6YACT Bce 60Jlee CfnaJICHBaTbCII II HanOMHHaTb HOpMaJIbHOe pacnpe,l1eJIeHHe. BCJI HJMeH'IHBOCTb npH 3TOM 6Yl\CT HOCHTb '1HCTO reHeTH'IeCKHii xapaKTep, II KOilH'IeCTBeHHaJi BeIIH- '!IIHa, XapaKTepHJYlOlI\a BapHaTHBHOCTb nplfJHaKa B nonY]lQI1H (p,HcnepCHII), B l\aHHOM cnyqac MO)J(eT GbITh Ha:JBaHa ZeHemU'leC- KOU OUC7I£pcueu. OJl,llaKO no,!\06HbIH JlCe HenpepblBHblH xapaKTep MOJKCT HO- CHTb H H3MeHqHBOCTb, l\eJlllKOM onpel1eJ1J1eMa cpeJl,OBblMH <j!aKTO- paM>!. IT03TOMY, CTOJll(HyaWlfCb C HellpepbIBI!OH IIJMeHqHBOCTbIO, HCBOJMOJICHO cpa3Y OnpelIeJIlITb, 06ycilOBIIeHa JIH OHa HCKmo'lH- TCJlbHO BOJ,!\eHCTJ!IIJlMH cpeJl,bI Hrnl J,11CCb HMeeT MecTO H 1I01I1IreH- HblH xapaKTep HaClle!IYeMOCTIl. B reHCTHKe cYW.eCTBYIOT Cnel\H- aJlbHbIe MeTOJl,bI, n03BOJIJllOwHe onpeAeJIIITb npHp0!IY H3MeHqIlBO- CTH, HO 06 3TOM pe'lb nOH.II.eT HCMHoro nOJJlCe. Ceii'lac JKe TonbKO 1I0,l1'1epKHeM, qTO B 60nbWHHCTBe cilyqaeB HenpepblBHblH xapaK- Tep I13MeH'IIIBOCTH Ollpel\eJIJleTCJI KaK AeiiCTBlleM MHorHX reHOB, TaK H BJal1MOAeiiCTBl1eM reHOTl1na co BceBOJMOJICHblMIi cpeJl,OBbI- MH YCIIOBHJlMH. AiJiJumu8HDe 83lU4Modeftcm8l1e, PaCCMOTpeHHblH B npel\bJ.D:Y- lI\eM naparpa<jle npHl.!ep B HeKOTopOM POlI.e IIIIJIJlCTC lIlle3JIbHblM. B 3TOM H.II.eaJIbHOM npHMepe 1I0JIHMepHbIe reHbI OKa3bIBaIOT 'IHC- TO aOOUmU8f1b/U 3rjJrjJeKm, TO CCTb IIpOHCXOiU'IT npOCTa CYMMal\lI .n:eiiCTBHJI :nHX reHOB. ITpeJl,nOJlarae-rclI TaKJKe, 'ITO nonHMepHble reHbl no CHile AeHCTJ!H paBHbI ,!ijI)'T APyry. TOJIbKO npH c06J1JO.II.e- HIIII 3TIIX ycnoBHH ypoBeHb pa3BHTH KOJIH'IeCTJ!eHHoro npH3HaKa B nOTOMCTBe (FI, F2) 6Yl\CT CTporO npoMe)l(YTO'lHbIM MeJK.II.Y po- iU'ITeJIbCKIIMH q.opMaMII, a KpllBaJI pacnpe.ll.eJleHHII reHOTHnOB Gy- l\eT TOqHO COOTBCTCTBOBaTh HOpMaJlbHOH. qeM 60nbwe reHOB 6y- 92 
!IJ & " f \ I \ I \ I \ I I I I I , I I J I PUCYUOK 4.5 A Cu.'llMempWl KPU6blX pacl1pe- iJeJ/eHWi npu OOMuHupo6aHuu 2eHCI-ycUJ/umel/Jl U zeHa-OCJ/a- 6umel/Jl 6 . 2 a ][ llI. N o I BaHHH (PIlCYHOK 4.5). PacnpeJJ;eneHIIH MorYT OKiI3aTbCR aCIIMMeT- PWlHblMH H JJ;a)J(e MHoroBepwHHHblMH. B HaCTORwee BpeMH npllHHTO CqHTaTb, qTO B JJ;eTepMHHal1HII KOnHqeCTBeHHblX npH311aKoB npllHHMaJOT yqaC'fI1e pa3nl1qHble rpynnbl reHOB. CYll1eCTBYIOT rnaBHble rCHb! (onllroreHbl), 3Haqll- TeJIbllO B11HHIOUjlle Ha paJBHTHe npH3HaKa. CYll1eCTBYIOT reHbl C 60JIce CJIaOblM 3cjJcjJeKToM. H, HaKOHel1, CYll1ecTBYIOT reHbI-MOi\II- cjJIIKaTOpbJ, KOTOpblC onpeJJ;e11J1IOT 0JJ;1I11 npIlJHaKH, 110 oJJ;HoBpe- MCHIIO MOAHcjJHIfPYIOT JJ;ei1cT!me rJlaBllblX reHOB Ha Apyrllc npll3l1aKH. 2.4. B03HI1KHOBeHI1e KOJIH'IeCTBcHHOii H3MeHQUBOCTH nOi\ lIeikrBlleM Cpei\bI. HOpM3 pe3KH. Cpei\OB3R IIHcnepcHII B Jl,Byx npe.n:bl.n:yll1I1X pa3AeJIaX Mbl n03B011HTIlI ce6e Ha Bpe- MH 3a6blTb 0 BJIlfJlHHH cpeAbl H3 Bblpa)!(CHHOCTb KOJlI1qeCTBeIlHO- ro npllJHaKa H paCCMOTpeJIH npHMep B031111KllOBeHHH KOJIHqe- CTBeHHoil H3MeHqIlBOCTII Tonbl<O no.n: BJIIIHHHeM COBMCCTHoro .n:eH- CTBIIH reHOB Ha O,/\HH H TOT Jl(C npuJHaK. CeHqac COBepWI1M 06- paTHYJO onepal1HIO - npe.n:cTaBHM ce6e, qTO B nonYJIHl1l11f OTCYT- cTByeT reHeTlI'leCKaH H3MeHqHBOCTb. qTo 3TO OJHa'iaCT? TonbKo TO, qTO BC>! nonynHI1I1J1 COCTOI1T 113 OCOOeH C o.n:HHaKOBbIMH reHO- TllnaMH, TO eCTb HHKaKoro reHeTll'leCKOrO pa3H006pa3/fJl Her, 8 Bce Ha6nlOAaeMoe pa3Ho05pa:me cjJeHOTHnOB onpeJJ;enJlCTCH Tonb- KO TeM, '11'0 Ka)l(.n:aH OC06b pa3BHBanaCb B CBOHX, OTJIII'IHblX 01' .I1PYTI1X, ycnoBHRX cpeJJ.bI. TaKlle reHCTII'IeCKII O,/\HopOJJ:Hble nony- 94 I I JIHI1I111 (I1nH KJIOHbl), B npllHlume, MO)l(HO nonyqllTb y npocTeHwHx opraHI13MOB HnH pacTeHIIH, pa3MHOJKalOil(HXCJI BerCT8TliBHbiM Ae- JJeHlleM. CYll1eCTBYIOT TaK)I(e II Cnel111aJIbHO BblBe.n:eHHble JII1HHH na60paTopHblX )J(J.!BOTHblX, 06J1aAa1OWHx Oi\IIH3KOBbIM reHOTHnOM no KaKoMy-nll60 1Ip113Hal<Y - TaK Ha3blBaeMbie 4ucmble JlUHUU, no- JlyqaeMble nyTeM 6JII13KOpOi\CTBCHHOrO CKpell.\J.!BaHI1J1 (TaKoH THn cKpell.\HBaHHH Ha3blBaeTCH uH6puiJ.m2oJ.1, a nonyqaeMblC npH 3TOM qllCTble JlHHI1H )l(H80THbiX Ha3bIBalOTCJI uH6peiJl/bI.Mu). TaKHM 06pa- 30M, Kor.n:a Mbl r080pIJM 0 nonYJIHL\H\1 opraHH3MOB C Oi\HHaKOBbl- Mil reHOTHnaMH, MbI He OKa3blBaeMCH B 06JIacTiI '{IICTO TeOpeTH- qeCKHX paccyeHIIH, HO MO)l(eM onHpaTbCH Ha .n:aHH\,le peaJIbHblX 3KcnepIlMeHTOB. H1'aK, JJ:1IJI HeKOTopblX BII,[\OB Jl(110blX opraHH3MOB Mbl MO- )l(eM nOJIyqllTI> 60JIbll.\OC q11C110 oc06eii C o.n:HHaKOBbIMIl reHOT"- naMH. Mbl MO)J(eM nOMeCTHTb IIX 0 pa3JIHqHbl.e cjJHKCl1pOBaHHbl.e YCJJOBIIH Cpei\b!. HanpliMep, BblpawHBaTb np\! paJJ1H'IHOii TeM' nepaType, npH pa3J1l1qHOM cOi\ep)l(aHI1I1 KHCJlOp0.n:a I!JIII KaKHX- nH60 nl1TaTenhHblX BCll.\eCTB 1\ T.i\ B pe3YJIbTaTe Mbl 1I0nyql1M MHO)l(CCTBO oc06eii, Bee pa3JJWIHH Me)l(,!\y KOTOpblMII 6YAYT 06yc- 110BJleHbl T011hKO pa3HHL\eH B Cpe.n:oBblX YCJIOBIIX. HTaK, i\OnYCTHM, qTO reHOTlI1I npe.l1CTaOJlHeT COISOH 1<OH- CT3HTY, 1\ paccMoTpHM cjJeHoTHn l<aK cjJYHKL\IIIO ycnoBHH BHew- HeH CpeJl,b!. }:(J1J1 31'oro HaM He06xol\HMO BOeCTI1 ell.\e OJ\HO Ba)l(- Hoe nOHHTl1e reHeTIIKH - TO nOHTl1e HOpMbl peOKI./UU. EC!!11 /l.aHHblH reHOTHn qYBCTBH'feneH K cpe.l1e, TO, nOMecnlB MHO)J(e- CTBO Oi\I1HaKOBbIX reHOTlIIIOB B P83JIHQHbie crparo </JflKCllpOBaH- Hble ycnoBI1H Cpei\bl, Mbl nOJ1yqllM MHO)l(eCTBO OTnHqalOll.\HXCJI cjJeHOTHIIOB. Mbl MO)J(eM H3MepHTb Bblpa)l(eHHOCTh IIIITepecylO- Il.\ero Hac npll3HaKa 1\ nOCTpOIlTb rpacjJlIK Ja8HCHMOCTI1 xapal<- TepHCTHK cjJeHOTllna OT napaMeTpOB Cpei\hI. 3KcnepHMeHTanhHO 3TO B03MO)l(HO ocYwecTBI1Tb )l)lJI KnOHOB HJIH qHCTbl.X 11I1HHH pa3- JlllqHblX OpraHHJMOB. IToJlyqeHHble B pe3ynbTaTe rpacjJHKII 3aBH- CHMOCTI1 oc06eHHOCTeH </JeHOTHna OT napaMeTpOB CpCAM Ii 6y- AYT oT06pa)l(aTb HOpMbl peaKl1l1H Ka)l(Abli1 reHOTHn 6YAeT xa- paKTepll30BaTbCH CBoeH 3aBHCIiMOCTblO, TO eCTb CBoeH HOpMOH peaKl\III1. ITpeJjnonO)l(IIM, Mbl IIMeeM ,lU!e HH6peJ\HbIX JlI1HIIII Mblllleil C reHOTllnaMIi Gl H G2. Hac, HanpHMep, HHTepccyeT 3aBI1CHMOCTb rYCTOTbl llIepCTH (cjJeHonm) OT TeMnepaTypHblX ycnoBHH (cpeAa), 95 1 
B KOTOpbIX BblpaHBaIOTCSI :!TH MbIWH. .II.onYCTHM, 3Ta 3aIlHCII- Mocn, HOCHT nllHeHHbIH xapaKTep: '1eM BbIWC TeMnepaTypa, TeM MCHbWC rYCTOTa WepCTH )J(IIBOTHbIX. Ho rCHOTHnbI MorYT omll- '1aTbCJI CBOCH '1YBCTBHTeJIbHOCTblO K TeMncpaTYPHhIM yeT. JBHSlM. ITp e .l\l1 0JIO JKHM, '1TO 01 OKaJaJ1CH MCHee qYBCTBI\TeJIbHblM K TeM- nepaType, qeM 02. COOTBeTCTBeH!!O, eCJIH Mbl nOCTpOHM rpa(jJH- KH 3aBHCHMOCTH (jJeHoTHna OT epenh! (HOpMbI pCaI<I1HH), TO AJISI reHOTHna 01 6Yl\eT XapaKTepCH MCHhWHH HaKJIOH npHMon (PHCY- HOK 4.6). Ha HaWCM PHCYIIKC cYlI.\ecTBye-r TO'lKa nepeceqeHIIJI, B KOTOpOH npll onpe.n:eJIeHHOH TCMncpaType Ij!cHoTHnbI JKHBOTHbIX, nplIHal\IlCJKall.\lIX K pa3HbIM HH6pe)I.Hb1M JlHHHJlM, 6Yl\YT COBna- l\an. 3al\R.l\HM Tenepb TaKOn Bonpoc: paJJlII'l3IOTCJI nil !jJCHOTH- nHqecKH (no ryCToTe WepCTH) JKIIBOTHbIe 06eHx JIHHHH? ITOIlJlTHO, '1TO 0)I.H03Ha'iHOrO OTBeTa Ha :noT Bonpoc AaTh HeJIbJH, nOCKOJlb- KY CYCCTByroT TaKHe YCJlQBHJI Cpell.bl (TO'lKa B), B KOTOpbIX (jJe- HOTlinbI He paJJIH'IaJOTCSI. Hcnb3H TaXJKe OTBeTHTb H Ha Bonpoc, JKHBOTHblC KaKOH JIHHHlI HMCIOT 60JIee ryCTYIO WepCTb, nOCKOJIb- KY B O,lUlHX TCMncpaTypHblX YCJIOBI'!SlX 60Jlee ryCTyIO WCpCTb HMe- JOT JKJ!BOTHbIe C reHoTllflOM 01, a B )!!Jyrl1x - C rCHOTHnOM 02. E,!!,HHCTBeHHOC, B '1eM 101M >.IOJKeM 6blTb YBepeHbI, T3K 3TO B TOM, 'lTO rCHOTllnbl pa3JIH'IaIOTCJI CBOHMH HopMaMH pCaKIJ,HH. TIpOl\e1l3eAl Tcnepb raxylO npol.{ct(ypy. H3 TO'JCK A J! C, HaXOl\JllI.\lIXCJI Ha nomocax OCH CPCl\OBbIX H3MeHCHHH, npOBCJI,eM npOeKIJ,HH Ha rpa(jJHKH HOpM PeaKl\HII 060HX reHOTHnOB, a 3RTCM 113 TD'IeK nepece'JCHHR onYCTHM npOCKI.{HH HR DCb !jJeuOTHnOB. MhI YBIIJI.HM, qTO B O,lUlOM H TOM JKe CpCl\OBOM l\IIanaJOHe BapllaTHB- Hocn (jJeHOTllnOB (paJ6poc) 60JIce 'IYBCTBIITCJlbHOrO K cpc,!!,e re- HOTllna 02 OK3JKeTCJl BblIlJC, '1CAl .lVISi MCHee 'J)'IICTBHTeJIbHOrD rc- HOTllna Gl ECIIH oT06paJI1Tb :!TO Ha rpa!jJIIKe pacnpCl\e.ucHIiH (PHCYHDK 4.6 6), MbI YBIIJI.HM, qTO reHOTHnbl pa:!JIHq!UQTCH no paJ- 6pocy 3H3'leHHH BOKpyr cpeP.Hcro, TO CCTb onu QTIlIf'laIOTCJ! CHO- HMH )l.HCnepCHSIMII: WlSi reHOTHna 02 xapaKTepHa 60Jlee Bb[COKaH ,lUIcnepcHJI, '1CM WlJI rCHOTHna 0 I. .II.HcnepcHSI BemJ'IIIHbI ryCTOTbl lliepCTH BHy-rp" KR>KJ(OH rpynnb! MbllUCH 06ycnoBJIeH3 '1IlCTD cpe- l\OBbIMH npHqHHaMH II MOJKeT 6b!Th HaJBaHa cpeiJ080u oIKnepcueu. Pa3iIHqllSi B l\HCnepCHHX MC1KJtY paJHblMH JIHHHSlMH 06'bJiCHHIOTCJI pa3HoH '1YBCTBf!TeJIhHOCTblO rCHOTlinOB K cpctJ.c: '1eM Bb/we 'IYB- CTBHTeJlbHOCTb l\aHHOrO reHOTHna K cpel\e, TeM BbIUle (jJcHoTllnll- 'IeCKaR ,lUICnepcHJI, nOpO)J()l;aeMaR oc06eHHOCTJlMH cpell.bI. 96 a I  s 6 s  , , II . U pa3 5 poc <31 L ..... P.35po , , i== Gil L=-=-- " B , ......'" , , ". --"-, I , I o A , c B 3 c 1 2 6 5 3  !) I  251 j 1 2 t , 5 t , j 05 r r= G ,l L- G2 1 ". o --t--+---I---+....-.+---i- o N o::t CD co ..... N "If (!) ex) N N "If U) CD (") orft.6HOTMn o 0 0 0 .....  ..... N N N N  Pucynol( 4.6 HOPMbl peOKljUU (0) U '1aCmomHb/e pacnpeoeJ/eHUR (6) OM iJ6YX ZeHOmUn08 C pa3HOU '1Y6Cm8UmeJIbHOCmblO K U3MeHeHUIO cpeiJ08blx YCJI08Uii T3KHM 06pa30M, MOJKHO CKaJaTh, qTO 2eHOmll/1 oiJHo3Ha'iHO He onpeiJeJ/Jiem peHomUIl. qTo6bI npaBHJIbHO onHC3Tb cpaBHHBa- eMble reHOTHnhl, Hel10CTaTOqHO CKa3aTh, qTO OHH onpe.n:el1IOT 97 
pa3Hble <jJeHOTHnbl, nOCKOJlbKY npl1 onpelleneHHblX CpeIlOBb!X ycnoBHHX 3TO YTBepJK,l1eHHe MOJKeT OKa3aTbCH JIOJKHbIM. JIy'!we CpaBHHBaTb reHOTHnbl no xapaKTepHblM IUIH HIIX HopMaM peaK- l\IIH. KpOMe Toro, cne,l1yeT nOllqepKHYTb, qTO ZeHomUl1bl OrnJlU'{a- IOmCJ! no ux Y8cm8umeJ/blwcmu K cpe008bIM 8030eUCm8URJtI. Eo- nee qYBCTBHTeJ1bHOMY reHoTHny COOTBeTCTByeT H 60JIbWaH cpe- )l,OBaJi )l,HcnepCHSI. CYll\eCTBYIOT npHMepbl HOpMbl peaKl\HH, npll KOTOpOH KOJIH- 'ICCTBCHHble H3MeHeHHH B OKpYJKalOll\eH cpe}J.e MorYT npllBeCTH }J.aJKe K KaqeCTBeHHOMY 113MelleHllIO <jJeHonma, lIeCMOTpH Ha TO, '!TO reHOTHn OCTaeTCH O.!UIIIM II TeM JKe. TaKHM npllMepOM MOJKeT cnYJKHTb 113MeHeHlle OKpaCKH l\BeTKOB Primu/a sinensis. SlTO paCTe- Hlle B 06blqHblX YCJIOBIIHX HMeeT KpaCHYIO OKpaCKY QBeTKOB. Kor- )1a TO JKe caMoe paCTeHlle nepeHOCHT B OpaHJKCpelO, rile nOJUl.ep- JKHlJaeTCJI TeMnepaTypa 30-35", TO qepe3 lIeKOTopoe BpeMH BHOBb paCQBeTalOll\lIe l\BeTKH npll06peTalOT 6enyIO OKpaCKY, TO eCTb npOIlCXO,l1HT Ka'!CCTBeHHoe H3MeHeHlle <jJeHOTHna B OTBeT lIa H3Me- HeHHe Cpell,bI. TaKHM 06pa30M, MOJKHO CKa3aTb, qTO HopMa peaKlfUu - 3mo cne'fuqJl.l'<eCKUU xapalanep peaK'fUU OaHHOZO ZeHomUl1a Hll U3MeHeHue OKPY;J'caI(JU/UX YCJI08UU. feHeTI1KH rOBopRT, qTO HaCJIell,YIOTCR He onpe)l,eJICHHble npH3HaKH, a HOpMbl pCaKl\HH. ITpHBelleHHble npllMepbl nOKa3bIBaIOT, qTO .!VIR JKI1BOTHbIX II paCTeHIIH, eCilH Mbl pacnonaraeM )l,OCTaTOqHbIM KOJlH'IeCTBOM oco6eH C O)I,HHaKOBbIMH reHOTllnaMIi, Mbl HMeeM peaJlbHYIO B03- MOJKHOCTb H3Y"liTb peanbHble HOpMbl peaKI11ili Ha 113MeHeHI1e cpe- ,l\OBbIX ycnoBHH. ClleJlaTb TO JKe caMoe B OTHoweHIIH '1eJlOBeKa npaKTHqeCKII HeB03MOJKHO. HeB03MOJKHOCTb nonyqliTb HOpMbl pe- aKl\HH IUIH npH3HaKOB qeJlOlleKa 06'bHCHHeTCJI ilBYMR npH'IHHaMII. Bo-nepBbIX, Y qeilOBeKa HeJIb3R nOilyqllTb 60nbwoe '1HCJIO reHeTlI- qeCKII Il)I,eHTHqHblX opraH1I3MOB, qTo6bl 3aTeM BblpalI1liBaTb IIX lJ pa3J11I'1HbIX YCJlOBI1RX. MaKCHManbHoe KOJlllqeCTBO reHeTHqeCKII IIJI,eHTHqHblX JIIOII,eH COOTBCTCTByeT TeM KJIOHaM MOH03HrOTllbIX 6mI3HeQOB, KOTopble 1\0cTynHbi .!VIII H3Y'leHHJI (KaK npallHJIO, He 60nee nRTII qeJlOBeK) BO-BTOpbIX, He,l\OnYCTIIMO nOllBepraTb JIIO- ,l\efi pa3J1H'IHbIM Cpe,l\OBblM 1I03.QeHCTBHRM B KcnepHMeHTanbHbiX L{eJillx. KpOMe TOro, IUIR 60JibWIIHCTBa nCHXonOrHqeCKHX npll3Ha- KOB nOKa ,l1aJKe He 113BeCTHO, KaKlle oc06eHHOCTil Cpell,bl cnellyeT 113MepllTb. 98 TaKHM 06pa30M, TOqHble HOpMbI peaKl\1I1I .!VIII pa3JIII'IHbIX npll3HaKoB qeJiOBCKa, H TeM 60nee Mil nCHXOJlOrH'IeCKHX xapaK- TepIlCTIIK, nonyqllTb npaKTH'IeCKH lIeB03MOJKHO. OJl,llaKO Ha OCHO- Ballml HeKOTOpblX KOCBeHHblX ,l1aHHbIX B03MOJKHO rHnOTeTII"eCKOe MO.QeJ1HpOBaHlle HOpMbI peaKL{HI1. B nCHXOJiorll1l JI,OR BpeMeHH ceHCOMOTOpHOH peaKQIIH qe- JlOBeKa H3BeCTHO TaKoe RBJIeHHe, K3K 33KOII CHJ1bI. COCTOIIT 0110 B cnellYlOlI1eM. Ecnll qeJlOBeKa np OCJlT KaK MOJKHO 6b1cTpee lIa- JKHMaTb Ha KHonKY B OTBeTHa 3BYKOBOH CIITHaJI II npH 3TOM perHcTpliPYIDT TO'!Hoe BpeMJI MeJKIlY HaqaJIOM CHTHaJIa H MO- MeHToM HaJKaTHJI, TO B pe3YJlbTaTC nOJ1yqalOT KOJlHqeCTBeHHYIO xapaKTepllCTIIKY (H3MepJleMYIO B MIIJlJlIICeKYHllax), KOTOpaJi Ha- 3blBaeTCII BpeMeHeM ceHCOMOTOpHOH peaKQIIH (BCMP). MOJKHO C'IllTaTb BCMP Konll'!eCTBeHllblM <jJeHoTllnllqeCKIIM npll3HaKoM '1eJlOBeKa, TeM 60nee qTO Bce JIlOlIlI peafllPYIDT C pa3JIH'!HoH CKOpOCTblO. EenH HHTeHCHBHOCTb CllrHaJIa MeHIITb OT CJIa60H K CIIJIbHOii, TO BCMP 6YlleT COKpall\aTbc. BOT 3TY 3aBIICilMOCTb B nCHXOJIOrll1l H Ha3blBalOT 3aKOHOM CI1i1b!. OKa:JaJIOCb, 'ITO 3aKOH CIIJlbl y pa3Hblx JIIOlleH npOJlBJIlleTCJI no-pa:JHoMY. OMII moJ1ll,l\alOT pe:JKoe COKpall\eHlle BCMP, a rpa- <jJHK ee 3aBIICilMOCTH OT IIHTeHCIIBHOCTIl CTIIMyrra xapaKTepll3YeT- CR KPYTblM HaKJIOHOM. .II.JI rpa<jJIIKOB ,l\pyrnx mo,l\eii xapaJ<TepHo 50Jlee nOJIoroe CHHJKeHHe. B pa60Tax H3BeCTHOTO HCCJ1eIlOBaTeJI HHIJ:HBlI.lI.YaJIbHblX pa3i111'1HH B.,lI,.He6blJIlIl1bIHa 6blJI0 nOKa3aHo, qTO pa3JIllqHR B xapaKTepe lIeHCTBIIR HHTeHCIIBHOCTH cTHMYila cBnaHM CO CBOKCTBaMH HepBHOH CHCTeMbl. ITpeIll10JlOJKHM, '1TO B nonYJ[J[L{IIH CYll\eCTBYIDT KpaHHHe Ba- pHaHTbI reHOTiinOB, JI,OJI KOTOpblX xapaJ<TepHbl pa3HbIe THnbl peaK- l\IIH Ha H3MeHeHlle HHTeHCIIBHOCTIl 3BYKa. MOJKHO 3TH 3aBIICIIMO- CTII paCCMaTpHBaTb KaK aHaJIOr HOpMbI peaKI1HII, j')I,e lj!eHoTlln- no BCMP, a cpe,l\a - no pa3HaR IIHTeHCIIBHOCTb 3BYKa. ITOCT- pOHM rpa<jJHKH "HOpMbl peaKL{HH" IIlIJi llBYX mnOTeTHqeCKHX reHO- TllnoB, OTJIl1qalOlI.\l1xcJI xapaKTepoM 3aKOHa CHJThI. Ha pHcY"Ke 4.7 Mb! 1130Qpa3Hnll 3TI1 3aIlHCIIMOCTIl. fHnOTeTH'IeCKHH reHOTlln G I xapaKTepll3yeTcII KPYThlM HaKJlOHOM rpa<jJIlKa 3aBHCIIMOCTII BCMP OT IIHTeHCI1BHOCTIl 3BYKa, a rHnOTeTl1'1eCKHi1 reHOTHn G2 - n0J10rHM HaKJIOHOM. TaK )J(e KaK H B cnyqae C MbIwaMH, MbI BII,I\IIM, qTO cYll.\eCTByeT cpella (TOqKa B), B npeJl,enax KOTOpOH reHOTllnbI <jJeHOTHnH'IeCKH He pa3i111'1aIOTCR. JIeBee nOH TO'lKH 99 
""'1TI" i i ! + ' ! l "'" t------+ I ;' ,:-t---- '--t--+- --+------' 1 ",. ! I I . I  r . . -+ -_l..----+-----+------I-- H  ; , .' "J i I !  r-.  I .. I I  "" FR - - ' 1 -- ' . '. . t s J . I I  I r --', I! I i""i- -- i )  :-I :-',I--t- -: "' "'" I --+-+----+--+- '+=--=i ! I . I I ', I , - I 0 ' 200 t-- I --- '- .  I 1 I' i I".. ." .___L_--L___ =tJ- -----!-- j , 40 &I 60 7() eo 90 100 11() 120 Yp08eHb 3BYKa, AS r..... GI i - - - 821 PUCYHOK 4.7 Pa3Hbre mUl1bl npoflene/JUJ! 3aKOHa CU,1bl KaK aHCIJ/02 "/JOpJ.lbl peaK- !juu" y 4e.08eKa reHOTl4n G2 oncpe)l(aeT I\pyroH reHOTHn (GI) no CKOpOCTIl peaK- lIliH, a npaBec - Ha060poT, 60JIee BblCOKaJl CKOpOCTb peampOBa- HIIJI xapaKTepHa WlJI TeIlOTHna GI TaKHM 06pa30M. He cYll\e- cTByeT a6COJIIOTHbiX pa3JIHqHH B ljJeHoTHnax, a Bce 3aBHCHT 01' IJ.llana30Ha cpel\bl, B KOTOpOM npoBOJI,JITC!! H3MepeHHH. Ell\e OIJ.I1H npHMep TaKoro p0.I\a nmOTeTllqeCKOH MO)1eJII1 npIIBO.I\HTCH B maBe 15 Ha pllcYHKe 15.1. PaecMoTpeHHoe B :lTOM pa3)1eJIe nOHHTlie HOpMbl peaKQIIH npe.n;cTaBJlHeT onpc.n;eJIeHHbIH npaKTHqeCKI1H I1HTepec iVJH nCl1xo- nora If UC,I(arora. IIoCKOJIbKY Ka)/{lJ,blM 'JeJIOBCK 06JI3,lIaeT YHH- l<aJlbHblM reHoTHnoM. OH o6J1a.n;acT H YHIIKaJIbHOH HOpMOii peaK- QHH Ha TC HJII1 IIHble cpe.n;oBble B03JJ.eHCTBHH, TO eCTb Ka)l(J(bIH re- HOTHn no-eBoeMY pearllpyer H3 O)1I1H H Te JKe YCJIOBI1H epe.n;bI. C!le.I\OBaTe:IbIlO, nOMeCTHB rpynny .n;eTeH B YHHljJl1QHpOBaHHbIe YC- nOBH!! cpel\bl (npHMepOM MO)l(eT CJIY)l(HTb o6yqeHHe B OiIHOM KJlaC- ce), Mbl He BnpaBe OJKH.n;aTb o.n;I1HaKOBOro pe3YJIbTaTa 01' Bcex .n;e- Teii - Ka)l()1bfi! 6Y.l!eT pe3mpOB3Tb n()-CBOCMY II xapaKTepllJO- BaTbC!! CBOHM ypoBHeM J10CTI1)1(eHHH B COOTBeTCTBHII C 1I0pMOH peaKl\lfIl CBoero reHOTlma Ka)l(.n;blH 113 Hac relleTHqeCKII YHHKa- !leH. H C 3THM He06xo.n;I1MO eql1TaTbeJl B npaKTHKe 06yqeHIIH H 100 .. nocnHTaHIIJI, C03)1aBaH MaKCI1MaJIbHOC pa3Ho06pa311e cpelJ.OBbIX ycnOBHii pa3BIITIIJI. 2.5, COBMecTHblH BKJIom reHomna H Cpe,LlLl B H3MeH'lHBOCTb, reHeTH'JeCKaK H cpel\OB3K )1HcnepcHH K3K cocraBJIKIOQUfe nonYJUlIUIOHHOH cl>eHOTHfiH'IecKOH .!UICnepcHH <lJeHoTHnH'leCKHe pa3J1H'IIiJI Me)l(l\Y JlIOJ(bMII 06'bJlCHHIOTCH no KpaiiHeii Mepe .IlBYMJI npll'lIlHaMII. Bo-nepBb/X, JIIOM OTllliqa- IOTCJI JJ.pyr OT .I\pyra CBOHMI1 reHOTllnaMIl. 31'0 npHBo.n;IIT K B03- HIiKHOBeHHIO reHeTlI'leCKI1 05YCJlOBJleHHOH 113MeH'IHBOCTIl Bo- DTOPb/X, Ka)l(,L{blH '1eJIOBeK pa3BIIBaeTCJI B oe06eHHb!X Cpel\OBblX YCJlOBIfJlX. 31'0 npllBOI\HT K B03HI1KHOBeHilIO cpe.I\OBOH 113MeHqll- BOCTII. Tenepb onllweM, KaK 061l\aJl nonYJlHl1110HHaJi 113MeHqH- BOCTb npl13HaKOB CKJla)1blBaeTCJI 113 reHeTHqeCKOH II Cpe.I\OBOH H3MeHqllBOCTII PaCCMOTpliM KOMnblOTepHYIO MOlJ.eJlb KOJlHqeCTBCHHOH 113- MeHqllBOCTIl B nonYJlJll\HII (aBTOpOM MO)1eJlII JlBnHeTCJI JI C.Ky- paBcKIIH). l1.onYCTHM, Mbl H3Mepll!IH HCK!fH KO!lUqeCTBeJlHbJH npu- 3HaK Y 1000 HHI\HBIII\OB B KaKOH-JIII60 1I0nYJlJlQIIH 11 nOCTpOHJII1 COOTBeTCTBYlOll\Ce qaCTOTHoe p3Cnpel\eJletme. BYl\eM eqHTaTb, qTO Hall\ npll3HaK onpe.I\eJI!!eTCJI OIJ.HIIM reHoM, KOTOpbfH MO)l(eT cYll\ecTBOBaTb B Tpex pa3JIH'!HbIX ljJopMax, To eCTb HMeeT TPII aJIneJlH. 0603Ha'!IIM HX 6YKBaMli A, B II C. Tor.n:a B nonYJlHl\1111 MorYT BCTpeTl1TbC!! Tpll THna rOM031'!rOT - AA, BB, CC - II Tpll moa rcrepomroT - AB, BC fI AC. nyeTb JIfOJl.fI C rCHOTH- nOM AA HMelOT caMble HII3KHe 3Ha'ieHIIJI npll3HaKa, a !I(QI\H C reHOTllnOM CC - caMble BbICOKHe. reHOTIIII BB 3aHI1MaeT npo- MeJKYTOqHOe nO!lO)l(CHlle. 31jJljJeKTbI )10MIIHllpOBaHlIH OTCYTCTBY- lOT, H reTep03HrOTbi OKa3bIBalOTCH npOMeJl(YTO'lHbIMII Me)l(l\Y rOM03HrOTaMIi. Mbl 3HaeM, 'ITO H3 KOHKPCTHYIO BeJIIlqllHY npll3HaKa OKa3bl- BalOT BJIllJlHHe He TOJlbKO reHbl, HO II cpeJl,OBble YCJlOBHJI, HallpH- Mep, xapaKTep nllTaHHJI IIJIH pOl\l1TeJlbCKOH 3a60Tbi B l\eTCTBe. Paenp e l1eJIeHlle ljJeHomnOB )l,JlJI K3JK.1I.oro reHOTl1na 6y.n;eT xapaK- TepH30BaTbCJI onpel\eJIeHHblM cpel\HIIM 3HaqCHHeM H pa36poCOM BOKpyr Cpe.I\HerO, HJlII .n;ucnepCHeH. BenH'IIIHa Jl,HCnepCIIII 6Y.I\eT onpe)1ellJlTbCH TeM, HaCKonhKO l\aHHblH reHOHm "YBCTBI1TeJleH K Cpe)10Bh1M BJlHHHIIHM. t{eM Bblwe 'IYBCTBHTeJlbHOCTb reHOTlllla K 101 
cpe,n;c, TeM 60J1bWeC pa3Ho06pa311e ,peHOTIUlOB MbI nOJIY'IHM H, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, TeM 60J1bWeii ,n;HcnepCHeii 6y,n;eT xapaKTepH30- BaTbCJI ,n;aHHblii reHOTHn (CM. npe,n;bIJJ.)'lL\HH naparpa,p). IIOIIRTHO, qTO 6Hympu ZPY"l1bl oco6eu c OOUlIQK06bIM 2e1l0mUl10M ,n;lIcnepCI1H 6Y.!IeT onpe,n;eJJJITbCJI TOJIbKO cpe,n;OBblMIl !jJaKTopaMII H n03TOMY 6YlleT qHCTO cpe0080U. IIpeJl,OoJ1oJKHM, Mbl CMOrJIH pa3AeJJl1Tb mo,n;eH, 06JIa,n.alOlL\HX KOHKpeTlIblMH reHOTHnaMH, Ha COOTBeTCTBYIOlL\IIC rpynnbl, TO eCTb Mb! pa36HJ111 5CIO nonYJIHI.{HIO lIa weCTb rpynn 5 COOTBeT- CTI!IIH C reHOTllnOM Ka)J(Jl,OrO qenOBeKa. 06bIqHO OT,!\eJJbHble reHO- TlmbI npe,!\CTaBneHbI B nonYJIJlI.{HIi HepaBHOMepHO, nonOMY MOJK- HO OJI{HJ(an, 'l.TO II 06/TiiJ{aTeJ1!1 HaWHX BblMblillJIeHHblx reHOTImOB BCTpe'laIOTCH C onpe,n;eneHHoii '1aCTOToii. TaKHM 06pa30M, MbI MOJKeM H3MepHTb: 1) cpeAHee 3HaqeHHe npH3HaKa MJI KaJKJ(oro reHoTHna, 2) qaCToT)' ero BCTpe'l.aeMOCTI! B nonYJIJlI.{HIl II 3) BeJ1H- 'l.I1HY pa36poca IIH.QI-IBIIJJ.)'anbHbIX 3Ha'leHHH BOKpyr cpelUlero, TO eCTb ,!\lIcnepCIIIO. npe,!\CTaBHM ce6e, qTO Mbl npOBenH Bce H3Mepe- HIIJI, nonyqHJ1II CTaTI1CTH'IeCKlle Ol.{eHKH II 3aHeCJ1I1 HX B Ta6JIIII.{Y (Ta6JIHl.{a 42). OJI,HOBpeMeHHo Mb! nocrpOMJIH '1acroTHble pacnpe- '!\elIeHHH MR KaJK.!l.oro KOHKpeTHOrO reHOTIUla 11 o6lL\enonYJlJlI.{I1- OHHoe pacnpe,!\elIeHHe (PIiCYHOK 4.8). Ha rpacj>IIKe MI>! BII,!\HM llleCT!> cy6pacnpe,!\eJIeHIIH, KaJK- .!Ioe H3 KOTOpblX onllCblBaeT O,n;I1H >13 reHOTlinOB B nonyJIHl.{lli1. PacnpeAeJIeHl1e KaJKAOrO reHOTllna npC,!\CTaBJleHO nponopl.{lIO- HaJlbHO ero BCTpeqaeMOCTIi B nonYIIJll{HIl. Hal160JIbWeH npe,!\- CTaBJleHHOCTbIO l1a rpa,pIlKe xapaKTepl13yeTcR reHOTHn AB, ITO- CKOlIbKY 3TOT reHOTlin 60Jlee Bcero paCnpOCTpaHeH B nonYIIR- l{lm, a HallMeHbweii - CC. OAHH reHOTHnbl (AA, AB) xapaKTe- Pll3YlOTCJI He60JlbWIIMII cpe.l1HHMI1 3Ha'leHHRMH npH3HaKa, i1PY- rile (BC, CC) - 60nbwHMI1. KaJK.!I.OMY H3 reHOTHnOB COOTBeT- CTByeT onpel\eneHHOe pa3Hoo6pa3He cj>eHOTHnOB (.!I.lIcnepCHH), nOCKOlIbKY 06J1a,n;aTenH 3Toro reHOTHna pOCJlH B pa3HblX cpe- .!I.ax. Ecnll TelIOTlln OqeHb 'l.YBCTBIITeJIeH K cpeJl,e (HanpIiMep, BB II AC), eMY 6YAeT COOTBeTCTBOBaTb 60nbwaJl lj!eHOTl1nll- qeCKaH J(lIcnepCHJI, a eCJIII ManOqYBCTBHTeJIeH (llanpIlMep, CC), TO Bblpa)!(eHHOCTb npH3HaKa y Bcex o6naJ(aTeneii 3Toro reHOTII- na 6Y.!IeT 61Ill3Ka K reHOTl1nHqeCKOH cpe,!\HeH. <1>opMa JKe o6lL\e- nonYJIJll.\lIOHHOro pacnpe.1l.eJIeHIIJI Jl5JIJleTCJI CJle.!l.CTBl1eM CJIOJKe- HHR Bcex '!aCTHbIX pacnpe.1l.eJIeHHH ,1J.J1J1 KaJK,!\oro 113 reHOTImOB. 102 Ta6J1uu,a 4.2 reHOTMn Pa3uep 4aCTOTa B CpGA_ Acnep<:... Bb1150pKM nonymU.!,MM 3Ha"l6HI4& npM3HBKa AA 100 0.1 150 204 AB 400 04 165 501 BB 300 03 17O 1497 AC 150 015 176 142.6 Be 30 0,03 190 105.2 cc 20 0.02 200 5.8 BeNO: 1000 CpedHRR oucnepcuR: 06",aR ducnepcuR: rrmemU'4e-:-KaR ducnepcuR: H.CJToQyeMOCltJb: 91.7 168.7 77.0 (J.4$ ,,,, ,'" .... "'j 6'  "" g  T'" eo " ... , :' /,-" "'\ , ;>,-' .,... 'x ,,x 20 ; ... ,X: -', \ .. '''',' x-x )\ -+ ..x'" : ;t ...0 .. \ -(} .')<... ....;r.-"= &" 'l'?.,;:j\  CI-ti-c.:...o.._o--:.-e_e-=e ..e.::o....;..,Q-"-:...x --o-a-a           !   !      a  4I8HOTl1n .. M .ty "'8 --)(  ss _ x AC _.0 _8C _Q__OC -... 6 PUCYHOK 4.8 M OOeJIb KOJlU'leCm6eHl-WU U3MeHUeOCmu 8 110nYJUl/fUu, npeocmae- lleHH.OU W£CmblO 2eHOmUnGMU Tencpb 06paTl1MCJI K Ta6J1Hl.{e (Ta6nlll.la 4.2). B O.1l.I10H 113 KOJlOHOK BbInHCaHbl 3Ha'l.eHIIJI CpeJI,HIIX BelIHqHH npH3HaKa ,1J.J1J1 Ka)!(!10ro reHOTHna. HaI160J1bWIIH I1HTepeC npe,l!CTaBJIJleT nocJle- 103 
.l1I1J1J1 KOJlOHKa, B KOTOpOH npe.l1CTaBJleHl,1 .l1i1WepCHH. Mbl BIIJI,HM, qTO .IUlcnepClm reHOTHnOB 3Ha'll1TeJIbHO pa3JIllqalOrCJI BCJIelJ.- CTBHe HX pa:JHOH '1YBCTBI1TeJIbHOCTii K cpe.l10BblM BJIHJlHIIJlM. ITPH 3TOM )J,IICnepCHJI BHYTpIi Ka)KJ\oro reHOTHna l1eJIIIKOM onpe.l1eJIJ1eT- CJI BJlIIJlIUlJlMH CPC.l1bl. 06ll\aJl JKe H3MeH'IHBOCTb B nonYJIJll1i1i1 iI xapaKTepl1JYIOll\aJl ee BeJIl1qHHa 06ll\enonYJIJlI1110HHOH .l1i1CnepCIIIi CKl!a.l1blBaeTCJI H3 JJ:BYX COCTaBJIJlIOII.\IIX. O.l1i1a il3 HI1X - 3TO paJ- I!HqHJI Me)KJ\Y reHOTHnaMII, BblpaJKalOll\HeCJI B paJJIH'IIIJlX MeJK.!IY cpe)J,llHMII 3Ha'leHHJlMH npHJHaKa Y 06l!a.l1aTerreH Or.l1eJIbHbIX reHO- TI1nOB (AA, AB H T..l1.), a Jl,pyraJi - JTO paJJIH'IIiJi BIIYTPH Ka)KJ\O- ro I1J reHOTHnOB, KOTop..e onpe.lJ.eJIJlIOTCJI TOJlbKO cpe.lJ.oit B Ha- llIeM npliMepe reileTHqccKaSl COCraBI!JlIOll\aJl .l1HCnepCilH B03HHKa- eT IIplf Y'IaCTHII rOl!bKO llIeCTH reHOTHnOB, TO eCTb TeHCTiI<feCKaSl .l1HCnepCHSI B03HHKJIa B pe3YJIbTaTe paJI!HqHH MeJK.!IY cpe.n:HIIMH JHaqeHIIJlMIl npHJHaKa HMCIOll\HXCSI Y Hac llIeCTl1 reHOTHnOB. ECJlII Ha rpacj>\!Ke y6paTb KpllBble pacnpe/l,eJIeHHH, a OCTaBHTb TOJIbKO CTOJl6UbI, COOTBeTCTBYIOll\He qaCTOTe BCTpe'laeMOCTH cpe/{HI1X 3HaQCRlfH npll3HaKa 3THX meCTH reHOrllnOB, TO MI.l 6YII.CM IIMeTb meCT!. TaKHX CTorr6110B, npe/l,CTaBI!SlIOll\HX rHCTorpaMMY pacnpe- .l1eneHHSI Cpe/I,HHX JHaqeHHH npHJllaKa Bcex reHOTHnOB Hameii no- nYJlJll1lm. B peaJIbllblX nonynSlI1HSlX, r/l,e IIMeerCJI MHOJKeCTBO paJ- JIiI'IHbIX reHoTHnoB, TaKaJl rHcTorpaMMa 6Y.l1eT COCTOJlTb He HJ llIeCTH CTOn6110B, a IIJ coreH H JbIC.II'i, a pacnpe)\erreHJle 6Y.l1er co- OTBeTCTBOBaTb HOpMaJlbHOMY. Cpe.l1onaSl COCTaBJIJlI01l\aJl 06ll\eno- nYJIJlUIIOHHOif .l1i1cnepCl'!iI CKJIaJI,blBaeTCSI H3 OTl\eJlbHbIX CPC)\OBbIX JJ,ilcnepcllii BHYTpIi KaJK.l10TO reHomna. TaKHM 06paJOM, 06ll\eno- nynJlI1HOHHaJl .l1l1cnepcHJI COCTOHT H3 cpe/l,OBOH .l1HcnepCIIH BHYTpIl OT,aCJIbHbIX reHOTllnOB II reHeTII'IeCKOH /l,HcnepCIIH, DOJHHKalOll\eii Ja CqeT paJJlH'IIIH MeJK.!IY reHOTHnaMiI. B paccMorpeHHoM npllMcpc KOJIllqeCTBeHHaJi oueHKa 06- ll\elt .l1HCnepCI1H OKaJanaCb paBHoH 168,7, a ycpe/l,HeHHaJi OI.\CH- Ka CPCJJ,OBOH JJ,ilcnepCHiI- 91,7, TO eCTb nO'iTH BnOnOBHHY MeHb- me. EcnH IIJ BCnHqllHbl 06ll\eH l1I1CnepCI1I1 Bbl'leCTb BCI!H'IHHY cpel1onoif .l1I1CnCpCHII, Mbl nOJIyqllM OUCHKY rCHeTilqeCKOH l1HC- ncpcffli TaKHM 06paJOM, B HameM npliMepe reHeTH'IeCKaJl .!(HC- nepcllSI paBHa: 168.7- 91,7= 77,0 3TO OJHaqaer, '1TO reHeTH'IeCKaJl .l1l1cnepclIJI 06ycrroBJlHBaer '1YTb MeHblllC nonODIIHbl BCCX HIIJI,HBlI.!\YaJIbHblX paJnilqllH II nonYJIJll.\ilH. 104 EIIBO,qbl reHOTH. BCJI,,BOKynHOCTb reHo';,i!HH3Ma COCTaBJIt ero 2. JII061>1enpOjJBJIeHHJI opTaHH1a B Ka)KJlbIif MOMe;1T )J(H3- HfI COCTaBJIJlIOT ero cj)eHOTHn. cocpe:,eHOTHn em pe3YlIbTItT.;;;:;:,:;;!::::Tilna H; 4_I<9.1J11'1ecmeHHaJi liJMeH'lHBOCTh MOJKeT BOJHIllmT,; B P JYlIbTaTeIIOJIHMepHoro l1eHCTBIIJIMHOTIIX rCHOB Ha O]!,llH npHJHaK:" 5. .II.HcnepclIJI KOnH'IeCTBeHHOro np:nlwca, BOJHHKalOlI.\aJI 3a C'IeT AeHCTBWI reHOB, HOCIrr Ha3BaHHC rene'IWlecKoH Jl,llCOepcHli. "*' CJ'!1leCTB)'IOTpa3JlllqHble 4>OpMbI . re- 1100: aAAIITIIBHOe, Jl,OMHHlIpOBaHlle, 3nllCTaJ H .!IP. 7. . .,H3MeH'IHBOCTb MOR noJJ, JJ,eitCTBHeM <!>aKTOpOB cpel\bl. 8., RcnePC;!I KOJIH'IecTBeIlHOro npH3Haxa, BOJHHI(alOll\aJl 3a CqeT cpe.lIoBLIX Hii, HOCHT Ha:JBaHlle cpe.!lOBOi! .IUlcnepclDl. 9. feHomnbI no-pa$lIoMY peTllp)'lOT Ha O./I.HI! H re )J(e HJ- MeIIeHHJI cpCiU>I. Cnel.\mlnt'lecKIIH xap:utrep peaKI.\HH l1aHHoro re- Homna Ha mMeHeHHe oKpYJKalO\lI.IIX YCJJ:\'!BHi! H9C1JT .(iaJBaHlle HDpMbI PeaKl\IIft. 10. feHOnlnbl OTJIH'faIQ'l:'ClI no, Boei! '1yJ1CTBKreJlbHOCTII .!, cpeAe. 11 <J>eHoTHnH'IeCKaSl IIJMeH'IIiBOCTb " nonYillIl1HH cK.iJaJI.'>!- BaeTCJI H3 relleTH'IeclCOH II cpel1,OBOH 113Mell'lIlBOCTH; cj)eHOTHIlH- '1ecJ(!UI IIonYJIJlI.\IIOHH<l1I Jl,HCnepCHII npH3HaKa npeJl,CTaBJIJle:r 1iX'-' 60H CYMMY el'o reHeTH'IecKOIi H cpeJl,OBOHJl,HCI]C:P<;"I!.:. . ,. 3. nOKa3aTeJ1b HaCJ1eAyeMocTM M ero oco6eHHocTI1 3.1. IIoKaJ3Tel!b lIaCJIellyeMocTH B KOnH'IeCTBeIiHOIt reHeTlIKe " reHeTHKe nOOel1eHHII B npe.n:bll1Yll\eM paJ.l1eJIe Mbl npOl1eMOHCTpl1pOBanH, KaK H3 TeHerl1'!ecKoii 11 cpClloBoif H3MeHqlfOOCTH npH3HaKa CKl!a.D;bIBaeT- 105 
C ero <jJeHOTllnI1'ICCKa H3MeHqHBOCTb. KaK 5bIJJO nOKa3aHO Ha npHMcpe, OCHOBHblMH KOMnOHCHTaMH <jJCHOTHnH'ICCKOH .n;Hcnep- CHII npH3HaKa JlBJlJlIOTC rCHeTHqeCKaJl H cpe,!\OBa .n;HcnepCHH. B KOJIHqCCrneHHOH reHeTHKC .n;OJlIO reHeTHqeCKOH COCTaBJlJlIOll\eH B 051llci1 <jJCHOTl1nH'IeCKOH .n;HcncpCHII npH3HaK3 npIlHTO Ha3b!BaTb HaCJleiJyeMocmblO 8 WUpOKOM CMblCJle CJl08a, W/U npocmo HaCJleiJyeMo- cmblO HaClle.n;yeMocTb 05",qHO 0603HaqalOT CHMBOIIOM h'. Ha- CIIC.1I.yeMOCTb MO)l(HO nOll.CqllTaTb, CCJI" BCIII1'1HHY reHeTl1'1CCKOH .n:llcnepCHH pa3J1,ellllTb Ha BCJlIf'lI1HY 06ll\eH .n;l1cnepcIIH: h 1 ", '" 0,46. WlU 46%. BCJI I1CTOpH reHeTHKI1 nOBc.n;CHHJI .n;o HeKoToporo BpCMeHH npe.n;CTaBIIlIa co601! 5CCKOHeqHble nOnbITKI1 060cHoBaTb cYll\C- cTBOBaHHe HaCllell.CrneHHblX npH'IHH MeJKHH,!I,I1BH.n;YaJIbHbIX pa3J1H- 'IHH B flODeLlCHHH. ITOCJIC C03.n;aHHJI TeopHH HaCJle.1l.CTBeHHOCTH KOIIH'IeCTBCHHbIX npH3HaKoD II pa3pa50TKIf MaTeMaTHqCCKOrO an- napaTa )I)I aHalll13a reHeTH'ICCKI1X 11 cpC.n;OBbIX .n;HcncpclIl! npaK- TII'IeCKH B KaJK.n;ol! pa50Te no reHeTHKe nOBe.n;eHH '1eJ10BeKa npH- BO.n;TC .n;aHHbIC 0 HacJle.n;yeMocTH 113Y'laBlIIel!cJI nCIIXOIIOrH'IeC- KOH xapaKTepHCTHKI1. Kor.1l.a B ne'laTH CTaJIH nOJlBIIHbC co06- ll\eHH 0 TOM, '1TO HacJleAyeMocTb YMCTBeHHblX cnoc06HoCTci1 CO- CTaBJICT 70-80%, no npHBlleKJIO BHHMaHIIC He TOJIbKO yqCHblX, HO II 06ll\eCTBa B l1eJIOM, 11 OKa3all0 B HeKOTopblX CTpaHax BIIH. HIIC Ha COI1HaJlbHYIO nOJlHTI1KY B OTHoweHHII YMCTBCHHO HenOIlHO- l1eHHblX JIIO,!\el!. ECIlII KOJ<jJ<jJI1I1HeHT IIHTellllCKTa I1MeCT BblCOKYIO HaclleAyeMocTb, CTOIIT 1111 TpaTHTb CHill,I H Cpe.1l.CTBa Ha cnel1l1- allbHoe 05yqCHlle HH,!\HBI1I\OB CO CHH)I(eHHblM IIHTeJIJIeKToM? H B l1enoM PJl.n;c cllyqaCB 113-3a HeKOMneTeHTHOro nOJI,Xol\a K nOHHMa- HIlIO HaclleLlycMocTH 05ll\eCTBO npCJl,DpHHHMaJlO OWH60qHbiC mam B pemeHlI1I OT.n;CJlbHbIX COL\llaJIbHblX np06JICM. HeraTHBHbIe COL\l1allbHble nOCJIeI\CTBI1 nCllxoreHC'THqCCKHx I1CClle.l\OBaHI1H I1HTeJllleKTa BHIIHCb B TOM qHCJIe pe3YllbTaTOM OqeHb pacnpOCTpaHeHHOro 3a6JIYJKAeHIIJI, CB3aHHara C HCBep- HblM TOJlKOBaHHeM nOHTIIJI "HaCJIel\yeMocTb" K COJKaIlCHHIO, OqeHb qaCTO HayqHOe nOHHI1C HaCllel\YCMOCTlI CMemHBaCTC C 05bll\CHHbiM nOHIIMaHHeM HaclleAyeMoro KaK qera-TO pOKOBoro, He nOLlBepJKeHHOrO H3MeHCHilIO nOI\ BJIHJlHlleM cpell.OBblX YCJIOBIII!. B03MOJKHO, JTO 06YCJlOBileHO caMol! TepMHHOJIOrHCH, nOCKOllbKY CJlOBO "/JaCJieoYCA-IOCmb" CXOI\HO nO 3BY'laHHIO CO CJIOBOM "/JaCJIeiJ- cmeeU/Jocmb". OCTaHOBIIMC 60llec nOi1P06HO Ha TOM, KaKoe JKe COAepJKaHHe BKII3L\bIBaeTC B HayqHOe nOHJlTlie HacneAyeMoCTH. 2C/JemWleCKaJI iJucnepcWl h 1 ", o6aJI iJucl1epcWl ECIllI IIcnOllb30BaTb l\aJlHble paCCMOTpeHHoro HaMI1 npliMcpa, TO 77,0 168,7 TaKIIM 06pa30M, I\OIlJl reHCTllqeCKOH COCTaBJIIOll\el! B <jJe- HOTHnJI'IeCKOH Jl,HCnepCIIII B HallICM npHMcpe COCTaBJlJleT 46%. 3TO 03HaqaCT, qTO 113,.eHqIlBOCTb (Bapl1aTIIBHocTb) Hawero npll- 3HaKa B nonYJIL\IIH Ha 46% CKJla.n;blBaeTCJI 3a C'ICT BapllaTIIBHoc- TH reHOTHnOB II Ha 54%- 3a CqCT BapHaTHBHoCTII cpe,!\. IToKa3a- Tellb HaClle.1l.yeMoCTH - JTO reHeTHqeCKaJl COCTaBIIIOll\aJl .1I.Hcnep- CHH. ITOJTOMY npH CHMBOlle HaCJIel\yeMOCTI1 BCerl\a CTOIIT 3HaqOK KBa.1l.paTa, YKa3bIBalOll\IIH Ha TO, '1TO nOKa3aTCilb HacJleAyeMocTII eCTb KOMnOHeHT .1I.HCnepC1II1. HaClleAYCMOCTb JlBIIJlCTCJI O.1l.IIIIM 113 OCHOBHblX nOKa3aTC- neM, KOTOpblMil onepHpyeT reHeTHK8 nOBeAeHIIJI. ECJIH Hal'JIeAye- MOCTb OTIIHqHa OT "YIIJl, JTO 03Haqacr, '1TO B OCHOBe H3MeH'IHBO- CTII npH3HaKa lIeJKaT He TOllbKO cpe.n:OBble, HO II rCHC'TIf'leCKHe npHqHHbl. KorAa 3aJlaeTC Bonpoc, IICJI(aT JIll B OCHOBe IIHAIIBHAY- allbHblX nCIIXOIIOrH'IeCKIIX pa3JIH'IIIH HaCJIe,!\CTBeHHbIe npllqHHbl, )l)lJI OTBeTa IIe06xo.1l.IIMO nOJIyqHTb LlaHHble 0 BJlHHHII reHOB IIa <jJCHOTHnHqeCKYIO H3MeHqliBOCTb. BeJIHqlIHa KOJ<jJ<jJHL\IICHTa Ha- Cllel\yeMocTH H n03BOIICT OL\eHIITb Mepy BIIIUHIIJI rCHOTHna Ha 1I3MCH'IIIBOCTb npll3HaKa. 106 3,2, lIYBcTBUTeJ1LHOCTL nOl<:a3aTeJI!I HaCJICAYCMOCTIl I<: qaCTOTaM rCHOTl1nOB B nonY"!lQHH I1TaK, MI,l BblCHHIIII, qTO HaCJleAyeMocTb BIICTCJI rCHCTH- '1ecKoii KOMnoHeHToii <jJeHOTHnll'leCKOH I\IICnCpcHH B nonYIIJlL\III1. OOCKOJIbKY nonYIIL\I1J1 HC BJIeTC cTa611l1bHblM 06pa30BaHIICM, B Heii MorYT npollcxo.n;IITb npOL\eCCbl, npllBOIUIll\lIe K 113MCHeHI11O COcTaBa reHOTHnOB. OOCMOTPHM, CKaJl(eTCJI IIIi JTO Ha nOKa3aTe- 107 
Jle H3cnel\yeMOCTH. 06P3THMC onTb K onHcaHHOH Bblwe nonYJ1- QIIOHHOH MOl\eJIII, B KOTOpOH KOJ1l1qeCTBeHHaJi H3MeH'IHBOCTI, CKJIa,!J;bIBaeTCJI 113 BapliaTII8HOCTH npl13HaK3 y 06J1al\aTeJIeH wec- TH reHOTHnOB. ITpeJl.f10JIOJKHM, qTO no KaKHM-JIII60 npHqllHaM H3 nonymll.\11II HC'Ie:J aJ1neJ1b A. ECJ1H TaKoe npOH30Hl\eT, TO Hawa nonYJ1QH 6Y.l\eT npe.l\CTaBJIeHa Bcero TpeM reHOTImaMIl - BB, BC II CC. COOTBeTCTBeHHO 113MeHTCJI H KOnHqeCTBeHHbie BeJlH'IH- Hbl I\IICnepClIH - 06I1.\enonYIIQIIOHHOH, reHCTllqeCKOH H cpel\O- Boii. A nOCKOJIbKY HaCJIeJ\ycMOCTb npel\cTaBJ1eT C060H OTHOille- HHe relIeTII'IeCKOH .n:llcnepclIH K 0611.\eH 1\1Icnepcnll npl13HaKa, Ta. Kl1e 113MeHeHlI B COCTa8e reHOTHnOB HeMHHyeMo oTpa3J1TCJI 11 Ha nOKa33Tene HaCJIel\YeMocTH. OTCIOl\a C1IeI\YCT, qTO HaClIeoyeMocmb He Jl8lIJl/?mCJI ampu6ymoM npU3I/l1Ka KaK maK06020, a 3aQUCum om co- cmasa 2eHomUfWe moil nonY1lJlljuu, IJa Komopoil nposeOeHO ucclIeOoea- Ime. B l\PyroH nonYJIJlQlI1I C .n:pynlM COCTaBOM reHOTHnOB HaC1Ie- l\yeMocTb TOrO JKe caMoro npH3HaKa MOJKCT OKa3aTbCJI IIHOH Ha- CllC.l\yeMOCTb MO)/(eT' HJMeHHTbCH H B TOM cnY'Iae, KOT,!J;a O.ll.HH H TOT JKe npH311aK 6YACT HJyqaTbC Ha TOH JKe TeppllTOpHH, HO cny- CT KaKOH-TO CpOK, nOCKOlIbKY 3a onpe.l\e1IeHHblH nepHOI\ cocTaB rCHOTlInOB B nonY1IQIIII MO)/(eT HJMeHHTbC BCJ1eACTBl1e Ml1rpa- QlIlIllJIlIl\PyrllX npllqllH. ECJlI1 1\0nyCTIITb, '1TO B HaweH rHnOTeTllqeCKOH nonYJIQIIII I1Cqe311eT He o.n:I1H aJlJlenb, a cpaJY .llBa, HanpllMep, A II C, TO nO- nYJIJlQHJI 6YAeT npel(CTIlBJIeHa TOJIbKO OJI,HIfM reHornfiOM - raMO- 3HrOTaMII BB, a 3TO OJHa'iaeT, '1TO BCJI McnepclI OKaJKeTC TOJIbKO cpeAOBOH, II K03q,!jJIIL\lIeHT HaC1IeAYCMOCTI1 6Yl\eT paDeH Hyma, nOCKOJIbKY HIlKaKOH reHeTllqeCKOii .l\I1CnepCHIf B nonY1IQIIII He 6Y.l\eT ITpllMep TaKoii KpaHHeH CI1TyaL\1I11 oc06eHHO OT'IeT1III- BO nOKa3blBaeT, qTO nOKa3aTeJIb HaCJIeAyeMocTIl eCTb nonYJlI.\I1- OHHa xapaKTepllCTIIKa, qYBCTBIITeJIbHa K HJMeHeHH10 '1aCTOT pa3JII1'1HblX reHornnOB B nonYJIQIIH. 3.3. qYBCTBHTeJlbHOCTb IJOKa3aTeJUI HaCnel\yeMocTH K 113MelleHHIIM cpeAbl !lpOUeCCbl, CBJl3aHHble co cMeHoH Cpe.l\OBblX YCJlOBIlH. H3MeHe- IIH B cpe.l\e TaKJKe MorYT OTpaJKaTbCH Ha H3MeHqIlBOCTH. Ha- npllMep, npH CMeHe BpeMeH rOl\a xopOWo JaMeTHbI H3MeHeHHJI B QBeTe KOJKII '1eJlOBeKa. 311MOii Jl1OI\I1 C 6ne.n:Hoii H CMyrnoii KO- )l(eH OT'IeTJ1HBO pa3J1HqaIOTcJI. JIeToM nOA ACHcTBlieM C01IHL\a KO)Ka TeMHeeT II pa3J1I1'IHJI MeJKJJ;y JIIOAbMH no QBeTy KO)l(II CTaHO- Bnc MeHee 3aMeTHbIMII, CJIeJl,OBaTeJIbHO, H3MeHqllBOCTb YMeHb- waeTC. PaccMoTpllM, MO)l(eT JlI1 113MeHeHlle cpe.!!:bl OTpa3I'!TbC Ha nOKa3aTeJle HaCJICl\ycMOCTII. .II.JI YAo6cTBa BOCnOJlb3yeMc Y)f(e onllcaHHoH MOAeJIblO HOpMbl peaKUHlI Ha npHMepe 3aKOHa CHJIbl (CM PHCYHKH 4.7 II 4.9). ITpcJJ;nOJlO)l(HM, '1TO nonYJIQII npe.l\CTaBJIeHa .llBYM reHO- THnaMH (G I H G2). KaJKl\blH reHOTHn xapaKTepll3yeTcH CBOCH HOpMOH peaKQIIll, TO eCTb Cnel1l1!jJHQeCKIlM xapaKTepOM pcarllpo- BaHH Ha HJMeHeHHe OKpY)l(alOlI.\HX YCJlOJHrH. B HaweM cnyqae 3TO BpeMH CCHCOMOTOpHOH peaKQHII (BCMP) Ha 3BYKH pa3HOH HHTeH- CHBIIOCTH. Ha pHCYHKe 4.9 a 11306paJKeHbi rpaljJIIKII HOpMbl peaK- QI'!I1 Ka)l(AOrO reHOTHna. Ha OCII opJJ;I1HaT OTJlOJKeHbl 3HaqeHII !jJeHoTlIna - B HaweM npllMcpe 3TO BelIlI'IlIHbl BCMP, a B npllll- Ql1ne, no MO)((eT 6bITb ma6a KOJ1H'ICCTBeHHaJi BeJIllql1Ha, nOMa- IOlI(aCH IIJMepeHHIO. Ha OCH a6cl111cc OTJlOJKeHbl KOJIllqeCTBeH- Hble 3Ha'lCHHR napaMeTpoB cpeJJ;bI. B KaqeCTBe cpe.l\OBOrO napa- MeTpa y Hac BblcTynacT I1HTeHCIIBHOCTb 3BYKa, 110 TeOpeTII'IeCKIi 3TO MO)f(eT 6b1T)' Jl/06aR xapaKTepl1CTHlCa CPCl.\bl (Tep,mepLlTypa, KOHl1eHTpaQH Kal\OrO-JlH60 BelI(ecTBa B cy6CT]JaTe II HHbie nOA- AaWII(HeCR KOHTpOmo BeJ1H'IHllbl). Mbl BIII\I1M, qTO reHOTlin G 1 60JIee 'IYBcTBIITeJ1eH K cpe.l\e, qeM reHOTlln G2. fpa!jJIIKH HOpM pCaKl\HII 060l1x reHOTllnOB nepccCKa1OTCJI. Tcnepb paccMoTIJIIM, KaKlle !jJeHoTllnbl 6YJl,YT npel\CTaBJIeHbl B nonYJlQI111 B pa3J11!'1HbIX I\l1anaJOHaX cpel\. Ha rpa!jJHKe 3TIII\Hana30HbI 0603HaQeHbl Tpe- MR orpe3KaMil (cpclta J, cpe.lla 2 u cpcn.a 3) CllPOCI.\UPYCM 3Tl! OYpe3KH Ha caMIi rpa<jJHKII, H JaTeM H3 TO'lCK nepeCe'leHII npOBe- ACM nepneHAIIKYJlJlpbI Ha OCb 0p.l\IIHaT. qT06bl nOJ1yqllTh KpaHHlle 31!aqeHHH q,eHOTII!lOR I\,JI reHOTHnOB Gl H G2 B KaJKI\OM cpeAO- ROM I\Hana30He. Ha pl1cYHKe 4.9 6, 6 II  Mbl 11306pa311JTH, KaKHe !jJeHoTllnbI Mb! BCT]JeTIlM B nonYJIHl1l1H B YKa3aHHbix I\Hana30Hax CPe.llbl: Ha rpa!jJHKax npel\CTaBJleHbl '1aCTOTHble pacnpe.l\e1JeHII rIO KaJKAOMY reHoTHIIy II no BCCH nonYIIJlQl1lI B l.\eJTOM B CPCJ\OBblX I\I1ana30Hax 1, 2 H 3. Mbl BIIAIIM, qTO B AHana30He 2 (PHCYHOK 109 MbI YJKe BHAeJIH, '1TO nOKa3aTeJ1b HaCJleJJ;yeMocTiI 3aBI1- CIIT OT COCTaBa reHOTl1nOB ECI1I1 B IJOnYJIUHH MeHIOTC qac- TOTbl rCHonmOB, no npIlBOJJ;HT II K 113MeHeli1lIO nOKa3aTeJIR Ha- CJlCAYCMOCTIl Ho B nonYJIQHH MorYT npOHCXOAIITb II iWyrlle 108 
a 4.96) cpe,!\Hlle BeJlII'lI'!HbI npll3HaKa .!IJIR 060llx reHonmOB COBna- ,!IaIO T . 3TO 03Ha'iaeT, '1TO 3,!\eCb OTCYTCTByeT ,!IHCnepCIIR, B03HII- KalOll1aR 3a CqeT pa3JIH'IHH B cpe,!\HIIX 3Ha'ieHIIJlX npH3HaKa COOT- BeTCTBYlOll1HX reHOTllnOB, a Mb! 3HaeM, '1TO no H ecn reHeTII- '1eCKa ,!\lIcnepCI1R. 3HaqHT, B HaIIlCM CJIy'lae BCjJ llllcnepCHH npe,!\- CTaBJIeHa TOJIbKO cpe,!\OBOH COCTaBJ1J1lOll1eit EAI1HCTBeHHoe OTJIH- '1l1e 3aKnlO'IaeTCR B 60J1bWeH 'IYBCTBHTeJIbHOCTH rellOTl1na G I K cpe,!\e. B pe3YJIbTaTe pacnpc,!\eJ1eHHe no nonYJIJI1111 B eJ10M 6y- l1eT BblrJIHl1eTb TaK, KaK nOKa3aHO Ha pHCYHKe. 3,!\l'Cb o,!\lIa Mo,!\a, II npaKTII'IeCKI1 HeT reHeTlI'IeCKOH 1111cnepCIIII (HanOMHIIM, 'ITO re- HeTHqeCKaJl 1111CnepCIIH CYll1eCTBYeT TOJlbKO TorAa, KorAa IIMeIOT- CR pa3JJl1qH B cpe,!\HIIX 3HaqeHHX npll3HaKa y oco6eH C paJHblMH rl'HOTllnaMII, a B HaIIleM npl'!Mepe cpe,!\Hlle COBna,!\aIOT). TaKHM 06pa30M, HeCMOTpJl Ha TO, '1TO peaJIbHb!e reHOTHnbl CYll1CCTBY- lOT, MbI He 06HapYJKliBaeM reHeTllqeCKOH ,!\HcnepCIIII. Tenepb 06paTHMC K CpC,!\OBb!M AHana30HaM I H 3 (Pllcy- HOK 4.9 6 H 2). B 3TIIX 30Hax CYll1l'CTBYIOT OT'IeTJIIIBble (j>eIlOTH- nl1qeCKHe pa3J111'111J1 MeJK,!\y reHOTHnaMII B nepBOM ,!\lIana30He CpC,!\bl (j>eHOTllnHqeCKl1e 3HaqeHIIR npH3HaKa.!IJIjJ GI 6Y'!\YT BCe- r,!\a BbIIIIe, qeM .!IJI G2, Tor,!\a KaK B Tperbl'M ,!\lIana30He, lIa- 060POT, 3Haql'HHJI npll3HaKa y GI 6Y'!\YT Bcer.n.a HIIJKe. B pl'- 3YJIhTaTe 061l1enonYJIJlI.1110HHOe pacnpe.n.eJIeHlle B cpe.n.OBb!X ,!\11- ana30Hax I II ;) 6Y.!l.eT liMen .Me OTqeTJIIIBb!e MO,!\bl, II 3Ha'll1- TenbHaH qaCTb ,!\lIcnCpCI1I1 6Y.!I.eT 06YCJIOBJIeHa reHeTllqeCKOH COCTaBJ1HIOll.\eH, nOCKOJIbKY cpeAHlle no KaJK)].OMY 113 .MYX reHO- TllnOB 3aMeTHO OTJIllqalOTCH Ha 3TOM npllMepe Mbl npo,!\eMOHCTpllpOBai!1I '1YBCTBIITeJIb- HOCTb nOKa3aTeJIH Hacnel\YeMOCTIi K 113MelleHllIO cpe,!\bl. }.\.eHCTBII- TeJ1bHO, B cpe,!\OBOM Jl,lIana30He 2 reHeTII'IeCKa AHcnepCIIJI He 06HapYJKIIBaeTCR, XOT 06a reHOTllna OCTalOTCJI npe.!l.CTaBJ1CHHbl- Mil B nonYJlJII.\IiIi, Tor,!\a KaK npll rex JKl' reHOTHnax B )!IIanaJOHax I II 3 reHeTII'IeCKaR 1111CnepCHR OTqeTJIIIBO BhIJlBJIJleTCJI. ITOCKOJIbKY nQKa3aTeJJb HacneAyeMocTII onpe.n:eJleTCR QT- HOllleHHeM reHeTlI'IeCKOH 1111cnepcIII'! K <!JeHOTHnH'IeCKOH, 113 3Toro CJleJ1)'eT, qTO 8 paCCMorpeHHblX ,!IHanaJOHax cpel1bl 3HaqeHHJI no- Ka3aTeJlR HaCJlel1yeMocTII 6Yl1YT OTJ1HqaTbCS\. ECJ111 8 1111ana30Hax 1 II 3 BeJIllqllHa h' 6YlleT npll6nmKaTbcR K eJl,llHlIl.1e, TO B AHa- na30He 2, Hao6opoT, 6Yl1eT crpeMIITbcH K Hyma. OTclO.n.a cne,!\yeT ell1e OAHO BaJKHOe nOJIOJKeHlle KOJIllqeCTBeHHOH reHeTIIKH. Mbl "" a ,360 s ."" . " . !300 '" '"" ! ',' I I 1£t:t  , +.......-.. -...... I 1,'- i '" . " .-...... -. -. - .... ............' -- , , 1 2 3 """ 360 '" 000 500 .""" 5 300 ::r "" 100 "    :: .000 t 5 eoo t ::r"""t '00 o    _-G1 .... -0;2 -_.   : : " " 10 SQ 90 YpoMHb 38YlCa .AS "') 110 ,20 6 CpeAa 1 G2 I -----: I -O&.U.... .  BpeM.R peaKU,\o1 101 , MC a CpeAa 2 /\ ,I \ ,.. \ . , .----::- Inm I i MIII..f\opIaJ . BpeM':! pe3IClt\o1\o1, MC G2 r Cpe,AS 3 =t ."'" 5 300 -'00 100 0  0 g   " 1 -----: I -.w6opK. .!\ BpeMSI peaI'I\o1. MC PUCYIIOK 4.9 TeHemU'IeCKaJl U cpeiJ06aJl ducnepcWl 8 pa311blX iJual1a30HaX cped 110 III 
Y)I(e nOAqepKIIBanll, 'iTO KonllqeCTBeHHoe 3HaqeHHe nOKa3aTeIHI HacneAyeMocTH He BnJleTCH aTpll6YTOM npll3HaKa KaK TaKOBoro, a OTHOCHTCH nHlIIb K npH3HaKY B KOHKpeTHoli nonynH1I1I C onpe- AeneHHblM COCTaBOM reHOTllnOB. K 3TOMY cnCII.YeT A06aBHTb, 'iTO He monbKO cocma8 zellOmUl108. 110 U KOHKpemHbie cpea08Me YCR08UJ!. 803iJeUcm8U1o KomopblX 110a8epZalOmCJl UHiJU8Ui!bl, Ol1peiJeJIJ/1Om KOJIU- qeCm8eHHble eellU'lUllbl zeHemU4ecKOU U cpeiJ08QU aUCl1epCUU, a cneiJo- eamenbHo, u nOKa3ameJlJj lIaCReiJyeMocmu - npH nOMelJ.{eHHH nony- nJlHlt B APyrOHI\ilana30H cpeA MI.l MO)l(eM nonY'lilTb COBepllleH- HD MHOM KootjJ4)JfHeHT HacnweMOCTH. 3.4. BaJKIIOCTb npaBHllblloH I1I1Tel'npeTaQlfIl nOKa3aTeJlII HaCJIell.yeMocTH '1TO 3anlicaHO B reHax, MHorHe BocnpHHIIMaIOT KaK HeKHH pOK, <jJaTanbHYIO npe,l10npeAeJleHHOCTb. Ha CaMOM AeJIe 3TO He TaK: no Benllql'!He reHeTllqeCKOH .lIl1cnCpCHH II, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, no eenU'lu- lie 110K03ameJlJj lIacneayeMocmu Hee03MO:JICHO npeaCKa3amb nocnea- cmeWi U3MeHelluu cpea.l. K03rjJ1JUlIuellm lIacneayeMocmu Z080pum nUllI. 0 mOM, KaKaJ! oOJm 2eHemU'leCKOU UJ,lIell'lU80Cmu CYUjecm8yem 8 oallllOU l10nYJlJjIlUU 8 HaCmOJlUjee epeMJ! u 8 CYUjecm8YlOUfUX ycn08u- JlX cpeaM. KpOMe Toro, HCo6XO.lll1MO nOHHMaTb, '1TO nOKa3al1lenb HaCRe- iJYeAlOemli eemb xapaKmepllcmllKO non)l.fJJIl/"JJ, a He KOHKpemH020 WI- dueuoa U e20 KOHKpemH020 rjJeHomuna. ECIIII B KaKOM-TO ilccne)\OBa- HIIH 6bIna nOIIY'leHa, Hanpmlep, oeHKa HaCnell.yeMocTH IIHTeJI- nCKTa, paBHaJl 0,6 (60%), MI.l He AOn)l(Hbl AYM:iTb, qTO Y Ka)l(,1l,orO qeJIOBeKa HHTeJIJIeKT na 60% 3aBHCHT OT reHOB, a Ha 40% - OT CpCAbl. 3TO AOBOlIbHO pacnpoCTpaHeHHoe 3a6JIY)l(AcHHC. TaKoH nOKa3aTenb HaCJIell.yeMocTH JlHlIIb 03Ha'iaCT, '1TO B IIccnCAOBaH- HOH nonynH1I1I B AaHnoe BpeMH 60% 113MeH'IIIBOCTllnO IIHTenneK- TY B03HHKaCT 3a CqeT pa3Ho06pa3HH rCHOTHnOB 11 TOJIbKO 40% 06l>JlCHJleTCH pa3Ho06pa3HeM cpeA. B KOTOpbIX HaXO.l\llTCJI OTAeJIb- HbJC IfHAHBlI.lIbl. K fjleHoTllny )I(e OTAeJIbHOrO HHAJlBII)!;a 3TH nOKa- 3aTenli He IIMelOT HIiKaKOro OTHOllleHII. MeTO)!;bJ KOJIII'IeCTBeH- HOM reHcnlKH HC n03BonHIOT OUeHHTb COOTHOlllCHHC relleTlI'ICCKIIX If CPCI\OBblX fjlaKTopoB B !jJOpMllpOBaHHH !jJeHoTHna KOHKpcTHoro IIHI\IfBI1.n:a. ITo MCTKOMY Bb1pa)l(CH1l1O P06cpTa IIJIoMHHa, B qeJlO- BCKe Bce Ha 100% OT reHOB II Ha 100% OT BocnHTaHHH. ITocKonbKY reHCnlqeCKaH AHcnepCHH qYBcTBIlTenbHa K il3- MeHeHHHM CpC,J,bl, HY)I(HO 6bITb O'leHb OCTOpOJKHbIMI1 B IIHTepnpe- Ta1Il1 pe3ynbTaTOB, nOJIyqaeMblX B rCHeTlIKC KOJlHqeCTBCHHhlX npU3HaKoB. EcmI B KaKOH-TO nonYJIHHI1 MbI 06Hap)')KHBaeM BbICO- KYIO rClleTH'IecKYIO .lIlICnepCHIo npl13HaKa, TO CCTb BblCOKYIO Ha- CJIeAyeMocTb, no elJ.{C He 03HaqaeT, qTO MeHJlTb CPCAY )!,JIJI B03- I\Ci1CTBII Ha npH311aK He I1MceT CMbICJIa. ).I,eHcTBHTcnbHO, HcnOC- BHll\eHHbIH '1eJIOBCK MO)l(CT paccY)I(AaTb TaK. nOCKOJlbKY Bce pa3- JIH'IIIJI MC)({J1Y I1HAHBI1AaMH B nOH nonynJlL\HH 06ycIIOBJIeHbl pa3- JIllqHJlMH B rCHoTHnax, a He B YCJIOBHHX cpeAbl, MhI BPH)!; nH CMO- ",eM YJlY'IIIIIITb 3TOT npll3HaK, B03,!!CHCTBYH Ha cpeAY. Ho TaKoe CY)I(I\CHIIC MO)l(eT 6blTb OlllH60'lllb1M. .II.ocTaTOqHO BCnOMHI1Tb TOJIbKO '1TO pa306paHHblH HaMI1 npHMep, KOr.lla nepCXOA H3 O,!!- HIIX cpeAOBblX YCJIOBI1H B APyrHc 3Ha'lHTeJIbHO H3MeHJleT xapaKTe- pl1CTHKIf nonYJlHHOHHOHI13MCHqHBOCTH H MO)l(eT CBCCTII Ha HeT BCIO rCHCTH'ICCKYIO .lIHCnCpCHIO. H3 CKa3aHHoro CJleJl,yeT: CCJlJI y Hac HMelOTCH AaHHble 0 ManO" qYBCTBilTeJIbHOCTH npll3HaKa K cpeAe B KaKOM-TO Y3KOM Cpe,l10BOM ,!!lIana:lOHe, TO ell\c He 03Ha- '1aeT, '1TO H B APyrHx CpC,l10BbIX YCJIOBIIHX npll3HaK 6YII.eT HC'IYB- CTBHTCneH K cpe.lle. TaKJKc H rCHOTllnbI. ClIlTbHO pa3J1H'I aIO ll\HCCH no CBOIIM ITpOJlBJleHHJlM B O.llHOH cpe.lle, MorYT COBceM He OTnll- qaTbCH B APyrOH. TaKHM 06pa30M, 8b1COKaJ! HacneayelOcmb IiU 6 Koeu Mepe lie 03Ha'laem lIe803.MO:JICIlOemb UJfellellUJ! npU3IlQKa npu U3MelleHuU cpe- abl. 3TOT Ba)l(HbIH MOMeHT oc06eHHO qaCTO He nOHIIMaerCJI, H TO, BblBo,qbl 1. .II.OJ]ll reHeTllqCCKoit cOCTaBIDIIOll\eH B cjIeHoTHnll'leCKoit AJlcnepCHI'! npll3HaKa Ha3bmaerCJI HaCJIeJJ,yeMOCTbIO. 2. tlacJ!cJJ,yt(,M lie !D!lR!eTCIi aTPH6yTo,,! npH3HaKa K8K Tl\KoBoro, a 3JmHCI1T OT COCTaB H OT KOHKpeTHblX cpeJl,OBblX YCJIOBHiI. ,,( 3. BbIcoKaJl HaCJle.llycMoCTb HC 03Ha'iaeT HeB03MOJKHOCTIi:'" I\3MCHeHHH npH3HaKa npl!",,!!MeHIJIII!, cpe.l\bl",',," 4. HaCJIeJJ,yeMOCTbe6Tb xapaKTepHcniKa nonYJ]llHII, a He K?oro Hu.romllJta!!",S;\!,o!:l1<P,\!1::9 $cHOTHna. 112 ! 13 
4. reHOTltn-CpeAoBoe B3altMOAeKCTUKe plfM, qTO OHl-l CYlUeCTBYIDT. EenH nepeBeCTH 3TH paCCYJK)teHHJI lIa Jl3bIIe llIlCnCPCIiH, MbI MOJKeM CKa3aTb 1'aK: npH OIl,HOM H TOM ){{e COCTaDe renOTHnOD Moryl' CYlUeCTBOBaTb YCJIOBIHI cpe.rUn, KOTopbIe cnoc06HbI MeHJlTb ,l:\IICnepCHlO <jJeHOTl1nOB B nonYJIJI- !.(1m. ECJIJI YCJIOBIJJI Cpe,l:\bI npIiBO,LIJlT x YBe.rIHtJcHIiID <jJeH01'HnU- qeCKHX pa3JIH.'1I1H MeJK.n:y HOCHTeJIJlMH pa3HbIX reHOTHnOB (Ha- JJpHMCp, .n:ocTynHocTb KaJIOpHHHOH nllll\1I B npHMepe co CKJIOH- HOCTblO K nOJIHOTe), pe3YJIbTaTOM 6Y.n:eT YBeml'leHHe <jJcHoTHnll- qeCKOH llllcnepcnli B nonYJlJlIUIH. ECJlH )J(e cpe,l:\a HIiBeJIHpyeT pa3JIlltJIIJI Me>K,l:\Y HH,l:\HBH,l:\aMII, <jJeHoTllnH'IeCKaJl ,l:\HCnepCHJI fiy- lIeT YMeHblllanCJI HTaK, B3aHMo.n:eHcTBlie KOHKpCTHbiX reHOTllnOB CO cpe.n:oH MOJKeT npHBo.n:IITb K H3MeHeHliIO <jJeHoTHnntJecKoii ,l:\IICnepclIlI. 3TOT <jJelloMeH HOCIIT lIa3BaHlle 2eHomun-cpeoo6020 87aUAlQOeU- cm8W/. ITOCKOJIbKY reHoTlin-CPc.n:oBoe B3aHMO,LIeHCTBHe cnocofi- HO BJIHJlTb Ha I\HCnepCHlo npn3HaKa 11 nonYJIJlQIIH, 113 norD CJIe- ,l:\yeT, qTO 0110 nopO)J(llaCT onpc.n:eJIeHHYIO .n:omo !f!eHoTHnl'!qCC- Koii ,l:\IICnepCHIl. IIpofiJIeMa BKJIa,l:\a l'eHOTltn-cpe,l:\OBoro B31\ItMO,l:\eHCTBIIJI B KOJIllqeCTBeHHylO 113MelltJHBOCTb Ha'laJIa 06cYJKJI,aTbCJI .!IOCTa- TOqHO .n:aBHO. .II.JK.xOJIJl.eHH (Haldane J., 1946, QI'!T. no 3pMaH n. II ITapcoHc IT., 1984) paccMaTpHBaeT TaleOH npHMep. JJ:onyc- TIIM, B nonYJlJlQlI1I cYll\eCTBYIOT ,l:\aa l'eHOTHna - A II B Y :nllx reHOTHnOB B YCJIOBHJlX cpe.!Ibl X H Y npOBO,l:\JlT H3MepCHHJI KaKO- rO-TO KOJIllqCCTBCHHoro npll3HaKa. ITOJIY'IeHHbIe KOJIH'IeCTBeH- Hble 311a'leHliJi B 3aBHcnMOCTli 01' CTeneHII BblpaJKeHHOCTH npH- 3HaKa 0603HaqalOT UII<jJpaMH OT I ,l:\0 4. ql'!CJIO COqeTaHHii lj!aK- TOPOB A, B, X Ii Y paBHO tJHCJIy B03MOJKHLlX cnoc06oB nepecra- £l01:lKII, TO eC'J'b n!, II B l\aH£lOM CJIY'Iae paB£lJleTCJI 24 (4! == 1234 = 24) 0.!I1I8KO eCIn! YClIOBIITbCJI, 'fTO reHOTlf!l A B cpe.ll.e X BCer,l:\a I'!MeeT 60JlblllHe 311a'lCHHJI npH3l1aKa, 'ICM rCHOTHn B, TO OCTaeTCJI TOJIbKO wccn B03MOJKllbIX KOM61ft!al1ii, /I,JlR KOTO- pbIX JJ:J1CXOJIAeiiH npllBOjjHT COOTBeTCTBYIOll\YIO Ta6JlIIY. Mbl Jl<e nonpo6yeM H306pa311Tb BCC weCTb clITyal(lIii rpaqllf'lecKII (PliCYHOIe 4.10). PaccMOTpHM nepBbJii H BTOpOH rpafjJHKH. MbI BIfAHM '1TO II R " , !lepBoH, H BO BTOpoii cpe.n:ax reHOTItn A IIMeeT 60JIee BblCOKHe 311aqeHHJI npH3HaKa, '1eM rellorun B, npHqeM npJlMbJC U3p3JJ.lJ'eJJb- lib], a 31'0 03H3'1aCT, qTO lIcncpCIUI, 1'0 ecn pa36poc 311aqeHHii 4.1. BI(JlM reHoTHn-cpe.aoBoro B3 B nonYJUIUHoHHYIO 1I3MeH'IHBOCTb OqeHb BaJKIIO nOHJlTb, '1TO .l\Ba OCHOBHblX IICTO'lHHKa pa3JIII- '1HH MCJK,l:\Y roo.n:bMIl (reHOTI1U II cpc,II;a) TeCHO CBR3aHbI .11Pyr c APyroM H HaXOI\JITCJI B HenpepbIBHOM B3aHMOAeiiCTBHH. Pa3JIHtJIIJI MeJK.n:y HOCI1.TeilRMI1 pa3HbIX rCHOTHUOB MorYT He npOJIBHTbCJ!, eCJ1H 6Y,l:\YT OTCYTCTBOBaTb Te ljJaKTopbI cpe,l:\bl, KOTopble npeBpa- lUalOT rCHOTllnH'fcCKI/C pa311/-1'1HR 8 BJ.!.!UlMbIe tjlcHOTHnH'IeCKl1e. Mbl Y>KC npl.fBOAHJIIi npHMep C p33JIHqHJ!MII B UBeTe KOJKJI B JICT- HI1i! II 3HMHllii nCpllO,ll;bl ITOJl:06HblX npHMepOB MOJKHO npl'!BeCTII MHOJKeCTBO. TaK, illOAH C reHeTlI'IeCKOii CKJIOHHOCTblO K U0J1110TC BPAA I1H 6y.n:YT OTlJlI'I8T1>CJI TYtJHOCTblO, eCI1J1 B IiX palJ.llo!le He 6y- ,l\eT .n:OCTaTO'lHOrO KOJIH'ICCTBa KaJ10pI1HHOH nl.fll\H, HanpHMep, B YC110BHJlX rOJI0).13 HJIH npJl c06roo.!\eHIIH COOTBeTCTBytOIl1eH ,l\HeTbI. JIIO,l:\H C HCKJIIO'IJlTCJIbHblMII MY3bIXaJIbHbIMU cnOC06HOCTJlMII He cMory1' p33BHTb HX, CCJIH OHu lie 6YAYT "'MeTb B03MOJKHOCTH ,/:\JIJI eneHaJIbHblX 3aIlJlTHii. To JKe caMoe cnpaBcroIHBo ,/:\JIJI r0060H 06JI3CTH '1eJIOBe'leCKOH .n:eJlTeJIbHOCTH: TOJIbKO B 6JIarOnpllJlTHbIX YCJIOBIIJlX CpC,l:\b! mo,l:\11 C OC06),IMH npHpO,l:\HbIMH, HacrrMCTBcHHbl- MH 3a)\aTKaMIi 6yJIYT 311atJIITeJIbHO OTJIH'IaTbCJI OT OCTaJIbHOH no- nYJIJIIIH. EeJlII YCJIOBHJI cpe,l\bI MeWalOT pa3BlITHIO 3a)J,aTKOB, MbI BpJl,l:\lJlI nOJIy'lIlM 60JIbWHe pa3J111'fl.fJl B !f!eHonmax rool\eH, HMelO- ll\IIX pa3Hble reHOl'lmbI. TaKHM 06Pa30M, rCHOTl1nH'ICCKlle pa3JIH- 'IHJI MeJKJJ.Y JlIO.n:bMII MorYT He npCBparuaTbCJI B !f!elloTlln!I'IeCXHe, eCJJlI cpe,l:\a lie cnOC06CTBYCT 3TOMY. 3TO 03l1a'laeT OTCYTCTBHe lj>aTaJIbllOH HeH36cJKHOCTH npOJlBJIellHJI Bcex reHeTlI'IeCKIIX 3a,l\aT- IeOB, B TOM 'II1CJle II He6JI8rOnpHJlTHbIX. H3BCCTHO, HanpllMep, '1TO TaKoe 3a60J1eBaHlle, Kale WI130!f!PCHIIJI, HMeeT 3HatJIITeJIbHblH Ha- CJle.n:CTBeHHbIH KOMnOHeIlT, o.n:l1aKO HOCIITeJlH He6JIarOnpHJlTHblX reHOB MorYT H36e)J(aTb 3a60JIeBaHHJI, eCJIIi He t'5Y,l:\YT nO.l\BepraTb- CJI 3Ha'lHTeJIbHbiM crpeccoreHHblM B03,1\eHCTBHJlM Cpe.!lbl, KOTopble 'fall\C BccrO II "3anYCKaIOT" 60JIe3H),. HTaK, HMelOll\HeCJI MeJK.n:y roo.n:bMH pa31I11'1HR B rCHOTImaX MorYT npOJlBJIJlTbCJI 111111 He npOJlBJIJlTbCJI B 3aBHCIIMOCTH 01' cpe- jjOBblX YCJ10BHH - B O,l\I10M cpe,l:\OBOM iIJla!l830ne 3Tft pa311/-1tJH!I 6Y,l:\YT Jl8110 Bblpa)J(ellbI, TorAa KaK B APyroM MbI J.! IIC 3ano,n:03- 114 r 15 
I : J ! l c :: ' o :z: 3- 2 .  i :J   i :z: I ! 21 1  i ,  .-1  1:1 :::: '-,- x 2 x yCpe,o,a y CI"\IIO , A . . . -  A/- /  B c :z: 3 - !; :z: 3- 2 - , -I , x , y Cpe,o,a x y Cpep,a 5 . I . -I i 3 -I !; I :z: . ! 2 -I , -i I I  A B x y Cpe,o,a x y Cpep,a PUCYUOK 4.10 llpUMepbl 2cnomun-cpeiJ08020 83amwiJeiicm8W1 <jJCHOTHnOB, BO Bcex cpe,Qax OCTaeTCJI O,QHH'tKOBOii. TaKllM 06pa- JOM, reHoTHn-Cpe,l\OBOe BJaIlMo,/\eHCll!He KaK KOMnOHeHTa I(lIcnep- CHH OTCYTCTBYeT. Tenepb nocMo'!'pHM, IfMeeTCJI JIll pCaJIhHOe B3a- IIMo,QeHCTBl'!e reHonma H cpe,QbI B COOTBeTCTBI1H C npC,lICTaBJICHII- JlMII 0 HopMe peaKQHH. MbI BH,D;HM, qTO npH nepexoJJ;c 113 cpCJl,bI X B cpe.1\Y Y )J,nJl Ka)({JJ.oro H3 rCHOTHnOB npOH30111JIO H3MCHCHIle KO- 116  JlHqCCTBCHHbIX 3HaqCHI1ii ITpH3HaKa. ITPIf JTOM rCHOTI1ITbI oTpcarl1- pOBaml lIa 113MeHeHI1e CpCAbI CXOJJ;HbIM 06pa30M, coxpaHIIB CBOH OTHOCHTCJJhHbIe nOJIO)/(CHHJJ. Ha 3TOM nplfMepc JlCHO BHAHO, qTO B3aHMO.n:eHCTBHe reHOTHna II cpe,llbl MO>l(eT nOIlI1MaTbC)! II.BO)!KO. C OI(HOH CTOpOHhI, CYlI1eCTByeT peaJIbHOe B3aHMO,lleHCTBlle Ka)/(- Aoro rCHOTHna co cpeJJ;oii, nplIBOI\)!lI1eC K 113MeIlCHHIO KOHKpe-mO- ro <jJeHOTIma. C IWyroH CTOpOHbI, IIMeeTC)! 3<jJ<jJeKT CTaTlICTllqeC- Koro B3aHMo.n:CHCTBII)! <jJaKTopOB HaCJIe,/\CTBeIlHOCTIf If cpeAbI, BJIIIJlIOIl1HH Ha I1CJlII'IHHY COOTBCTCTBYlOlI1eH KOMnOHeHThI Al1cnep- CIIH B AaHHOM CJ1YQae, HeCMOTp" Ha CYll1eCTBOBaHIfC peaJIbHOrO B3aHMO,llCHCTBIfJl KOHl\peTHbIX rCHOTHnOB II KOHKpCTHhIX YCJIOBHH CpC,lIhI, KOMnOHeHTa <jJCHOTlfnlfqeCKOH ,D;HCnCpCIIH, 06YCJlOBJlCHHa:J B3aIlMOJJ;CHCTBHCM II.BYX <jJaKTopOB, OKa3anaCh paBHOH HYmo. 3TOT MOMeHT Hc06xOAHMO 'IeTJ(0 YJlCHI1Tb, nOCKOJlhKY O'lCHb qaCTO pC- aJlbHOC B3aHMO,lleHCTBHC rCHOTllna II CPC,lIbI CMClllHBaeTCJI co CTa- TI1CTllqCCKHM 3<jJ<jJeKTOM B3aIfMOJJ;eiicTBHJI <jJaKTopOB ITCpBb/J! If BTOpOH rpu<jJHKIf CXOtl:Hbl, pU311H'IBIOTCH JlHUIb HanpaBneHHJI H3MCHCHHJI <jJeHOTHnOB npH nepcxOAC H3 CPCAhI X B cpc,/\y Y .II.nJl ncpBoro BapHaHTa npHMcpOM MOJKCT cnY)f(HTb Ta- Ka51 pCMhHa)! cHTyaQlfJl; yqeHHKI1 MJIa,QIlJIlX KJIaCCOB, 06yqaBWI1- eCJI y MOJ!O,Qoro HconhlTHoro yqllTC]JJI, nona,rJ,alOT K CHnhHOMY ne- Aarory, H npH 3TOM Bce YJIY".lllaIOT CBOH nOKaJaTCnll, HO coxpa- HJlIOT TC )f(C paHrOBbIC MCCTa. 06paTHaJi clITyaQIIJI MO)f(CT 6bITb npHMcpOM ,!I.IIJI BTopOro rpa<jJHKa. MO)l(!lO npeACTaBHTb cc6c 11 TaxylO cluyaQHIO. JIIOAH C BbICOKOii 11 Hlf3KOH TpCBOJKIIOCThlO 6y- ,/\YT CXOAHO pearHpOBaTb Ha cHTym111O HeOJIpep;eJlCHHOCTH U '!'pe- Bor« YXY,D;weHl1eM nOKaJaTCJ1cii .n:CJlTeJlbHOCTI1, HO AeJiTenbHOCTh nepBbIX 6Yl\eT c'!'paJJ;aTb CHJ1hHCe, qeM l\eJlTenhHOCTh BTOphIX. TpCTI1H rpa<jJIIK OTJIHqaeTCJI OT nepBhlX II.BYX TeM, qTO JIH- Him JACCb ncpCCCKaIOTCJI. COOTBeTCTBCHHO, no CBOI1M <jJeHOTHnH- 'lCCKIiM 3liaqeH«JlM B cpCAe X rCHOTl1n A 6YAeT onepeJKan B, a B cpeAc Y - liao60poT. 06a rCHOTHna npH nepCXOI\C 113 cpeJU,1 X B cpeAY Y 5Y,llYT ,I1,aBaTb npupOCT <jJeIJOTHlUf'leCKHX 3HaqeHHii npl!3HaKa, HO B pa3Hoii MCpC. feHOTl1n B OKa3bIBaeTCJI 60nce 'IYB- CTBI!TCnhHb!M K CpCAC, COOTBCTCTBellHO 011 AaeT If 60nhUIHii /Jplf- POCT, cpa3y Ha '1eTblpC CAHHIIQhI, TorJJ;a KaK rCHOTlfn A _ Bcero Ha AB. B nOM cnY'Iac rCHoTHn-CpeI\OBOc B3aHMOl\ciicTBHe KaK KOMnoHeHTa ,QI1CnepCHII 6YAeT OTJlHqHhlM OT HynJl. ITpHMepoM TaKoro pOAa B3aI1Mo,QeHCTBI'!JI MO>l(eT nocnYJKHTh TaKaJl clITya- 117 
H$!, KOma 06WH1:errbHb1H (A) H He06wHTerrbHblH (B) pooelloK BO BpeM$! 60ne3HH Ha)(O,ll)lTC ,!!OMa (cpe,!!aY) IIIUI 0 60JIbHHI.1e (cpe- na X). .II.tITH 60nee KOM<jJ0PTHO qYBCTBYIDT ce6» B ,!!OM3WHHX yc. nOBH»x, B TO )l(e BpeM$! 06wl1TenbHOro pe6eHKa BblHy)l(JI,eHHa H30nHl1J1J1 OT CBepCTHllKOB TJlrOTJlT, OJl,llaKO B 60nbHHe Oil 6Y,!!eT IIyqwe aA3nTllpOB3TbC», '1eM lIeo6wHTeJIbHbIi1 pe6eHOR. Ha '1enepTOM rpacjJHKe rCHOTl1n A B 060H)( cpeAflx HMe- eT 60lIbwHe cjJeHOT!!nl1qCCKHe 3Ha'leHH$! npl13HaKa, HO reHOT!!nbI no-pa3HoMY pearHpYIOT Ha nepexoA il3 cpeAbl X B cpe,!!y Y. ,!:In» reHOTl1na A xapaKTcpHo YMeHbweHHe 3H3'1CHHH, a P.JlH reHOTH- na B - YBeJ1H'IeHHe. 3,!!CCb TaX)I(e npHcYTCTByeT reHOTl!n-cpc- ,!!OBOI; BJaHMo,!!ei1cTB!!e K3K KOMnOHCHT AHCnepC!!H. BocnolIb- 3yeMcJ! npHMepoM, ROTopbli1 npHBoJl,lIT .II.)I(.XoJIJJ.eHH. OH pac- cMaTpllBaeT HOpMaJlbHblX (A) H YMCTBeHHO OTCTaJIbIX (B) ,1J.eTeH, KOTopble 06yqalOTCR 0 06blqH0i1 (cpe,1J.a X) H CneUHaJII13HpOBaH- HOH (cpe,!!a Y) WKonax. IIOHRTHO, '1TO B 06bl'lHOH WKOJle YM- CToeHHO OTCTaJIbIe ,1J.CTH 6YI\yT 3Ha'iIiTelIbHO OTCTaBaTb or 06bl'l- HbIX ,1J.eTI;H, TOr,1J.a KaK B cneHanH3HpooallHOH IUKone C npo- rpaMMOH, paCC'lHT3HIIOH Ha YMCTBeHHO OTCTaJlblX ,!!eTei1, noc- Jle,1J.Hlle ,1J.aJl,YT nplipOCT ycnewHoCTII, a HopMalIbHble ,1J.eTIi 6Y,1J.YT OTCT30an. OT CBOllx CBepCTHHKOB. Ha n»TOM rpaq!l1Ke onRTb Ha6IIIO,!!aCTCR nepeCeqeHlle IIH- HIli1. ITpli nepexo,!!e 113 cpe,!!bl X B cpe,1J.y Y reHOTIIn A ,1J.eMOHCT- pllpyeT YMeHbweHlle 3HaqeHIIH, TOr,1J.a KaR reHOTHn B - YBerrH'Ie- HHe. B cpe,1J.e X cjJeHoTlmHqeCKHe pa3J1I1'1H$! MeJK,1J.y reHOTHnaMH 60nbwe, '1eM 0 cpe,1J.e Y. OmITb MbI BHt(HM, qTO rl;Hornn-cpe/l.oBol; B3aHMO,1J.eiicTBHe MeH$!CT ,1J.HCnepclllO cjJeHoTHnoB. B Ka'leCTBe npH- Mepa MO:KHO paccMoTpen nlO.l1eH C BblCOKHM (A) H HH3RHM (B) ypOBHMII aKTHBaH". B YCJloolI»x TllllIl1HbI 111130nJl1I1I (X) 60lIee Jlj>cjJeKTIIBHo 6Y,1J.YT pa6(nan nepBble, TOr,1J.a KaK B ycnOBII$!X WYMa 00 - BTopble. 11 nOClIe,1J.HHH, weCTOH oapHaHT. JIHHHII Ha rpacjJHKe onRTb ncpeceKaIOTCJ<. feHOTHn B 60J1ec 'IyBCTBIITeJICH K H3I(HCHHlO cpe,1J.bI H ,1J.eMOHCTplipyCT pOCT Berrl1ql1HbI npHJllaKa npH nepeXO,1J.C B CPI;J(y Y, Tor,!!3 K3K rellOTHn A MeHCC '1YBCTBHTeneH K cpe.l1e H pearlipyeT I1Ha'le. feHoTHn-Cpe,1J.OBOe B3aHMO,1J.eiicTOlie BHOCHT BKJla.l1 B ,!!HcnepclllO npH3HaK3. B03MO)l(HbIM npliMcpoM MOJl(eT CIIY)l(lITb cI1TyaII$!. B ROTOpOH reHOTHnaM A H B COOTBCTCTBylOT ,1J.eTlI e pa3HbiMli TllnaMIi cnocoGHOCTeH. OJl,HII ACT!! (reHomn A) 118 D6J1a.n:aIOT cpe,1J.HIIM ypoBHeM cnoc06HocTeH, npH onepCJKalOwCM pa3BIITHu npoCTpaHcTBcHHblX enoc06HoeTei1, a ,1I.pyrHe (reHoTlln B) HMCIOT JlpKO BbIpa)l(eHHbIe Bep6aJIbHbIe cnoc06HoCTII H IIcnbl- TblBalOT ccpbe3HbIe 3aTpY,1J.lleHIHI npll peweHHII npoCTpaHcTBeH- HbIX 3a,1J.aq. B COOTBeTCTBIIIJ C 3THM ,1J.eTJt 6Y.!lYT lJ;eMoHCTpHpOBaTh P33HYro ycnewHocrb lIa YPoKax reoMerprm (X) H J1UTep3rypbl 00. Bec 3TH npHMcpbl HarJIJl,[J.HO ,1J.eMOHCTpIlPYJOT, '1TO H3MeH'IH- aDcn B nonYJI>II.(HH CKJla.!l.b!BaeTC He TOJlbKO 3a C'IeT npOCToro CYMMHpOBaHH 3cjJcjJeRTOB cpClJ;bl11 reHOTIJna, HO II OKJlIO'IaCT ROM- nOHeHT reHOTHn-Cpe,1J.OBOrO B3aIlMo.n:eHCTBIIJI. CneiJyem pa3J1I1'/mb zell0mun-epeiJo60e 83alI.MoiJeucmeue 6 enUltl1ucmUqeCKOM Cl,lMeJle U peanblWe 83auMoiJei1cm6Ue zeHOmWlil U cpeobll1pu ljJopMup08a1lllU KOH- Kpemlwzo ifJeHomuna 4.2, reHOrnn-CpeI\OB8J1 KOBapHaJ.(HJI PaCCMOTpeHHoe HaMIJ reHoTHn-Cpe/l.OBOe B3aHMO/l.eHCTBlie crrelJ;YeT OTJlIIQaTb OT ,1I.pyroro JlOJICIIIIJI, C KOTOpblM ero '1aCTO ny- TaroT. Pe'll> H,1J.eT 0 reIlOTlin-CpC,1J.OBoi1 KOllapllaUlI1I (IIIIII KOppeJIJl- HII). fCUOTlln-CpeIJ;OIl3$! KOBapHal.1l1J1 HMeCT MeCTO Tor,!!a, Kor,!!a reHOTHnbl OKa3b1BaIOTC» B onpe,1J.eJleHHblX cpel\ax HC clIyqaHHO, a B COOTBCrCTBlf1! co cBoeK H3cnCJI,CTBCHIIOH rrpl;l\paCnOnOJKCHHOC- ThlO. 3T0 03HaQaCT, qTO reHOTl1nbl HepaBHOMepHo paC!1pCJI,eJIJlIDT- C$! nD paJHbIM cpaM. IIpHMepOM MOJKCT CJ1YJKHTb COOTBCTCTBHe pa3IIHqHMX BH,1J.OB, pac, nOJ!,BIIIJ;OB, pa3HOBIIJI,HocTei1 pa3J1H'IHbIM MeCTaM 06I1TaHII$!. ITpHcnoc06JIeHHOCTb reHOTHnOB K OnpC,1J.elleH- HblM YCJlOBIIJlM cpelJ;bl npllBO,1J.IIT K TOMY, qTO reHornnM KOHeHT- pHPYIOTCJI 0 Tex cpeJl.ax, KOTopbIe 60JIbWe COOTBeTCTBYIDT IIX OCO- 6eUHOCTJlM. B '1eJJOBe'lecKlix nonYJUlUH$!X Ha6J11O,1J.alOTCH nOXOJKlrc $!OiJeHII$!. B TaKI'!X P33IIIIQHbIX cpel\ax, KaR CT3,!!IIOH, KOHuepTHblH 33.1) Ifml 6u6JIIiOTeRB, MbI, CKopel; acero, BCTpeTJIM moJ1.eH C onpe- ,1J.CiJeHHbIMH reHeTH'ICCKI1MII npe,1l.pacnOJIOJKeHHOCTJlMII' Ha CT3)J,H- OHe 6Y,1J.YT '1awe BCTpeQaThCJI JIIO,1J.11 C npHpO,!!HOH CKJlOHHOCTblO K J!,BllraTeJIbHOH Jl,e$!TeJlbHOCTII, B KOHl.(epTHOM Jane - JIlO,1J.H C MY- 3bIl<anbHOH O,1J.apeHHOCTblO, a B 6H6J1110TeKe 6y,1J.CT 60nbwe JIIO,1J.ei1 C BbICOI<HMII YMCTBeHHbIMIi cnOC06HOCTJlMH. MbI BHJl.eJIH, qTO reHOTlin-cpe,!!OBoe 03aHMO,1J.eiiCTBHC Bcer,!!a YBemt'nrnaer nonYJIJlUIfOHHYJO ,1J.l1cncpcmo. Tenornrr-cpe,1J.OBBSI KO- OapHaqllJl MOJKeT RaK YOeJJH'IHOaTh, TaR H YMeHbwaTb Jl,HcnepCHlO 119 
<jJeHOTHnOB B nonYJIHl\HH. B JKHJHH '1eJIOBeKa reHOTHn-Cpei!OBble KOBapHal\HH HrpaIOT BaJKHYIO pOJIb. POi\llTeJIH MorYT nepei!aBaTb pe6eHKY He TOJIbKO onpe.!lCrreHHYIO reHeTII'IeCKYIO npe.lIpacnOJIO- JKeHHOCTb, HO H Oi\lIOBpeMCHHO 06CCIleqHBaTb eMY COOTBCTCTByIO- Il\YIO Cpe.!lY II.JIH pa3BHTHH npHpO.llHblX Ja.n:aTKOB. 3i!eCb MbI IIMeeM .!IeJIO C KYJIbTYPHOH npeCMCTBeHHOCTblO, KOTOpylO He Bcer.!\a JIer- KO OTJIII'IHTb OT HaCne.D;CTBeHHOCTH. HanpHMCp, p0.!lllTeJIII-MYJbl- KaHTbl 60nbillCH qaCTbIO 3a50THCH 0 TOM, '1T05bI IIX .!IeTH TaKJKC nOJIY'IIIJIII MY3blKaJIbHOe 06pa30BaHlle. B TaKIIX ceMbHX MOJKHO OJKII.!IaTb, '1TO .!\eTH BMeCTe C "reHaMIl MYJbIKaJIbHOCTII" YHaCJIe.l\Y- lOT OT pO.D;IITeneH II "MY3bIKaJIbHYIO CpeI1Y". reHOTlln-Cpei!OBaH KOBapl1al\HH, KaK II reHonm-cpe.D;OBOe B3aIlMO.!leHCTBlle, BJIHHCT Ha 061l\YIO .!IHCOepCll1O npH3HaKa, a cnc- .D;OBaTeJ1bHO, MOJKeT BmUlTb Ha BeJIl1qHHY OL\eHOK Hacrre.l\YeMocTH. 3TO cncAYCT yql1TbIBaTb npl1 npoBeE-eHHH HCCnci!OBaHHH B reHC- TIIKe nORC.!IeHIIH. ITp06rrcMbl, CBH3aHHble c reHOTl1n-cpe.!\ORbIM B3aIlMo.!\eH- CTBlfeM II rCHoTHn-Cpel10BOH KOBapllal.{lIeH, 06cY*l1<1IOTCH TaKJKC B rnaBax 6 11 15. qacmb III METO,II;:bI rEHETI1KI1 rrOBE,II;EHI1R BbIBdA... .. ... '_"__,m.... .. . -- . ..... ........ 1. CyiQ6nyJOll\He B nonymll\llH reHeTH'IecKHepa3JIH'lHII MC)((.!\Y HH,/(IIBlIl1aMH MorYT He npOJ!BJIJlTbCJ! Ha cjleHOTHDII'ICCKOM ypOBHC, OOJIH cpeJl,a He cnoco6CTBYeT :)TOMY. 2. reHoTHn-cpe.ll.oBoe CTaTHC'tIlQeCKOe B3aKMo.!\eHCTBHe }'BeJIH'IHBaeT cjleHOTHnll'lecKYIO JI,IIcnepcHIO B nonYJIJlQlfH. 3. OJl,llH H3 KOMnOHeHTOB cjlcHoTHnH'!ecKoH )\HCnepCHH 06YCJlOBJleH rellomn-cpe.nOBbIM B3a1lM0l1eiicTBHcM. 4. 06ycnoBJIeHHJ.lH reHomn-cpeAOBbiM B3aHMoAeHCTBHcM KOMnOHclIT cjlcHOTHnH'IeCKOH JI,IICnepclIH MOJl(eT 6b1Tb paBeH H)'JIlQ, HCCM01]>JI He HaJDfI!I,e peanhHOrO B3aHMOACHCTBliJi reHorn c na II cpe,!\bl. 5. RBJleHHe HecnYQaHHOrO pacnpeilencHHJI reHOTHnOB no cpeJ].aM HOCHT Ha3BaHlle reHotHn-cpe.ll.OBOH KOBapHaQlI1I (KOp- peJIJlQIIH). 6 f B3aIIMOAellCTBHe H reHoTlin-cpeAOBa pBapHalllul MorYT BJIllSITb Ha Benll'!HHY Ol\eHOK HacneeMoCTH. 120 . 
rIlABA 5. 3KCnEPMEHTA11bHbIE CXEMbl rEHETK nOBE,IJ,EH MeTo.n:M, nplIMeWllOII.\l1eCH B reHeTHKC nOBe,L\eHHH ,L\JIH HC- CJICIJ;OB8.HHH pOllH reHOTHna If CPC)J:bl B 1jJ0pMllpOBaHHI1 HH,L\IIBII- ,L\yaJIbHb!J< paJJIH'IIIH, OCHOBblBalOTCH Ha D.BYX OCHOBllblX npe,lj- nOJIOJl(eHI1HX. Bo nepBb!X, npell.nOllaraeTCR, '1TO reHeTHqeCKMe pa3JIH'iWI MeJl(,l\Y JIIOD.bMH MorYT npORBJIHTbCR B pa3l1H'IIIRJ< ljJeHoTHnHqCC- KI1J<, TO CCTb B Tex pa3JIH'IHRX, KOTOpbIC BIi.L\Hb! B nOBe)J,eHHM 010- ,L\eH, B HX nCHXOJIOrliqeCKI1X Ii nCHxo<lHf3HOJ!orH'ICCKMX xapaJITepH- CTliKax. I1CXOJI,JI HJ 3Toro npe)1JlOJIO)l(eIlHR, ,L\JIR HJY'IeHliJj pOJIH re- HOTHna 1J paJJIH'IHJlX Me)l(!\y JllO,l\bMlI BnOIlHe B03MOJl(HO IIccrre.n:o- BaTb Te oco6eHHOCH!, KOTopbIe IJ;OCTynHb! .lJ.lIII BHeUlHero Ha6mo- lJ;aTellR H KOTopbIe MO)l(HO H3MepHTb. BO-BTopb!J<, reHeTHqeCKl1e pa3JIH'IIIJI MOJl(HO 06HapY)I(HU, cpaBHHBaH Me)!()l.Y C060H IIIOll.eH, HMelOII.\HX paJHY!O CTeneHb re- HeTH'IeCKOrO CXO,l\CTBa, TO eCTb 6JIH3KHX 11 ,L\aJIbHI1X p0IJ;CTBeH- HIIKOB. ECJIU npll TaKHJ< conOCTaBJIeHIIHX 60ITee 6JIII3Klle reHe- THqeCKHe pO,L\CTBeHHIIKII (JlIO,L\H, HMelOII.\He 60JIbUie 06I1.\HX re- HOB) 6Y,L\YT ,L\eMOHCTpllpOBaTb 60Jlee BblCOKoe CXO,L\CTBO no UH- TepeCYIOII.\cii Hac xapaKTepHCTlIKe, Mt,I HMeeM OCHOBaHI1C npe,L\- nOJIO)l(HTb CYII.\CCTBOBaHHe reHOTHnWleCKHX BJlHJlHHH. ECJIH JKe CXO,L\CTBO no H3yqaCMOii xapaKTepHCTHKe He 6y lJ;eT YBeJIH'IH- BaTbCH C YBeJIHqeHHeM CTeneHII pO,L\CTBa, MOJl(HO rOBOpHTb 0 Cpe,L\OBOH ,L\CTepMIIuaUHH. 1. CeMeKHoe H reHeTH'IeCKOe CXOCTBO Y '1JIeHOB OMOH Ii Toii JKe ceMbH, nOMIlMO 06I1.\HX reHOB, KaK npaBHJIO, HMelOTCR H 06I1.\He cpe,L\OBbIe YCJIOBHH. Ecml npu- 3HaK He6c3pa3JIUqeH K BJIHRHHIO cpeJl,b!, TO Ha CXO,L\CTBO pO,L\- CTBeHHHKOB no nOMY npH3HaKY 6YI\YT OKa3MBaTb BIIHJlHHe He 123 
TOJIbKO 06Il\He reHbl, HO 11 06Il\aR cpe.n:a. 3TO COJAaeT onpeAe- I1eHHbIe MeTOAllqeCKlle TPY MOCTII B onpe,l1eIleHIIH pOIlH reHOB B 1}J0pMHpoBaHHil ceMeHHoro CXOACTBa. Kor,l1a Mbl IIMeeM ,l1eIlO C paCTeHIIJlMIl IIIIH 3KcneplfMeHTanbHblMH )f(HBOTHbIMII, MbI I1erKO MO)f(eM HcihpaIlHJOBaTb TC B03AeHCTBWI, KOTopble npllBOART K cpe,l101JOMY CXOACTBY, nOCKOIlbKY HMeeM BOJMO)f(HOCTb BblpaIl\lI- BaTb nOTOMCTBO B mo6blX He05xo,l1HMbIX YCJlOBIIRX cpe.n:bl. Ho Mbl He MOJKeM TaK nocTynaTb C ceMbRMIl mo,l1eil. IT03TOMY Ha cpOpMII- pOBaHlle CXOACTBa MeJK,l1Y pOAHTeIlRMIl II ,l1eTbMII, 6paTbRMil H ceCTpaMIf, 6I1H3Hel.\aMIl II T.,l1. HeIl36e)f(HO 6YAeT BIIHRTb o6Il\aJl cpe,l1a. He06xOAilMO pa3mlqaTb CXO,l1CTBO ceMeHHoe II CXO.D.CTBO reHeTIf'leCKoe. MHorHC qepTbl RBIIJlIOTCR ceMeHHblMI1, He 6Y,l1yqll HaCJIe,l1CTBeHHbIMII. HanpliMep, B peJIHrH03HblX ceMbRX qaIl\e Bce- ro H P0;1I1Tl'JIII, II ;1eTlf IfCnOBC.II.YIOT onpe.ll.eJIeHHYIO peJIIfr/!IO, 110- ceIl\alOT xpaM II COBepwalOT peJIllrl103Hbie 06PR,l1bI, HO BpRA JIll KTO peWllTCR YTBepJK,l1aTb, 'ITO TaKoro pO)l.a nOBeAeHlle HaCJle.n.y- eMO, nOCKOIlbKY Ha6mo)l.aeTCR Y qJIeHOB OMOH ceMbll. 3TO TllnHq- IfblH cnY'IaH ceMeHHoro, HO HereHeTII'IeCKoro CXO)l.CTBa. O.D.HaKO ceMeHHoe CXOACTBO OqeHb qaCTO IIHTepnpCTHpYIOT KaK HaCIIe.QCTBeHHoe, HC HMeJl K TOMY .QOCTaTOqHbIX OCHOBaHIlU. ITpHqllHOil 3Toro RBJlJlIOTCJI npeJI,B3RTbfe COl.\lIaJIbHble YCTaHOBKIl. HanpHMep, ceMeHHoe CXO)l.CTBO no CTeneHII peJIHrH03HOCTI1 HJlII 1l0JIIITllqCCKHM y5eJKAeHIIHM 05b1'1HO He CqHTaeTCR Hacne,l1CTBeH- Hoil qepTOH, HO BMeCTe C TeM MHorHe YBcpeHbI, '1TO CXO,l1CTBO MeJK.L\Y pO)l.lITenRMIf II .D.CTbMH B MY3blKanbHbiX cnoc06HOCTJlX RB- JIReTCR CJlC.D.CTBlfeM BJIHRHHR 06Il\HX TeHOB, XOTR B nOCJIe,l1HeM cnY'Iae, B npllHI.\Hne, B03MO)!(HO II HHoe, 'IHCTO Cpe.D.oBOe, 061>RC- HeHHe. KaK npaJJHIIO, B MY3blKaJIbHbiX ceMbRX AeTlf BOCmITblBaIOT- CR B onpe.QeJIeHHblX TpaAH1\IIJlX, KOTopbfe npe)l.nOJlaralOT paHHee IlpH06Il\eHHe .D.eTeH K MY3blKe II CTIIMYJIlIPYIOT pa3BIITlle My3bl- KaJIbHOCTH. TaKHM 06pa30M, ceMeHHoe CXO.D.CTBO - 3TO JIIIWb TO qTO MbI Ha6J1IO)l.aeM; 061>JlCHHTb )!(e npOIICXO)f(.D.eHHe noro CXO;CTBa Mbl CMOJKeM JIIIWb TOr.D.a, KOr)l.a HaM YAaCTCR pa3)1.eJIIITb reHCT"- 'feCKYIO H Cpel\OBYIO 06Il\HOCTb pO.D.CTBeHHHKOB. .lI:JIR 3Toro B reHe- TI1Ke '1eJIOBeKa npllMeHRIOT pR,l1 3KCnepl1MeHTaJIbHbiX cxeM, n03BO- I1J1IOIl\HX p33BOJl,llTb HaCJIe.D.CTBeHHOe H cpeAOBoe CXOACTBO II TeM ca- MblM oCYIl\eCTBJIJITb KOmf'leCTBCHHYIO 01\eHKY HacIIeJl.)'eMoCTIf. 124 ITpeJK.IJ.e '1eM nOJqJ06Ho paccMoTpeTb 3T1I 3KcoepllMeHTaJIb- IIble MeTOAbl, OCTaHOBI1MCR Ha HeKoTopblX oc06eHHocTHX H3Mepe. HHR CXO.D.CTBa Me)!(AY p0)l.CTBeHHIlKaMH. 2. Cnoco6bl KOm1'1eCTBeHHOH OLleHKH 4JeHOTHnH'IeCKOrO CXOACTBa MeJKAY pOACTBeHHMKaMK }J;nH BblRBJIeHHR HaCJIe.QCTBeHHbIX II cpeAOBblX npHqllH HH- AIIBHAyaJIbHblX pa3JI11'1I1H, KaK npaBIIJIO, Hcnonb3YIOT conOCTaB- JIeHlle CXOACTBa HJIH pa3JIHqHR B rpynnax pO.D.CTBCHHIlKOB pa3- HOH creneHH pOJ(CTBa. TaK, HanpliMep, 60JIbWee CXO.D.CTBO MO- H0311rOTHblX 6JI1f3Hel.\OB, no cpaBHeHll10 C M3HrOTHblMH, CBIIAe- TeJIbcuyeT 0 BJIHRHHH HaCJIeJ(CTBeHHbIX cpaKTopoB, nOCKOJIbKY nep1JblC B Cpe)l.HeM HMelOT B)l.BOe 60Ilbwe 06Il\IIX reHOB (100%), qeM BTOpble (50%). .II.I1R KOJlI1'1eCTBeHHOil Ol.\eHKH CXO)l.CTBa MeJKJI.)' po.n:CTBeHHII- KaMI1 HCnOJlb3yroTCJI nOKa3aTeJlII KOHKOp,l1aHTHOCTII H KOppeJlJl1\HH. ITpll aHaJIII3e Cxo.D.cTBa/pa3J1H'IHR aJlbTepHaTIIBHblX npH3HaKOB HCnOJIbJylOT 01\eHKH KOHKOp.D.aHTHOCTIl. ITapE,( pOI\CTBeHHI1KOB MorYT 6b!Tb JIH60 KOHKopAaHTHblMH no aJIbTepHaTIIBHblM nplf3Ha- KaM (o6a pO,l1CTBeHHIlKa IfMeIOT HJlH He HMelOT AaHHblii npH3HaK), nH60 )l.HCKOpAaHTHbIMH (JIl1ll1b O)l.IIH H3 napbl pO)l.CTBeHHIfKoB 05- JIa)l.aer )l.aHHbIM npH3HaKoM). .II.nR 01\eHKH KOHKoPAaHTHocTH no.!l;- CqHTbIBalOT np01\eHT COBrraJ(eHIIR 3JIbTepHaTHBHb1X I7plf3HaKOB B napax pO)l.CTBeHHHKoB. ITpH 3TOM Te HH.D.HBI1Abl, KOTopbIe 06JIa)l.a- lOT I1HTepeCYIOIl\IIM Hac npI13HaKOM, Ha3blBaIOTCR np06aHOaMU. HanplIMep, OKa3aJlOCb, qTO )l.JlJI 20 np06aH.QoB (M3 6JIH3HeI.\OB), 60JlbHbiX AHa6eroM, B 15 CJlyqaRX 5bm 60JleH II napTHep np06aH- )l.a, TorAa KaK B OCTaBIlIHXCR 5 napax napTHepbl OKa3aJIHCb 3)1.0- pOBbIMH. B AaHHOM cJlY'Iae KOHKOpD.aHTHOCTb (C) paBHa: C = (15120)100 = 75%. B TO )f(e BpeM 113 20 np06allD.OB .II.3 6J1H3HeI.\OB Jllflllb Y 10 OKa33JICR 60JleH II APyroH qJleH rrapbI. B 3TO[ cJlyqae KOHKOp)l.aH- THOCTb .II.3 6J1H3HeI.\OB paBHa: C=(I 0/20) I 00 = 50%. 125 
IJ2 = Cof;)- CD.1 100- CA' 75- 50 100- 50 25 =05 50 ' MSB-MSW r= MSB +MSW r)\e MSW="':""2XX,,-X,,)2 - Cpe)\HI1H KBa.[(paT OTKJIO- 211 HeHI1H BHYTpH nap; MSB=[L(X"+X,,)'-2nX2J/(n-I) - Cpe)\Hlfii KBal!paT OTKJIOHeHI1H Me)!()\y napaMI1 (60JIee no.[(p06HO HCnOJIb30BaHHe I\IIcnepCI10HHOrO aHaJII13a I\JljJ Bb{qI1CJIeHI1J1 cpe.[(HHX Kl!a)\paTOB Me)l(.f(Y H BHYTpIl nap Onl1CaHO B I'mille 6). ,lJ,JIH HJIJllOCTpaL\liH Bbl- qliCJleHI1H BHYTpIlKJIaCCOBOI'O Km!jJ!jJHL\lieHTa KOppeJlHL\1I11 BOC- nOJlb3yeMCJI .[(aHHblMIi 113 Ta6J1HIjbI 6.3. 3Ha'leHHH MSW II MSB B 3TOM npl1Mepe BbI'IHCJleHbI KaK .rUtH M3, TaK I{ )\JlH .II.3 6J1113HCL\OB. I10Il.CTaBJUIeM 3TIi 3HaqeHIIH B !jJ0PMYJlY II nOJIY'IaeM, qTO ConOCTaB11eH"e 0l1eHOK KOHKOPAaHTHOCT" M3 " A3 611\113He- 40B AaeT a03MOJKHOCTb 04eHIITb Aomo BJ1I1S!HIM' HaCJ1e,qCTBeH- HblX q,aKTOpOB (h') Ha "cCJ1eAyeMbI npl13HaK. AnR Ol1eHK" KO- 3q,q,114I1eHTa Hac11eAyeMocTI1 "Cn0I1b3yeTcR q,opMY11a XOI1b- L\I1Hrepa It1TaK, B np"BeAeHHoM np"Mepe Koaq,q,l1l1l1eHT HaC11e,qyeMoc- TI1 (B W"POKOM CMblC11e CI1oBa) paBeH 0,5. B Tex CJ1yqa>lx, I(orll.a aHaJIII3HPYJOTC>I lienpepbIBHO pacnpe- .[(eJleHHble npll3HaKH (HanpIiMep, pOCT, Bec, IQ II T./I,.), B Ka'leCTBe Mephl !jJeHoTl1nHQeCKOrO CXO)\CTl!a MeJK'!!y pO/l,CTBeHHHJ<aMII HC- nOJIb3YJOTCjJ K03!jJ!jJIlIjHeHTbl J<0PPeJIjJL\IIH. B 3aBHCIIMOCTli OT TilDa pO/l,cTBeHIiHKoB IICnOJIb3YeTCjJ TOT HJlH IIHoii THn K03!jJ!jJHIjHCHTa KOppeJIJlL\HH. B Tex CJIyqajJx, KOr)\a OIjeHI1BaeTCjJ CXO.[(CTBO MeJKi\Y napaMH pOl!CTBeHHHKOB, npHHaMeJKaIl\IIX pa3HbiM nOKOJleHHj(M (pOJI,HTeJlb-pe6eHOK, )\el!-BHYK If T../1.) HcnOJlb3YJOT MeJKKJlaCCO- BbIH K03!jJ!jJI1L\lIeHT KOppe.njJIjHH, npe}.I)Io)!(eHHblii KapJlOM ITl1pco- HOM. choT K03!jJ!jJI1IjIlCHT KOppeJIJlIjHI1 BbIqHCJljJeTCH cJIeJl,YJOll(HM o6pa30M: r.lfJ MSBM3- MSW"3 MSBM'- MSW", I 8,804 - 2,225 18,804+ 2,225 0,79, MSB",-MSWW3 12,814-5,575 r,, - - =039. MSBMJ- MSWM3 12,814+5,575 ' TaK >Ke KaK " B CI1Y4ae C KOHKopAaHTHocTblO, conOCTaB11e- H"e K03<pq,I1"eHTOB Koppen4 M3 11 A3 611113He110B AaeT B03MO)KHOCTb Bb1411Cn"Tb Koaq,cpl1l1l1eHT HaC11eAyeMocTI1 ", co- OTBeTCTseHHO, OljeHTb J\onlO HacneAyeMocTI1 B o6ll1e Bap- aT"BHOCTI1 npl13HaKa A11 Ol1eHK Koaq,q,"ljl1eHTa HacneAye- Mocnl Bocno11b3yeMcR q,OPMYI10 It1rHaTbeaa h 2 =2(r MJ r OJ) =2(0,79-0,39)=2(0,4)=0,8. rop  Cov" .J (V. )(V, ) '= ):;L(x,-x)(y.- y) \ 1 1':"; L(x, - x)']1 -'-- Ley! - .v)'] N-' r.n:c r Of  KOppe.nJlL\Hj( Me)!(i\Y pOJJ:HTeJlHMI1 II ACTbMH; a Xi H y, - 3HaqeHHH I1CCJIe/l,yeMoro npH3HaKa Y pOAHTeJlH 11 pe6eHKa; X - cpel\uee Bcex JHaqeHlUf Y pOAHTeJleii I'!.v - cpeAHee Bcex 3HaqCHHH y lI.eTeH; i =1 ,2,3,...,N - nOCJIeAOBaTeJlbHbIe napb! "po- AIITeJIb-pe6eHoK". 3HaQeHHe KOJ!jJ!jJHlJ.HeHTa KoppeJIRIjHI1113Me- HHeTCR OT -1 AO +1. JJJI OL\eHKH CTerreHH CXOIJ;CTBa Me)l(.f()' 6JJII3HeIjaMH II c1I6c8- 10111 HCnOJIbJYCTCH BHYTpHKJ1aCCOBbIH K03!jJ!jJHIjHeHT KOppeJIRL\HI1. BHYTpIlKJIaCCOBblH K03!jJ!jJHL\l1eHT KOppeJIHL\1I11 BbI'IHCJIHeTCH no cxeMe OJJ:Ho!jJaKTopHorO JJ:HCnepCHOHHoro allaJlll3a II HMeCT cJle- .[(}1Oll(IIH BHJJ:: 126 HTaK, B reHeTIiKe nOBeAeHHjJ MepoH CJ(OACTBa MeJK.[(Y po)\- cTBeHHHKa1H qall(e Bcero HBJlJleTCjJ KOppeJIJlIjHR, KOTopaH He npel{nOJIaraeT CXO./1CTBa B a6comOTHbIX BeJlH'lHllaX npH3HaKa OM3KO Hepe.f(KO B 06bIAeHHOM nOHHMaHl1J! CXOACTBO Me)l(.f(y pOll.- CTBeHHHKaMH OTO)J(/I,eCTBJlHeTCH CO CXOACTBOM B a6COJIlOTHbiX HJIH Cpe.[(HHX BeJlHqHHax. TaKOe nOHHMaHl1e CXOACTBa MOJKeT npHBO- II.HTb K HeBepHOH I1HTepnpeTaIjHH nOJIyqaeMbIX pe3YJIbTaTOB. 127 
BenW'H4HbI 8 CK06K3X ecrb OTKnOHeHR OT cpeAHero II He IIMelOT T!lKOBOH C IIX 6110JlOnfqeCKIIMI'! MaTepHMII, a no a6co- JIIOTHblM BeJIII'IHHaM IQ OKaJbIBBIOTC>I ropaJJ(o 6JIH)Ke K MaTe- pRM-YCbIHOBIITeJlHM, caM C060H HanpaWHBaeTCJI BblBOJl, 0 cpeJl,o- BOH J(eTepMHHaUHII IIHTCJIJIeKTa. BMecTe C TeM, BbICOKa>l Koppe- JlHUH>I Me)l('!\y 6HOJlOrllqeCKIIMH pOJ(cTBeHHHKaMH II OTCYTcTBl1e TaKOBoH y JIIOJ(eH, He CBJl3aHHbiX reHeTlI'IeCKHM pOJ(CTBOM, CBII.l\e- TeJlbCTBYIOT 0 BblCOKOH Hilcneoywocmu nplt3HaK3. B 3TOM npllMe- pe cOJ(ep)l(I1TCH OCHOBHOi1 napa.l\OKC .l\aHHblX KOJllI'leCTBCHHOH re- HeTIIKH: BbICOKa>l HaCJIeJ\yeMoCTb BnOJIHe MO)l(eT COqeTaTbC>I C 'lYBCTBJfTeJlbHOCTbJO KOHKpeTHblX reHOTHnOB K Cpe.l\OBblM 113Me- HeHJfJlM. YCbIHOBJIeHlle B ceMbll C 60Jlee 6J1arOnpIlJlTHOH cpeJ\OH BnOJlHe MO)l(eT npHBeCTH K TO MY, '1TO Jl,eTII 6YJl,YT onepCJI(aTb CBOIIX 61t0JlOrll'leCKHX MaTepei1no ypOBHIO HHTeJIJleKTa. BMeCTe C TeM JlerKO JaMeTIITb, '1TO XOTH J(eTlI OKaJaJIlICb Ha !\pyroM ypOB- He llIKaJIbI, OHII COXpaHIIJlII CBOH paHrOBbIe MeCTa B COOTBeTCTBHH co CBOIiM 6110JlOrll'leCKI1M npOIICXO)K.l\eHlleM. TaKIIM 06pa30M, .l\a)f(e eCJIH HHJ{HBH,zry3!IbHbIC OC06CHHOCTJ.f .l\eTe» J.f.l\e3JIJ,HO Imp- peJlllpYIOT C oc06eHHOCTJlMII IIX 6HOJlOrll'leCKIIX pO,!UITCJlei1, 3TH .l\eTlI I<:aK zpynna B cpM,HeM MorYT 60Jlbllle nOXO}J.IITb Ha p0.lUITe- JleH-ycblHoBI1TeJleH. B HarneM npHMepe J(3HHbIe reHeTHKI1 nOBeJl,CHII>! rOBOp>lT o TOM, qTO BapllaTIIBIIOCTb IIHTeJlJleKTa B nonYJlJlQIIH B OCIIOB- HOM 06YCJlOBJleHa BapllaTIIBHOCTbIO reHOTllnOB, a He Bapl1aTHB- HOCTbIO cpe.1l.. 3TO TOT BbIBO.l\, KOTOPbl« MOJKeT CJ{cn3Tb reHC- THK Ho nCIIXOJIOr, H3MepHB cpeOHue BeJllf'lllHbl HHTCJlJleKTa B rpynnax J(eTeH 11 I1X npHeMHbIX H 6HOJlOrH'IeCKHX pOJ(IITeJlei1, IIMeeT nOJlHOe npaBO CKa3aTb, '1TO Ha6JtIOJ(aeMoe CXO.l\CTBO no HHTeJlJleKTY Me)K.l\y npHeMHblMH .l\eTbMH H HX P0.l\IITCJlJlMH-YCbI- HOI!HTeJlJlMH o6ycnoBJleHO 06LUeH cpeJ(oi1 (06LUaJl cpe.l\a B H3- weM npHMepe TOJlbKO y npl1eMHblX Jl,eTeH II M3TcpeH-YCbIHOBIt- TeneH). KaK HII CTpaHIIO, HO BbIBO.l\bl reHeTHKa It nCIIXOJIora a6COJIIOTHO He npOTlIlIope'laT !\pyr .l\Pyry, HO ,11)1>1 reHeTlIKa Me- poit CXOJ\CTBa JlBJlJleTC>I KOppeJ1HUIIJI, KOTopaH YKa3bIBaeT Ha TO, '1TO nOK33aTeJlII HHTeMeKTa y P0,lJ;CTBCHHHKOB B nonYJlHl\1t1! KO- B3PIIHPYIOT, a ,ll)lJI nCHXO)lOra TaKOH MepOH HBJ1HeTCJI CXOJ\CTBO B 36COJllOTHbiX 3Ha'lClm>!X HJIH Cpe.1l.HIIX BeJ1HqIlHaX ItHTeJl)leKTa B rpynnax nplteMHblX ,lJ;eTei1 It ItX MaTcpeH-YCbIHOBHTeJleH, KOTO- poe rOBopltT 0 B03MO)l(HOCTH cpeJl,bI BJlIIIITb Ha q.CHOTlln I! I1HJ\It- BII.lIyaJlbHoM pa3BHTIIII. CpcJ(a, B)lHJIJI Ha HH.l\IIBH.l\yaJIbHOe P33- 129 PaCCMOTpHM nmOTeTHqeCKHH npllMep, KOTOpbli1 HJlJIIOCT- pllpyeT B03MO)f(HOCTb BOJHIIKHOBeHH>! HeKoTopbIX 3a6)1Y)KJ(eHHit no nOBoAY pOJlH HaCJle.l\CTBeHHbIX H Cpe.l\OBbIX q.aKTopoB B B03- HHKHOBeHHH IIH,lJ;ltlJlI.l\yaJlbHbIx paJm14HH. ITpc.l\nOJlO)KIIM, '1TO rpynn3 .l\eTeH H3 6e.l\Hb1X ceMeH 6blJ1a YCbIHoBJleHa rpynnoH p0.l\HTeJleH 113 Cpe,lJ;HHX IIJlH COCTO>lTCJlb- HblX CJlOeB o6LUeCTBa. ITpHeMHbIe pO,lJ;ItTeJlH no CBoeMY IIHTen- JIeKTyaJlbHOMY nOTeHUH3J1y II MaTepHaJlbilbIM 1I03MO)l(HOCT>lM CMOrJ1H 06ccnC4HTb .1I.eTHM H.l\eaJlbHble B03MO)KHOCTII WI>! pa3- BHTH". .II.onYCTHM, qTO, )(OT.l\B AeTH Bb/POCJIH, 6blJl0 npOH3Be.l\e- HO H3MepeHHe K03<j!<j!H!..\lIeHTa IIHTeJlJleKTa Y caMIiX /l,eTeH, a T3K)Ke y HX 6HOJlOrllqeCKHX H npl1eMHblX MaTepeH. ITpeJ(noJlo- JKHM, qTO .l\aHHble noro 113MepeHIIJI OKa3aJIHCb CJle,lJ;YIOLUHMH (m6J1l1l.\a 5.1). Ta6nu/{a 5.1 lloKaClameJIU I/Hme!lJleKma}' npUeAfHblX oemeu u ux pool/me/leu CeMbJl I.l/m1 6Honorw..,ecl(e MaTep*"YCblHOBHTe.n Ma-repH A 105 (-2) 95 (-2) 107 (0) 6 105 (-1) 96(-1) 105 (-2) B 107 (O) 97 (0) 109 (+2) r 108(+1) 98(+1) 106 (.1) A  99 (+2)  cpe-,q Hef" cpe-,q Hee <:peAHe6 x=107 x;97 x=107 B HaCTO>lll1eM npliMepe nOJIyqaeTCJI H.l\ea)lbHO IIblCOKaR no- JIOJKIITeJlbHa>l KOppeJI>ll\HII (paBHaR + I) Me)f(.l\y .l\eTbMH II ItX 6HO- Jlorll'leCKHMII MaTepllMH, nOCKOJlbKY B 06ellx 3THX rpynnax Ha- 6JJ1O.l\aeTcJI O.l\HOHanpaBJleHHOCTb OTKJIOHeHHH OT Cpe.1l.HerO, qTO H C03AaeT BblCOKYIO nOJlO>l<lfTeJIbHYIO KoppeJl»l1l1lO. KoppeJlJll\HJI C MaTepJlMII-YCbIHOBHTeJlRMII 6YAeT rOpa3AO HII)I(e. OAllaKO eCJIIi Mbl 113TJ1"HeM Ha a6COJllOTHbie BeJIIl411Hbi IQ, TO JlerKO MOJKCM 3a- MeTIITb, qTO npHeMHble ACTH KaK zpY"IQ ropa3J(0 6J1H)Ke K zpy""e HX MaTepeH-ycbIHoBIITeJlei1. )J;eifCTlIHTeJIbHO, Cpe.l\Hlte BeJIHqHHbI IIHTenJlCKTa B JTlfX rpynnax COBnaA3IOT, TOr,lJ;a K3K B rpynne 6110JIOrllqeCKHX MaTepeH OHH rop33AO HII)Ke. ITOCKOJlbKY npHeM- Hble Jl,eTH HMelOT o6LUYlO cpcny C YCblHOBHBWIlMII I1X MaTep>lMII 128 
"QIBO.qbl, Te pOJKI\aeTCJI TOJIbKO Oll"'H j\eTeHbIIll. ITpaB,lja, I-IHorj\a 6bIBalOT IICKJIlOqeHH H - OJUlOBpCMeHHO C03peBalOT II onJlOi\OTBOpJlIOTCJI ,ll.Be, a IIHorj\a TPH Ii 60J1ee JlMlIeKJ1eTOK. B 3TOM CJIyqae p01KJ\aIOT- CH ,ll.Ba I1JIH 60JIee .n;eTeHbIWeH, a nOCKOJIbKY OHH npOHCXOI\HT H3 pa3HbiX OnJIoj\oT80peHHbIx HHl.\eKJ1eTOK, IIJIH 3HrOT, IIX Ha3b18a1OT OU3uzomHblMu ()J,3) 6JIU3Helll11uu, HJIH ,ll.BOMHIIWKaMI-I ECJIII p01KJ\a- eTCH TPO"HII, TO npaBHJIbHee Ha3bIoaTb TaKI-IX ,ljeTeH TPI-I3HrOTHbI- MH 6JI1iJHCl.\aMH. .II.3 5JIII3Hel.\bl He 06113aTeJIbHO .n;OJI)KHbl HMeTb OI\Horo OTl.\a. ECJIH 0 nepHO,lj OBYJ1I1I.\HH )KeHlllHHa IIMeJIa KOHTaKT C pa3HblMH MY)K'jMHaMH, BnOJIHe BepOJITHO, '1TO POI\MBIllHeCH .II.3 6JII-I3Hel1 bI 6YjI,)'T IIMeTb pa3HbIX OT1100. ITOl\06Hble crry'lall onl-lca- Hbl, B TOM '1HCJ1e II TaKl-le, Korj\a O.n;I1H 1i3 MJIaJl,eHl.\eB 6bIJI qep- HbIM, a IIPyroH - 6eJIbIM. He Bce MHOronJIo.n;l1ble 6epeMeHHocTii npIlBOj\HT K POJK,ljC- HIiIO .II.3 6J11i3HeI.\OB. B pH,lje CJIY'IaeB TaKHe 6epeMeHHocTli npH- BO.n;IIT K p0)Kj\eHIiIO IIPyroro Tl1na 6JII13Hel\Oo. 3TO AIOH03U20m- Hble (M3) 6Jlu3Helibl. M3 6JIli3Hel.\bl npl'!Hl\l1nl1aJlbHO OTJlIi'laT- CII OT .D.3, T.K. npOI1CXOj\IIT He 113 pa3HbiX 3IirOT, a H3 OJ\HOM 11 TOH JKe, KOTopaH Ha onpeI\eJleHHOH CTBAHH j\p06JIeHI1J1 nO Heno- HHTHblM npH'II1HaM pa3j\eJIIIJIaCb Ha Jl,Ba caMOCTOJlTeJIbHblX opraHH3Ma. I1POIICXQJI(.n;eHlie M3 6JIII3Hel\OB 113 OJUIOH 311rOTb: npej\onpe,ljeJIJleT a6COJIIOTHYlO lIi\eHTIi'lHOCTb HX reHeTllqeCKOII KOHCTIiTYI1 IiH . M3 6J11-13Hel.\bl - 3TO ej\HHCTBeHHbIe JIIOI\1i Ha 3eMJIe, 06J1ai\alOlllHe OJUlHaKOOblMIi Ha60paMH reHOB. BOT noqe- MY OHH 06bI'IHO KaK ,ljBe KanJlII BO.n;bl 6blBalOT nOXOJKII .n;pyr Ha IIPyra. ECJII1 pa3j\eJIeHlie 3M6pliOHa Ha I\Ba opraHli3Ma npo- H30WJ10 He nOJIHOCTblO, MorYT pOlll<TbCH cpOCIllHeCJI, HJ111 CliaM- CKlle, 6JIli3Hel.\bl. qacTo TaKlie 6J1H3Hel.\bl norll6alOT cpa3Y noc- J1e pOJKj\eHHII, HO B HeKOTopblX CJIyqaJlX BblJKHBalOT H j\aJl(e MO- rYT 6bITb OTl\eJIeHbl OI\HH OT IIPyroro nYTeM onepaTHBHoro OMe- rnaTeJ1bCToa. Ha30aHHe "CHaMCKlle" TaKHe 6JI1I3Hel\bl nOJIyqllJ1H o qeCTb nepBOH Il3yqeHHOH H onlicaHHOH napbl CpOCIllHXCJI 6J1H3HeL\01l. 3TO 6blJlH cpOCIllHeCH 6J1H3HeL\bl qaHr II 3Hr, pO- llHBWlfeCH B CHaMe (TaHJ1aH,lj) B 1811 rOI\Y. OCHOBHYIO '1aCTb CDoeH c03HaTeJIbHOH )l(H3HH OHII npoBenH B Coej\HHeHHblx Illra- Tax AMepIlKIi. 06a 6blJlli )l(CHaTbl H I1MeJlIi .n;eTeM, OJ\IIH - 12, a .n:pyroM- 10. EpaTbH np0Jl(HJIH 63 ro.n;a, npH'IeM npll'lllHOH HX nOqTH oj\HoBpeMeHHoM cMepTH nocJIYJKIIJIa 60JIe3Hb OJUloro 113 6paTbeo BIITlie KaJKj\oro KOHKpeTHoro pe6ellKa, npIiBOj\HT K YBeJIHqelIlllO CXOj\CTBa B a6COJlJOTHbiX BeJIH'IHHaX npH3IIaKa Me)l(l\Y j\eTbMIl H pOj\HTeJIHMI1-YCbIHOBllTeJIIIMI1. OllHaKO Ha6JIIOj\aeMble MeJKI1H,ljIi- BHj\yaJIbHble pa3JIHqHH no IiHTeJIJIeKTY B j\aHHOM npHMcpe j\OJI- )l(Hbl 6blTb 06.HCHeHbl reHeTH'IeCKHMH pa3J1H'IHHMH MeJKI\Y HH- j\HBHl\aMII. OCHooaHHeM JI,OII 3Toro H HOJIHeTCJI BblCOKall Koppe- JlJlL\HJI MeJKjI,)' 6HOJlOrH'IeCKHMH po,ljCTBeHIUlKaMH. I. CX(jAtTBO MeJK,!\Y pO,llSTBeHHIIKaMH B ceMRX B\l3HHKaeT "-"3a c'Ier reHeTiI'IecKOH II cpe.n;OBOH 061\1HOOm. "." ,4, CeM.eiiHQC CXOJJ.CTBO Hj: 06>13arljO IJIIJIJlerCH rel;!e" TH'IecICIIM. 3. .II.mr KOJln'lCCTBeljHoii OlleHKH CXO}1CT11a Me)J(J\Y POJJ.- CTBeHHlIKaMH IICnOJlb3YJOT nO"a.:JaTCJI KOIUc0pl\aHTHOCTH II KOp- pLlHII. ' " 4. Ko4IeHTKOppeJIJlLlH KBK Mepa CXOJl,CTBB Me !UI)!.IIBHJ\aMH He npeJl,OOJ1araer cxo.n;CTBa B !i61iOTI!blX neJIqH- HX np,H3HaKa. 3. 6J1H3HeLlbl H 6J1H3HeLlOBbIM MeTo,q EJlH3Hel\OBbIH MeTOJ\ HBJ1HeTCJI Hall60Jlee pacnpOCT]JaHeH- HblM B reHenlKe nOBe.n;eHHII qeJ10BeKa. qTo6bl JlyqIlle np e.n;CTBn- JIJlTb ce6e OCHOBbl 3Toro MeTOAa, CHa'laJIa norOBopHM 0 HBJIe- HIIH 6J1113HeLlOBOCTI! Bo06 lll e. 3.1. BIIOJlOrHR 6J1H3HeIlOBoCTII EOJlblllHHCTBO MJ1eKOflilTalOlllllX p0Jl(,ljaIOT 60Jlbwe OI\HOrO AeTCHblllla 1J nOMeTe. 3TO npOIICXO,ljHT nOToMY, qTO BO BpeMJI OBY- JIJlIIHH Y 3THX JKIIBOTHblX c03peoalOT H OnJIoj\oTBOpJlIOTCJI cpa3Y HeCKOJlbKO HHl1eKJleTOK. Y HeKOTopblX BHj\OB JKHBOTHblX (JlOIlla.n;H, KpynHblH poraTblH CKOT, BblCWHe 06e3b1lHbI) H qeJIOBeKa npll OBY- JlJlIIIIII 06bl'lHO 06pa3YeTCR J1HIllb OJUla IIMlleKJ1eTKa, H B pe3YJlbTa- 130 131 
ITpll pOJK)l.eHHH 6nH3HeQOB MOJKHO 06HapYJKI1Tb '1eThlpC pa3ill1'1HbIX BapHaHT3 COOTHOWeHHJI nnO.!U1bIX 060JlO'leK*: I) 6nH3HeQb! HMeIOT pa3)1.eJIbHbie aMHHOHbI, XOpHOHbl H nJlaQeHTbl; 2) 6J1H3HCQbl HMCIOT pa3J1,eJ1bHble aMHHOHbl H XOpHOHbl, HO 06IQYIO nJlal.\eHTY; 3) 6JIH3HCI.\bI HMeIOT pa3)1.CnbHbIc 3MHHOHbl, HO 061QI'!c xo- pHOH H nJ1aQcHTY; 4) 6nH3HCQbl HMeIOT 06IQHC aMHHOH, XOpHOH H nnaI.\CHTY. .II.JIJi .II.3 6J1H3HCI.\OB xapaKTcpHbI TOJIbKO )l.Ba nepBblx THna, TOr)l.a KaK npll P0JK.l\CHHH M3 6JIH3HeQoB Moryr Ha6JllO.n:aTbcH BCC '1eTbIpe Tlma COOTHOWCHHH nJlO.!U1bIX o60J10qeK. qaCTO MaTepH CY)l.HT 0 311rOTHOCTl! CBOIIX )l.ereH-6J1H3HCQOB no KOJ1HQeCTBY Jl,eT- CKHX MCCT BO 1JPC"H pO)l.OB, HO, KaK MbI BH)l.HM, TaKlte cYJK.I\eHIIJI Moryr 6bITb II OWII60qHbIMH, nOCKOJIbKY 3)1.CCb B03MOJKHbI pIl3JIH'I- HbIe BapHaHTbl. qacToTa pOJK)l.eHIIJI 6JIII3HCQOB D pa3HblX nonYJIJlQHJlX Pa3- nllQHa, HO :JTa pa3HHl.\a D03HI1K3er B OCHODHOM 33 C'IeT pa3ill1'1HH D '1aCTOTe pOJK)l.eHIIH .II.3 6J1113HeI.\OD, TOr)l.a K3K KOJII'!'1CCTBO POJK- )l.eHHH M3 6JIH3HClIOB DO DCCX nonYJ1J!QIIHX npHMepHO nOCTOJlHHO. KOnHqeCTBO pO.l\ll1J!I1HXCJI M3 H .II.3 6JIH3HCI.\OB onpe)l.eJlJIIOT npH- 6JIH3I1TenbHO, HCnOJIb3YJl OqeHb npOCTOH cnoc06 nO)l.CqeTa. M3 6mf3HCl\bI BCCr)l.a O.ll.HOnOnbIe, a cpC.l\II Lt.3 O.ll.HOnOJIbIe II paJHono- nble p0JK.l\aIOTCJI npliMepHO C O)l.HHaKOBOH BepOJITHOCTbIO, CJ1e)l.O- BaTeJIbHO, qaCTOTa pOJKJI,CHHJI .II.3 6ml3Hel.\OB 6YAeT paBHa Y)l.BO- eHHOH '1aCTOTe p0JK.l\eHHJI pa3HOnOJIbIX )l.BOeH. A QaCTOTa pOJK)l.e- 132 HHJI M3 6nH3HeQOB, TaKHM 06pa30M, COCTaBIIT pa3HHQY MeJK.l\Y qaCTOTOH p0JK.l\eHIIH DCCX 6ill13Hel\OB Bo06IQe H QaCTOTOH pOJK.l\e- HHII Lt.3 6J11I3HeI.\OB. .II.onYCTIIM, 06IQee qHCJIO 6J1H3Hel\OBbIX pO)l.OB 3a KaKOH-To ncpllO)I. COCTaBHJIO N, H3 HHX pa3HOnOJIbIX )J,BOCH OKa3aJ10Cb n. ITOCKOJIbKY pa3HOnOJIble ABOHHII - 3TO BCer,!l.a .II.3 6JIH3Hel\bl, a KOJllI'ieCTBO pll3HonOJ1blX II O,IJ;IIOnOJIbIX .II.3 6nll3Hel.\OB npHMepHO O.l\llHaKOBO, TO o6IQee qHCJIO .II.3 6JIH3HCQOB COCTaBlIT 2n. ITOHJlT- HO, qTO OCTaB!I1aJlCH '1aCTb 6Y)l.eT npHXO.l\llTbCJI Ha )l.OJIlO M3 6JIII3Hel.\OB II HX '1HCJIO 6Y)l.eT onpe,!l.eJlJlThCJI KaK pa3HOCTb Me N H 2n, TO eCTb qllCJIO M3 6J1H3HeI.\OB COCTaBHT (N-2n). XOTJI 3TH nO,!l.CqCTbI ,!I.aIOT JIHWb npll6JIH3HTCnbHoe npen;- CTaBJICHlle 06 OTHOCIITeJIbHOM KOJIII'IeCTBe M3 II .II.3 6nH3Hel\OB, Bee JKC TaKHM cnoco60M npOBOJI,JIT CTaTHCTII'IeCK}'IO OQeHKY POJK- )l.aeMOCTH M3 II .II.3 6nIl3Hel\OB B pa3HbiX CTpaHax. OKa3aJ10Cb, HanpllMep, qTO B COe.l\llHeHHbIX lllT3Tax AMepllKII 60JiLwe Deero Lt.3 6nIl3Hel\OB pOJKAaerCJI cpe)l.lI Herpl1TJlHCKoro HaCenCHIIJI (11 0 nap Ha 10000 P0,!l.OB), TOr,l\3 KSK Y aMepHKaHCKIIX KI1TaHl\eB H IInOHl\CB OHH pOJK)l.aIOTCH HaMHoro peJKe (nopJlAKa 20 Ha 10000 pO,!l.OB). Bo06IQe .lI.IIH MOHr0J10H.!U1bIX nonYJ1J!l\IIH xapaKTepHa ca- MaH HH3KaH QaCTOTa MHOrOnJIO)l.IIJI. O)l.lIaKO '1aCTOT3 po)l(I\eHHJI M3 6JIH3Hel\OD Y H!lX HeCKOJIbKO Bblwe, qeM B p,pyrl1X nonYJIJiQII- HX. HanpHMep, y aMepHKaHcKHx KHTaHl\eB OHa I\OCTlIl'aeT 48 HS 10000 pOI\OB, TOrl\S KaK B 60J1bWHHCTBe CTpaH KOJIe6J1eTCH D npe- )l.eJ1ax 30-40. B EBpone qaCTOTa .!lII3HrOTHOCTH COCTaBnHeT OT 60 1\0 90 Ha 10000 POJK.l\CHHH, a MOH0311rOTHOCTH - Kone6J1eTCJI B npe.l\enax 30-40. B HaweH CTpaHe 6JIH3Hel\bI p0JK.l\aIOTCJI npllMepHO C TOH JKe qaCTOTOH, KaK II B EDpone. .II.3 6J1113HCl\OB p0JK.l\aeTcli B Jl,Ba pa3a 60JIbUJe, qeM M3. 06IQee KOJlII'leCTBO 6JIII3Hel\OB BO BceM MHpe COCTaBJ1J!eT OK0J10 60 MIIJ1J1HOHOB. BepOHTHOCTb p0JK.l\eHIIH 6JIH3Hel\OB TeM BbIwe, qeM 60nbwc HOMCp 6epeMeHHocTI'! - 6J1H3Hel\bI qalQe pOJKl\alOTCJI B n031\HHX 6epeMeHHoCTJlJ(. 31'0 npaBHJlO KacaerCJI HCKJllOqHTeJIbHO ,L{3 6JIH3- HClIOB. BJ1HHHlle B03pacTa MaTepH 06'bJlCHJlCTCJI, nO-BHJl.HMOMY, nOBblweHHeM C B03pacToM ypOBHH rOHal\OTpOnHHa Y JKeHIQHH. 3TO If npHBoAIIT K 60nee q3CTOH nOJIlloBYJIHl\HH. 3TY rllnoTe3Y nOiITBepJKl\aIOT H <jJaKTbl nOBbIweHHoH '1aCTOTbI MHOrOnJIO,lJ;IlbIX PO.n:OB y JKeHIQIIH, npOXOI\HBWHX JIe'leHHe OT 6ecnno.!lllJl C nOMO- 133 + Pa3mt':l8lOT !pH OCHOBH1:.]X BH,tta 060J10\ieK nnO,!l.a: aMHHOH, XOpHOH 11 n.nau.eHTY. AMHHOH II XOpHOH Sl:BnRIOTCJI 3apO,D,blmeSI.LM:H 060J10IlX3MH. TO eCT:b pa3BHSafOTCJI 1t3 XneTOK JapO.L1blWa A:t.IHHOH npe,aCTaSJUleT co50ii BHYlpeH HJOro 3apO.lI.blweBYIO 060JIOQxy 3TO TOHKa$l 06oJ1oQxa, JCOTopaJi HeeeT 38lltHT- Hble YHKI.1"H It BhlJlen.Sl:eT aMH"OTIIeCKYIO ;tC'H,[IKOCTb. no Mepe pOCTa 3apiJ.IU>J- wa aMHHOH paCWHpxerCK If BCe....a;a 6blBaer npHIK8r x CTeHXe Mann. HapYiKHaJl JapOl1blWeOaSl: 060JIOQKa H33bJBae-rCR XOpHOHOM. XOpHOH HrpaeT Ba:i::HYJO pOJlb B n"TaHH" JapO,l1;bIIll3. BOpCHHKH XOpllOH3 06pa3YJOT TeCHYIO CBS3-b C MBTepHH- CKHM Opr3HH:1MOM '1ep.e3 ItJlalleHTj' nJI8UeHT8 - 3TO opeMeHHblH opraH, o6pa. 3YfOLLI,HHC$I y nnaueHTapttMX MJlCKOnHTaIOUlHX If npOI1CxoJUIlU"H: O.D:HOBpCMeHIiO "3 KneT'OK nnoM t M8TCP" nnatJ,eHTa CJ1)'JeHT CBR3Y'fOWHM JBeHOM Me:.K.a)' KpO. BeHOCHblMH CHCTeMaMH MaTepn H nJIo.lla nocne pOllOS nnaUeHT3., COe.nHHeHH8J1 C XOPHOHOM (.n:eTcKoe MecTO). OTJ1eJ1KeTCJI OT CTCHKII MaTKH II TaK::.KC BbIXO.11HT Qepe3 BnarallIlw,e 
3.2. KOHlenl\HII 6J1H3Hel\OBOrO MeTOLla arHOCTI1KI1 311rOTHOCTI1 f.CI1MCHCa HOCIIT Ha3BaHI1e MeTo!!.a no- nHCHMUToMHoro cpaBHeHI1H 11 npeAnOJIaraeT OLleHKY CXO.ll.CTBa H pa3ml'lHH 6JIH3HeLjOB no MHOJKeCTBY napaMeTpoB. KaJKAblH li3 3TIIX napaMeTpoB B OT.aeJIbHOCTI1 MOJKCT Hl1qerO He rOBO- pHTb 0 3HrOTHOCTI1, HO H3MepeHHe IIX B cOBoKynHocTH n03BonH- eT npOBOAHTb 60JIee Ha,!\eJKHYIO Al1amOCTHKY. BO-BTOpblX, r.CH- MeHC npe)J)!OJKl1n I1CCJIe.aOBaTb He TonbKO M3 6JII13HeLjoB, HO H IICnOJIb30BaTb B Ka'leCTBe KOHTpOJIJI .II.3 napbl. ITpaKTl1qeCKH nOCne pa60T r.CuMeuca npl1HWlTIbI 6mnHeLjOBOrO MeTo!!.a He npeTepneml 3HaqllTeJlbHbiX U3MeHCHI1H. DJIII3HeLjOBblH MeTOA B ero KnaCCllqeCKOM BapHaHTe OC- HOBaH Ha pHAe AOUYlI.(eHIfH. IlepBoe 113 HIIX - 3TO paBeHCTBO cpeA )J)!H napTHepoB KaK B napax M3, TaK H B napax .II.3 6JI1I3- Hel\OB. ECJII1 H3MeH'IHBOCTb npll3HaKa Llenl1KOM onpeAenHcTcH cpeAOH, TO 11 M3, II )),3 6JIH3HeLjbl AOnJKHbl I1MeTb no JTOMY npH- 3HaKY O,llllHaKOBO BblCOKHe BHYTplmapHble KOppeJlHLlHH, no Be- JlJf'!IIHe npH6J1I1JKaKJlI.(lIeCH K 1,0. ECJlII JKe H3MeH'IIiBOCTb nplnHa- Ka LjeJIlIKOM 3aBHCHT 01' reHOTHna, TO K031j11j1HLlHeHT KoppemI- LjHIf B rpynne M3 6JI113HeLjOB OKaJKeTCII 6JIlf3KIIM K 1,0, a KOp- peilllLjIlH B rpynne ,[(3, OqeBH,!lHO, 6Y,lIeT npH6JIHJKaTbcJI K 0,5 (no KOJljJljIHLjlleHT po.n:CTBa .II.3 6i1H3HeLjoB), nOCKOJlbKY y.II.3 B cpe)I.HeM nOilOBHHa 0611.(IIX reHOB TaK, B lI,l1eaJIe, pa60TaeT 6JIH3- Hel\OBblH MeTO,ll. BTopoe ocnOBnoe )1011YlI.(eHHe 6!I1J3Hel.1oBoro MeTO.!la - JTO OTCYTCTBlfe CIfCTeMaTHqeCKIiX pa3JIHqllH MeJK,lIY 6J1113Hel.1a- MH II OAHHO'IHOpOJK.[\eHHb!MII, IIHa'ie BbIBOAbI, nOJIY'IeHHbIe B 6JIII3- He110BOM HCCJle.aOBalllllf, Henb3H nepeHOCI1Tb Ha BCIO nonynJl- LlHIO TO'lHO TaK JKe lie AOJIJKHO 6bITb CIlCTeMaTlfqCCKIIX pa3JI1I- qHit Me)l(AY CaMHMI1 THnaMH 6JII13HeLjoB - M3 II .II.3. .II.JIJI Toro 'IT06bl nOHJlTb, KaKI1M 06pa30M OLjeHIIBaeTCH ponb l'CHOTHU8 Ii Cpe.l\bl no .I1.8HHbIM, nOIlY'IaeMblM DIl1l3HeQOBbJM Me'I'o.n:OM, KaKOBb! ero B03MOJKHOCTH II orpaHII'IeHIIH, paCCMOTpIlM pllCYHOK 5.1, Ha KOTOpOM npCJI.CTaBJleH npoCTeHwlIH BapHaHT MO- LleJlH nYTeH, TO eCTb C/loco6a, n03BO/lHIOII.(ero CXeMaTllqeCKH H306pa3HTb, KaKI1M 06pa30M reHeTllqCCKlle If Cpe.ll.OBble BJlIIHHHJI O/lpeAelIJlIOT oc06eHHocTil ljIeHOTl1na B BepxHeH '1aCTH PIlCYHKOB 5.1 a II 5.16 npe.ll.CTaBJIeHb! Te l1apaMeTpbl, KOTOpb!e He pcrHcTpHpylOTCJI B 6!IH3HeI.10BOM 3KC- ncpllMeHTe. K HIIM OTHOCJlTCH reHOTHn, 0611.(aH cpeAa (Ta cpeJl,a, 135 ILjblO rOHa,!\oTponHblx ropMoHoB. B OTHoweHlfH )l.H311rOTHoro MIIO- rOnJIOAHH IIMelOTCJI TaKJKe ljIaKTb!, CBIIAeTeJIbCTBYlOlI.(lfe 0 BlIlfJl- HIIII l'eHeTH'ICCKlfX 1jJ8KTOpOB H8 BepO.<ITHOCTb pOJK.L\eHH.<I 6!IH3lJe- QOB. BepOHTHOCTb pOJKi\eIlHH .II.3 6IIH3HeLjon Bblwe iJ)IJI Tex )KeH- II.(HH, pO.n:CTBCHHHKII KOTOPb!X YJKe HMeilli 6IIH3Hel\OB. B03MO)l(II0 OCHOBHOH reHeTl1qeCKH AeTepMHHllpoBaHHoH npHqHHOH B no clIY'Iae TaKJKe MOJKeT 6b!Tb ypoBeHb rOHa,!!.oTpomma. B OTHOllIC- HHH M3 6JIH3HeLjOB AaHlIblX 0 lIaClIe,!!.yeMOCTI1 CKIIOIlIlOCTII K MIIO- rOnJIO)I.H1O He HMeeTCJI. IlOCKOJIbKY M3 61IH3Hel\bl pa3BHBalOTCJI 113 OAHOH 3HrOTbI H, CJIeAOnaTeJIbHO, relleTHqeCKII H.lI.eHTl1qHbI, Bce Ha6!IIOi\aeMble pa3IIHqllJl B I1X ljIellOTHnax ,!!.OJI)I(Hbl 06'bJlCHHTbCJI HCKJllO'IHTeJIbHO Cpe,!lOBbIMH npHqHHaMI1. IT03TOMY, '!TOOb! onpeAenHTb, B KaKOff Mepe H3MellqHBOCTb npH3HaKa AeTepMHHllpOBalla reHeTlI'IeCKIIMH ljIaKTopaMII, Ka3anOCb 6b!, AOCTaTO'lHO 113MepHTb ypoBeHb CXOLl- CTBa M3 6J1H3He1.10B M JTO ,!!.eI1CTBHTCJIbHO 6blJlo ObI TaR eCilH 61,1 C MOMeHTa pOJKAeHHH M3 61IH3Hel\bl 6bInH pa3J1yqeHbI  BOC- nHTblBaJIHCb B pa3HbiX cpeAax. OJl,HaKO B OOJIbWHIICTBe CJIY'IaeB TaKoro HC npolfCXOAUT: 6JI113Hel\bl BocnHTblnalOTCH B O,!J.HOH II TOH JKe cpeAe, n03TOMY, '1T06b! KaKHM-TO 06pa30M yqeCTb BnHJlHIIH 0611.(ei! cpeAbl, B Ka'lCCTBe KOHTponH HcnOlIb3YlOT napbI ,[(3 6nm- HeQOB, Ha KOTOpblX ljJal<Top 0611.(ei! cpe.11.bI .L\eHCTByeT B TOH JKe Mepe, KaK If Ha M3 6JIH3HeQOB, HO 3aTO 061I\lfX reHOB Y .II.3 OJIII3- Hel\OB npHMepHO B LlBa pa3a MeHbwe, BeAb no cBoell reHeTH'IeC- KOH KOHCTHTYLjHII OHII COOTBeTCTBYIOT 06bI'IHb!M 6paTbJlM II ceCT- paM. COOTBeTCTBeHHO, ypOBCHb reHeTH'IeCKH 06yCJlOBilellHoro CXO,!!.CTBa .II.3 6nll3l1eLlOl! Jl,OIIJKeH 6blTb HHJI(e, KaK Y 60JIee OT.!I,a- nellHblX pOACTBeHHlIKOB, '1eM M3. Ml\eJl OJlIl3Hel\OBOrO MeTo,!!.a 6b!Jla C$OPMYIIHpOBaHa <D.ranbTOHOM clI.(e B 1865 ro.ll.Y, HO OKOH'IaTeJIbHaJi ero MO,!!.H- IjJHKaLjHH CBH3aHa C HMeHeM f.CHMeHca. MMeHIIO f.CHMellc B 1924 rOAY 3aJIOJKIIJI OCIIOBb! HCnOJIb30BaHIIJI 6nH3Hel1oBoro Me- TO)1a B reHeTlIKe. Bo-nepBblx, OH pa3paooTail Ha,!\e)f(HbIH MeTOA AllarHOCTHKII 31IrOTHOCTlI, BeAb Ha rJIa3 He BcerAa JlerKO onpe- AeJIlITb, HBJlHIOTCJI JIll 6nH3He1{b! M3 IIJIII .II.3 napOH. MeTo!!. AII- 134 
a3.n"-IaJO- 1l18RC" Cp6As reH01"l1n 061l18R cpeAa reHonm a311"..alO- 1l18RCR cpeAB reHOTHna H Cpci\bl H oWH6Ka 113MepeHI1. fcHOTHn, 06w,a H pa3- JlII'IalOw,ac cpe,l\a npe,l\CTaBJIIOT C060H JlaTeHTHble nepeMeH- tlble: Mbl TOJlbKO npe,l\nOJlaraeM HX CYW,CCTBOBaHl'Ie, HO He \'I3Me- peM IIX HenocpellCTBcHHO B npOI.\CCce 3KcnepHMeHTaJ1bHOrO IICCJle,l\OBaHH. B HH)I(HeH qaCTH PHCYHKOB 6.la H 6.16 (6JIH3Hel\ 111 611H3- lIel.\ 2) nOKaJaHbt napaMeTpbl, KOTopbIe perm:TpHPYIOTC B IICCJle- 1I0BaH1U1, - HanpHMep, nOKa:J,nCJUI lUi1'eJUICKTa nepBOro I11\TOpO- ro 6J1H3Hel.\a. CTPeJIKaMH nOKa3aHbi nYTH OT JlaTeHTHblX nepeMeHHblX K H3yqaeMOMY nCHXOJIOrll'leCKOMY napaMeTpY - Te BJlHJlHH, KOTO- pble OKa3bIBalOT reHOTl1n, 06w,a H pa3J1l1qalOw,acJI cpe)(a Ha 113)1QacMYro xapaKTepllcTHKY. ITYTb OT rCHOTIma 0603HaqeH 6YK- BOH "h" (OT CJ!OBa heredity - HaCJle)(CTBeHtlOCTb), nYTb OT 06w,eil cpeAbl- 6YKBOH "c" (aT CJ!OBa common - o6w,a), 11 nYTb OT pa3J1Hqalow,eHc cpei\bI - 6YKBOH "e" (OT CJIOBa error - OWH6- Ka; Ha3BaHHe CB3aHO C TeM, qTO Ol.\eHKa pa3J1H'IalOllJ,eilc Cpci\bl BKIlIOQaeT B ce6 He TOJlbKO AIICnepCHIO CPC,l\OBbIX 3qujleKTOB, He COBna,l\alOw,HX y qJleHOB napbI, HO H OWl16KY 113MepeHHJI, TO eCTb Hel136e)l(HbIe norpeWHOCTH, KOTOpbte 6blBalOT B 3KcnepHMCHTe II KOTopbIe TOJKe He COBna,l\alOT 1I.Jl '1JIeIlOB napbI). KaK BH,l\HO no PIlCYHKY, KoppeJl>I11HII Me)l(J\Y qllCHaMH M3 H .Q3 nap MorYT onpe,l\eJlHbC reHOTHnOM H 06W,CH Cpe,l\OH. ECJIII 06w,a cpe,l\a o.n:HHaKoBa 1I.Jl napTHepoB M3 H .II.3 nap 6J11BHel.\OB, TO cpaBHeHHe BHYTpHnapHoro CXOACTBa M3 H .II.3 6J1H3HeI.\OB n03BOJlHT nOJlyqHTb BnOIlHe onpeAeJleHHYIO HHIjJOP- Mal.\lIlO 0 pOJlII reHOTIma H CpCJl,bI B BapllaTHBHOCTH 113YQaeMOil xapaKTepHCTHKH. ECJlH nOCTYJIaT 0 paBeHCTBe cpe,l\OBblX YCIIO- BHH pa3BHTII M3 H .II.3 611113He1.\OB HapywaeTc, TO Ol.\et.KII KOMnOHeHT ljJeHOTHnllqeCKOH AIICnepCHIi (HaCJIe,l\yeMOCTb, AIIC- nepCHII 31jJljJeKTOB 06W,CH H pa3mlqalOw,ciic cpeJl,bI) HC1<aJKaIOT- C. PaCCMOTPHM, B KaKHX clIyqaJlX TaKHe IICKaJKeHHJI MOrYT npOHCXO,l\IITI>. Bo-nepBblx, Cpe,l\OBble YCJIOBII MorYT YBeJlIIQH1\aTb BHYT- pllnapHoe CXO,l\CTBO M3 611H3Hel.\OB B ceMbe qaCTO C03AaIDTc YCJIOBI'!JI, ycyry6JIHIOw,He IIX CXOACTBO (O,l\HHaKOBO oAeBaIOT, ,l\aIDT nOXOJKHe HMeHa II TaK AaJ1ee). ITO.nqepKIIBaHile CXO,l\CTBa 6J1113He1\OB OKPY)l(a1Ow,HMH MO)J(eT npH1\o.nIlTb K B03HI1KHOBeHHIO nOnOJIHIITeJlbHOrO HereHeTH'IeCKOrO CXOACTBa Me1Kny napTHe- 137 a. MOH03"rOTHbI0 611"3HOl.\bl 05U\aR cpeA>' reHOT"n 6. AII3MfOTllbiB 6nM3HOL\bl 0.50 PucynoJ{ 5.1 TenemU'leCKUe u cpeoo6ble ,paKmopbl, onpeOellJjlOUe cxoocmeo 6nU3He1J08, 8ocnumb18alOu.xCJI 8Mecme* KOTopa COBna.n:aeT y 'IJICHOB napbl, HanpHMep, 3KOHOMH'IeCKHH YPoBeHb ceMbll, nCHXOJlOrHqeCKlIe oco6eHHoCTH pO.nHTeJleH, 06- Il1He APY3b) II pa:JnH'IalOw,acR cpe.na (BKJIIDqalOw,aJl B ce6J1 TY cpeAY, I{QTOpaJIlle COBna.naeT y qJleHOB napbl, HanpllMep, pa3HbIe YBJleqeHH, pa3Hoe onlOweHHe pOAlITeJleH), a TaK)J(e KOBapllal.\l! . Ha pHCYHKax 5.1-5.2 H 5 6-5 7 npHBO)VITCB HeCKOJ/bKO H3MeHeHHbIe BapUaHTbl cxeM. npeMO)lCeHHMe ):t:IfUlo:JJlHHOM )VIII 8H3JYH33 KOMnOHCHT IJIcH04 THnHqeCKO;; JlHCnCpCHH (Loeblin J C . 1992) 136 
paMH, '1TO npOTHBOpeqHT )].onYLl.\CHHIO 0 paBeHCTBC cpc)]. B M3 H JJ:3 napax, nOCKOJIbKY MJI .II.3 6JIH3Hel\OB TaKOC nO)].'IepKllBa. HHC CXO)].CTBa MeHee xapaKTcpHO. ECilli MbI 113Y'IaeM npll3HaK, MaJIO qYI!CTBHTeilbHbIH K cnel\HqmqCCKHM OC05CHHOCTJlM 5ilH3- Hel\OBOH CPC)].bI (HanpHMep, nCHxoqm3HOilOmqeCKI!e xapaKTepH- CTHKII), TO TaKlle norpeIIIHOCTH MorYT He OKa3aTb 3aMeTHoro BJIHJlHHH Ha CXO)J,CTBO 11 pa3JIH'IHJI 5J1H3Hel\OB. ECJIH )l(e npH3HaK 'IYBCTBHTeJ1eH I( TaKoro pO)J,a cpeJJ.OBbIM BJIHJlHIIHM, TO 5ilH3He- l\OBbIH MeTO)J, OKa3bIBaeTCJI MaJIO npHro)].eH )].ilJl ero I13YQeHltJl, T.K. OCHOBHoe )J,onYLl.\eHHe 0 paBeHCTBe cpe)J, OKa3bIBaeTCJI He- BCpHbIM. IToKa3aTCJlb HaCJIe.n,yCMOCTII, Bbl'lHCJIJlCMblH )J,ilJl npH- 3HaKa, qYBCTBHTeilbHoro K oc05eHHOCTJlM 5JIU3HCl\OBOH CPC)J,bl, 6y)].eT 3aBbIIlleHHbIM, TaK KaK o5Ll.\aJl cpe)J,a 5y)].eT BHOCIITb 60JIbIlIIIH BKJIBJI, B CXO)J,CTBO M3 6JIII3Hel\OB, '1eM B CXO)J,CTBO .II.3 6JIH3HCl\OB. BO-BTOpbIX, Cpe.ll.OBbIe YCilOBHJI MorYT YMeHbwaTb BHYTPH- napHoe CXO.ll.CTBO .II.3 5JIH3HCl\OB. B l\CJIOM pJl)].e HCCilC)J,OBaHI1H nOKa3aHO, '1TO CpC)J,OBbIe YCJIOBIIJI pa3BIITHJI HMelOT TeH)J,eHl\HIO YlJeJIl1qHBaTb PaJJIHqHJI .II.3 6JI1i3Hel\OB: pOl\IITeJlH CKJIOHHbl aKl\CH- THpOBaTb HCCXO.ll.CTBO .II.3 6JI1t3HCl\OB (HanpHMep, ycnCXH B pa3HblX cq.epax )].eJlTeJIbHOCTH); caMII .II.3 6JIH3HCl\bI CTPeMJlTCJI nO.ll.qepK- HYTb CBOID HCnOXO)l(CCTb (Bb16Hpa1OT pa3J1HqHble Cq.Cpbl )J,eJlTeJIb- HOCTH, npe)].nOqHTaIOT IIMeTb pa3HbIX .!\PY3eH). 3TO npItBO)].HT K q.q.eKTY )].HCCHMIIJIJll\I1H - nOCTeneHHOMY YBeml'leHItIO pa3ill1qHH .II.3 6JIH3HCl\OB. ECJIH H3yqaeMaJi nCHXOJIOrHqeCKaJl xapaKTepHCTU- Ka q.OpMl1pycrC>I nplt yqaCTltlt cnoc06CTBYIOLl.\HX .!\IICCHMIIJlJlUItIl CpCJJ.OBbIX oc06eHHOCTeH, TO nOKa3aTeJlb HaCJle.n,yeMOCTIf 6Y)].CT TaK)!(e 3aBblweH, KaK II B nepBOM cJlyqae, nOCKOJIbKY 06Ll.\aJl cpe- .!\a 6Y.!\eT I!HOCHTb MeHbWHH BKJIBJI, B CXOI\CTBO JJ:3 5ilH3HCUOB, qCM B cX0.ll.CTBO M3 6JIH3HeUOB. . B-TpCTbItX, YCJIOBHJI pa3BHTHJI MorYT paBHbIM 06pa30M YMeHbWaTb cxo.!\CTBO napTHepOB H M3, H .II.3 nap. qaCTb HX CBJI- 3aHa C ncpHo)].aMH BHyTpHYTP06HOrO pa3BHTIIJI H pOI\OB, 'IaCTb- npHXOI\HTCJI Ha UOCTHaTaJIbHOe pa3BIITI1C 5JI113HeUOB. Bo BpeMJI BHYTPHYTpo6HOrO pa3BHTliJi OqCHb qaCTO 6JI1!3- ItCl\OBbIC napTHcpbI OKa3blBalOTCJI B HCpaBHOl\eHHblX YCJIOBIIJlX. Bce UHTaTeJIbHble BeLl.\eCTBa 11 KHCJIOpO.ll. pa3BHBaIOLl.\HCCJI mlC- 11,1,1 nOJIYQalOT Qepe3 nJIal\eHTY. Bcc JJ:3 6JIH3HCI\bI H npHMepHo 1/3 M3 6JIH3HCl\OB IIMCIOT pa3.!\eJIbHble XOpHOHbl H nJlaueHTbI. 138 OCTailbHbIe 2/3 M3 6JIH3Hel\OB HMelOT 06Ll.\He XOpHOH II UJIa- UCHTY Hx Ha3bIBalOT MOHOXOpllOHHbIMH 611H3Hel\aMII (B OTJIH- qHC OT M3 6JIIt3HCUOB, HMelOLl.\I1X ,!!.Be nJIaUeHTbl H I\Ba XOpIlO- Ha, KOTOpblX Ha3blBalOT )].HXOpHOHHbIMII). B nJIO,!!.lIblX 060JIO'l- Kax MOHOXOPHOHHblX 6JIH3HeUOB 06pa3YIOTCJI pa3JIHqHbIC CO- e.l:UmCHIIJI Me)!(I\Y COcy I\HCTblMH CHCTeMaMH O)J,Horo H BToporo 6J1H3HeUa. Hx Ha3bIBaIOT WYHTaMH. Hall6oJ1ee onaCHbl Tal( Ha- 3bIBaeMbIe apTcp1l0-BeH03HbIC WYHTbl, TO eCTb COCI\HHeHH>I ap- TCpHIl O.ll.HOrO 6JI113HCl\a C BeHOH ,!!.pyroro. ITPH. nOM O.ll.HOMY 1t3 6JI113HeL\OB MO)!(CT HeAOCTaBaTb apTcpHal1bHOH KpOBH, 6ora- TOH KHCilOpOI\OM 11 mnaTeilbHbIMH lJCLl.\eCTBaMH, a Y lIPyroro MOJKeT 6bITb ce H36bITOK, qTO TaK)I(e HC cnoco6cTByeT HOp- MailbHOMY pa3BHTHIO. qaLl.\e Bcero B03HHKaeT HCCKOl1bKO npH- MepHO paBHbIX no MOLl.\HOCTH IIIYHTOB, KOTOpbIC KOMneHCIIPYIOT I\Pyr lIPyra, HO B HeKOTopblX cl1yqaJlX KOMnCHcaUHH 6bIBaCT He- AOCTaTOqHOH, It no npHBOAHT K TOMY, '1TO OAHH H3 6ml3HeUOB pa3BIIBaeTCH B YCJIOBHHX nOCrOJlHHorO .lI.eq.HL\I1Ta He06xo,!!.HMb1X BeLl.\CCTB. B PC3YJIbTaTe TaKlte 611H3Hel\bI CHilbHO OTl1HqalOTCJI OAHH OT lIPyroro npH pO)!(l\eHI1H, B nepBYIO Oqepe,!!.b no BCCY. Pa3HHua lJ Bece npH pO)!(.n:eHHI1 MO)!(CT Ha6JIIOI\aTbCJI TaK)!(e y JJ:3 6mt3HeUOB H )IJIXOpIlOHHbIX M3. TaKaJl pa3HHl\a MO)!(eT 6blTb CBJl3aHa C HcpaBHOMepHblM Cl\aBJIHBaHHeM nilal\eHT npH MHO- rOnJIO)IJIOH 6epCMeHHOCTIl. BTOPOH nan pa3BIITI1J1, Ha KOTOpOM TaKJKe B03HIIKaIOT 06YCJIOBl1eHHbie Cpel\OM pa3JIH'II1J1 Me)l()].Y 6J1H3Hel\aMH - no npOL\ecc pOAOB. EJIH3Heu, poJK)l.aIOLl.\HMCJI nepBblM, npOXO)IJIT qe- pC3 HenOl\rOTOBJIeHHbIC POI\OBble nYTH H HMeeT 6011b1llHH waHC UOJlyqHTb TpaBMY, HO BTOpOH 6JII13Heu CTaJIKltBaeTCJI C l\el1blM PJl- .n:OM I\PyrHx TpYAIlOCTeH. OH qaLl.\c 3aHHMaeT B MaTKC HcupaBHl1b- Hoe n0110)!(CHHC (nonCpeqHOC Hl1l1 TaJOBoe npCMe)!(aHHC), II, qTO- 6b11l3BJIC% ero, BpaqaM qaLl.\C npHXOAHTCJI npHMCHJlTb HCKYCCT- BCHHoe pOI\OBcnOMOJKeHHe. KpOMC TOro, BTOpOH 611H3Heu AOl1bwe HaXO)].I1TCJI B po)].ax H qaLl.\c HCnbITblBaCT KI1CJIOpO)IJIOC rOJIo)].a- HHe, qTO He6JIaronpl1J1THO CKa3blBaeTCJI, B ncpBYIO OqCPC)].b, Ha P33BHTHH l\CHTPaJIbHOH HCpBHOH CI1CTCMbl. ITo )].aHHbIM craTlICTII- KI1, CMCpTHOCTb "BTOpbIX" 6J1H3HCI\OB 6011bwe, qeM CMCpTHOCTb "nepBbIX". TaKHM 06pa30M, pa3JIHQHH B KaqeCTBC KpOBOCHa6)!(e- HIIJI BO BHYTPliYTp05HOM ncpHo)].e II HepaaHOUCHHOCTb ycnoBHH npH npOXO)l(.n:CHIIII POI\OBblX nYTeH MorYT npHBeCTH K cYLl.\eCTBeH- 139 
HbIIoI cpe)l,OBbIIoi pa3JIII'IlIftloi Me>KA)' 6J1113HeQ810111 cpa3Y JKe nocrre pOJKlIeHIIII'. Cpe)l,OBble pa3JI1\'1l1ft loIeJK)!y 6JI1\3HeQaMII B03HHKaIOT II B no- CTHaTa.JIbIlOIoi nepllO)l,e, Jl,aJKe npll ycnOBIIII BocnllTBHIIJI B O,lUlOH celolbe, TO eCTb, Ka3BJIOCb 6bI, npH nOJIHOH 061l\HOCTII cpe)l,hl. K B03HIl!CHOBeHJfro TaKHX pa3J1H'IHH '1aml' Bcero npMBOMT npl'.QB3J1- TOC OTHOIUeHlle pO)l,lneJIei1 K KBJK,D.OIolY 113 6J1H3HeQOB. ECJIH Jl,CTII pO)I,IUIHCb C pa3HHQei1 B Bece, ecnH OJl,llH 113 G1III3HeQOB Gorree OC- J1a6J1eH II T.n., TO MeJK)!y Jl,CTbMII Cpa3Y )J(e Ha6mo).l.lUOTCJI BpOJK- .l\eHHble OTJJII'IHJI. .II.a.rree Bce 3aBIICI1T OT OTlioweHtlJI pOJl,llTeJleH. ECilI'I p0)l,HTeJlII npllll.alOT 3TllIoI pa3JIII'IIIIIM oc060e 3Ha'leHlle II HaqllHalOT no-paJHOMY 05pall\aThcJI C KaJlUl.bIIoI 113 6J1I13HeQOB ('1a- CTO 60J1ee cna60ro orpaJK,l\alOT OT II3HqecKIIX HBrpY30K, GOJ1bWe 6anyroT, MeHbllIe HaKB3bIBaIOT II raK .n:aJIee), TO BpOJlVlellHble Pa3- J1H'IIiJI B .pH3H'leCKOM pa3BHTHII .l\OnOJ1HJlIOTCJI II pa3J1H'II'IIIMH B paJBIITlI1I nCIIXHKH. HepeJI,Ko npH BpoJKlIeHHblx pB31111'1I'1I1X loIeJK)!y 611H3HeQaMH pO,lUlTeJlII KaK 6bl )l,eJIJlT Jl,eTeH MCJK)!y C050R - 50- JIee cna50ro oneKBeT MaTb, a C GOJIce CIIJ1bHbIM B OCHOBHOM 38- HI'IMBCTCJI OTeQ. Bce 3TII oc05eHHOCTII BocnllTBHllft TOJlbKO ycy- ry6mlloT YJKe cYll\eCTByJOll\He PB3JIHqlIJI II, no 50rrblllei1 IJaCTH, He Clloc05CTBYIOT npBBillIbHOMY pa3BHTmO .!ICTCi1. Ell\e OJl,llH $BKTOp, qaCTO IIPIIBO.!lftll\HH K B03HHKHOBeHllIO IICI1XOrrOrll'lecKllx pa3J1H- 'III" MeJKA)' 6JIH3He1\aMII B ceMbe - 3TO pa3J1,eJleHlle pOJleH MeJIOIY 6JIH3He1\aMH. KaK II B mo60H rpynne, B nape MO>KCT Bbl.lJ.eJlHTbCJI PYKOBOJl,llTeJIb (rrll.l\ep), H TOI'.!(a BTOpOH 5JI113He1\ 6yJI,CT 3BHI1MaTb nOJl,'1I1HeHHOe nOJIOJKeHlle. Me>KA)' napTHepaMII MOryT 06pa30- BaTbCJI H KOMnJleMeHTapHbIe OTHOllleHllft. H3BeCTHbl CJlY'IBII, Kor- .!(a OJl,llH "3 6rrH3HeQOB Bcer.!(a Bbm01lHJlCT OJl,llI1 06>13aIlHOCTII, a BTOPO" - Jl,pyrne. HanpHMep, B nO)l,06110H nape O,lUlB cecrpa, Jl,e- Jlaft ypOKII, BCer.!la qllTaJIa TeKCT BCJlYX, B Jl,pyraJl TOJ1bKO cnYllIa- JIa. B pe3YJIbTaTe, Y>Ke 6Y)I,Y'l1l B3pOCJIoii, O)l,lla 113 .!IeByweK IIcnb!- TbIBaJIa TpY)I,IIOCTH B '1TeHIIII. TaKIIM 06pa30M, ecnH cpe.n,oBble ycnOBI'!JI OKB3I>IBaIOT Pa3- 1III'IHOe BJII\IIHlle HB $OpMHpOBaHlle 113Y'laeMoi1 XapaKTepliCTIIKI'I y M3 II: ,[\3 6JIH:JHeQoB, TO nOKa3aTCJIb HaCJICt(}'eMOCTIi 3TOH xapaK- TCpHCTIIKH MO>KCT OKaJaTbC!I IICKa>KeHHbIM: 3aHI1>KeHHbIM, ecnH 051l\aJI cpe.!la BHOCHT MeHbwlIH BKJlaJl, 13 CXO.n.CTBO M3 6J1113HeQOB, '1eM B CX0II.CTBO .II.3 6mf3HeQOB; 3BBbllUeHHblM - B npOTIIBono- JrO)J(HOM cJlY'lae. 140 3.3, PII3HOBIWIOCTH 6i1H3He1\OBoro MeTo.n.a CYll\eCTBYCT HecKOJlbKO BBpHaHToB 611113He1\OBOrO MeTOJl,a. 1) KJracCUqeCKuU Mu3Hell,06bIU MemoO. K KIlaCCH'IeCKoMY Ba- plUIHTY 6JI1\3Hel\oBOI'0 MeTO.n.B OTHOCHTCJI TaKaJI cxeMa, npll KOTO- POH BbIpa>KeHHOCTb HccnelJ;yeMoro npll3HaKa conOCTaBJlJleTC>I B napax M3 II .II.3 6J11!3HeQoB II OQeHliBae-rC>I ypOBCHb BHYTpl1napHO- TO CXOIJ;CTBa napTHepOB. ITpHHQlln npllMCHeHllft 3TOI'0 BapHBHTa 511113HeQOBoro MeTOJl,a 6I>IJI pa306pBH B npe.!lbl.!lYll\eM pB.3.!1eJle. 2) MemOO KOHnlpoJlbHOZO Mu3neqa. HcnOJlb3YeTCJI Ha Bb160p- Kax M3 OJlH3He1\OB. ITOCKOJ1bKY M3 6JIH3HCl\bI O'leHb CXOJl,llbi no MHornM npll3HaKBM, H3 napTHepoB M3 !lap MO)J(HO COCTBBIiTh ""e BbI50pKJI, ypaBHeflHbIe no 50JIblllOMY '1Hcny napaMeTpoB. TaKlle Bbl50pKII IICnOJIb3}'IQT MJI 113yqeHIIII' BJIHftHI'!>I KOHKpeTlibIX cpc.n.o- BblX B0311.CHCTBHH Ha 113MeHqllBOCTb npI'l3HaI<:a. .II.rrft 3TOI'0 oT5l1pa- CTCft no O,lUlOMY M3 5JIH3HCQY H3 KB>K,!\OH napbI AJIJI Cne1\II<jJII'IeC- Koro BOJlJ;ei1CTBIIJI (.n,allr;lTeJlbHaJI TpeHllpoBKa, 3KcnepHMeHTaJIb- Hoe 05Y'leHJle, Jle'le6HbIe npOl\eA)'pbI II Tn.). OCTaJIbHbIC 511113He- QbI TaKOMY B03.!1eiiCTBlfIO He nOJl,BepralOTCH II c1IY)l(aT KOHT- pOJlbHOH rpynnOH. TaKI'IM cnoco50M MO)l(HO, Hanpll:Mep, CpaBfllI- BaTb 3.p<jJeKTIIBHOCTb pa3HbiX nporpaMM 06Y'lCHHJI. ITOCKOJIbKY B 3KcnepllMeHTe npllHHMalOT Y'IaCTlle reHCTllqeCKII HJI,eHTII'IHble JIIOAII, MO>KHO C'IIITan, 3TOT cnoc06 cpaBHCHllII' MO.!lCjlb1O AJlJlII3Y- '1eHHJI B03.n:e"CTBllft pB3HbIX <jJaKTOpO'l Cpell.bI HB O,lUlOro H Toro >Ke '1CrrOBCKa. 3) JIoHzumlOoHoe 6J1U3Heq0/10e UCClUJOo/1aHue. ITPH 3TOM Ba- pllBHTC 6JIII3HCl\OBOrO MCTOp,8 npOEO.!lllTCIf MHTcnbHOC Ha6nro- IJ;eHIIC - npOCJlC>KHllaHlle - OAHIIX H Tex )f(e 511113HeQoBbIX nap. <JJaKTIIQeCKH 3TO CO'lCTaHIIC KJIBCCII'IeCKOro 6nll3HeQoBoro MC- TO.!(a C JlOHrHTIO,lUIbIM. MeTo.n. OTKpbIBBe-r 1lI1Ip0Klle B03MO>KHO- CTJI JtJI>I 113Y'leHIIJI reHeTH'IeCKIiX II CpelJ;OBbiX <jJaKTopoB II pa3- BIITHH. B HaCTO>lU1ce BpCMft 1lI11pOKO npltMeHJleTCJI II B 3apy5cJK- HbIX, II B OTe'leCTBeHHbIX IICCJIe.n,OBBHIIJlX. 4) Memoo 6J1U:SHeq0/1bU: ceMeu, ITpel1CTaBJIftCT C060H cO'le- TaHlle OJlIl3f1eQOBOro MCTO.l!a C ceMeHHblM* TIpll 3TOM IICCJIc.ny- IOTCft '1JICHbI ceMeii B3pOCJIbiX 5JIIIJHel\OBbIX nap. .II.eTII M3 6JIII3He1\OB no cBoei! reHCTII'IeCKOH KOFICTHTYl\!lH JlBJlIlIOTCJI no- '" OmlcaHl1e ceMeiiHoro MeTO):ta npH:BO.II.HTCI 11Mbwe. 141 
JlycM6caMH, TO eCTb KaK 6b! )J.CTbMH O.llHOrO H TOrO Jl<C '1enOBe- Ka OT pa3HblX 6paKOlJ. 3THM MeTO.n:OM, Il3yqas MY)«CKMe H Jl<eH- CKHe napbI M3 H MX nOTOMCTBO, MOJl<HO IICcrre.!l.OBaTb, HanpH- Mep, BJJM"HHe MaTepnHCKoro 3(jJ(jJeKTa. 3TOT MeTOA I1lHpOKO HC- IJOJlb3YIOT TaK)f(e npH 113Y'leHIIM HaCJIellCTBellHblX npHqll1l pJllla 3a6onCBaHHH, npH KOTOpbIX O,!I.IIH H3 M3 6ill13HeIlOB MOJl\eT 6bITb nOpaJl<eH 60Jle3HblO, a APyroH - HeT. HanplIMCp, 6bIJIO nOKa3aHO, qTO npH WM30q,peHHII 3MnHpMqeCKMH pHCK 3a60JICBa. 1111" npHMepliO OllliHaKOB MJI po.n:CTBeHHHKOB M3 6nH3HeUOB, He3aBHCHMO OT Toro, nOpaJl<eHbl JlH 06a napTHepa HJlH TonbKO OllHH H3 HIIX. 5) HCCJleOOBtJlfUe 6lUl3He/(oB KaK IIt.Ipbl. IIpcl1.IIoJlBraeT Hcene- .!I.OBaHlle CneI.\H(jJHqCCKHX 5JJII3HeuOBblx 3(jJ(jJeKTOB H oc06eHHoCTeI'i BH)'TpHnapHblx oTHoweHHit HcnoJlb3YCTCJI KaK BcnoMOraTeJlbHblH MeTOll AJIJI npOlJepKII cnpaBeMHBOCTH Jl,OnYU1eHIIJI 0 paBeHCTBe CpeAOBb!X ycr!OBllii AJIJI napTHepoB M3 H .II.3 nap 6} HcclleiJ08J1HUe OOUJIOVHbIX 6J/U3He/(o6. ITpe,!\HOJlaraCT cono: CTaBJleHile oco5eHHoCTeH pa3BI1TIIJI O,!I.IIHOqHOpOJK,!l,eHHbIX AeTel1 I'! )J.eTell, POAHBIIlIIXC" B MHorOnrroJl,HblX po.aax, npll KOTOpblX O,!\HH »3 napTHepOB YMep np» pOJl<lIeHIIH. TaKJI<e JlBnHeTC>I Bcno- MOraTeJlbHblM MeTOJ(OM, n03BOJIHIOIilHM OI.\CHIITb BJlHRHHe npe- lIaTaJlbHblX oc05eHHOCTeH pa3BI'!THH 6J1H3Hel\OB Ha HX J(aJIbHeii- IlICC pa3BHTHC. 7) COIWCttla6JrelUll! 6ll«3Hef¥l6 C HefimoNe/(aMU. TaKJKe BcnOMO- raTeJlbHblH MCTOII, n03BOJlJllOIilllH Ol\eHHTb cYlileCTBeHHOCTh Pa3- JIJI'IHii Me)f(.!IY 6J1H3Hel.\aMII H He6nH3Hel.\aMH. Eenll 6J1H3Hel.\bl If Bce OCTaJIbHble JllOIIH 3Ha'lHMO He pa3J1l'!qaJ{)TC>I, TO ecTb npHHaA- JleJKaT K O,!\HOH reHepaJlbHOH cOBoKynHocTH, I\BHHble 6J1113HCI.\0- BblX IICene.!l.OBaHHH MoryT 5b1Tb pacnpoc-rpaHeHbl Ha BCIO nonYJlJl- l\HIO. KpaTKo nOJICHUM Ha3Haqe!i»C noro MeTOlla. eJIb 6J1113HeQOBbIX IICCiIeJl,OBaHHH COCTOMT B nonyqeHHH i\aHHbIX, npHMeHIIMblX He TOJlbKO K caMOH Bbl60pKe 6J1H3HeI.\OB, H<) II KO BceH nonYJ!JlQHH II QeJJOM. qTOt)bI BbIBOllbl, CJ(eJJallHble B 6J1113I1eI.\OBOM IIccneJ(OllaHHII, 61>IJIH CllpaBell.JIHllbI II no omowe- 111110 K OJI,HHO'IHOpOJK.I(eHHbIM, Heo6xo,!\I'!MO Y'IHTblllaTb CHCTeMaTlI- 'feCKlle pB3J111'111J1 MtJK1\.Y 6J1H3HeuBMH II Hc6JIlf3HeuaMH. OCHOBHaJi Macca pa3!!H'IHH Me)f(1\Y 6J1H3HeuaMH II O,!\HHOq- HOp0)f(.!I.eHHLlMII J(eTbMII CBJl3aHa C nepHOI\BMH pallHero Pa3BH- mJl. blIH3HeQbI '1allje p0JK.l\aIOTC" HeJ(OHOlI1eIlHbIMII, y HIIX qalile 142 BCTPC'IaIOTCJl BpOJK,lje;lHble aHOMaJIIUf paJIIHTW!, !IX Bee npH POJ/C- J(eHIIH B cpeJ(HeM HII)I(C Beca O,!\HHOqHOp0)l(.!I.eHHbIX .!I.eTell, qTO OT'IaCTI! 06'bJlCHJleTCJI 60JIbWeH '1aCTOTOH lIe.n:OHoweHHOCTH. lJacToTa MepTBOpO)«J(eHIIH Ii J(eTCKOH CMepTHOCTH MH 6J1H3He- UOB TaK)f(e Bblwe. Y 6JI1I3HCI10B Bbl!lle pHCK YMCTBClmOH OTCTa- JlOCTH. B Cpe,!\HeM HHTeJIJICKT 6nll3HeQOB MJlaJ(wero B03paCTa HeCKOilhKO HH)j(e, qCM Y I1X CBepCTHHKOB-O.!l.liIIO'lHOpO)f(,!\eHHbIX. ITo lIaHHblM H3BeCTlioro HCCJ!C'!\OBaTellll 6JIM3HCI.\O!l " 6J!113He- I.\OBOCTH PeHe 3a330, cpellHcc 3Ha'leHl1e K03(jJ(jJHI.\HCHTa HHTeJl- nCKTa (IQ) y 6JIH3HeQOB HM)I(C Cpe.!l.HenonYJlJlUIJOHHOro Ha 7 6a!!- !lOll qalilc Bcero y 6nl13HeQoB OKa3hIBalOTCH CHHJI<eHHblMIJ BCp- 6anhHble cnoco6HoCTIJ. Kor,!\a npOBOJl,llJlH COIIOCTaBJIeHl1e IIbI60PKII 6J1113HeI.\OIl, qbH napTHepbI YMep!!1I B paHHeM i\eTCTBe (TO eCTb npaKTHqeCKH 6n113- HeUhI 113 3TOH Bbl60PKH 1I0CI1IITblBaJlIICb KaK OJl,llHO'lKI1), C Bhl6op- KOH O.n:HHOqHOpOJK,!l,eIlHbIX, pa3!!1I'II1H II KorHHTHBHOM pa3BIITI111 06HapY)/(CHO HC 6b1JIo. 3TH ,ll.aHHblC rOBopllT 0 TOM, 'ITO HeIWTO- poe CHIf)j(eHHe IIHTenJleKTa y 6JIH3Hel.\OB CBJl3aHO He CTonbKO C TPY,!\HOCTHMI1 3M6pl10HaJIbHOro Hnl'! poJ(OBoro nepHo,!\a, CKOJJbKO C OC06CHHOCT"MI'! BOCOIITaHHH 6nIJ3HeuOB KaK I1apbI. Bo-nepBbIX, npH pOJl<,L\eHI!H 6nH311el.\OB YBeJIl1qllBaeTCJI HarpY3Ka lIa CCMblO, H Y poJ(HTeJIell OCTaeTCJI rOpa3,L\0 MeHb!lle BpeMCHI!, KOTopoe OHII MorYT nOTpaTHTb Ha pa3BHBalOIill!e 3aMHTHH C lIeTbMH. BO-BTO- Pbl);, pac-rYlljHe B nape 6JIH3HC!.(h! caMH no ce6e IlBJIIlIOTC" COI.\H- aJIbHOH rpynnoH II I!CnblTbIBalOT MeHbwe nOTpe6HoCTII B 06MeHe HH(jJOP M 'I11HCH C BHeWHHM MHpOM. TaKaJl cHTyal.\HJI 3aMKHYTOCTH 6nH3HeUOB APyr Ha .!I.pyra HOCIIT Ha3BaHlfe "6J11!3HeUOBOH CIiTya- I.\I1H" H 'faCTO IIpIlIlOJ\HT K OTCTaBaHHIO 6J1113He1.\OB B pa3BI1THH. TaK, Y 6nH3Hel.\OB MO)«eT pa3BIIBaTbC>I OC06b1H, nOIlJlTHbIii TOJlbKO 11M aBTOHOMHbIii Jl3bIK, pa3BIiTl1e )!(e nonHOQeHHOH peqH B PC3Yilb- TaTe OTCTaeT. 3TO JlBJleHlle fioJIce xapaKTepHo MJI M3 6nH3He- UOB, KOTopble OTnl1qilJOTCH 60JIbWeii npl1BIl3aHHOCTbIO Jl,pyr K ,l{py_ ry. OTCTaBaHHC B peqeBOM pa3BHTI1H neow npCO,1(oncBacrcll, eCJm J\enH Ha BpeMJI pa3J1Y'faIOT (HanpHMep, IIOMelilalOT B Pa3- HbIe rpynIlbI .!I.eTCKOrO calla), H OHII 6blBalOT BbIHY)!(J(e!ibl o6lilaTb- CJI C ,l{pyrHMII J(eTbMH H B3pOCJIbIMH. TaKHM 06pa30M, HeKoTopbIe ocooellHoCTH pa3BHTH" npl'!BO- .lI:JIl' K TOMY, qTO 6nH3Hel.\bl KaJ( oco6aJl '1aCTb nOl1ynHl(HI1 HeCKOJIb- KO OTnHqaIOTC" OT OCTaJlbHOH ee '1aCTH. 3TH OTJlllqll>l 60Jlee OT- 143 
qeTJIllBO 3aMeTHbI B paHHeM, OCOOeRHO MJIeH'lecKOM, B03paCTe. Co BpeMeHeM HeKOTOpOe OTCTaaaHHe 6J1H3HeQOB B 4tH3I1qeCXOM II YMCTBeHHOM pa:3BIITHH 1C0MneHclfpyeTCJ! H, no 60JIhweit lJaCTH, 6JI113HeQl» CTaHOBRTCJI COnOCTaBHMbI C OCTaJThHOil nonYJIJlQlleit 8) Merrwd JUWlY'fe1fH6lX liJru:J1iel(08. J-b-3a oco6elfifoCTeH Pa:3- BIITHR M3 H A3 6JI113HeQoB KJ1aCCIl'iecKHii 6J1H3I1eQoBbIH MeTO,!!, H ero BapHaHThI npHH1IT0 C'/HTaTh "HCJI(ecTJ(HMH" 3lCcnepHMeHTaJIh- HbIMH cxeMa"'H: B HHX HeB03M01KHO a6coJUOTHo 0,!J,H03Ha'iHO Pa:3- BeCTH BJIHJ!HHe reHeTH'ICCKHX If cpe»;oBbix ljJaxTOPOB, nOC)(OJIbICY ycnOBIiJi pa:3BHTHR M3 II A3 6JIII3HeQOB no QeJlOMY PW oc06eH- IfOc-reit OKa:3LIBalOTCR HeconOCT8BIIMbiMIl. Bcne,!J,CTBHe TOro pe:JYJIbTaThl HCCJle,!!,oBaHHH, npOBOJI,JIIll,II- CCR no "HeJl(eCTKHM" cxeMaM, Tpe6yJQT .IIOnOJIHlITeJlbHOH BaJ1HJI,H- 3aQIIH. QHa M01KeT 6hIT!. ,!J,BOJlICoro pOJl,a. Bo-nepBbIx, B npoQeccc npoBe}J,eHHJ/ Ifccrre.llOBaHHJI MO)f(HO npoBepJITb't(paBllJlbHOCTb no- CTyJIaTa 0 CXOJl,CTBe cpe.llbl M3 H .II.3 6JI113HeQoB, TO CCTb ,lJ;OKa:3bl- BaTh, 'lTO Ha .IIaHHYIO 113Y'IaeMYIO xapaKTepllCTIIKY He BJlHJlIOT pa:3JIII'iHJI B ycrroBHJlX pa3BHTHJI M3 H A3 6JI113HeQOB. C/(erraTb 3ro ,lIOBOJIbHO lJIYJl,HO, T.K. He BCerJl,a MOIKHO TO'!HO onpeAerrllTb, '1TO BJIIIJleT Ha cjJOpMHpOBaHHe TOH IIJII1 IIHOH nCHXOJlOrll'leCKOii XaplIIITepllCTIIKII, a '1TO - HeT. HO Y'IeT no KpaHHeH Mepe 113BCC- TIIbIX BJIUJlHI{H IIOBblUiaeT Ha,ltC)J(HOCTb pe:JyJlbTaTOB. BO-BTOp1>lX, .IUIHHbIe TaJ(IIX HCCJle,lJ;OBaHHH M01KHO COnOCTIIBJ1J1Th C pe:JYJIbTaTa- " " MH, nOJIyqeHHbIMIi B 3KCTlepHMeHTax, npOBell,eHHblX no 1KeCTKIIM cxeMaM, KOTopbIe n03BOJlJllOT Ha,!J,e)l(HO pa3BeCTH BJIIIJlHHe cpe,!J,o- BbIX H rellCTll'lCCKIIX 4taJ(TOpOB. K 'iHCJIY TaKIIX 3Kcnep1lMCHTaJIb- HbiX cxeM OTHOCIITCJI MCTO,!!, Pa3JlYQCHHbIX 6JI11JHeQOB. MCTOA pa:mY'IeHHblX 6J1H3HeIlOB npe,!!,norraraeT cpaBHeHlle BHyrpllnapHoro CXO,!!,CTBa 6JI113I1eQOB, KOTopble 6b1JIII pa:3JIY'lCHbl B paHHeM BOJpaCTe II nocne 3Toro HHKOrJl,a He BC1pe'laJ1HCb )],pyr C )],pyrOM. ECJIH M3 6J1113HeQl>I, HMelOIII,lIe a6COJllOTHOe reHeTl'!- qeCKOe CXO,lJ;CTBO, paCTyT B pa3HbIX ycnOBIIRX, XO,II;SIT B pa3HbIe 1l1IWJlbI H He 1I1IIeIOT HAAaKIIX BOJMOJKHOCTeH OKa3blBaTb J!,Pyr Ha .II.pyra BJIIIJlHHe, TO IIX CXO,!!,CTBO 6yll,eT nonHOCTblO pe:JynbTaToM IIX reHCTIllJeCXOH lI,!J,eHTH'IHOCTII, a lIecXOJtCTBO - QeJIlJKOM onpe- AeJlRThCR HX cpenOBbIMII ycnOIlIlRMII. OnllcaHHaR cxeMa 6nH3HeQOBorO MeTOJl,a (PHCYHOK 5.2) AReT B03MOJKHOCTb CII,eJ1aTb MaKCIIMaJThHO Ha/(CJKHhlC BbIBOJl.b1 0 reHCTII'IeCK!lX II cpe.II.OllbiX HCTO'lHHKaX HH,IJ;HBH,IJ;yanbHblx Pa3- 144  ilU'lHff, HO /l0 /lplI'lI/HaM, 0 KOTOplX HCTpY,!!,HO Ora.ll.aTbCI1, ee KpaMHe TpY.lIHO peaJIII30BaTb Pa3,1J;eJleHlle ,lJ;eTeii, P0,!J,HBWI/XC" B O.n:HOlf ceMbe, 06101'11/0 "IJJII1eTCJI clIecTBIICM OC06blX II, KaK npa- BIIJIO, Tparll'leCKHx 06CTO"TCJIbCTB - cMepTH pO,lJ;HTeJIeii HlIlIlIX nOJlHDlI 3KOHOMII'leCKOM HeCOCTOl1TCJIbHOCTIl, He n03BOlI"lOcii npOKOpMIiTb '1JICHOB CBoeH ceMbli. K C'laCTblO, TaKl1e CJJyqan OCTJ!TOqHO pe)U(H, HO COOTBCTcnellHO HeBeJll1KII H B03MO)J(HO- CTn ,lJ;ml npnMeHeHHR MeTOJl,a pa3rrY'leHHbIx 6JIH3HCQOB' l\a)J(e B TeX nCCJIe.llOBaHHRX, aBTopbl «OTOpbIX c0611paJIII pa3JIyqellHbIX a) MOH03MrOTHble 6nM3HeLlbl reHonm 6) }:III3MroTHble 6nM3HGI\bl 0.50 reHonm re...onm Pa3JIn'lalO" [4a"cst c eJ:\a PUCYHOK 5.2 reHCrnU'leCKue Ii cpeoo8ble rjJoKmopbl, onpeoeJU/lOll{ue cxo()cm8Q Pf13liY'leHHb/X 6J/U3HeIj08 145 
6J1113HCl\08 no BceMY MHPY, HaCqHTblBaeTCR HeMHorllM 60Jlce 100 nap B Bbl60pKax pa3JIyqeHHbiX 6JIH3Hel\OB, OmtCaHHblX K Ha- CTOJleMY BpCMeHlt, 8 O'lCHb WltpOKIiX npclIeJIax BapbHpYIOT B03pacT HcnbITycMJ,lX (OT nOlIPOCTK080rO 1\0 npeKJlOHHoro); 803- paCT, 8 KOTOpOM 6mt3HCl\bl 6b1JIH pa3J1yqCHbt; BpeMR, KOTOpOC npowJlo C Tex nop, KaK 6J1H3Hel\bl HaWJlII Apyr Apyra. KpOMC Toro, pa3nY'lCHlte qaCTO OKa3blBaeTCR HenOJlHbIM, a cpeAOBble ycnOBltJl, B KOTOpblX )l(ItBYT 6JIIt3HeL\bl, - nOXOJKItMII (HanpIiMep, 6m13Hel\bl JKItBYT Y pa3HblX pOACTBeHHltKOB B CXOJl,HbIX ycnoBH- JlX 11 BpeMR OT BpeMeHH BCT]Je'laIOTCJI). Bce :no 8HOCHT B HCCJle- AOBaHItJl pa3nYQeHHbIX 6nH3HCl\OB pa3Ho06pa3HbIe HCKaJKeHHR, KaK npaBllno, YBCmj1!I1BalOHC HereHeTH'IeCKOe CXOp,CTBO PH3- JlyqeHHblX M3 6JIH3Hel\OB It CHItJKalOHe pa3pewalOHe B03- MOJKHOCTH :noro MeTOJl,a. }..l06aBIiM TaKJKe, qTO fleTeHeTltqCeKOC eXOI\CTBO MOJKCT YBe)lHqHBaTbCR It 3a CqeT MaTepltflCKOrO 3<jJ- <jJCKTa II nepHOlI BHYTPHyTp06Horo pa3BHTHR, KOrJl,a MHome !\IaK- TOpbl CpClIbl, HanpHMep, xapaKTep nlH8HHII MaTep», ee 3MOl\H- OHaJlbHOe COCTORHlte, xapaKTep npOTeKaHHJI 6epeMeHHOCTH It TaK lIarree, I/BJII/KITCR 06HMH .!lJl1I 060HX 6J1H3Hel\OB. 9) Memo/) acrnUHO p(l3J/)'eHHblX 6J/U3Heo8. B nocne,QHce BpeMJI B reHeTllqeCKHX HCeJIe)l.OBaHHJlX CTaJI npltMeHJlTbCIi Me- TOA, KOTOpblH COCTOHT 0 cpaBHeHlIIf BHYT]Jl1napHOro CXOACTBa M3 H .II.3 6rrH3Hel\OB, JKHBY1l11'!X KaKoe-TO BpCMR Bp03b. CTaB B3pOCJIbIMH, 6nH3Hel\bI BCTynalOT B 6paK, pa3bC3JKa- IOTCJI no pa3HbIM rOpO)l.aM. Hx KOHTaKTbI CTaHOBJITCI/ 3nH30lIH- '1CCKIIMH. ECJlII 6JIII3HCl\bI, JKHByItC lIOJlrOe BpeMJI Bp03b, He oTJll1qalOTCR no BHYTpHnapHOMY CXOlICTBY OT 6rrH3HeL\OB, JKHBY- HX 8MeCTe, MOJKHO CAcnaTb BblBOA, qTO CpeAOBbie YCJlOBHJI He H3MCHI/IOT CTenCHH CXOACTBa 6rrH3Hel\OB. EeJlH CXO)l.CTBO 6J1H3- HCl\OB Apyr C APyroM no KaKOH-rrH60 nClIXOJlOrlt'leCKOH xapaK- TepllCTHKe YMeHbWaeTCI/ B 3aBHCliMOCTII OT npOI\OnJKHTerrbHOC- TI/ Toro ncpHo.!!a, B re'JeHHC KOToporo 6JlH3Hel\LI JKHBYT Op03b, MOJKHO CKa3aTb, '1TO cpelIOBbIe yeJl08HII B031ICHCTBYlOT Ha 1t3Y- 'JaCMYlO xapaKTeplteTItKY. B HCCJIeAOBaHHH '1aCTHqHO pa3JlyqeHHbIX 6J1113Hel\OB MO)\(- HO TaKJKC onpC)l.CJlItTb, B KaKOH Mepe C06JlIOJl,aeTCR nocrYJlaT 0 paOCHCTBe CpClI M3 II .II.3 6mt3Itel\08. TaK, ecnll M3 6nH3Itel\bl, Jl(HBYlle Bp03b, CTaItOBJITCIi Bec MeHec nOXOJKIt J!,Pyr Ha )l.pyra 146 no KaKoH-TO nCHXOJlOrH'JecKoH xapaKTepHcTHKe, a .II.3 6JIH3HC- L1bl, JKHByl1e Bp03b, HC OTJ1H'IaIOTCR no BItYTpHnapHoMY CXO)l.- CTBY OT ,[\3 6mt3HCu08, JKHByIIX BMccTe, MOJKHO CI\CnaTb Bbl- 80lI, qTO Cpell;01Jble yenoBH M3 H .II.3 6JIit3HCl\OB HepaIlHOl\eH- Hbl, a BblBO)l.bl 0 HacJlcAyeMocTH H3YQaCMOH xapaKTepHCTHKH, nonyqeHHbIe B KJlaCCHqeCKHX 6J1H3HCl\OBbIX HccnClIOBaHHI/X, 3a- BbIwalOT nOKa3aTCJ1b HaCne)l.yeMOCTIt nOH xapaKTCpHCTItKII. ........ .. .........,"",.,"""" CyuJ,CCTByIOT Jl,Ba THna 6JIH311OB  MOHOOHl'OTHbie H )1.113I1rOTHI>rC(M3 " ), KJIII', iflo TO JKC cauoe. OJ1)lOIiIt/{t$WC JJ:BYJIHQCBbIe. 2. Ml,,Hel\L1 - no ,lJ;eTII OT MHOfOI1JlOp;HOH 6epeMeH- Ho\mI, KOTopLIepa3BlmaJOTCR H3 O,QHOH OnnOlIOTBOpeHHOH mu.eK"',,:.. Jle1'KH (3ItroTbI)B pe3YJIbTaTC pa3J1,eJIeHlI!lOJI,HOro 3'W0,I\LIlHa Ha Au" CIt.OlitMIi". cpraHHma nil paJUlHx CT8,1!HJIX::)MGp.H0- HlIJJbHOrbpa:mJml.''9JI113HCl\b\,, Ie I'el! QWU!!I (100% o6LI\IIX reHQB). Mg6iDDJJel\bI ,IJ;IHiI,HOfO nOJl/i. 3. .II.3 6I - 3TO A OT MHoTOn]JOj{Holi 6epeh!eHHO- C'tI!, ICoTOpble , 113 ,ttByx JlIil\el()IeToJ(, OI1JlOJl,O'i'I!opeu" HblX .!\BYMJI cnepMIIJlMJI(:H3 .!\By". 311T0T). no CBQmF\JHeTIIQecKoli KOHII ,D;3 6JI113Hel\L1 COQT\IeTCTByIOT o6W'II!bJM6paTbHM II :'''CCCTpBM (cII6caM), TO  IfMelOTlI'l,:pciUlcM$Q'YQ6lIxrJ:i."""" .II.3 6mJ3HCl\bI MOryl' 6WT1o Pa3HOro' non.t; ':":::::::::':,,', """ " "" "'" 4 qaCTOTa pO)l(,!l;eHII!I 6JI113HCl\08 3aaliCHT OT 3Hr!:irnoCTII. B cpeiUleM ,D;3 6JIH3Itel\bl pO)l(,!l;BlOTCJI B Jl,Ba pasa '!?e, 'Jell! M"!. t.[aCTOTa pmKJJ;CHIIII .II.3 6J11t3!1el\01l KC)JIe6nCTCH B CHMOCTl! OT nony1IJI1(!I1I. 5 Knacclt'JecKHii 6J11t3HeltOBIilIi MeTOACOnO- CTaBJJe!lJ.:\e YPOBHII cJI:OJI,CTBa B napllX M3 H ,D;3 6;iM Hel\OB II OC- ,HOBIIH Ha c.nC,n,yJoll.\llx Aonyti\cmux: I) paaeHCTBo cpe)J.JtWI napT- HepOS ICaK "B napax M3, Tal( II B napax .II.3 6fi11:meI.\OB; 2) OTcyT- CTBlle CIICrCMaTIDlet1CJ!X pB:IJIH'IHH Me>K)(y 6rrll3HeQaMit It !lOOnH3- !lCl{aMH; 3) orcYTCTBl!e CIiCTeMBTH'IecKHX Pa3JI11'1Ki! MCJKI!;y M3 H .II.3 6J1H1!1eI.\aMH. 6 ITpll 'IHCTO reHeTH'JecKoi! .l(eTepMHl!aI{HIIIIII,!\HBII1tYa.JJb- HX pB3JlIJ'Ildl (,!: TKaIlL1# 3$41eKT Jl,ciiffilfll fe!lOB) BeJIH'JHHa 147 
" KOppemll.\l-iH Me)J( napTHepaMH M3 6Jrn3Hel\OBbIX nap .n;OIDIGIa "pH6Jli!)I(au.CJJ J( 1,0, a "'wm3I1ell.a,!, )J.3 nap - K 0,5, 7. I1pH cpCllOBOH lI,CTepMHHaQHH HbIX pa3Jli!- '1HH BeJIH'IHHa, KqppeJlJlultii KaK M3, Tax H .II.3 Q!!1f3Heu.OB Jl,OIDlCHa npll()JnI)J(aTbCJJ K 1,0 (B CIIJIY 06U1,HOCTH CPCWd) ..,. ",.".,." " 8. .II.onYlUcHlic 0 PilBrHCTBe cpe.l1lQY1 611113HeItoBbI,)lapT- HepOB MO)l(CT HapywaThCR B CIIJIY CJIe.ll)'lOutkx "pH'!HH: 1) CylUe- CTBYI01' Crteu.H!jIH'!ecKIte cpeil;OBbJe ycnoBII"; }'BeJ1H'IItBalOl1.\lIe CXOACTIJO M3 6Jrn3Heu.oB; 2) CYUlectBYJOT cneu.mj)JNecKHe cpeAo- Bble YCJlDBHJJ, Y.IIeHbWIIJOI1.\He CXOllCTBO .IV 6JJH3Heu;OB; 3) cYl1.\e- C'TBYC1' pJl,ll cpe.noBm YCJlOBHH, npHBOJI,JIUI,HX K II , . cpeil; JUIJInaP11lepoB Ka:J( B napax 3, Tal( .. _,!lapax 3 611H3He- 1I.0B, '!TO y",em.WaCT HX cxo.nC11!o{,'::"':":"" 9 EcnH H3)'lJaCMaJl" '1}'B- j:1'BH1'eJIbHB K TeM cpC.nOBbiM YCJIOBHJlM;"jja1ieHCTBO KO,!,o'pblxHa- pywaeTeJl; nOKa3aTeJJb HaCJIeJij'cMoCTH, nO.(,J1I B 6piJHeu; BOM , MOJI'IlThCR. ,.., 10. MaCCII " eYlUectByer He- !<J(qll!>KO pa3HOBIIJI.HOCTeil 6Jn13HeuoBoro,i1!:ro)l;8, B QaCTll9CT1!, MerOA pa3J1yqcHHblx 6Ji1!3Heu.08, n03BOJIJUOfitHii HBlI6oJleeqeTKc:J Pll3J1,eJIHTb HHHble II 4, AHan!!3 pOAocnoBHblx MC1'o.!!. aHaJIH3a pOIl.OCJIOBHbIX ncpBblM HaqaJ] npllMeHRTbCJI B rCHCTHKC nOBell.eHI1J1. llM nOJIb30BaJJCJJ <1>.faJlbTOH )UIJI H3Y'ICHHII "HaCI!C.I1CTBeHHocTH TaJIaHTa". XOTJI 31'01' MeTO.!!. KaK TaKOBOH B rCHCTHKC nOBC,I1CHHII B HaC'TOJJmee BpeMII npaKTljqCCKH He npHMe- HRC1'CII, qTO CBJl3aHO C ero MaJIOH 3<p<peKTlIBHOC'TbIO, Bce >Ke B re- HeTllKe qeJIOBeKa, H B oco5eHHOCTII B MelJ,HI.\HHCKOii rCHeTHKe, Me- TO.!!. 113yqeHIIJI pO.!!.OCJJOBHbIX ROJIJlCTCJJ OIJ,HIIM .13 OCHOBHbIX. ITo- 3TOMY KOp01'KO OCTaHOBIIMCII HB onHcaHIIH 3Toro MCTOlJ,a. IIOCKOJIbKY B reHC1'IIKC qCJlOBeKa 3KcncpllMeHTaJIbHbie CKpe- WHoaHHII He003MO>KHbI, HBCJIell.OOaHHe Toro HJIlI IIHoro nplI3HaKa H3yqlUOT nYTeM c60pa .!!.aHHbIX B ceMbRX. B CeMbJlX MO>KHO npo- CJIC.L\HTb Te >Ke 3aKOHOMCpHOCTli MeHAeJIeOCKOro paCmellJTeHIIJI 148  I I II HC3aBHCIIMoro pacnpe.n:elIeHIlII np1l311aKOB, KaK H npll 3Kcne- pllMeHTaJIbHblX cKpewllBaHI1Rx Y pacTcHlIH II >KHOOTHbI)(. B Tex CJlyqaRX, Kor.n:a 113yqalOTCII aJIbTepHaTIIBHble (.n:HcKpeTHblc, Ra- qeCTOeHHble) npH3HaKII, aHaJlll3 pOAOCJIOOHbIX nOMoraeT YCTa- HOBHn TIm HaCJICi10BaHIiJi (AoMIiHaHTHbIH, pel1eCCHBHblii, Cl1en- JleHHblii C nOJIOM). qcpe3 aHaJll13 pOIJ,OCJlOBHblX MO)((PO nOJIY- qlln CBc.n:eHHH 06 aJ1JIeJIHX H 06HapY>KIITb CQcnJIellHb!e reHb!. B Me,l1HLlHHCKOH reHeTIiKe MeTOA pOIl.OCJIOBHblX WHpOKO npHMcHH- eTCII npH H3yqeHHII lIaCJIe,l100aHHII pa3J1HqHbIX 3a60JIeBaHllii HJIII naTonOrH'ICCKHX OTKJlOHeHIlH. .II.JI!! 60JIbWHHCTBa nCHXOJIOrH'IeCKHX npH3HaKOB xapaK- TepHo nOJIllreliHOC HaCJIe,l100aHHe, n03ToMY MeTOA POAOCJ10B- HbiX KaK TaKoBoH npHMeHRTb He I1MeeT CMblCJla. OJl,HaKO npH- MeHJleMbie MeTOlJ,bl aHaJlH3a BHyTpI1CCMeHHoro CXO,l1CTBa (5J1113- HCl(OO, npHeMHblX AeTeii, pOAIITCJICH, CH5cOB) MO)((HO C'IHTaTb paclIIIIpCHHbIM Oapl1aHTOM MeTOAa pOIJ,OCJIOOHbIX. TaK, <D.ranb- 1'011 1J CBoeM H3BeCTHOM HCCJJCAOBaHHH, onHCblBaJi pO.l\OCJJOO- Hble 3HaMCHIITbiX JIIOi1eii, paCCMaTpllBaJI oblAalOwlleCJI cnoc05- HOCTII KaK KaqeCTOeHHbIH npH3HaK, ocpHee, KaK KpaHIIlO1O CTe- neHb Oblpa)((eHHOCTIi KOJIllqeCTOeHHoro npH3HaKa, npll KOTOpOM KOJIHqeCTBO nepeXO.1\HT B HOBoe KaqeCTBO, KOTopoe MO)((H.O Ha- 3Ban TanaHTOM. <1>.faJJbTOH nepBblM npHMeHHn reHeanOrH'IeCKIIH MCTOi1 .1\1111 allaJIlt3a Hacnet/,OBaHIIR y 'ienOBeKa, OllHaKO cxeMbl pOAoe- JiOOHbIX, COCTaOJIeHHble <1>.raJIbTOHOM, BHeWHe 3Ha'iIlTeJlbHO OTJIH'IaIOTCII 01' npHOblqHblX )UIII Hac cxeM (cpaOHIITe PHCYHKII 5 4 II 5 5). B cOBpcMeHHoH reHeTHKe '1eJlOBeKa npH COCTaBJIe- HHlI p0i10CJIOBHbIX nOJJb3YIOTCJI cHcTeMoii cnel.\l1aJIbHblX CIIMBO- nOB, K01'OpaJi 6bIJJa npe.llJlO>KeHa B 1931 rolJ,Y (PIiCYHOK 5.3). Ho- CIITCJlb IIH1'epccYlOwero Hac npll3HaKa (HanpIiMCp, nOpa)((eHHblii Gone3Hb£O HIIH 06JIaAalOWHii KaKHM-IIH60 TaliaIiTOM) Ha31>!BaeT- CII I1po6aHl)OM. Ha cxeMax 50JIbHbIC 060311aqalOTCR 3aqepHeHHbI- MH CI'!MBOJlaMIi. feTep03HrOTilbIe HOCIITeJlH pel.\eCCI10HOro reHa MorYT 060311aqaTbCJJ CHMOOJIaMH, 3a'lCpHeHHblMIi HanOJlOBI1HY. IIOKoJleHIIJJ HYMepYIOT cBepxy BIIH3 pHMCKHMH I.\II<ppaMIi, a lIH- II.HBI'!.n:bl B npe.n:eJIax nOKOJIeHIIJI HYMCpYIOTCJI apa6CKHMH 1111<ppa- Mil TaKIlM 06pa30M, Ka>K.L\bIH HH.!!.HBI1IJ, 0 p0i10CJIOOHOH HMeeT CBoii Illff<pp (HanpIiMep, IV-7). Ha pHcYHKe 5.4 IIpllBCi1eH npll- MCp pOAOCJlOBHOH KopOJ1eBbl BHKTOpli1i H ee nOTOMKOB, IIJ1JJIOC- 149 
onp o ... . . 0-0 0=0 000 0,0 o o &56 -6cbl - hlOH03MI'OTHbie 611"""'41' - ,QM3rOTHbie 6nM3H8l!b1 - 6ecnnOAHblH OpaK - BHe6pa"tHoe n(1T'(lMC'tOO - 6o.nbHble 9-,    . " ¥ S'I; ... q-H o . . C::I...- - 3AopoBaR >KeHHa - 3AOPO.bI MY""'.Ha cfu  dodo PIP D:O o .. IJ() 80 D!O! )21G 0 - npo6aHA - non He'AJBecrBH -BblI':I4AblW - Me.qHCKMM a60pr - MeJJTBOpO>If.AeHHblYi -opaK - ItpOBHGpOACTSeHHblH opal!: - nOSTOpH'etlM 6paK - BMe5pS4HBJI (';8Ji3 - rerepo3"'rOble HDCMTe.!1'" pe<> CMBHOro f'eHa - JHt4HO O9AOBaHHble - YMspWl1e PUC)!IIOK 5.3 CW.'8011bl, ucnollb3yeMbie npu COCma8JleHUU poiJoCJI081/blX TpHpYIOU(1I1i nepeAa'lY reMoljmJIlI1I - 3a6oJIeBaHIIH, Cl.\enJIeHHO- ro C X-XPOMOCOMOif. O.l\HIIM H3 nOTOMKOB KOpOJIeBbI Bl1Kropllll, nOpaJKeHHblX reMolj!HJIHeli, 6blJ! II HaCJIe.l\HHK nOCJIe.l\!lero Pyc- CKOro l.\apJl. H3 P0.l\OCJIOBHOH BII,11HO, qTO nOpaJKalOTCH ::noil 60- JJe3HbIO IICKJIlOqHTeJIbHO npe,11CTaBHTeJIIi MYJ!(CKoro nOJJa, a ne- peAae-rcH OHa qepe3 reTep03HrOTHbiX HOCHTeJIbHIIQ - JKeHll\HH OTCIO,l1a cm:JI,yeT, qTO reH 3a6oJIeBaHHH HBJIHeTCH peQeCCI1BHbIM II CQenJJeHHblM C X-XpOMOCOMOi!. <I> laJIbTOIl npoaHaJIl131'!pOBaJI MHOJKeCTBO pO,!!,OCJIOBHblX BbI,aaIOll\HXCH JJIO,aeii H 06HapY)J{IIJI, '1TO '1aCTOTa pOJ\CTBeHHblX CBJl3eH TaJlaHTJJIIBbiX JIIO,aeH ropa3,a0 Bblwe Toli, KOTOpOH MOJ!(- HO 6bIJIO 6bI O)f(Hj:{an lIPH CJIY'IaJIHOM pacnpe.11eJIemlli. B Kaqe- 150   .. . i! ."-  iJ"'=- ""  i'l  U  ij E: o  " = '- ,,!, g .2I o " 0 .!.....O !Ii;:; Q 0-  m .   . . " 0  . 'I? . '" I!. [ n .1i' 11  . " l 2 . g . .  '" '< !.   t12! jJ! . . - . f ..!t . " .  .,;1- !1! == .' . !i! ;;.e ""...O!! . .  .  :! . " ".. . ! ! i Hi  !i .- """ '" :> . . iL :;i- '" w i g    _'N ¥ .  o   . :; ... Ii:  iJ"o !i-". o'  U H 5e . .. B i X'! ......... _110 -, ;  . "- . " :> 1> ; c!;a _'N . o . , '" l q e k: '! " w O/!. 'i!. h L '! [ .!5J ,.  z = ,jj 5 5: <i '" '" '" '" "  I " "  -eo '"  '" ;. '" "\:) ... e- I::   S1    " S1  -'a oS '" '"  :: c I:: ... ... " " "  :: '" '" '" " :(  ::: ;;; '"      '" " ,  '" " '" " ., '"    ::e     :=   c.. Q., 13 151 
CTBe npllMep3 npllBOI\HM cxeMY POI\OCJIOBHOH CCMeUCTBa D3- XOB, l\aBllIerO B 8 flOKOJIeHll!IX 60JIee 20 Bbll\alOll\I1XCJI MY3bIK3H- TOB (pHCYHOK 5.5). BOT KaK II1 faJIbTOH onllCblBaeT 3TY pOl\oc- JIOBHYIO. "Bce ceMeHCTBO LaxOB 33Me'laTeJIbHO CBOHM MY3bI- K3JIbHbiM TaJI3HTOM, KOTOpbl1t COCTaBJIHJI npllHall)le)l(HOcTb MHO- )l(eCTBa qJIeHOB ero II nOilJ\epJKHBaJICJI B HeM B BOCbMII nOKOJIe- IIHJlX. BnepBble OH 06HapYJKIIJIcH B 1550 r., C oc06eHHoH CHnOH npOHBHJICH B HorallHe Ce6acTbHHe (6-1t no reHeanOrll'lCCICOH T36nHl.\e) H 3aKOHqHJICJI PerHHoH CycaHHoH, )l(IIBllIeH cll\e B 1800 r II Haxo).\HBllIeHcH B CTeCHeHHblX 06cToJlTcJIbcTBax. B 3TOM ceMeucTBc 6blJI0 60JIee 20 Bbli.\alOll\HxcJI MY3bIKaHToB. B C60pHIIKe 6110rpaljJIIH nOMell.leHbl )l(H3HeOnllcaHHH no KpaHHeH Mepe 57 H3 ero 'iJIeHOD. no ceMeHHoMY 06blqalO, Bce qJIeHbl nou ceMbH Cbe3JKaJIIICb e)f(erOi.\HO, II B 3THX c06paHIIJlx HX ei.\HHCTBeHHbIM 3aH!ITHeM 6bIJ!a MY3bIKa OKOJIO 1750 r. Ha Ta- KOM C06P3HHH 6blJIO He MeHee 120 I>axoB." (TaJIbTOH 1I1. "Ha- CnCJI,cTBeHHocTb T3JIaHTa". M., MbICJlb, 1996, c.l80). OI\Hal<O lI1.ranbToH BnonHe OTl\aBaJI ce6e OTqeT B TOM, QTO He 01\1<11 Hacnet(CTBeHHOCTb MO'KeT 5b1Tb npWII1HOH nOBb!- llICHHOH qaCTOTbI TaJI3HTa B HeKOTopbIX CeMb!IX, oco6eHHO B ceMbHX Bbli.\alOIl.lIIXC!I rOCYJI,apCTBeHHblX i.\eHTeJIeH, Bel\b BbICO- Koe 1l0JlO)l(elmc OTfJ;a B 061l.leCTBe OTKpbJBaCT ,1U!!I ero CblHa 50nb- 1lI11e B03MOJKIIOCTH, 'ieM MH CbIHa 06blqHOrO qCJIOBeKa. Bee )l(e Ha OCHOBaHlII1 CBOIIX IICCJlei.\oBaHHH lI1.raJIbTOH i.\eJIaeT BbIBOI\ o 3HaqllTeJIbHOM BJIH>lHHH HaCnCI\CTBCHHOCTH H3 B03HHKHOBC- HHe TaJIaHTa II i.\OCTHJKCHlle H3BeCTHOCTIl. IIocne pa60T II1 faJIbTOHa HeOI\HOKpaTHo l\enaJIIICb no- nblTKIl nOI\TBepl\HTb HaCJIeJl,OB3HHe reHH3JIbHOCTH. B KaqeCTDe I\OK333TeJIbCTB Hacrrel\CTBeHHoH OJl,apeHHOCTII, nOMI1MO BceM 113BeCTHoro CeMeltCTB3 LaxoB, npI1BO)1'HJIHCb npHMepbI POI\OC- JIOBHblX pa3JIHqHbiX 3H3MeHHTblX ceMeHcTB. npeACTaBJI!IeT HH- Tepee, HanpllMep, I\HH3CTHH MareMaTHKOB LepHyJInH, KOTOpa>l B 6 nOKOJIeHI1HX 1\3JIa 11 3HBMeHHTbIX Y'IeHblx. 103 rOl\3 npel\CTa- BI1TeJIH 3TOlt ceMbll B03rJI3BJ!HJIII KaljJeJl,PY M3TeMaTlIKH B Ea- 3eJIbCKOM YHHBepcHreTe B WBeHI.\apHH. Ho i.\aHHble 0 CeMbJlX BblJ),alOU.\IIXCJI JIIOI\CH - eU.\e He I\OJ(a3aTeJIbCTBO H3CJle.n:CTBeH- HOH nepel\aqH TaJIaHT3, a JIHllIb nOBOi.\ nOCTaBIITb 06 HOM Bon- pOC. .II.eHcTBIITeJIbHO, Halti.\eTCH HeMIIJIO npliMcpOB, 1<0r1\3 Bbll\a- IOU.\HeCH MY3blKaHTbi HJIII Y'IeHble 6b1JIII el\HHCTBeHHblMH B CBO- 152 0  % " . .   "    . l:- . I :>  x I I  a ....,. Ii ;: .  "<   <Q !  .\D  . g  .-  t 1;  to-   &   . 0 . 0 Ii . .. , . . B  s Q) ;  .!:. . t .  . . 0 o 3 . . % .  N % y  :i-w . 0 >< :::: . " > e " > . . o' . .    .,;. . . 0%  . . >"'  . o . o . . . o . . e. o " o. . %  .,;. m %  . < :jg- "' t , . . % .  ,   0  o  , . '" . ;a."" % . oi"' ... . %.;!  E . % .. ". 0' L  . u c:(; I!>   's  , 0 % . . .   . o . t. o % i  o. . . .  > 0 ! x "'''- , l l';(J I %   "<   . . r  . .% % . .  . .  'M N_ 'Nt)1J.1e"'N ug O1olJ.:)8U148.H 11'" I , f:dotpol:ll4<1X I I \.t!Hg"lJX \jd..<g;"nfu xe'3 .L"'a I 9C:9p.tIi'M'j I . . . !   " r  o "<> o  o "< I -3 o   iG . - .0 . 0 . .. % 3 . 0 ,  S   . %  '"  . g.  y '. <f % . 0 .   t. . .  r  LlJ ,.-HHI!.J°ioi I  o <> g . o  """" ;.., '" c E ,()  €I- g ....... ", c >:  g E "" '::! '"  "" .,., gj .,.; '" ",  c :: 5  " C  153 
eM POAY. Ha6moi\il ceMeiiHYIO nepeAaqy KaKOH-JIH60 cnoc06- HOCTH, HeJIb3 C nOJIIIOH YBepeHHoCTblO YTBepJKAan, qTO OHa J!BJIeTC HaCJIeACTBeHHOH, nOCKOItbKY B ceMbe, nOMIIMO Ha- CJ1CACTBeHHOH, cYweC1'ByeT ewe H KYJlbTypHaJi nepe.n:aqa, H KOp- peJIJIHJI MeJKAY pOi\HTeJ1MH II nOTOMCTBOM MOJKeT 06'bJlCHJlTb- CJI He TOJIbKO HaCJIeACTBeHHOCTblO, HO H cpeAOH. H AOKa3aTeItb- CTBOM 3TOMY CJlYJKI1T 60J1bWa BCTpeqaeMOCTb I.!Y3bIKaJ1bHbIX ceMCH B XVII - XVIII BeKax, qCM B HblHeWHee BpeM. BeAh B TO BpeMJI MY3blKa 6blJla TaKIiM JKe pCMeCJ10M, KaK 11 KY3HeqHOe IIItH nOpTHJKHOe, KOTopoe nepe.n:aOaItOCb 113 nOKOIteHII B no- KOIteHH!l KaK cpe.n:CTBO 06eCneqCHH!l ceMbH. TaKI1M 06pa30M, BbICOKa BCTpe'JaeMOCTb BbJAalOwllXc cnoc06HocnH Y npeACTaBIITeJ1eH OAHOH ceMbll He JlBJIeTCJi }]:O- Ka3aTeJ!bCTBOM HaCJleAYCMOCTH, nOCKOJ!bKY reHeaJ10rllqeCKIIH MeTOA He n03B0J1CT pa3BO,l\HTb HaCJ1eACTBeHHble II Cpe,l\OBbIC npllqllHbl 113MeH'lIlBOCTH KOJ1HqeCTBeHHbIX np1l3HaKOB. B HaCTO!l- wee BpeM B reHeTIIKe nOBCl1.eHII reHeaJIOrH'leCKIIH MeTO,l\ caM nO ce6e HC IfcnOJIb3YCTCJi, cr(J npllMCH!llOT B CO'lCTaHHIl c p:pyrll- Mil (6mI3HeOBblM, nplleMHblX Jl,eTeH, npli aHaJIII3e CenJIeHII!l) CMOH nCIIXOJIOrl1qeCKOH xapaKTcpllCTIIKe, HanpllMep, eCItH CH6- Chi 1I0XOJKII 60JIbWe, 'leM nOItYCI'!6CbI; pOi\HTeJlIIII ,l\eTll - 60A1.- we, qeM 6a6YWKH H BHYKI'!, II TaK AaJ1ee. CeMeHHoe IIccne,l\OBaHlle, KaK II KJlaCCII'IeCKIIH 6mI3He0- Bbl" MeTO}]:, OTHOCIITCJI K hHeJKeCTKIIM" 3KcnepHMeHTaJlbHbiM cxeMaM' KaK npaBHJlO, pOAcTBeHHIIKH, I1MeIOwHe 60Jl1.We 06- lIIHX reHOB, IIMelOT H 60nce IIOXOJKHC YCJIOI>HJI JKII3HH, H 60JlbWC B03MO)((HOCTeH BJllflITb J!,Pyr Ha J!,Pyra, TO CeTE, reHCTH'IecKHC H cpe,l\OBblC YCJlOBHJI, BJIHJllOlillfe Ha CXOJl,CTBO pOJl,CTBeHHIIKoB, oKa3bIBaJOTC!l HC HC3aBlfClfMblMI1 p:pyr OT J!,Pyra (PIiCYHOK 5.6). B CBJl3H C 3THM B paMKax 3KcncpllMCHTaJIbHOii cxeMbl CCMCHHO- 5. CeMeMHbie MccneAOBaHMft 061l\8R CpeA3 reHOTn reHOTlin 06l1\aR CpeA3 B ceMeHHblX HCCJlei\OBaHlIJlX conOCTaBJI!leTCJ! CXOACTBO ,l\Pyr C I1.pyroM qJIeHOB OAHOH ceMbH. CpaBHIIBaeMble pO,l\CTBeH- HIfKII MorYT npHHai\1lCJKaTb K O,l\HOMY nOKOJ1eHHIO. K IIX qllCJlY OTHOCJ!TCJI 6paTbJ! H ceCTpbl (cII6cbl), pOi\HBWlleC B O,l\HOH ce- Mbe H HMCJOlilHe B Cpe)\HeM nOJIOBHHY 06WHX reHOB, a TaKJKC pOACTBCHHIfKH, IIMCJOwHe MeHbwce reHeTllqeCKOe CXOACTBO, - HanpHMep, ,l\eTH OT pa3HbiX 6paKOB - nOJIYCI16Cbl (AeTH, HMelO- lIIHe OJl,HY 1\ TY JKe Man, HO pa3HbIX OTOB, IIJlII Ha060pOT), JI,BOlOp()AHble 6paTb 11 ceCTpbl H TaK ,l\aJlee. CpaBHIIBaTbC 1.10- rYT If napbl pO,l\CTBCHHHKOB, npllHa)J,OeJKaWHe K pa3HbiM nOKO- JleHHM. pO,!I,HTeJlI1 - C ,l\enMH; 6a6YWKH H .n:eAYWKH - C BHY- KaMII, TeTlI H AJI,l\1I - C nJ1eMHHHKaMH HHTepnpeTaHJ! PC3YJ1bTaTOB "PH TaKHX conOCTaBJ1eHHJlX TaKa JKC, KaK H B 6J1H3HCOBOM MCTO,l\e. a BJ1HHHli rCHOTHna MO)l(HO rOBopHTb B TCX cJlY'JaJlx, KOri\il 60JlbWCH CTeneHII pOA- CTBa conYTCTBYeT H 60J1bWee CXOACTBO (KoppeJlH) no l13yqa- 154 "3II"1<)- L!jaC$I cpe, reHOTll!1 05L!jaR CpeA" reHOTn B3I1I4'4aI<)- UlaRCSI CpeA" PUCYHOK 5.6 reHemU'leCKUe u cpeoo8ble ljJaKmopbl, onpeoelZJllOUjue cxoocm8o pooume/leu u cJemeu 155 
ro IICCJIe)J.OBaHl-l>1 60Jlee HaiJ,eJKHbIM )J.!lJI onpeiJ,eJIeHI1H pOJlI! re- HOTllna H CpeiJ,bI >1BJIHCTC>1 conOCTaBJIeHHe iJ,BOlOpOiJ,HbIX 6paTb- eB H ceCTep C T]JOlOpO)J.HbIMH (noeKOJIbKY II Te H iJ,PYrlle no KpaH- HeM Mepe He JKIIBYT 06b1'lHO noiJ, OiJ,HOH KpblweH), qCM P0)J.HbiX 6paTbeB H cecTep C jl,BOlOpOiJ,HbIMH. ElI.\e OIlH3 np06JIeMa D03HIIKaeT npl! cpaBHeHlIII pOiJ,eTBeH- HHKOB, npllH3./I,11eJKall1HX K pa3HblM nOKO!IeHHHM, HanpHMep, pO,II,H- TeneH II .n:eTeM Bo-nepBbIX, BIIHJlHHe rCHOTHna Ha HCKoTopble nCH- XOJIOrH'ICCKlie oc06eHHoeTH MOJKeT 113MeH!iTbCJI C B03pacTOM. Bo- BTOpblX, MeToiJ,b! .l\HarHOCTIlKIl I1CIIXO!IOrIl'leCKIIX oe06eHHOCTeH, paCC'lHTaHHble Ha JIIOiJ,eH pa3Horo D03pacTa, MorYT 6bITb He BnOJI- He COnOCTaBHMb!. B CB!i311 C 3TIIM pOJlb reHOTllnllqeCKIIX <paJ<TOPOB B HCClIe.n:oBaHIIHX pO)J.IITeJleH II )J.eTCH MO)!(eT 3aHII)!(aTbC!i: iJ,CTH MorYT OKa3aTbC!i HcnOXO)l(HMl1 Ha pO)J.IITeJIeH no KaKOH-JIlI60 xa- paKTepIlCTI1KC, BapHaTIIBHOCTb KOTOpOH D 3HaqllTellbHoii CTeneHH CBJl3aHa C reHOTlinOM. (HaI10MHUM, 1'IW 8 ceMeUllblX uCCJ/e008aHl./RX Mepou cxoOcmBa J!lJJ/JIemCJl 8eJ/U'/UHa KoppeJ/J/tjuu u peqb 0 cxoocm8e 8 a6COJIlOmllblX 8eJ/WlUHlJX npU3HlJKa He w1em. ) BbIXOiJ,OM 113 3TOH cHTyaljHII MO)l(eT ObITb TOllbKO npOBeiJ,e- HHe iJ,OJlrODpeMeHHbIX HCC!Ie)J.OBaHIIH: 06ClIeiJ,OBaTb pOjJ;lITC!IeH no KaKOH-1I1160 XapaKTepIlCTHKe, nO)J.OJK)J.aTb, nOKa IIX )J.eTH Dhl- paCTYT iJ,O B3pOC!IOro B03paCTa (TOro, B KOTOpOM 06CJlCiJ,ODa- JInCh IIX pO)J.HTeJIH), II nOBTOpllTb IICC!IeiJ,OBaHlie Ha )J.CTJlX. HOCHTC!iK "HeJKeCncHM" cxeM8M'; nOCKOJ!bJ(Y pO,JJ;CTBCHHI'!KH, HMeIOII.\HC 9?W>\I)e 0611.\HX reHOB! ,eJOT II,,?", nOXoe yenoBIIR cpe;I;bI.' "'" """ " , 5"",,CJIOocrJlM ceMcli1lhlX MO)JU(O OTHeCTH a3JIII'Iw. B B03pscre MC)I{,JJ;y po)J.CTBeHHHKaMH, npHH3./I,11 JI\JI MH p"""""""",."""", ea:'!'1L'f,?:!!,' 'r;;;, ,," ;;;::::';;: ' 6. MeTOA npHeMHblX A&T&M I. ,AruJ aHaJJH38 ,!J,HCKpeTHblX MO- JKeT npHM:9!m "'eTOAY(eHHRPOAoCJJOB!I)!:' cnyqac M,H-",; iJ,emq>yrolllHX npH3HaIWB 8HMmpO,ltOC/lOBHbIX nouDJIJleT onpe,ae-; JlHTh THII HaCJJe)J.OI!i!!lmJ (aYTocoMHblli, c"di C ,ltO- MHHaHTHbIH,pet.\eccIIBHLlII II T3K )J.8JJee). ",2. ITpII!p¥'Ie!f}JI!I< J!,o,Il,HTh ceMemn>lc H ,yrOM 'lJIeHOM),!J,Hol! ceMbl! 3. a BJlHJlHHH reHOTllna rOBopRT B Tex C!IY'laJlX, ,,"orAa 60!IbWeH CTenellH pOACTB8 COOTBCTCTByeT 60JlLW CXO)J.CTIIO (KoppenJlQII>1) no H3yqaeMOii xapaKTepHcTHJ(e. 4. CCMeRHoe HCC!IC,!\OBaHlle B reHeTlIKC nOBe.n;CHHJI He no- 3BOlIJleT qeTJ(O pa3BeCTII cpe.n;ollble H reHeTJf1jCCKl!e B1UIJlHH1!I!0'1:;: npH31j3KOIl M01KHO npo- "- COnOCTaBIDfrb CXOACTBO HCCJIe)J.OBaHnc YCblHOBJleHHbIX )J.eTeH JlBJIJleTCJI JKeCTKOH 3K- cnepllMeHTa!IhHOil cxeMOH, n03BO!IJllOlI.\eH '1eTKO pa3BCCTli D!IHJI- HHe reHeTllqCCKIiX H epeiJ,OBhlX cpaKTopOB. 3Ta cxeMa BKJIlOqacT B ee6J1, Bo-nepBbIX, COfJOCTaB!IeHHe AeTeH II HX 6H0J10nlqeCKI1X pO- )J.I1TC!Iei! H, BO-BTOpbIX, C0l10CTaBJIeHHC iJ,eTeH H HX pO)J.I1TeJ1eH- YCbIHOBIITeJIeH. ECJIH )J.CTII 6btJII1 YCblHODJleHbI B nepBbJe )J.HH )1(113- HH II cpa3Y JKe pa3J1Y'IeHbI co CBOHMI1 6HOJlOrHqeCKIIMH p0)U1Tell!i. MH, TO C HHMII OHH HMelOT TOJ1bKO 06ll\He rCHb!. C pOjI;lITen!iMH- YCbIHOBI'!Te!I.IIMH, C KOTOpbJMH )J.eTH npOJKHllIl BCIO )l(n3Hb, Y AeTeH HeT HHKaKoro reHeTH'IeCKOrO CXOACTBa, HO 3aTO CCTb 0611.\He cpe- )J.OBble yeJIOBII>1. DOJlee DLICOKaJl KoppenHQHH )J.eTCH C 6110Jlorl1qec- KHMII pO)J.IITe!IJlMIi CBl1jXeTeJ1bCTBYeT B nO!Ib3Y reHOTllnHqeCKllX BJ1I1J1HHH, 60JIbWaH JKe KOppCJlJlljl1J1 C pOj\IITeJIHMII-YCbIHOBHTeJIH- MI1 - B 110JIb3Y CPCiJ,OBhIX*. BapHaHTbl 3TOH CXCMbl BK!IIO'IaIOT B ee6>1, .n:onO!IHHTC!IbHO K conOCTaBlIeHll1O p0.1\lJTeneH II )J.eTeH, CIl1C II cpaDHeHHC )J.eTeH, He IIMCIOIl1UX rCHeTU'IeCKOrO CXOACTDa, HO YCbIHOB!ICHHbIX B OMy CeMblO (PHCYHOK 5 7) ITOCKOllbKY 0TJ(a3 OT CBOIIX iJ,eTeH II HX nOCJIeiJ,YlOll\cC yCbl- HOBlIeHHe I1pe)J.cTaBJlJleT C060H RBHO He 06bIiJ,eHHYIO clITyaQHlO, qHCToTa MeTO)J.a nplleMHblX iJ,CTeH npll IICCJle)J.OBaHlIII nCHXOJlO- rw,eCKIIX xapaKTepHCTHK MOJKeT nOjI,BepraTbCJI COMHeHHlO B03- MOJKHO !IH Ha6paTb j10CTaTOqHO 60!ILIlIYIO BblOOPKY iJ,cTeil, KO- TOpbJe 6bIllIt YChIHOa!IeHbI B ncpBble )J.IIH JKI13HH? HCT !IH naTO- ":"',:' BblliJOAW . HanoMHHM, qT() 3cJIeKTbl BHYTPHYTpo6HOn cpellbl Y YCMHOBJ1eHHE>JX .neTe" onpelleJl.RIOTC [IX 6HOJIOrH'leCKtlMH MaTepfiMH, no:nm.ty, CTporo rOBD- p'l Hellb3J1 c'ii-uan., Ho Y TBKHX n,eTeH ACT JJIelloU:HTOB 06weH CpeLlbr C HX 6HOJlOrH'ieCKHMH MaTepJlMH ECJ1H H'JY'IaeMhlH npH3HaK qYBCTBHTeneH K BJJ"- "'-H1.RM BHYTp(.f)Tpo6HQH tpenbl. TO B cxeMax JCCne.uOBaHHfI Heo6xo):lHMO Y'iH- TbIBan. H Ma'tepHHCKHH :).peKT 156 157 
a3n"4aKl- aGi! cpella 0611\aA cpe,qa reHOTHn 0611\8A tpI\Q8 reHOT"n 83O"4al<)- UjaACA cpe.Aa 06111aA cpella reHOTlin reHOT"n PUC)'HOK 5.7 rellernUqeCKUe u cpeoo6ble ljJaKmopbl, ol1peOelUl1014ue Cxoocm8o pooumeJleu"ycbrH06UmeJleU u npueMHblX OemeCi JlOrHH Y MaTepeH, OTKa3aBWHXCII OT CBOHX .n:eTeH (ncHXHqeCKHX Ja60JIeBallHif, aJIKOrOfTr{3Ma If TaK i(aJIee), Komp!.!e MorYT nepe- J\aBaTbCII no lIacneJ\CTBY H qCpe3 KOTopble 6YJ\YT "npenOMnIlTb- " ell nCIIXOJIOrIl'ieCKHe oc06eHHocTH .!I.eTeli ('1TO II npHBe.!l.eT K CXOIICTBY .!I.erell C If X 51/oJIOmqeCKHMU ManpHMu)? TaKl1x Bon" pOCOB MOJKeT 6b1n MllOro, 11 Mil Toro qT06bl He paJ6Hpan no O,!I,HOMY pa3HI.1C COMHeHHJI no nOBOAY MeTOAa npHeMHblX )1eTeif, paCCMOTpHM, KaK 6bInO opraHH30BaHO O,!I,HO 113 HaH60nee Kpyn- IiblX HccneAonaHHH - KOJIOpa.!l.CKOe IIccneAOBaHHe npHeMJ{blX AeTeH (DeFnes J.e , Plomm R., Fulker D W., 1994). OHO liB" JIJleTCJI XOPOWHM IIOKa3aTenbCTBOM Toro, qTO B HCCJIeAOBaHl1il nplleMHblX .!I.eTei1 MOJKHO .!I.OCTaTOqHO HaJl,eJKIiO pa3BeCTI1 relie" 158 J TllqeCKHe H cpel(OBble ljIaKTopbI, nnHJlIOll.{He Ha H3MeH4HBOCTb pa3JIHqHbiX xapaKTepHCTlIK. _ ITpe)j()1c Bcero, BbIIlCHHJIOCb, qTO MO)l{HO !lailTIl raKYro Co- [jliaJIbllYIO rpynny, B KOTOpOi1 nCl1xHqeCKH HopManbHb!e H CO[jH" aJlbl10 He AerpaAIIPOBaBWHe JKeHwl1HbI OTKa3bIBalOTCII OT CBOIIX )1eTei'i. HMI1 OKa3aJ1I1Cb He3aMYJKHHe MOJIO,ll,ble J!CeHll.{IUlbI, B OCHOB- 110M CTYlIeHTKH, KaTOJIH'IeCKOrO BepOllcnOBe.n:aIlHII, KOTopbIe no penHfli03HblM MOTI1BaM l1e MornH '\36aBHTbCII OT pe6eHKa Ha nep- BblX CTaAlUlX 6epeMeHHOCTII, HO 110 pa3HblM npll'lIlHaM He Mornil I1ml He KOTeJlH OCTaBnJlTb pe6eHK3 Y ce611 (60HmIC!' OCY)j(ACHHJI pO)1CTBeHHHKOB; He HMenl1 Jl,OCTaTOqHO npO'lHOrO MaTepl1aJI!'1l0ro nOITOJKeHIIH, '1To6bJ COJJI,aTb HOpM311bHblC ycnoBI1" Mil pe6elll<a; cqluaJIII, qTO pe6eHKY 6y.o.CT J!yqwe B CCMbC, rJl,e eCTb lie TOJIbKO Man, 110 H OTel\ H TaK .o.anee). KaTOJIl1qCCK3J! 06ll.{HH3 nOMor3- eT T3K!lM JKCHWHHaM Ha!\T!I CC'!bll, KOTop!'le XOTJlT YCblHOBIITb pe6eHKa. B TaKHX CJIY'iailX I1JBecTeH OTe/1 pefieHK3, II n03TOMY B HC- Clle.o.oB3HHil MorYT 6bITb nonyqeHb! 11 IICnOJIb30BaH!,1 AaHHble He TOJIbKO MaTcpl1, HO H OTl\a (COl\lIanhHO".!I.eMorpaqm'leCKHe napa- MeTpbl, nOK3J3Temi pJlA3 nmXO!IOrll'ieCKI'!X xapaKTepHCTHK). .II.JlJI I1CCne.o.OBaHIIH 6b1J11I oT06pallb! TaKlle AeTH, KOTOpblX YChlllOBIIJIlI B nepBblH MeCill\ JKII3HII, npH 3TOM 6110nOfllqeCK'!e M3- TepH npOBO.lUlJJJI BMeCTe C pe6eHKOM HC 60Jlec He.n:enH (B cpeA- HeM, 4 AH") II 60JIbWe HIIKOr)1a C HIIM He BCTpeqaJII1Cb. COl\HaJIbHO-3KOHOMllqeCKI1U CTaTYC 6110JlOrllqeCKI!X MaTe" peH, eCTeCTBeHHO, fibm IH'JKe, qeM CTaTYC yCblHoBIlTClTeH (OHII 6bIJIH MOJlO)l{e, MHome H3 HHX ewe He nonY'J!lJII1 npoq,eCCHIO). O,ll,- HaKO POAIlTeJI:11 Tex, KTO OTK3J3J1CH OT AeTeJi, - 6HOIIOrHqeCKHe 6a6YUlKH H ,!\eAYWKII nplleMHblX ACTeH - He OTnll4aJIIICb 110 COl\II- aJIbHO-3KOHOMII'IeCKOMY CTaTYCY OT 6a6yweK 11 ,lI,eI\YWCK B CCMb" JlX-YC!.IHOBIITeJTHX. EHO!IOrHqeCKlle pO,/!HTenll (H MaTepH, 11 OTl\bl) He OTJIllqanllCb OT pO,!I,HTCneH-YCbIHOBHTeneH no CBOIIM HIITeJIl1eK- TyanbHhlM xapaKTepllCTI1KaM, npll'leM COBnaJII1 HC TOJIbKO cpek Ime nOl<:a3aTenli IIHTenJleI<Ta, HO 1\ ljIal<TOpHaH CTpYKTypa 113Me" PIIBWIIXCII ncpeMeHHblx. KoppenJll\1I11 MeJK,lI,Y nOK3J8TeJTIIMIf IfHTellJleKla 61f0Jlorll- 'ieCI<HX pO,!\HTeneH \I pO,!I,HTcneli-ychIHOBIITeJleii fibmH 6nH3KI1 K HYI1IO He3Ha'iIlMbIMIl OKa3aJlHCb H KOppenJll\HII o6pa30BaHIIH H npoljJeccHoHa.nbHoro CT3TYca. 3TO rOBopHT 0 TOM, 'ITO npll YCbl" 159 
HOBJIeHIIII )J,eTII CJIY'IaHHO pacnpel\CJII!JIHCh no CCMhJlM: He 6hlJIO TaK, '1T06hl pe6eHOK 60JIee 06pa30BaHHoi! 6110JIOrlf'leCKOH Ma- Tepll nona)J,aJI B 60JIee 06pa30BaHHYIO ceMblO, a pe6eHOK MeHee 06pa30BaHHOH MBTepll - B MeHee 06pa30BBHHYIO. CJIY'IaHHOe pacnpC)J,eJIeHlle )J,eTeii no ceMbHM n03BOJII!eT rOBopllTb 0 '1eT- KOM pa3.L\eJIeHIIH B 3KcnepllMCHTe reHeTH'<eCKIIX H cpe)J,OBblX BJIlIHHHii. 'iHCJIO npHeMHblX .L\eTCH, KOTopoe 6b1JIO 06CJIe.L\OBaHO npll- MepHO 33 10 JIeT, npH6J1I1JKaeTCJI K 300, TO eCTb BbI60pKa I\OC- TaTO'lHO 60J1bllJal! Jl,JIH Toro, qT06bl BbIBO)U>1 HCCIIC.L\OBaHIII! Mor- J111 6b1Tb Ha.L\eJKHbIMH. ,l\JIH nOBblllJeHIIH Ha.L\eJKHOCTII .L\aHHbIX B HCClIel\OBaHHe BKJ1IOqeHbl TBKJKe II KOHT]JOJlbHble ceMbH - 06blq- Hb!e CeMhll, B KOTOphlX conOCTBBJIl!eTCJI CXOJl,CTBO pO)J,HTelIeH II IIX c06CTBeHHbIX .L\CTeH. CpaBlfeHI'!C )J,3HHbIX, nOJ1yqenHbIX B npll- eMHblX ceMbHX, C .L\BHHbIMH, nOJIyqeHHblMIl B 06b1qHb1X CeMbJlX, n03B0J1l!eT npOBepllTb, He pa3JIII'IaIOTCJI J111 CTIIJ111 pO)J,IITeJlbCKO- .L\eTCKIIX OTHoweHHH B )J,BYX Tltn3X cCMeii. B HacTOSlwee BpeMS! )J,eTII, y"acuYIOll\lIe 0 K01l0pa.nCKOM IICCJle)J,OBaHIIH nplleMHblx )J,eTeii, Jl,OCTIlrJIH nOl\pOcTKOBoro B03pa- CTa, HO JlCCJ1e.L\OlJaHlle Ha 3TOM 3Tane HC OK3H'IHBaeTCH. ABTOpbl npe)J,n0J1ar3IOT npOCJle)J,HTb 3KcnepllMeHTaJIbHYIO Bbl60PKY Jl,0 B3pOC1I0ro B03paCTa, TO eCTb 1\0 Toro BpeMenH, KOr):{a .L\eTII npH- 6I1K3I!TCI! K B03paCT)I CBOIIX pOI\HTeJIeii H o6caenOBaKlIe MO)!(HO 6yJI,CT npOBeCTII TeMIl )J(e caMbIMIl nCHXOIIOrllq01;KHMH MeTO.L\aMII. TaKl1M 06pa30M, cxeMa IICCJlel\OBaHI1J1 nplleMHbIX Jl,eTeH, n03BOlIJlIOll1aSl Ha.neJKHO pa30eCTH reHeTllqeCKlle II Cpel\OBble tjJaK- TOpbl, BJlIIJ!lOll111e Ha JlHI\IIBlll\yaJ1bHl>le pa31I1IQIlJl, MOJKCT 6bITb ocYweCTBJIeHa B peaJIbHOM 3KcnepllMeHTe. BMeCTe C TeM, MHorKe IICClIel\OBaTeJlK CqHTaIOT, qTO MeTO)J, nplleMHblX Jl,eTeH BpJlI\ JIll 6Y)J,eT IIrpaTb cYlI1eCTBenHYIO pOJIb B 6ytlYII1HX reHeTllqeCKIIX pa- 60Tax, HO CBJl3aHO no HC C pa3peWal01l1eH cnoc06HOCTbIO caMO- ro MeTO)J,a, a C TjJ3)J,Hl\IIJlMII YCbIHOBJIeHIIJI. ITpeJKl\e Bcero, B pHl\e crpaH, 11 B '1aCTHOCTH B HaweH, TaHHB YCbIHOBJ1eHHJI OXpaHJleTCJI 3aKOHOM: )J,eTHM He npllHJlTO C0061I1aTb 0 tjJaKTe YCblHOBJICHIIJI 11, JKIIBH B nplleMHOH ceMbe, OHH CqIlTaIOT, '1TO JKIIBYT co CBOIIMH 6110JIOrll'leCKIIMH po)J,IITeJIJlMII. B nJlx CJlyqaHX npOBeJl,eHHe HC- CJ1C)J,OBaIlIlJl nplleMHbIX )J,ereii He npeI\CraBJ1J1eTCJl B03MO)l(HbIM. B Tex CTpaHax, rtle tjJaKT YCbIHOBrreHHII He npllHIITO CKpbl;!aTb OT l\ereH, HanpHMep, B CiliA, r.L\e npOoel\eHbl Hall60nee MHOrO'lIlC- 160 JIeHHbie H QIlCTble HCCJ1e.L\OBaHHJI npHeMHblx l\ereH, nOCTeneHHO MeHl!eTCJI npaKTIIKa YCbIHoBrreHHJI: Bce 60J1l>wee pacnpocTpaHe- Hlle norrY'IaIOT TBKHe BapHBHTbl YCb!HOBJIenHJI, npH KOTOpblX 6110- rrOrllqeCKlle pO)J,liTeJIII pe6eHKa, OT.u;aBali ero B Jl,pyrylO ceMblO, He npeKpall1 aIDT KOHTBKTbl C HHM H npllHIIMalOT caMoe )J,el!TerrbHOC yqaCTIle B ero BocmuaHHII. TaKal! cHTyal\HJI, HeCOMHeHHO, ClJlI)]e- TCJIbCTByeT 0 JIH6epaJIH3aUI111 B3rllJll\OB B 061l1eCTBe (HCqe3aeT CTl1rMaTII3al\HJI MaTepeH-OAIIHOqeK, OKpy)KaIDll1I1e TepnllMee OTHO- CJlTCJI K or)J,aOlIlHM CBoero pe6eIIKa B .u;pyrylO ceMhID, eClllI )TO He Yll1 eMJ1 I!CT IIHTepeCOB pe6eIJKa, II TaK )J,arrce). Oi1HaKO TBKOH BB- pnaHT YCblHOBJICHIIJI, eCJIH OH CTaHCT 06wenpllHl!TblM, Cl\erraeT HCB03MOJKHblM npOBei1eHHe reHeTII'leCKIiX IICCJIC.n:OBBHHH, no- CKOJlbKY He nD3BorrHT Halle)\(HO pa3Be\:TH reHeTH"eCKHe II cpe- )J,OBbIe tjJaKTopbl, BrrllJlIDll111e Ha 113MeH'lIlBOCTb 113YQaeMblX xa- pBKTepHCTIIK. eTC!! JKeC'I1(Oit(.I1epHM""" T8J1bijQ!i cxeMOih:,1l93BOrunO.",,'1 BJDIJIHII!I reHe- PO"Qi\3 H3MeH'IHBOon.m,Y'lae"" ,_ .m.m__'..... :.:::.:'::;',",,,.... M(;ToM I1pueMHblX" npOHJj"!:t,,  C HX 6Horr0r11'1ecJ(II!.I1I pO.iJ.!IMHH " po,l1ll'reJIJl- .." ,..':,::::'",...."", """ 3. ni.lOOIrn!! KOppenHl\HI! MtJJ()Iy Jl,eTLMH H 6HOJ1QtHecKHMH poiUi1I CBlI,lJ;eTellbCT1lS'eT 0 reHOTlmW!ecKHX BJ1HJIHIISX Hil Ip MeH'IHB"IIY'IaeMOH XapaKTepll£PIKIf.BICaI! Koppemu.\lf!! :.:.:"MH-YCblHOBm;:,,:"r 0 " 4. S P!IAC crpaH(ilfOM QHCJ!e H B PO«HII),.'  cywe-'i'" 'rnYJOMIJ TIlM Tp3,lI,lll:{Wl1I YCbllloBlleHIIII (TaHa oxp aH lIeJC II OHOM), npHMeHeHHe MeTO;!l;a":Ufu!<;1\ )J,eTe!! np HeB03MoJKHO. ""......, xap 
7. ConocTaBneHl1e pe3ynbTaToB, nonY'IeHHblX pa3HblMI1 MeTo,qaMI1 cpe)].OH, n03TOMY CXO)].CTBO MeJK)].Y M3 6JI113HCLjaMII 6YACT co- CTaBJlHTb 50% OT IIX rCHeTllqeCKOrO CXOACTBa (HanoMHIIM, '1TO Y M3 6J1113HCLjOB reHCTl1qeCKOe CXOACTBO COCTaBJlHCT 100%) mnoc cxOACTBO 3a CqeT 06ll1eH cpeAbI (25%), TO eCTb B pe3YJlbTaTe KOpeJlJlLjIlJl MeJKllY M3 6J1H3HeLjaMH COCTaJlliT 0,75. CXOllCTJlO MeJKAY ,l(3 6J1H3HeuaMIi 6YlleT CKJlaAblBanCJI TaKHM JKe o6pa- 30M: nOCKOJlbKY reHeTllqeCKOe CXOJl,CTBO .II.3 6J1H3He!.\OB COCTaB- rrHeT 50%, npll 50-npo!.\cHTHOH HaCJleAycMOCTH MbI 6Y)J,eM IIMeT 25% CXOACTBa 3a CqeT o61l111x rCHOB II 25% - 3a CqeT 06ll1 ell cpeAbl, COOTBeTCTBeHHO KOpeJIHLjHH )J,OH .II.3 6J1113HeLjOB COCTa- BIIT 0,5. Cxo)J,CTBO npneMHblX AeTeH H YCbIHOBlIBIIlHX HX pOIIII- TeJleii 6Y.I\eT onpelleJIHTbCH TOJlbKO 06ll1 eH cpeAoii (25%), n03TO- MY HX KOppeJIH!.\IIH COCTaBliT 0,25. B TpcTbeM npHMepe CXOACTBO MeJK.I\Y pOAcTBeHHHKaMII onpelleJIHeTCH TOJIbKO CpCAOBblMII napaMeTpaMII (25% 3a CqeT o6ll1 eH cpeAbl), n03ToMY AJUI TCX pOAcTBeHHIIKoB, KOTopble IIMe- lOT 06L1.\YIO cpeAY, KOppeJIHLjIlH 6Y.I\eT paBHa 0,25. Bce TpH nplllJeAeHHbIx npHMepa AeMoHcTpllPYIOT pe3yrrb- TaTbl, KOTopbIe nOJIyqalOTCH B Tex CJIY'IaHX, Korlla lIaHHble He BCTynalOT B npOTIIBOpeqHe. EWH JKe pe3YJIbTaTbI IICCJICAOBallllH OIlHOH 11 TOH JKe nCI1XOJIorllqecKoii xapaKTepl<CTIIKH, nOJlY"IeH- Hble pa3HbIMH MeTOllaMH, He cOBnaIlYT, TO MOJKHO BbIJICHIITb npll- qllHbl, 113MeHRlOll1He BHYTplmapHoe CXo.n:CTBO Tex IIJlII IIHbIX pO)J,- CTBeHHHKOB. HanpliMep, eCJIlI CXOIICTBO ,l(3 6J1H3HeLjOB npeBb!- lIlaeT CXOACTBO CII6cOB, MOJKHO npellnOJIOJKIITb BJlHJlHHe cneLjIl- <!JHqeCKHX 6JIII3HeLjOBbIX 3<!J<!JeKTOB, HMelOll1HX cpeAOBoe npollc- XOJKlleHHe II YBeJIllqHBaIOIl1HX CXO)J,CTBO .II.3 6JIII3HeLjOJl. B nOCJleAYIOll1l1X rJIaJlax npH 06cYJKAeHHii KOHKpeTHblX 3K- Cnepl1MeHTaJlbHbIX HCCJIC)].OBaHHH 6y)].eT nOKa3aHO, KaK IIHTCp- npeTllpYJOTCH npOTHBOpeqHH, nOJIyqaeMb!e B pa60Tax, npOBe- .l1eHHbIX pa3HbIMlI MCTOilaMIi. O.l1HIiM 113 cnoc060B npOBepKII Haile)l(HOCTIi PC3YJlbTaTOB, nOJlY'laeMbIX npll IICCJ1C.l10BaHIiH pOJlII reHOTlina H cpe,!l.bl B 113MeH- qUJlOCTI1 pa3HbIX nCIIXOJlOrll'leCKIIX xapaKTepHCTIIK, HBJIHeTCJI CO- nOCTaBJICHIiC pe3YJlbTaTOB, nOJJyqeHHbIX pa3HbIMH MCTO.l1aMH. .II.onYCTIIM, npll IICCJIeJl,OBaHIiH OJl,HOM II TOM iKe nCIIXOJIorll- 'IecKOH xapaKTepHCTllKH 6JJH3He!.\OBbIM H ceMeHHblM MCTo,!\aMII, a TaKiKe MeTO)J,OM nplleMHblx ,!\C'TeH 6b!JJH nOJJyqeHbl TaIme pe3YJlb- TaTbl, KaKHC npliBeAeHb! lJ npHMepe 1 (Ta6JIIILja 5.2). 3TII pe3YJlb- TaThI cBHAeTerrbcTBYIOT 0 TOM, 'ITO Bce IIHAIIBHAyaJIbHble pa3llH- qllJl no l13yqaeMOH xapaKTepllCTHKe onpeAeJIHlOTCH reHOTlinOM: M3 6JII13HC!.\bl nOllHOCTblO H,!\eHTH'IHbl, OCTaJIbHb!C POACTBCHHIIKI1 nOXOJKH B TOH CTeneHH, KOTopaH COOTBeTCTBYCT IIX reHCTHqeCKO- MY CXOI\CTBY (KOppCJIJI!.\lm pO)J,IITelleH II Jl,eTeH paBHbI 0,5, Koppe- JlH!.\H!! CII6cOB paBHbl 0,5; KOppeJUl!.\"m pOlllITeJIei1 II nplleMHblx AC'Tci1 paBHbI 0,0). Bo BTOpOM npllMepe KOppeJIHl\1I1I MeJK)].Y po)].cTBeHHIIKaMII onpCAeluIIQTCH Ha 50% Hacrre)J,YCMOCTbIQ II Ha 25% - OOLl.\CH Ta6J1uqa 5.2 KoppelUl'lUU Me:J/Coy l1apaMu poocm6eHHuK08 I1pU pa3Hblx 3Ha'leHlmX HaCJleoyeMocmu, 06,*,..1 II pa3J1W1a1oUjeucH CpeOb! (no Plomill R.o 1990) npH....p 1 npHMep2 npHM.p 3 M3 6nM3HeL4bl 1,00 0,75 0,25 A3 6nH3t<e4bl 0.50 0,50 0.25 POAKTenI1-AeT 0,50 0,50 0,25 C.6cbI (POll"".) 6110I10r.....lecKl'le POA'lTel1 14 11)( A6TM, 0.50 0.25 0,00 YCbU10e.neHHbl8 8 APYrylO ceMblO reHeTM4eCkM He CB.s:IJaHKble IIKJAM, 0,00 0.25 0,25 :>KMsYI.1.IHe BMecre (POAKTenl1- YCblHOBKTeml M npMeMHbIe AeTM M.n np.."",,. 6paTbA " =,,) Hac.neAyeMOCTb 1,00 050 0,00 06114"" cpeA" 0,00 0,25 0,25 Pa::JnH...alOC1I cpBAa 0.00 0,25 0,75 BbIB9A: !"l'l,CotroC'raBJIClHHe pe3Yilbr8TOll IICCJJe)J,O.!lHH)t OJ\HOH II ..TOIi 1Ke nl:HXOJJol'H'lccKoil xaPl;UCTepHCTIIKH C IIpHMeUeHHeM pa] '.'.J,lX MeTOJI,O,\ ".."'. 6J11\3HeI.\OBOI'0, teMel!HOI'O ,,!l?AA np;eM!,IX ';)J,iI!'03I1OJljJeT,pl.\eHIIBa 1!:!\"":pI.ot.T..;:!;;::;:;, 162 163 
2. ECJIH pc!lYJIbTaTbl HCcneAoBaHIUI 0,1\1108 H TaB IKe nCH- xOJIOrn'leCKoit xapa1CTepIlCTIiKII, nOJlY'IeHHble pa3H"'MII MeTO)J,3- MH, BCTynalOT B npOTHBOpe'lHe,li!eo6xonHM .lIOn01lflllTeJJbHblil ,RHaJIH3 SIIOU{HX CII:? . . . .. . .. Af:fB . ' . , . . . . . ' .. . . ' .. . .. . . . . ' . ., . , . . . , . ... ' . , Tell: LIIIII>IXPO 'IHTaIOT B cpellJIcM no 2/3 )J,HeBHoH HOpMbI )l(H,!\KOCTII nonyqaTb B JlH)J:e )J:ccHllnpOl(eHTHOro pacTBopa anKOrOJHI. DbIJIH HCCJle.n:OBa- Hbl Me)l(JlIIHeHHble pa3JIHqH B cBoikTBaX M03ra H ne'leHH JKilBOT- HbIX. OCHOBHble paJJIII'IHJI MeJlVl.)' KOHTpaCTHblMH JII1HIIMII, BbUIBH- JIHCb B Jl,BYx c<pepax - B MeTa6oJIil3Me aJ1KorOJlJl H B ero B03)J:eH- CTaI1H Ha IjJH3i10JIOrHIO M03ra. DblJIO nOKaJflHO, '1TO nOBbIweHHaJI nOTpe6HOCTb B aJIKOrOJIe CO'leTae-rCH C BbICOKO" '1YBCTBHTeJlbHO- CTbIO MOJra K ero HapKOTH'IeCKOMY lI.eikraHIO. I1pH CKpeU{HBaHHH HH6peJl,HblX mlHHH OKa3anOCb, qTO npH3HaK, 06YCJlOBIDlBaIOLl(Hii pa3JIH'IH MeJlVl.)' HIIMH, KOHTponHpYeTC Jl,BYMH JIOKycaMH. TaKHM 06pa30M, 3KcnepHMeHTbI Ha )l(HBOTHbIX 1l03BOJIHnH OqepTIITb Te 06naCTII, B KOTOpblX He06xo,!!HMO 6blJI0 I1CKaTb re- HeTHqeCKHe pa31I1lqH MeJKny JIIOnbMH, - 3TO MeTa50m13M an- KOrOJIH, TO eCTb KOMnJIeKC ero npCBpaweHIIH B opraHlI3MC, II H.eHpocjJH3HOJIOrH'IeCKlle peaKl(HH Ha aJ1KorOJlb. B HCCJle)J:OBaHII- x Ha 5JIII3HeQax 61.1/10 o6HapYJKeHO CYLl(CcTBeHHoe reHeTH'IeC- KOC BJIHHHe Ha MCTa60JIII3M am<oroJIJI, a B HeHpocjJH3HOJIOrll- qeCKIiX 3KcIlepHMeHTaX C penlc-rp3l.\HeH :))IeKTp03HQe<jJano r paM- MI.l (33r) 5b!JI0 nOKa3aHo, qTO JII1Q3, CKJIOHHble H He CKJIOHHble K nOTpe5JIeHllIO aJ1KorOJI, HMelOT pa3HblH xapaKTep 33f H pa3- HYIO ee peaKTHBHOCTb Ha BBe)J:eHHe aJIKOrOJlJl OKa3aJIOCb, '1TO po)J:CTBeHHHKH aJIKOrOJIHKOB, He CTpall.alOwHe aJIKOroJlH3MOM, HMeJlII noxo)l(Hii xap3KTep 6Ho3J1eK1'pHqecKoii aKTHBHOCTH M03- ra, 3 M3 6JIII3HeQbl, B OTJIH'IHe OT }].3, )J:eMOHCTplipOBaJIIi BbICO- Koe CXO.l\CTBO no peaKTIiBHOCTII 33f Ha aJlKOronb. Bce 3TH 3K- cnepllMeHTbl n03BOJlHJIIi 3aKJIlOqHTb, '1TO HeKOTopble oc06eHHo- CTH MeTa60Jlli3Ma H xapaKTep qYBCTBHTeJlbHOCTH HepBHOii CII- CTeMbI K am:orolllO HBIIKIOTCH reHeTH'IecKH 06YCJIOBJIeHHb IMII npli- '1HHaMII pa3JIllqHH Me)KII.Y JlIO)J:bMII B CK)lOHHOCTIl K nOTpe6JIe- HHIO aJlKOrOJIH. B03HliKHOBeHile )Ke anKOrOJlll3Ma KaK 60ne3HIi, CO BeeM KOMnJIeKCOM nOBe)J:eH'IeCKilX II JIII'IHOCTHbIX pac- CTpoiicTB, onpe)J:eJIeTCJI B OCHOBHOM BlleWHHMI1 06CTOTeJIb- CTBaMH, TO "CTb cpe)J:oii. B 06Ll(ecTBe, r)J:e aJlKOrOJIb )J:ocTyneH iI Tpa)J:IIQHoHHO aBJIeTCJI OnHI1M 113 3JIeMeHTOB cpe)J:bl npH 05- Ll(eHilH JIIO)J:eii, reHeTl1'leCKH BoCnpIlI1MqHBb!H K aJlKOrOJIIO qeJIO- BeK HMceT 60JIbWe waHCOI! 3a60JIeTh aJIKOrOJIil3MOM. CI10co6Hocmb K 06Y'leHI1IO. HHKTO He CTaHeT OTpilQaTb, qTO cnoco6HOCTb K 06yqCHHIO npllcywa He TOJlbKO qeJIOBeKY, HO H )KIIBOTHbIM. 3Ta cnoc06HOCTb WHpOKO HCCJIelIj'eTCJI B reHeTHKe 165 8. MO,Qenl1pOBaHl1e Ha )IUIBOTHbIX Y 'IeJIOBeKa iI .l\pyrHx MJIeKOIlI1Ta!OLl(ilX KaK 6110JIOrll'leCKI'!X CHCTeM rOpa3.1\O 60JIbWe 06WHOCTH, qeM pa3JIHqllH HanpHMep, 'IIICJIO HYKneOTH,!\OB B }].HK 'IeJIOBeKa H MbIWH COCTaBJIeT npll- MepHO TpJl MHJIJIl1apAa, npHqeM 60JIee 99% rCHOB y HHX HBJI"IOT- CJI 06Ll(ilMH. JII050e nOBe.l\eHHe "BnJleTCJI pe3YJIbTaTOM )J:e"TeJIb- HOCTH M03ra. H3BeCTHO, qTO MHorHe MexaHH3Mb! )J:eHTeJIbHOCTH M03ra y '1eJIOBeKa II )((HBOTHbIX TaK)((C lI)J:eHTl'!qHbl. IT03TOMY HCT HHqeI'O Y)I.HBHTellbHoro B TOM, qTO JKCI1ep!'iMeHTbl HB 'AIHBOTHbIX KaK Ha 60nee npOCTbIX CHCTeMax, K TOMY )((e npH B03MO)((HOCTH BMeWBTeJIbCTBa B .lIeHTeJIbHOCTb 3TIIX clicTeM, n03BOJIJlIOT nO)J:oH- TH K peweHHIO HeKoTopblX np06J1eM relleTHKI1 1l0Be.l\e1lH qeJlOBC- Ka. Bo0611\e reHCTHKa nOBel\eHHJI )KIIBOTHbIX "BJI"eTCJI caMOCTO,,- TeJIbHOH 06JIacTblO reHeTHKiI nOBe)J.eHHR, Ii B )J:BHHOH o5nBcT>I Be- IIj'TC pa3JIH'IHble IICCJIe)J:oBaHH, np"MbIM 06paJOM He CBJlJaHHble C reHeTIIKOH qeJlOBeKa, HO cnoeo6cTBYlOwlie peweHHIO HeKOTO- pbIX ce np06JICM. B )1aJIbHeiiweM, oc06eHHo B TOM paJ)1ene, r)J:c peqb nOHJ{eT 06 HHnHBH,!\yaJIbHOM pa3BHTHII, MI.l eLl(C He paJ CTOJIKHeMC C MO)1eJIbHbIMH 3KcnepHMeHTaMII, BelIj'llI.IIMHCJI Ha )KHBOTHbIX. BOCnOJIb3yeMcH HeCKOJIbKilMH npHMepaMiI MO.n:CJIbHbIX 3KcnepilMeHToB Ha )KIIBOTHbIX, npilBe)J:CHHbIMH B PYKOBO.l\CTBe no reHeTHKe qeJIOBeKa <D <Doren" II A.MoTYJIbCKH (1990). reHeml1'leC/<ue pa3JIU'lW! 8 nompe611el/liU {l]/XOZOllJt. ITpH 113Y'le- HIIII HaCJIe.n:CTBeHHbIX npH'II1H aJIKOrOJIH3Ma y qeJIOBeKa WHpOKO HCnOJIb3YIOTC 3KcnepHMeHTbl Ha MbIwax iI KpbIcax. HCeJle)J:OBa- TeJI"M y.l\aJIOCb nYTeM HH6pIIJ'UIHra (6nHJKOpOACTBeHHorO CKpell1l1- BaHiI") nOJIyqHTb J1IIHIIII MblweH C pa3J1l1qHOii nOTpe6HOCTbIO B aJIKorone (HBnOMHHM, '1TO Bce JKHBOTHble, npHHaMe)l(aLl(He o.l\Hoii JmHIIH, HMeIOT nO'lTI1 O)l.HHaKDBb!C rCHOTHnbI) MbIWII HeKOTopblX JIHHIIU nonHOCTblO 1136eralOT aJ1KoroJI, TOrJ1,3 KaK II.pymc npe.n:no- 164 
166 CKOJlbKHX nOKOJIeHIIJlX n03BOJIHJIa Bbl)\eJlHTI> HenepeKpblBaIOJnH- eca cy6nonynllUHII "YMHbIX" II "rnynblx" JKHBOTHbiX. 31'0 rOBO- pliT 0 TOM, qTO B HCXOllHOH nonYJIJlUIiH CYJneCTBOBana 3aMeT- Haa rCHeTllqeCKali H3MeH'IUBOCTb no cnoc06HOCTII K 06yqeHllIO B JIa6Hp!iHTe. 3aTeM 6bIJI OCYll\eCTBneH 3KcnepHMeHT, KOTOpbIH '1pe3Bbl- '1aHHO BaJKeH llJI>I 1j!0pMynHpoBKH rlinOTe3bI B OTI<OWeHIIU cno- C06HOCTH K 06Y'leHI1IO y qenOBeKa. .II.eTeHbIWeH l<aJJ(.!lOH 113 JIH- HHii - "YMHOH" II "mynoH" - pa311eJlHJlH Ha 3 rpynnbI. KpbI- caTa nepBoH rpynnbI BbIpaWHBaJllICb B 06b1'1HbIX YCJlOBHIIX. .II.e- TeHbIW!i H3 BTOpOH rpynnbI C MOMeHTa pOJKlleH1I1I 6blJIH J1l1we- HbI B0311eHCTB!i1l Tex ljJaKTopoB cpellbl, 1<0TOpble cnoc06CTBYlOT nOJHaaaTeJIbHOii HJIII IIcCJ!e,J:\oBaTenI>CKOR ,J:\e>lTeJIbHocrH, TO eCTb pOCJlII B YCJIOB!iJlX ,J:\enpHBaUHII. TpeTl>JI rpynna KpblCKT, Ha060- pOT, 6bIJla nOMeweHa B 060raJnCHHYlO CPCllY - BHyrpll KJIeTlCH HaXO,J:\IIJI!iCb Tpanbl, Jepl<aJIa, TY"I<CJlH II APyrHe npHcnoc06JIe- HIIO, cnoc06CTBYIOll\!ie paJBHTli10 p33H006paJHblX BHlIOB aKTHB- HOCTH. CaMOC IIHTepCCHoe - TO, qTO MeJlCJlIIHCI!HblC pa3J111'1110 B nOH C!iTyaU!iH Ha6JIIOllaJlIICb TOJIbKO B rpynnax JK!iBOTHb!X, BbIpall\lIBaeMblX II 06blqHhIX YCJIOBIIIIX. .II.enpllBllpOBallHble JKII- BOTHble 06ellx JIIIHHii OllllHal<OBO nJIOXO CnpaBJlIIJlIICb C Jla6H- pHHTOM, a BOT JKIIBOTHbIe, POCWHC B ceHcopHo-060rall\eHHOil cpelle, He3aBHCIIMO OT npIlHa,llJ1eJKHOCTII K JlHHIIII, nO'ITH OJl,II- HaKOBO XopOWO 06Y'laJIHCb nOBeJl,eHIlIO I! JIa6HpllHTe (PHCYHOK 5.8). H3 nora onbITa cJle,J:\ye-r, '1TO llenpHBaUIIJI B paHHeM BOJ- paCTe OTpHuaTeJlbHO CKaJbIBaeTCJI Ha cnoc06HOCTH K 06Y'I eHHIO B ,J:\aJIbHeHWeM, H, Ha060pOT, ceHcopHo-060rall\eHHaa cpe,J:\a MO)l(eT YJIyqWIITb 3TY cnoc06HOCTb, HecMoTPJI Ha CYll\eCTBYIO- Il\lIe reHeTH'IeCKHe paJJlH'IHJI. IIOllqepKHeM ell\e pa3, qTO reHeTH'IeCKHe pa31l1l'lHJI, 3a- MeTHbIe B OJl,IIOM Jl,lIalIa30He cpell, MorYT He npOIiBIITbC" B ljJe- HOTHne npH nepeMell\eHUI1 Tex >Ke reHOTHnOB B Jl,pyroil ill1ana- 30H (CM. maay 4), H TO, ''1TO reHeTH'IeCKa" lIeTepMHHaUHII Bapll- aTHBHOCTII npHJHaKa He OJHa'tJaeT HeBOJMO)l(HOCTH ero H3MeHe- HHO "YTeld H3MeHeHIIJI cpero>I. 311eCb >Ke XO'leTCJI 06paTIITb BHI!- MaHHe '1I1TaTeJIeH Ha rlinOTeTHqeCI<HH rpaljJHK HOpMbI peaKl.\HH M" IIHTeJlJIeKTa '1eJlOBeKa (PHCYHOK 15.1), Jl,CMOHCTPI1PYIOll\I1H Kpl1TllqeCI<Oe 3HaqeHHe .n:enpuBaQHH MJI pa3BIITI1" HOpMaJlbHO- ro IIHTeJIJICKTB. TaK '1TO MeJKilY reHeTH'IeCKIIMIi IICCJleAOBaHIIJI- 167 nOl!e,J:\eHHR JKHDOTHbIX. HCCJIeilOl!aHIIJI npOBOilJlTCH TaK)I(e B OC- HOBHOM Ha I1H6pelIHbIx JIHHHHX KpblC UJIII MbIweH. B 3TOH 06J1a- CTH npeHMYll\eCTBO 3KcnepllMeHToB Ha JKIIBOTHblX 3aKJIIOqaeTCJI B TOM, '1TO no peJYJlbTaTaM CKpell\HBaHHJI oc06ei! paJHblX JIII- HHH, TO eCTb Xn:BOTHbIX c paJHbJMH '"nOBe.lteH'IeCKHMH" reHaMIl, MOiKHO COCTaBIITb npeACTaBJIeHHe 0 xapaKTepe HaCJIeilOl!aHHII cnoc06HOCTII K 06Y'leHHIO, a B03MOiKHOCTb Bblpall\HDaTb nOTOM- CTBO I! paJJlllqHblX YCJlOBHHX cpe,J:\bl nOMoraeT onpCilCJlHTh xa- paKTCp cpeAOBblX DJIIIJlHIIH Ha 1jJ0pMI1pOBaHlie cnoc06HOCTU K 06yqeHHJO, '1TO B 3Kcn ep HMeHTax c '1eJlOBeKOM eCTeCTBeHHO , , HeB03MO)l(HO. B pHJI,e 3KcnepHMeHTOl! no 06yqeHllJO YCJlOBHOH peaKQHH UJ6eraHliH I13Y'laJIIICb pa3JIH'IHH MeiKJI,y JlIIHeHHblMI1 iKUDOTHb!- Mil, KOTOpbIX nOMell\aJlU B CneL\lIaJIbHYIO KJleTKY, pa311eneHHYJO Ha llBa OTceKa B OJl,HH 113 OTCel<OB nOAaBaJlCH 3J1eKTpUqeCKUH TOK, Bhl3hlBalOll\I1H HenpHIITHbie OIl\Yll\eHHH. qT06b! 1136eiKaTh HenpllJlTHOrO BOJJI,eHCTBI1H, )I(UBOTHOe )10JlJKHO 6hlJI0 nepenpbIr- HYTb I! )1pyroH, 6e30naCHbIH OTceK KJleTKH. CHaqaJla iKHBOTHoe 06yqaeTCH 3TOH peaKL\HII, a JaTeM nepe)1 BKJllOqeHHeM TOKa no- )1aeTCH CllrHaJl I! BHile BcnhlWKIf CBeTa, " )I(lIl!OTHOe nOCTeneH- HO Ha'iIlHaeT pearl1pOBaTb Ha BKJIJOqeHl1e BcnbIWKII, a He Ha caM TOK. IIoKaJaTeJIeM CKOpOCTIl 06yqeHIIJI CJlYJKUT qlfCJlO I!Cnbl- rueK, He06xol\HMOe Jl,IlJI 1jJ0pMHpOBaHlfJl YCJIOBHOH peaKUIIH HJ- 6eralilUI. OKa3aJlOCb, '1TO I1H6pe)1HhIC JI"H"H MblweH 3Haqll- TeJlbHO OTJlllqalOTCJI 110 CKOpOCTH 06yqeHIIJI. CKpell\lIBaHlie JIII- HIIH C Bb!COKOH II HHJKOH CKOpOCTbJO 06yqeHI1H nOKa3aJlO, '1TO B OCHOBe pa3J1HqHH ne1KIIT npOCTOH MOHoreHHbIH* Tlln HaCJle- Jl,OBaHIIJI. .II.pyroH Tl1n nOBelleHIIII, CBJl3aHHOro C 06Y'leHlleM, - 06y- '1eHHC B na6HpllHTe, B OTJIH'Il1e OT nOBe)1eHIIJI HJ6eraHHII OKa- , 3aJlCH nOllBepiKeH He TOJIhKO reHeTI1'1CCKlfM, HO If Cpe)10Bh1M BJIlfJlHIIHM. qT06bll\06paTbCH )10 KOPMYWKII, Kph!CaM He06xoJl,I1- MO 6blJl0 npeO.QOJleTb Jla611pnHT. B HCXOI\HOH 1I0nYJlHl111H BCTpe- '1aJlnCb JKlfBOTHbIe, KOTopbIe 6bICTpO HaX0)1I1J111 llyn II AeJlaJIII MaJIO orull6oK, II, Ha060pOT, TaK"C, KOTOpb!e J3Tpa'lllB!!JIII MHO- ro BpeMeHH II '1aCTO oWH6aJIHCb. Bh!60pOqHaJi CeJleKI1HH B He- . MOHoreHHblM Ha3hlB3erCH HaCJIe.ll.OBat-me npH3HaKa, CBSl3aHHoe c ,aeH- CTBlteM e,D.HHH'IHOrO reHa 
17O , ,eo illlIillili I '50 !. II   '<0 L30 . c c  120 :r "0 100 ....... DYu_ } .....w . rntn.... B 3 M5pHOHaJlbHbie KJleTKII Ha paHHHX cTallllHX pa3BIITlIH, pa3- JIH'IHble YXHll\peHHJI MH OT50pa HY)J(HbIX KJIeTOK, B KOTOpblX npOH30111 JIa HHaKTIIBaHJI reHa, nOCJle,!\OBaTCJlbHble CKpell\IIBa- HHJI MJI nOJlyqeHIIH nOKOJleHHH MblllleH C HOKaYTllpOBaHHblM re- HOM. B llaJlbHeHllleM 3TO nOTOMCTBO Tll\aTeJIbHO IICCJlC)J.yeTcH ,!\JIH BblJlBJleHHH Mop(jJOJlOrH'IeCKUX, (jJ1I3HOJlOnl'leCKHX u nOBe- ,!\eHqeCKHX HapYllleHIIH, JlBJlHlOll\HXCH nOCJle,!\CTBH>lMII HHaKTlI- BaUHH rCHa. K CO)J(aJleHHlO, TaKaJl CJIO)J(HaH MeTO,!!;IIKa B HCCJle- ,!!;OBaHIIJlX reHeTHKH nOBe.n:eHHH BO MHonlX CJIY'IaHX MO)J(eT npll- BeCTII JIHlllb K 06HapY)J(eHIlIO ,!\OCTaTOqHO TpIlBllaJIbHOrO lVIeuom- pOnlJ020 3rj"jJelWIa ,!\eHCTBIiJi reHa. ITJleHOTpOnHbIH, HJIH MHO)J(e- CTBeHHblH, 3(jJ(jJeKT JlBJIHeTCH BeCbMa pacnpOCTpaHCHHblM B OTHO- weHHH BJlII>lHI1H reHOB Ha np113HaKH. OH 03HaqaeT, qTO reHHblH npo.n:YKT MO)J(eT 6bITb BKJllOqeH B CTOJlb Ba)J(Hble npoueCCbl Me- Ta6oJl1l3Ma, qTO OHII CYll\eCTBeHHO BJIHJlIOT Ha caMbIe pa3Ho06- pa3Hble npH3HaKII, B TOM qHCJle H Ha nOBe,!\eHIIC. O,!\HaKO )J.aJlb- HCHlllee pa3BIITI1e MeTO;:J;a reHHoro HOKaYTa, nO-BH,!\I1MOMY, OK a- )l(eTC>I nOJIe3HblM II If)IH cneUHI!JHqeCKIIX UeJleH reHeTHKH nOBe,!\e- HHH. YJI<C cei1qac nOJlyqCHbI nepBbIe pe3YJIbTaTbl, ,!\eMOHCTpIlPYIO- I1(lIe, qTO YTepJl HeKOTopblX Ba)J(HbIX 6110XHMIIqeCKI1X cy6cTaHIIH B HepBHOH KJIeTKe B CBH3H C HOKaYTOM cnoc06Ha BJlIIHTb lIa OHTO- rCHeTl1'ieCKOe (jJOpMl1pOBaHlle COMaToceHcopHOH CIICTeMbl Mbllllll. B HaCTOHll\ee BpeMH MeTO,!!;bI MOJIeKYJIHpHOH 6HOJlOrl111 Bce 60JIbWe BHeilpHIOTCH B reHeTIiKY nOBe,!\CHUJI. OAHIIM 113 HHX HBJIHeTCH MeTOA KapTHpOBaHIIJI CUenJleHHH. I "I'I"I Ho1IUIV1bHW8 Yc;.no.... ,."..... PucynOI( 5.8 Pe3YJlbmambl 06YWHWl 8 lIa6Upll/lme 'YMHblX" U "2JlynblX" KPbIC. 6blPOCUlUX 8 ptl3.lllJl///blX ycn08lUIX (110 (/>. (/>02eJ/I<), A. MomynbcKU, 1990) Mil nOBCAeHHJI )J(HBOTHbIX II qeJIOBeKa CYll\eCTByeT MHO)J(eCTBO TOqeK conpIlKOCHOBeHIISI, II HeKOTopble cxeMbI 3KcnepllMeHTa, KOTopbIe Mbl MO)J(eM OCYl1(eCTBHTb Ha )l(HBOTHbIX, n03BOJIJlIOT (jJ0PMYJIIIpOBaTb 11 npOBepHTb HaWH nmOTe:3bI B OTHoweHHH '1e- JlOBeKa. C pa3BHTlleM reHHOH IIH)J(eHepHH CTaJIH nOJlBJIjlTbCJI np"H- I1l1nllaJIbHO HOBb.e B03MO)J(HOCTII I1CCJlCAOBaHHjI 3(jJ(jJeKTOB eJl,ll- HII'IHblX reHOB. B 1994 roAY (Capecchi M.R., 1994, QIIT. no Michel G.F., Moore C.L., 1995) nOHBHJlaCb MeTOllIIKa, n03BOJIJllOll\aH nOJIY'laTb 3M6pHOHbi MbIllleii, Y KOTOpblX OJl,llH H3 HOpMaJIbHblX reHOB nOJIHOCTblO IIHaKTHBl1pOBaH. 3TO TaK Ha3blBaCMbIH reH- HblH HOKaYT. MeTOJl,HKa jlBJlJleTCjI HeKIIM aHaJIOrOM MeTOAOB, HCnOJIb3yeMbix B HeHpo(jJH3110JlOrHII MJI H3Y'IeHHH nocne,!\CTBHH YAaJICHHjI OTAeJlbHbIX 06J1aCTeH M03ra. B cnyqae reHHoro HOKay- Ta 113yqalOTCJI nOCJleACTBHJI y,!\aJIeHHH OTAeJIbHOrO reHa, TO eCTb (jJaKTllqeCKH nocne,!\CTBIIJI JllIweHIIH opraHH3Ma Toro reHHoro npo.n:YKTa, KOTOPbIH BbIpa6aTbIBaeTCH Ha OCHOBe 113Y'IaeMOrO reHa. MeTOAllKa cnO)J(Ha H TPy AoeMKa, npOBO,!\HTCjI B HeCKOJlb- KO 3TanOB, KOTopbIe BKiTIOqalOT KJlOHllpOBaHHe HYJKHOrO reHa B 6aKTepHHX, pa60T)' C reHHOH .II.HK, BHel!PeHlle 113MeHeHHoi1 ,l\HK 168 :..,.!3bIBOAIiiI 1. B cHJJy 06UV10CT!I MHOTIIX reHeTII'Iet;/cI'x II nOBeAeH'IeC- KKX oco6eHHoCTeH qenoBej(a II l!PynlX MJleKOITIITaIOlII,HX B03MO)l(:: IIOBO,!\eJiJ>HblX 3KcnepllMeIfI'aX IUI )I(HlIOTII!!eAO!!!!Tb TM'IecKHe McxauHJMhI.JJ9Be;tCHHJI IICJ10Bexa.::,.,::;:,'" "'''!f!::!:':::.;;o 2. ITpeIlMYll\eCTBOM 3KcnepuMeHToB"Ha )J(UBOTHblX JlBJ]JI-;. eTCjI B03M.O)l(HOCTb lleJIeHanpaBJlCHHOrO CKpell\UBaHIIJI II npo,!3 BOJlhHOrO BapbllpOBaHIIJI YCJtOBIIH cpeAbl, '1T9. H.3M)KHO Ocy". eCTBHTh B 3KcnepllMcHTax C iTIOAhMIl. 3. llH6pll.llllHt'no nOBeJI,eH'ieCKHM npll3HaKaM nOKa3b1BaeT, qTO 8031010)1(110 nOJIY'lBTJ",,9CQQ,! C /C9HTPaCT,MII re,!!!lnaMH,., 169 
9. AHanM3 C4enneHMJI  -, -<:: - ------------ 1 ------------  I r I I I I I I I I I 'I ' I r----" I I bonl wing I V"k'w """1 QU ' nrt vlior I  CUbiIU' ..illS st:I/f, brJIfIn fJfJ:f:F O I fD4IIhold eJI!S qD I ---.8n f;uirs whit. ern J .......slur ¥' az lf8inltf 'feins $fY1D.rs fpe,t rvn 0\0 heldDlIf wings t(!tll/m 11U$ egeJ 'gr/eSs nlbv'll" 'crussI'I/Il/ns (3,0 wIngs 1G,3 ctJI wing. >lngrd brl.lI.. lonp n ye,.mlJltoI1 'IJt$ dlmil1fun wing rJumpg wing. dot '!I" pa;mII'IaJOecR no oCQ6et!!f . 3ro I'QBQpHTO lnernlOBaIIHH reHeTIlqeCKIIX 6,qHBOCTH ,ap3J(TepHCTHK. .. '-;:::-'.,:, ';'''c.;.i'...".:.., KaK Y)f(C ynoUlHaJlOCb B rJlaBe 2, reHbI B XpOMocoMax pacnOJIaraIOTCH J1HHCHHO, O/(HH 3a .n:pynIM. 3THM 06CTOHTeJIb- CTBOM onpe):lemIIOTCJI ):IBe OCHOBHble oc06eHHocTH HaCJle.n:OBa- HHJI reHOB, OTHOCHWHXCJI K O):ll10H XpOMOCOMe. Bo-nepBblX, Ta- KHe reHbl IIMeIOT TCH)l.eHQHIO nepe)l.aBaTbCH COBMeCTHO, no:no- MY HX Ha3blBaIOT Cl.(enJleHHbIMl1. BO-BTOpbIX, XOTJI :lTH rCHbl B npOl.(eCce KpOCCllHrOBepa II MorYT peKOM6HHilpOBaTb, HX peKOM- 611Hal.(HJI He HBJlHerCH nOJIHOCTbIO cnyqaHH0I1: BepOHTHOCTb COB- MeCTHOIl nepe)l.a'lll nOBblwaeTCH C YMeHbweHlleM paCCTOHHHH MeJl(/(Y reHaMII. I13BecTHbIH aMepHKaHcKIiH reHeTHK TOMac .MopraH ewe B HaqaJle XX BCKa npC)l.J10JKHJI HCnOJlb30BaTb HBJIeHHC cuenJle- HHH MH J10KaJlH3aI.(HH rCHOB, pacnOJIO)f(eHHbIX B O/(HOH XpOMO- COMe 3TOT MeTOJl, reHeTllqeCKOrO aHaJlH3a nOJIyqHJI Ha3BaHHe aHaJlUJa ClJetllleHUR, a pe3YJlbTaTOM ero npHMeHeHHH CTaJlO CO- 3,D.aHlle reHCTH'IeCKI1X KapT, TO eCTb cxeM pacnOJlO)j(CHHJ! KOHK- peTHblX reHOB B KOHKpeTHblX XpOMOCOMax (PHCYHOK 5.9). feHe- Tl1qeCKlle KapTbl Jl(HBOTHbIX II pacTeHIIH, MH KOTOpblX B03MOJl(- Hbl :lKCnepIlMeHTaJlbHbIC cKpeWHBaHII>I, C0311aIOTCH nOCTeneHHO B npOQeCce Ha6JIIOI1eHHH 3a qaCTOTOH peKOM6HHal.(HH (qeM 'Ialne reHbl nepe)l.alOTCJI COBMeCTHO, TeM 6J1HJKe OHII pacnOJIo)j(eHbI B XpoMocoMe) I1cnOJIb3YH peKoM611HaHTHblH aHa1ll13, T.MopraH H ero KOJlJIerll ycncwHO JIOKaJIII30BaJlH MHorHe reHbI nJIO.l\OBOH MYWKII .n:P030IjJHJIbI. B HaCTOHll1ee BpeMH C03.1\aHbI n0l1p06HbIe reHeTHqeCKHe KapTbI MJI MHorllX BH)l.OB 3KcnepllMeHTaJJbHbIX OpraHI13MOBI1 pHl\a CCJIbCKOX03HHcTBeHHbIx KYJlbTYp. y qeJlOBeKa 3KCnepl1MeHTaJIbHbie CKpell1HBaHHH HeB03MO)j(- Hbl, nOToMy KJIaCCII'IeCKIIH cnoco6 peKoM6HHaHTHoro aHaJIH3a MO)!(eT npllMeHHTbCI\ BCCbMa orpaHH'ICHHO, JUlllIb Ha oCHOBe HH- !jJopMaQIIIJ, KOTOPYIO .l\aCT aHaJIH3 P0.l\OCJIOBHbIX. qT06bl BbIHBHTb KpOCCIIHrOBep Y 'IeJIOBeKa, HY)f(HO pacnOJIaraTb JIII60 60JJbWOH pO)l.OCJlOBHOH, JIH60 IIMeTb HeCKOJlbKO He60JIbWIIX pO):lOCJIOBHbIX. 170 black /JadV 't'!:/ii! fJ'Irpit 'V" Imlt/6 Ihl1rl Iklhl lV',! clnna1JQr lll'S S/:a/JrDu4 "", rtl1igkll wi",. lobi '!Its Cllrr-' /ngl jartlln hrifl/4g #pia '!/, hQ/rg bDdy N/Ih! tady garnet 8J18! farlmt lmsf/8$ IaraV" 5 f1Iud >tins 5 trlrntlfim eves ilDbtd ..1fT dklJrJ_' tJriktles ihrrad urirfa =rJ.t XV" pink.' t:rlrlrrfwj 3tllIJbfr fJrl8!i, JpinekS3 br;slkr IJilhDrax Wg .lripI Wg fLU -i.. 71t11a""'" /Jajrle&J br;,lkz t/Jonj{lx1dj t;artliM/",. 8(1 lfJU,* egn 5 plexus wing< .1IJII, /l1rd ¥' IUI,5 bruwn 811M 7t76; mlmA, bri,tfe6 1/1?U speck Wv PUCYf/OK 5.9 Kaprna 2eHemUeCK020 ctjelUleHUJI iJp030ljiUJIbi ITpOll.\e Bcero no pO):lOCJIOBHOii 06HapY)f(HBaeTCJI X-cQenJleHHOC Hacne)J:OBaHHe, TO eCTb pacnOJIO)l(eHHe reHOB B X-XpOMOCOMe, nO- CKOJII>KY xapaKTepHblH npll3HaK HIIH 3a60JlCBaHile Ha6JI1O):IaCTC Y 11111\ O.l\HOrO nOJIa. O.l\HaKO qT06bI yCTaHOBHTb pacnOJIO)f(eHIIC .eRa B KOHKpeTHoM CeI'MeHTC X-XpOMOCOMbI, HYJKHbI ):IonOJIHII- TeJIbHb!e cxeMbI aHaJlH3a, Tpe6YlOll1l1e npilMeHeHH HOBeilwHX Me- TOII;HK. ITO'ITH Bce X-CQenJIeHHble reHbI (a IIX 601lee 100) 6blJlII KapTHpoBaHbl C 1l0MOll.\blO aHaJI!J3a P0II;OCJIOBHbIX. 171 
.l(nJI Toro '1T06bl KapTllpOBaTb reHI>!, npIlHa;tIIe1Kall.\He aYTO- COMaM, He05xo)l,llMO CHa'IaJla BblJlBHTb rpynnbl rCHOB, OTHOCJI- ll.\HXCH K onpelIeJlcHHOH XpOMOCOMe. ITpOCTOH aHanH3 pOJl,OC- nOBHblX He n0300JIJleT 3TO cnenaTb. BnepBbIe JlOKanH3aQHH reHa B aYTOCOMe OKa3anaCb B03MOJK!loii 5naro!J,apJl HaJIII'lHIO MOPIlJO- nOrll'leCKOrO MapKepa XpOMOCOMbI. TaKoH MapKep 0 BHJI,C BTO- pH'iHOH nepeTJlJKKH 6blll 05HapYJKeH Ha ]jJIHHHOM nneqe nepOOH XpOMOCOMbl '1enooel<a. OKa33J10Cb, qTO npHMepHO B 0,5% C1IY- 'IaeB B nonymlI.\HH 3Ta MOpIjJ01l0rl\'1eCKaH OCOOCHHOCTb X-xpo- MOCOMbI OTnH'IaeTCII OT HOpMbl: nepeTIIJKKa OKa3bIBaCTCII TOHb- we H JI,IIHHHee. DbIJlO 06HapYJKeHO, qTO TaKOH BapHaHT nepe- TJ"KKH Hacnel1.YCTCH .aOMHHaHTHO. C :nHM MopIjJOJlOrl'l'leCKI'IM MapKepoM OKa3anCH TeCHO CL\cnneHHblM JlOKYC rpynnbl XpOBII ):\aljJljJl'I, a ell.\e paHee 6blll0 nOKa3aHO, '1TO reH ,UacjlljJlI CQenJleH C BpOJK.aeHHOH OqarOBOH KaTapaKToil. ITOMHMO BH3YallbHO Ha- 6JI1O.n:aeMblx Moptj>onOrl\'1eCKIIX oco6eHHOCTeH XpOMOCOM, nOKa- 1I113aQIIH reHOB B KOHKpeTHbIX XpOMOCOMax MorYT cnoc06cTBO- BaTb aHaJIH3 l1.eJleQHH (obmalIeHHH Y'IaCTKOB XpOMOCOMbI) H He- KOTOpblX lIPyrl'lX XpOMOCOMHblX aHOMaJlHH, kOTopble BaCKYT 3a c060H H3MeHeHHe ljJepMeHTaTIIBHOH aKTHBHOCTII. TaKlIM 06pBJOM, '1T06b1 JlOKaJ1I'!30BaTb reH U onpe!J,eneHHOH JlpOMOCOMe, Heo5xOJl,HM Mapl<ep, no OTHOllIeHHIO K KOTOPOMY MOJ«HO OI.\CHHBaTb Te<:HOTY Cl.\enneHHJI. TaKI1MII MapKepaMH MorYT 6blTb reHbl, nOKamJ3al.\HJI KOTOPbIX B !J,aHHOH XpOMOCOMe YJKe 113- BecTHa (HanpHMep, JIOKallH3al.\HJI rCHOB QBeTOBOH CJIenOTbI B X- XpOMOCOMe), a TaK)I(e pa3)U'l'l}jbIC MopljlonOT11'1CCJ(He MapKepbl. B nocne,ll,Hee BpeMJI, 6JlaronapJl ycnexaM reHHOH HH)KeHepHH, CTaJIO B03MOJKHblM BWIBJIClllle MoneKYJIJlpHblX MapKepOB B .II.HK '1enOBe- Ka. OrpOMllbIe B03MOJKHOCTII ,WIJI JIOKaJlH3aQHH rCHOB nOJIBHJlHCb C pBJpa60TKoH HOBblX MeTO.aOB rH6pH,!Ul3aQHII KJIeTOK (HanpI1Mep, KJIeTOK '1enOBeKa H MbIWH). B pe3ynbTaTe 'IHC1I0 YJKe JIOKaJlII30- BaHHblX reHOB 'IeJIOBeKa paCTeT C nopa3HTcnbHoii 6b1CTpoTOH. KaK nOKa3bIBalOT paCqeTbI, BeCb reHOM qeJIOueKa MOJKeT 6bITb KapTllpooaH, ceJlII HccnenOBaTcrrll 6YJI,YT pacnonaraTb Bcero He. CI<OJIbKHMH COTHJlMII MapKepOB, KOropbIC cny'laHHO pacnpeneneHbl no XpOMOCOMaM (ellorem. ell., MOT)'lIbCKH A., 1989). MepOH "rCHeTH'IeCKOro paCCTOIIHHJI" CJlYJKIIT 'JaCTOTa pe- KOM6HHaQHH MapKepa H IIcCJIenyeMoro reHa. 3TO paCCTOJlHIIC 113MepJleTCII B MopraHHnax HJlH caHTIIMopraHH!J,aX (cM), e,/lHHII- 172 I.\ax, Ha30aHHblx TaK B qeCTb To Maca MopraHa OIIHa caHTII- MopraHma COOTB\:TCTBYCT paCCTOJlHlUO Me)l(.!I:Y rCHaMH, PCKOM- 6HHaLlHII KOTOpblX npOHcxO!J,IIT C 'JacToToH 1%. KapTbi reHOMa MorYT COCTaOnJlTbCJI B IIBYX BapllaHTax OJl,IIII 113 IIIIJI - KapTbI reHeTHqeCKOI'O CL\CnneHIIJI - CrpOJlTCJI lIa OCHOBe aHan"3a .aaH- HblX no HacrrenOBaHHIO reHa IIJIH MapKepa B pJl!J,Y nOKOJleHIIH, lIPyrl1e - 1jJ1I311'1CCKHe KapTbl - Ha npJlMOM .IICCJICnOOaHHII HO- CHTeJleii rCHeTH'IeCKOH IIHIjJOpMal.\lI1I (ITY3bIpeB B.II , CTenaHoB B.A., 1997). reHeTll'!.ecKoe paccT05l1mc B I eM npHMcpHO paR- HO IjJH3H'IecKOMY paCCTOJIHIDO 0 1 MIIJIJIIIOH nap OCHOOaHHH. .II.JlII- Ha reHeTl'lqeCKOH KapTbI rCHOMa '1CnOBCKa COCTaBnHeT npl1Mep- HO 25,8 MopraHH,IJ; (cIIoreJIb (fl., MOTynbcKH A., 1989). £eJIII '1aCTOTa peKoM6HHaUI111 COCTauJIJleT 50%, 3TO 03Ha'la- eT, '1TO lIBa nOKyca HaxOJ(!lTCJI Ha TaKOM paCCTOJlHIIII, 'ITO HaCJIe- JJ.Y1OTCR HC3aBIICHMO. ECJIH lIBa reHa nepCnalOTCJI COBMCCTHO B 10 nOKOJIeflIlJlX, BepOJITHOCTb Toro, '1TO :no npollCXO)l,llT CII)''IaHHO, TO eCTb reHbl He JlO]IJl]OTCJI CQenneHHbIMH, HII'ITO)l(flO Mana (0,001). T3KIIM 06pa30M, BepOJITHOCTb CQenJlCHHJI B 3TOM CJIY'Iae COCTan- IllIeT 110,001,11111110 3 , B HaY'IHOH npaKTHKe 3Ta BCpOJITIIOCTb ObI- paJKaeTcJI B norapllljJMH'IeCKOH llIKane (LaD scoTe) H COCTaBJIJleT o .aaHHOM CII)''Iae 3 lod. IIpH pa60Te C pO.aOcnOBHbIMII nOlIb3YJOT- CJI pBJJlH'IHblMIl Ta6J1HQaMII Jlo.a-6aJIJ10o Ii cnel.\lIaJIbHO pa3pa60- TaHHbIMH anropHTMaMIi. DrraronpmlTHble B03MOJKHOCTH JI,IIJI onpe- neneHHR Cl.\emreI'HJI no P0II;OCJIOBHOH cYlQeCTIJYJOT, ecJIlI OJl,IIH 113 po.aIlTeJIeH JlBJIJleTCJI reTep03HrOTHbiM no IIBYM pa3JIIi'lHbIM re- HaM, a BTOpOH - rOM03I1rOTHblM. 05b1'IHO aHaJIII3 CQenneH1I1I npOBolI;lITCIi Jl,IlJI '1aCTO OC1'pe'lalOll.\IIXCJI B nonYJIJlQHH MapKepOB HJIII B Tex cnY'IaIlX, KOrl1.a '1aCTO BCTPeqarolQl1HCJI MapKep conyT- CTBYeT pero<OMY HaCrreJl,CTOCIIHOMY 3a6oJIeOaHHIO. KaK !J,OKa3a- TenbCTBO cQenrreHHJI 06bl'JHO paCCMa1'pIlBae'fCJI Jlo.a-5anrr He Me- Ree 3 (1000: I B nOJlb3Y Cl.\erIrreHIIR). B HaCTOJlll.\ee BpeMJI pBJpa6o- TaHb! cnCQllanbHble KOMnblOTepHble nporpaMMbl roIJI aHaJIII3a Cl.\enJIeHIIJI no ponocnoBHblM. J.lhIpOKO Hcnollb3YeTCK nporpaMMa LIPED, KOTopall n03BOJIJleT nOJlY'laTb Ol.\ellKH MaKCI1ManbHOI'O npao.aonon0611J1 napaMeTpoB Cl.\ennCH1I1I no .aaHHbIM PO"OcnOBHbl X (Ott J , 1974), a TaKJKe nporpaMMa LINKAGE (Lathrop G. et aI., 1984). AHaJIH3 cQenrrcHHII '1all.\e occro HCnOJIb3YeTCJI npH H3yqC- HIIH anbTepHaTtlBHblX (Ka'JecTBcHHbIX) npl13HaKoB. .II.eJIaIOTCJI no- 113 
n1>JTKH npHMemlTb :3'1'0'1' MeTD.l( II 1IJIR aH3JIH33 KOJIHqeCTBeHH1>IX npll3HaKOO B paC'JeTe Ha TO, 'ITO Y.l\aCTCR 06H3PY)J(HTb rJIaBHbJe reHb!, OJIIIJlIOLI1He Ha H3yqaeMb!e xapaKTepIlCTHKH. TeopcTII'Icc!m TaKoij no.l\XO.l\ OnOJIHe onpaO.l\aH, OA"aKO, KaK OTMeqalOT $.$0- rem, H A.MoTYJIbCKH (1989), cJIel\yer C06JI1Ol\aT1> 60JIblliYJO OCTO- P°)J(I!OCTI. B IIHTepnpeTal\IIH l1aHHblX Bo-nepBbIX, npH aHaJIH3e 60JII.lliOrO '1HCna KOnllqcCToeHH1>IX npll3HaKOB CYll\eCTByeT pliCK 06HapY)J(IfTb C1.(CnnCHlfe 3a C'ICT '1HCTG cnY'IaiiHblX !jJny!ayal\HH KpHTepHeo 3Ha'lHMOCTI1. BO-OTOPb!X, 1\0PpeJlJ!L{HH, Ha6mo.aaeMaR B CCMI.HX, MO)J(eT BOJHHK3TI. He TOJII.KO 3a C'IeT CuenJleHHJI, HO II 3a C'IeT Ha;1HqIlR accopTaTHBHGCTH no HCCJIe.ayeMOMY npH3HaKY. Cne.aYeT OTMeTHTb, qTO nOl<a aHaJIII3 CuenJleHHR II.1IH KOJIH'Ie- CTBeHH1>IX npH3HaKOB BeCI.Ma 3aTpY.l\HIITeneH H qacTo HC npHHO- CHT O)KII.n;aeMbIX pe3YJII.TinOB, o.n;HaKO C nO>lBJIeHlleM MoneKyn>lp- HbiX MapKepOB ):(HK B03MO)J(HOCHJ aHamf3a H HHTcprrpeTal\HH .n;aHHI.IX nOCTOJlHHO B03paCT3IOT. rIlABA 6. KOIl4ECTBEHHbIE METO,Qbl B rEHETKE nOBE,QEH"'f! , I. 1huIeHlle cn.ellJIeHHJI HcnO$3YeTCJliiMrrOKaJIlf33IV\K i !IB, pacJ1oJIo)J(eIIHJ.IX B o.tt.H()li XPQM9,CQNe, II reHeTII- x KapT. .., ,.., , 2. 1Jro6lol If osaTb reJl.:'Ii.) :,a!iQPXOtlHM Na omwemoo y IlO1J(HO ollei1 .. B.aTI>. 'l'ecHOTY Cll . MapKepiWH "'Oryr',b rem.r, JfO "i J( , 8 TaU[e Mop4t0!loru'le  eKY MapKephl.. .... ....... "reHeTII'l:eCKg.o paCCTOJIHU5I" CJIYJKHT 'l:8CI'0TB ,8pKepOW H ',',:",,,,. B npe.l\I.IJl,yLl1eH rJlaBe MI.l H3J10)((IIJ1H OCHOBHble nplIHl\HnI.I relleTHKH, OBeJIII nOHHTHJI reHOTHna H !jJeHOTlllla, nO!<a3aJIH, KaK B03HIIKaeT KOJIH'IeCT8eHHaR H3MeH'IHBOCTb, .n;aJlH onpel1eJleHIJJI reHeTlI'ICCKOH II cpel10BOH 113MeHqllBOCTH, OD.HaKO MeTOjl,bl H Tex- HHKY Ol(eHKH reHeTH'JeCKHX H cpe.n;OBblX KOMnOHeHT !jJeHOTHI1I1- qeCKoi1 1I3MeH'IIiBOCTII Mbl He paCCMaTpHBaJIH. enI. p;aHHoli fJIaBh! - nOK33aTI., K3K, !jJHKCHPYJl Ha6JIro- AaeMYIO B peaJlbHOH )((1I3HH !jJeHOTllnHqeCKYIO H3MeHqHBOCTI., BbIp;eJUITI. HenocpeP;CTBeHHO He 113MepHeMI.le relleTllqeCI(HC II Cpei!OBble KOMnOHeHTbI nOH 113MeH'IHBOCTH. .II.JIJI OQeHKH 3THX KOMI10HeHT HcnOJlI.3YlOTCR pa3JI1iqHI.le MeTop;I.I aHaJll!3a, HO Bce OHI1 6a3HpYIOTCH Ha MaTeMaTH'IeCKOM MOp;eJIHpOBaH>lII. MaTeMaTI!'1eCKOC MO.1leJIlipOBaHlic HCnOJIb3yeTCJI, KaK H3- BecTHo, I\.IIJI onHcaHH Ha !jJopMaJlI.HOM Jl3I.lKC nplf'lIfHHO-ClIe,l\- CT8eHHI.lx CBR3eH MeJKi!Y Hall50JIce cYll\eCTBeIiHbIMH :}neMCHTa- Mit CIfCTCMb!, IWTOpblM cooTBeTcTBYIOT :meMeHTbJ ()JJpe.l1eJIeH- HOH KOHl(enTyaJIbHOIi cxeMI.I, B i!aHHOM cJIY'Iae reHeTllqeCKOH KOHQenTyanI.HOH CXCMbl. OCHOBHI.Ie :3J1eMeHTbI KOTOPOH 6I.IJIII paccMOTpeHI.I B npei!bl.l\Yll\HX rJIaBax. ITpol(e.n;ypa MOp;emJpOBaHHJI COCTOIIT H3 P;BYX HaH60JIee Ba)KHbIX nanOB: -- rrOCTpoeHHe MOp;eJIIi rrpe,l\CTaBJIHeT co60fi C03,l\aHIIC CHCTeMb! ypaBHeHIfIi, Ol1lfCblBalOLI1I!X Ha cjlOpM3nbHoM H3I.lKe npl1qHHHO-CJIe.l1CTBeHHbIe OTIIOllieHHR MeJKP;Y :}JleMeHT3MH CH- C-TeMbI; - rroi!60p a.l\eKBaTHoH MO,l\eJlH npe,l\CTaBJIReT c060li pe- llIeHHe nOH CHCTeMI.I ypaBlleHI1H H onpe.n;eJlellHe napaMeTpoB. Ha OCHOBe KOTOpblX npHHHMaeTCJI pellleHHe 0 COOTBeTCTBHH MO- l1eJIH Ha6J1IO)\aeMI.lM lIaHHI.IM. MOi!eJIHpOBaHl!e, no cYll\eCTBY, no npOl(e.Qypa rro.Q50p3 TaKOH CI1CTCMI.I ypaBlleHHH I\.IIJI Ol(eHKH reHeTH'IeCKI\X 11 cpep;o- J75 - ",,,,,"",,'.'. 
yroHeHHe/npHHTHe nOA6op peweHHR ....OAellH  TeopH MOAellb .n:aHHble  nOCTpoeHHe 3KcnepHMeHT MOAellH cI>eHOTlln npeACTallJIJleT c06011 COIIMecrnblH npo.I\YlCT reHO- THna II cpe)l,bl, II 113MCH'IHIIOCTb, CBJl3aHHYIO C 3T11MH ABYI,UI nma- MH c/JaxTOPOB, Hes03M01KHO paJAeJIIITb Ha COCTaBJI>JIOIl\He npll He- nocpeACTBCHHOM Ha6moAeHIIH. 31'0 OCHOBHoe nOJIOJK\:HHe rCHeT!!- Kif npH nepeso.n:c Ha !\>OpMaJIbHbIH H3blK MOJKeT 6blTb npClICTaBJIC- HO II B!lAe mmcHHolt MOD;eJIII, rlle !\>eHornn i-Toro HHJI,I1B!lAa (P,), IIbIpaJKaeMblH B B!lAe OTKJIOHCHHJI OT cpc,!I,Hero 3Ha'leHHJI B nony- JIJlI\HH, npeliCTaBJIHeT c060il CYMMY reHOTllnH'IecKoro 0, H cpeAo- Boro E. OTKJIOHeHHH: , P, = 0, + E, (1.1.1) .lI.rut Toro '1T06bI OnpeAeJllfTb )J;IICnepcHIi OTKJIOHeHHH 0 If E B nonYJIJlI\IfIl, Hc06xOllllMO B03BeCTII KaJKAOe OTKJIOHeHI1C II KBa.1l- paT, npOCYMMIlpOBaTb Bce KBa,lij)aTbl OTKJIOHeHHH If CYMMY PaJ}.IC- JIIITb Ha 11: P/ =(G,+E,)'; p,' = G/ + E,' + 2. G, . E, ; L:P,' = L:G , ' + L:E,' +2. L:G,.E, . 11 11 n 11 BblX napaMeTpoB, KOTOpaJi HaHJIyqlllHM o5pa30M corJlacyeTclI C Ha6mo}.laeMblMH }.IaHHbIMH. CXeMaTHqeCKH ny npol\ellYPY MOJKHO npelicTaBIfTb B BII)1e CJIcllj'K)ll\eH llIIarpaMMbl (Eaves L. et aI., 1989). Ha CTa)1I1H nOCTpOCH"JI MOJl,eJlH pelllalOT, KaKHM o6pa30M npH'!IIHbl 113MeHqHBOCTH, TO eCTb "CeMaHTII',ICCKHe" KOMnOHeHTbl TCOpHI1, ITO 06paJHOMY BbIpaJKeHIIIO B.Torgersen (I\HT. no Eaves et aI., 1989), Moryr 5blTb nepeBelleHbl B "CIIHTaKCllqeCKlle" onpe.o;e- JIeHIIJI (jJopMaJIhHOrO MaTeMaTH'IeCKoro H3b1Ka, OnIlCbI!!aIOIl\HC npH'IIIHHO-CJleJl,CTBellllbIe CBJl3H MeJKAY HaH60JIec cYIl\eCTBeHHbIMI1 KOMnOHeHTaMH CIlCTeMbI. TIpH Bbl60pe a.o;eK!!aTHOii MOJl,eJIH (model-fitting) Ol\eHHBalOT napaMeTpbl MOlleJIlI 11 npHHHMalOT pe- llIeHIIC 0 COOTBeTCTBIIH MOAWH Ha6mo)1aCMb1M nepeMeHHblM. H3JIOJKeHHe MaTCpHaJIa Mbl nocTpoHM B COOTBeTCTBHII C npeJl,CTaBJIeHHOH Jl,ll3rpaMMoH. BHaqaJIe MbI onllllleM lIa (jJop- MaJIbHOM MaTeM3THQecKOM Jl3blKe Te nOHIITI1H, KOTopble p3CCMOT- peHbl B npeJl,blAYll\efi maBe, a 3aTeM -- MeTOJl,bI Ol\eHKH napaMeT- pOB nOJlY'IeHHbIX MOAeJIeii II cnoc06bl Ol\eHKH a.1leKBaTHOCTII Tex HJIH HHbIX MOJl,eneH. L:N BeJIH'IIIHa --L npe,aCTaBJIJleT C060H 051l\YlO (jJeHOTlI- 11 L:G' nH'IeCKYIO }j;IiCnepCIIIO, ---1- - reHeTII'leCKaJl )\MCnepCHJI, n L:E' ---1.... _ Cpe)\OBaH }j;IicnepCIIJI. ITOCKOJIbKY 0 H E npe.o;CTaBJIJI- n lOT C050H reHOTl1nHqeCKHe H cpeliOBbIe OTKJIOHeHIIJI, TO CYMMa HX npo H3Be lleHHH 2 L: G , . E, _ KOBapHal\HJI reHOTllna II cpe- n 1. nOCTpoeHMe MOAenM IIbl IhaK, (f ;= cr + (J + 2. cov GE , ( 1.1.2) 1.1. MOllML IjIeHOTHJIII'Iel:KOii CTpYKTYPLI nonYillIQIIH HiIM, eCJIH npe)\nOJlOJKHTb, '!TO reHOTHnbl paBHoMepHo pac- npc.o;eJIeHbl no pa3HblM cpeAaM, 'f0 eCTb KOMnOHeHTa 2cov GE = 0, V p = V G +V E . (1.1.3) TaKHM 06P330M, Mbl nOJIY'IaeM npOcTeHwylO MOJl,el\b, xa- paKTCpH3YIOIl\YIO (jJeHoTHnH'IecKYIO cTpYKTYPY nonYJlJl1\1I1I no 177 <t»'Hll3MCHTaJIbHblMH nOHIITHJlMH reHi:TllKH IIBJIJIlOTCJI nOHJI- TIIJI reHOTHna H (jJeHoTHna, BnepBbIe BBClIeHHblC f.MeH,!IeneM .l1,JIII aHaJlH3a Jl,IICKpeTHbIX npH3HaKoB (B TepMIIH3x MeH,!IeJIII - (jJaK- 'fOp H 3(jJ(jJekT). 176 
KOnH'IeCTBeHIIOMY np1l3HaKY. $eHOTHnH'IeCKaA IJ,lIcnepCIIA (V,) npCIJ,CTaBJIJleT C060H CYMMY IJ,BYX KOMnOHellT - reHeTH'IeCKOii (V,,> II cpelJ,oBoii (V E ) Jl,lIcnepCIIH. .[\OMHHaHTHbIM BBJIlleTCI! aJIJleJlb A, TO h, nOJIO)KIITeJlbHO, eCJIH IJ,OMJlHHPYeT a, TO h, 0TP"l.\an:JlbHO. ITpll nOJIHOM l\OMJlHllpOBa- HHJI h, = +d IIJIII h, =: -d; CTenCHb l\OMIIHllpOBaHIIA paBHa hjd, . 1.2. KOMDoHeHTLI reHeTH'lecKoii H3Mell'lHBOCTB -d. m +d. aa Aa AA h. '\ DIIOMeTpl'!qeCKHe IICCJIel\OBaHHJI Ha paCTeHIIJlX II )KIIBOT- HblX nOKa3aJIII, qTO npHHUllnbI MeHl\enCBCKoro HaCJIel\OBaHHJI l\HcKpeTHbIx IIpll3HaKOB npllMeHHMb! )l,JIJI nOJlHfCHHbIX npH3Ha- KOB TaKHM 06pa30M, Bce 3Q>Q>eKTbI rCHa, xapaKTepHble )l,JIA IJ,IIC- KpeTHbIX IIpIl3HaKoB, npOBBJIJlIOTCA 11 B IIOJIHreHHbIX CHCTeMax, TO eCTb B reHCTII'IeCKOH Jl,HCnepCIIII MO)KHO BblJl,eJlIITb KOMIIO- HeHTbI, 06YCJIOBJIeHHHbie a.MI1TIIBHbIMII rCHeTl1'1eCKHMH 3Q>Q>CIC- TaMil (pa3J1H'II1A Me)K.[\Y rOM0311I'OTaMH), .[\OMHHHpOBaHl1eM (re- Tep031'!rOTHbIe 3Q>Q>eKTbI) II 3nllCTa30M (B3aIIMOl\eHCTBHe Me)l(.[\Y pa3JIllqHblMH reHaMII). KaK 1f3BeCTHO, Bcex OCo6eH JUjlIilOlf.IVIMx opraHH3MOB 1010)1(- HO pa3.[\enHTb no JlK)50MY reHY C .n;aYMJI aJIJIeJIJlMII (A H a) Ha TPH reHeTlI'lCCKHX Knacca (AA, Aa, H aa). BJlmlHHC TaKoro reHa I!a Q>eHoTHII MOJKHO onllcan, l\BYMJ! napaMeTpaMH: O.[\HH napaMeTp (d) 0TPaJKaeT Q>eHoTHnll'leCKOe pa3JIII'IlIe Me)l(l\Y l\BYMJI rOM03H- rOTaMH AA H aa, a .[\pyrOH (h) - OTKJIOHeHHC Q>eHOTllna reTepo- 3HrOTbI Aa OT cpeAHero (m) MeJK.[\Y AA H aa (Ma.3ep K., .II.)KHHKC .II.)K.,J985). B3BB B Ka'leCTBe TO'fKH OTCqeTI\ 3TO cpe.l\Hee 3HaqClmC, nonY'IaeM, '1TO paCCMaTPHBaeMbJe 3Q>Q>eKTbl reHa B OTHoweHHII BeJIH'II1Hbl npH3HaKa paBllbl (PIlCYHOK 6.1) d,)l,JIli AA, h,)l,JIJI Aa II -d, Mil aa, TaK 'ITO BKJIal\l>l aJIJIencii B Q>HKCl1pOBaHHYIO, IIJIII a.MHTHBHYIO, reHeTH'IecKyro 113MeH'IHBOCTb nponoPQHOH31lbHbl d, TOr)l,a KaK h 0TPaJKaeT 3Q>Q>eKT IJ,OMIIHHpoBaHHII 0l\Horo H3 aJIJle- nCH feHa II OTBC'IaeT BKna.n:y B HeljJHKCl1pOBaHHYIO HaCJIel\CTBCH- HYIO 113MeH'IHBOCTh. Bo Bcex cJIyqaJ!x d 03Ha'iaeT OTKnOHeHHe Ha WKaJle (no KOTOpoii rrpoH3BoIJ,HTCli OTC'IeT) OT HaqaJlbl!oii TO'lKII B TaK Ha- 3blBaeMOM "rrJIlOc" HanpaBJIeHIIH, TOrlJ,R KaK h MO)KeT 6bITb OT- KJIOHeHlleM B JIl050M HarrpaBJleHHII - "nmoc" IIJlH "MIIHYC" - B COOTBeTCTBHII C TeM, Y8eJlII'lHBaeT HJIII YMeHblIlaeT l\OMIIHaH- THbl" aJIJIeJlb 3Ha'leHHe npll3HaKa. OTHOCIITeJlbHble 3Ha'leHHJI d H h 3aBHCJlT OT CTeneHII Jl,0- , , MIIHllpoBaHHJ!. ECJII! l\OMIIHIlp08RHHC OTC)'TCl'ByeT, TO h, =: 0; ec1lH 178 PUCYHOK 6.1 [lap(l},lempbl d u h OM 2eH06 A u a K.Ma3ep II .II.)K..II.)KIIHKC (1985) nOKa3anH BKilaJ{ TaKoro no- Kyca B reHeTH'IecKYIO Jl,lIcnepclllo B IIOnYJlIII.\HH co CJlY'IaHHbIM CKpell\HBaHllcM. IIycTb )l,Ba aJIJIenJi A H a 0l\Horo reHa HMelOT qaCTOTbJ u, H v,. BocnOJIb3yeMcJI pelIlCTKOH lleHHeTa M" Toro, qTo5bI pac- C'IIITaTb '1aCTOTb! B03MO)KHbIX reHOTHIIOB: M)"KCKI1e raMeTbl U A va )KeHCKlle faMeTbI uA u'A uva va uvA v>a ComaCHO 3aKOHY XapJl,H-BailH6epra, '1aCTOTbI Tpex B03- MO)KHbIX reHOTHnOB AA, Aa II aa 6YAYT paBHbI II,', 2u,v, H v,' COOTBeTCTBeHHO. ITOJlY'IaeM CneIOU(lfe COOTHoweHHR: I'eHOTllnbI AA Aa aa '1aCTOTa u 1 2u a v Q v' Q Q 3Ha'leHHJlrrp1l3HaKa d h -d 179 
s' = 2:1.(:1:; - m)2 = 2:1.:1:,2 - m 2 = = (U; + V;)a; +2u a v a h; -[ (u a -va)d a + 2uaVaha]2 = = 2u a v a [ d; +2(v a -ua)daha +(1- 2u a v a )h;] = = 2u a v a [d; + 2(v a -ua)daha +(v a -ua)h' + 2u a v a h;] = = 2U a v a [ (d a + (va -ua)hj + 4u;v;h; J. 'fHBHorO Jq,q,eK'fa B OI1HOM JIOKYCt: C 110MHHaHTHblM B I1PyrOM. YBeIlH'IeHHt: 'IHCJla JlOKYCOB npHBOI1HT K YBt:JIHqeHIlIO qnClIa KOMnOHt:HT II COOTBe'fCTBeHHO K rpOM0311KIHd allre6pallqeC- KIIM BbIKJlal1KaM npH IIX onpel1ClleHI1H B 06ll\CM BII)J.e MO)!{HO 3anllCaTl,: Va = VA + V D + VA'A + VA,D +VD,D + + VA.A'A+VA,A'O+'" (12.6) CJIe)J.OBaTeJlbHO, MbI MO)J(CM BbI'IIICJIllTb CpcllHCC 3HaQC- HIIC npll3HaKa: m = u;d, + 2u,v,h, + (- v;d,) = (u, - v,)d, + 2u,v,h,. (1.2.1) COOTBCTCTBCHHO, llllcncpcHH,cBH3aHHaH C paCll\enllCHHeM no 3TOMY JlOKYCY, 6Y)J.eT paBHa: 1.3. KOllmOHeHTbI cpeJloBoii If3MeH'IHBOCTH ( 1.2.2) Hc MeHce CIIO)!{Ha CTpYKTypa H CpelJ,OBblX KOMTIOHCHT H3- MeHqIlBOCTII. Heo6xolJ,IIMO OTMeTIITb, qTO B rCHCTHKe TCPMHHY "cp e l1 a " nplll1aeTCH 60llce Wl1pOKOe TOJIKOBaHIIC, qCM 3T0 06blq- HO npHHJlTO B nCHXOllorllll. "CpelJ,OBajJ" 113MeHQHBOCTb B KOH- TCKCTC TeOpHI1 KOJlHQeCTBeHlloi! reHeTHKH 03HaqaeT "HcreHeTH- qeCKaH" 11 06YCJIOBIIHBaeT TY qaCTb q,eHOTlIllH'IeCKOH H3MeH- qHBOCTH. KOTOpaJi He MO)l(eT 6bITb 06'bHCHella BIIHHHHeM HaCllelJ,- CTBeHHblX q,aKTopOB. Cpel1a MO)l(eT BKIlIO'IaTb B ce6H npl1qnHbl H3MeH'IHBOCTI1 H 6HOJlOrnqeCKOrO xapaKTepa. Han60llee npo- CTaH H BTIOJlHC alJ,eKBaTHaH CTPYKTypa H3MeHqHBOCTH, npll paB- HOMCpHOM paCnpelJ,ClleHIHI rCHOTllnOB no pa3JIHQHblM cpel1 a 'l B nonYlIjJl.(lI11 co cnY'IailHblM CKpeII1I1BaHHeM, BKJD04aeT no KpaHHCH Mepe lJ.Be KOMnOHeHTbI - BHYTPHCeMeHHylO (E w ) H MCJI{CeMeHHYIO (E.) TaKHM 06pa30M, nOIIHaH CpelJ,OBaJi H3MeH'IIIBOCTb paBHa: V = E +E (1.3 1) E B W' H, ClleJl,OBaTeJIbHO, Hawe OCHOBHOC ypaBHeHlle npl'!06peTaeT BIIlJ,: Vp=VA+VD+E.+E w ' (1.32) BHy'fpIlCeMeilHaH, HHI1HBHl1yaJIbHaJl, HeCHCTeMaTHqeCKaH CpCl10BaH I1HcnepCI1H (Ew) 06yciiOBJIeHa pa31l1l'lI1HMII Me)l()l;Y qJle- HaMil OI1HOH CeMbl1, BHYTPHHHlJ,IIBl1l1yaJlbHOH BaplIa6eJlbHOCTbIO npH3HaKa H oWH6KaMII H3MepeHIIH P06epT ITJIOMIIH (Plomin R , 1987) npc.lI,J1oJl{IIJI HcnOllb30BaTb TepMI1H "pa3II1t'laIOll\aJlCH cpe- lla", nOCKOJIbKY OH 60llee TOqHO OTpa)l(aeT nCHXOIlOrH'IeCKHii CMblCII 3Toro q,aKTopa. B nOHJlTHC "pa3II1fQaIOII1eHCH cpellbl" BXOlllIT Bce TO, qTO l1ellaeT HenOXO)!{HMH '1J1eHOB ceMbH, He3aBII- CllMO OT JloKyca BJIHHHHJI- BHYTPI1 (oc06eHHOCTIf B3aIfMOOTHO- weHHH Me)l(Aj' lleTbMH, Jl,eTbMH II pOJl,llTeJIJlMII) 111111 BHe ceMbH 181 ECIIH reHbl He3aBllCliMbi B CBoeM Jl,eHCTBHH II He Cl.(enJIe- Hbl, TO nOIlHajJ reHeTHqeCKajJ 113MeH'IIIBOCTb 6Y)J.eT paBHa CYM- Me TaKI'!X 'IlIeHOB 2Lu,v,[d, +(v, -u,)h,]' +4Lu;v;h; , (I.2.3) rJl,e nepBblH '1I1CH 2u,vJd a +(u a -v)h.,J' onpCI1CnReT H3MeH4HBOCTb, CBH3aHHYIO C a.IUI.IITlIBHbIM lleilcTBlIeM rCHOB (VA)' a BTOpOH (4u'.v',h',) - H3MCHqHBOCTb, cBJl3aHHylO C 3q,ljJeKTaMH 110MHHII- pOBaHI1>1 (V D)' TaKIIM 06Pa:JOM, nonH!U! reHeTllqeCKa>l 113MeHql1BOCTb npel1- CTaBIIJleT C060H CYMMY llIIcnepCHH, 06YCIIOBlleHHblX BMIITIIBHblMH reHCTII'ICCKIIMII JIjJQJeKTaMH 11 3QJQJCKTaMH .lJ.OMI1HlIpOBaHHJI: V G = VA + V c . (I 2.4) HeanJIenbHbIe B3aIlMo.n:eHcTBHII. CHTyaI.(HJI, OI1HaKO, 3Ha- 'IIITeJIbHO YC!IO)!{HjJCTCJI TIPH HaJIUqll1l HeallJIellbHOro 83altMO- Jl,CHCTBIIJI (3nHcTa3). ITOJl,06HbIe B3aHM0l1eHCTBUR BIIIIJlIOT Ha CTPYKTYPY H3MeH'IIIBOCTII B nonynRl.(lIRX co cllyqaHHbIM cKpe- ll\I1BaHHCM, H rCHCTH'ICCKaJlIUICnepcHII nonYJIHl.(lIH 6YI1eT B Ta- KOM cnY'Iae paBHa: Va = VA + V D + VA,A + VA>D +VD,D' (1.2.5) r)J.c V A'A' V O,D' V A,D OTpa)!{aIOT, COOTBeTCTBCHIIO, PC3YllbTaTbI B3anM0l1eHCTBIIJI Jl,BYX aMIITIIBHblX, lJ.Byx Jl,OMIIHaHTHbIX H aMH- 180 
(oc06eHHOCTH BJallMOOTHOllieHIIH co CBCpCl'HIlKaMH, yqllTCmlMIl II T.A.), TO CCTb BCC TC OC06eHHOCTH B3aIlM0)1eHCTBI! CO cpe- )10H, KOTOpb!C YHlIKaJIbHbl )l,IlJI )J,aHHOrO qeJ10BCKa. .II..Poy H P.IIJIO- Mill! (Rowc D., P10min R, 1981) npe)I,IIO)l(IIJlII KJlaccllcjJl!KaqHIO TaKoro po.n.a cjJaKTopoB, KOTOpbIC npl!Bo.n.RT K paJiIllqllM MCJK- J1.y qiTeHaMI! OJ1.HOH CCMbH. ITo MHCHI1IO p.niTOMIiHa I! .II...II.3I!H- CiTC (Plomin R., Daniels D., 1987), nOJ1.0611b1C BJllJJlIII!JI cpe.n.bI IIrpaIOT pcwaIOWYIO pOJIb B cjJOpMl!pOlJaHl111 nCHXOiIOrll'leCKOH I!HJI,I'!BII)1yaJlbHocTI1. 06ll\CCCMeHHBJI, CHCTeMaTllqeCKaJl cpe.n.oBaJi )1I1CnepCII (E.) 06YCiTOBiTeHa lj>aKTopaMH, cjJOpMllPYIOll\HMI1 Me)l(CeMeHHbic CpC)10BbIC paJJIII'IIIR II C6iIH)I(aIOll\IIMll '1iTeHOB O)1HOH ceMbll. 3TO, no P.ITJlOMllIIY, .n.llcnepcllR, o'!'paJKaIOll\aJl 3cjJcjJeKT "06ll\eH CpC)1bI". 06ll\eCeMeHHaJi KOMnOlieliTa cpe)1OBoii 113MeHqHBOCTll llMeeT Ba)l(HOe TeOpeTII'ICCKOC 3Ha'iCHIlC )1n I1cl1XOnOrHqeCKllX II nCHxolj>H3lloiIOrll'leCKI!X npHJHaKOB, nOCKOJIbKY OHa CBRJaHa C McxaHH3MaMI! "KyJIbTypaJIbIlOrO" lIaCilC)10BaHII" H coqllaiTbHOrO B3aIlM0)1eHCTBIIJI. OCTaH08HMC 60iTec l1o/l,p06HO Ha oc06eHHOCTJlX 8JallMO- OTHOlliCHIIH MC)I()1y CI!6CaMli KaK MOJl,CiIlI B3allMOJl,eHCTBHR Ta- Koro pO)1a, nOCKOJIbKY 31'0 BCCbMa CYll\eCTBeHHO npH aHaJlIIJC nCHXOJlOrllqeCKHX I1pIl3HaKOB. CnpaBeJI,JIIlBOCTI1 pa)111 OTMeTHM, qTO 60ilbWIIHCTBO iTl!- HCHHblX MOJ1.eJIeH npCJI,nOJIaraCT, qTO OC05CHHOCTII B3aHMOOT- HoweHlIH CII6cOB He OKa3bIBaIOT BJlHRHIIJI Ha I!HJI,I'!BII)1yanbHble pa3iTHqllJl, TO eCTb )1eTH naCCIIBHO paJ)1eJ!JlIOT 061l\IIC rCHbI H 06ll\YIO CpC)1Y. OqCBHJI,HO, qTO nOBe)1CHHe O/l,HOrO 1!3 CII6c08 MOJKeT OKa3bIBaTb BJII!JlHHe Ha )1pyroro, H Ha06opOT. TaK, Ha- npUMCp, 3i1oynoTpe6JIeHlle aiTKOrOiIeM O)1HIIM H3 CII6cOB MO)l(eT npoBoqupoBaTb ynoTpe6JICHlle aJIKorOn" IIpyrllM CH6cOM IliTH 3KCTpaBepTHpOBaHHOCTb O/l,HOro 113 6nll3HeqoB MO)l(eT JaTpyJl,- HJlTb npO8nCHHe 3TOH qepTbl y CO-6iII!3Heqa. BJllJJlHUe 3Toro lj>aKTopa, TaK Ha3blBaeMbIH "cH6cOBbIH 3cjJlj>eKT", nopQ)K)1aCT )10nOiIHllTeJIbHbIH UCTO'IHHK H3MeHqllBOCTIi. 3Ta KOMnOHCHTa B03HllKaeT B TOM cJlyqae, KOr)1a O)1HH II Te )I(e reHbI, nOMIIMO npJlMOrO BiIl1J1HI1J1 Ha npllJHaK OJl,HOrO clI6ca, 06JIa.n.aIOT KOC- BeHHblM BJIllJlHlleM Ha CPC)1y 11, CJIC)10BaTeJ!bHO, lj>eHoTHn /l,pyro- roo HaiIllqlle "cIl6cOBbIX" 31j>cjJeKTOB npHBO)1HT, TaKIIM 06pa30M, K reIlOTlln-CpC)10BOH KOBapHaqHH. 182 1.4. B3aHIIIOAeHCTBHe reHOTHna H cpeA'" OnllCaHHaJi B npeJ1.b!)1YIl\HX pa3.n.CJ1aX MOJl,eiTb 6aJHpyeTcJI Ha npeJ1.nOiTO)l(CHHH 06 aMHTIIBHOCTH 31j>Ij>eKToB rCHOTuna H cpeJ1.bI. O)1HaKO 6blJl0 6b! HaHBHO nOJlaraTb, qTO IIJMeHql!BOCTb Bcex nCHXOJIOrHqecJ(I!X npll3HaKoB onpeJ1.eJlJleTcJI .n:cHCTBlleM TOilb- KO "rnaBHblx 3QJlj>eKToB" (B TepMI1HaX )1HCnepClloHHoro aHaiTH- 3a) - reHOTllna H Cpe)1bI. CKopee MO)l(HO O)l(H.n.aTb HanHqll CJIOJKHblX B3auMo.n.eiicTBIlH. 3TO 03Ha'iaCT, qTO eCJlJiI oqeHKa npll- 3HaKa )1aHHOrO reHOTJilna 6blJla 8blwe B O)1HOH cpc.n:e, TO OHa He OCTaHeTCJI TaKOH Jl(e 8 J1.pyroH cpe)1e. TeopeTI!'1ecKII MO)l(HO npeJl,CTaBI1Tb TpJil THna reHOTlln- cpe.n.oBoro B3a1!M0)1eikrnHJI (PIlCyHOK 6.2). .II.onycTHM, qTO ./I,CTH C reHeTJiI'IeCKOH npen.pacnOilOJl(eHHOCTbIO K BblCOKOMY II HII3KO- MY ypOBHlO p83BIITIIR n.aHHoro npll3HaKa BocnHTbIBaIOTCJI 8 JUlYX cpe.n. ax - nOBbIWaK)WHX lIilll nOHHJi<aIOWJilX ypOBeHb pa3BIITI1J1 3Toro npllJHaKa. B03MOJKHbI '!'pll clITyaqHI'!. Bo-nepBbIX, B3aH- MO./l,CHCTBHC OTCYTCTByeT H npl!3HaK onpe./l,eJlJleTCJI TOiTbKO )1CH- CTBIICM rnaBHbIX 3QJQJCKTOB (PIiCyHOK 6.2 a) llJIII, Ha060poT, 03all- MO/l,CHCTBHC npHcYTCTByCT (PHCyHOK 6.2 6). HaH60JIee BepOJl- TCH, O)1HaKO, TaKoii Tlln B3aI!MO./l,eHCTBIIJI, npll KOTOpOM 113MCHe- Hlle cpen.bI BiTlIJlCT lIa npOJlBJIeHI1" reHCTI!'1eCKOH npc.n.pacnono- )I(CHHOCTI!, HO paHrOBble MCCTa I1HJI,I'!BH.n.OB, 06na.n.aIOll\I!X pa3- HblMII rCHOTllnaMII, COXpaHJlIOTCJI (PI!CyHOK 6.2 B). HanpHMCp, 3MoqllOHaJIbHble II He3MoqlloHanbHblC )1eTli MO- rYT He OTJ1HqaTbCJI /l,pyr OT /l,pyra no cnoc06HOCTII K a./l,anTa- I.\HII, CCiTlI OHII pOCJIH B CTa611iTbHOH cpc/I,e. ECJII1 )I(C cpe/l,a 6b!iTa HeCTa6I1iTbHOH, TO 3TO MO)l(eT npHBCCTH K HapyweHIIM nOBeJl,e- HI1 y 3MOI.\HOHaJlbHb(X Jl,eTeH (Plomin R., 1986). IIo.l\06Horo p0./l,a JcjJcjJCKTbr MorYT iIeJK8.Tb B OCHOBe MeXIl- HH3Ma B03HIIKHOBeHHJI 1j>113HOilOrllqCCKIIX IInH nCIIXli'leCKHX Ha- pyweHHii HanpllMep, reHeTl1qCCKlle pa3]J1I"1I B '1YBCTBHTCJ1b- HOCTII K Ha'!'plllO MQrYT 6bITb npHqllHOH 003HIIKHOBeHI1H rl1ncp- TOHHII, a '1yocTBIITeJIbHOCTb K CTpcccaM - npllqHHOH Jl,enpec- CIiH. CYTb 3Toro reHeTllqeCKOrO McxaHli3Ma B TOM, qTO HaCJIe- J1.yeTcJI He caMa 60J1C3Hb, a JIHWb npe/l,pacnOJIOJKCHHOCTb K 3a- 60JIeOaHIiIO, KOTopa MOJl(CT npOBHTbCJI B COOTBCTCTBYIOll\eii cpe/l,c (Eaves L. et al , 1989). 183 
q,eHOTliln  reHOTliln 1 3 I reHOTliln 2 I L cpe,Q3 f 2 q,eHOTliln I 'X reHOTliln 1 I 6 I // reHOTliln 2 cpeA3 1 2 q,eHoTliln I - reHomn 1 I B I ----- - reHOTMn 2. I I cpeA3 1 2 OQCHKa B3aHMO.l\eHCtBml rCHOTHna H Cpell.bl - IIal160JIee Y3BIIMoe Mecro reHeTHKI1 nOBe.l\eHII, nocKonbKY BCCbMa np06nl:- MaTllqHO TOQHoe H3MepeHHe Cpe.l\OBbIX ycnoBHH y qenOBeKa. He- CMOTp Ha TO, qTO cymeCTBYeT P.l\ pa60T, nOCBJllQeHHbIX aHaJIl1- 3Y B3aHMO.l\cjIcTBH GxE y qelIOBCKa (Jinks J., Fulkcr D , 1970; Eaves:" , 1984, 1987; Kcndler K., Eaves L., 1986 H .l\p.), OCHOB- Hble .l\aHHble nonY'leHbl Ha )KHBOTHbIX, nocKolIbKY BblpalQHB3Hlle pa3J1WJHb1X I1H6pc.l\HbIX JII1HIIH B pa3J1l1qarolQI1Xc cpell.ax .l\aeT B01MO)l{HOCTb Hcnocpe.l\CTBeHHO Ol.\eHIITb reHeTHqeCKHe 3.p.peKTbl, BJIHJlHlle cpeJ{bI H 3.p.pCKT I'!X B3aHMoJ{eHcTBH. ITpllBelleM CTaB- 1Ili1H y)Ke KJIaCCl1qeCKHM npHMep nOll.06HOrO P0.l\3 HccneJ{oBaHHH. HcclIeJl,OBaHlle nOBell.eRII "C006pa3I1TeJIblibIX" 11 "rnynblx" IIHHHH KpblC, CO.l\ep)I(aBlQHXC B MYX pa31II1qHbIX Tllnax cpe/( - "060ra- I.IJ:eHHOii" 11 HorpaHHtIeHHOii"  nOK3.3aJIO 3aBIICHMOCTb 3cp$eKToB "o60rarn,eHHoi1" H "orpam.fQeHtwi1" cpe):\bI OT reHOTHn3 )KJ.lBOTHO- roo 060rameHHa cpe.n:a He OKa3alIa J{eHC1BH Ha "co06pa3I1TelIb- HbIX" Jl(IIBOTHbIX, HO CylQCCTBeHHO ynY'llQHna nOKa3aTenH npo- XO)I(/(eHIHI lIa6Hpl1HTa "rnynblMII" KPbIC<!MII. 11, Hao60pOT, 06ek HeHHa cpeJ{a yxy.n:waeT nOKa3aTCJIH "coo6pa3HTeJIbHblX" KpbIC, HO He BJIHeT Ra nOKa3aTeJIH "mynblx" KpblC (Cooper R., Zubek J , 1958) MO)l(HO C YBepeHl1oCTbro cKa3aTb, qTO npaKTH'IeCKH Bce HCCJIe.l\oBaRI1 CBI1.l\eTeJIbCTByroT 0 Ba)l(HOCTH 3.p.peKTa B3aHMO- .l\eHCTBIl l'elWnma It cpe.l\bI. IIpH HCCJIeJ{OBaHHH Ha JIIOJ{X HeJlb3J1, ecreCTBeHHo, HH Bbl- BOj\llTb HH6peJI,Hble JIHHHH, HII nOMemaTh IIX B 3KCTpeMaJIbRbIe CH- Tyal1lm. 11 TeM HC MeHee, liecMorp Ha TO, qTO reHeTIIKII He HMe- roT B03MOJl(HOCTeH,lI.IIH TaKara p0.l\a 3KcnepHMeHTaJIbHbIX MaHl1ny- IIUHll Ha JIIOJI,JIX, Bce-TaKH CYlQeCTByroT MeTOJl,bI BblBlIeHII cne- QH<j>H'leCKOro B3aIlM0J1eHCTBH reHOTHna H cpeJl,bI. Tal<, HanpH- Mep, .II.)I(..l!:JKHHKC 11 .II..(])aJfKep (Jinks J., Fulker D., 1970) npe,ll.llo- )!(HnH BeCbMa <j><peKTHBHbli1 MeTOJ{,lI.IIJI BblBlIeHH TaKHX B3aIlMO- J1eHCTBHH. Tecr OCHOBaH IJa TOM, qTO BHYTpHoapHaH pa3HOCTb Me)l(.l\Y M3 6n113Hel\aMH 06YCIIOBJIeHa CpeJl,OBblMIi <j>aKTopaMH II, cneJ{OBaTenbHO, BeJ1HqHHa 3TOH pa3HI1l\bI HC .l\OJI)KHa 3aBliceTb, IIpH OTCYTCTBI1I1 B3aHM0J1eHCTBI1, OT reHOTHnOB 6IIH3Hel\OBbIX nap MepOH)I(e reROTHnl1'1eCKHX Pa3JI1tqHH c.nYJKHT pa:JHOCTb Me)!(- J1Y ceMei1HblMH cpeJUlIiMII 3IJaqeHHJlMII y 6JIH3Hel\OB, BOCIJHTaHHblX pa3J1eJIbHO TaKHM 06pa30M, B03MO)l(Ha npOBepKa HanllqH B3al1- MOAeHCTBI1H GxE nYTeM aHanH3a 3aBHCIIMOCTII CpeJUlHX 11 pa:JHO- 185 PljCYHOK 6.2 TWlbl 63aUMooeucm6W1* zeHomuna u cpeobl a) omcymycm8ue 63aUMooeucm8Wi. 6) HeynopRoo'leHHoe 83aUMooeucm6ue (disordinal mteractlOl1) , 6) ynopROO'leH/JOe 83auMooeucm8ue (ordinal interaction) {ilo ilI/OAtUN}' P, 1986) OQeBIIJ1HO, '1TO 3<j><j>eKT BJaIlMOJ1eHCTBI1 GxE YBeJIllqHBaeT 06lQYro <j>eHonllIHqecKYIO I\HcnepcHlo. IIoJIHaJi <j>elioTHlIliqeCKaJl H3MeH'IItBOCTb 6YJ{eT HMCTb B nOM c1Iyqae CJIel1yroIl\HH EM: V p = VA + V o +V GE + E. + Ew, (J 4.1) r.l\C KOMnOHCHT V GE - I\IICnepCIt, 06ycJloBJleHHaJi 3.p<j>eKToM B3aHMolleHCTBUJI reHOTuna H Cpell.bl . nOHRTHe B3aMOAeCTBMe" ynOTpe6.n.s:leTCJI 3,AeCb B CTaTMCTIII4eCkOlUl CMblc.ne H 0603Hal.laeT Mepy Hei1.Q.AMTI1BHOCTI1 r112BHblX 3QieKTOB 83al1MOAeMCTBMe - 3TO fa '18CTb ,:!;HcnepCIOf KOTOpS.A ooycnasneHc1 coBMecrHblM A6i1'CTBHeM OAH06peueHHO p.,syx MnM 50nee q,aKTOpOB (lUe<I><I><> r 1963). 184 
CTeH .lVIJi paJJIY'IeHHbIX 6nH3HeL\OBbIX nap. OTCYTCTBHe 3<iBHCHMO- CTH CBIIlJ;eTeJIbCTBYeT 06 OTCYTCTBHH B3aHMoiIeHCTBHH. IIo cYII.\ecTBY, )Q>Q>eKT B3allMoileHCTBI'!H npelJ;CTaBJIHeT co- 60" MexaHH3M reHeTII'IeCKOrO KOHTpOJIH 3a ailanTaL\lIeH K 113- MeHJlIQII.\HMCH ycnoBIIJlM CpelJ;bI II, BepOHTHO, B03lJ;eHcTByeT Ha lJ;HHaMIIKY II paBHOBeClle B nonYJIHljl1H (Eaves L. et al.,1989). 06bl'lHO BbllJ;eJIHIQT Tpll Tuna nOlJ;06HbIX B3allMOCBH3eH Me)l(- lJ;Y reHOTII!JOM H cpelJ;oi1- rr3CCI1BHblii, pC3KTHBHblii If 3KTHBHblH (plomin R. et 'II., 1977,1986,1988, 1989). 1.5. reuonm-cpe,!!.oBaa KOBapll3UHII ITaCCI1BHaJi KOBapllaUl!:1. I1MeH 0611.\IIe reUbl 11 0611.\YIQ ce- MciiHYIO cpc'!!'Y co COO/fMH pO,!!.HTenRMu, Jl;CTII MorYT naCCIIBHO YHaCJleAOBaTb cpc,!!.y, KOppeJlllpyroll.\YIQ C HX reHeTllqeCKOH npeJl,- pacnOJIO)l(eHHOcTbIO. HanpllMep, B TOH Mepe, B KaKOH 0611.\11- TeJlbHOCTb HacneAyeTcR, AeTII 0611.\IITeJlbHblX pO,!!.I1TeJIeii OKa3bl- BaJOTCJI 0611.\flTeJIbllee .IIpyrllx ,!!eTe", H B TO )l(e BpeMH TaKHe pO,!!I1TeJIH C03,!!.aroT pe6CHKY cnOC06CTBYIOII.\YIO pa3BIITliIO 06- II.\HTeJlbHOCTII cpe,!!.y - MHO)l(eCTBO lJ;pY3eii, aKTIIBHoe 0611.\eHlle pOlJ;HTeneii C lJ;eTbMI1 11 T.JI,. B OCHOBe <jJOPMYJIbl (1.1.3) lreJKI1T npc/{nOlrOJKCHHC 0 TOM, '1TO reHOTl1nb) paBHOMepHO pacnpelJ;eJIeHbl no pa3HbiM CpelJ;aM, TO CCTb KOMnOHeHTa 2covGE B ypaBHeHIIH (1.1.2) paBeHa HYmo. O)J;HaKO 3TO npeJl,rrOJIO)l(eHHe lie BCerlJ;a BbInOnH>leTCH B l1eH- CTBIfTeJIbHOCTH, If, Cne,!!.OB8TCJIhHO, MbI HC aupaBC npcllc6pC'lI>, B pHlJ;e cnY'I8CB, noii KOMnOHeHTOH Jl,HCnepCIIH. B TOM cJIyqae, Kor,!!.3 reHOTllnbl HepaBHoMepHo paCnpel1eneHI>! no pa3J1HqHbIM cpe,!!.8M, Q>opMyna npn06peTaeT CneI\YIOLQIli! BHI1: V,  V G + V E + 2 cov GE . (1.5 I) K01J8pHaL\IJH Me)l(/{Y reHOTllnOM H Cpel10H OTPaJKaeT Q>aK- TH'IeCKH TY cTencHb, B KaKoH cpel1a, l1eHcTB111O KOTOpOH noJJ,- BepralOTCJI HH,!!.HBIIAbI, cooTBeTcTByeT HX reHCTHqeCKOH npelJ;- p8CnOJID)f(eHHocTH. HanpHMep, pc6eHoK MOJKCT nOJIyqaTb DT pO)J;I1Teneii He TOJfhKO reUeTlI'IeCKI1 06YCJJOBJIeHHbIe npe,!\nDCblJlKI1 KaKHX-JIH60 cnoc06HOCTeH, HO H COOTBeTCTByroLQYIQ cpel\Y .lVIH IIX pa3BHTIIJI (Scarr S., McCartney K., 1983) - TaK Ha3bIBac- MblH "3Q>4JCKT KHHJKHOH nOJl!(IJ" (Plomin R. et 'II., 1989). ITpe,!!.cTaBJICHlle 0 KOBapllaQIIH MeJK,!ly reHOTHnOM II cpeAoi:i '1pe3Bblqa"HO BaJKHO .lVIJi nCIlXOJIOrJlqeCKHX H nCl1xoQ>H3HOJJorl1- '1eCKIiX npH3HaKOB, nOCKOJJbKY OHO OnIlCb!BaCT nOMaIOLQYK>cJI 06- HapYJKCHl110 Q>OPMY 3Q><!:>eKToB, Hanp8BneHHbix OT pe6eHKa K pOiJ;H- Tenro, - pOlJ;IITenU pearllpyroT lIa reHeTUqeCKII 06ycnoBncHHbie xapaKTepuCTIIKH pe6ellKa. Mbl YJKe KaCaJIIICh npllql1H B03HIIKUOBe- HIIH reHOTun-cpelJ;OBblx KOBapllaL\IIH npH aH3JIH3C KOMnOHeHT cpc- lJ;oBoii I13MeH'IHBOCTII. II03TOMY OCT3113BJIHBaTbCR Ha 3TOM Bonpo- ce He 6YlJ;CM, OTMeT1IM TOJJbKO, '1TO reHOTHn-cpe,!!.ooaH 1<0Bapl1a- L\I1H BO)HHKaCT B TOM CJIyqae, Kor,!!.a reHb!, nOMHMO npHMoro BJlII- HHI1 Ha npu3HaK, 06JI3iJ;a1OT KOCBeHllblM BnHRHlleM H3 CpClJ;Y H, CneiJ;OB3TeJ'IbHO, q.eHOTHn lJ;Pyroro IIHAHBUiJ;a, TO eCTh npH HaJII1- '1UU "KYJlhl'YpaJIbHOrO" HacnelJ:OBaHI1H HJIH "cn6COBbiX 3q.lj>eKToo". 186 Pe K Ba OnblT, KOTOpblH nOJIY'IaeT pe6e- HOK B pe3YJIbTaTe peaKL\Hii /{Pyrl1x JJIOiJ;eH lIa ero reHCTl1qCCKYIO npeilpacnOJJOJKell110CTb. HanplIMep, pOIJ:IITeilH II Y'lUTCilH 3aMe- qalOT CnOpTI10HO 0iJ;3pCHHbIX )J;eTeH H nOOLQPJlIOT HX 3aliTHJI cnopTOM, TO eCTb cnoc06HOCTU pe6eliKa npI1BOiJ;RT K nOBJJe- HHIO cpeJl,b], KOppeJ'IIIPYIQLQCH c ero relleTUqeCKOH npeiJ;pacno- JIOJKeHHOCTblO. K a 11 Pc6elloK aKTHBHO Bhl6npaeT HJJI1 lJ;aJKe C03iJ;aCT CpClJ;Y. KOppeJJHPYK>LQYIO C ero reHeTl1qeCKoi! npe.I\- pacnOJJOJKCHIiOCTblO. HanplIMep, )l(aJK,!(YLQlle 06LQeHIIJI iICTII opra- HII3YJOT ce6e cpe,Ay, cnoc06HYK> YJI,OBJIeTBOpllTb !-IX nOT)Je6HocTb B 06LQe1l1lIl. COBeplUeHHO O'leBHiJ;IIO, qTO KOBapl1aljllJl MeJK.I\Y reHOTH- nOM II cpe,!!.OH MO)l(eT 6b!Tb KaK nOJIOJKHTeJ'IbHOH, TaK II OTpl1l(a- TeJlbHOH. 3Q>q.eKTbl KOBapllal(l1II reHOTHna H cpe,!!.bI, B OTJlII'IHe OT 3Q>Q>eKT0B B3aHMOiJ;eHCTBI1>1, 06HapYJKHTb HaMHoro npOLQC - no HepaBeHCTBY 06LQHX iJ;HCnepCHii 6i1H3HeL\OB, BOCnl1TbIBaBllIliXCJI BMeCTe 11 pa3iJ;eJIbHo. 1.6. KOBapuaHII MeJK)Q' pOAcTBeHuHKaMH KOMnOHeHTbl Q>euOnInH'IeCKOH H3MCHqIlBOCTII, 06YCilOB- JJeHHblC reHeTH'IecKHMH H CpCj1,OBbIMH Q>aKTopaMII, lleB03MOJKHO 187 
onpe.QelIHTb npll HenOCpe.D;CTBeHHOM Ha6JI1o.D;eHHH B KaqeCTBe IICXO.D;H(,IX .n;aHHblX WlR oeHKII KOMnOHeHT 113MeHqHBOCTlI HC- nOII(,3YIOTCR pa3Ho06pa3Hble CTaTlICTHKH (I\OppeIISUIIII IIIII! KO- BapllaUIII, perpeCCIIII, MC)\(- H BHYTpllnapH('IC .QllcnepIlH), OnH- CbIBalOLl\He CXO.n;CTBO npll3HaKOB B pa3JIIIqHbIX rpynnax pOJl,CTBeH- HHKOB (pOJl,HTeml - .n;eTII, M3 II .II.3 6III!3Hebl, CH6cbI, nOJIY- ClI6cbl, .n;e.n;YIlIKH - BHYKII H T..n;). 3TI! CTaTlICTHKH MOJKHO rrpelIcTaBHb B BH.Qe <jJYHKHH on- pe.n;crreHHbIX KOMnOHCHT reHeTllqeCKOii .n;HcnepCI!H. AmlJIDTHqHO TDMY, KaK Mbl onpe.n;eJIHJ1H TeHeTH'IeCKY1O KDM- nOHeHTY nOJIHOH H3MeHqIlBOCTH, MOJKHO onpe.n;errllTb KOMnOHeHTbI reHeTllqeCKOH KOBapHaUHH I! Me po.n;CTBeHHIlKaMH. MbI He 6y- .n;eM nO.llp06HO OCTaHaBJIHBaTbCJI Ha 3TOM Bonpoce (60Jlee noJl,- P06HO CM. JII! 'I., 1978; Ma3ep K., .II.JKHHKC ):IJK.,1982). JII1Wb KO- pOTKO nOSC»HM OCHOBHOH npHHUlln orrpe.n.eJleHIIJI reHeTHqeCKOH KOBapHa1II1 MeJKI!)' po.n;CTBeHHI1KaMII. KaK 1.1(,1 YJKe 3HaeM, npl! OTIrro.n;OTBopeHHI1 I! 06pa300aHHH 311rOTbi npOHCXOI\HT 06be.n;HHeHl1e XpOMOCOM H rCHOB, Haxo.n;HB- WIIXCJI B MaTepllHCKOH H OTOBCKOH raMeTax. B pe3YIIbTaTe KaJK- Jl,blH reH HH.n;HBH.n;a OKa3bIBaeTCS rrpelICTaBJIeHHbIM ABYMJI alIlIe- JlJlMII - O.n.HHM MaTepHHCKHM H O.n;HHM OTlJ,01JCKHM, TO eCTb OT po.n;IITeJIJI K pe6eHKY nepe.n.aeTCJI n0J10BHHa reHOTllnllqeCKOrO 3Ha'leHHJI a.n;JI.HTI1BHOrO KOMnOHeHTa npH3HaKa. .II.OMHHaHTHbIH JKe KOMnOHeHT He nepe.n.aeTCR, rrOCKOlIbKY BCJle.n:CTBHe rrpouec- COB peKOM6HHaI1HI1 06pa3YCTCR .Qpyroe COqeTaHHe aJlJleJIeH. Ta- KI1M 06pa30M, reHeTHqeCKaJl KOBapHal1HR pOj],HTeJIR C pe6eHKOM paBHa nOJIOBHHe a.n;JI.HTIIBHOH reHeTHqeCKoi1 .n;HCnepCIIII (1/2V A)' 113MeH'IHBOCTb, 06YCJIOBJIeHHaJi 3<jJ<!>eI\TaMH .n;OMHHllpOBaHIIJI, He BJIliJleT Ha KOBapHal1H!O po.n;IITeJIJI II nOTOMKa. B nape .II.3 6JIH3Hel10B (HJIlI CH6cOB), Y KOTOpblX nOJlOBI1Ha 061l111X reHOB, C BepOSITHOCTbIO, paBHoH 1/4, MorYT BCTpe'1aTbCIi o61l11!e napbI anneneH. ITocKonbKY B nape anneneii B03HHKaeT B3aIlMo.n;eii- CTBl1e, TO B KOBapHal1llIO MeJK/J:y):I3 6JIII3Hel1aMI1 BXO/J:IIT He TOJIbKO aiJ,.n;IITHBHaJl, HO H reHeTllqeCKaJl H3MeH'IHBOcTb, 06yc- nOBneHHali J<jJ<jJeKTaMH .n;OMl1HllpOBaHl1J1 (112V A + 1/4v D) AHaJIOrllqHblM 06pa30M MOJKHO onpe.n.eJIHTb KOMnOHeHTbI reHeTH'IeCKOH KOBapHalJ,HH MeJK.l\Y .n;PYrHMH nmaMl1 pOj],CTBeHHII- KOB. B Ta6m!l1e 6.1 npllBe.n;eHbI O)f(I1.n;aeMble KOBapHaHH Me)!(!lY OCHOBHblMH TlirraMI! po.n;CTBeHHHKOB (npe.n;noJIaraeTCII, qTO 1J rro- 188 Ta6Jluqa 6.1 O:JICUdaeMble 3Ha'leHUJ! K08apuaijUu Me;)/(;dy OCHOeHbLMU munaMU podcmeeHHuKo8 KOMnOHeHTbl H3MeH'UmOCTH CTeneHb pOlICTBa VA V D M3 6J1I13HeUbl I 1 3 6J1I13HeIlblIc116cLI 1/2 1/4 PO.!IlITeJIH - .D.eTH 112 0 OOnyCI16CbI 1/4 0 WI\II (rem) - rureM.HHHKI1 1/4 0 6a6YIIIKH (lIeI\YIIIKII) - BHYKU 1/4 0 KyJeHbI 1/8 0 OpoeMHble lIeTH 0 0 Ta6Jlua 6.2 O:»cudaeMble .Me;)/(;- U 8HympuI1apltble cpedHue K8aiJpam" dfU/ MJ u Jl1ap KOMrrOHeHTbl H3MeH'lHBOCTH CTaTIiCTIIKU VA V D E B Ew MS SM1 2 2 2 1 MS W _ V1 0 0 0 I MS w 3/2 5/4 2 I MS wJU 1/2 3/4 0 I nYJI"I1H co cIIY'IaHHbIM CKpeti.\I!BaHl!eM aj],eKBaTHa a.n;JI.HTHBI!O- .n;OMIIHaHTHaJi MOj],eJIb H OTcyrcTBYeT KYJlbT)'JJaJIbHOe Hacnc.n;oBaHHe) B .n.am.HeHlIleM 113JIO)\(eHIIII MeTO.n;OB oeHKII reHeTli'leCKI1X II cpe.n;oBhlx KOMrrOHeHT 1!3MeH'IlffiOCTH B KaqCCTBe I!CXO.!U!bIX CTaTH- CTI!K MbI HcnOJlb3yeloJ MeJK- II BHYTPlInapHble II;HcrrepcHH pa3JIllq- HbIX rpynn po.n.CTBeHHIIKoB, rrOCKOJIbKY OHII 60JIee Harnll.!U!bI. ITpH aj],eKBaTHOCTH rrpl!HSlTblX .n.onYllIeHIIH OJKHlI;aeMble KOM- nOHeHTbl .n:lIcnepCHII MeJK)J,y ceMbllMH paBHbl O)f(H.n;aeMbIM KOBa- pl!aIIJlM MeJK.n;y pOiJ,CTBeHHIIKaMI!. HanpllMep, reHCTl!qeCKaJl KOMnOHeHTa 1I3MeH'1I1BOCTI! MeJKiJ,Y napaMH .II.3 6JIH3HeOB 6y- !leT paBHa: 2 I I lS8DZ = "2 Y . +4' Y D' 189 
ilOCkOJIbKY rrOJlHaR H3MeHqnBOCTb paBRa (VA + VD)' TO reHeTHQeCKaR KOMnOHeHTa H3MeH'IHBOCTI'! BHYTPH nap 6YAeT paBHa: OTBCTCTBHe 3MnHpHqeCKHX AaHHblX npHHRl'OH HaMI'! rHnOTC3e (MO)1eJlH) 0 CTpYKrype IjICHOTllnHqeCKoi! 113MeHqHBOCTII H Bb1611- paeM HaH60JIee a,lJ;eKBaTHYIO MOJl,eJIb. 2 CJ WDZ 2 1 I 1 3 =V p -a SDZ = VA + V D --VA --V D =-V A + -V D . 2 4 2 4 ' 2. Bbl60p aAeKBaTHOiil MOAemt COOTBeTCTIJCHHO, OJl(lU!aeMble 3Ha'leHHJI Cpe,!\HHX KBal!PaTOB nOKa- 3aTe.rreH Hccrre,!!.yeMoro npH3HaKa BI1YTpH nap Gy'!!'YT paBHbl I 3 MS WDZ =2VA +4 VD , 2.1. MeTOl\bl Ol1eHlm Mo,!!.eJleH TOr,ll,a KaK cpe,!!.HHe KBal\paTbl Me)l(llY napaMH MS'DZ =[2(VA) + tVA ]+[2GV o ) + Vo] = VA + iVo, TaK KaK MS s - 2()' +,, (no fJIacc ):\)1(., Cl'CHJIH ):\)1(., 1976). ITOCI<OJlbKY cpe,!!.oBble KOMnOltCHTbI 113MeH'IHBOCTII E II E , W' no onpe,ll,eJIeHIlIO, oIpa)l(aIOT BKJI!\,!I.bI CpC)J.b1 B pa3JIH'II1R MeJIC):Iy II BHYTpIl ceMeH, TO OqCBI1,!\HO, '1TO cpe,!!.OBaR KOMnOHeHTa H3MeH'IH- BOCTH BI1YTpI1 nap 6Y.!leT paBHa EW' MeJKAY napaMH - E" a 0)1(11- Jl,aeMble 3HaqeHHJI cpe,!l.lIHX KBal!PaTOB GyAY! paBHbI MS"'DZ = Ew, Tor.lla KaK MS'DZ =[2 (E,)+O]+[2.(O)+E w ]=2E, +Ew. AHarrOrHqHO nOJIY'laeM O)l(H,lI,aeMble 3Ha'IeHIIJI Cpe,ll,HHX KBa,!!.paToB ,!\JIR ,!!.pyrllx TlInOB p0.llCTBeHHIII{OB 1-haK, norrY'IIIB HeOOXO.llHMblC 3KcncpHMeHTaJIbHble ,lJ;aH- Hble H BbI'IIICJIHB COOTBCTCTEYlOll\He CTaTHCTI'!KH (HanpHMep, cpe.ll- HHe KBal!PaTbl OTKJIOHCHHH BHYIpH H Me)l(.lIY 6JIH3HCUOBblMIf na- paMH) ,!\JIJI pa3JIII'IHblX rpynn pOAcTBeHHHKoB, Mb! MOJKeM co- CTaBHTb cHcTeMY ypaBHeHilH. MS'MZ = 2V A + 2V D + 2E. +Ew, MS WMZ = Ew; MS BDZ = 3/2V A + 5/4V D + 2E. + Ew; MS wDZ = 1/2V A + 3/4v 0 + Ew' B npeAblAYIl\HX pa3,lJ;eJIaX paccMarpllBBJlnCb pa3JIH'IHble Te- opeTII'IeCKHe MO,lJ;eJII1, onHCblBaIOIl\He BKJIa,D, reHeTHqeCKHX H cpe- ,lJ;OBI,JX KOMnOHeHT H3MCHqHBOCTII B ljIeHoTllnll'lCCKYIO ,lI,IICIIepCHIO; MO,LIeJIII,Y'IIITb!BalOll\He B3aHMo,!!.eHCTIJHe rCHOTIma It cpe)J.bI, KOBa- pllaunIO reHOTHna II cpe)J.b1 II T..lI. .II.JIR Toro '!T06bl Bbl6pan. TY IIJII1 HHYHJ nO,lJ;XOMll\YIO MOAeJIb, Heo6xo.llHMO Ol1eHIITb COOTIleT- CTBl1r MO,LIeJJell Ha6J1!O,LIaeMb1M ,LIaHHbIM. TaKaJl oueHKa B03MO)l(Ha C nOMOll\bIO KpHTepI'!R, npllMeHRJI KOTOpblil, MOJKHO Y3HaTb, Jl,OC- THrHyro JIH Y.lIOBJIeTBOpllTeJIbHO Mailoe paCXO)l(,!!.eHHe MeJf<)1Y IIpCAllOJIaraeMojj MO,LIeJIblO 11 ,LIaHHbIMH. ECJIH pacxOJf<.lIeHHe CTa- THCTllqeCKH 3Ha'lHMO, TO oueHHBael'CJI ,LIpyraJi MO.lleJIb H CHOBa npllMeHReTCJI KpIlTepHH. 3TOT npOL(eCC npOJl,OJIJKaeTCR .110 Tex nop, nOKa p8CXOJl(JJ.eHIf/ He CMO)J(C'!' 6blTb IJpHnllcaHO CJJyqallHOCTI1 Bbl- 60pKH. XOTJI npHHlI,l1I1 OCHOBHOH CTpaTerHl1 npoCT, ero npllMeHe- Hl1e - pa3Ho06pa:JHo, nOCKoilbKY CYll\eCTBYJOT pa:JJIII'IHble KpHTe- pllll H8H1IY'iWerO COOTBeTCTBIIR MO,LIeJIJ.f J.f )!aHHblX. CYllIecTByeT rpll rnaBHblX MeTO)1a nOJlY'IeHIIR Oll,eHOK COOTBeTCTBIIR: MeTOA HeB3BeweHHblX HallMeHbWHX KBal!PaTOB; MeTOJl, B3BeweHHbiX HaH- MeHbillllX KBaJ(p8Toa, MeTOA M8KCIIMaJlbHOrO npaB)!ono,'106uJJ B npHHUHIIC, Bce HCIIOJIb3yeMble IIpll nOM !jJYHKUHH npC.lICTaBJIJlIOT ca60H qaCTHble cnY'Iall 60JIee 06ll\ero ceMeHCTBa !jJyHKlI,IIH co- rnaCHJI (Browne M., 1984): , F=(s-<1) W-1(s_,,). 3J1eAfeUmbl Mampu"ou ll./lZe6pw. ITpCJK,!I,C qeM rrpHcTynllTb K oOCY)J(J!CHHHJ MeTOJl,OB Oll,eHKII Mo,!!.eneH, lIeo6xoAHMO BBCCTII OCHOBHble nOHJlTIIJI II onepall,lIlI MaTpllqHOii a.m-e6pbl, IIOCKOJIb- KY OHII IICnOJIb3YIOTCR .lIJ1R reHeTHQeCKOrO aHaJIII38 ,!!.aHHbIX. IIpliMoyrOJIbliaR Ta6JIHlI,a '1HCeJI IIJIII 3JICMeHTOB, pa3Me- ll\eHHb!X B p cTjJoKax II q CToJI6uax, eCTb pxq MaTpllua A. .II.JlJI 191 PeWHB cHcTeMY ypaBHeHIIH, HaX0.llHM Hell3BeCTHbIe B CHC- TCMe ypaBHeHHH, TO eCTb onpe.lleJIJleM 3HaqeHHR KOMnOHeHT H3MCR'IIIBOCTfI. Ha C!IC,!\YIOweM 3Tane aHaJ1H3a OlleHHBaeM co. 190 
0603HaqeHHJI :nrel,leHTOB MaTpHI.{hI IICn0J1h3YIOTC COOTBetCTBY- IOlI.(He HHAeKCbI, nepBbIH H3 KOTOPhIX YKa3hIBaeT HOMep eTpOKII, a BTOpOH - HOMep eToJ16Qa, HanpHMep, , a" a" a" a" , a" a,,=A. , MaTpl1I..{hl MOJKHO CKJ1al1hlBan, BhlqHTaTb, YMHOJKan II l\eJ1HTh. 3TH onepaQHI1 110eTaTO'lHO '1aeTO BCTpeqaIOTCJI B l{aJ1h- HefiweM npH H3JIOJKeHlIII M3TepHaJ1a, n03TOMY HanOMl'IIM npa- BHJ1a apH<pMeTHqeCKHX onepaQHH Hal{ MaTpIlQaMH. CYMMa .!!.BYX MaTpHQ A II B C O.!!.HHM H TeM JKe '1HCJIOM CTpOK H CT01l6QOB eCTb MaTpllQa COKpaLQeHHaJi 3amiCb A=[Q;), fi.\e i = I, 2, ..., P II j = I, 2, ..., q. MaTplll\bI 0603Ha'laIOTC 3arJIaBHhIMH nOJly)fmpHhIMH 6YKBaMH, a HX 311eMeHThI - CTPO'lHhIMH 6YKBaMII e COOTBeT- CTBYIOLQIIMIi liH.n:CKcaMH. IIopJI,OI( MaTpHI.{bl onpe.!!.eJIJleTCJI KO- JIII'IeCTBOM CTpOK 11 CTOiI6QOB. HanpliMep, nOpII.OK npHBe.!!.eH- HOH BhIllIe MaTpHl.{hI COCTaBJ1J1eT 3x3, \IJIII B 06LQeM BII.!!.e pxq, eeml MaTpHl\a Ii MeeT p CrpOK H q CT0J16QOB. MaTpHl.{a B 06LQeM BI!)1e BbIrJIJlJI,HT TaK: A+B = [ a.. J + [b .. ] = [ a. + b..J 1.1 lJ II !J HanpHMCp, ] 4 7 1 1 1+7 4+1 1 8 1 : 2 5+8 11=2+8 5+11=10 1 . 3 6 9 I 3 + 9 6 + 1 112 I £1" , a" a" a" a" =A. of] a p ' a p ' ap< KBal{paTHa MaTpHQa, Bce 3JIeMeHThI KOTOPOH, KPOMe fJ1aBHOH ,11HarOHaJIH, paRHh! Hymo, Ha3bmaeTCJI Jl,lIarOHaJIbHOH MarpHQefi' a 0  o b O. o 0 MaT]JIIQbl, HMelOLQlle JIHWb O,11HY CrpOKY 1IJ11i O)1I1H CTOJI- 6eQ, Ha3hlBaIOTC BeKTopaMH H 0603Ha'laIOTCJI nOJ1YJKllpHbIMH CTpO'lHhlMJf 6YKBaMH. HanpHMep, x = [XI' XZ' .., X f ]. B reHeTHKe nOBe,11eHHJI, TaK JKe KaK H B nCIIX0J10rHH MbI , '1aCTO HMCCM Acno C M3TpHZ.{3MH. ilpaKTIf'leCKIf J1I06oe 3KCIIC- pHMeHTaJIhHOe IICCJ1e,110BaIlHe 3aKaH'IIIBaeTCJI nonY'IeHHeM MaT- PHQbl pe3YJIbTaToB. HanpHMep, TeCTllpoBaIllie rpynlIbI Jl,CTCH no WKaJIe 6eKCIIepa MOJKeT .l{an cJIe)1YIOmyro pe3YJIbnrpY lO myfO MaTpIlQY: AHaJIOfH'IHO MOJKHO onpe,11eJ1HTh BhI'IHTaHlle MaTpHQ. A - B = [a;) - [bJ = [aij - bJ lIJIJI YMHOJKeHIIJI MYX MaTpHl\ Hc06xo.l{HMO, '1T06hI MaT- pHQa A HMCJ1a CT01lbKO JKe CT0J16QOB, CK01lbKO MaTpHQa B- CTpOK HanpHMep, pe5eHoK I pe5eHoK 2 pe5eHoK 3 Bep6aJ1hHbIH lQ 115 90 120 HeBep5aJIbHliIH IQ 110 100 125 06LQHii [Q 113 95 123 , £1" I  A B = a" a" x ' b 21 a" a" b" ,I b" b,,1 = [92 , x b" +a" X b" = a" x b" +a" X b" a" xq, +a"xb" ,xq,+a" xb" a" x b" + a" x b" a" x b" +a" x b" ,xb"+a,, xb,'1 a" x b" + a" x b,' 1 a" x b" + a" x b" 193 
HanpllMep, HanpllMep, eCJIII I 4 I 1xl+4x2 lx3+4x4 9 :1 I 4 2 5 x  I 2x1+5x2 2x3+5x4 - 12 TO A'II 2 I. A: 2 5 3 6 3x1+6x2 3x3+6x4 15 ' 4 5 3 6 Marplll\a, npejJ.cTaBJIlOwaH npoll3BejJ.eHlle JI,1JYX Marplll\, BcerjJ.a 6YjJ.eT IIMerb CTOJIbKO CTpOK, CKOJIbKO IIX 6blJI0 B nepBOH MarpllIje, II CTOJIbKO CTOJI6l\OB, CKOJIbKO IIX 6bIno BO BropOH MaTplll\C. ITpo1l3BejJ.eHIlC MaTplll\bl Ha jJ.eHCTBIITeJIbIlOe qllCJIO I eCTb I 4 2 8 1 2xA2x2 54 I . 3 6 6 1 B jJ.aHHOM naparpa!jJe Mbl npllBeml JIIIWb MHHIIMaJlbHO He- 06XOjJ.IIMble onpe.n:eJleHIIH II onepal\1I1I MaTpll'lHOH arrre6pbI, KOTO- pble 6yjJ.YT IICnOJIh30BaHbl B jJ.aJIbHeHweM. CJIejJ.YeT OrMeTHTb, '1ro MaTpUqHaH aJIre6pa jJ.aeT B03MOJKHOCTb KOMIUIKTHOH 3anHCII rpo- M03iU'IIX ypaBHeHHH Ii, COOTBCTCTBeHHO, yrrpowaeT IIX peweHHe, qTO aKTlIBHO HCnOJIb3YCTC rrpH HaXOJKjJ.eHIIII OIjeHOK reHeTH'IeC- KIIX H cpejJ.OBblX KOMnOHCHT !jJeHOTllmlqeCKOH H3MeHqIlBOCTH. Ha- npllMep, B npejJ.bI,lJ;Yl.I\eM naparpa!jJe MbI nOJlyqllnH CIICTeMY ypaB- HeHHH, B KOTOpOH cpelUlI1C MeJK- II BHYTPlmapHble KBa.npaTbl rrpejJ.- CTaBileHbl B BIljJ.e !jJYHKl\HH reHerl1qeCKIIX II cpejJ.OBblX KOMnOHeHT !jJeHOTHnH'IeCKOH jJ.IIcnepCI1H. B MarpHqHOM BII)\e 3Ta jJ.OCTaTO'lHO rpOM03iU'aJi CIICTeMa ypaBHeHHH 6YjJ.eT IIMeTb CileiI.YIOI.I\IIH BlljJ.: X  A x e, rjJ.e x _ BCKTOp Ha6JIIOjJ.acMbIx cpeJl,HI'!X J<BaAPaToB, e - MaT- pl'!l\a reHCTUqeCKI1X H cpe;:J:oBblx KOMnOHCHT !jJeHOTHnIl'ICCKOii ;:J:HcnepC>1H H A - Marpl1l\a K03cP!jJIIl\lIeHTOB npH cooTBeTcTBY- IOI.I\IIX KOMnOHCHTax lxA= [ la ] 'J' HanpHMep, B MaTpllqHOH ailre6pe cYLl\eCTByer Orrepal\IIJ1, COOTBeT- cTBYIOlI\aJl jJ.eJleHHIO B apll!jJMerHKe. IIpoH3BeAeHlle mo60ro qllC- JIa Ha 06paTHoe eMY '1I1CJIO paBHO ejJ.IIHHl\e, TO ecn X X .!. = 1 " x B MaTpll'lHOH aJIre6pe CYlI\eCTByer TaKoe JKe COOTHOLUeHlle. ECJIII MaTplll\a A KBaJJ,paTHa II HCBbIpOJKjJ.eHHaJi (IlMecT orrpe- jJ.eJIHTeJIb, He paBHblH HYillO), TO cYweCTByeT TaKaJl MaTplll\a A", Ha3bIBaeMaJi 06paTHOH, qTO: 2.2. MeTo;:J: HaHMeHbLUIIX KB3ApaTOB Axk' = I. ITycn BeKTop x - BeKTop Ha6J1IOjJ.aeMbIx Cpe,lJ;HIIX KBa,lJ;pa- TOB, e _ BeKrop HCH3BeCTHbIX rrapaMeTpoB. OJKII,IJ;aeMbIe 3Haqe- HHJI cpe;:J:Hllx KBailpaToB E(x;) nOJlyqalOT nyreM YMHOJKeHIIJI KaJK- lIoro napaMcTpa Jla K03!jJ!jJHl\HeJlT, C KOTOpblM 3TOT KOMnOHellT BXO,lJ;HT B TeOpeTllqeCKOe pa3J10JKeHHe ,l\JJJI )),aHHoH rpyrrnbl pOJl,- CTBeHHHKOB, II rrocJlel\YlOLl\erO IIX CYMMHpOBaHHJI: Marplll\a A-I B orrpejJ.eJleHHOM CMblCilC aJlaJIorllqHa o6paT- HOMY '1HCilY B apll!jJMeTHKe, HO BbI'IIICJleHlle ee jJ.ocraTO'IHO CilOJKHO. ECJIH CTpOKIl IICXOjJ.HOH MaTpHIjbl 3anHcan KaK CrOJl6l\bI a CTOJI6l\bl KaK CTpOKH, TO norrY'leHHaJi B pe3YJlbTaTe MaTpHl\ Ha3b1BaeTC TpaHcnOHllpOBaHHOH II 0603HaqaeTC 3HaKOM A' . TpaHcn0311l\HJI pxq MarpHl\bl A eCTb qxp MarpHl\a A' 3J1e- - . ' MeHTbI KOTOpOH B I-TOH cTpoKe II j-TOM cTorr6l\e paBHbI 3J1eMeH- TaM B J-Toii cTpoKe II i-TOM cToJI6l\e MaTpHl\bl A.TaKIlM 06pa- 30M, TpaHcnoHlqJOBaHHaJi MaTplll\a A' npejJ.CTaBJIJleT C060H MaT- PIIl\Y A, crpoKIi KOTOpOi1 CTaHOBJlTCJI crOn6l\aMIl. 194 E(x,)=a; e j. (2.2.1) ::ha npol\e.n:ypa MOJKeT 6blTb BblpaJKeHa 60nee npocTO B MaT- P"qHOH cPopMe E(.>:) = Ae. (22.2) 195 
CYMMa I<Ba1\paTOB pa3HocTeii MeJK'!\y Ha6mo.n;eHI1J1MH Ii HX OJKH}1.aHI1.HMI1, no.wreJKall(aJl MHlflfMH3aQHH, npJlMCT BIf.n:: .1" - LW,[X, - E(X,)t, HJIH, B MaTpHqHOM Blip;e, s2;(X-Ae)'(X-A0). (2.2.3) CTO Toro qT06bJ MHHIIMli3HpOBaTb cyMMY KBa,l\paTOB 01111160K OQeHOK, KaK Mbl 3TO AellallH npelK.zre, "BJBeillHBae-rCR" KaJKIH qJleH nOH CYMMbI nYTeM YMHOJKeHHJI ero Ha BeJlH'IIfHY, 06paT- HYIO .n;HcnepCHH COOTBeTCTBYIOll(CH CJIY'IaiiHOH BeJlH'II1HbI. 3TO npllAacT 60nbWHH Bec TeM Ha6JIIO.n;eHHJlM, OWH5KII KOTOpblX OKaJblBalOTCJI MeHbwe. IIo,!J;06Ha.<l npolle.I\ypa Ha3blBaeTCJI Me- TO.n;OM BJBellleHHblX HaHMeHbUII1X KBa,l\paTOB. TaKHM 06pa30M, Mbl MHHI'!MH311PyeM cne.n;ylOWYIO IjJYHKI.(HIO: .1" = (x - Ae)' W-'(x - Ae), (2.2.4) OqCBI11\HO, qTO qeM 6JIHJKe 3T1I OJKI1J(aeMble 3Ha'leHI1J! K ljJaKTl1qeCKHM 3HaqeHIIJlM, TeM MeHbllle Jl,OJlIKHa 6bITb BeJIHqllHa ..' Cne.llOBaTeJIbHO, 3HaqeHlfc.\" MOlKeT IIcnOllb30BaTbCI! B Ka- qeCTBe Mepbl Toro, HaCKOJIbKO xopowo Ha6JII01\eHHH onHCblBa. IOTCJI M0.l\eJlblO, B KOTOPOH 19 OlleHHBaeTCJI C nOMOll(blO E(x;). IIpHHQHn HallMeHbIUHX KBa.llpaTOB, npe.llJlOJKeHHblH ewc rayc- COM, rJlaCI1T, qTO B KaqeCTBe OI.(eHKIf .l(JI.H 19 cne.1lYCT Bbl5paTI, Tal<YIO OlleHKY 19 = (q" q,,... , qp)' KOTopaH MH!IJfMH3HpyeT CYM- MY KBa.llpaTOB OTKJlOHeHHH. OIlCHKII MeTo.n;OM !IaHMeHbIllHX KBa.llpaTOB (MHK-OlleHKI'!) MOJKHO HaHTH, IICCJIe.n;YJl IjJYHKIlHIO Ha MIIHJfMYM, 1'0 CCTb npJf- paBHIIBaJl nepBYIO npOH3BOr -'<) no napaMe-rpy q; K HynlO' as' -o OOp rl1C MaTpJfQa W Y'lHTblBaeT pa3JI1i'lHJI B To'lHOCTII I1CXO.n;HbIX CTaTHCTHK II HaJllf'll'!e KOppeJlJllll1H MeJKn;y HHMH. ECJIH KOppCJIH- I1HJI OTCYTCTByeT, TO KOBapllall110HHaJi MaTpHlla W 6yn;eT AHa- rOHaJIbHOH.. a 3JIeMCHTaMH MaTpHllbl 6YJl,YT n;HcnepcHH olleHoK cooT8eTcTBYIOll\lfX CTaTlfCTHK' , 2{E(V)}' <:1=-- if ' IIoJIyqaeM TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIe "lfOpMaJIbHbJe ypaBHeHlfJl". KOTopble 3aTeM nOCJlen;OBaTenbHo pelliaeM n;1IJI q" q" ... , q . HopManbHbIe ypaBHeHHJ! P;JlJI olleHoK qp MOJKHO 3anHcaTb Tal<: p AxAe - Axx = O. IIepenlfweM no BbJpaJKelme B cJlCn;YlOlI1eM BIf}1.e: AxAe = Axx YMHOJKH8 o5e '1aCTIf ypaBHeHHH Ha MaTpHIlY, 06paTHYlO AxA, nOJlY'IHM peweHHe e  (AxA)"Axx If, cooTBeTcTBcHHO, olleHKY .1". 11TaK, Mbl nonyqHJII1 OL\eIlKI1 corrraCIiJi MOJl,errlf MeTOn;OM,  " KOTOpbIlf Ha3blBaeTCJ! MeTOJl, HeB3BeruCHHbIX HaHMeHbWliX KBan;- paTOB". O,l\HaI<O nOT MeTOn; HMeeT pJl,l\ !IeI10CTaTKOB. Bo-nep- 8b1X, OH He yqHTbl8aeT Bbl60pO'lHYIO H3MeH'I1180CTb, BO-BTOpblX, MeTOJl, npe)].nOJIaraeT O,l\HHaK08jfJO TO'lHOCTb OlleHOK craTHCTHK II OTCYTCT811e 1<0ppenJlllHH MeJKl1y HIIMH, qTO n;OCTaTOqHO pe)].- KO BCTpe'laeTCJI Ha npaKTHKe .II.JII! Toro qTo6bl yqeCTb 3TII 05- CTOHTeJIbCTBa, I!Cno.1Tb3YIOT nO,l\XOJJ;, COrJIaCHO KOTOpOMy, BMe- 196 r)].e E(V) - OJKHAaCMbIe 3HaqeHIIJI n;l!cnepCHH, a df - COOTBeT- CT8YlOII1J.1e CTeneHH CB060,l\bI. (HYJKHO oTMeTIITI>, '1TO MbI He IIMeCM OJKHJI,aeMbIX 311a'leHIIH Jl,HCnepCHH. OJl,HaKO eCJlH Jl,onyc- TlfTb, '1TO MOn;eJIb XOpOlliO COOTBeTcTuyeT n;aHHblM, TO B Kaqe- CTBe E(Y) MOJKHO IICnOJIb30BaTb Ha6nlO}1.aeMbIe CTaTHCTHKII.) MaTpHlla, 05paTHaH W, npe,l\CTasJ1JlCT C060H HHIjJOPMaIlH- OHHYIO MaTpHl.\Y, nOCKOJIbKY nOJlY'leHHbIe TaKlIM 06pa:JOM 1<03cjJqm- IllleHTbJ J!BnJlIOTCJI MepaMH KOJlII'leCTBa HHq.OPMaIlHH (Ma:Jcp K., JI(HHKC IK., 1985). AHanOrH'IHO TOMY, KaK MI>l nOCTynanH B npe- j];b1,l\YII1CM CJlY'Iae, HCCJlel1yeM IjJYHKIlHIO Ha MIIIIIIMYM, npllpa8HII- BaR nepBYIO npOliJ80,II,HYIO no napaMeTjJaM q; K HYmo: as' -=0 OOp HCnOrrbJOBaHHe npasHJI IJ;l1ij1ljJepeHllHpOBaHHJI B OTHOllle- IIHH Hell38eCTHbIX lIapaMeTpoa ,l\aeT HOpMaJIbHbJe ypaoHeHHR, KOTOpblC JlerKO Moryr 5blTb BbIpaJJ<eHbI II MaTpHqHOH 1jJ0pMe: AW-'AEJ -AW-'x = 0, "1IH A'W-'A0 = A'W- 1 x . 197 
ITOCKOJlbKY 3IIeMeHTbI A H X 113BeCTHbI (K03!jJq,HI.jHeHTbI napaMeTpOB B MOACJ111 II Ha6J1IOAaeMbIe cpeAHHe KBaApaTl,I), H W  3Ha'leHmI BecoB, nOJ1yqeHllb!X no 3HaqeHH!!M Ha6JT1OAac- MbIX cpeAHlix KBai\paTOB, MbI IIMeCM i\OCTaTOqHO HH!jJ0pMaI1HH M!! HaXOJKjI;CHII!! 3TH}( napaMcT)JoB. YMHOJKaH o6c QaCTI1 ypaB- HeHH!! lIa MaTpl'!IjY, 06paTllyIO AW.IA, nOJlY'IaeM peweHHC (TO eCTl, HaXOlrriM HCU3BCCTHbiC napaMcTpbl 0): 0= (A'W- t A r A'W-.x ; (2.2.5) aHaJIlOa /dbl nocTapaeMcH nOKa3aTb lIa peaJIbll!'lx npHMepax npou,ei\YPY CTaTHCTlI'IeCKOH o6pa60TKil nOilY'IaeMbIX B 3Kcne- p!!MeHTe 1\8Hllb1X. HeCMOTp!! Ha TO qTO CYII1eCTByeT MHOJKeCTBO pa3J111qHl,IX CT8THCTIPIeCKHX KOMIIblDTepHbJX nporpaMM, MbI, M!! JlyqWerO no- HI1MaHIiJi CTaTI1CTH'IeCKIiX npOl1ei\Yp, nOKa)!(CM, KaK MO)!(HO npo.n;e- JIaTb paCC'l'eTbJ BpyqHYIO lIa npJlMepe 6I1J13HeI10BbIX AaHHbIX. OTnpaBHofi TO'lKOH reHCTH'IeCKOrO aHalIH3a HBJlJleTCJI aHa- 1I!!3 3KCIJepllMeHTaJIbHbIX .n:aHHbIX, nOJlYQeHHl,IX Ha IIbl60pKe 6IIH3- He110BbIX nap (HJlII i\pyrllX rpynn pOACTBeIlHHKOB). KaK MbI y)!(e ynOMJlIiilJ1I1, KOMnOHeHTbI !jJeHOTllnHQCCKOH i\HCnepCIHI HaXOA!!TCIi KaK Heli311eCTHbie B CHCTeMe ypaBHellllH, CB060AHbIMII qJleHaMIl KOTOpbIX BBIIIlIOTCJI MC)!(- II BHYT)Jl'!napHbIe Cpei\HJle KBaApaTbl nOKa3aTenei! IICCJ1ei\yeMblx npIl3HaKOB. TaKHM 05pa30M, aH8JTI!3.n:aHHbIX Ha'lHlIaerCH C BblqHCJJeliHJI MC)!(- II BHYT)JlmapHblX CPCi\HHX KBai\paTOB AJIJI KaJKi\oi1 rpynnbI 6J1113He110B (M3 H .II.3) HJllIl\PYrIIX rpynn pOACTBCHHHKOB. .lI.nJI.n;e- MOHCT)JaIjIlIl TeXHIIKH BbIqllClIeHHH Bocno11b3yeMcJI .n;aHHbIMII no 3KCT)JasepCJltI Y B3pOCIIbiX 5JIII3Hel10B (Ta6JIlIIja 6.3). HTaK, eCJlII MbI tlMCCM n 5J1113He110Bl,1X nap, a X;j npel\CTaB- JI!!eT j-Toc 113MepeHlle 611113Hel.ja B i-ToH napc, TO CpCAJIIIH KBaJlPaT MCJK.1\y napaMH (MSB) BblqllCJIHeTCH nO !jJopMY11e: ! I/x" +X i2 )' -2nx' MSB - 2 ; 11-1 1 _ r.n:c - ::<x" + x 12 ) - cpe.n;Hee aplI!jJMeTII'ICCKOe AJIJI '-TOI1 napbI 2, _ 511H3HeIjOB; a x - cpe.n;Hee no BceM Ha6JI1oJl,eHH!!M y 6ilH3He- 1.j0B J(3 111111 M3 nap: x = XII +ll +X!.I +x nl +...+X,2 +x n +X 32 +X"2 = LXij 2n 2nq Cpel\HIli1 KBaApaT BHYT)J11 nap (MSW) H3MepJleT CpcAHlDlO BaplJaIjll10 nOK83aTeJlH HccIIe):\yeMoH xapaKTepllCT>lKII KaJKAOrO 6JIJl3HeL\a OTHOCIITeJII>HO cpc):\Hcro 3HaqeHIIII Jl,JlB napbl, K KOTO- POH OH npHHaMeJKtlT, II BbIQIlC11HeTC!! no !jJopMYlIe: MSW-.!.-)X" -Xi')' 2n ,. H, COOTBCTCTBeHHO, nOilyqaeM OL\eHKY s': s' (x-Ae)'W-l(x-Ae), KOTopaH Crre}1.yeT paCIIpe}1.eJIeHHlD X' co CTemmJlMH CB060.n;bI, panHbIMIl 'II1C11Y IICXO.n;HbIX CTaTIlCTIIK MI1HYC qHCJlO HeIl3BCCT- HblX napaMeTpOB. KaK MbI Y)I(e ynOMI1Ha11l'!, HaXO)f(I\CHl1e HaH11yqWHX Ol.jeHOK KOMnOHeHT tl3MeH'mBOCTH OCHOBaHO Ha HCnOJIb30BaHIIII Beco- BbIX K03!jJ!jJIII.jHeHTOB, KOTopbIe, B CBOIO O'lepe):\b, 3aB!!CJlT OT Ol.jeHOK caMHX KOMIIOHeHT. 3TO npIlBO)1HT K Hco6xOAIIMOCTJI HC- nOJlb30BaTb IITepaTIIBHYIO npOL\c.n;ypy, TO eCTb Ha nepBOM 3Ta- ne Beca Bb\qHCJIiIIOTCiI no Ha6mo.l\aeMbIM Cpe}1.HHM KBaijpaTaM, Ha crreAYIOU1I1X 3Tanax (liTCpaL\HiIX) HOBbIe BCCOBbIe K03!jJ!jJHL\II- eHTbI BbI'IIICJIHIOTCB nOC11C HaXOJKl\eHHJr O)f(HAaCMbIX OIjeHOK, H TaK .n;o TeX nop, nOKa nOCJIeAYIOU1He I1TepaIjHH He 5YAYT npl1BO- ):(HTb K YJIY'IlIICHI'!IO ou:eHOK H KplITepHH corliaCliB. O'ieBIIAHO, '1TO '1I1C110 Hell3BeCTHhIX napaMCTpOB B CHCTe- Me ypaBHeliHH 1\0n)!(HO 6blTb MeHbwc H1111 paBHO '1HCJIY IICXO.n:- HbIX TaTI1CTHK, B npOTHBHOM CJIyqae OI\H03Ha'iHOe peWeHl'!e nonyqllTb HeJIb3H. ClIell.yeT yqHTbIBaTh, qTO npll COBIIall.eHHIl '1I1Cila HCXOJl,HbIX CTaTHCTliK H He!!3BeCTHbIX napaMCTpOB 6YACT I1MCTI, MeCTo nOJlHOe COOTBeTCTBI1C Ha511IOijaCMbIX H O)f(H.l\aC- MbIX CTaTHCTHK II, Cilei\OBaTeJlbHO, Ol.jeHIITb a.n;eKBaTHOCTb MO- l\eilH HCB03MO)f(HO. 'lUCR080U npu.OIep. PaCCMOTpliM KOHKpCTHble npllMepbI H CTaTHCTHqeCI<HC Me- TOAbI, n03B011HIOII1l1e Ha OCHOBC aHaJlli3a BapHaTIIBHOCTII BHYTpIl o.n;Hofi CeMbll II MCJKI\Y CeMb:lMIi Bbl.n;eJlHTb KOMnOHeHTbI 06ll\eH !jJeHOTHnl1qCCKOH H3MeH'IHBOCTIi. .II.JIJlIIJIJIJOCT)JaL\lIIi TeXHOJIOrlil1 198 199 
Ta6RUJ(a 6.3 lloKa3amellll 3Kcmpaeepcuu y 3 II M3 l1ap 6Ru3/1elf06 3aTeM BblqI{C)lj!e),f cpe.qH!fe I!HYTp!maplJble II MeJKnapHble KBaApaTbl OTKJlOlieHIIH. MSWI\3=: I1 (Xil-Xi2)1 =: (4+ 4 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 4+ 4+ 4 + + 9 + 1 + 0 + 4 + 25 + 25 + 16 + 36 + 9 + 25 + 25 + + 25) 12x20 =: 2231 40 =: 5,575 , MSWM3=: ;I1 (Xil-X;z)'=: (l + 4+ 16 +4 + 16 +4 + 1 + + 4 + 1 + 9 + 4 + 0 + 1 + 4 + 4 + 4 + I + 1 + 1 + 9) /2x20 =: =: 90 I 40 ;: 2,225 ,  :<Xil + x,,)' - 2nx-' MSB = 2 I - 12,814, lf3 n-I Ng naphl m M3 X i1 x", (x" -x,,) X i1 X. (x" -X,,) I 9 11 .2 13 12 I 2 12 II 2 14 12 2 3 10 9 1 14 lQ 4 4 12 13 .1 14 16 -2 5 12 II I 8 12 .4 6 13 15 -2 15 13 2 7 5 7 -2 14 13 I 8 15 13 2 3 5 -2 9 15 12 3 II 10 I 10 11 13 -I 6 9 -3 11 13 13 Ii 9 /! 2 12 3 5 -2 14 14 0 13 10 15 -5 5 6 I -. 14 8 13 .5 9 7 2 15 9 13 -4 12 14 .2 16 6 /2 .6 8 10 -2 17 12 9 3 9 10 -I 18 13 8 5 8 9 -I 19 II 6 5 14 13 I 20 14 9 5 15 12 3  ::<Xil + x;z)' - 2nx-' 2 MSB = ' = 18,804. MJ n-I AHaJlOrMqHO Bbl'lHCJ!JleM cpeAHee Mj! M3 nap. 1 X 1"3 =: 2n  x, = (I3 + 14 + ! 4 + 14 + 8 + ! 5 + 14 + 3 + . , ITepBble ABe BeJIH'IHHbI - MSW p , II MSW MJ - .!I.aIOT 1111- £j>opMaL\HIO 0 CTeneHH pa3JlHqHH MeJK.!I.Y 'lJIeHaMII 6J1H3HeL\OBOH napbl Y M3 3Ta BeJIII'!MHa, KaK Mbl BHNlM, MeHbllle, 'leM Y ):(3. Pa3JlI1'1HJI MeJK)];Y '1JIeHaM!I M3 napbI 05ycJ!oBJIeHbI cpeAoBblMH B03AeHCTBIIJlM!I, nOCKOJIbKY M3 6nH3HeL\bl He IIMeroT refle1'!f- qeCKIIX pa3J!H'lHH Cpei1HHii KBa.!l.paT BHYTPH .II.3 nap (MSW p ,) SlBJISleTCSI CYMMOii Tpex KOMnOHeHTOB. IIcpBblii (Ew) OTpaJKaeT Cpe)];OBbIe B03.IJ,eiicTBIlj!, aHaJIOrHqHble TeM. KOTopble BJIlIJIroT Ha pa3JIH'lHJI MeJK)];Y M3 6nH3HCL\aMII. BTOpOH H Tpenrii {VA jf VO> OTpaJl(alOT reHeTH'leCKHe pa3JI!lqllH MeJl(.IJ,Y qneHaMit .II.3 napbI TaKitM o6pa30M, Ha6JIroll:aeMbie Cpe.IJ,HHe KB811paTbI BHYT- pH M3 it ):\3 nap MOJKHO npe)];CTaBHTb B cneAyroLUeM BHD.e' 5,575 =: MSW p , =: 112 VA + 3/4V t> + Ew; 2,225 = MSW MJ =: Ew AHaJIOrHqHO Bbl'litCJIeHHbIC cpel\lllle KBall:paTbI Mey na- paMI{ MOJKHO 3anrrcaTL B B!f.qe cJ1e.qyroLUHx ypaBHeHHH: 12,814 == MSBJj3 = 3/2V A +5/4V D +2E.+E",; 5,575= MSB M , =:2V A +2V o +2E.+E w ' B HallieM npmlepe Mbl nonyqaeM, ';TO cpe.!lllee Mj! ,1:(3 nap paBHo: 1 .\' /(3 =: 2n x, = [(9 + 12 + 10 + 12 + 12 + 13 + 5 + ]5 + + 15 + 1 I + 13 + 3 + 10 + 8 + 9 + 6 + 12 + 13 + II + + 14) + (11 + II + 9 + 13 + 11 + 15 + 7 + 13 + 12 + 13 + 13 + + 5 + 15 + 13 + 13 + 12 + 9 + 8 + 6 + 9)J /2x20 =: =: 431 /40 = 10,775 . + ]1 + 6 + 9 + ]4 + 5 + 9 + 12 + 8 + 9 + 8 + 14 + 15) + + (12 + 12 + 10 + 16 + 12 + 13 + 13 + 5 + 10 + 9 + II + + 14 + 6 + 7 + 14 + 10 + 10 + 9 + 13 + 12) I 2x20 =: =: 433 / 40 =: 10,825. 200 201 
vlTaK, Mb! nOJlY'lHJlH CHCTeMY H3 qeTblpex ypaoHeHliH C 'leTblpbMJI HeIl3BeCTHb!MIi (VA' V D' Ew, E B ), pe!llllB I(OTOpyfO, nOJlY'iHM 3Ha'ieHIIH 3THX Hell3BCCTHblX napaMeTpOB. B 3TOH CII- CTeMe ypaBHeHIIH Bccro TpH He3aBHCHMbiX ypaBHeHHJI, '1eTBep- Toe npeJl,CTaBIlHeT C060H If X IlIfHCHHYro KOM6I1Hau.mo, n03TOMY cHCTeMa ypaBHeHliH n03BOJlHeT OJl,H03Ha'iHO onpeJl,eJlI1Tb TOJJb- KO TpH HeH3BeCTHbiX napaMeTpa. TaKI1M 05pa30M, 5JJ.H3HeLlO- BblH MeTOJl, HC n03BOJJHeT TeCTHpOBaTb nOJJHYIO MOJl,eJJb (V p = VA + V D + Ew + EJ, TeM He MeHee MO)l(HO OLleHHTb 50JIee npo- CTbie Jl,BYX- H TpexnapaMeTpli'leCKIIC MOJl,CJIII. He05xo.n:lfMO OT- Jl,aBaTb ce6c OTqeT B TOM, qTO 3TH ypaBHeHHH CnpaBe)!,.llHBbl JJIIWb npH CJJeJl,YlOwllx Jl,OnYweHHJlX: CpeJl,bl M3 H )],3 5JJH3HeLtOB paB- HbI, OTCYTCTBYIOT 3nHCTa3, B3aHMOl(ci1cTBHc reHonma 11 CpeJl,bl, KOBapHaI1IUI MeJKI\Y reHOTHnOM H cpe.n:oH Ii accopTaTliBHOCTb. PaccMoTpHM OCHOBHble MOJl,eJIII CTPYKTYPbI !jJeHoTHlIl\qeCKOH I(IICnepCHIi. BhlqHCJlHeM KOBapuaLtHOHHYIO MaTpHI1Y W, 3JJeMeHTbI 1(0- TOpOi1 paBHb!. 2E.(xJ) df 37,2200 0 0 0 0 0,4951 0 0 W 0 0 17,2841 0 0 0 0 3,1081 Cpe008(lR MOGeRb (V p = E B + Ew) npel(noJlaraeT, '1TO reHe- Tli'ieCKHC <paKTOpbl He BJJHJlIOT Ha HH,[(HBH,[(yaJIbHble pa3JIH'IIIH )J.aHHaH Mo,[(eJlb HMeeT BaJKHOC TCOpeTl1qeCKOe 3HaqCHliC )!,.IlK liCIi- XOJJOrli'leCKI1X npHJHaKOB, nOCKOJJbKY n03BOJJKeT BbIJlBHTb Te npH- 3I1aKH, CXO,[(CTBO KOTOpblX 06ycnOBJlCHO KYJIbTYPHbIMH oc06eHHO- CTJlMH. COrJlaCHO 3TOH MOAeJIH, CliCTCMa ypaBHeHliH 5Y,[(eT liMeTb CJIC,[(y!oWHH BII,[(: 06paTHaH W MaTpI1Lta 5YI\C1' IIH<popMaLtIIOHHOH MaTpIlLteH: 0,0269 0 0 0 o 2,0199 0 0 W-I o 0 0,0579 0 o 0 0 0,3217 HaXOJl,liM HCI13BeCTHblC napaMeTpbI: MSW"J '2E B + Ew '2 I MSB". Ew 0 I Ew\,   x IE. MSWJ/. 2E. + Ew 2 1 MSB m Ew 0 1 e = (AW-'Ar' AW-'x = 0,0269 0 0 0 2 : ' I 0 2 Ix 0 2,0199 0 0 0 = x x ! J 0 0 0,0579 0 2 0 0 0 0,3217 0 liJJH, I1Haqe, x = A€>. HTaK, Mbl I1MeeM BeKTop Ha6mo,[(aeMblx cpe)l)!l1x KBa.apaToB (x) Ii MaTpHLty K03<p<pHl\lIefnOB (A) COOTBeTCTBY!OweH MOJl,eJJII: MSW MJ 18.80 2 I x= MSB M3 = 2,225 A= 0 I MSWJ/' 12,81 2 1 MSBJ/' 5,575 0 I 0,0269 0 0 0 xl 0 2 Ix 0 2,0199 0 0 x 1 1 0 0 0,0579 0 0 0 0 0,3217 x 118,804 2,225 12,814  1 6 ,0141) 557 = , 2,6853 . 3aTeM Bblql1CJlHeM OJKliJl,aeMble cpe.n:Hl1e KBaJl,paTb!. 202 203 
2 ° E(x)=A0= 2 ° I 14,713 I X I 6,0141 1 = 2,6853 1 2,6853 14,713 I 2,6853 2V, +Ew 2 MSW MJ E 0 w MSB MJ _ 3 _ 3 / MSW m - 2: V , +Ew - 2: MSBp,3 V +E 1 2' w ,2 1 I I xiV, Ewl. H, HaKOHeQ, nonY'JaeM OQeHKY COrnaCHJI MOl\e1lH. , S2 = (x - Ae) W- I (x - Ae) = 18,804 14,7135 0,0269 0 0 ° 2,225 2,6853 ° 2,0199 0 0 = x x x 12,814 14,7135 ° ° 0,0579 0 5,575 2,6853 0 () () 0,321 IIOCKOJIbKY HHq,opMaLlHoHHaH MaTpHQa YJKe II3BeCTIJa, MOJ!(- HO HaHTII HeH3BeCTHbie napaMeTpbl ypaBHeHIIJI: 0=(A'W'A) 'A'W"X= 1 7,4237 1 . 2,1832 x 18.80 2,225 12,814 5,575 14,7135 2,6853 x 14,7135 2,6853 Bbl'lHCJIHeM 3HaqeHHH OJKlIl\aeMbIX cpeJl,HIIX KBal\paTOB 17,0306 2,1832 E(x)=A0 = 13,3188 5,8950 = 3,773 . II oQeHKY COrnaCHJI MO.D.enH s' =(x-A0)'W'(x-A0)=0,1357 KOTopa>l CJlel\yeT pacnpel\eJIeHHIO X' co CTeneHHMH CBo6ol\bl, paBHblMH qHcny HCXOI\HbIX CTaTHCTIIK MHHYC qllCJlO HCH3BeCT- HblX napaMeTpoB (B )!aHHOM cJIyqae qHCnO CTeneHeli CBo6ol\bl paDHo 4 MHHYC 2); BepOJITHOCTb (P) TaKoro 3Ha'leHI1H ';(' 3aKJIIO- '1eHa B IIHTepBane MeJKI\Y 0,15 H 0,16. Ol(eHKH ,/:\pymx Mo,/:\eneH BblqHCJIJlIOTCJI CXO.L\HbIM 06pa30M Aooumu8HO-OOMUl/al/ml/W/ MoiJeRb (VA Ii V o , Ew)' Mo,/:\eJIb npe)!ITOJIaraeT, qTO reHCTHqCCKaH KOMITOHeHTa 113MeHqllBOCTII BKnlOqaer KaK aMliTIIBHble 3q,q,eKTbI, TaK H 3q,(j)eKT I!;OMI1HllpO- BaHHH. 3Ha'lHTCJIbHbIe HeraTHBHbIe 3HaqeHHH KOMnOHeHTa 113- MeHqHBOCTH, OTpaJKalOlQerO 3(j)(j)eKT .D.OMHHl1pOBaHIIH, MorYT CBH.D.eTeJlbCTBOBaTb 0 HaJIl1'1HH "cH6cOBoro" 3(j)lj)eKTa (31jJq,eKT KooncpaQHII Me)l(.D.Y cH6calH) 3Ha'lHMble HeraTlIBHbIe OQeHKII E. MorYT, Hao60poT, CBH.D.eTeJIbCTBOBaTb B nonb3Y rJlnOTe3bl 0 Ha1lHqHlI 3q,q,eKTa copeBHoBaHHH MeJK.D.Y cH6caMIi. CHCTeMa ypaaHeHHH AJlII 3TOi! MOl\eJIII HMeeT CJICAYIDIQHH B: llpOCmaR 2eHemlfl/eCKM MOOeJIb (VA HEw)' ):IaHHaH Mo,/:\eJlb npc)!nOnaraeT, qTO ceMeHHoe CXOI\CTBO 06YCJIOBneHO TOJIbKO reHeTH'IeCKIIMIi npllql1HaMII. ECJIII )!aHHaJi MO.D.eJlb He corrracy- eTCH C .n:aHHbIMH, TO Heo6xol\IIMO paCCMOTpeTb pJl,/:\ arrbTepHa- THBHblX rHrrOTe3 - BJIIIJlHUe pa3,11;eJIeHHOii Cpe,ll;bI, 3(j)(j)eKTb! ,11;0- MHHHpOBaHl1>l Ii oco6eHHOcTII B3aIlMo):\ei1cTBHH CH6cOB. B COOT- BeTCTBIiH c 3TOi1 MO)J;errblO CIiCTeMa ypaBHeHHIi 6Y.D.eT IiMeTb crre.D.YIOIQI1H Blil!;: 204 2V, +2V D +Ew 2 MSW"3 Ew 0 MSB M1 _ 3 5 _ 3 MSW --V,+-VD+Ew-- JIJ 2 4 2 MSBp" V +iv +E  2'4" w 2 2 I ° I 5 I xiV, 4 3 4 v" Ewl 205 
AHaJ10rHqHO npe.!lbIIIYHM MOllemlM lfaxo,n;IfM Hel{3BCCT- HbIe napaMCTpbl: Tao.'1ul{a 6.4 MHK-otjeH/<U KOMI10HeHI1I UJJUeHqu80CI1IU 8,3J09 o '" (A'W"Af' A'W"x = - 0,8557 2,2025 MHK-ou.eHkH KOMnOHeHT t3MeH'IUB()CTH MO.ACl1b V. V o E, Ew x' P Vp=VA+E w 7.423 - - 2,180 0.135 0,82 - 0,84 Vp=EsyEw - - 6,014 2,680 3,773 0,15 - 0,16 Vp=V...+Vo+E w 8,310 -0,855 - 2,200 0.119 0,70-0,75 Vp=V...+Ee+E w 7,027 - 0,427 2,200 0,119 0,70 - 0,75 BbI'IIICJJeM O)J(HllaeMble cpe,n;Hlle ](BaJ\paTbl H nOJlY'IaeM OQeHKY COrJJaCHR Mo,n;eJlH: s' "'(x-A0)'W"(x-A0) '" 0,1199. npillMe\lal1e. 3IiaeH"R BepOsrrrtocn (p) COOT8eTCTBSI MDp,emt HaxQAATCfJ no rn.6fi'1'- L&3M pacnpeAeneHj1 J..'l MSW MJ 2V A +2E. + Ew 2 2 1 Ew 0 0 I MSB"J 3 = 1 xlV A E. Ewl. = -VA +2E. +Ew 2 MSW pJ 2 2 MSB I" !V Ew I 0 + - 2 A 2 .II.JJJI nOJ\C'IeTa Jl,OJIH KOMnOHeHT 113MeH'IHBOCTH BblqllCJIRJOT npoLleHT, KOTOpUH Ta IIJIII IIHaR KOMnOHeHTa COCTaBJIJleT B 06eii <PeHorumrqec](oii ,QUCI1CpCJHI. .II.JJJI npllMcpa no,nCqllTaeM npOLleH- Tbl )J,JIJI nOCJ1eJ\HCH MOlleJJII. 06aR ljJeHoTllnHqCCKaR 113MeH'III- BOCTb paBHa CYMMe ee KOMnOHeHT: V p = 7,423 + 2,180 = 9,603. CooTBeTCTBeHHo, IIOJIR reHeTH'IeCKOH 113MeH'IIfBOCTII paBHa: VA x 100% = 7,423 x 100% = 77,30% . V p 9,603 'TeHomun-KYJlbmypaJlbHWI" .\100eJlb (VA' E. II Ew)' 3Ta MO- lIeJIb BKJIIOqaeT ](31( rCHeTII'IeCKlle, TaK If KYJ1bTYPHO 06YCJJoRJJeH- Hble KOMIIOHeHTbl ceMeHHoro CXO.!lCTBa. CHcTcMa ypaBHeHHH )J,JIJI 3TOii Mo.n:eJ111 HMeeT CJJeAylOHij BH,D,: HaXO,QUM Hell3BeCTHbfe napaMerpbf 7,0274 E) =(A'W"Ar'A'W 'x= 0,4278 2,2025 ,[IOJJR 113MeH'II1BOCTI1, 06YCJ10BJJCHHa!l CJlyqaHliblMu 31jJcj!eK- TaMH Cpell.bl, paBHa: Ew x100%= 2,180 x 100%=22,70% . J 9,603 3, reHen1L(eCKI1M aHa11113 KOBapMaLll10HHbiX CTPYkTyp II nOJlyqaeM OQCHKY COrJIaCIIR MOJ\eJJ>1 s' =(x - A0)'W"(x- A0) = 0,1199. PC3YJIbTaTbi npOBCp](H a,D,eKBaTHOCTl1 Mo.n:eJIeH npllBC,D,eHbl B Ta6JIHI.le 6.4. KaK MbZ BH,D,IfM, npocTan reHeTJlqeCKan MO,QMb cooueT- CTIlYCT KcnepllMeHTaJIbHbIM ,D,aHHbIM lIyqWe, 4eM Bce OCTaJIbHbIe (X' = 0,135; 0,82 < P < 0,84), ", CJJe,D,OBaTCJlbHO, MO)J(HO c,n;CJlaTb Bbf80.ll 0 TOM, qTO J\aHHbIH npll3Ha]( 06YCJlOBJIeH KaK reHeTH4CCKH- MJI <paKTopaMII (77,30%), TaK 11 CJJY'lai\HbIMH <paKTopaMH cpeJl,bI  - 22,70%). 206 3,1. feHeTH'ICCKaA MO,D,CJIL KonapHHpYlOlliHX npH3H3KOB ).{o elf X nop Mbl HMCJlI1 /1eJID C :!HaJJII30M C/1HHllqHbIX npH- 3HaKoB, OJ\HaKO npll aHaJIlt3C nCHXOJJOnlqeCK\1X H nCI'!Xo<pH3HOJlO- r\1qeCKIIX npH3HaKoB ,D,OCTaT04HO '1aCTO OC06UH HHTepec npe,D,- CTaBJJIOT npHq\1Hbl HX B3allMHoii KOBapllaLlHH, nOCKOJIbKY TaKoii aHanH3 lI.aeT B03MO)J(HOCTb nY'Iwe nOHRTb npHpOJl,y I1CCJlel1YCMblX JlBJJeHIIH. feHeTHqCC](lIe IICCJIe.n:OIla.HIIJI B3aHMOCB3H Me)J(,D,Y nOBTop- HMMH H3McpeHHRMII OllHoro \1 Toro )J(e IICHXonOrH'leCKOro I1J1B 21J7 
nClIxoq.H31I01I0m'leCKoro npll3HaKa AalOT KJIIO'I K peweHHIO OAHOl! 113 KapAIIHaJIbHbIX npo611eM nCHXOJIOrlllI II nCHxoq.1I31I01IOr1IH - npo611eMbi npHpOAbI H AeTcpMHHaHT nCIIXII'IeCKoro pa3BJlTII MeTOAbI KOIIHqeCTBeHHOH reHeTI1KII AalOT B03MO)l(HOCTb nOAOHTIl K 3HaJlII3Y TaK!fX q.YHAaMeHTaJTbHbIX p,JIR JII060ii TeopHH paJBHTJI!J nOHJlTIIH, KaK npepbIBHOCTb (discontinuities) II HenpepblBHoCTb (continuities) nCHXII'IeCKoro pa3BIITlI. HanoMHHM, '1TO Henpepb!B- HOCTb 03HaqaeT cBR3aHHOCl'b, npeeMCTBCHHOCTb 3TanOB paJBIITHR (HanpIlMep, IIHHeilHbIe 113MeHeHH!J), TOrlJ,a KaK npcpbIBHOCTb - pe3Klle 113MeHeHIIJI B npou.ecce paJBIITII!J. HecoMHeHHo, '1TO reHO- Tiin IIrpaCT perYJlHpYIOIl{j'IQ pOllb B paJBHTIIH Tex IIIIH ""bIX npH- )HaKOB, 06eCneqHBaeT He TOllbKO cTa611I1bHOCTh, HO H npepblB- HOCTb (nYTeM BKmo'leHHR" IIIIH "BbIKlIlO'IeHHR" COOTBeTCTI!YIOIl{HX reHOB) B npou.ecce paJBHTHJI (Emde R., Harmon R., 1984; Kagan J.. 1984; Ruttcr M., 1984; Goldsmith H., 1984 HAP.). .II.eilCTBII- TeJIbHO, IJ,aHHbIe pJlJl,a 1I0HfliTIOAHbiX 611113Hel\OBbIX IICCneAOBaHI1H y6e.n:HTellbHO CBl1l\eTellbCTBYIOT, qTO I\HHaMHKa nCIIXl'!'1eCKOrO pa3BIITH>I IJ,eTepMIIHlipyeTC!J reHon1TIOM (Wilson R, 1972, 1977; Wilson R., Matheny A., 1983;1986; Matheny A., 1983; Plomin R., 1985; DeFries J. et al.. 1987; LaBlIda et aI., 1986; Fulker et al , 1988) TaK, B CTaBweH YJKe KllaCCHqeCKOH pa60Te P BHJIbCOH (1972) nOKaJaJI, '1TO AHHaMIlKa paJBHTIi nOKa3aTeileil IQ - YCKO- peHlIe, nllaTO II 3aMeJJ:]leHHe - npaKTH'IeCKIi OAHHaKOBa Y MOHO- 311roTHbIX 6mI3Hel\OB AHanH3 B3allMOCBR3eii Me)l(AY nOBTopHblMH H3McpeHI1MH BaJKCH H JJ:]I nCHxoq.113HOIIOrHqeCKHX npIl3HaKOB, nOCKOJIbKY MHO- me H3 HHX npeJl,CTaBJlJlIOT C060H nOBTopHble H3MepeHH>I no caMO- MY cnoc06y nOJlyqeHIIJI 3TIIX nOKa3aTeJIeH HanpHMcp, B OCHOBe Ha6mo,llaeMblX !jJeHoTHnH'ICCKHX KOBapllal\HH MOJKeT IICJKaTb nneH- oTponHoe AeHCTI!He reHOB (TO eCTb OIlHJlHlle KaJKIJ,OrO reHa 60llee qeM Ha OAHH npH3HaK). feHeTHqeCKYIO MOAe1Jb 1J,JIJI KOBapHHpylOIl{IIX npH3HaKOB MOJKHO onpelJ,CJIHTb aHallOrHqHO rCHCTH'ICCKOH MOACIIII p,JI!J eAlI- HHqHbIX npH3HaKOB. llcnOllb3YR OCHOBHble aJIreOpaH'IeCKlle nOA- XOAbI )J,JI(.Ma3epa Ii )J,JK.)J,)!(IIHKCa (1985), Onpel\ellllM KOMnOHeHTbI reHemqeCKOii KOBapHal.(Im MeJl( npIl3HaKaM!1. ITYCTb 1I0KYC BJII1!JeT Ha ABa npll3HaKa i IIj ITOCKOllbKY l\IIa arrlleJI>I A H a OAHoro rella HMelOT qaCTOTbI u, II va' a BKllap.bI 3THX reHOTHnOB B 3Ha'leHHe npH3HaKoB i II J paDHbl d,,(AA), 208 h ( Aa ) d ( aa ) II d . ( AA), h , ( Aa), -d (aa) COOTBeTCTBeHHO, TorAa ai ' ai OJ OJ 0) KOMnOHeHThI reHeTII'IeCKOH AHCnepCHIlp,JI!J KaJK,!!OrO H3 3TIIX I\IIYx npH3HaKoB 6YT C!Ie.l1yIOI1.\I!MII' VAl = L2u,V.[d" + (Val - U aI )h,,]2 H V Of :;;: 4u;v;h JI)1J1 npH3HaKa i; V-t = L 2u.v.[d. + (V.. - u..)h r 1-1 V = 4uv;h; JJ:]IJI npll3HaKa j. CXO.l1HbIM oopa30M onpe.l1eJJJleM KOMnOHCHTbl reHeTII'Iec- KOH KOBaplIal\H!1 MCJKIJ,Y npI!3f1aKIIMII: VA; = 2: 2u.V, [d" + (v" -u")h,,I.[d + (v.. -u..)h..] (3.1.1) Ii V D1 = 4u;vh"hai . (3.1.2) 3.2. AHWlH3 KOB3plIaWloHHbiX CTPYKryp: TeopHIi Jl3TeIITIILIX nepeMeHllb1X B nocneAlllle rO.l1bI I1HTeHCHBHO pa3BIIBaeTCJI TeOpH>I JIaTeH- THbIX nepeMeHHbIx, Iicnollb3yeMa JJ:]IJI aHalll-lJa pa3J11i'lHbIX KOBa- pllaL\I-IOHHbIX CTPYKTYP H npIlMeHeMa B pa3JIH'IHbIX .l1HCL\HnlllI- Hax, B TOM qHClle II B reHeT(U<e nOBeAeHII>I (Andersen E.,1980; McArdle J , 1980; Krishnalah P., Kanal L., 1982; Long J., 1983; Bentler P 1980' 1988' Saris W., Stronkhorst H., 1984; Everitt 13., 1984; McDonald R ,'1985; Short R. et aI., 1984; Molenaar P., 1985, 1987; Rudinger G., 1985; Mobus C., Schneider W, 1986; Hayduk L , 1987; ClIttance P. et aI., 1987 II .lip.). Heo6xo.l1IIMO nOJlCHHTb, 'ITO no.l1 MO.l1eJIJlMII C )IaTeHTHblMI! nepeMeHHblMH nOHItMalOT CTaTHCTllqeCKHe MOl\enH, OnHCbIsalO- Il{lIe 1-1 06'b!JcH>llOl1.\lIe Ha6111OI\aeMblC .l1aHHble HX 3aBHCHMOCTblO OT HeHa6rrlOAaeMbIx (llaTeHTHblx) xapaJ\TeplICTHK, KOTopbIe pe- KOHCTPYHPYIOTC C nOMOIl{blO onpe.l1erreHHblx MaTeMarl1'1eCKIIX MeT0.l10B. 209 
CYLI\CCTBCHHblH BKJla,[l B paJBHTHe TCOpliH 3THX MO,[lCneH BHccnH CTaBWIIC YJKe KnaCCH'ICCKIIMH pa60Tbl Kapna HopeCKO- ra no aHamny KOOapHal\HOHHbIX CTPYKTYP (Joreskog K, 1963, 1966, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974,1976, 1977, 1978, 1981, Joreskog K., Lowley D, 1968; Joreskog K., Wold H, 1982; Joreskog K., SorbOlh D., 1979, 1988). HM 6bIJI npeAnOJKeH cno- co6 HenOCpe,[lCTBCHHOil (TO eCTb 6e3 npOMeJKYTOqHOrO opaLl\:- HIIR) npOBepKH 3aJl,aHHOH rHnOTC3bI 0 npOCTOH C1pYKType ,[IaH- HbIX, I<:OTOpblH BnOCJ1e.n:CTBHH nonY'lIl!! Ha3BaHHe KOHcjJllpMBTOp- Horo cjJaKTopHoro aHa!!1I3a. HeCKonbKo 3a6eraJi BnepeA, OTMeTHM, '11'0 OCHOBHOH npllll- l\Hn KOHcjJHpMaTopHoro cjJaKTopHoro allanH3a JaKJllOqaeTCJ1 B cjJOpMHpOBaHHH, B l<aqeCTBC rHnOTe3bI, C1pYKTYPbl OJl<H.n:aCMOH MaTpl1l\bl cjJaKTopHblX HarpY30K, 1<0TOpaH 3aTeM conOCTaonRCT- CR C Ha6nlO,[IaeMOH KOBapllal\HOHHOH MaTpHl\eH. fHnOTe3a, KaK npaOH!!O, BKmoqaeT B ce611 UllcjJopMal\111O 0 ql1CJIe 06L1\I1X cjJal<- TOpOB, npllpO,[le 3aBHCHMOCTH MC)i(AY cjJaKTopaMH II BC!!HqHHe cjJaKTopHblX HarpY30K AnR KaJK,[IOH ncpeMCHHoil 3Ta CTPYKTyp- HaH nmOTe3a nO,[IBcpraeTCJI CTaTIICTHqCCKOH npOBepKe. K.HopecKor (1970) Bocnonb30BanCH anropUTMOM }:(aBHAo- Ha4 1 J1eHepa-ITay:m!!a (Davidon W , 1959; Fletcher R., Powell M., 1963) )I;.JlR npoBepKIl rilnOTe3 B MOAC!!I1, B03HIIKaIOLI\eii npH 3aMeHe MO,[lenl1 nOKa-naprMaHa (Bock R., Bargman R, 1966) 60nce o6L1\eii MOlleJlblO: = B(1\<1I1\' + tp')B' + 0'. 3Ta MOllenb 6bIJIa, no cYLI\eCTBY, nepBoii ,[IeiiCTBIITC!!bIlO 3acnY)i(HBWCH Ha3BaHHC "aHa!!1I3 I<OBapHal\1I0HHbIX C1pYKTYP" B era coBpeMcHHoM flOHHMaHHH (nJIarym IT., 1989). MOI(eJ1b, npe,/{- CTaBns\lOIl\aJl B3aHM03aBilCHMOCTb Ha6nlOAacMbIx nepeMeHHbIX xl' .. 'X k HX 3aBHCHMOCTbIO 01' JIaTeHTHbIX ncpCMeHHbIX hr' oc- HOBaHa Ha TaK HaJblBaeMOH OCHOOHOH ljJaKTopHoH TeopeMe. rIYCTb x.. x" ..., xl' ..., x,. - Ha6mo,[laeMbIC ncpeMeHHble II S = /r j ,1 - MaTPHQa KOppCJ1Jll\HI1 (KooajJHalIHI!) J1epeMeHHbIX KOppenJll\IIH MeJK,[IY Ha6mo,[laeMbIMH H !!aTeHTHbIMI1 nepeMeHHbI- MH (l.p) npe,[lCTaB!!HIOT C060H cjJaKTopHble HarpY3KH Ha5JI1O,[IaeMblx nepeMeHHbIX x, no ljJaKTopaM!; OHM 06pa3YlOT MaTpHL(Y Harpy- 30K. COrJlaCHO OCHDBHOH cjJaKTOpHOH TeopCMe, K03iPcjJlIL(IICHTbI KoppeJJJlllHH Tj> BblpaJK3JOTCB '1epe3 iPaKTopHbIC HarpY3KI'!: r", = A.jIA.., +A)2AY2+...+A.jnA.\In' TO CCTb B BII.n:e CKaJ1RpHOrO npOM3BeAeHI'!II j-Toil H v-Toil CTpOK MaTpllL(bl cjJaKTopHblX HarpY30K, r.n:e l\HarOHaJIbHblC 3JIeMeHTbI - npOCTO KoaAPaTbI COOTBeTCTBYIOLI\HX HarpY30K rw = A.21 + )}...2+"'+A. -+ "1'; , '¥: - TaK HB3blBaeMaJi XapaKTepHOCTb, a (I - '¥;) - 06L1\HOCTb. HTaK, B MaTpl1qHOM BMlle OCHOBHaR iPaK'fOpHaR TeopeMa MOJKeT 5b!Tb npellCTaBneHa cneAYIOLI\MM 06PaJOM: 1\1\' + '1", rAc '1" = [),], TO eCTb K03cjJcjJlIl\HeHTbI KoppemlL(HII rj, BblpaJKa- IOTCII qepeJ tjlaKTOpHl,le HarpY3KH. B 60JIee 06L1\eM BHAe OJKHAae- MaR KOBapMal\HOHHaJi MaTplll\a 6YAeT HMeTb cneA)'IOLI\I1i:i BI1J1,:  = 1\<1IA' + '1", (3.2.1) rAe 1\ - MaTpIlla (vxf) ljJaKTopHbIX HarpY30K. MaTpHl\a F paJ- MepHOCTbIO ifxf) oTpaJKaeT 1Ip11]J0II)' 3aBHCHMocreH OHYI]}H oJKl\,l\3e. MbIX ljJaKTopoB, '1" - l\HarOHaJIbHaJI Ma1pHl\a, cOACpJKaLl\aH v xa- paKTepHblx ljJaKTOpOB;  - O)I(J!AaeMaJI KOBapHaI.U10HHaJI MaTplll\a. HTaK, ljJaKTOpHb!H aHaJIH3 npcp'flOJJarae-r, 'ITO Ha6JJIOp.ae- Mble nepeMcflHbIe JlB;JHIOTC" nHHeHHoil KOM6HHaL(HeH HeKoTopblX naTeHTHblX (rHnOTeTllqeCKHx. HnH HeHa6JIIOAaeMblx) cjJaKTopoB. HeKOTopble 113 3TIIX iPaKTopoB JlOnJiIOTCR 06L1\IIMH iJ)IJI ABYX HnH 60JIee ncpeMeHHblX, a APyrHe - XapaKTepHblMH )I;.JlJl KaJl()J,OrO J1a- paMeTpa B OT.a;eJIbHOCTIl. XapaKTepHble lj!aKTopbl opTOrOHaJIbHbI I\pyr APyry II, CJIeAOBaTenbHO, He BHOCJiT BKnaA B KOBapHaL(1I1O MCJKAY npM3HaKaMIl. K OAHOI% H3 BaJKHeHWHX iJ)IH reHeTII'ICCKOrO aHaJ1113a OCO- 6eHHOCTeH KOHIjJHpMaTopHoro cjJaKTOpHOrO aHaJIll3a MOJ!(HO OTHC- CTH 003MO>KHOCTb C0J10CTaBJJeHIlJi iPaKTOpHblX C1pYKTYP HeCKOJIb- KHX rpynn Ha6moAeHIIH, nOCKonbKY IIHiPopMal\HJI, He06xolJ;HMall .LI.1IR Ol\eHKH KOMJ10HeHT reHOTHn-cpeAoooi\ MOACJIH, COAepJKIITCIIlJ AaHHblX HeCKO!!bKIIX rpynn HH)UIBHAOO pa3HOH CTeneHI1 reHeTII- qCCKOrO CXO.!!CTBa, HanpHMep, M3 H ,1],3 6J1H3HCl(OB. pJlJI, npliMepoB npHMeHeHHII MHororpynnoBoro KOHiPHpMaTopHoro iPaXTopHoro amIJIH3a MOJKHO HaH'rn lJ pa60Te K.fIopcCKora (Joreskog K., 1976). 3.3. feHeTH'IeCKII" aHaJlH3 KOBapllllltllOHHblX CTPYKTYP 210 HHKOJIaC MapTI1H II JIIIHAoH HBJ (Martin N., Eaves L., 1977) BocnOnb30llaJIHCb TeMl1 B03MOJKHOCTJlMH, KOTOpblC IJ;aeT 211 
nOIJ;XO,lJ, K.i10pecKora, H ananTHpOBaJlH ero IJ;JI rCHeTHqeCKOrO aHamna KOBap"aL\HOIIHbiX crpYKTYP. OCHOBHaJ! mlHeliHaJ! MO,lJ,CJ1b IIH.lJ,HBH)lyaJ1bHbJX pa3JIHqHH, KOTOpyIO MbI paCCMaTpIIBaJ1H BbJIlle, MO)f(eT 6bITb IICnOJlb30Ba- Ha H .lUlJI aHaJ1H3a KOBapHaL\HOHHbIX CTpYKTYP, TO eCTb !jJOPMY- J1a (2.2. I) .lUlJI aHaJ1113a KOBap"aL\IIOHHbIX CTPYKTYP .n:J1S1 P KOM- nOlieHT 113MeH'IHBOCTI! npH06peTeT CJ1e,lJ,YIOIllIIH BIIIJ;: p :E i = 2>ABl'\<I>jA+ W;JB;+0;] j_' ,(3.3.1 ) rlJ;e aij - KOJljJqlllI.{HeHTbi npH HeH3BCCTHblX napaMeTpax, a Ka)f(- IJ;OMY HeU3BeCTHOMY napaMeTpy cooTBeTcTBYIOT MaTpllL\bI napa- MeTpoB Bj, Aj' <I>j' 'lf j , 0j PaccMoTpHM, HanpuMep, npocTeHIllYIO reHeTHqecKYIO MO- ,lJ,CJ1b: !jJeHoTHnHqCCKaJl ,lJ,lIcnepcH npe,lJ,CTaBJ1S1eT C060" CYMMY aJl,Jl,HTHBHOH reHeTHqeCKoH n BHYTpHceMeHHoH CpelJ;OBoH .lIHC- nepCIIH, TO eCTb V p = VA + V w . 3Ta )f(e MO.lleJ1b MO)l(eT 6bITb IICn0J1b30BaHa I\JlSI aHamna KOBapllaL\HOHHbIX CTPYKTYP, a q.eHOTHnWleCKaS! KOBapnaL\IIOH- HaS! MBTpHQa Mo)f(eT 6bITb npe.llCTaBJleHa B BlI.lIe CYMMbi Jl,BYX KOMnOHeHT - "aJl,Jl,HTIIBHOH reHeTHqeC!wii" II "BHYTpllceMeH- HoH" KOBapllaQHOHHbIX MaTpnQ: :Ep = :E A + :EO'. B CBolO oqCpe.llb, 3TH KOBapHaQIIOHHbIe MaTpl1QbJ MorYT 6MTb npe.llCTaBJIeHbI, CO maCHO oCHOBHOH ljJaKTopHOH TeopeMe, B BH,lJ,e CYMMbl OIJ;HOrO IiJ1H 60JIee 06ll]HX q.aKTopoB H COOTBeT- cTBYIOll(erO '1I1CJ1a CneL\H!jJH'IeCKHX ljJaKTopoB. 11, CJIe;:tOBaTeJ1b- HO, MO)f(eM 3anllcaTb: :E =:E +:E =GG-1+D' + HH'+ E ' pAW , r,I<e G - HarpY3KII nepeMCHHbIX no ajJ,WiTIIBHOMY reHeTlI'IeCKOMY q.aKTOPY, H - HarpY3KII Tex )f(e caMblX nepCMCHHbiX no ljJaKtopy BHYTpIlCCMeHHOH cpe,I<bI. D' II E' - CneQllljJHqeCKlle ,1UIJI KiI<.lIoii nepeMeHHOH reHem'leCKHe H cpenoBbie ljJaKTOpbl. .II.J1S1 pa3J10)f(eHHJ! reHeTHqeCKHX II CpeJl,OBbiX KOMnOHeHT ljJelloTllnH'IeCKOii KOBapHal\liIi HCnOJlb3YIOT, TaK »<e KaK II npll aHaJIII3e el\liHHqHblX nepeMeHHbIX, COOTBeTCTBYIOll(lfe CTaT}!CTII- KH IIIII\IIBIIIJ;OB C pa3J1HqalOll]eHCJI CTcneHblO reHeTlI'IeCKoro CXO)J,- CTBa. HanpHMep, .n:J1S! 6J1113Hel\OB, npl1 nOMOll]1I MeTO.lla MHoro- 212 l-IepHOrO P.HcnepclioHHoro aHaJlll3a, MbI nOJlyqaeM MaTplll.{bI cpe.n:- HHX npOH3Be.lleHIIH BHYTPU II MeJK,IJ,y napaM}! M3 H .II.3 6J1H3He- QOB ITOCKOJ1bKY BKJ1anbl rCHeTUqeCKlfX H Cpe.llOBbIX q.aKTopoB B 3TII MarpHL\bI pa3J1I1'1aIOTCSI, TO nOJlBJ1S!eTC B03MOJKHOCTb OL\e- HHTb reHCTUqeCKlie H Cpe.llOBbJe KOMnOHeHTbI ljJeHoTllnll'leCKOH KOBapHaL\HH. OJKlI.l\>leMbIe 3HaqeHHJI MeJK- II BHYTplinapHbiX cpeP.Hllx npo- H3BelJ;eHHH (aHarrOrHqHO npOQeJ1.Ypc HaXOJK,I<eHHSI OJKIII\aeMblX MeJK- H BHYTpunapHblX KBai\PaTOB) 6Y.lIYT paBHbI. BIAZ = 2x(GG'+ D')+ HH'+ E'; WMZ= HH'+E'; :E =X ( GG'+D' ) +HH'+E" S 2 ' 1 ::Ew:o z = iX(GG'+D')+HH'+ E'; r.n:e, :EBIAZ' :E WMZ ' :E BDZ ' :E WDZ - MaTpHL\bl Cpe,lJ,HIIX npOH3Be,I<e- HHH Me)f(,I<Y H BHYTPH cOOTBeTCTBYIOll(HX nap 6Jl1I3HeL\OB; G - MaTpHL\a alU\HTHBHblX reHeTII'IeCKHX q.aKTopoB; H - MaTpllL\a BHYTpliceMeHHbIx cpe,I<OBbIX !jJaKTopoB; D'- jl,HarOHaJIh'UIJI MaT- plfL\a CnCQII!jJH<IeCKI1X reHeTH<IeCKHX .lIHCnCpCHH; E' - tI:HarO- HarrbHa MarpllL\a CneQH!jJllqeCKIIX BHYTpl1ceMeHHblx Cpe,I<OBbiX .lIUCnepcHH. MBTplll\bl G, H, D', E' COOTBeTcTBYIOT MaTpIlL\ald A" A" e,', e: ypaBHeHIIJI (3.3.1). MaTpHL\bJ F, 11 F, 3a.n:aIOT KOpperrJlL\HIi lde)f(J!.Y !jJaKTopaMH. HTaK, ,!\aHHaJi !jJaKTopHa Mo.n:eJ1b npe.n:1I0JlaraeT cYll(e- CTBOBaHHe IJ;BYX 06ll(HX ljJaKTopoB G H H, TO eCTb Kail<,I<aSl Ha- 6J1lOl\aelda lIepeMeHHaSl 06YCJIOBJIeHa COBMeCTHbIId l!;eifcTBlIeM 3THX ljJaKTopOB. MOJKHO ynpocTIITb 3TY MO;:teJIb. ITpe,lJ,nOJlO)l(IIM, qTO reHeTHqeCKlie II cpe,!\OBble BJlliSlHIISI B03,lJ,eiicTBYIOT Ha ljJe- HOTIin onOCpeIJ;OBaHHO, qepe3 HeKIiH 06ll(IIH ljJaKTop, I(OTOpblH BJ1I1S1eT Ha Ha6mo.u.aeldble lIepeMeHHble. TorAa !jJaKTOp G MO)l(- HO npe.n:CTaBIITb B BH,!\e IjJYHKL\IIH GbH, r.lle b - nOCTOJlHfiblH COMHO)f(HTerrb. 213 
3.4. OueHKa napaMeTpoe: MeTOA MaKCBMaJlLHorO npaOAono}(OOHIl I t L. = 2' t;N,[logIS,1 + p], ITepBbIH 060CHOBaHHblH aJIrOpHTM ):{JI OL\CHlfBaHHSI napa- MeTpOB, KOTOPb!H OCHOBblBaeTCR Ha aJIl'OplfrMe .l(aaHAolia-<Dner- qepa-IIaY3JUIa, npHMeHHII K Hopecy.or (1967). AJlrOpll1'M .II.aBH- JJ:oHa-4>JleTqepa.naYJlJla npeJJ;craBJlHeT c060ii KB83HHblOTOHOB- CKH" MeTOIJ, MHHHMH3aL\HH cjJYHKL\IIH tr[S - :1:]' (1'):{e  = AA'x x \I.Il) no Marp"l1e IJI'. K MopecKo1' BOCnOJlb30BaJlCJI :JTIfM all1'o- pllTMOM IJ,JlJI OUCHHBaHHJI napaMeTpoB npH OrpaHH'IHBaIOIl1I1X ycnOBI1J!X B era KOHcjJupMaropHoii MOl(eJIU YKa3aHHblH an1'o- pHTM n0300nSleT nOJlY'IaTb oueHKH MaKClfMaJIhHOrO npaB,!I;Ono- )l06"JI napaMeTpoB. MeTOI( MaKCIIMaJlhHOrO npaBiJ,01l01(06HH 3aKlllO'IaeTC>! B OL\eHIIBaHIIH 3HaqeHHH JlaTeHTHhlX nepcMeHHhlX (HarpY30K), IIPH KOTOphlX <PYlfKI.\IIJI npaBAOnOI(06HJlIUI>! paCIJpeiJ,eJ:IeHH 311eMeH- TOB KOBapllaI.\HQHHO" MaTplll.\hI MaKCIIMaJIbHa, TO eCTb 3TO 03- Ha'iaeT, '1TO Mbl XOTHM npll iJ,aHHOH BbI60pO'lHOHKOBapHaI.\110H- HOH MaTplll.\e  HaiiT" TaKlfe OL\CHKII MaTpHI.\ A II IJI', KOTopble HMelOT MaKCHMaJIbHYIO BepO'ITHOCTh 6blTb paBHblMH IICKOMMM 3HaQellHSlM B reHepanbHoH COBoKynllOCl'H (Neale M. et aI., 1989). IIycTb S; - i-Ta>! MaTpHua Ha611HJIJ,aeMhiX cpe.!IHIIX npoH3- sel\e'iHii, HMe!Oll[a N j cTeneHei1 CB060iJ,bl II HMeeTC k TaKHX MaTp1I1.\ nplfHB HCKOTOPYIO MOiJ,eJIh MJI Ha6111OiJ,aeMblX .n:aH- HbIX, MbI MOJKeM BblqHCJlHTb OJKlf)\aeMbIe 3Ha'ieHIIJI CpelJ,HHX npo- 113BeAeHHii :1:;, ECJlI! Ha6mol(aeMl>le l(aHHble pacnpel(CJIeHbl no MHorOMeplIOMY IiOpMaJIbHOMy 3aKOHY, TO Mhl MOJKeM nOJIyql1Tb Ol.\eH1(1I Mal(CHMaJIbH01'O npaBI(0IlOl(061I, MaKCHMII311PYJI 1I0ra- PII<pM npaBI(CnOAo611J1: I t LA = -2' t;N,[logIEil +tE;1 s,)]. IUIH F = . IN,[Jogls,/ + p]  hI Y ABoeHH/lR pa3Hlfl.\a Me)KJJ;Y LA II L B COCTaBJIReT: F = t, N J . log \:I + tS; E,l) - P, , KompaSi RBJ1S1eTCH Yl(06HOii <pYHKQl1eH JuISi MHHI1M!l3i)I.\IfH II pac- npe.n:enJleTc np1l6JI113HTellHo KaK X' co CTeneHJlMH CB060Jl,bl, paBHblMJI · 1 df = t; 2 p,(p, + I) - m, riJ,e p - q!lcno nepeMeHHblX B i-TOH MaTpllue S" a In - KOIIH- 'IeCTBO Ol.\eHIlBaeMblx napaMcTpoB B MOl(eJIII. 4. CTPYKTYpHOe Mo,qemtpOBaHMe 4.1. MOi\eJIb JIaTeHTHLIX nepeMemlLIX K.:A:opecKora MaKCIIMI13al.\lIJ1 log L 3KBHBaJIeHTlia MI'!HliMII3al.\HII cjJYHKl1l1l1: F = 1 t.Ni[10E;)+t1Ei' .S;)], TO ecTJ, <paI(TlI'IeCKH Mbl MHIII1MH3l!pyeM - log L ECJIII Ha6nlOIJ,aeMbie H OJKHJI,aeMble 3Ha'leHlIJI paBHbI (E, = S,), TO JlOrapl1cjJM npaB.!1;OnOA0611J1 paBeH: 214 .II.IIS1 nOllyQeHI1S1 Ol..\eHOK IIPH CTPYKTypHOM Mo.n:eilHpOBaHHIl none3HblM OKa3bIBaeTCSI nYTeBoH aHa]]1I3, pa31'a60TaHHbIH C.Paii- TOM (Wright S.,1934; Werts C, Linn R., 1970; Theil H, 1971; Dunkan 0., 1973; JIH q., 1978) KaK cnoco6 aHaJIH3a npllQI!H H3- MeHqHBOCTH B nonYIISlI.\HH H pa3JIII'IHbIX cBj(3eH MeJl(.!1;Y po.n:CTBeH- HblMIl OC06S1MI!. ITpeJKJI,e qeM paccMoTpeTb MOl(eJIb JlHHeHHbIx CTPYKTYP- HblX COOTHOll[eHI1H K.HopeCKora, OCTaIIOBI!MCSI QYTb 60nee nOJJ;- pOOHO lIa MeTOl(e K03cjJcjJHI.\I!elITOB nYTeH, KOTOpblH OKa3bI)!aeT- CSI '1pe3BbIQaHHO Har]]JlJI,HbIM H 3cjJ<jJeKTIIBHblM MeTop,OM npJl pe- ll[CHIIII reHeTlfqeCKHX 3al(a'l. Memo,) KO'JptjJUf(UeHntOq nymeii. MeTOJJ; lCo31j1q,Hl.\lIeHTOB nYTeij npe.n:CTaBIISleT c060ii MeTOI( aHaJIII3a CBJl3eli MeJl(A)' npll- '/lfHaMI1 H cne/{CTBHRMH JI n03BOJlReT C nOMOlJjblO Hccne.l\OBaHHJI perpeccllli H KOppeJIJlI1HII YCTaHaBllliBaTb l.\enOqKII B3aIIMOCIIJI- 215 
G h  P e E - G - I -? p M3I Ec _ PUCYHOK 6.3 llyme6aJ1 MoOenb 8nUJIHUJj zeHemW/eCKUX (G) u cpeOo8bIX (E) ljJaKmopo8 Ha rjJel/omul1 (P) -  p LlJl 3eH Me;K/l.Y BJIeHIIMH 11 npOBepJln nmOTe3bI orHOCHreJIbHO HX C11>YKTypbI. ):\JI HJIJIIOc11>aI..\HH nOKa;KeM Ha npHMepe, KaK MO;K- HO npe/l.CTaBHTb CTaTHCrHqeCKOe Bblpa;KeHlle B BH/l.e /l.HarpaM- MbI nyreH. PaccMoTpHM npocreHwylO JIllHeHHYIO MO/l.elIb P = ° + E (CM. maBY 6 naparpa4J 1.1) B /l.aHHOM CJIY'Iae "nYTH" (o603Ha'leHbI crpeJIKaMH) 011>a- ;KaIOT CTcnCHb, B KOTOPOH reHeTHqeCKHe H Cpe.llOBble OTKJIOHe- HH BIIHIOT Ha 4JeHoTHnHqeCKHe OTKJIOHeHHH npH3HaKa. K034J- 4J11I..\HeHT nYTH*, 113MepHlOUjHH Y,II,eJIbHbIH Bec BJIIIHHHJI G Ha P (TO eCTb 8JI11HHHe HaCJIe/l.CTBeHHOCTH), npe,!!craBJIHer C060H OT- HoweHHe CpeJl,HerO KBa.I\PaTH'leCKOro OTKJIOHeHHJI P, B03HHKa- IOll\erO no,ll, BJIHJlHlleM G, K o6weMY cpe,!UIeMY KBa.llpaTHqeCKO- ro OTKJIOHeHHJI P, B03HHKalOUjero no,ll, BJIIIHHHeM Bcex npHqHH H3MeH'IHBOCrH , TO eCTb h = V N o P' CYwecTByeT pK,!! npaBHJI nOCTpoeHHK II.HarpaMM nYTeH, Ha KOTOpbIX Heo6xo/l.HMO XOTJI 6bI KOpOTKO OCTaHOBIiTCH, no- CKOJIbKY OHII n03B01lKIOT npaBHlIbHO 'IHTaTb ,ll,HarpaMMbl, npeA- CTaBlIeHHbIe B pa3JII1qHbIX pa3,!!eJlaX KHHrH. BOCnOJlb3yeMcJI ,!UIarpaMMOH nYTeH, oT06pa)l(aIOweH BIIH- HHHe HaCJIe.n:CTBeHHOCTH (0) H Cpell.bl (E) Ha 4JeHoTHnHqeCKHe 3Ha'leHHH napbI M3 611H3HeI..\OB, .IlJlH IInlIlOC11>al..\l1H IIcnOlIb30Ba- HIIH npaBHn noc11>0eHIlK ,!!HarpaMM. Ha ,!UIarpaMMe (PIlCYHOK 6.4 ) ° H E He KOppeJlHpYIOT (HeT C11>eJIOK Me;KII.Y HIIMH), 3aBHCHMaR ncpeMeHHaH P M)( COeJl,HHeHa C G, PUCYHOK 6.4 ftua2pa.wlta l1ymeu, I1pedcma611R1OUj(JJl 6J1WlHUe HaCJleOCm8eHI/OCrnU ( P) U cpedbl (E) Ha IjJelwmWlu<JeCKue 311£l'ieHWllUJpbl M3 6J11I3Heij08 . K03ctaM4MeHT "ynt OTnM"4aeT OT Kos4>C:PM4MeHT3 ICOppe.nHt\H' T8M, '-ITO OH "'MeeT HanpaBneHMe M, COOT88TCT'B8HHO eCJ114 MeH:ReTCR HanpaaneHMe, TO MO)I(8T 113"'6- HRTbCR lot ero 3H8"teHMe Ee e,ll,HHCTBeHHbIM nYTeM, TaK )J(e KaK H P MJI' OIl.HaKO Mbl He MO- )l(CM CqHTaTb, 'ITa 0, II Be CBH3aHbI nYTeM qepe3 PM)" nOCKOlIbKY npaBHJIa nOC11>oeHHH nyreBbIx II.l'!arpaMM 3anpewalOT npH nOCT- poeHHH coell.HHHIOUjero nYTH CJle,!!OBaTb CHaqana B OIl.HOM Ha- npaBneHIIH (OT G, K P M3')' a 3aTeM B 06paTHOM HanpaBlIeHHH (TO eCTb npOTHB HanpaBlIeHHJI crpeJIlm, OT P M3' K 0,). CJIeIl.OBaTenb- HO, nYTb 0, - p..", - Be He JlBnHeTCH COell.'lHJI1OwHM nYTe M Me)!('!!y 0, H Be' KOTopble He KOppelIHPYIOT II.Pyr C II.pyrOM. B TO )l(e Bpe- MK npaBHJIaMH nOC11>oeHHJI AliarpaMM pa3pemaeTCH CJIeAOBaTb CHaqana Ha3a/l., a nOTOM BnepeA. TaKHM 06pa30M, Ha pHcYHKe 6.4 nyn or P M3\ K Ee (nepBblH war Ha3aA), a nOTOM OT Ee K P MJI npe.n:cTaBnKeT C060H COell.HHKIOWIiH nyn. Heo6xo,ll,IIMO IIMeTb B BH/l.Y, '1TO, npO/I.BllraJiCb Ha3a/l., ClIe/I.YeT npOAOII)J(aTb /l.BH)J(eHHe B 3TOM HanpaBJIeHHII .11.0 Tex nop, nOKa He 6YAYT npOH,II,eHbl Bce B03- MO)!(Hble marH, a 3aTeM nOBepHYTb Bncpe.n: II TaK)J(e npOHTlI Bce B03MO)l(HbIe warH. ):\BYCTopOHHHe CTpenKH npe,!!CTannJlIOT 060H KOppenHl\HII H MorYT 5blTb Hcnonb30BaHbI B JII060M HanpaBJIeHHH, TeM He MeHee TaKaJl JIlIHHH He 06ml.llaeT CBOHCTBOM "l..\enH" K034J- 4JHl\HeHTOB nYTeii. CJIe,i:lyeT OTMeTIITb, qTO 3T11 npaBIIJla He HBJlJI- IOTCJI npOH3BOJlbHbIMH, KaK 3TO Ka)!(eTCH Ha ncpBblH B3rJUl,D., a 6a- 3HpYIOTCH Ha aHaJIlITllqeCKHX nOC11>oeHHJlX (60JIee nOll.p06HO CM. 'I Jhl,1978). BocnolIb3yeMcH npaBIIJlaMI! nOCTpoemiH AliarpaMMbl ny- TCH II onpe,!!eJlHM, qeM 06ycnoBneHO CXOACTBO napbl M3 6J111]- 217 216 
HelloB. Oi\Ha llenOqKa nYTeH OT !jJeHOTl1na ncpBoro 6JIH3Hel.{a (P MJI) K !jJeHOTHny BTOpOro 6JIH3Hel.{a (PM") npei\CTaBJlJleT co- 60H nYTb P MJI - Ec - P M32' IIJIH (e)x(e), HJIH e'; BTOpa!! l1enO'IKa - P MJI- G I - G,- PM'" HJIH (h)x(ro,o,)x(h), HJIH h'(r olo ,)' HTaK, K03<jJ!jJl1l.{lfeHT KOppellHl1lfH Me)l{,II.Y M3 6JIHJHel1aMH npe,ll.CTaBJIH- eT C060H CYMMY .l1BYX l.{enO'IeK nYTeH: r.,., = h' (r Olo ,) + e'. ECJIH BMeCTO KOppeJIJlllHH Mbl IICnOJIb3yeM .lI.HCnepCHIl H KOBapHallIlH*,To,nOCKOJIbKY h'= VoN.; e'= VEN. II r. , ., = CovP, PjVp, cj>opMYJIa npll- 06peTeT CJ1e)(yIO!I\HH Bllj{: CovP, P,= CovG,G,+ V"". MO.l1eJlH JlIIHeHHblx CTpYKTypHblX CooTHoweHHH JlBJIllIOTCJI aHaJ1HTllqeCKIIMH aHaJIOraMIl MeTOj{a aHaJIHJa nYTeH. PaCCMOT- PUM 60Jlee nO.ll.p06HO Hal160Jlee HJBecTHYIO MO.l1e)Jb JlHHeHHblx CTpYKTYPHblX COOTHoweHHH K.HopecKora. MO.l1eJIb K.HopecKora - rl16KaH cj>opMaJIbHall MaTeMaTII- '1eCKa!! MOlleJlb, KOTOpaJi IIcnOJIbJyeTcH MJI peWeHII!! WllpOKO- ro Kpyra HCCJIellOBaTeJlbCI(HX JaJl,aq. KaK 113BCCTHO, 60JIbWI1H- CTBO TeopHH H MOi\eJleH B COllHaJlbHblX H nOBe.l1eH'IeCKHX Ha- YKax !jJOPMYJIHPYIOTC!I B TepMHHax TeOpeTllqeCKIIX KOHCTpYK- TOB, KOTopble Henocpei\CTBeHHO He lIa6J1IOi\aeMb' II lie MorYT 6blTb H3Mcpellbl, Oi\HaKO npei\IIOJIaraeTC!I lIaJIHqHe pJli\a nOKa- 3aTeJIeH, IIJIII CHMnTOMOB, KOTopbIe MorYT 6b1Tb HCllOJIb30BaHbI . KOBapMaA Covxy Me>KAY nepeMeHHblMi1 X M Y npeACTaBI1F1eT C060M CYMMY npoi13se,a.eHMM OTKnOHeHMM OT cpeAttero nepeMeHHoH X M COOTBeTCTBYlOlLIi1X oTlU1oHeHMM Or cpeAHero nepeMeHHo Y, ,AeneHHblx HS N-1 HX - X)(Y - Y)) cov.\}'= N-I Koppen.R",-lo, (r xv ) "., perpeccMFI (b xv ) npeACTaSJ1RIOT KOBapMal.!Io'.1O a sMAe Aom, AHCnepCMi1: CQV.'J' r" = J(VXVYJ . cov.\)' b =- 'y (Vx) On.AeT11M. TO eCll" craH.I1apTHble OTKIlOHeHIUI X M Y paBHbI, TO lCoal$cl:u4L1i1eHT KoppellRlIU\ M K03ctJCPltl1eHT perpeCCi1i1 6YAyr OAMHalCOBbI, nOCKOnbKY J(VXV.') =(V,) 218 I Mil HCCJle.l10BaHH!I 3TI1X rlinOTeTH'IeCKHX nepeMeHHblX. CYW e - CTBYIOT, KaK nOI\'1epKHBaeT K.HopccKor (1988), .l1Be OCHOBHbIC np06JIeMbi HaY'IHOrO BbIBOj{a B COlll1aJIbHblX II nOBe.ll.eHqeCKHX HaYKax. ITepBaJi JaTparHBaeT BOnpOCbI BaJlH.lI.HOCTIl II Ha.ll.e)l{IIO- CHI IIJMepCHJlH. BTopaH KaCaeTCJI TOrO, KaKMM 06paJOM Mbl MO)l{eM Ol1eHHTb CJlO)J(Hble npllqllHHble BJ3HMOCB!!JH Me)l{i\Y ne- peMeHHbIMH, KOTOpble HenOCpe.l1CTBeHHO He Ha6J1IOi\aIOTCE, a JIHWb OTpaJKaIOTC!! B APyrHx nOKa3aTeJI!!X. COOTBeTCTBeIlIlO, MO- lIeJIb B HaH60JIee 06!1\eH cj>opMe COCTOHT KaK 6b1 113 II.BYX qac- TeH - MOl\eJlH 113MepeHHJI H MOi\eJIII CTpYKTypHblX coonlOwe- HHH. MO.l1eJIb KJMepeHHJI Jai\aeT, KaKIIM 06pa30M JIaTeHTHble nepeMeHHbIe, IIIIH rllnOTeTII'IeCKHe KOHCTpj'KTbI, MoryT 6blTb onH- caHbl npll nOMO!l\H lIa6JIIOj{aCMbIX nepeMeHHblX. MOi\eJIb CTPYI(- TYPHblX COOTHOIlIeHHH Ja.!J,aeT npll'lHHHbIe BJallMOCBJlJI1 MeJKI\Y JlaTeHTHbIMH nepeMeHHblMH. MOi\eJIb npei\IIOJIaraeT, qTO cY!I\e- CTByeT "npH'IHIIH3J1" CTpYKTypa J!i!TeHTHbIX nepeMeHHbIX, a Ha- 6JIIOi\aeMble nepeMeHHble JlBJIllIOTC!! HHi\MKaTOpaMH, IIJIH CIIMI]- TOMaMH, JIaTeHTHbIX nepeMeHHbIX. IIoJIHaJi MOi\eJIb JIHHeHllblX CTpyKTypllblX COOTHowellHH MOJKeT 6bITb onpe.l1eJIeHa CJIe.n:yIOII.\HM 06paJOM. PaCCMOTpIlM CJIY'IaHHble BCKTOpbl 1'/ = (1']" 11" ..., 11m) II I: = ( "" " ) n p ei\CTaBJI!!IOII.\He COOTBeTCTBeHHO JIaTeHT- " ':II' 2 ..,!\, Hble JaBIICI1Mble (3HI\OreHHble) H HeJaBI1CIIMbIe (JK30reHHble) nc- peMeHHbIC. BeKTOpbl 1'/ H  He Ha6JIIO,IJ;aeMbl, HO IIX MOJKHO Jai\aTb C nOMOlI.\blO Ha6mOAaeMbiX nepeMeHHbIx Y = (Y" y" ., Y p ) II X = (x" x" ..., X q ) CJIe)(yIO!I\IIM 06paJOM: y=Ayl'/H (4.1.1) H x=A+ «l rAe £ H 1) - BeKTopbl oWH60K H3MepeHI1!1, HJIII cnell l1 tP lI 'IeCKIIX cj>aKTopoB, A", II As - MaTpllllbl $aKTOpHbIX HarpYJOK, 1'] II 1; - BeKTopbI JIaTeHTHblX cj>aKTopoB. 3TII ypaBHeHH!! npe,!J;cTaBJIlllOT co60n MHoroMepHble perpecclIl1 y no 1'] II X no C, COOTBeTCTBeHHO KOBapHallll0HHYIO MaTpH!.1Y cjJaKTopoB ,/, COOTBCTCTBYIO- Il1HX BCKTOPY y, 060JHaqHM qepe3 B. KOBapHaUlloHHYIO MaTpll- llY !jJaKTopoB l;, COOTBeTCTBYIOIl1HX BeKTOpy HCJaBIICIIMblX nepe- MeliHblX x, 060311a'lHM qepeJ <1>. 219 
IIpep,nORaraeTCH, '11'0 CnpaSe.IVIlfllb/ 06bl'IHble nOCrYJIIlTbJ ljIaKTopHOrO aHaJIlI3a, TO eCTb '1TO cpe,!\Hlfe 3Ha'leHHJI BeKTopOB 1], , E, 5, a Tal<JKe Cpe,11Hlle 3Ha'ieHIIJI KOBapHaI1110HHb1X MilT- pUll E(1]E'), E(o'), E(EO') paDHb! HYlOO. KpoMe Toro, npep;noRa- raeTCH, qTO KOBaptJal1l1oHHbIe MaTPlIl1bl xapaKTepHocTeH E(ee') " e, If E(50') = e, '!(IIarOHa!lbHbI. Tor.!{a ,!I,!IH Ka1K,110H tl3 KOBa- p1!a!.(HoHHbrx MaTpHU ,l{BYX rPYITlI rrepeMcHHblx CrrpaBe,l{nHBil ljIaKTopHaH TcopeMa: AyBA; +e,; A <DA +e . x , , .II.pyrylO '1aCTb MOJl,eJIH 05pa3yeT 1IIIHeHHaJi CTPYKTypHaJi Mo.!{e!!b, 3a,11aIOl/{aJi COOTHOIIIeHHe Me1K.LJ:Y q.aKTOpaMK .l{Byx rpyrrrr nepeMefIHblx. 1J=B1J+r+, (4.1.3) r,11e B - MaTPHl1a (mxm) K03Ij1cpHI1HeHTOB, OnH%IBa!OIl{HX npJl- Moe B3allMHoe B!lIIHHlle 3H,!I,OrefIHbiX nepeMeHHblx h, a MaTPIII1a r (mxn) xapaKTepH3YeT BJIH9HHe 3K30reHHbiX nepeMeHHbIx X Ha 3H.n.oreHHble nepeMeHHble 1], " I; = (I;,. 1;" ..., I;m) - BeKTOp cne- I1HIjIH'JecKl1x ljIaKTopOB IIycTb <D (nxn) H 'If (mxm) - MaTPIfl1bI KOBapHaQHH x II Z cooTBeTcTBcHHO, a e, 11 e, - MaTpHl1bI KOBapllaQIli1 e II d, TOr,!l,a Ha5JIlO,!I,aeMblH BeKTop [y, x] HMeeT CJIe.n.YIOIl{YIO KOBapll- al1 H O HH YIO MIITPHI1Y'  = ( (A ,(I - Bf'(r<l>r' + qr)(1 - Br' A, + e,) A ,(I - Br'r<l>A J . Ax<Dr'(I- Br'A Ax<l>A +e. 3neMeHTb1 E npe,11CTaBJIJlIOT C060H IjIYHK1{IIIf 3!!eMCHTOB Ay, , B, f, <1>, qr, e, II e,. BoceMb MaTP"Q napaMeTpoB B MO,11eJIIf .nonycKalOT oQeHKY C nOMOIl{bIO KBa3I1HbIOTOHOBCKoro MeTO,11a MII- HIfMII3aQHH IjIYHKI1I1H 3aTpaT. B 3TOH MO,l{eJIII pa3JInqaJOTc9 napa- MeTpbl CJIe.!IYIOIl{Ifx TlIlIOB' a) onpe.LJ:enenHble, TO eCTb p3JJHble 3a- ,113HHbIM 3Ha'JCHI'!HM, B) CB050,11HbIC, TO eCTb HeK3BeCTHble II ou;e- HIIBaeMble 6e3 OrpaHII'IeHllii; 6) OrpaHHqeHHble, TO eCTb HeH3BCC- THbIe H ou;eHIlBaeMble npH YCJlOBIIII, 'ITO OHII ,110JI)J(Hbl 6bITb paBHbl KaKIIM-TO Jl,pyrllM napaMeTpaM PHCYHOK 6 5 IIJIJIlOcTJ)HpyeT B 1jI0pMe /I,IIarpaMMbl nYTei1 nOJIHYIO MO,11e!lb, IIcnOJIb3yeMYIO B CTpYKTypHOM MO,!\eJ1l1pOBaHIIII 220 0 7 S. 0, 0, O 2 0,     I   )(,,1 . 4 11 /..41 1  I &4 1;] 1:, PUCYHOK 6,5 llO.'H<1H Mo(jellb IltiHeUffblx cmpYKmyplIblx coomHomeHuii PaCCMOTPHM 501lee nOJl,p05Ho 3TY /I,IIarpaMMY. ITepeMeHHble " 1;,. 3 npe,l{CTaBJIJllOT c060fi 3K30reHHble nepeMeHHb!e (MJIM, B TepMH- HOJJOrHII MOl(eJJH, KCH-nepeMeHHbIc), nepeMeHHbIe 1:" II 1;, coe/l,ll- 1191OTC9 JIHIIHJlMH C )J,BYMJI cTPeJIKaMII Ha KOHl1aX (corrraclio npa- B!lJJaM MeTO;J;a nYTeii), nOCKOJIbKY OHH KOppeJI1!pYlOT MeJKtl.y co- 50». ITepeMcHHble 1], 111], - :)H,110rCHHble ncpeMeHHbie (3TA-ne- peMcHHbIC), KOTopble nOJIHOCTb!O onpeJl,eJIJlIOTCJI BJIHIIHHHMH 3K- 30rellHblX nepeMeHHblx H B3aHMHbiM BJIIIJlHlleM 11, Ha 1],. KaK Mbl y)J(e ynoMIIHaJlli, pa3JIllqalOT "CrpYKTYPHble MOJl,e- JIll", KOTopble onpC,lIeJ1HIOT B3allMOCBII311 MCJ!(,!ly 3K30reHHbJMII II 221 
3Hi\OreHHbIMII nepeMeHHblMII (BK1IIO'IaJl BJlHJlHHe OJI,HOH 3H):IOreH- HOH nepeMeHHOH Ha ,!\pyrylO 3H):IOreHHYIO nepeMeHHYIO), HanpH- Mep, CItMnneKc-Mo,!\enb* (Boomsma D., Molenaar P.,1987,1989) HJIiI Mo,!\em. "KYJIbTypaJlbHoro" HaCJ1e)(OBaHI1H (Eaves L. et aI., 1989). MO,!\eJlb H3MepeHHH onHCbIBaeT CBJl3b JIaTeHTHbIX nepe- MeHHblX C COOTBeTCTBYIOll\HMII Ha6iIIO,!\acMblMII ncpeMeHHbIMH (0603Ha'iaeMbIMH x H Y COOTBeTCTBeHHo) KBK Mbl BH,!\IiM, H36111O' ,!\aeMbIe nepeMeHHbIe x" x, ." x, nOJIHOCTbIO onpeJl,eJlJlIOTCH 3K30- reHHblMH ncpeMeHHbIMii " " 3 H CneI.\H(j!HljeCKHMH <j!aKTOpaMH (0,.0" ...,0,). Ha6!1K1i\a.cMhle nepcMeHHhle Y" Y" Y" Y, onpeiJ,e- JlHIOTCJI 3H):IOreHHbIMI1 nepeMeHHblMH 1'], 101 1'], II Cnel.\lI<j!HqeCKiI- Mil <j!aKTOpaMH (1;" 1;" /;" 1;.). 11TaK, PIlCYHOK 6.5 npeiJ,CTaBiIHeT <j!aKTopHYIO Mo.neilb BTO- pora nopHJI.Ka, r,!\e ,!\Ba <j!aKTOpa nepBoro nOpHlI,Ka 1'], II 1'], H):IeH- TlI<j!III.\HPYIOTCH 113MepeHHJlMH Y" y" Y" y, H ,!\eTepMHHl1pYIOTCJI -rpeMJI <j!aKTOpaMI1 BToporo nOpH.lIKa I' 1;" ,. H,!\eHTH<j!III.\HPy- eMblMII 113MepeHHHMI1 x" x, ... x,. )];JIJI npeJl,CTaBneHHH II aHaiIII3a CJlOJKHblX MOJl,eiIeH none3- HO, KaK MbI YJKe ynoMHHal1H, HCn0l1b30BaTb ,!\lIarpaMMbI nYTeH, nOCKOiIbKY eCiIH ,!\lIarpaMMa HapllCOBaHa BepHO, TO OHa TO'lHO npe.nCTaBiIJleT COOTBeTCTBYIOll\He aiIre6pallqeCKlle ypaBHeHHJI Mo,!\eiIlI. ITPOlffiIIIOCTplIpyeM 3TO Ha HaweH OCHOBHOH MO):lCilH, npe.n- CT3BiIeHHOH Ha pHCYHKe 6.5. HTaK, Ha6J11O):IaeMble nepeMeHHbIe (x lIiIlI y) npeJl,CTaBiIeHbl B BI1,!\e KBa,!\paToB, a JIaTeHTHble nepeMeH- Hble - B BH,!\e KpyrOB. O,!\HOCTopoHHlle CTpeJIKH npeJl,CTaBiIHIOT BiIlIJlHlle O,!\HOH ncpeMeHHoH Ha '!\PyryIO, ,!\BYCTopOHHl'!e CTpcmm C8Hi\eTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 TOM, qTO 3111 ,!\Be nepeMeHJlbIe KOppeJIHPYIOT Me1K,!l;Y C060H. K03<j!<j!HI.\HeHTbl nYTeM, npOCTaBJIeHHble pJl,!\OM C KaJK,!\oii CTpeJIKOH, 0603Ha'la1OTCJI CJleJJ,yIOLLlHM 06P330M: CTpeJIKa OT S; K X b 0603Ha'iaeTCJI I!:;}, c-rpeJIKa OT T1 K Y 0603Haqae-rcJI AI». "Ig a 01' c-rpeJIKa OT 11b K 1'], 0603Ha'iaeTCH P,,; c-rpeJlKa OT I:;i K 1'], 0603HaqaeTCJI Y ; c-rpeJIKa OT 1:;, K I:;i 0603HaqaeTCJI 4>,,; CTpeJIKa OT /;b K /;, 0603Ha'iaeTCJI IjI " ; CTpeJlKa OT 5. K 5, 0603Ha'iaeTCJI B; CTpeJIKa OT €d K C, 0603Ha'iaeTCJI a. KaJK/I.I>lH K031\)It1HI.\IIeHT HMeeT Jl,Ba HHJI,eXca: nepBbIii 060- 3Ha'iaeT TY nepeMeHHYIO, Ha KOTOPYIO YKa3b1BaeT CTpeJIKa, a BTOpOl! - nepeMeHHyIO. OT KOTOpOH HaqHHaeTCH c-rpeiIKa. Ha- npllMep, 1.." COOT8eTcTByeT CTpeJIKe OT 1'], K y,. ECJIH CiIeJ.10BaTb npa8HJ1aM MeTOi\a nYTeH, TO BCeri\a MOJKHO nOJlY'IHTb COOT8eTCTBYIOll\He ypaBHeHIIH Mo,!\eJUI. B Ha- weM CJ1y'Iae MbI IIMeeM ceMb x-nepeMeHHbIX, CJIY)l(all\IIX HHi\I!- KaTopaMH T]Jex 3K30reHHbiX nepeMeHHblX (1:;), 101 '1eTbIpe y-nepe- MeHHblX (IIHJ.1I1KaTOp ,!\BYX 3Hi\OreHHbIX nepeMeHHblX 1']). ITJlTb J1aTeHTHbIX nepeMeHHbIJ! CBJl3aHbI CJleJl,YIOll\HM 06pa30M: 11, = P,,11, +y"I;, +y,,1;, +1;,; 11, = P,,11, +y"I:;, +y,,1;, +1;" HJlII, B MaT]JllqHOM Billie, ( 111 ) = ( 0 P" )( 11' ) + ( YII y" O )( : J + ( 1;, ) 11, p" 0 11, y" 0 Y lJ 1:;, 1;" '1TO COOTBeTcTByeT MOi\eJIII CTPYKTYPHoro ypaBHeHHH (4.1 3). YpaBHeHHH MOlleJI" H3MepeHI!H y-nepeMeHHblx nOJIY'IaeM cJleJl,Y- 1Oll\IIM 06pa30M: y, =1'],+€,; ,In + . Y2 ="'2111\ £2' * CI4MnnelCC-Mo.AeJ1b - TWn ItOBapaOHKblX CTpyKTYP, ICOTopblM no.nY'aeTCSI np aHa.nK3B nOHr\frlO,Q,HblX AaHHblX, T e "PM nOBTopHblX M3MSpeH1411X OAHMX M Tex ace rtepe- MeHHblX. CMMnneKC-Mop,enh 5a3MpyeTCA H8 npeAnOJ'lO>KeHMK, 'lfTO "nepeMeHHbfe x MOryr 6wrb ynOp:RA04eHbI Hi npSlMOM TaK, '4TO, HanpMMep, x I5YA8r nepBO, a x., - noc:l1eAHe nepeMeHHOM npM c:06nlOAeH....14 OnpeAeneHHbtX ycnOBIIIH QTHOCMTe.I1bHO na-reHor;t neps<>- OCHOBbi Ta.oro ynoPAAO'<.oaH."' (6naryw n.. 1989. c. 105) 222 y, =1'],+C,; y, = A!:11'], +&, . HJI", B MaT]JII'IHOH <j!opMe, 223 
[f}[ t  J( '111 + [ ':: ] I '1,) &2. ),,1'1 & " , MaT]JlIQa KOIlapHal\lIii /;: ( 'I'll ) \II = '¥2L'¥21 II AHaJIOnl'lHO nO.JIyqaeM ypaBHellHJI MO.!J,eJII1 1I3MepeHlIJ! X- ncpeMeHHbIX: X, = I +0,; X _ ,(xl. ,. 2 - 1\.211 +u2' _ ,(x). ,(xl. ,. XJ - 1\.31"=1 + "'321 +0)  e = dia g( e") e") K e"» ) till 22' , 44 , e, =diag(e:), e;), K, 6))- )TO MaT]JlIl\bl KOl!apHal.\lIii & H & eOOTBeTCTBeHHO. HTaK, Mbl CHOBa I10.JIY'lHJII1 BDeeMb MaT- pHI1 rrapaMeTpOB: A, AI' B, r, <1>, IJI, e, 11 e d . 4.2. IIpu.lJo",eHuII MO.!J,eJ1H K.l1opec"ora .. nCUXQreHeTHKe X, =, + Ii, ; x, = ,,1;1, + Ii,; x. =, + ° 6 ; (x) X, = 1.:73' +/)" IIJII'!, B Ma'I'pllqHOH 4JopMe, X, I 0 0 5, X, ,,(xl 0 0 Ii, " x, "Irl "IXI 0 (ii] + 0, " 32 x, 0 I 0 5, x, 0 "Ix} 0 0, 51 , l X 6 0 0 I O. x, 0 0 "Ir) 0, 73 113 I<Hl1.aKTJI'IeCKJlX e006paJKCHliH Ha'lHCM e I1pocTciiweH OI1.HOMepHOH rCHeTH'IeCKOH MO.!J,C.JIH. Ha pl1CYHKe 6.6 npllBC,l\eHa ,'1HarpaMMa nYTcii 3TOii MO)J.cnll )J.JIH M3 II J{3 6)11I3HellOB, rJl,e PI II P2 - 4ICHOTHIIbl I-ro 11 2-ro 6]1113HCl.\a; A 0603HaqaCT BlIWIHlIC a,lI,lUJTI1BHOro .!J,eHCTBIIH reHa; C 11 E - 34J4JeKTbI MCJK- (E, 1IMZ) ; 0.5(D Z ) 1   @J  Cj I hl 0 P1 r e 'ITO eOOToeTCTBYeT ypaBHe!lllJlM (4.1.1) 11 (4.1.2). Ka)l(,l\aJl MaT- PUlI a napaMeTpOO COi\epJKIIT onpC,l\CJIeHHble (HYJIII H.JI11 e,l\HHU- I.(b() H CBo60,l\Hbfe napaMeTjJbf (K034J4JI1f.{HelITbf C I!HlI:eKCaMU). .II.Be Cpell:H OCTaIlIIIIIXCJI '1eTblpcx MaTpl!1.\ napaMe'I'pOB _ CHMMelJJf1'1Hbfe, K I(BC - .l(HarOHaJIbHble. Y1 1-  MaTp ( :.a KooaPH J af.{KH 3KJOreHHbiX ncpeMeHHbIX 1;: <7>= +" +'2 h +'2 +'2 PIlCYHOI( 6.6 OOIiOMepH(JJj zeliemUqeCKiU/ MOOeJib Pl. £,. C/o A} - JlameHmHble l1epeMel/l/ble (t/JeHomun. :Jt/JrjJeKmbl Me:JIC- U 8Hympu ceMeUHOU cpe- Obi. aOOumuel/ozo OeucmsW/ zelloe) OJiJI l1ep8oz0 6J1U.1HClja, P2. £2' C 7 A, - OilR emopozo DJlUJHel./a. YI. Y2 - HaOJl/OOae.flble nepe- MCHHble oml nep80zo U smopozo 6nu.1llelja 224 22S 
II BHYTpIiCeMeHHOH Cpel\bl COOTBeTCTBeHHO. ITapaMeTpLl AI' C,. EI' A" C" E, COOTBCTCTBYIOT 3K30rellHbIM nepeMeHHblM, HJut, B TepMHHOnOrl111 MOl\enll nllHeHHbIJl CTpYKTYPHMX COOTHOlliCHIIH, no KCH-nepcMeHHble (1;); PI H P2 - 3HI!:OreHHble, IIJIII 3TA- nepeMeHHbIc (11); CTpeJIKII MeJl(I!:Y At II A" C, II C, npc,a:CTaBJIJ/- lOT rCHCTH'ICCKlle H Cpel\OBblC KOppeJIJlL\IIH MeJK 6JIII3HeQaMH. feHeTII'IeCKIlC KOppeJIHQHH M3 6nI13HeL\OB paBHbI 1,0, ,[(3 - 0,5; Cpe.llOBhlC KoppemulHlIl!:JIH 06ol1x THnOB 6JIII3HeL\OB paBHbl 1,0; E, H E, He KOppeJIHpyroT no onpel\eJleHl'!ro; e, h, C npe.l\- CTaBJIJ/IOT C060H K03oj1<j1HL\IICHTbI nYTCH OT 3K30reHHblX napa- MeTpOB (AI' C " E,. A" C" E,) K 3HI\OreHHbIM napaMeTpaM. (PI II P2) - 3TO Te napaMeTpbI, KOTopble Mbl XOTHM OL\CHHTb. KBaJl,- paTbI K03oj1oj111QHCHTOB e, h, C l!:alOT cOOTBeTCTBYIOIl\IIC KOMno- HeHTb' H3MeHqHBOCTH: V - I Dr - h " A - '2 - , qTO COOTBeTCTBYCT MO.l\eJlH 113MepeHHJI nepeMeHHoii y: Y=All II [J=[ E, A, hcOOOC, o 0 e h c E, A, C, Ec=E8=C'; Es  Elf' = e'. TO eCl'b 7J=fs 3al\aeT CTpYKTypHYro MOl!:eJIb. MaTpHQa raMMa (G) HCnOJIb3YeT- C1l )J,JUt CneL\HojIHKaL\HH nYTeH OT He3aBHCIIMhlX (KCH) ncpeMell- HblX J( 3aBHCIIMbIM (3T A) nepeMcHHbIM. OQeBI1J1,HO, ,(TO 60111,- llIHHCTBO napaMeTpOB MO.l\eJIII, KOTophIe Mhl XOTIIM OL\eHHTb, CO.l\ep)l(lHCJI B 3TOH MaTpHl.\e. ITpcl!:nonaraeTcJI, '1TO !(03oj1oj1l1L\lI- eHThl nYTcli 6Yl1YT O.l\llHaKOBblMII ,l\.JlJl nepBoro 11 BToporo 611113- HeQa OI\HonOllOH napbl. MaTpHQa KOBapl1aL\HH ojIH (<1» IICnOJIb3YeTCJI ,l\.JlJl 3a;J;aHH1I KOBapHaQHH I1l1HCnepCHIi 3K30reHHbIX ncpcMeHHb'x. OHH MorYT 6bITh llH60 <jIHKcHpoBaHHhIMI'! (HanpIlMep, paBHbI 1,0 Hml 0,5,l\.JlJl KOppellJlQIIH MCJI(;J;Y alUl,lITIIBHbIMH reHeTH'IeCKIIMI1 3oj1oj1eKTaMII I\JIH M3 II .II.3 6JIII3HeL\OB - Ha I\lIarpaMMe nYTeH OHII Coel\HHe- HhI .!\BYCTOPOHIiIIMH CTpeJIKaMII, II paBHbl 0 ,l\.JlJl OCTaJIbHbIX nc- pCMeHHbIx), JIH60 CB060l\HblMII B TOM CJIY'Iae, Korl\a Mbl XOTIIM ou.eHHTb, HanpHMep, KOppeJIHL\1I1O napaMCTpoB MeJKCeMeHHOIt CpeJl,bI Y MYJKCKIIX H )KeHCKIIX nap. CJICI\OBaTeJIbHO, JV1JJ M3 6JIH3- HeL\OB MaTpHL\a <1> 6YI\eT IIMeTb cne;J;YIOIl\IIH BIII\: TeopllJl JIaTeHTHhIX CTpYKTypHhIX COOTIIOllleHIIH rpe6yeT 3a.l\aHHJI CTpYKTYPHOH MOl\eJIIi II Mo)),eJIH IIJMepeHl1jf 11 CBJl3bIBa- eT Ha6JIlOJI,aeMbie nepeMeHHh!e C JIaTeHTHhIMH nepeMeHHhIMH B )1;aHHOH CTPYKTYPHOH MOl\eJIII. Bo MHorliX npOCTeHllIHX CJly"a- JlX, KaK II B npHBe.l\eHHOM Ha PIlCYHKC 6.6, JIaTeHTHhIe 3aBHCH- MbIC nepcMcHHble 6YI\YT H.I\eHTH'IHbl Ha6JIIO)1;aeMbIM nepeMcH- HhIM. HanoMHHM, '1TO B MO.l\eJIII paJJIH'IaIOTCJI .!\Ba Tllna Ha6J1lO- l\aeMbIX nepeMeHHbIX X II Y, COOTBeTCTBeHHO Tllny JlaTeHTHblX nepeMeHHbIX (3aBIICIIMbIX IIJIII lIeJaBIICHMhIX nepCMeHHblX). CJIel!:YJI npaBIiJIaM nYTeBoro alIaJIH3a, MbI MOJKeM onpe)],e- JIHTh CT]J)'KTYPY BJallMOCBJlJeH MCJK,IJ;Y JIaTeHTHhIMH nepeMeHHblMIi. JIHHeHHaJl MOl\eJlh, onpeJl,eJIJleMaJl 3TOH ;J;HarpaMMOH ny- TeH, 6y.n:CT TaKOBa: Y; = P,  eE, + hA, + cC,; Y, = P, = eE, + hA, + cC, . B MaTpll'lHOM BlIl\e MhI 3anllllleM: [ y, ] = [ 1 0 I P. ] y, 0 I P, , 226 E, A, C, E, A, C, E, I 0 0 0 0 0 A, 0 I 0 0 I 0 C , 0 0 1 0 0 1 E, 0 0 0 I 0 0 A, 0 I 0 0 I 0 C, 0 0 I 0 0 J 227 
H .lIJIJI .II.3 6n1l3He110B' E, A, C, E, A, C, E, 1 0 0 0 0 0 A, 0 I 0 0 0,5 0 C, 0 0 I 0 0 I E, 0 0 0 1 0 0 A, 0 0,5 0 0 I 0 C, () () J Q () I 1'-,  s + eE, + hA, + eC, , I-InH, 1J Ma1'pH'IHOH <popMe, [  ]  [ O S I p. ] + [ e P, sOP, 0 E, A, h e 0 Q 0 C, o 0 e h e E, A, C, e 1 (MZ); O.5(DZ) - "11 , CbJ. ------ 1 s i , 1 qTO COOTBeTcTByeT 1] '" B17 +f, rAe Ma1'pHl\a 6eTa 3a/(aeT 3 <p<peKTbI COl\HanbHOro B3aJIMol\eil- CTBHH (HanpHMep, 3<pq,eKTbI IIMHTal\HII/KoonepaQI1H H KOHTpaCTaJ KOHKypeHl1HH) Me cH6caMH. HcnOnb30BaHHe MaTpHl1bI 6eTa He OrpaHHqllBaeTCH TOJlbKO Mo/(enJlMH COl\HanbHOrO B3aHMOAeii- CTBHH; OqeBHJl,HO, qTO OHa MOJKeT 6bITb Hcoonb30BaHa .lIJIH Cnel\H- tPllKal.(1I11 pill18 8J1bTepH8THBHblX npH'mHHblX MO)1eneii. HanplIMep, MOJKHO npeAnOJIOJKHTb, '1TO JIllqHOCTHbIe oc06eHHOCTII IIHJI,IIBl1JI,a BJlIIJlIOT Ha OC06eHHOCTII ero 06IL\eHHSI, II Hao6opOT. 3Ta MO)1enb JlerKO MO)l(e1' 6bITb HCnOJlb30BaHa ,!I,IIH Cnel1Hq,HKaQIIII B03paCTHoii MOAeJlH. Ha pHCYHKe 6.8 npHBelleHa npoCTeHllIaH B03paCTHaH MO- lIenb. nHHeiiHaH Mo/(enb h nepeMeHHb'X B lIaHHOM cnY'Jae 6YlIeT TaKQBa: HTaK, ABe rpymlbI 6nH3Hel\OB pa3J1Hqa1OTCJI TonbKO no MaTplll\e <1:>. B MOlleJlH, npeJl,CTaBJIeHHOH Ha /(liarpaMMe nYTeH, He npep,nonaraeTCJI CYlL\eCTBOBaHHe "m6COBbIX" 31jJljJeKTOB, no- 3TOMy 3J1eMeHTbI Ma1'pHl\bl 6cTa (B), oTpaJKalOlL\He nYTII MeJKJJ,y 3aBIICIIMblMII nepCMeHHbIMH, 6YAYT paBHbI HynlO, nocKonbKY HeT npSlMbIx BJlHHHHH PI Ha Pz, II Hao6opoT. OAHaKo ecnll nOllo6- HbIe B3allMOAeHCTBIIH cYlL\eCTBYIOT (CM. PIlCYHOK 6.7), TO JlHHeH- HaH MOAenb nepeMeHHbIX TJ 6YAeT: p. sP,+eE,+hA,+eC,; E, .   I P2 P1,., P1,., C, P2 r , =B P2 T1 +r, Pin Pin C P2 T1 P2 T1 _.Y._ !Y1! _.J IY2 L.=J r/(e PI Tl , P2 T " PIn' P2n npeACTaBJIHIOT ljJeHOTHnbl I-ro II 2-ro 6J1113HeQa B ABYx BpeMeHHblx TOqKax. MaTpIlQa 6eTa norrY'IaCTCH cne/(YIOIL\HM 06pa30M: PIT! P2T! PIn P2n o 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 o 0 0 PIn nn PIT, nn PueYHOK 6.7 OiJHO:HepH(lJl 2eHemueC/{(lJl :HoiJe.7b, iJonycKQ/oUjaJI Hanuue "cu6eo- 6blX " 3JjJrjJeKmo6 228 229 
PUtylUJK 6.9 M oiJeJlb "KYJlbrnYPaJIbH020" HaCJleiJoBaHWl twin 1 twin 2 nOJIaraeTCH, qTO Ha6mo.l\aeMble KOppeJIHQHH MeJK.l\y cynpyraMH 06YCJIOBJIeHbi accopraTIIBHocTblO no KYJIbTypHblM oc06eHHoc- THM. .II.JIH npocToTbI npe.l\nOJIOJKHM, '1TO "cH6cOBble" 31j11j1eKTbI He Ha6mo.l\aIOTCH, TO eCTb B=O. MO.l\eJIb onpe.l\eJIHeT nYTH OT JIaTeHTHblX (x) nepeMeHHblX pOAHTeJIeii K JIaTeHTHblM nepeMeHHblM nOTOMKOB. IIYTb OT re- HOTHna po,!l,)fTeneii K reHoTHny nOTOMKOB, eCTecTBeHHo, paBeH 1/2 . IIoJIaraeM, '1TO nyn (m) OT MeJKCeMeHHOH Cpe.l\bI MaTepH K aHaJIOrH'IHOMY ljIaKTOPY nOTOMKOB OTJIH'IaeTCJI OT COOTBeT- CTBYIOll{ero BKJla.l\a OTQa (I). BI10JIHe MOJKHO OJKII.D.aTb, qTO cY- ll{eCTByeT pH.D. Cpe.l\OBbIX ljIaKTOpOlJ, KOTopble OKa3b1BaIOT BJIIIJI- HHe Ha MeJKCeMeiiHYIO Cpe.l\Y, H B TO JKe BpeMH He 3aBHCJlT OT pO.l\HTeJIeH. 3TII ljJaKTopbl yqllTblBalOTCH nYTeM BKJlIO'IeHIIH B MO.l\eJIb xapaKTepHblX Cpe.l\OBbIX 3<jJljJeKTOB R, KOTopble 061>I/C- HI/lOT '13CTb (r') MeJKCeMeiiHOH ,!I,HcnepCIIH. OCTaTOqHble reHeTII- qCClme 31j1ljJeKTbI G R1 H G R , O'!'p3JKaIOT TCOpeTH'IeCKHH BKJIa.l\ cerperal.(HH B pa3JIH'IHH MeJK.l\Y po.n:HTeJIHMH II nOTOMKaMH. Oc- T3TO'lHble reHeTII'IeCKlle II Cpe.l\OBbIe 31j1ljJeKTbI COOTBeTcTBylOT 1:, nepeMeHHblM B TepMHHax MO.l\eJIII JIIIHejjHblx CTJIYKTypHblX CO- OTHoweHHH. CJIeAYH npaBHJIaM nYTeBoro aHaJIH3a, nOJlY'IaeM, KaK H B npeJl,bI.l\Yll{HX CJIY'IaHX, MO.l\eJIb 113MepeHHJI JI,JIR x-nepe- MeHHbIX, TO eCTb IjJCHOTHI10B p0.l\HTerreH: PUcylUJK 6.8 KaY3aJ1b1«lJl MOiJeJlb OCTaHOBIIMCJI OOJIee nO.l\P06HO Ha MO.l\errH "KYJlbTypaJlb- Horo" HaCJle,!l,OBaHHJi (Eavcs L. et aI, 1989). <DeHoTHnbl MaTepH (Pr) H OTLI,a (Pm) npe.l\CTaBJlI/IOT c060ii HaOJlIO.l\aeMbIe (x) nepe- MeHHble. KaJK.l\bIH 113 ljIeHOTIIOOB O'!'paJKaeT BJlHJiHHe TJlex JIa- TeHTHbIX (I;) nepeMeHHblX: reHOTHna (G), IIHYTJIHCeMeiiHOH (E) H MeJKCeMeiiHoii (C) Cpe.l\bI. HH.l\CKCbl m H f Ha pllCYHKe 6.9 HC- nOJlb3YIOTCJI Jl,JlJI 0003Ha'leHHH nepeMeHHblX, OTHOCHll.\HXCJI K Ma- TepH If OTl.ty COOTBeTCTBeHHO. <PeHOTHnbI .!I.BYx nOTOMKOB P, If P, npe.l\CTaBJlJlIOT c060ii HaOJllO,!I,aeMble (y) nepeMeHHbIe, KaJK- ,!I,aJl 113 KOTOpbIX TaKJKe 06YCJlOBJleHa '!'peMJI 3H,!I,OreHHblMH (TJ) nepeMeHHblMH (G" G" E" E, II C). .II.aHHaR MO,!l,eJlb npe,!l,nOJla- raeT, '1TO nYTII OT rCHOTHna (h), MeJKCeMeiiHoii cpeJl,bI (c) H BHYT- pllceMeiiHoii Cpe,!l,bI (e) O,!l,IIHaKOBb! KaK ,!tJIJI pO,!tI1TeJleH, TaK H JI,JIH ileTeH. .II.JlJI npOCTOTbl npei\llOJlOJKHM TaKJKe, qTO BJIHJiHHe reHOTHna II cpe,!tbI He pa3JIII'IaeTCJI Y MY)J('1I1H H )J(eHll.\HH. ITYTb (f1) 0TJIaJKaeT BKna,!l, accopTaTHBHOCTH. B .D.aHHOii MO,!l,eJIH npeJ\- 230 231 
(;) = (  o O )[ : ] + ( e O )( Em ) h c G r 0 e Er . C r x 11., o  3TH ypaBHCHHJI .L\alOT MaTPHl.\Y (2x2) OJl(HAaeMI.IX Koppe- JIJlLlIIH Me}J<.L\Y cpeHOTHnaMH cynpyroB L ""II. $11.'+8 x x X 01 r.L\e 11> - MaTplll.\a KOppeJIJlLlHH MCJI(.L\Y JlaTeHTHbIMH nepe- MCHHI.IMH: 11>= G m C m G, C, I 0 0 0 o I 0 )l o 0 I 0 Q f.I. Q I H 8. - ,l\HarOHaJlhHaJi MaTPHl.\a OCTarO'lHI.IX Cpe.L\OBhIX 3CP- ljJeKToB: 8 == ( e 2 0 ) . · 0 e' CTPYKTYPHoe ypaBHcHHe, CBJl3I.lBalOll.(ee JlaTeHTHbIe ne- pCMCHHble pOJJ:HTeJIeH C COOTBeTcrnYIOll.(IIMH nepeMeHHhlMH no- TOMKOB, MO)J(HO 3anHCaTb B CJleAYIOll.\eM BH.L\e: []-[ 0 Ii :; G m [JR 0 o !""; C m m 0 + 0 r Jk G:, . G, Ii 0 Ii G r 0 0 C] 'f/ r   .LJ.JlJI .II.3 6J1H3HeLlOB (li11H npOCTO cn6coB) ypaBHeHHC, CBJI- 3bIBalOll.(ee JlaTCHTHI.le nepeMCHHbIe nOTOMKOB C HX cpeHonma- lolli, 6YlIeT TaKHM' 232 () = ( ; )(J +( )(;:). y 11., 'f/ e .II.JlJI M3 6JIH3Hel.\OB ypaBHeHl'!e aHaJIOrHqHO npMbIJJ:Yll.(C- MY, 3a ellHHCTBeHHI.IM HCKJIlO'IeHHeM - lI.y' KOTopoe 6y.n:eT OT- JIllqaThCJI, nOCKOJIhKY M3 HMelOT Oi.\HY TY }J<e n8TCHTH}1O rCHC- THqeCKYlO ncpeMeHHYlO. 3aTeM nOJlY'IaeM KoppeJlJll.\HOHHYlO MaTPHLlY MeJKJJ:Y 6JIH3- f/eL(8MII (cH5caMU): L, = 1I.,(f<l>f' +1jI)1I. +8,. H H8KOHel\, MI.l nOJl)''1aeM KOppeJIJlLlHOHHI.le MaTPIILlhl MeJK- AY pOAHTeJIJlMI! H nOTOMKaMH: 5JJI!3HeLl 1 5JIH3Hel\ I MaTb Orel\ I I A,l1>fll. 1I.,<l>II.: +8, AAfl1>f' + qr)lI. +8, II. $rll. y MH020MepNbie 2eHemWleCKue MoiJeJlu. OCHOBHaJl MOlleJlI. JlII- HeHHblX crpYKTypHhlX CooTHoweHHii n03BOIDIeT 3aJ1,aBan H MHO- rOMepHble reHenl'leCKHe MOJJ:eJlH. MHoroMepHbIH rCHeTlI'lCCKH.Ii aH8JIHJ, KaK MI.I YJKe BbIwe ynOMI!H8J111, 3TO 0606ll.(eHHe cpaK- TopHoro aHaJIH3a, B KOTOpOM MI.l I!cnoJlI.3yeM He TOJIbKO cpeHO- THnHqeCKHC KOBapHallHH IIJlH KOppeJlJllllIH MeJKJJ:Y nepeMeHHhl- MH, HO T8KJKe Koaapn8l\IIH H KpOCC-KOBapIl811HH MeJKi.\Y pO,l\- CTBeHHHl<aMH, ,lVIJI Toro '1T06bI Ol\eHHTh Beca nO reHeTII'IeCKIlM H Cpe,l\oBblM cpaKTOpaM. PaCCMOTPI!M npOCTeHWyIO QJaKTopHYlO Mo,!\eJII., 06bHCHHIO- ll.(YIO H86moJJ:aeMhle KOppCJIJlLllI1I MeJK.I.\Y n nepeMeHHI.IMH VI, V2, .. , Vn HaJIHqHeM iUlyx 06ll.(HX JIaTeHTHI.IX ljIal<TOpOB (FI II F2). K031j1<jJm.\l1eHTbl nYTeii (fJ I) JI (fJ2), TO eCTb perpeCCHJI VI no FI I'! F2, npe.L\CTaBJIJlIOT C060H ljIaKTopHhle HarpY3KH 3TY npOCTeH- WYIO Mo,!\eJIb MO)J(HO 3aAaTh B MOi.\eJIli JIHHCHHI.IX CTPYKTypHI.IX COOTHOllleHHll pa3J1HqHhlMIi cnoc06aMII: a) JIaTeHTHbIe ljIaKTopbI 233 
1 2 J., Goldsmith H., 1984), HJIH MOAeJIb "06eTO nym" (Kendler K. et aI., 1987), xOTopaR n0380JIAeT Y'IIITblBan cneIU\q.II'IecKlle relle- TII'IeCXHe H cpeAoBble <\JalCTOpbl. .II.HarpaMMa ynpoeHa nYTeM IIClCJIJO'IeHIISI 31j!I\!exToD pa.:JAeJ1eHHoit cpeAbl II orpaHII'IIIDaeTCSI MO,lle.nHpOB811I1eM e,!\HHCTBeIlHOTO 06ero l\!aKTOP8, TalC KaK KOp- peJ1J1I.\HH MeJK,l\Y Ha6moAaeMbIldH nepeMeHHblldH YI, Y2, ..., Yn npJlMO onpeAeJ1AJOTCJI O,!\HOH nareHTIIOH nepCMeHIIOH. Ecnll MO- Jl,eJ1 b COOTBeTCTBYeT AaHHblId (MOACHb Ol\eHIIBaeTCJI, KaK MbI YJKe ynOldllllaJIII, MeTOAOM MaKCllldaJIbHOt'O npa8AonoAo611S1), HacneJl,)'- CMOCTb JlaTellTHOrO <PeHOTllna (HJIH <PeHOTHn08) MOJKeT 6bITb no- C'IHTalla 06b1'1HblId 06pa.:JOM, XaK h'/(h'+c'+c'). K03q.q.lIl.\lIeHTbI nYTcii, COOTBeTCTBYJOHe nYTJlM OT PA X PI, P2...Pn, ABJIJlJOTCJl <\JaKTOPHblMII Bec8MII 3THIl nepCMeHHblX no JIarellTHOMY <Pe HOTH - ny PA. ITyTlI OT nepeMeHHblx AI, EI II T.JI,. JlBJIAIOTCA cnel\HIj!H- '1ecKHMII I'eHeTII'ICClCHMII II Cpe.nOBblldll BecaMII. HTax, MbI paccMoTpeJIII cnoco6b1 nocraHOBKH rCHeTH'IeC- KHIl 3aJl,a'l D MOAcnH JIHHeHHblx CTPYXTypHbIX COOTHOWCHIIH II cnoc06b1 3aJl,aHHJI nepcldeHHblx. KmoqOM K nOHIIMaHIlJO :nol! MOAeJIII RBJIRCTCR OC03H8HHe TOI'O <\JaKTa, '1TO cc HCnOJIb30Da- HHC B I'CHeTlllle nOBeAellllR OCYlJ1ccTBnACTCJI HCCKonbKO Heo- 6b1'1HblM )I,!UI lj>aKTopHOro aHaJIH3a cnoco60M. EcnH <\JaKTOpHI>lH allanH3 05b1'1HO YMeHbwaCT pa.:JMepHOCTb Ha5J1IOA8eldblx AaH- IIbIX, TO npll aHanll3e O,!\HOMepHblX I'eHeTHqeCKIIX IdOAeJIeH OH YBenll'lIlBaeT pa3MepHOCTb, pa3ACJlSIR XOBapllal\1I1O Ha rCIICTI{- qeCXHe II cpeJl,OBblC KOMnOHeHTbI. BOJlee Toro, aHanH3 npOBO- AHTCJI .lI.IIR O,!\HOH nepCMCHHOK, HO .lI.IIR He<:KOJIbKIIX rpynn (rH- !IOB POACTBCHHHKOB), TorAa KaK <\JaKTopHblH aHaJIII3 npOBO,!\HT- CJI WIJI pSlAa nepCMeHHblX OAIIOR rpynnbl IIcnbITyeMblX. KaK Idbl DHAeJIH, MOAeJlH MorYT 6b1Tb AOCTaTO'lHO CJlOJKllbIMH. 01111 MO- ryT BIillJO'IaTb 50JIbWOe KOJlH'IeCTBO TImOD pOACTBCHHHKOB, na- paMeTpbl .lI.IIJI Ol\eHKII accopTaTHBHOCTII, .lI.IIR Ol.\eHKII napaMeT- pOB OTAeJ1bIlO no nOJIY, no B03paCTY,)I,!UI OQeHKII3cj141eKToD COS- MecrHoro npOJKIIBaHHR II T.A. .II.JIA peWellllJI CJIOJKHbIX CIICTeM ypaDHellllH HCnOJIb3YeTCR aHaJIHTI{'1eCKaA npOl\c.aypa, OCHOBaH- HaJi Ha MeTOAe MaKCIIMaJIbHOrO npaBJI,OnOA06I1A. 3TOT nOAXDA nO.I1}JJ\.3YMeBae-r IICnOJIb30BaHlle KOMnblOTepHbIX nporpaMM, MaK- CHMH3HPYIOIIX COOTBeTCTBHe MOAeJIH A8HHbIM - LISREL (LInear Structural RELations), pa3pa50TaHHblx K.AopeCKoroM I{ .II..Cep60M, MorYT 6bITb npeACTaBJIeHbl B BHJ\e -nepeMeHHblx, a Ha6J11OJJ;ae- Mble !IepeMeHHblc B BHAe x-nepcMeHHblx, TorJJ;a MaTpHl\a a> 6YAeT 3aJJ;aBaTb KOppemll\!l1I Me)J(JJ;y q,aKTOpaMH, MaTpHl\a A, AaCT MaTpIll\Y q,aKTopHbiX HarpY30K II e, - MaTplll.\Y OCTUOqHbIX, IIJJII cncQI1Qm'JecKllx, .LtI!crrepcllii; 6) e{'JJ!I .JJaTeHTHble lj>aKTOpbJ npCACTaBJlReM B BII/l.C ll-!ICPCMeHHbIX II Ha6JIIOAaeMbIe nepeMeH- Hble - B BHAe y-nepeMeHHbIX, TO KOppeJ1AI.\I1I1 MeJK/I.Y q,aKTopaMII 33)J,aIOTCJI MaTpHl.\eH 0/, II A., JJ;aeT Ma'l'pHI.\Y <\JaKTopllblK Harpy- 30K, e, - Ma'l'plll.\Y CneL\I1<\JH'IeCKHX AHcnepCIIH; B) HaKOHel\, Tpe- TIIH c!Ioc06 n03B0J1ReT npe!l;CTaBIITb JIaTeliTHbie q,aKTopbl B BIIAe -nepeMellllbIX, a lIa6mo!l;aCMblC !IepeMCHHble B Bl1!1;e t1-nepeMeH- HbIX, Tor!l;a MaTpIll\a a> 3a/l.aeT KOppeJIRL\HII MeJK/I.Y <\JaKTopaMH, a f Jl,aCT <\JaKTOpHbIC HarpYJKII. C!Ioc06 (6) MOJKHO JlerKO HCnOJ1b- 30BaTb JI,JIJI npeACTaBJIeHHJI cpaKTOpHOH MOAeJIH BTOporo nOpR).I;Ka, r!l;e MaTpIll\a 11> 3aJJ;aeT KOppeJlRI.\HH MeJKAY q,aKTopaMH 60JIee BblCOKoro nOpR).I;Ka, Ma'l'plll.\a r AaeT Beca <\JaKTOpOB nepBoro !IO- pR).I;Ka no l\!aKTopaM 60Jlee BblCOKoro nopJl).I;Ka II MaTpHl.\a A. AaeT Beca Ha6moAaeMblx !ICpeMeHHbIx nO cpaKTopaM nepBoro nOpR).I;Ka. OqeBII,!\HO, qTO ny MO/l.CJ1b J1erKO HCn0J1b30BaTb Jl,JlJI KOHcrpYIIPO- BaHHR MHoroMepHoH reHeTllqeCKOH MO,/\eJlH. Ha pllcYIiKe 6.10 rrpe!\CTaBJleH npl1Mep TaKOH MHoroMcpHoH reHCTllqeCKOH Mo,/\eJlII - "I1CHxOMCTpHqeCKaJl" MO!l;eJ1b (McArdle p, "I rnJ i r t.,,; l/, 71 y,'  B ----------- 6rt3HeLt 2 11 T B Y2  6J1H3HeU 1 PUCJ'HOK 6.10 MHozOAfepl/aJi zeHemWfeCKClil Mooenb 234 235 
. ..,' ., . . ,.,:. ': ,.:':, ,.':; ITOiUlOAR HTOr, Cne,u;yeTnOJl,qepKHYTL, qTO HCCneAOBaHHe": 3THOJIO1I. HHJI,HBII.)(yaJIHbtX p"'lnl,,6a3HpyeTclI, no cye. CTBY, Ha cncAyiblI\lIX OCHOBHblX nocTynih'ax KOJIHqCCTBCHHoii reHgrnm: Bo-nep,,,ce npHHIIUObl "MellJl,eJIeBCJ(og:"HaCJIe-,:,; AOBaHHII npHNCHIIMLI,J("nOJIHreHHLlM npll3HaKaN, H,CJleAOBa." :"Jm-HO, Bce,,$e}(TI, reHa (a.!\ll,llTHBHLle R,a,ea.!\ll,llJ(JIIIe), xa', paKTepHble',Icl" MOHorCIIHblJ( I:I!CTeloA:, BHOCRT CBOH BKJI3,II. B JlH." JI,IIBH)(yff, 4>e!;!OT,!nH'Iti!i!!H pa3JIH'lH)l M;u.H;!!", BTOpblX, K Pa3JlllqHJIM 1oA:0ryf npMBOJl,llTb pa3- JIIf'!:!JlcpeJIOBbl1\ ycnolllulX, a TaIOKe oc06eH!!0,I!J,!I!I9,glJI- 3eii MeJI(,!\y reHOTII110M II cpeJIoii. reHeTII'IecKlle II.CCJleJIOBaHHJI OCHOIlaJ{!1!,;JJa aHanH,3e IIHJIII-" BJJAOB C pa3JIllqalOI.l\eiicJI CTeneHLIO rCHeTU'IeCKOrO C)(oACTBa. ',;; CeCTBT TPJI OCHOBH,bIX MeTOJl,a aHaJIII3a npH'IHH 113MeH'IIII!9" CTII nCHxon6!i1'..eCKIIX JI'tJCUXO.p1l3KOJlOrJI'lCCKHX npH3HaKOB ' MeTOJl, 6JIH3HeU:OB, ceMeliHbIiI. MeTO.ll. H MeTOJI npHeMHJ.lX ,!\eTe,.' CYTL 3TII.X MeTOAOB 3a}(JI]()'laeTCII B COnOCTaBJleHHIiI'lj)eaOTJJnlil.' '1ecKprocxo.ll.CTBa UIlJU!llKAOB pll3JlltqKoii CHII P9,11;CTBa. &JIC- JI,bIH 113 :nux MeTOJl,OB 06J1aJIaCT onpe.ll.eneHHblMH HeIl.OCTQna- "MII;:'TeM He MeHee MH,9rlle 113 q>anopOB, ClnlJlCalOllIUX TO'lHOCTb Ol1eHKU napaMe-rpOB;"Moryr 610fT), OlleHelJbI n Y'lTeHbl opu aHa."", nH3e Jl,aHHbIx. Hau60nee 3$(j!eKTUBHaJi CTpaTel-UII uCCneJIOBa-' HHII npH'lIl!! IIHAHBH,u;yanbHblx pa3nH'IlIii ocUXOnOrH'IeCKHX II nCllxoljlllofqeCKU.J(,!fP":,,:,?II,,,:?6'bCJIIIHeHHe Bcex MeTO,u;OB...' '" '" , """", ...."..,..,""',,;'.,....' ou;eHJ[II:reuCTUqCCKKX U cpe,!l.OBLlX OpH'" H3MeH,,!, ..,BOCTH l'.cnOJTh3ytOTCII pa3JI11'lHble aHanHTI{'lCCKKe npou:e)(ypbl -" ::.or 1(1I;1CCnqeClCOro1(0PPeJIJJIIHOHHOro anl!JIH:3a .11.0 C't'P)'KTypHoro MO.ll.eJIHpOBaHIIII. 3TU no,u;xoJl,bl HcnoJll>3YKJTCII Mil K8.lC1iI3Yi!:e- fillll eJIIIHH'IHblX npH3HaKoB, TaK H ,II,!IJI H3yqeHUII B31!HMOCIUtiCH "!e:)IC)(Y npH3HaKa: MH . IToCneJIHee OTKpblBaeT nyn. MSI HCCJ!;eAo- :,.BaRKSI BaJICHeHWeii)'CIIXOJIOrHH np06ne,:- opo5nMLlJIe- ,;);epMJ:lHaHT !'lCHx"'1eq(or9 pBHTH.JI' ".' i,', ";':..".,:,::::" , . .,. HeCOMHCHHO,MeTO)l,b1 KonJj1!eCTBeHH9ii reHCTHKH' 003BO",:: Jl!!IOT pll305paTI>CII J<'nrjJ{qHIla:X Ha6moil;aeM9!!H3Me!l'lHIIOCT)f Konu'IecTBeHHWX npH3HaKoB, o5ycnOBJIeHHblX'CnOJKHOH CTpyK..., TYP9 !!!!:!"OJl,ej:jCTBU!J!7!'.e'1'lIqH1SH!j!)feRe1H':lecJ(II'\.q>aKTO. 236 pO!,. ,O,11HaKO JlCHO yqHTaTb; qTO.,,aMu no ,£pe,eTO,11W;' 6ylf.b TO 60ee np9rrbI1J(aK;'lIanpIIMep, reHeTHKO-.D.HcncpcuOlI- HLle, "JIH 60JIee CJIOJICHlde MOAenH JlHHeiiRpIx C't'PYKTYPHbIX COOTHoweHl!jI, He MorYT A'\:r 60Jlbwe .UHq>opMaUIIH, '1eM CO- A.H,,,",r '1PyeMblx3Kcn;'':'1!1,,I,,i',., \ 
qaCTnb IV HCCJIE,IJ;OBAHHE nCHXOJIOrH-qECKHX XAPAKTEPHCTHK B rEHETHKE nOBE,IJ;EHHH 
H3Y'JeHI1C pOJIH HI\CJIeACTBeHHOCTI1 H cpeAl>I B nCHXOJIOrli- qeCKHX pa3JIH'II1IIX MeIKI\Y JIIOt(f,MI1 Ha'lI!JIOCl> C H8n6oJIee CJJ01K- HblX H KOMnJIeKCHblX nCHXOJIOrH'IeCKIIX oco6eHHOCTeH. ITcpBble IICCJIeAOBaIUUI, CBJl3aHHble C nOHCKOM HacneA- CTBeHHO 06YCJIOBnCHHbIX xapaKTCpHCTI1K, 6blJUI npOBCAeHbl C3- pOM <t>p3HCHCOM faJIbTOHOM (1822 - 1911) - I!HmHHCKIIM 6Ho- JIOrOM f! aHTpOI'lOJIOrOM, y6eJKII.eHHblM CTOpOHHHKOM 3BOJIJOI1H- OHHOH TeopHH qapJIb3a .II.apBHHa, OCH080nOnOJl(HIIKOM nCHKO- AHarHOCTI'!KII H nCI'!XOJIOrHH liHl\lIBHAYaJIbHbIX pa3JIl1qHH. B CBO- IIX KHHrax "HaCJICJI,CTBCHHbIH rCHHiI" (1869) Ii "JIIOI\Ii aHmHllc- Koii HaYKIi: HX npupoAa U 80CnI'!TaHHC" (1874) <t>.faJIbTOH nonbI- TanCJI JJ:oK83aTl>, qTO HMeHHO HaCJIe.ACTBeHHOCTb onpcAenlIeT Te nCI1XOJIorll'leCKliC xapaKTepl1CTIlKII, KOTopbIe cnoc06cTBYlOT Bbl- AaJOlQUMCII AOCTIIJKeHIIJlM B caMbIK pa3Hblx 06J1aCTIIX o6IQCCTBeH- HOI{ I.\C>lTeJIbHOCTU - B HaYKe, HCKycCTBe, pCJIIII'HH II nOJIlltJfKC. K '1UCJIY TaKHX Hal160JIee 3Ha'iIiMbIX nCHXOJIOrH'leCKIIX xapaKTe- pHCTHK DR OTRec ypOBeHb UHTeJIJIeKTyanbHblx cnoc06HOCTeH '1e- JIOBCKa H HCKOTOpblC CBOHCTBa JlllqHOCTII. IT03J1(e, B caMOM KOHl.\e XIX 8., Ha 060CHOBaHHOCTIIIICCJle- AOBaHUJI HMeHHO Tex xapaKTepUCTlfK, KOTopble HMCIOT H8U50JIb- wee COI.\HlUIbHOe 3HaqeHIIC, HaCTaHBaJI H !J:JKCHMC MapK 60- IIH (1861-1934), aMcpHKaHcKHH nCliXOnOI', 3aHIIMaBwHHcJI npo- 6neMaMH paJBHTHJI Ii oKaJaBwHii 60JIbWOe BJlHJlHlle HI! 1jJ0pMI1- poaaHHe B3rJIJlJI,OB ITbepa )KaHe H )KaHa ITHaJl(e (B qaCTHOCTII, )K.ITHaJKe npH rrOCTpOCHIIM cHoeii TeapHH IlHTeJ!JleXTyaJIbIlOTO pa3BIITUJI pe6eHKa IICnOJlb30BaJII.\enblii pJlJl, nOHJlTHH, BBeACHHblX n nCHXOJIOrl11O .II..M.DOJII.\YHHOM, - KorHIITHBHaJi cxeMa, aCCH- MUJIJll\IIJI, aKKOMOl.\al.\HJI, CCHCOMOTOpHblH IIHTCJIJleKT). B clloeii Klmre "YMcTBeHHoe pa3BIITlle pe5eHKa Ii paca" (l895).l{ M.BoJltQ'HH npe,LInOJlOJKH!I, qTO Te oco6eHHocTII, KOTO- pble cnoCo6CTBYlOT HaH50nee ycneulHoH al\anTal.\lIH '1eJIOBeKa (mmpHMcp, BbICOKOC HHTeJIJICKTyanbHoe pa3BHTHC), ncpCAalOTCJI OT nOKOJICHHII K nOKOJICHIlIO. MexaHH3MoM, 05eCne'll1BalOIQIIM ny nepcAa'lY, >lBJIJleTCJI "OpraHII'IeCKHH oT6op"  HanpaBJIeH- 241 
HblH OT60p, KOTOpbIH, no npe,l!nOJIOJKeHIlIO .II..M.E01l.ll.YHHa, Jl,0- nOJrHJleT OfmcaHHblH q.,l{apBHHoM eCTeCTBeHHblH oT60p 31'11 paHHHe pa60Tb! B Te'leHHe HeCl<OJIbKHX Jl,eCRTHJIeTHH onpeJl,c.mlJlH HanpaBJlCHHe IIccneJl,OBaHHH POJIH HaCJIeJl,CTBeHHOC- 1'1( I( cpe.lUo! B nCIfXOIlOrH'leCKnX xapaKTcpHcTHKax HMeHHo 1f3Y- 'ICHIlIO npHpOJl,bl HH):\HBI1AyaJIbHbIX paJJIH'IHH B HHTeJIJ1eKTe II B oc06eHHocTRX JIH'IHOCTII nOCBJlIl\eHO nOJl,aBIlRlOlI\ee 60IlbIIIHH- CTBO paGoT, BbIaOIlHeHHblX B reHenlKe nOlJc):\eHH!I II nepBOH no- nOBIIHe XX B. C nOJHHH cerO):\HRIIIHCH reHeTliKII nOBeJl,eHHA H IICCJIeJl,O- BaHHJI <tI raJILTOfla, If TeOpeTlf'leCKlfe rrOC'I'poeHH!I.II..M.EoMYH- Ha rrpe):\craBJlRIDT fie 60nce 'ICM HCTOpH'IeCKHH IIIlTepeC, II Kpyr ncnXOJIOrH'IeCKHX oco6eHHOCTeH, paCCMaTpHBaeMbIX B reHeTHKe rrOBeJl,eHHJI CCrO):\HA, OKaJblBaeTCR HellJMeplfMO rnlfpe - OT Bpe- MenH pcaKHH II nCHXOIpHJIIOnOrH'IeCKHX XapaKTepHCTI1K Jl,0 aT- THTIOI{OB H IIIlTepeCOB. O):\HaKO eHTpaJ1bHbIMH B reHeTHKC nOBC- Jl,CHlfJl, KIIK H rrpeJK):\e, OCrllIOTCJI oc06eHHOCTH KorHlfTHBHOH If JIII'IHOCTHOii c<jJep. ITO'leMY B COBpeMeHHblX reHeTl'!qCCXHX pa60Tax npel{Me- TOM IICCJIe):\OBaHHR CTaHOBJITCR Te 1I1I11 HHble nCHXOJlOrH'IeCKlfe Xl!paKTepllCTlIK1I II KaKOBbJ peJYJIbTI!TbI IIX HCCJIeJl,OBaHHA, H 6y- I{<:I: orrHcaHO B 3TOH '1aCT\1 KHHrll. rIlABA 7. KOrHHTHBHblE XAPAKTEPHCTHKH Oco6eHHOCTIf n03HaBa1'eJlbHOH c<jJepbJ 'leJIOBeKa, H npeJK,l1e Bcero IIHreJlJ]eKT, Ha npOTJlJKeHlI1I Bcero BpeMeHII cYIl\eCTBOBa- HHR reHeTHXH nOBeAeHHR OCTI!BaJIHCb B eHTpe ee BHHMaHI1S1. KaK 31'0 RH rrapa.n:OKCallbRO, HO HCCJlCl{OB8HHe ponH Ha- cne):\CTBeHHOCTH H cpeJl,bl B HHTeJlJIeKTYaJIbHblX oc06eHHOCTJlX 'le- JIOBeKa Ha'laJIOCb ell\e ):\0 nORBJIeHlfSi nCHXOllorHII KaX caMOCTOII- TeJIbHoit HayqHOH Jl,HCL\<fnJfHHbl, JEi HCCKOJIbKO I{CCR1'lfJleTlfii I{O Toro, KaK nOJlBHilIICb OTqeTJI!fBble npeJl,CTallneHHJI 06 IIHTeJIJIeK- Te, II 3a,/(OJIrO Jl,0 Toro, KaK 6b1JIIi CojJOPMYJlHpoBaHbI OCHOBHble nOnOJKeHHR reHeTHKH KOJrHqeCTBeHHblX rrplfJHIIKOB. B cepeAl,"e XIX B aHrJIHHCKI1H HCCJIeJl,OllaTeJIb C3p <tIP3H- CHC fanbTDH, DTo6paB H3BeCTHbIX Y'IeHbIX H nil CaTeJIeH , MYJbl- KaHTOB H XY.D;OJKHIIXOB, BblJl,aJOIl\IIXCJI rocY.D;lIpCTBeHHblx .D;CIfTe- neH H BOeHIIQaJIbHHKOB, nOKa3aJI, '1TO Bce OHH HMeJIH HCKJ1IO'IH- TeJIbHD BbICOKoe pa3BHTHe cnoc06HocTeH, BCTpe'lal(JIl\eec», KaK nOJIllran <tI faJIbTOH, He qa",e, qeM B 0,025% CJIyqaeB, TO eCTb Rcero Y 25 qeJIOBeK H3 CTa TbICR'I. C06paB BceB03MOJKHbie ,/(3HHble 06 oc06eHHocTJlX If X pOI{- CTBCHHHKOlJ (.n:oKYMeHTaJIbHbJe CIIII):\eTenbCTBa, nHCbMa, Bocno- MHHaHIfR JHaKOMblx), ct>.fanbToH OQeHIIJI HHTeJIJIeKT pO):\CTBeH- HIIKOB no 18-'1JIeHHoH IIIKaJle, HI! OiI,HOM rrOJlIOce KOTOpOH 6bIJIH MaKCHMaJIbHO BblCOKl'!e cnocD6HOCTH, a Ha .D;PyroM - YMCTBeH- Ha» OTCTaJlOCTb. OKaJaJIOCb, qTO pO,/(CTBCHHIfKH BLlJl,aID",IIXCR 1IIOAeH 'IaCTO II caMH 06JIa):\3JI1f He06bJ'IaHHbIMH cnoc06HOCTJlMH; H qeM TeCHce 6bIJIH pOI{CTBeHHble Y3bI, TeM 'JaIl\e pO,/(CTBeHHHKH BbJL\alOIl\HXCJI JlIOL\eH CIIMII OKaJb!BIIJIHCb JHaMeHIlTbIMII TaK, Y BblJl,aIOIl\HXc» JIIDI{CH Gonee 30% OTOB H nO'ITH 50% CblHOBeH HMeJIlI O'leHb BblCOKHe cnoc06HoCTH. Hx Jl,e):\YIIIKH H BHYKH 06JIa- AaJIH TaKHMH JKC cnDco6HoCT»MH npllMepHo B 15% CJIyqaeB, a npa.D;eilYUlKII H rrpaBHj'KII- nHUlb B 3% CJIY'IaeB. Ha OCHOBaHIiH 3THX ):\aHHbIX <tI.faJlbTOH 3aXJIIO'IHJI, 'ITO BbJCOKIIH YPOBeHb cno- c06HocTe" nepe):\ae-rCJl no HacneJl,CTBY. ITOJIY'IeHHble pe3YJIbTaTbi 6blJlH ony6JIHKOBaHbi <tI.faJIbTOHOM B 1869 r. B KHHre, caMD Ha- 243 
3BaHHe KOTOpOH - "HaCJICACTBCHHbIH rCHHH" - He OCTaBJIReT COMHCHHH B TOM, KaKOH DblDOJl, CAeJlaJI aDTOp. B KHllrc "JIIOJI,H aHrJIHHCKOH HaYKII: HX npllpOAa II BOCOH- TaHlle", nOJlBHDIlICHCR nRTblO rOJjaMIi n03JKe, B 1874 r., <1>.faJIb- TOH oUllcan reHCOilorlflJeCICHC J{OHHble, nOJIYIJCHHble C nOMOmblO BHKeT, KOTopble no ero npocL6e 3anOJIHRilH cODpeMeHHIIKI1 - Kpym{ble allrJIHHcKlle yqeHbIe. YpoBeHL enoc06HoCTeu 0lGl3aJ1CR HaH60Jlec nOXOJKIIM y 6JIII3KHX pOJl,CTBeHHHKOB, Ha OCHOBaHHH '1ero <1> faJIbTOH onRTb CIICJIaJI BLIBOA 0 HaCilCJl,CTBCHHOU o6ye- JIODJleHHOCTH xapBKTepllcTHK, OTHOCJlmllXCJI K HHTeJIJIel<TyaJlL- HOH cljlepc. ITo HccrreAOBBHHRM porrll reHOTHna H cpeAbI D BapHaTHB- HOCTH HHTeJlrreKTB MOJKHO Il3yqaTL 3Tanbl pa3DIITHJI reHeTIIKII nOBeAeHHJI. HHTenrreKT 6LIJI nepBoli nCHXOJlOrHqCCKOH xapaKTepHCTH- KOH, BKJllOlJeHHOH B 3KcnepHMcHTarrbHble pa6oTbI, npOBO.!VImHe- CJI B reHeTHKe nooeAeHIIJI ITepBoe HccrreAOBaHHe npHeMHblx Jl,e- TeH, opraHII30BaHHoe B 20-x roAax JI.TepMaHoM (cOJAaTeJIeM aMepHKBHcKoii: DepCHH TeCTa A.DI1He), 6h1JlO npOBeAeHO AJlJI BbI- JlCHeHHR reHOTHn-cpeAOBblX Jl,eTepMHHaHT HHTeJIrreKTa. 3Ta JKe eJIb 6bIJIa nOCTaBJIeHa H B nepBOM HccneAoBaHHII pa3J1Y'leHHbIX 6nH3HeOB .II.JK.HLIOMeHa, <1>.IIMeHa II K.XOJI3HHrepa, PC3YJIb- TaTbl KOToporo 6blJIH onYOl1l1KOBaHbl B 1937 r. B IICCJleAOBaHIIRX HHTenneKTa pa3pa6aTLIBaJlI1Cb II cOBep- IlIeHCTBOBaJllICb 3KcnepHMeHTaJlbHbIe cxeMLI reHeTIiKH nOBeAe- HHR - MeTOA npHcMHbIX Jl,eTeii, 6rr1l3HeoBbIH H ceMeiiHbIli MeTO- Abl. HMeHHO HCCJleAOBaHHR HHTeJIJIeKTa CTIIMYJIllpOBaJIH BKJllO'Ie- Hlle B reHeTHqeCKlle pa60TbI tq)yrHx nCIIXOJIOrH'IeCKHX xapaKTe- pHCTHK, HMCHHO OHH npHBJIeKJlH K reHeTHKe nOBc)],eHHJI caMoe npllCTaJIbHOe BHHMaHlle nCHXOJIOrOB, H OHII JKe BbI3BaJIH caMyIO 6ypHYlO B IICTOpHH nCHXOJIOrHH Jl,HCKYCCHIO, B KOTOpoii np06JIe- Ma COOTHOllieHIIR HaCJIeACTBeHHOCTH H cpeAbI 6bIJla C.pOPMYJIH- pOBaHa KaK Bonpoc: "HaCJIeAYeTCJI III'! IIHTeJlJleKT?" 113Y'ieHlle reHOTlln-cpeAoBoro COOTHOllieHIIR B tq)yrllX oco- 6eHHOCTJlX KOrHHTHBHOH c<jIepbI Aonroe epeM'R BerrOCb JlIIIlIb no- CTOJIbKY, nOCKOJIbKY Jl,HBrHOCTIIKa 06mero HHTen:neKTa OCHOBaHa Ha BblIJOJIHeHHH caMbIX pa3HLIx 3aJ1,aHliH - pellieHIIH MaTeMa- TllqCCKHX 3aJ1,a'l, KJ1aCcHIjIIIKaHII npeAMeTOB, HaXOJK)l;eHIU{ npo- CTPaHCTBeHHb!X COOTHoweHHU MeJKP.)' 06'LeKTaMH, orrpe»'eJIeHHH 244 3Ha'ieHHR CJIOB H T.)],. 3T0 )],BDaJlO B03MOJKHOCTb npoaHBJIH3I1pO- BaTL OT)],eJIbHLIe Cy6TecTLI HHTeJ1J1eKTYaJlbHbIX TCCTOB H oeHHTb pOJlb fCHOTllna II cpe)J;b1 B BBpHaTllBHOCTH BepOaJILHbIX, npocTPaH- CTBeHHbIX H IIPYTHX cnoco6HoCTeii. IT03)],Hee, B 60-ble fOAbI, OTJJ;CJlLHbIe KorHHTHBHble cnoc06- HOCTH CTaHOBRTCR caMOCTORTeJlbHblM npe)],MeTOM Hccne)],OBBHHR B reHeTHKe nOBeJl,eHIIJI, OJI,HaKO pa60T, nOCBJlWeKKbIX KX K3Y'le- HIlIO, HeMKOfO, B Ka60p paCCMaTpHBBeMbIX xapBKTepHCTIIK He n03BOJlReT AeTaJlbHO onl1caTb PO)!L reHOTHno H cpe)],bl BO BCeM MHoro06p33HH npmll!l1CHHH KOrHHTllBHOH c4JepbI '1eJIOBeKB. ar- MeHTapHOCTb B npeACTaBJleHHOCTH B reHeTH'IeCKHX pa60TBX Kor- HHTI1BHb!X CnOC06HOCTeil OCTaeTCR II 110 ceH AeHb. K KaKHM JKe BbIBOiJ,aM npHIlIJla reHeTlIKa 1I0Be.lleHHJI, H3y- qaJl n03HaBaTeJIbHYlO cljlepy 'IeJIOBeKa? B KaKoil Mepe IIII,AIIBII,!\y- aJlbHble pa3J1I1'1HJI B ypOBHe HHTC./IlIeKTa CBR3BHbI c reHOTHnO"M? BilHJleT nH reHOTl1n H8 Bapll8TIIDHOCTb tq)ym}; 1<0rHHTHBHbI}; };a- paKTepllCTIIK? 3TH BonpOCbl1l 6yAYT 06C)'JK,lI,aTbCJI B ABHHOH r.Jraae. 1. npep,CTaBneHMSI 06 MHTenneKTe, Mcnonb3yeMbie B reHeTMKe nOBep,eHMSI ITcIIXOJIOrll'leCKlle IICCJlCJ{OBaHlIJI HHTeJIileKTYaJlbHOH c<jIe- pbl qeilOBCKa HMelOT 60JIee 'ieM BeKOBYIO IICTOpHIO. HaqHHaJi C pa60T <1>.faJIl>TOHa, rrpOBC,I\eHHbIX BO BTOPOH nOJIOBIIHe XIX D., I! no ceH Jl,eHb B nClixonOfHH Hell3MeHHO COXpaHneTCR HHTepeC K HHAIIBHJI,YaJILHblM pa3JIHqIlRM, OT'ICTJIHBO npOJlBJlRIOll\IIMCJI B no- 3HaB8TeilbHoii cljJepe, B cnoc06HOCTJlX, B TBOpqeCKIIX nOTeHQl'!a- Jl8X. Pa3JI1I'1HJI MeJK.n:y JllOAbMH B naMRTII II BHI'!MBHHH, B i1CrKOC- TM OBrraAeHHJI 3HaHHRMII H B 3<jJ.peKTHBHOCTII HX HCn0l1b30BaHHR D rl1y611He aHaJIlna H WllpOTC 0606meHHJI npHBJIeKalOT BHHMa: HHe nCIIXoiloroB, 3aHHMalOWIIXCR caMbIMH pa3HbIMH np06neMa- MH - pa3BIITIICM, 06yqeHlleM, ycnelliHoCTblO npoljleccliOHaJIbHOH ».eRTenbHOCTH YCTOH'IIIBLIH HHTepec K HHTeJIJIexTyalIbHou c<jIepe 'ieJlOBe- Ka y nCHXOJlOrOB, pa3JI1I'18IOmIlXCR 110 CBOIIM TeOpeTH'IeCKIiM OPH- eHTal.{HRM H pewalOwliX caMble pB3Hbie TeOpeTlI'IeCKHC IInp8KTH- 'IeCKlie 3aAaqH, 3aKOHOMepHO npHlJeJI K B03HHKHOBeHHIO MHOJl(e- 245 
CTBa nOAxOllOB K l13yqeHHIO HHTeJ1JIeI<Ta H 6oJ1ee 'IaCTHbIX OCO- 6eHHOCTeH n03HaBaTeJlbHOH llCHTeJlbHOCTU, I<OTOpbIC npHHJlTO Ha3blBaTb KOrHHTHBHblMH CnOC06HOCTJlMli. B COBpeMeHHOii nCH- XOJlOrHH HaC'II1TbIBaIOTCJI )J.eCHTI<H HanpanJleHIIH, CYII1eCTneHHO pa3JIII'IaTOII1I1XCJI II no B3rnHJI,aM Ha CTpYKTYPY HHTeJIneKTyaJlb- HblX xapaKTCpHCTlIK, II no MCTOJ\aM I1X )J.HarHOCTHKII, O.!l.llaKO HalI- 60nbwec npll3HaHHe 11 pacnpOCTpaHCHlIe IIMelOT Te Hanpanne- HIIH, KOTopble pa3pa60TaHbi B Pycne nCHXOMeTpU'IeCI<OH TpaAH- QUH UCClle)10BaHHJI UHTeJIJIeKTa. ITOCKOJIbl<y Ha npe)1CTaBnCHH!I 06 IIHTellJIeKTe, C(jJOPMYJlI1POBRHHbIe B KOHTCKCTe nCHXOMeTpH- qeCKHX TeopHH, opHeHTHpYeTC!I 11 reHeTlfKa nOBCi\CHHH, OHI{ H 6YJ\YT onllcaHbI )J.aJlcc. BMJI,)'aJIbHble pa3JIH'I"!I, qTO CTaTUCTII'IeCKII MO>KeT 6blTb Bblpa>Ke- HO llHCllepCIIJlMH nHX xapaKTeplICTHK. ilpe.a,CTIlBI{M 3TH llHcnep- CIIH rpaIjJH'IeCKH B BUJ\e Kpyron (PHCYHOK 7.1). 1.1. aKTQPHO-aHaJlHTII'IeCKUii MeTOi\ BbIJ\e.rJeHIIIJ xapaKTepHCTHK HHTeJl'JIeKTY8.IJLHOH C!jJCI'Ll Bce nCllxoMeTjJH'IeCKHC TeopHH HHTenJIeKTa IICXOJI,JIT H3 Toro npe.!UIOnO)!(eHHJI, 'lT0 ycnewHoCTb BbIIlOnHeHHJI KaKoii-nH60 HH- TeJIJIeKTYaJIbHOt! p;eJlTcnbHOCTH 06YCJlOBJl<!Ha cnoco6HOCTSlMH, Jle- >KaII1lIMU B ec OCHone. 3TH cnoc06HOCTH JlBJlIIIOTCJI JIaTeHTHblMH lIe- peMeHHbIMH, KOTopble HeB03MO>KHO Ollpei\CJIHTh HenOCpCi(CTBeHHO, HO KOTopbIe npOJlBJIHIOTC!I npH BbIIlOJJHeHUH pa3HbiX IIHTeJUleKTY- aJIbHblX TeCTOB. ECJllt 6aJ1J1b1, nOJlyqaeMble HCnbITyeMblMH 110 pa3- HbIM TeCTaM, KoppenHpYJOT /Wyr C /WyroM (TO eCTb eCJlH HCllbI'rye- MbIC, 60nee ycnelllHbIe B OAHOM 811J1e AeJlTCJJbHOCTH, OKa3blBaIOTCJI 60nee ycncIIlHbIMH II B /WyrOM), TO npC.!UIOJlaraCTCH, '1TO ycnelll- MOCTb BbllIOJlHeHH!I 31'HX TecTOB onpe.rICJI!IeTC>! O.l1HOH H Toii >KC cno- C06HOCTbLO OCHOBHblM MCTOAOM onpe)1eJleHHH 3THX naTeHTHbIX nepe- MeHHblX (cnoc06HOCTeH, onpe)1enJlIOII1HX ycnCIIIHoCTb BbInOnHe- HUJI pa3HbIX 3aJJ,alIHii) HBJlHCTCJI ljJaKTopHbIii aHaJlH3, KOTOpblii npCACTaBmleT C060H CTaTHCTII'IeCKYJO npoueJ\ypy, n03BOJIJllOII1YlO Onl1CaTb 60nbWOC qUCJIO KOppeJIllpYJOII1HX /Wyr C /WyroM 'IepT C nOMOII1bTO HeCKonbKIIX JIe>KaII1HX B !IX OCHOBe lIepeMeHHblX (ljJaK- TOpOB). He KaCaJiCb MaTeMaTHqCCKoi! 6a3bI (jJaKTopHoro aHaJIH3a, paCCMOTpHM nOfliKY, Jle>KaII1YJO B OCHOBe !jJaKTopHO-aHaJIIITH'IeC- Koro Bbli\eneHHJI '1epT. .II.onYCTUM, npH IICCJIei\OBaHHII HeCKOJIbKUX nCHXOJIOrH'IeC- KHX xapaKTepllCTHK no Ka>KJ\OH 113 HliX 6bIJIH 06HapY>KeHbl HHJ\II- 246 J3)aKTOp A J3)aKTop Ei PlIC)'HOK 7.] ucnepcllu u tpaKmopbr ):IonYCTHM TaK>Ke, '1TO HCKOTopble H3 :nHX xapaKTepHCTIIK KOppeJrnPYJOT /Wyr C /WyrOM. 3T0 03HaqaeT, 'ITO OQeHKH pa3HbiX HCllblTYeMblX no OAHOH nCHxonoruqCCKOH XapaKTepHCTl!Ke KonapH- "PYJOT C oeHKaMH no /WyroH xapaKTcpllCTliKe. .II.OJIJI TO" KOBa- pua!.\HII B JI,IICnepCHH pa]Hb!X lJepT npeJl,CTaBJIeHa Ha pHcYHKe 7 1 3arnTpHxoBaHHoH qaCThTO KpyrOB. .II.HcnepclIII '1epTbI I KOBapllllpy- eT C }J;HcnepcHeii '1epTbI 2. 3Ta KOBapHaUI1H 06pa3yeT <jJaKTop A. .II.lIcnepcIIJI 'IepTbI 2 KOBapHupYeT C J\HcnepcHeH '1epThI 3. 3Ta KOBa- pllaHH 06pa3YeT !jJaJ<TOp D. TromM 06Pa:JOM, Ha OCHOBe KOppeJIJI- !.\UH MC>KAY '1epTaMH MO>KHO cljJopMHpoBaTb rpynllbl '1epT, uMelO- ll[HX MC>KAY C060H qTO-TO 06II1ee. 3Ta 06II1aJl naTeHTHaJi nepeMeH- Hall II HBJIJlCTCJlljJaKTopOM. Tenepb paCCMOTpHM, B qeM >Ke COCTom cOJ\ep>KaaHe (jJaKTOpOB. KaJK,i\aJl 'lepTa, npeACTanneHHaJi Ha pHcYHKe 7.1, HMeeT '1TO- TO 06II1ee C Jl,pyrOH bawTpHxOnallHaJi '1aCTb). BMeCTe C TeM, Ka>K- .!J;aH qepTa HMeeT H CBOTO cne!.\HljlHKY (He3aWTpuxoBaHHaJi '1acTh). HanplIMep, AeTlI, KOTopble J!Y'Iwe C'IHTaIOT, n cpe.!UIeM nY'lwe pc- walOT H npocrpaHCTBeHHbIe 3a.n;a'lH, HanpHMep, 6bIcrpee CKJIaI{bIBa- lOT (jJHrypKY H3 ee '1aCTCH. 3Haq1lT, B c'Iere II perneHHII npocrpaH- Cl'BCHHbIX 3aJ\a'l eCTh He'lTO 06II1ee, 'ITO npl'!BOJl,llT K KOppenHQHH Me>KJ\Y 3THMH xapaKTepHCTI1KaMIi. 3TO MO>KeT 6b1Th, aanpl1Mep, CKOpOCTb BbIOOJIHeHHJI 3a,![aHHH, H1IH 0c06eHHOCTK caMoperYIDII.(HI!, 247 
1<0TOpble cnoco5crnYIOT 31jJ(jJeKTIIBHOMY BbInOJIHeHlIIO caMbIX pa3- HbIX 3a,!1aHHH, IIJIII KaKHe-TO ApyrHc Ka'leCTBa, Hc05xo.flHMbIe AJIJI BbInOJIHeHIIJlII Toro IIl1Pyroro TeCTa. BMCCTC C TeM, 5blCTpOTa c'Ie- Ta HMeeT CBOIO CneQliljJlIKY, no cpaBHeHlIIO co cnO)J(eHlleM IjJl'!rypOK. aHa TpOOYeT YMeHIIJI onepl1pOBaTb QHljlpaMII, HeKOToporo ypOBHJI MaTCMaTI\qCCKIiX cnOCOOHOCTCH, TO CCTb Toro, '1TO HI1KaJ< He CBJl3a- HO C ycnewHbIM BbInOJIHeHHCM npocrpaHc.....eHHbIX TecTOB. I1Ha'ie rOBOpJl, eCJIII ABe 'IepTbI KOppeJIIiPYIOT, 3T0 03Ha'iaeT, qro y HIIX ecTb He'lrO 05wce, OjI,HaJ<O 3T0 He oTpIlQaeT TOro, 'ITO 01111 Moryr '1eM-TO II pa3JIH'IaTbCJI. l1>aKTopHbIH aHaJlH3 nOMOraeT BbIl\eJIlITb TO, 'ITO JU!iIJleTCJI OOWIlM AJIR pa3HbIX qepr. OH pa31\eJIReT JI,IICnepCIlIO 113Y'laeMbiX noKaJaTeJIeH Ha 06wYIO (npHcywYIO pJIJIY IICIIXOJIOrH'IeeKHX qepT) H CneQHljJllqeCKYIO IlJIIi YHI1KaJlbHYIO (npHcywYIO Ka)J(.n:oH KOHK- perHoii 'IepTe). M3TeMaTlf'leCKIf :no M01KeT OblTb Bblp31KeHO 1jJ0PMYJIOH: cr' = h' + u'= h'+ (s' + e'), Tl\e cr' - BCJI jl,HCnepcHJI 'IepTb!, h' - 'IaCTb .fIHcnepcHH, 06waJl IJ)IJI pa3Hbix 'IepT, u'- YHIIKaJIbHaJlI\HcnepclIJI, KOrOpaJi COCTOIIT 113 I\IIcnepCIIH, CneQlfljJlI'IeCKOH ,lI,iIJI Ka>KJ\oi! qepTbI (s'), H OWlf6KII 113- MepeHIDI, HeH35e)J(HO npHcyrcTllYIOweH B KaJK.aOM 3KcneptlMeHTaJlb- 110M HCCJle.I\OBaHHII (eZ). TaKHM 06pa30M, IICCJIel\YJl pa3HbIe 'IepTbI, Mbi MO)J(eM C no- MOWbIO ljIaKTopHoro aHaJIH3a 06beI\HHIITb 3TH '1epTbI B HeCKOJIb- KO rpynn H no COCTaBY Ka>KJ\OH rpynnbI (no TOMY, KaJ<He qeprbI BOWJIII B rpynny) onpel\eJIIITb, 'ITO JIe)J(HT B OCHOBe HX CXOJl,cTBa. HanpllMep, nOKa3areilll pJl,!1a cy6TeCToB .!!.eTCKOrO BapllallTa Tec- Ta BeKCJlepa - 06 w aJI ocae.l10MJleHHOCTb (onpe.!!.eJIJIeMaJI BO Bon- pocaM Tllna: "CKOJIbKO He.l1eJIb B ro.!!.y?"), Cxo.!!.CTBO ("qro 06- wero MeJKJ\Y nllallHHO II CKpIlIlKOH?"), CJIOBapb (noliliMalule 3Ha- '1eHHJI pa3HbIX CJIOB) II lIP. - CBHJI,eTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 pa3BI1TIIII Bep- 6aJIbHOrO IIHTenneKTa. Bep6aJIbHbIH IIHTeJIJIeKT - 3TO TO 06 w ee, 'ITO o5'bel\llllJleT pa3HbIe nOKa3aTeJlH, Ta CaM3J1 JIaTeHTHaSi nepe. MeHHaJI, KOTOpaJi 06eCnC'IIiBaeT KOppeJIJlQll1O Me)J(.!I.Y 3TI1MII cy6- TeCTaMIi. ITpH ljIaKTopH3aQIIIIIIOKa3aTeJIeH3THX cy6TecToB 6YlJ;eT BbllJ;eJIeH ljIaKTop, 3Ha'leHlle KOToporo 6Y.l1eT OnpelJ;eJIJlTbCJI Bep- 6aJ1bHbIM IIHTenneKTOM. TaKIIM 06Pa:lOM, ljIaKTOpHbli! aHaJlH3 n03BOJIJleT, Bo-nepBblx, crpynnllpoBarb HCCJJe.nyeMble 'IepTbI. BO-BTOPblX, 3Ta rpynnHpoBKa 248 npOIlJnO.l1HTCJI Ha OCHOBaHIIII rex cBR3ei!, KOTopbIe eCTb MeJKJ\Y lIe- peMeHllblMII, II npllBO):lllT K BbJ,ll.eneHlIIO 60JIee 06wl1x nClixonorll- qeCKIIX '1epT Tenepb paccMOTpIlM, KaK IIHTepnpeTllpYIOTCSI nOJIY'leHHble ljJaKTopbI, KaK BbllICHJleTCIl cO.llep1KaHm: J1aTeHTHoH nepeMeHHoii, onpeJl,eJIJllOwei! KOppeJIJlQlI11 Me)J(.!I.Y 'IepTaMII. ECTb ABa KiIaCCII'IeeKHX npllMepa, Jl,eMOHCTjJHpYIOwIlX 3Mnll- pH'IecKHH CMblcn lj)aKTOPHOro aHaJIlI3a. ITepBblH 113 HIIX - 3TO "KO- p06Ka TepCToHa". JI.TepCTOH 6pa.rr pa:lHbIe Kop06KII II H3MepJlJI Y HIIX Bce pa3Mepbl, KaJ<He TOJIbKO MO)J(HO nplI.!I.YMaTb - ,!VIHHY, WH- PHHY, Pa3JIHqHble JI,IIarOHaJIH. Bcero y Ka1l()J.0H Kop06K11 OH Bbl'lHc- JIJlJI 26 nOKa3aTeJIei!. ITpOKoppeJIlipOBaB 3TII 1I0Ka:laTeJIH Me)l(J\y co60i!1'! npOBeJI,JIlj)aKTOpHblii aHaJIH3 Ha OCHOBe CBJl3eH MeJKJ\Y P33- JIIlqHblMH nOKaJaTeJIJIMH, OH BbJ,ll.eJIliJl 31j)aKTopa - ,!VIIIHY, Wllpli- HY II BbICOT)'. TaKIiM 06pa30M. 3 JIarCHTHble nepeMeHHble JIBJllIIOTCJI OCHOBHbIMII ,!VIR BceX IIPYrHX p33MepOB. OCTaJIbHblC - I1POIl3BO){- HblMH OT 3TI1X Tpex. BTOPOH npliMep- 3TO "wap K3TTena". P.KmeJI 113MepJlJI He TOJIbKO pa:lMepbl pa:JJIII'IHb!X wapOB, HO H Ou,eHHBaJI pa:llIH'IHhle napaMeTpblllX ,!!,B1I)J(eHIIJI Ha HaKIlOHHblX !lJJOCKOCTJlX. B IITore 1jJaJ<- TOpl13aQIIII nOJl)'qeHHbIX nepeMeHHLIX OH 1I0JIY'I1fJI TpH lj)aKTopa - pa:lMep, Bee 11 3JIaCTU'IHOCTb. 3TH,!!,Ba npHMepa nOKa3bIBa1OT, qTO ljJaKTOpHblH aHaIDf3 ):Iei!- CTBHTeJIbHO n03BOJlJieT BLJ,II.C1IHTb Hall50nee cywecrneHHble 'IepTbl. Tenepb paCCMOTpHM, KaJ< npOll3B0.l111TCH HHrepnpeTaQHH KOHKpeT- IILIX 3xcnepllMeHTaJlLHbIX .!!.aHHbIX. .II.onYCTIIM, B 3xcnepHMeHTe 113MepJIJIOCb 4 '1epTbI. Ha3BaHlie 3THX 'IepT II Q>aJ<TopllaJi MaTpIlQa, nonY'IeHHaJi nOCJIe ljIaKTopll3a- U,I1H peJYJIbTaTOB, npe.l1CTaBJIeHbl B 'ra6JIHQe 7.1. B nepBoM lj)aKTope Hal160JIbWlle ljJaKTOpHLle Beca UMCIOT nepBLle,!!,Be '1epTLI, CB1I3aHHbIe co CKOpOCTbIO peWeHHJI 33,lJ.a'l (0,9 H 0,8). Ha 3TOM OCHOBaHl1II Mbl MO)J(eM 3aKJIlO'IHTb, qTO CO):lep)J(aHlie nepBOro ljJaKTopa onpe):leJIJIeTCJI CKOpOCTHbIMII xapaKTepllCTHKaloll1 ):IC1ITeJIbHOCTII. Bo BTOpOM IjJaJ<Tope Hall50JIbWHe Beca IIMelOT noxa- 3aTeJIII rex 3a.aaHHH, ycnewHoCTb BbInOJIHeHHJI KOTOphlX CBJl3aHa C lIaMJlTblO (0,8 II 0,7). CJIe){OBaTeJThHO, CO.flepJKaHlfe BToporo 4JaKTO- pa 05YCJIOBJIeHO naMJlTblO. TaKIIM 06Pa:lOM, CKOpOCTb l\eJITeJThHOC- Tii H naMJlTb JlBJlJiIOTCJI TeMH XapaKTepIlCTHKaMH, KOTopLle onpe,ll.e- JIJlIOT B3aHMOCBJI3H MeJKJ\Y '1eTLIphMH liCCJle.I\OBaBWHMHCJI nepeMeH- 249 
0,1 0.3 0.8 0,7 L.lepTbi Q)aKTOpbl (recroBwe nepBOrO nOKa33TenM) nOpAKa X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X PUCy"OK 7.2 lfepapxWlecK{JJj cmpYKmypa qJaKmopo8 Q)a.KTOpbl 8TOp()rO nOpAA1I'a 4>aKTopbl TpeTbero nOPRAKa <baKTOp "g" Ta6J1ul4a 7.1 tPaKmOpHaJl cmpYKmypa 'lemblpex nepe.uellllbJX (zunomemU'leCKUU I1pUMep) 4epTa <baKTop 1 CKOpOCH. peUJeHR 3a,Q,3\.1 0.9 CKOpOCTb c.nO)l(eHA CPl4ryp 0,8 noaTOpeH" H<j>p D,2 nOBTopeHe npeAnO'JKeHI4Q; 0,4 4>aK'Top 2 HbiMII. CKOpOCTh II naMBTb npe.ll.CTaBJIIOT c060ii 60JIee 06ll.\He qepTbl no OTHOWeHlI1Q K '1eTbIpCM 60JIee '1aCTHbIM (TCCTOBbIM no- Ka3aTeJIBM). ECJIH nOJlyqeHH}'IO <PaKTOpH}'IO MaTpHI1Y onTh ljJaKTOpH30' BaTh, TO MOJKHO nOJIY'lI1Tb "opaKTopbl opaKTopOB" !lJIII opaKTopbl BToporo nop!Ii\Ka. BTOpll'lHble <PaKTOpbI npCACTaBJIJIIOT c060ii ClI1C 60JIee o606111eHHble qepTbI, qeM nepB!lqHbIe. ct>aKTopH3al1l1!I BTO- pll'lHbIX IjJ3KTopOB n03B0JIl1T nOJIY'lHTb ell1e 60JIee 06ll.\He !jJaKTopbI TpeTberO nopJli\Ka If T..lI.. T3KHM 06pa30M, Ha OCHOBe lj!aKTOpHOrO aHaJlH3a MOJKHO no- crpOIfTb l1epapxlIIO '1epr reCTOBble nOKa3aTeJIII - > <paKTOpbI nep- Boro nop!Ii\Ka - > IjJ3KTOpbI BTOpOro nopJI.!I.Ka - > If T J1,. (PIlCY- HOK 7.2). TeCToBble nOKa3aTeJll1 npe,lJ;CTaBJlBIOT c060ii MHOJKeCTBO pa311006pa3Hblx qepT, <paKTOpbl nepBoro nopB,l\Ka rpynnllpyroT 3TH '1epTbl II CBO):(llT IIX K MCHbWCMY tJllcny nOKa3aTlJleH, lj!aKTOpbl BTO- poro nopJli\Ka n03BOJUlIOT HaiiTII TO 06ll.\ee, '1TO ecTb B 3TI'!X rpyn- nax, II CBO):(llT IIX K ell.\e MeHbweMY '1I1Cny nOKa3aTeneH. OnllcaHHa npol1e.uypa IjJ3KTOpIl3aI1HII npCACTaBJIBeT c060ii TaK Ha3blBaeMbIH onlfcaTenbHblH (IIJIH HCCJle.n.oBaTeJIbCKIIH) !jJaK- TOpHbIH aHaJlII3 C era nOMOll1bIO 3Mmlpll'leCKI1 BbI!ICHJleTCJI cTpj'K- Typa pa3J1l1tJHbIX xapaKTCpl1CTIlK. 3TO Hall60Jlee pacnpocrpaHeH- HbIU BapHaHT Ij!3KTOpHOro aHaml3a, TeXHIIKII KOToporo pa3BHBa- WTC!I Ha npOTJIJKeHHIl Bcero XX BeKa, HatJHHaJi C pa60T K.IIKpco- Ha (1901 r.) H q.CnHpMeHa (1904 r.) 3Ha'iIlTeJIbHO n03)!(e, B 1978 roJ1,y, WBCI\Cl<lIii CTaTHCTHK K.HopecKor !lpCAlIO)!(HJI KaqeCTBCHnO HOBblii !lOII.XO.ll. !jJaKTopHo- aHaJIIITH'IecKoro IICCJle.n.OBaHII, KOTOpbIU 6blJl Ha3Ban KOHqmpMa. TOpHbIM (nOJI,TBCpJf\l(aIOll.\HM) <paKTOpHbIM 8HamI30M. Cyn, era co- CTOIIT 1\ IIpOBepKC reopern'lecKllx npeACTaBJIeHIIH 0 crpyKType pa3- 250 JIHqHblX xapaKTepHCTIIIC HCCJle.ll.OBaTeJIb, 113Y'laIOll.\HH TY IIJlIIIIH}'IO nCHXOJIorllqCCKj'IO peaJIbHOCTb, BblCKa3bIBaeT rHnoTe3Y a crpj'KTY- pe !lCHXOJIOrH'IeCKIfX !lpI13HaKOB H npOBepJleT, KaKOBa BepOBTHOCTb COBnaJl,eHII!I rHnOTeTH'IeCKOH CTpYKTYPbI C peaJIbHbIMIf 3KcnepH- MCHTaJIbHbIMIf l\aHHblMII. 3aBepWa!I onlfcaHHe opaKTopHoro aHa1l113a, !lO.ll.'1epKHeM BaJKHYw oco6eHHocTb !jJaKTOpHO-alfa!ll{Tli'ieCKliX npol1e,ltyp 3Ha!I npOl.\e.n.ypy nOJIytJeHHB !jJaKTOPOB, MO)!(HO nOH!ITb, 'ITO opaKTopbl. nonyqCHHble Ha OCHOBe nCIIX01l0rlltJecKllx oc06eHHoCTeH (Ha!lpHMep, TeCTOBblX nOKa3aTeJleii), npeACTaBJI!!IOT co6oii He CYM- MY Bcero Toro, qTO eCTb B OTJI,eJlbHbIX oc06eHHOCTJlX, a TY 6a30B}'IO XapaKTepIfCTHKY, KOTOpa!! ne)f(HT B If X aeHOBe H oupe.ll.eIDIf.'I' B3a11- MOCB!I311 Me)K)J,y H>lMH. I1MeHHo 3TlfM <paKTOpHo-aHanIfTllqeCKIIH noAXO.ll. (1IIIC!l01lb3}'!OlUal! ero nCIIXOMeTpll'lCCKal! Tpll.ll.llll(.fB 113Y'le- HHI! IIHTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHOH c<j)epbl) npl1BneKaeT IICCJleJl,OBaTeJIeU reHe- TIIKI1 nOBeAeHIIJI: 1IOrll'lHO npeJl,nOJIO)J(IITb, 'ITO HMeHHO 6a30Bble XapaKrepHCTIIKH, DJlpMemlJOI.QJlC ycnelliHOCTJ, BWnOJJHeHIIJI pa3HbIX 251 
BHAOB HHTeJIJICKT)'aJIbHOHlleSlTeJIbHOCTIf II B HalfMCHbWeH CTcneHH CBH3aHHbre CO cnet1t!</JHKOH TOK H.lUf JlHOH KOrHHTHBHOii oco6eHHO- CTII, OKaJKYTCJI n Hall60J1bweK CTeneHI1 CBR3aHbl C reHomnOM. 1.2. ITcRXOMt:TpR'leCKHe TeopHH HIITeJIJIeKTa 3TOMY HB HHX He CTOI1T oplleHTllpOBaTbCR npll C031(aHHI1 ItHTeJI. qeKTyaJlbHblX TeCTon. TaKHM 06pa30M, CTPYKTypa IfHTCillJC](TyaJIbHbIX CBOHCTB, npCJI,OOJKeHHaJI q.CnHpMeHOM, OK33blBaeTCJI qpe3BbIqaHHO npOCTOH H onHCblBae-rCIII!;BYMH Blf,gaMH </JaKTOp<JB - 06Ul.HM If cnelUf!j>H'leC- KHMH. 3ut )(IIa BltAa !j>aKTopOB II AaJJR Ha3BaHHC TCOpRIf q.CnHp' MeHa  AByx!j>al(TOpHaH reopllR HHTCillJCKTa. B 60llee n03J1,HeH pel\lIKL\HIf 3TOH TeopllH, nOHBlIBweHCR B C peAHHe 20-x rOlloB, q.Cm'lpMeH npH3HaJl CYIl\CCTBOBaHHC CBJl3eH Me)l(Jl,y HeKOTOpJ.IMH HHTenneKT)'aJIbHbIMH TCCTaMII. 3TH CBR311 HC- B03MOJKHO 6bIJlO 06'LRCHIfTb Hif !j>aKl'opm,\ g, HM CneLlJ'HjmqeCKHMII cnoc06HOCTS!MIf, If n03TOMY q.CnHpMeH BBcn AfU! 06LRCHeHlfH 3THX CBJl3eH TIIK Ha3bIBaeMble rpynnoBbIe !j>aKTOpbl - 60J1ee 06IUHe, qeM CneL\II!j>II'IeCKHe, II MeHee 061l\He, qeM !j>aKTOp g. 0.lUf1lK0 npH 3TOM OCHOBHOH nOCTYllaT TeopHH q.CnHpMeHa OCTaJICH HeH3MeHHbIM: IIH.lUfBlfJ\YaJIbHble paJJIH'II1R Me)l(Jl,y JIJO)1bMII no HHre.nnelITyaJIbHbIM XapaKTepllCTIIKaM OnpeAeJIRIOTCS! npCHMYll\emeHHO 06U1,HMH cno. C06HOCTJlMH, TO eCTb !j>aKTOpOM g. HaH50JIee aAcKBaTHbIMH JI,OJI AHarHOCTHKI1 TaKHX o6IUlfX nCHXOJlorHqeCKI\X llapaKTepl1CTHK OKa3allHCb TCCTOBble 3a.n:aHHH, CBH3aHHbIe C nOIfCKOM aHaJlOrIlH. llpllMepoM MCTO.lUfKII B OCHOBe KOTOpOH !Ie)l(HT nOIlCK BHa]IOTnii, H1JJJHITCJiI TeeT PaBeHa (H!In npo- rpeCCIIBHblC MaTpHL(b1 PaBeHa), KOTOpblH 6bIJI C03MH CneL\HaJIbHQ )1IIJI AHarHOCTHKIf ljJaKTopa g. I1.n.eOJlOrIlR ABYXqJaKTOpHOH TeopHH IIHTeJIJIeKTa q.CnllpMeHa HCnOJIb30BaJlaCb nplt C031\aHHII pJl.!l.a IIH- TCJ1l1eKTyaJIbHbIX TeCTOB, lIeKOTopble H3 KOTOpblX npHMeHRIOTCJI 13 nCHXOJIOrHH no ceH l(eHb. C KOHl.\a 20-x rOAOB nOHBJlJIIOTCJI pa60TbI, B KOTOpblX BbICKa- 3bIB1UOTCJI COMHeHHII B YHIJBepcarrbHOCTII </JaKTOpa g IIJIII flOHIlAla- HIfJll'!lW\BllJI.)'aJIbHblX Pa3JIHqHH B HHTenneKT)'aJlbHbIX oc06eHHoc- TIIX, a B KOHC 30-x ro.n:OB CYll\eCTBOBaHlle B3allMOHe3aBI1CHMbIX Q>aKTopOB HHTeJlJIeKTa 3KcnepHMeHTaJlbHO AOKaJblBaeTCSI. " B 1938 r. 6b1J1a ony6JIHKOBaHa pa60Ta JIblOllca TepcToHa ITepBIt'lHble YMCTBeHHbJe cnoco6HoCTII", B KOTOpOH aBTop npe)1- CTaBHJI ojJaKTopH3al.\HIO 56 nCHXOJIOrlfljeCKIIX TCCTOB, .n:HarHOCTH- PYIOIl\ItX pa3Hbie IIHTCJ1J1eICTyaJlbHble xapaKTepHCTHKII. Ha OCHO- BaHIIII3TOH ljJaKToplnal.\1f1i JI TepcToH BbIJJ;eJIIiJI 12 HC3aBIICIIMb!X Q>al<TOpOB TecTbl, KOTopble BXOJl,HJIH B KaJK.!I.blH ljJaKTop, 6blJIII B3HTbI 3a OCHOBY npH C03.n.aHIIII HOBbIX TeCTOBblX 6aTapeH, KOTO- 253 Ha'laJIO nCHxOMeTpHqeCKoMY nOjI,Xol\Y, IIcnollb3YIOIUeMY <paKTOpHblH aHaJIm )1IIJI HCCJIeAOBaHIIH CTpYJCTYPbI CBOHCTB IIHTelI- JIeKTa, 6bIJIO nOJIO)l(eHO Y'IeffHKOM <D fllJIbTOHa aHrJJHiiCKIfM nCHXO- JlOrOM H CTaTIICTIIKaM qapJlb30M CnHpMeHoM. q.CnllpMeH o6paTIIJI BHIIMaHife Ha TO, IjTO Me)l(Jl,y pa:JHbiMII IIHTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHblMH TeCTa Mil CYIUeCTB)'IOT KOPPeJIJIL\HII: TOT, KTO XopOWO BbITIOJIHJlCT OJI,HH TetTbl, OKaJbIBaeTCJI, B q>eJl,HeM, AOBOJlb- HO ycnewHblM II B A]JYTIIX. Ami Toro '1T06bI nOI'!JlTb npllQHHY 3mx KOppCJ1RIIH, q.CnllpMeH p33pa60TaJI B 1904 r. CneL\HaJIbHYIO CTa- THCmQecI<ylO np0l.\el\Ypy (!j>aKTopHbIi! aHaIl1l3), n03BoiISlIOIU)'IO 06'be)],HHHTb KoppeJIl1pYIOIUlte nOKa3aTeJlII IIHTenneKTa 11 onpeJl,e- illlTb TO MHHIIMaJIbHOe KOiIH'IeCTBO IIHTCJlJIeKTYaJIbHbIX xapaJ<Tepll- CTHK, KOTopoe Heo6xo.lUfMO MJI 06'bJlCJ1eHl1>l CBJl3eH MeJK.11Y PaJHbI- Mil TeCTaMH. ilpOBe,!UI ljJaKTopll3al.\HIO pa311bIX TeCTOB I1HTCnneKTa, q.CnHpMeH npHlliell K BblBOAy, QTO KOppeJlHl.\1I1I Me)l(Jl,y TeCTaMH HBJIHIOTCJI Clle.l\CTBHeM 06IUero ojJaKTopa, lIeJKall.\ero B HX OCHone. 3ToT ljJaKTOp OH Ha3BaJI "!j>aKTOp g" (OT CJlOBa general - 061l\IIH). 061l\IIH ljJaKTOp HMee-r pewalOIUee 3HaqeHHe )1IIJI ypOBHJlIIHTeJIJICK- Ta: COrJIaCHO IIpCi1CTa8JICHI1HM q.COHpMeHa, II10AH p83JIH'I8IOTCII no CBOHM cnoc06HOCTHM, rJIaBHblM 06pa30M, nOTOMY, 'ITa OHH B pa3HOH CTeneHH 06JlaJl,alOT <paKTOpOM g. KpOMe 061l\ero !j>aKTopa, eCTb ell\e II Cllel\lIojJH'IeCKlle, on- pellCJIlllOll.\lfc ycneWHoCTb BbITIOIIHeHHII pa3Hbix KOHKpeTllblX Te- CTOB. Tal<, BbITIOIIHeHHe npoCTpaHCTBeHHblX TeCTOB 3aBilCIIT OT ljJaKTopa g H npOCTpaHCTI!ellHbIX cnoco6HocTeH, MaTeMaTllqeC- KHX TeCTOB - OT Q>aKTopa g H MaTeMaTII'IeCKItX cnOC06H:OCTeii. qeM 60llbwe BIIIIHIIHe !j>aKTopa g, TeM BbIwe KOppeJlRL\1I1I MeJKAY TeCTaMI1, qeM 60JlbWe BJIHHIIHe cneHQ>HqeCKIIX ljJaKTopoB, TeM MeHblIle OKa3bIBaeTCJI CBJl3b MC1ImY TeCT8MII. BJ1I1J1HHe Cnel.\HIjJH- '1eCKHX ljJaKTopoB lJa IIIIJI,IfBHAyaJlbHble pa3JIlfljlfR MeJKny JIIOl\b- Mil, KaK CqllTaJI q.CnltpMeH, If MeeT orpaHH'IeHHOe 3Ha'leHHe, no- CKOJIbKY OHII npOJlBJIJlIOTCS! )\aJIeKO He BO Bcex C/lTyal.\I'IHX, /I no- 252 
pb.e B CBOlO O'lepClI.b fiblJlH npOBc.nCHbI Ha pa3HbIX rpynnax IIC- nbiTyeMblx I'! OnHTb ljJaKTopH30BaHbl. B pe3yrrbTaTe JI.TepcToH npllllleJI K BbIBO.ny, qTO B IIHTeJIJIeKTyallbHoH cljJcpc cyeCTBYeT, KaK MHHHMYM, 7 lIe3aBIICHMblX IIHTcJIJIeKTyallbHblx ljIanopOB - nOHHMaHHe 3Ha'leHHlI ClIOB, 6erllocn peqH, onepaLl;Jllr C '1HClIa- MH, BOCnpll!lTHe npOCTpBHCTBeHHblx COOTHOWCHHIi, naMJlTb, CKO- pOCTb BOCnpIlIITIIR, 1I0rJr'lCCKOC MbllliJIeHHc. TaKHM 06pa30M, CTpYKTYPa HHTCJIJIeKTa, no n.TepcToHY, npCII.CTaBJ1l1eT C050H Ha- 60p B3BHMOHC3aBHCHMblX II pllJl,OnOJIOJl(eHHblX IIHTeJIlIeKTyallb- HbIX XapaKTepHcTHK. B pa60Tax nOCJ!e)10BaTeJIeH JI.TepCTolla KOJIHqCCTBO ljJaKTo- pOB, no.rry'lBCMbIX npllljJalnOpll3B1.\HII HHTeJIJIeKryaJlbHbIX TeCTOB (a CJIC)10BaTCJThHO, H KOJlH'ICCTBO IIHTeJlJIeKTYaJIbHblX XapaKTepHcTHK, KOTopble Heo6xoII.IIMO onpe)1eJIJ1Th npH aHaJDl3e IIHTeJUJeKryaJIbHoji cljJepbl), 6blJlO ynemrqeH0)10 19 (Hanp!lMep, Pawlik K., 1966). Ho, KaK BbIilCHI-IJIOCb, TO 6b!!I )1aJIeKO HC npe)1eJ1. HaH60JIbwec 'IHCrro XapalnepllCTI'!K, lICJKBwHX B OCHOBe HH- Jl,HBH.D;YaJIbHblX pa:mIl'lIiH B IIHTelUleKTyanbHoH cljJepe, 6bIDO Ha3BB- HO .II.JI\ fliJlIjJOp)10M. COI'lIaCHO TeOpeTl1'1eCKHM npell.CTaBJleHHJlM .II.JI(.rl'!lIljJoPAa, BbmOIlHeHHe 1II060H IIHTellJleKTyaJIbHOIi 3aJl,a'lH 3aBHCHT OT Tpex KOMnOlIeHTOB - onepaLl;HH, cO)1epJKaHHJI II pC- 3YlIbTaToB. Onepau:,m rrpeJ1:CTIIBJHUOT c060ii TC YMCIIHR, KOTopbIe '1eJIO- BeK )10llJKeH npOIlBHTb npll peilleHIIH HHTenneKTyanbHoH 3a.na'lll. aT Hero MO)l(eT nOlpe6oBBTbCH nOHIiMBHHC Toli HHljJopMaUIIH, KO- TOpaJi eMY rrpCJI,'bJIB1IIIeTCII, ee 3anOMIIHaHHe, nOHCK npaBHJlbHOrO OTBCTa H T.)1. COlI.epJKaHHe onpe.neJIJleTCJI 1jJ0pMOH nOll.a'lU IIHIjJOp/oIaL\UH HHljlopMaL\I1J1 MOJl(eT 6blTb rrpCACTaBJICHa 8 3pHTeJIbHOH q.opMe H 8 CJIYXOBOH, MOJKeT co.nep>KaTb CHMBOJIHqecKHH MaTepHaJI, ceMBHTH- '1ecKIIH (TO CCTb npell.CTaBJleHHbIH B crrOBeCHOH 1jJ0pMC) H nOBe)1eH- 'lCCKHH (TO ecTb 06HaPY)I(HBaeMWii npH 06eHJm C i:IpyrHMH mo.!ij,- MH, Kor)1a no nOBeJjeHll1O lI.PyrHX mol\eH He05xoII.I1MO nOHJlTb, KBK npaBI-IJIbHO pearupoBaTb Ha lI.eHCTBHII OKPYJKBIOIIX). Pe3YlIbTBTbI, TO eCTb TO, K qeMY B HTore rrpHxo.n:IIT qeJIO- BeK, peIllBIOHH IIHTCJI1IeKTYaJlbHyro Jal\a'lY, MorYT 5b1Tb npel\- CTaBJICHbI B BHlI.e CjI,IIHH'IHbIX OTBeTOB, B BHAe KlIaeCOB HJIH rpynn OTBeTOB PelllaJi 3aJja'lY, qeJlOBCK MOJl\CT TaK>KC HaiiTH eOOTHome- Hlle MCy pa3HbfMH 06'6eKTaMH HJIH nOHJlTb !IX CTpYKTypy (CII- 254 CTeMY, rreJKaLI\Y1O B IIX OCHOBe). OH MOJKeT TaKJKC npeo6pa30BaTb KOHe'lHbIH pe3YlIbTaT cBoeii HHTellJIeKTyallbHoii l\eJlTeJIbHOCTI! 11 Bblpa3HTb ero COBepmCHHO B lI.PyroH 1jJ0pMC, HeJKeJIH: Ta, B I<OTO- pOIf "aBarrCR HCXOJl.HbJii MaTepHaJ1 HaKOHeII, OH MOJl(CT BbliiTH: 3a paMKH TOH IIHljJopMaLl;HH, KOTopaJi CMY ABHa B TeCToBOM MaTepH- we, II HaHTH 3lia'leHHe HJIII CKpblTbIH eMbICJI, JIeJKaHH B oeHOBe nOH HHljJopMaI.\HH, '11'0 11 npHBe.neT ero K npaBHJlbHOMY OTBeT)'. CO'leTaHlle 3THX Tpex KOMnOHeHTOB HHTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHOii I\C>!- TeJlbHOCTH - Onepal.\lIH, cO)J,epJKaHHH H PC3YJIbTaTOB - 06pa3YeT 150 xapmepllCTHI< HHTeJlJIeK'ra (5 BH)J,OB onepaUIIH YMHOJKHTb Ha 5 1jJ0pM CO)J;Cp)f(IUiI!JlI1 YMHO)l(lfTb Ha 6 BH)1()B J>e3YJIbTaTOB, TO CCTh 5 x 5x 6 = 150) IJpOBO,1\Jl nO'iTH 40 lIeT q.3KTopHO-aHamITH'IeCKlle IICCJICII.O- BaHHJI, ,D,>K fnnljloPA C0311.aJJ TeCTbl MJI jI,IIarHOCTIIKII ABYX TpeTeH TeOpeTII'IeCKII onpCII.CJleHHbIX HM IIHTeJIJICKTYaJlbHblX xapaKTepll- CTHK H nOKa3aJI, '1TO MOll[HO BbI)J,CJlHTb KaK MHHMMYM 105 He3a- BHCHMblX ljJaKTOpoB (Guilford J.P., 1982). Ojl,llaKO B3allMHaH He- 3aBllCHMOCTb 3TIIX lj>aKTopoB nOeTOJlHHO fIot(Beprae-rcR cO/<lHe- Hmo, a caiola IIl\eJl ,D,JK.fIlJlljlop.n:a 0 cyeCTBoBaHHH 150 OTAe1lb- HblX, He CBR3a1!HbIX JWyr C "pyrOI>! IIHTeJIJleKTYaJ1bHbfX xapaKTe- pllCTHK lie BCTpe'laeT CO'lYBCTBH>! Y flCHXOJlOrOB, 3aHHMalOIl\IIXCJI HCC1IC)\OBaHlleM HIIt\IIBHJ\.VaJlbHbIX p33JIH'IHH. OHH corllaCHb! C TeM, qTO Bee MHoro06p33He IIHTeIDIeKryaJIbHblX XapaKTepilCTHK HeJlb3J1 CBOII.IITb K OAHOMY 06weMY ljJaKTOPY, HO COCTaBJIeHlle KaTaJlOra H3 nOllYTopa COTeH ljJaKTOpOB npe)J,CTaBJIJleT C060H II.PYJ)'lO Kpaii- HOCTb He06xo)1HM0 6b!JIO I1CKaTI, enoco5hI, KOTopbIe nOMorllH 6bl ynopRJjO'lHTb H COOTHeCTH "pyr C ./lPyroM pa3Ho06pa3Hble xapaKTCpllCTIIKH IIHTellJlCKTa. B03MOJKHOCTb c.nenaTb 31'0 BlIJ\eJIaCb MHOrHMn HCClIeJjOBaTe- 1I>IMII B HaXOJK)J;eHnH TaKIIX IIHTeJIJICKryaJIbHblX xapaKTcpliCTIIK, KO- TOpbIC 51,( npCACTaBlI>llIlI C050H npOMeJKYTO'lHblH ypoBeHb MCJK.I!Y 06 W IIM ljJaKTopoM (<jJaKTOpOM g) H OT.neJIbHblMH pJlJ\onOJIOJKCHHbI- Mil Xaplll<TepllCTHKaMI1 (TaKIIMII, KaK BbllI.CJIeHHMe n.TepCToHoM II ,[IJI\.fHJI!jJOp.uOM). K l!a'laJIY 50-x rOJjOB nOHBJIJllOTCH pa60TbI, B KOTOpblX rrpcJ\- lIaraeTCR paccMaTp!IBilTb pa:JllII'IHbJC IIHTeJIJIeKTyaJlhHwe xapaKTc- PIICTHKH KaK HepapXH'IeCKH opraHII30BaHHbie CTpYKTypbI. B 1949 r aHrnHHCKHIi IICClIC)tOBaTeJIb Cl1pllJI DepT ony6- JIH:KOBaJl TeOpCTHqecKYIO cxeMY, COrJIaCHO KOTOpoii B CTpYKType 255 
HHTeJ1J1eKTa cYlI1ecTByer 5 yp01lHeH. HH31l1H» ypoBeHI> 06pa3Y1OT :meMeH1'apHble ceHcopHbIe II MOTopHbie npoI.(eCcbI. BOJ1ee 06I'!M (BTOpbIM) ypoBHeM JlBJIJlIOTCJI llepl.\enl.\HJI 11 MOTOpH3J1 Koop.n:l1Ila- I.\HJI. TpeTHH ypoBeHb npell;CTaBJIJlIOT C060H npOl.\eCCbl BbIpa60T- KII HaBbIKOB H naMJlTb. Ee 60JIee 06HM ypOBHeM ('1eTBepTbIM) JlBJI>!IOTCJI npOl(eCCbI, CBJl3aHHI>Ie C JIOrll'leCKHM 0606eHHeM, 11, HaKOHel.\, nJiThIH ypoBeHI> o6pa3yeT 06H» Ij!alnop IIHTeJIJIeKTa (g). CxeMa C.DepT3 npaKTI1'1eCKH He nOJlY'lIlJI3 3KcnepIIMeHTam,- Hoil npOBepKI1, HO :no 61>IJIa nepBaJi nOnbITKa C0311;aTb lIepapxlI- qeCK)'IO CTpYKTYPY HHTeJlJIelnyanbHblx xapaKTepHCTI1K. Pa60Ta l.1Pyroro aHrJ1H»CKoro HCCJIeIl;OBaTeJIJI, It>HJ1Hna BepHOHa, ony6JIIIKOBaHHaJi B TO JKe BpeMJI (1950 r.), I1MeJla noJl,- TBepJK.l\eHI1J1, norry'leHHble B lj!aKTopHo-aHaill1Tl1qeCKIIX HCCJIeJl,O- BaHIIJlX. It>.BepHoH BbIJI,eJII1JI '1eThlpe ypOBHJI B CTpYKTYPe IIHTeJl- JIeKTyaJII>HbIX xapaKTepllcTHK - 06IIH HHTeJIJIeKT, OCHOBHbIe rpynnoBbIe ljJaKTOpbI, BTopocreneHHble rpynnoBbIe ljJaKTopbl H CneI.\HIjJI1'1eCKHe lj!aKTOpb(. Hall60ilee 113BecTHY1O B cOBpeMeHHoH nCHXOJlOI'IiH Hepap- XllqecKYIO cTpYKTYPy HHTeJ1J1eKTa npe,!\JIOJICHII aMepHKaHcKHH HC- Cile;:(OBaTeilb PaHMOIU\ K:.ITTeJI (Cattell R., 1957, 1971). P.K:.ITTeJI II ero KOJlJlerl1 npell;nOJIOJKHJ1H, '1TO OTII;eJlbHI>Ie HHTeJUleKTyaJIb- HbIe xapaKTepHCTI1KII, BblJl,eJIeHHble Ha OCHOBe ljJaKTopHoro aHa- JIH3a (TBKHe, KaK OepBH'IHble YMCTBeHRbIe cnoco6HOCTH JI.Tep- CTORa I1JII1 He3aBI1CI1Mble lj!aKTopbI .II.JK.fl1J1(jJopII;a), npH BTOpH'I- HOH ljJaKTOp!l3al(IIH 06'beIl;IIHJlTCJI B II;Be rpynnbI IIJIII, B TepMI1HO- JIOrllH aBTopOB, B JUla llIHpOKHx lj!aKTopa. Oi\llH H3 H!lX, Ha3BaH- Hblil KpI1CTaJIJIH30BaHHb!M HHTeJIJleKTOM, CBJl3aH C TeMK 3HaHKR- MH H HaBbIKaMH, KOTopble npll06peTeHbl '1eJIOBeKOM - "KpI1C- TaJIJII!30BaHbI" B npoQecce 06y'leHIIJI. BTOpOH WHPOKIII! lj>aI<TOp- Ij!moHMbIH HHTCJIJ1eKT - MeHbllle CBJl3aH C 06yqeHHeM II 60JIb- mc - co cnoco6HOCTblO 8.11.8nTKpOBarbCR K lfeJHaxOMblM C"Tya- 1.\1111101. qeM BbIwe IjJJlIOH.II.Hblii IIHTeJIJIeKT, TeM Jler'le 'IeJIOBeK CnpaBJIlJerCIJ C HOOMMH, HenpHBbI'IHbIMII JI]UI Hero np06i1eMHbIMK cIITyaI.\HJlMH. BH8'18ne npe.ll.nonaraJIOCb, '11'0 lj>JIIOHlJ.HbIH HHTeJJJIeKT B 60JIbWeH <:TeneHII CBJl3aH C nPIJPOi\llblMIJ 3a.n:aTKaMH IJHTeJIJIeKTa II OTHOCHTeJIbHO cB060.n:eH OT BJlHJlHIIJI 06pa30BaH!lJI H BocnHTa- HIIJI (TeCTbI ero lJ.llarHOCTHKII TaK II H83bIBanliCb - TeCTbl, CBO- GaMble aT KYJIbTypbI). Co BpeMeHeM crano JlCHO, 'ITO 06a BTO- 256 pH'IHbIX ljJa1\TOpa, XOTIJ II B paJHOH cTeneHII, HO Bee )J(e CBJl3aHbl C 06pa30BaHHeM II B Oi\llHaKoBoit <:TeneHH HCnblTJ,lBalOT BJIHJlHlle H3CJIelJ.CTBeHHOCTIl (Horn J., 1988). B HaCTOJlUlee BpeMJI y)J(e He IICnOJIb3YeTCJI HHTepnperaQHJI IjJJIlOHI\HOrO II KpIiCTaJlJ11130BaH- 1I0ro IIHTeJIJIeKTa KaK xapaKTepllCTIIK, IIMelOHx pa3H)'IO npll- POll;y (oaHa - 60JIec "COQllaJIbHaJl", a l.1Pyru- GOJIee "6110- ilorH'IeCKaJl"). Bnocne.nCTBHII, npll npoaOJJ:)J(eHIIII HCCJIMOBaHllii, P.Kn- TenOM Hero KOJIJICTaMIl GblJIO 06HapYJKeHO, '1TO '111CJ10 BTOpll'l- IIblX WHPOl(IJX <\IaJ(Top06 He CBOaHTCJI K JUlYM. KpOMe <\IJlIOI1)\HO- ro II KpHCTaJlJIH30BaHHoro IIHTCJIJ1eKTa, CCTb OCHOBallHR WI" BbJ- lI;eJIeHIIJI elll,e 6 BTOpH'IHbIX ljJaKTopoB. OHH 061>eJl,llHjJIOT MeHb- mee KOJIII'lCCTIlO nepBH'IHbIX YMCTIleHHblx cnoco6HOCTeH, '1CM (jJJIlO- Hl\HblH II I<pllCTaJlJIH30BaHHbIii IIHTCJIJ1eKT, HO TeM He Mellee BBJIJI- JOTCJI 60ilee 061l.(1tMII, '1eM nepBII'IHblC YMCTBeHHblC cnaco6HocTI1 K '1l1eJIy 3T11X <\IaKTOpOB OTIIOCJlTCH cnoc06HoCTb 06pa50TKII 3pll- TeJlbHOii HHljJopMaIIH, cnocoGHOCTb 06pa60TKII 3KYCTH'IecKoH IIHljJopMaQHH, KpaTK08peMeHHaJi n3MJlTb, aonroBpeMeHHaJi na- MIITb MaTeMaTK'leCKlle cnoco6aocTli H CXOPOCTb BbInOJIHeHIIJI , HHTCJlJIeKTyaJIbHbIX TeCTOD. TaKIIM 06pa30M, CTpYKTypa IIHTeJIJlel<T8, npei\.IIOJKeHHaJi P.K3TTeJIOM, npeJl,CTaBJIlleT ca60H TpexypoBHeBYJO HcpapxlIlO. ITCpBblH ypOBCllb - nCpBH'IHblC YMCTBcHHbIe cnoc06HoCTH, BTO- POH YPoDeHb - Il.(lIpOKHe ljJaKTopbl (B '1aCTIIO<:TH, !\JJIlOII)\HblH H Kpl1CTaJIJIH30BaHHblH HHTeJIJIeKT) II TpCTIIH ypoDeHb - 061l.(HH HHTeJIJIeKT. naJJ;Ba mOI1l 1ICCJ1CJ\OBaHIIIIM IIHTeJIJIeKTa, npoBcII;eHHblM B p3MKax nClixoMeTpH'IecKoro HanpaBJIeHHJi, MOJKHO CKaJaTh cJle- II;YJOee Bo-nepBblx, B pa60Ta" 3Toro H8npaBileHIIJI 6bIJIO ObIC- KaJaHO npeJl,nOJIOJKelllle 0 cyel:TBoDaHIIH oGero IIHTCJIileKTY- IIJIbHOTO lj>aXTopa (lj>3KTopa g); BO-BTOPblX, 6blJIO nOKa3aHO, '1TO MHororpaHHocTb IIIITeJlneKTyanbHoii c!\Jepbl 'ICJIOBeKa Tpe6YeT paCCMOTpeHIIJI 60nee 'IaCTHbIX xapaKTcpllCTIlK (nepBH'IHblX coo- C06HO<:Teit); B-TperbHx, 6bInH C03aaHbi lIepapXII'IeCKHC MOII;eJlH HHTeJJJIeKTa, KOTopble npOlJ.eMoHcTpllpOBaJJH cyeCTBOBaHlle II o6ero HHTeJIJ1eKTyanbHoro <\IaKTopa, II OTHOCHTeJIbHO HeJaBII- CIIMblX nepBH'IHbIX cnoc06HoCTeH, II, KpoMe Toro, - 1'3KIIX IIH- TeJIJIeKTyanbHblx xapaKTepHCTIIK, KOTOpb!e JlBJIJlIOTCJI MeHee 06- llI,IIMH, '1eM (jJaJ(Top g, HO 60JIee 0611\11MH, 'IeM pa3Hbie HHTeJ1J1CK- 257 
TyanbHbIe XapaKTCpHCTHKH. OTlfOCJlIl.\Hec K ypOBHIO IIcpBH'IHbIX YMCTBCHHb!X cIIoc06HOCTeii (BTOpH'JllbIe ljIaKTOpbl). B IICCnC.lIOBaJlHJlX, npOBO,llJlIl.\HXCJI B reHeTHKe IIOBC.n;eHHJI H OplleHTllpYIOU1I1XCJI Ha nCHXOMeTpH'IeCKIIH no.zcc:OJl" 06U1CnpHHJI- Tb!M 6bJJJO H npO,llOJ!)fCaer OCraBaTbCJI npe.Zl;CTaBneHHe 0 CYU1e- CTBOBaHHII 06I1.\ero ojJaKTOpa HHTen.nCKTa. OAHaKO eCJIH B paHHlJX pa60rax IfHTcpeC IICCnep;OBilTC]{CK OrpaHIf'lHBilnCJI Bl>I!lCHeHlreM reHOnrn-cpCI\OBI,JX .n,e-rcpMI'!HaHT 06U1erO HIITen.neKTa, TO n03.n,Hee, C 60-x roJl,OB, Ha'inHaIOT nOJIBlIJI1'bCJI pa60TbI, nOCBJlII.\eHHble pOJlH rCHOTnna II Cpei\bI B BapllaTHBHOCTH OTJ(enbHbIX KorHHTIIBHblX CIIoco6HOCTCii, a B IIOCJIc.n,Hee i\eC!lTHJIeTlle IjIOpMHPYCTCJI Kaqe- CTBCHHO HOBbIU no.zcc:OJ( K HX IIccnCJ(OBaHIiIO. Tencpb IIpll 1f3yqe- HIIII rCHOTIIII-Cpei\OBb)X ,lJ;e-repMHHaHT KOrllIlTHBHblX CIJOC06HOC- TCH ,lJ;enaIOTCJI nOlJbITKII OlleHHTb BKna.n, 06U1ero HHTeJIJIeKTa B ry IInH HH)'IO }(OrHlJTI1BHylO xapaKTepHCTHKY. MHa'Je rOBOpJl, B CO- BpeMellHb!X p860Tax BblJlCH!leTCJI, '1eM 06YC1100neHa CBJl3b KOrHlJ- TI1BHbIX cnoc06HOCTeH C reHOTHnOM - HX CBJl3bIO C 06I1.\lJM IIH- TenneKTOM HJlH HX C06CTBeHHOH Crrel.!HojJIIKOii. K 06CY JK .ltCHIiIO pC3YJIbTaTOO I1CCne.I{OBaHIIH KOrl1HTHBHOii c<j!epbl, npooe.n,eHHblX B reHC1I1KC IIOBC.lteHHJI, Mbl H ncpCXO/{HM. 'iTo6b1 HIIBeRlfpooaTb CRY\laHHble <jJ8)<TOpb!, KOTopble MorYT no- OJIH!lTb Ha pe:!YllbT8ThI pa60T, npOBOII,JIU1I1XC!I Ha Hc60nbWIIX ObI- 60pKax, rreplfOI{!f'lecKIf Bee HMelOII.\/leC!I PC3YJlbT8TbI o606ll.\aIOTCJI H nOi\CqHTblBaIOTC!I cpeJl,lllle MJI Bcex pa60T nOI(a3aTeJln KOMno- HCHT ojJCHOTHnn'lCCKOii JI,IICl1epCIfH IfHTe.n.nCKTa - HaeJle}!eMOCTb, CHCTeMaTH'IeCKaJl II HCCHCTCMaTMqecKa!l cpClUi. ITOCJIcronm pa3 Ta- KaJl 0606ll.\aIOD\8J1 pa60n 6bIJIa BbmonHCHa T.EymapJ(oM H M.MaKrH B 1981 r. Oun npoaHaJ1H3HpoBaJlH Jl,aHHble nO'lTI'! norry- Topa COTeH pa6oT, KOTOpbIC 6bIIII1 npOBCJI,CHbI 3a 20 JIeT H R KOTQ- pblX COnOCTaBJIJlJIOCb 0 06eH CJlOJl(HOCTIi OKono CTa TbICjJq POA- CTBeHHHKOB. CpeJl,llHC nOKa3aTel1H BHYTPHnapHoro CXOi\CTBa JI,OJI pa3HblX THnOB POi\CTBCHHHKOB. nOJIY'ICHHbIC 3TIIMII aBTopaMH, npeJl,CTaBnellbl B TB6J1HQe 7 2. _ KaK COBcplllCHHO OneTJlHBO BHJI,IIO 113 Ta6nllL\bI, 60JIbWell crcneHII rCHCTlI'iCCKOrO CXOi\CTBa COOTBeTCTBYeT II 60JIbWee CXOi\- Ta6J1Uu,a 7.2 Cxoi)cm6o UHmeJV1eKma y pa3HblX l1ap poi)cm6eHHuKo8 (Bouchard T J., McGee M., 1981, '1um nO Plomin R., 1990) 2. Ponb reHOTHna H Cpe,qbl B BapHaTHBHOCTH KOfHMTHBHblX xapakTepHCTMK /(03<jJcj>HIllf6HN KonM"IeCTBO CTeneHb rBH8TM"IeCICQrO CXOACTB8 BHyrpKnapHOQ CpS8HMsaeMbiX J1IOAeM KOPP'ln.LIJ'H nap reW8TM'teCKM K,q.MTK'tH..... (100% oI5iMX reHOB) M3 5n.3He.., ."pocuJ.e ..ecre I 0,86 I 4672 P33ny.leHH",. M3 5n.'He.. 0,72 65 reH,"""eCOM C......HH.... APY' C AAY'O" (50% oGUin "HOB) JKueyucu, sAleeme 0.60 5546 A3 5nH3HebI P.HOI(, Bblpoc.WM c POAMTeJ1f1..M, 0,42 6433 ill 0AIIIH M3 POA\4T8118M CHSC.. (SpIlTh. H C8crPbl) 0,47 26473 JKueyucu, Sp03" Pe6eHoK, BbI'POCW"' B npM8MHoQ ceMbO, 0.22 814 III 0AMH M3 ero I5M0J10rM81;1t"X POAMT81U3'" POAHble cM5Cb1, YCblHOBJ1""Hble 0,24 203 B pa3Hble teMbM reHeTM"Ie(:KM He CBR3i1WHbMt Apyr C ,APYTOU (0% 06"J( reHOIt) )l(USYUlU. SMIICm. npI48MHW" pe(5eHOi( III OAMH "'3 0,19 1397 POAM"re.neA ero YCWHOBM8WMX Aenl, BblPOCWMO BM8CTe 0,32 714 B Ha'lane :noii I'JIaBb! rOBOpllJIOCb 0 TOM, \lTO HHTenJiCKT !lBnJleTCJI Tpai\I1QIIOHHb!M npCi\MeTOM IICCJICJI,OBilHHJI B rCHC1HKe nOBep;eHHjJ C HerO HaqanOCb H3Y'IeHHC rCHOTHn-cpe.n,OBb!X J(e- TepMIIHaHT nCIIXOnOrHqeCKl'!x xapaKTepliCTIIIC, C Hcro Mbl II Haq. HeM OnHCaHJre peJYJlbTaTOJ! :JKcnepHMeHTaJIbHbIX IICCJIe.llOBaHHii. BbmonHCHHb!X B reHeTIIKC nOlJcJ(eHH!I. 2.1. 1f"..re_'lJIera 3a 75 JleT :JKcneplJMCHTaJIbHblX IfCCnei\OBaHHii HHTe!illCICTa B reliCTlIICC nOBe.n,CHIiH 6blll0 nOJIY'leHo OrpoMHoe KOJlH'IeCTBO i\aH- Hblx 0 POJIII reHOTlina II cpe,nbl B ero oapHaTHoHOCTH. .II.nJl Toro, 258 259 
HE 3A6YAbTE nOKa3aTeJ1b HacnBAYeMoCTIl onpBABneMbl C nOMoll1blO MBTOAOB KOnlleCTBeHHO rBHeTIiKII, HOCIIT nonY11HlIlloHHb1 XB- paKTep OM CSII.qeTenbCTByeT 0 ponll reHOTllna B ME>KliIH.QliIBItI- AYAI1bHOI1 liI3MEHlIliIBOCTI'I (,QIICnBpcl1l1, BapI\BTIIBHOCTI1) npl\- 3HBKa 3TO nO.QpoOHO OOOy)ll.QanOCb a maaB 4 Kor.QB B TBKCTB rOBOpIITC 'reHBTIIec:K8 06yc.noanBHHOCTb" TOra 1111I1I1Horo CBO- CTBB 111111 Bra "HBClTeAyeMOCTb", BCErt:IA IlMeeTCR B BM,i:lY reHeTM- 1.jeCKa OOyc.nOB11BHOCTb ME>I<IiIHAliIBliIAYAI1bHoliI liI3MEHlIliI- BaCT'" 3Toro C!\oCTBa 06PATliITE BHt1MAHliIE! npl\ pa3l10>KBHIIII tpeHoTllnllecKo AllcnepclIl1 npll3HBKOB Bbll1enReTcR Aile OCHOBHblX epeAoBblX KOMnOHeHTbf nepBaR 113 HIIX ooyc.nOBneHa ME>I<CEMEII1HOI1 CPEAOIl1, TO eCTb TeMII epBAOBblMII yenoslIRMII, KOTOpbte nOXO>K1I Y'lJ'TBHOB OAHO ceMbll, II pa3I1l1alOTe y 11IOAe, npIIHa,qnB>Kall1I1X K pB3HbiM eeMbRM lIaCTb tpBHOTllnlleeKOK AIICnBpcllll, eBR3aHHYlO e 3TIIMII CpB,QOBbtMIl yc.nOBIIRMII, HB3blBalOT TBlOKe 06EVI epBAOK, Ct1C- TEMATliIlIECKOVl epeAOK 111111 HEPA3J1li1YAIOEI.1C7I CpBAOK II 0603Ha4a1OT KBK c? IInll KaK E.. BTopa cpBAOBaR KOMnOHBH'ta o6yc.n0I311BHa BHYTPliICE- MEVlHOVI cPEAOi1, TO BeT!> epe,qOBbiMII yc.nOBIIRMII, KOTOpblB npIlBOAT K pa3l1111.jIlRM MBJKAY 1.jnBHaMII OAHO II TOK J1\e CBMbll 4aCTb tpeHOTMnK'iec:xoo ,i:lI1Cnepcllll, CBRJaHHYJO C BHyrpllceMel\HoK CPBAOK, HB3bl!\a1OT TB1OI<B CnE4V1<1>liIYECKOVl, CI1Y4AVlH0I1 IInll PA3J1li1lfAIOU\EtIICR CPBAO II 0003HB'iBIOT KaK e2 Mnll KaK Ew. CTBO no HHTeJlJIeI(TY' M3 611113Hel\bI noxoJJ(1I i\Pyr Ha APyra 60JIb- we, '1eM 3; AeUt H pOAI!Tei11! - OOJrbUIC, '1CM nplfeMHbIe pen! H YCblHOBIiBwHe IIX pOAIITeJ!I'!; pOAllbIe CH6cbI, JI<HBYIlJ.He co CBOHMH pOMlTeJlJlMH - 60JlbWe, 'IeM npHeMHbIe .QeTH, JlUIBYIl1He B O.QHO" CCMbe. BMeCTe C TeM Al!H CXOIJ;CTBa 110 HHTeJIJIeKTY BaJKHbl H cpelJ;O- Bble BJIIIHHlIH. reHeTl1'1eCKH He CBJl3aHHble, HO Jl(HBYll1l1e BMeCTe JIIOl(H (npueMlfble PeTH I!JII! npHCMHblC peTH H YCbJHO.ImB1IIHC IIX pO- AHTeJIlI) OKa3bIBaJOTCR TaKJI(e B HeKoTopo!i CTeneHH nOXOJKH Apyr Ha i\Pyra, XOTJI HX CXOIJ;CT80 He CTOJIb BbICOKO, KaK Y 61!0IlorH'IBCKH CBRJaHHblX i\Pyr C IJ;PYI'OM JIIOAeii. Ha OCIIOBaHHH 14aHHbIX, npc.n;CTaBiIeHHblX B Ta6JIIIl.\e 7 2, MO)J(HO JIO.l\C""TaTb 1I0Ka3aTeJIH HaCJle.l\yeMOCTII HHTeJIJIeKTa. Ca- MbIH npocTo!i cnoc06 - 3TO cpaBHHTb CTelleHb CXO.l{CTBII pa3Hbix pOACT8eHHHJo:OB (Plomin R., 1990) ilaCMOTpIfM, 'ITO npll nOM 1I0iIY'IaeTCJI IIoKa3aTeJ!b HacnelJ;yeMocTII, Bbl'lHCJIHeMbIH lIa OCHOBaHlI!1 Jl,aHHbIX pa3JIY'IelillblX M3 01JH3HCl\OB, paBeH BllyrpHllapHOH KOppC- 1IHl\HH M3 611113He1.\OB, nOCKOJIbKY pa3ny'leIlHbIC M3 6J1H311el.\bl MO- r}'T OblTb l!OXO)l(1f TOIlbKO H3-33 CXO.QC11Ia fiX nmOTIIl!OB. B .QaHHOM CJIy"ae CXOIJ;CTBO M3 paBHO 0,72, H, CJle.n;OBaTeJlbHO, nO\(a3aTCJIb Hacne.l\YeMOCTH Ta\(JI(e paBCf! 0,72. IIoKa3aTCJIH HaCJIe.l\YeMOCTII AIIR IJ;PYrHX pa3JIY'leHHbIX pOI!;- CTBCHHIIKOB pasHbl y.n;aoeHHOH KOppemll.(HH MeJl(,lI:}' HHMH, nOCKOJIb- KY 3TH pO.!ICTBeHHHKI! IIMCJOT TOJIbKO 1I0JIOBHHY 061l1HX rCHOB ITo .aaHHbIM pOJI,HblX cH6cOB, YCblHOBJIeHHbIX B pa3HbIe CeMbl1, 1I0Ka3a- Tern. Hacnel\YCMOCTH oY.i\eT paaeH 2xO,24=0,48. no p;aIfHbl/,f OI!OJlO- nl'leCKHX pOMlTcJlei\ II HX AeTeH, OTJ\aHHbIX Ha YCblHOBJleHHe, _ 2 x O,22=0,44 260 ilplI cpaslleHIIH Hepa31IY'IeHllbIX M3 II .II.3 6JI1I3Hel\OB nOKa- 3aTeJ1b HaCJIcl\YeMoCTIi BbI'IHCIDIeTCJI KaK YAJ!OeHHaH pa3HOCTb MeJi;- .II}' 1I0Ka3aTeJIJlMil BHYTpl1l1apHOro CXOACTBa M3 II .II.3 6Jill3Hel\OB, TO eCTb B lJ;aHHOM CJJY'Iae OH 6YIJ;eT paseH: 2x(0,86-0,60}:0,52. YAJ!OeHHaR pa3HOCTb MeJK.l1Y KOppemll-lllJ/MH P0)1HbIX cII6cOB II yCbllfOBJIeHHblX CH6wB pasHa.. 2x(0,47-0,32)=0,30. YAJ!OeHHaJi pa3HOCTb MeJl(,ll,y KOppeJIJll\llJlMH pOAHren:ciJ H .ae- TeH, C OPHOH CTOpOHbl, H npllcMHbIX Jl,eTeii H YCbIHOBIIB1llllX IIX po- iUlTeJ!eH - C i\P)lrOH, paBlfa: 2x(0,42-0,19)=0,46. Ha OCROBaRUH o606weHHbJX B Ta6J1Hl\e )1.ilHllbiX Mbl MOJKeM nOJIY'IIITb, TaKIIM 06Pa30M, 6 nOKa3aTeJIeH HaCJIe.l\YeMocTII 4 H3 HIIX 6JIII3KI! no 3Ha'ieH1I1O II fIl\XOIU/TCJi II npe.Qei13X 0,44--0.52. O.aIlH nOKa3aTe1Jb (cpaBlfeHHc pOAllblX I'! YCblHoBJleHllblx CI'!6COB) OKa3blBaeTCJlII0 3Haqemoo HH)!(e OCTaJlbHblX  0,30. Ell1e OAHH ITO- Ka:J3TeJJb HJlCJIe,QyeMoCTH, 1I0JIY'leHHbIH Ha Bbl60pKe pa:mY'leHHbIx 611113HCl\OB, OKa3bIBaCTCR CYIl1=eHHo Bbllue I'! paBeH 0,72. Ero Mbl He OY.QCM CeH'IaC paCCMaTpIlB3Tb II aepHeMCR K ero 06cYJKAeHHIO 1I03JKe, B KOHI(e 3Toro lIaparpaa. TaKHM o6pa30M, lIoJlyqeHHble peaYJlbTaTbIIl03BOJlJllOT, Bo-nepBblX, IIpH.QT1I K BbIB0.l\Y 0 TOM, '1TO reHOTl!n OKa3bIBaeT IIJ1HHIlHe Ha IIH!1.HBlIJ.\YaJIbHble pa3J1H'IHH B HII- TeJDIeKTe II. BO-BTOPblX, YTBepJl(,AaT]', 'ITO reHomn OllpelJ;eJlijeT OT 30% PO 50% BapHaTIIBHOCTl1 HliTeJlJ)CKTa. 261 
HCnOJIb30BaHI1C OHOMeTpH'IeCKIiX MO,l\CJICH npH aHaJIH3C TCX )J(e caMbIX AaHHblX, KOTOpble npHDMeHbI B TaOJIHl\e 7.2, TO eCTb npHMCHCHHe Gonce COBepIlleHHOTO cnocooa Ol\eHKH KOMno- HCHT 4>cHoTllnHqeCKOH ,l\IICnepCHH, n03BOJIHJIO 3aKmo'lHTb, '11'0 reHOTlln OnpeAeJIeT 51 % JI,IICnepCHH IIHTCJIJItKTa (Chipeur H.M. et aI., 1990). C nOMO!UblO OIlOMeTpIl'leCKHX MO,Zl.CJIeH OblJIO TaK)J(e nOKa- 3aHO, '1'1'0 nOJIY'IeHHble npll HCCJIe,!!;OBaHIIH HHTeJIJleKTa ,!!;aHHblC xopowo COOTBeTCTBYIOT npocToH reHeTl'!'1eCKOH MOJl,eJIH, BbI,!!;e- JIJlIOII.\CH B AHcnepclI1I npll3HaKa Tpll KOMnOHeHTbl - HaCJIc.llYe- MOCTb (npeIlMYlI.\eCTBeHHo a.l!J.IHTIIBHYIO), 0611.\YIO cpe.IIY 11 pa3JIII- qaIOI.l\YlOcJI cpe.IIY. nepBaJi KOMnOHCHTa JI,IIcnepCHH - HaCJIc.llYeMoCTb - onpe- .n:CJIJleT, KaK Y)J(e rOBOpIlJIOCb, nOJIOBIIHY MC)J(HH,ZI.HBHJ\YaJIbHOH Ba- pHaTHBHOCTII HHTeJIJleKTa. 0611.\aJl cpe,Zl.a BKmo'iaeT B ceo Te cpeAoBbIe BJIHHIIJI, KO- TOpblC COBna,Zl.aIOT Y Cp<UlHHBaCMbIX pOACTBCHHIIKOB (HanpHMcp, Y pO,Zl.HblX cH6cOB). K HeH OTHOCJlTCJI TaKl1e napaMeTpbI cpC,ZI.bI, KaK COl\lIaJIbHO-3KOHOMH'ICCKHH cTaTYc ceMbll, o611.\He HHTepccbl qJIeHOB ceMhll, 3aHTHJI II YBJIe'leHIIJI, KOTopbIe Y HIIX He pa3J111- qBlOTCH. OO!!ta cpe,Zl.a, COrJIaCHO 31'HM ,!!;aHHbIM, OnpeAeJIeT OT 11% 1\03)% AllcncpclIlI nOKa3aTeJIeH HHTeJIJIeKTa. HaHMeHb- weH OKa3bIBaeTC pOJIb OOll.\eH Cpe,Zl.bl WI c1I6cOB, HeCKOJIbKO OOJIbWeH - )J,JIJI .II.3 OJIII3I1el\OB II caMoH OOJIbWOH - .!lJIJI M3 OJlH3I1el\OB. TpeTbJl COCTaBJUlIO!!ta>i I\IICnCpClI1I npeJl,CTaJ!JUleT coooi1 pa3- JIH'IalO!Uyroc cpe.IIY, KOTopaH BKillO'IaeT B ce6J1 Tpll napaMeTpa - KOBapHal\HIO rCHo'rnna H CpeJl,bI, oWII6KM H3MepCHIIJI H cooCTBeHHo pa3JIH'IaIOI.l\YlOc CPC.IIY, TO eCTb Te cpel\OBble napaMeTpbl, KOTO- pble He COBna,Zl.aIOT Y cpaBHIIBaeMbIX p0,Zl.CTBeH/iHKOB. HaIIpI1Mep, Ae'I'H MorYT y'mTbcJI B pa3HbiX xnaccax, HMe'I'b pa'jHblX APY3di H pa311bIC YBJIe'leHIIJI MO)J(eT pa3JIII'IaTbCJI OTHOWCIIHe pOJl,HTeJIeH K O,Zl.HOMY H ilPyrOMY pe6cHKY B ceMbe. npll OI\UHaKOBOM 01'HO- weHHH pOl\lITenelf '1aCTO pa3J1H'IaeTCJI BocnpllTHe l\eTbMH Tex HJlII HHblX Jl,eHCTBHIf pOAIITeJIeH, II n03TOMY Jl,aJKe O,Zl.HHaKOBoe OTHoweHHe pOJl,llTcneH MO)J(eT nO-pa3110MY IIHTepnpeTHpOBaTbC l\eTbMII H OKa3blBaTb Ha HlIX pa3Hoe BnHJlIIHe (Dunn J., McGuire S , 1994). Pa3JIH'IaIOl.l\aJlCJI cpe,l\a, comacllo nonyqCHHbIM .n:aH- HbIM, onpeJl,eJlJlI'T OT 14% Jl,0 38% ,l\lIcnepclIl1 nOKa3aTenCH HH- 262 TenJIeKTa. HaHMeHbwcH OKa3b!BaeTC ee pOJIb )J,JI M3 6JIH3He- LlOB H HaH60JIbWeH - AJUI clI6coB. HTorH oo0611.\alOII.\IIX paOOT BnonHe COOTBeTCTBYIOT TOMY npenCTaJlJIemnO 0 reHOTlln-cpe,Zl.OBbiX COOTHOWeHHJlX B Bap"aTHB- IIOCTH HHTeJ1J1CKTa, KOTopoe CJlO)J(lIJlOCb B reHeTlIKe nOBe,l\eHH1I B nocJle)I.IIHe 30 JIeT Ha oCIIOBaHHII ,l\aHHblX oT,l\eJIbHbIX Hccne,!!;OBa- HHH. KaK IIpaBIIJIO, npil 06cnenoBaJlHII )teTeH, nO,llpoCTKOB H B3pOC- JlblX OOHapYJK}IBaIOTC aHaJJO!1I'1Hble pe3ynbTaTbI: rellOTlln onpe,n,e- JUlI'T npl.fMepHO nOJIOBIIHY BapllaTIlBHOCTII HHTemreKTa,  pOJIb 06- ll\eH H pa3JI\.f'laIOll\eHCJI cpeAl>I 3aBHCHT OT TOro, aa KaKOII BbIoopKe I.fCnbrryeMblx npOBO)I.IITC1I I.fCCJIe,n,OBaHHe. Ecnll cpallHlIBaJOTCJI M3 II .II.3 6nIl3Hel\bI, TO BJ(JIa,!1 o611.\ell cpc)JJ>I B Bapl.faTIIBHOCTb IIHTen- JleKTa OKaJbIBaI'TC1I npllMepHO B 1,5--2 paJa OOJIbIlle, '1eM paJiIl.f'la: IOll\ei\cJl (HanpIlMep, 35% JI,IIcnepclIII onpeJl,enJleTc1I o611.\ell cpC,!!;OIl II 15% _ PaJJDI'IaJOIl\CHCJI). EenII cpaBHHBalOTCJI npl1eMHble II pOJl,- HbIC CH6CbI, TO COOTHOWCHlle 06Illei! II pa3J1I1'1aIOlI.\eHCJI CPC,ZI.bI 06b1'1HO 6bIBaeT npOTHBOnOJlOJKHblM. TaKoe COOTHOIlleHlle KOMnOHeHT 4>eHoTllnll'leCKOH JI,IIcncp- CIIH HHTeJlJIeXTa 06HapYJKHBaeTc1I Y)J(c B CTapIlleM 1\0WKOJIbHOM B03paCTe II OCTaeTCJI 60Jlee IIIDI MeHee HCII3MCHHblM Ha npOTJlJKCHlI1I Bcero .n:erCTBa, IOHOCTIIII, nO-BI.f)I.IIMOMY, 3penoCTII (HeyaepeHHoCTb B TOM HaCKOJlbKO Jl,OCTOBepHbl ,l\aHHble, OTHOCJlIl\HecJl K 3peJIOMY B03pa::.r y , OObJ!CII>leTCJI TeM, '1TO pa6oT, npOBcJI,eHHblX Ha 30--60- nerHIlX Hcnbl'l)'cMblX, KPaHHe MaJlO). OT pOJKJl,eHIIJI Jl,0 5---{) JIeT HacneJ\YeMoCTb IIHTenrrCKTa yaMII- qllBaeTC1I nO'ITII OT 0 B nepBblH roil. JKII3HII 1\0 50%. B nO)J(lIJlOM B03paCTe, CYAR no 6JD13Hel\OBbIM )taHHbIM, BIOI8.)J. reHomna B Bapll- aTIIBHOCTb IIHTeJIJIcKTa onJlTb CYII.\CCTBeHHO 113MCHJleTCJI no BMII'IlI- He lI.n.oCTIlTaeT 80% (pedersen N.L. ct aI., 1992). IIo.n:po6Hee B03pa- CTHbIe 1.f3MeHCHH!I nOKaJaTCJICH Hacne.IIYcMOCTII IIHTeJIJItKTa 0Y.llY T onHC3Hbl B malic Hi, npl1 06cyJKJl,cHHH ponH n:Homna " cpel\bl B Pa3BUTIIII. ElI.\e O)I.IIH Bonpoc, KOTOpbIH HeOoxoJl,llMO pacCMOTpeTb, aHa- Jlli3HpY reHeTH'IecK!ie UCCJlC,l\OBaHIIJI UHTeJIJlCKTa, KBC3eTCJI pe3ynb- TaTOR, norry'laeMblX Ha BbI60pKax pa3iIY'leHHbIx M3 6nH3Hel\OB. HaAO CKa3aTb, '1TO nOKB3BTenH Hacne.IIYeMOCTII IIHTeJIJIeKTa, Bbl- 'IHCJUleMble HB OCIlOBaHIIH .n:aHHbIX pa:mY'IeHHbIX 6nIl3Hel\OB, Bce- r,Zl.a OKaJblBaIOTC1I Bblwe, '1eM nOKaJaTemI Hacne.IIYeMOCTIl, nony'Ia- eMble npll cpaOHemiJ.! BCCX APyrllx nap p0Jl,CTBeIlHilKOB. OObI'IHO 263 
3TOT <jJaKT nblTaJIlICb 06"bHCHI1Tb He)'J,OCTaTO'IHOH '1I1CTOTOH HCCJIe- )'J,OBaHIIH, npOBO,I\I1MhIX Ha paJnyqeHHhrx 6nH3Hcuax, - HccnY'Iai!_ HblM pacnpe,I\eneHllel.! )'J,eTeH no ceMbHM, HenonHblM paJnyqeHlIel.!, BOJpaCTHb!MII paJJUI'IHJlMlf Me)l(,D;y napaMIt It T.)'J,. Bee 3T1I <jJaKTOpbJ MorYT npllBO)'J,liTb K HereHeTlI'IeCkoMY CXO,I\CTBY paJnyqeHHblx 6ID13Hel\OB II 3aBbllllaTb nOJ<aJaTenb Hacne)'J,j'eMocTH. Oi1HaKO nO'le- MY 3TO npOlfCXO,I\HT BCeri1a, He3aBilCHMO OT CTeneHI'! paJJIY'IeHHH 6ID13HeuOB, OCTaBanOCb HenOHJlTf!bIM. "3araJI,Ka",- HamtCanll P.ITnoMlfH H .II.)f(.HHKonc B 3arnaBHH CTaThH, nOCB!lII.\eHHOH aHaJIH- 3Y 3T01i np06neMb! (Plomm R., Nichols J.C., 1989). COBCCM Hei1aBHo 6bIllO npeMO)f(eHO 06"bHCHeHHe 3TOH 3a- raiIK M , 3acnY)f(lfBalOl1.\ee caMoro npHCTaJIbHOrO BHIIMaHHH. M .II.a- Hlfenc H cra Komrenr B3HJIII 3a OCHOBY CYMMapHbre i1aHHble, nOJIY- '1eHHbrc B pa3HblX HCcnCIJ,OBaHI1HX HHTeJmcKTa Ha pa3Hbix napax pOIJ,CTBeHHHKOB (Ta6nHua 7.2) II paccMoTpeml, B KHKOH CTcnCHH 3TH )'J,aHHble COOTBeTCTBYIOT pa3HbIM CTaTIICTllqecKHM MOi1eJIJlM. HHaqe rOBopH, OHH npOi1enaJlH TY )!(e npoue)'J,j'PY, KOTOpaJl npo- BO.l{Hnacb " paHec nprl aHaRlt3C CYMMapHblX ,I\RHHbIX 11 6bllTa yno- MHHYTa B 3TOM pa3i1elTe TeKCTa, Oi1HaKo, B OTlTlI'IHC OT aBTopOIl np C i1 bI .lJ.yIl.\nx pa60T, OHH BKJIIOqlllTH B paCCMOTpCHHe i1PyrHe KOM- nOHeHTbI <jJCHOTlmllqeCKolf i1HCOePCIlIt, B '1aCTHOCTH, IaTepI1HC- KIIH 3<jJ<jJeKT (Daniels M. et aI., 1997). J1x paccY"'t{eHH.II np" 3TOM 6b1Jm TaKOBb). ,lJ,aHHb)C BHYTpH- napHom CXO,I\CTBa pa3JIyqeHHblX M3 6m13HeIjoB IICnOJIhJyroTcH KaK npHMoii nOKaJaTenb HaCJICi1yeMoCTII. .II.cHcTBIITeJIbHO, ccnn M3 6nll3HeIjbl HC HMCIOT o6I1.\ero CpC)l.OBoro OnblTa, TO nx CXOi1CTBO MO)!(HO 06"bHCHHTb TOnbKO CXOi1CTBOM HX rCHOTl1nOB. Oi1HaKO M3 6JIHJHCl\bI BCCr,I\a ItMCIOT 06I1.\II" CPCJlOBOH OnblT' l!R)f(C CCJIn OHn 6blJIH paJnY'ICHbl Cpa3y )f(e nocnc pO)f(,!\eHHJI iI )f(IIJIII B paJHbIX cpe- i10BblX YCJIOBI1HX, OHI1 HMenH o6I1.\YIO cpci1Y B nepllOIJ; BHY1'pHYT- p06Horo paJBHTItJl. 05I1.\IIC YCJIOBilJI pa:JBIITlU B npeHaTaJlbHOM ne- pllOi1e (npeeenapaIjHOHHaH cpei1a IlJI1I MaTepHHCKHH 3<jJ<jJCKT), HapH- )'J,j' C 061l{HM reHOTHnOM, 01'pa)f(aIOTCJI BO BHY1'pHnapHOM CXO,!\CTBe pa3JIY'ICHHbIX M3 6nl1JHeIjOB H 3aBbllllRIOT nOKa3aTeJlb HaCJ1Ci1ye- MOCTH KOr,IJ;a)!(c nOKaJaTeJIb HaCJIel\)'CMOCTH nOi1C'IHTblBaeTCH no i1aHHbIM HepaJJIyqeHHblX 6JIil3Hel\OB (TO CCTb KaJ< Y.lI:BOeHHaJi pa3- HOCTb MC)I(,D;y BHYTplmapHblM CXOJl,CTBOM M3 11 .II.3 6J1Iif3HeuOB), Ma- TCPHHC!<HH 34J4JCKT BKJIIOqaeTCJI B KOMnOHeHTY 06I1.\eH CpCi1bl, '1eM OH no CYTII H HBJIHeTCH. 264 IIpH npoBepKe 3Toro npe,!\nOJIo)ICeHHH OKa3aJlOCb, '1TO 1.10- lJ,enH, BJ<JIIO'IaIOII.\HC MaTepHHCKilti 3IjJlpeKT, XOpOIllO COOTBeTCTBY- lOT RMeIOIl{IIMC" B rCHCTRI<C nOBCi1CHHH .n:aHHbIM. TalC, BHYTpl1- nap HOC CXO,!J;CTBO pa3JIHqllb!X nap pO,!J;CTBCHHRKOB, O)f(II.n:aeMOC no Mo,!\eJIiI, nO'ITH nOJIHOCTblO COBnaJIO C pCaJIbHb!M (nOJIyqCH- HblM no CYMMapHblM i1aHHbIM) PaJnll'lH" MeJK.lJ;Y O)f(I1,!\aeMbIMH II peaJIbHblMII K03q,<jJIII.\lifeHTaMI1 KOppCIUl\1111 6b1JI1I OT HYJIH i10 HC- CKOJlbKIIX COTbIX, TO CCTb OKa3aJIilCb MllHilMaJIbHb1. IIplf 3TOM MII- TepHHCKHH 34Jq,eKT onlifCblBaJl 20% 4JeHoTHnH'IeCKOH ,!\lIcoepCHlI, aMnTHBHOC HaCJIei10BaHHC - 34%, a HeaMlifTIIBHOC HaCJIeilOBa- IIHe - 15% TaKIIM oGpa30M, npH yqeTC MaTepHHCKoro 3q,q,cKTa BblBOilb! 0 BJ<JIa)l.C reHOTRna B BapHaTHBHocTb HHTeJIJIeKTa He Me- H'HOTCJI (OH, KaK If !IO ,1(allHblM i1pyrllx pa60T, 06'bJ/CH.II/:T flpH- MepHo nOJIOBHHY <jJCHoTnllllqeCKOH i1HcnepCI1I1), HO B OTnll'lRe OT npCi1bIi1YWI'!X paGoT BJIHJlHHe reHOTHna He CBOi1I1TCH TonbJ<O J< aMIITHBHOMY HeaMHTHBHa" KOMnOHCHTa COCTaBn"eT npllMep- HO TpCTb BCCX reHOTHflll'lCCKRX BJIlIJlHIIII. TaKHM oGpaJOM, nO,!\BO,!\H IITor aHaJ1IifJY oGII.\ero HHTCJI- JIeKTa B reHCTIIKe nOBe,I\eHIIH, MO)f(HO CKa3aTb, qTO ilCCJI.lI.OBaTe- JIR, HCnOJIb3YlOII.\He HeCKonbKO pa3J1HQaIOII.\HeCJI nOi1XOlJ.bl, y6c",- .n:aJOTC" B TOM, qTO rCHOTl1n onpelJ,en"eT nplifMepHO nOJIOBHHY Ba- pHaTHBHOCTH nOKa3aTcneil HHTeJlJIeKTa. B JRBeprneHIIC OCTaHOBHMCH ell{e Ha O.ll.HOM acneKTC IICCJle,!J;O- BaHHH HHTClUIeKTa B rClleTI1Ke nOBCl(eHII!I. OH CBH3aH C aHaJIH30M ClICnJIeHI1J1. AHaJII'!J CuenJlCHHH npelJ,CTaBJIJleT C060H cnoc06 onpelJ;ene- HH" JIOKaJIIl3aUHI1 rCHOB. ITOCKOJIbKY rCfIb! pacnOJIO)!(eHbl B XpO- MOCOMC B onpelJ,CneHHOM nOp"IJ,KC, Te 113 HRX, KOTopble HaXO.l\HT- CH Ha 6JIH3J<OM paCCTOJlHHiI IJ,Pyr OT i1pyra (B 6JIH3ne)f(aIl.\IIX JIO- Kycax XPOMOCOMbI), IIMelOT TeH.lI.eHuillO HaCJIe,!\OBaTbCH, TO CCII> nepc,!\aBaTbC" OT pO,!\HTCJIeH J< AeTHM, BMeCTe. TaKlifc rCHbl Ha3bl- BaIOTC" CuenJIeHHblMH ITpCJI,CTaBlleHile 0 CuCnJIeHIIII JlC)!(ilT B OCHOBe CTaTHCTilqeCJ<OH npouc,!\ypbl, Ha3bIBaeMOH aHaJIII30M Cl1enJlCHI1H CMblcn ]TOil npoue,!\ypbl COCTORT B cnCi1YlOll{eM. JIoKaJIH- 3auHH B XpOMOCOMax rCHOB, onpClJ;eJIHlOlJ1HX HeKOTOpb!C <jJeHOTII- nll'leCKIIC npH3HaKH, H3BeCTHa. 3TII npl13HaKH Ha3blBaIOT TeHCTII- '1CCJ<ilMIif MapKcpaMiI. ECJIlllifHTepeCYIOII.\RH Hac npH3H3J< (Hanpll- MCp, HHTelTJlCKT) nepei1aeTC" OT pO,I\IITeJIeH K ,!\eTHM C TOH )f(e Be. 265 
2.2. AKa.ae/o"'..ecKHe J\OCTII'keHHII O,-\CHllBaR BHYTPllnapHoe CXOII.CTBO 6JI11JHCIWB no 3T1IM no- K33aTeIDIM, I1CCIleJ!OBaTCJIIi 06bl'lHO 06HapYJKI1BalOT 60J1bWee CXOII.- CTBO M3 6J1113HeL\OB, no cpaBHeHHIO C .II.3, '1TO CBlllI.eTeJlbCTByeT 0 BJII10HIII'! reHOTHna Ha Dapl1aTI1BHOCTb aKaJI,CMI1'1eCKOM vcneWHOC- TH. IIpHBCII.CM HeKoTopblC npHMCpbl. . CaMoe 60J1bWOC rCHCTH'IeCKOe IICCJIell.OBaHHc aKai\CMH'IeC- KHX i\OCTH)I(eHIIH (no KOJIl1qeCTBY BKJIIOqCHHblX B Hcro nap 6n11J- HCL\OB) 6b1no npOBc,!ICHO B CiliA C nOMOll(blO HaL\HOHaJIbHOrO TeCTa onpCII.CJICHHR Ka'lCCTBa JlIaHHH (Lochlin J.C., Nichols R.C., 1976). OHO DKnlOqaJIO D cc60 OKOJIO 700 nap M3 H OKono 500 nap )];3 6JIIIJHCL\OB. TaKaR 60JIbWaO BbI60pKa nOJBOJIHJIa aB1'O- paM oTo6paTb Jl,JlII OKOH'IaTerrbHOH CTaJl,HII HCCJICp;OBaHHII TaKl1e napbl 6J1HJHCL\OB, B KOTOpbIX napTHcpbI MHHIiMaJIbliO OTJIllqa- JIHCb no IIH,!IHBHJ!yaJIbHOMY onbITY (JI,JIHTeJIbHblM 60JIeJHIIM 011.- Horo 113 6JII13HeL\OIl, CrrCL\HaJIbHOii nO,!lroToBKC O,l1HOro H3 6JIU3- HCL\OD IlO KaKOMY-JlH60 WKOJlbHOMY npCAMCTY H T.P;.) OKOHqa- TeJIbHble peJYJIbTaTbl 6bIJIIi nO,!lCqHTaHbJ .!IJlII 850 nap H CBIIAC- TCJIbCTDYIOT 0 npHMcpHO op;HHaKOBOM DJIIIJlHHH reHOTllna Ha ye- newHOCTb 06y<lCHIfH ero H3b1KOBbIM erpC,I1Me-raM, MaTcM;uHKC, 06- ll\eCTBCHHblM ,!Il1CI.IHnmlHaM II eCTccTDcHHo-HayqHbIM ,!IHCL\lInnl1- HaM (Ta6nliL\a 7.3). )];nll BceH Bbl60pKII 6n11JHc,-\oD (6e3 yqeTa no- nOBbiX pa3nH'IIIM) nOKa3aTeJIH Hllcne.I\YeMocTH IIH,!IIIBI1i\yaJIbHbIX pa3JII1qflM B aKatl,cr./HqeCKHX ,!IOCTH)f(CHHJlX BapbHPYIOT D npe,!le- JIax 34-40%, a 061l\HH nOKaJaTenb HaCnetl,ycMOCTI1, BbIC'IHTaH- Hblii Ha OCHOBaHIIH ycneWHOCTlI B paJHblX aKatl,eMH'ICCKHX cljlc- pax, paDeH 48% H oKa3bIBaeTCJl, TaKHM 06paJOM, paIlHblM Ol.\CH- Ke Hacne.I\YcMDcTH, nD!lyqaeMOii npH HCDO!lb3DDaHIIH CTaH,!IapT- H!>IX TCCTOD HHTeJIJICKTa. IIpH conOCTaBneHHI1 Ol.\eHOK no pa3HblM WKOJIbHblM npCA- MCTaM 06HapYJKliBalOTCo JHaqHTeJIbHO 60JIbWIIC pa3JIHqHII MeJK- .I\Y M3 H ):{3 6!1I1JHe,-\aMH, '1eM no TeCTaM aKa,!leMII'IeCKIIX i\OCTH- JKCHHH, II 60JIbWCC eXOI\CTBO M3 ,!ICBOqeK, «eM M3 MaJIb'lllKOB B pa60TC WDC,!ICKOrO nCI1XOJIora T.XbIOCCHa, rrpOBClI.eHIJOM Ha 1020 napax 6JIHJHCI.IDO B 11 H 13 neT, Dl.\eHKH no qTeHIiIO, nHCbMY, IIC- TOpHH II apHIj!MeTHKC OKaJaJ1HCb DHYTPHnapHO 60JIbillC nOXO)l(II- Mil Y M3 6nH3He,-\OB, no cpaBlleHll10 C .II.3. aT II K 13 rOll.aM paJ- Jljjqllll MeJKII.Y BHYTpHnapHblMH KDppeJIHl.\HJlMH M3 11 .II.3 6nHJlle- ,-\OB YBeJIH'IHJIHCb, a nOKaJaTeJIIi HaCJIe,l1ycMOCTl1, nOJlY'IeHHble npl1 o6cnC,!IOOaHI1Ii 13-JleTHIIX 6JII13He,-\oB, BapbllpOB3JlH 0 npe,!lc- 267 pOIlTHOCTbIO, qTO II MapKcp (HanpIlMcp, rpynna KpOBII), MOJKHO 3aKJIfO'IHTb, <lTO JTOT nplf3HaK If MapKcp cucnllCHbl (HaXOJ2,HTCJI B OAHOH XpoMocoMe Ha 6JI113KOM paccToIIHlf1f i\Pyr OT i\pyra). Ta- KHM 06pa30M, 6Yi\CT YCTaHoolleH Y'lacToK JlOKaJlH3aL\HH 0]1110ro IIJ rCHOO, onpCi\CJlJlIO!I.(IfX OapHaTI!BHOCTb ,!I3HHOTO npll3HaKa. P TInoMHH If ero KOnJIerM HCIJ0llb300a!llf aH3JIH3 Cl.lenlle- HlIO 0 IICCJ1Ci\OOaHHHX HHTCJIneKTa (P1omin R. et aI., 1994, 1995; Plomin R., 1997). OHH conOCTaBHJII! rpynDLI C BbICOKHM 11 HH3- KI!M HHTCnJlCKTOM no 100 )];HK-MapKepaM. TOJIbKO O]1I1H H3 HHX, no ,!I3HHNM p33HblX IICCIICi\OB3HIJii, OKaJaJICII CBJl3aH C ypOOHCM HHTeJlJleKTa. q3cToTa COonai\CHHII ycnooHoii H peaJIbHOH BCIpe- 'laeMOCTH M3pKcpa OKaJaJIaCb paBHa 75% 0 rpynne C HII3KHM HH- TCJIJICKTOM (cpC,!IHIIH ypOBCHb IQ paOCH 105) H 100% - B rpynnc C OblCOKHM HHTeJlIICKTOM (cpe]1HIIH ypOIlCHb IQ paBCH 130). ECJIII nOJIY'leHllblH pe3ynbTaT He CJlY'laCH (a TaK 3TO HJlI1 HeT, nOK3)((YT ,!IaJIbHeiilllltC IICCJICII.01l3HItH), TO MOJKHO CKa3aTb, '1TO Haii,!lCHa IICnOCpe,!lCTBCHllaJi cy6cTaHL\IIO, onpe,lJ.eJIHlOll\aO lIe- KOTOpyIO '{aCTb OapllaTI!BHOCTI1 HHTCJIJIeKTa. qacTb 3Ta oeCbMa HeBenHKa (occro 1% BapltaTlIBHOCTH), II 3TO cBI1,lJ.CTeJIbCTl'yCT 0 TOM, '1TO He06xOAIIMO onpCi\CJlIITb ,lI,CCHTKI1 IIOKYCOB (Y'laCTKOO XpOMOCOM), KOTopble Y'laCTBYIOT B Ij!OpMlfpooaHHII nonYJIJI,-\HOH- HOM BapllaTHBHOCTI1I1HTCnJICKTa. AKaJ!eMH'ICCKHC )10CTIIJKeHIIJI (IInl! ycnewHoCTb 06Y'lCIIIIH) npC]1CTaBJlII1OT co60ii nOKaJaTCIIb, 6J1H3KHH no CMblCJIy K nCIIXOMeT- PllqCCKOMY I1HTCJDlCKTY, qTO HOnJlf:TCII 36COJllOTHO 3aKOHOMcpHblM, nOCKonbKY TeCTbI IIHTeJIJlCKTa OaJIHJ\H3I1pOB3JlIICb OTHOCI!TeJlbHO ycnelliHoCTII II1KOllbHOro 06YQeHHH. HMeliHO B KaqecTBe OPHCHTH- POBOqHOM oueHKII IIHTeJIJIeKTa aKa)1CMH'IecKHe i\OCTII)I(eHIIJlI1 6b1Jill B CBOC OpeMJI BKIIIO'ICHbI B reHeTH'IeCKHe pa60TbI. 06 ycnCWHOCTH 06yqeHHJI CY.ll:JlT no TpeM THnaM nOKaJaTC- nCH - no IllKOJIbHblM O,-\CHKaM, no 6aJIlIaM, nonY'laeMblM IIcnblTY- CMblMII no KpHTCpHaJlbHblM TecTaM ,lJ.OCTI!)I(CHIIH II aKaJI,CMllqecKoii cljlcpe, 11 no 3a,lJ.3HHHM, pCJYJlbTaTbI ObInOJIHCHIiJi KOTOpblX Henoc- pe.1lCTBCHHO CBH3aHbI C YCBocHHeM II1KOJIbHbIX 3HaHliH (HanpHMcp, COIli\eTeJIbCTOYIOT 06 OBJlai\eHI!I1 nepBOI<naCCHHKaMH lIaBbIKaI.!H qTeHIIJI). 266 
T aOJluu.a 7.3 * BHyrnpunapHoe cxoiJcrneo 6J1U3He1j08 no nOKaameJ/J/Jl/ aKaiJeMUtleC- KOU YCl1euJllocmu (Loehlm J C. Nichols R C. 1976) Ta6J1uu.a 7.4 Bllympul1aplloe cxoiJcm80 6J1UJHeIjOe no olje1/KaM (Fisch be ill s., 1986) nOKa3aremol Mal1bliHKI4 .QeBOK BCJI ebl6op,a M3 A3 M3 A3 M3 1\3 3b1K 71 64 77 49 72 52 MareMan'lKa 74 42 70 47 71 51 05U.\ecneHHble AMCMnnIolHbI 76 50 79 52 69 52 ECTeCTBeHHoHaHble jJ,Mc411n11MHbI 69 52 86 48 64 45 nOIC33arenM Manb41111<M AeBoKI4 M3 1\3 M3 A3 POAHO" R3b11( 86 50 91 46 Mare",an'Ka 78 57 81 41 HoCTpaHHbI Jl3b1K 83 61 89 40 AKaAeMM4ecKaJ! ycnewHOCTb 76 55 59 55 3AeCb M 80 acex Ta6ITMaX p,anee HYI1H III 3annTbie DTp,emll0LI.IMe AeCflTKHble 3H3KM, onYlli,eHbI i\pyroH pa60Te, npOBe,!!eHHOH Ha npHeMHblX ,!!eTJlX, 06HapyJKIlJla TaKJKe BblCOKlle reHeTlI'IeCKHe KOppeJIRI.\HII C Bep6aJ1bHblM II HeBep- 6anbHbiM IIHTeJIJleKTOM - COOTBeTCTBeHHO 0,79 II 0,88 (Wadworth S.1., 1994). H nOcJIel\Hee, qTO CJIeJl,yeT OTMeTHTb, 06CY1K,!\aH reHeTII'IeC- KHe pa60Tbl, B KOTOPblX paCCMaTpHBaIOTCR nOKa3aTeJIII aKa,!!eMH- qeCKIIX ,!!oCTH)I(eHIIH, no pO JIb cpel\OBblX q,aKTopoB B IIX BapllaTHB- HOCTH. CBJl3H aKal\eMllqecKoH ycneBaeMOCTIIII IIHTeJIJIeKTa onocpe- i\YIOTCH He TOJIbKO reHOTHnOM, HO II TeMII Cpel\OBblMII BJIHHHHHM, KOTopble HMelOT OT1<OWeHHe K pa3JIHqalOLl\eHCH cpel\e (Wad worth S J., 1994). POJlb 06Ll\eii cpe,!!bl 60JIee OT'leTillIBO BlI)l,Ha B Tex CIITyaI.\H- HX, Kor,!!a Ha6JIIO.n:aeTCH HeKoTopoe He6J1aronOJIY'lHe B KOrHHTHB- HOM pa3BIITIIH H C1<H)((eHlle aKaJl,eMI1'1eCKOii ycnelIlHocTII. TaK, B 6mf3HeQoBoM HCCJlei\OBaHIiH npll COnOCTaBJIeHlI1I rpynn l\eTeH C Bb!COKHM H HII3KHM IIHTeJIJleKTOM He OblJIO HaiilleHO Pa3J1HqHH Me)l(- i\Y rpynnaMII B HaCJIel\yeMoCTH IIHTeJJJIeKTa II aKal\eMHqeCKOH ycne- BaeMOCTH, o,!!HaKO 6blJl0 nOKa3aHO, 'ITO 06Ll\aH cpe,!!a HrpaeT 3Ha- '1IITeJ1bHO 60Jlblll)'lO pOJlb B BapHaTHBHocrn o60HX nOKa3aTe1leH y I\e- feH C 60JIee HH3KIIM BHeM HHTe!lJ!eKTa (Thompson LA. et aI., 1993). IToJI;BO.IJ.!! !nor \1CCneI\OBaHlIHM 1\0CTII)I(eHIIH B aKa)l.eMII'IeC- KOH cq,epe, MOJKHO CKa3aTb, '1TO reHOTHn IIrpaeT CYLl\eCTBeHHYIO ponb H B IIX BapliaTIIBHOCTII, H B CBR311 aKaJ\eMII'IeCKOH ycnelIlHoc- Tl1 C IIHTeJIJIeKTOM. Jlax 48-66% (Husen l' , 1963, I1I1T. no FlIller J.L , Thompson W.R., 1978). TaKl-le )((e BblCOKHe nOKa3aTenll HaCJIel\ycMOCTI1 no- llyqeHb! H B i\PyroH, 60nee n031\HeH, IIlBel\CKOH pa60Te, npOBe- ,lIeHHOH TaK)I(e Ha I3-JIeTHHx IIlKOJIbHHKax. Ee pe3ynbTaTbl npe.n:- CTaBJleHbI B Ta6J1Hl\e 7.4 (Fischbein S., 1986) B pa60Tax, npOBOi\HLl\HXCH B reHeTIiKe nOBC,lIeHHH B nocne- J\HHC rOl\bI, l1eJIblO IICCrrel\OBaHlliI JlBnHeTCH He CTOJlbKO BbIHCHe- Hlle rCHOTlln-cpe,llOBbIX COOTHOWCHI1H B BapuaTlIBHOCTIl nOKa3a- TerrCH aKa,!!eMH'IeCKOH ycnewHoCTII, CKOJIbKO pOJIb reHOTHna B CBH3HX aKaJ\eMH'IeCKOii ycnelIlHocTH C nOKa3aTeJIHMil IIHTerrrrCK- Ta. a CYll1eCTBOBaHIIJI TaKIIX CBR3eH CBlI,lICTCJIbCTBYIOT l\aHHble KaK 6n1l31<e110Bb1X pa60T, TaK H HCCJIeJ\OBaHHH, npOBe,!!eHHbiX Ha npl1eMHblX J\eTHX. B OI\1<OH H3 6JIH3Hel10BblX pa60T 6b1JI0, B '1aCTHOCTH, nOKa3a- HO, qTO MeJK,lIy HHTenneKTOM II aKaJ\eMHqeCKHMH i\OCTH)I(eHIIRMH CCTb BblCOKlle rCHeTllqeCKHe KOppeJIJlI1I1H, TO eCTb 06a nil nOKa3a- TCJIH He npOCTO l\eTepMHHJlpYIOTCJI reHonmOM - OHII IIcnbITblBa- lOT BllJlHHlle CXO,!!HbIX reHeTlI'IecKHX q,aKTOpOB IUlII, ynpOLl\eHHO ro- BOpK, - Oi\HIIX II TCX 1I<C reHO!! (Petrill SA., TllOmpson L.A.,199J). 06 3TOM )l(e CBHl\eTeJIbCTBYIOT 11 l\aHHbIe IICCJIel\OBaHHJI npll- eMHblX AeTeH, B KOTOpOM Ha Bb'OOPKC 7-JIeTHHX i\eTeii (119 YCbIIIOB- JIeHHblX II 120 )f(IIBYLl\HX B CBOHX CCMbJlX) 6bIllIf nonY'IeHbI, Bo-nep- BbIX, BblCOKl1e nOKa3aTeJIII HaCJIei\yeMocTI1 ,lIJIH HHTeJlJleKT3 II ,lIJIH TeCTa IIlKOJIbHOH ycnewlioCTH, BO-BTOpbIX, HeBblCOKlle q,eHOTllnH- qeCKlle KOppenJll1l111 MeJK.AY HHMH 11, B-TpeTbIlX, BblCOKlle reHeTHqeC- KHe KOppeJIJll1l11f MeJK.AY HIIMH (Cardon Lon R. et aI., 1990) Ycnew- 1<OCTb OBrrai\CHIiJi '1TCHHCM nepBOKJIaCCHIIKaMI!, paccMaTpllBaeMaH B 268 2.3. KOfHHTHBHble cnoco6HoCTH KorHHTIIBHble xapaKTCpIlCTl1KH, HMelOLl\lIe MeHee 06Ll\HH xapaKTep, '1CM nOKa3aTerrH I1HTeJIJleKTa, npoaHanH3HpoBaHbi B 269 
reHeTII4eCKIIX pa60Tax HC CTOJIb nOl\p05HO, KaK HHTeJlJIeKT, H pe- 3YJIbTaTbi 3TIIX HCCnel\OBaHilii He 1T03BOnJlIOT 0l\H03Ha4HO oQe- IIIITb pOilb reHOTllna II Cpel\bI B BapllaTIIBHOCTI1 OTl\enbHblX Kor- HHTl1BHblX CITOC05HOCTeH, XOTJI HeCOMHeHHo, 4TO reHOTlI1T B TOH IIJIIIHHOH Mepe BHOCHT CBOH BKilal\ B 4JopMHpoBaHHe HX IIHJl,HBII- l\yaJIbHbIX pa3nH'IHH. ITo pC3ynbTaTaM paHHHX pa60T, 0505I.QeHlle KOTOpbIX 6b1i10 npOBel\eHO B KOHQe 70-x rOI\OB, C03J1,aBaJlOCb BlTeqaTneHlle, qTO reHOTlln onpel\eneT HeCKOilbKO MeHblllHH npOQeHT ]1HCnepCHIl KorHHTHBHbIX cnoc06HOCTCH, no cpaBHeHHIO C 06I.QHM I1HTeJIJleK- TOM. TaK, P.HHKOilC, ycpe)l,HHB l\aHHble 211 I1CCJle]10BaHHH Kor- HHTIIBHbIX cnoc06HocTeH, npOBel\eHHblX 6JIH3HeQoBbIM MeTOI\OM, nOKa3aJI, '1TO HaCJIe.nyeMOCTb OlTpe]1eneT 01' 22% ]10 48% IIX ]1I1C- ncpCI1I1, a CPCI\HHH nOKa3aTeJIb HaCJIel\yeMocTH, BbIC'IIITaHHblH P.HIIKOJICOM )J,JIJI Bcex KOrHHTllBHbIX cnoc06HoCTeii, OKa3anc pa- BeH 41% (Nichols R.N., 1978). .II.aHllbIc, nOJlY'IeHHble B TOH pa- 6oTe, npel\CTaBneHbl B Ta6mlQe 7.5. AHaJIOrll4Hbie pe3ynbTaTbi 6blJlH nonyqeHbl II ,!I)I KorHII- TIIBHbIX xapaKTepllcTIIK, BXOI\JlI.QIIX BO 4JmoHI\HbIH II KpHCTanJIII- 30BaHHblH IIHTeJlneKT, KOTOpblC 6bIJIH BbI]1eJJeHbI P.K3TTeilOM KaK 60ilec '1aCTHble nOKa3aTeJIII IIHTenJIeKTa. Cpel\Hllii nOKa3aTeJlb lIaCnel\YCMOCTI1 ,!I)I xapaKTepllcTHK, onpel\eJlIOI.QIIX KpHCTaJIJlH- 30BaHHbIH HHTeJIJIeKT (cBJl3aHHblii co cnOC06HoCTblO HCnOJIb30- BaT: HMelOl.Qllec 3HaHII II HaBbIKH), OKa3aJIC paBCH 0,37, a cpel\- Hilil ITOKa3aTenb HaCnel\ycMocTH ,!I)I xapaKTcpHcTIIK, onpe)l,cJI- IOI.QIIX 4Jrnoll]1Hblii HHTeJIJleKT (cB3aHHbIii co cnoco6HoCTblO ClTpaBJIJlTbCJI  HOBblMIl II lIe3HaKOMbiMII 3al\aHHMH), OKa3anc paBell 0,36 (NIchols R.N., 1978). Ha OCHOBaHlII1 3TIIX pe3YJIbTaTOB B reHeTIlKe nOBel\eHIIJI I\onroe BpeM 6b1TOBaJIO MHCHHC, '1TO Bce KorHIITIIBHblC cnoc06- HOCTII IIClTblTblBaRJT ITpHMepHO O]1I1HaKOBOC BnHHHe reHOTlma KOTOpOC HeCKO!lbKO MeHbllle, qeM B!lIIHlle reHOTilITa Ha 061.QI11! IIHTeJIJleKT. B 60!lee 1T03JI,HIIX Hccnel\OBaHIIJlX npe,llCTaBJIeHlle 0 CXO,llCTBe B ITenCHIl rCHOTl1IT-cpeI\OBOH 06ycnoBJIeHHOCTII pa3HbiX KOrHHTI1B- HbIX cnoc06HOCTeH He nOJIY'llllIO nO,llTBepJKl\eHHJI. Bo-nepBbIX, 6b1!1o nOKa3aHO, '1TO He TOJIbKO pa3HbIe cnOC06HOITII, HO II pa3HbIe npOB!leHIIJI 01\11011 H TOH )I(e CITOC06HOCTII Mor)'T 6bITb He oroma- KOBO CB3aHbI C reHOTl1nOM. B Ka4eCT11e npllMepa MO)l(HO npllBeCTIl 270 Ta611uI(a 7,5 B/JympunapHble KoppellRlJuu M3 u 3 6J1U3Hel/08 U nOKa3ameJIU Ha- cJleoyeMocmu, nOJlyw/JHble OllR OmOeJlbHblX K02HUm!t8HbIX cnoco6- Hocmeu (Nichols R.N., 1978) KorHI1TItBlible M3 A3 nOKa38TeI1b :(apaKTepKCTKM HacneAyeMocnl BepoanbHaA nOH.RTI1I11Bocrb 78 59 38 MareManNeCKMe cnoco6IiOC1' 78 59 38 npocrpaHCTBeHHble npeACTal!lI1eHM 65 41 46 naMRTb 52 38 32 norK"'IeCKOO paCCeHl4e 74 50 48 6ernocTb pe4M 67 52 30 A8epreHTHoe Mbiw.neHe 61 50 22 CtmpOCTb BocnpKRTKR 70 47 46 Bee cnoco6HoCTM 74 54 41 .n:aHHble faBaHCKoro ceMeHHoro IICCJIe,I(OBaHIIH, KOTopoe 6bIJIO npo- Bel\eHO Ha 6 TbICH4ax I1CnbITyeMblx II B KOTOpOM pOJI,HTeJIH II )l,eTll cpaBHIIBaJIIICb no pH.ny nOKa3aTeJleli Bep6anbHblx II npocTpaH- CTBeHHblX TeCTOB, a raKJKC ITO CKOpOCTH BOCnpIlJlTl1 II no oc06eH- HOITJlM naM"TII. B faBaiicKoM HCCJIe)l,OBaHliII HallMeHblllaJi reHeTlI- 4eCKaH 05YCJIOBJIeHHOCTb 6b1na 06HapY)l(eHa )J,JIJI nOKa3aTeJJeH 0)1,- 1I0ro 113 TeCTOB npOCT]JaHCTBeHHbIX cnoC05HOCTeii, a Hall6o!lb- ilia" - )J,JI OQeHOK Jl,pyroro TeCTa npOCTpaHCTBeHHblX cnocQ6110c TeM (LlIIT. no Plomin R. et aI., 1997). BO-BTOPbIX, nOKa3aTeJIli Hacnel\yeMocTH KOrHlITI1BHblX CIIO- C06HocTeH IIMelOT TeH.!!eHQHIO CllllbHO MeHJlTbCJI C B03paCToM, qTO CB"3aHO C nepeCTpOHKoii KOI'HHTHBHOH c<jJepbI, npOIlCXO]1l.QeH B npoLlecce pa3BIITH. TIpl!MepOM TaKoro 113MeHeHIIJI ITOKa3aTeneH HaCJlel\YeMocTH BJIflRJTC" )l,aHHbIe KOJlOpaJl,CKOrO IICCilel\OBaHIIJI nplleMHblx AeTeH. B nOM IICCJle.n:OBaHIiH npH cpaBHeHIIH POl\llbIX II YCbIHOBJleHHb!X CII6cOB 6bIJlO 1T0Ka3aHO, 'iTO nOKa3aTCJIII Hacnel\Ye- MOCTH Bep6aJ1bHbIX cnoco5HOCTeH YBeJIII4HBalOTCfI 01' Tpex K ,lIeB- TI1 rO)l,aM C 49% 1\0 74% (Cardon Lon R., 1994). TaKHM 05Pa30M, IIccJIe)1y" OT)1eJIbHble KOrHHTIIBHble cnoc06HoCTH, He06xol\IIMO yqHTblBaTb He TOJlbKO cneQII<jJHKY )1l1arHOCTHqeCKIIX npoQe.nyp, HO 11 B03paCT, B KOTOpOM ITPOIICXOI\IIT 05CJIe.n:OBaHHe. B-TpeTbHX, BeJJHqllHa nOKa3aTeneM lIaCJIClI.YCMOCTII, nony- 4aeMa ,!I)IH pa3HbIX KorHIITIIBHblX cnoc06HOCTeH, MO)l(CT 6bITb 271 
pe3YllbTaTOM OC06cHHOCTeii nOCTpOeHHH 3KcnepHMeHTa. TaK, B O,IJ.HOM H3 HCClle,IJ.OBaHllii KOrHHTlIBHblX Cnoco6HOCTeH, npOBe- ,lJ.eHHOM Ha 6-13-lIeTHHx l\eTHX, BblHCHIIIIOCb, 'ITO reHOTlfH o6yc- IIOBIIIIBaeT CKOpocTHbie xapaKTepllcTIIKIl B 60llbweii CTeneHH, qeM ycneWHOCTb aCneJlbIlOCTH, TO eCTb CKOpOCTb peweHHH Tec- TOBblX 3aaaHHH CBH3aHa C reHOTlfHOM 1J 60JtbWCH CTeneHH, a pe- 3YJIbTaTHBHOCTb ObIHOIIHeHIIJI TeCTOB - B MeHbweii (Petrlll S A. et al , 1995). B ilPyroH pa60n, r,IJ.e BbIHOJlHeHHe aeTbMII aHallO- rHqHblX 3aaaHlIH npoll3BOnllllOCb 6e3 opeMeHHoro OrpaHII'IeHHH, 6blJIO nOKa3aHO, '1TO H CKOpOCTHbIe, II pe3YllbTaTIIBHbie nOKa3a- TeJlH CBH3aHbi C reHOTHnOM, npll'leM nOCIIC.l\HHe (nOKa3aTe1lH pe- 3YllbTaTHBHOCTIt) .l\eMOHCTpIlPYIOT 60JlbWI1C pa3JIllqHH B nOKa3a- TellHX HaCJleayeMocTH, TO eCTb HBJlJlIOTCH MeHee OI\HOpOI\Hb!MII no CTcneHH CBH311 C reHOTlIHOM, '1eM CKOpOCTb BbIHOIIHCHI1H Tec- TOBbIX 3aaaHHH (3blpHHooa H.M., 1992). B-qeTBepTbIX, cneQl1IpllKa KorHltTHBHblX cnoc06HOCTeH (TO eCTb Itx 06YCilOBJICHHOCTb pa3HblMI1 reHOTHnll'leCKHMH BJlIIJlHIIH- MIt) npOJlBJlHeTCH B BeJIlI'IIIHe K03<jJ<jJIIQHeHTOB reHeTHqeCKIIX KOp- peJlHQIIH. HanoMHI1M, B qeM COCTOHT CMbICJ1 reHeTllqeCKHX KOp- peIlJlQHH. ECIlIi relleTHqeCKlle KOppeJIJlL\HI1, nOllyqeHHble npll cpaB- HeHHI! paJHblX KorHHTHDHblX xapaKTepllCTHK, OKa3bIBalOTCJI Bbl- COKHMH H 611H3KHMII no 3Ha'lCHltlO, 3TO CBHl\eTenbCTByeT 0 CXoa- CTBe reHOTllnH'IeCKHX BJIIIHHHH, perynllPYIOll\IIX 3TH xapaKTepll- CTHKH. Eenll KOppeJJJlQHH HH3KHe, MOJl(HO CneJlaTb BblBOJl, 0 TOM, qTO pa3HbIe KorHItTIlBHblC cnoc06HOCTH IICnblTbIBalOT B03.l\eH- CTBI1C pa3HblX reHOTHnll'IeCKI1X <jJaKTopOB. KaK OKa3aJIOCb, DeJlllqHHbl reHeTHqeCKHX KOppeJ1J1QIIH MeHJlIOTCH C B03paCTOM. B KOJIOpal\CKOM HCCJlel\OBaHHH npH- eMHblX I\CTeH 6bIJII1 nOl\cqHTaHbI reHeTlI'lCCKlle KOppeJIHQIIH MeJl(JI,y nOKa3aTenHMH naMHTlI, CKOpOCTII BocnpIIHTHJI, Bep6aJ!b- HblX C(I0C06HOCTCH II npOCTpaHCTBeHH/'/X cnoco5HocTeH (Cardon Lon R., 1994). B 3, 4 II 7 'TCT reHeTII'IeCKlle CBJl31'! MeJl(JI,y pa3- IIHqHbIMIl KorllllTIIBllblMH cnoc05HoCTHMil aapbllpOBaJIII B OqeHb WI1POKIIX npei\enax (OT 0,11 Jl,0 0,94), '1TO nO.l\TBepJl(lIacT rH- nOTeJY 0 pa3HoH 3TIIOJIorIlH paJHbIX KorHHTHBHblX cnoco6Ho- CTCH. K 9 rOt{aM Kapnma reHeTII'IeCKHX CBJl3eii pat{IIKanbHo HJMeHllnaCb: B 9 neT CBJl3H MeJKJI,Y BceMIl KOrHiITHBHbIMIl cno- C05HOCTHMH, paCCMaTpllBaCMblMH B 3TOM I1CCJleliOnamm, onoc- pet{YIOTCJI reHonlllOM. Pe3YJlbTaTbl, nOJIY'IeHHble B Jl,BYX nOC- 272 J1ei\HHX TO'lKaX JlOHTIlTIOt{a, - B 7 H 9 neT - npelicTaBlleHbl 1J Ta6mlL\e 7.6. Ta6/1uu,a 7.6 rellemUWCKue KOppeJ!JllJuu Me:>fCoy nOKaJameJII/MU K02HumU6I1bIX CI10C06HOcmeu, nOJIyqeHlIble 87 U 9l1em (Cardon LOll R., 1994) nOK333fem. npOCTp BOCnpM:RTl4e naMFITb. 7 neT Bep6aJ1bHble cnoc::06HoCT 32 38 13 npacrpacraeHHbIlf cnocD6HOCTH 90 33 CKOpOCTb BocnplolflTMfI 37 9 neT Bep6aJ1bbl9 cnoco5HoCT 83 84 84 npocrpaKCTBeHHble cnoco6HoCTiol 99 99 Cl(opocn BocnpiolRTMfI 99 Ell\e O)1HH Bonpoc, KOTOpblH Heo6xOlIHMO paCCMOTpeTb, 06cYJl(t{aJi reHeTH'IeCKHe HCCJlet{OBaHHH KorHIITHBHblX cnoco6HO- CTCH, KacaeTCJI COOTHOllleHHJI 3THX cnoco6HocTeH H IIHTeJIJleKTa. PaCCMaTpIIBaJi <jJaKTopHO-aHaJIIITII'IeCKYIO CTJJYKTYPY HHTeJInCK- Ta, Mbl rOBOpHJIlI 0 TOM, qTO KOppeJIJlQlIlI MCJKp,y KorHHTHBHbIMH cnoco6HOCTlIMII 05YCIIOBlleHbi HX CBH31>1O C 06ll\HM IIHTeJIJleK- TOM, HO HX COJl,epJKaHHe K 06ll\eMY I1HTenJ1eKTY He CBO.l\HTCJI. KaJKAaH 113 HHX 06JIaaaeT C05CTBeHHOH cneQH<jJIIKoii. A KaK 06- CTOI'!T Aeno C pOJlblO reHOTHna B BapHaTIIBHocTH KOrHIIT1I8HbiX cnoco6HocreH? MOJKHO JIll CKa3aTb, qTO reHOTHn onpe.n:cnHcT Ba- pHaTIIBHOCTb KorHIITIIBHblX cnoco6Hocreii JIIIWb B TOH Mcpe, B KOTOpoii B HHX npct{cTaBJIeH 061.L\HH HH'l'eJIJleKT? HJIH JKe CO,IJ.ep- JKaTenbHaH cncQH<jJHKa KOrHI1TJIBHblX cnoc06HocTeH onpet{eJlHeT- CJI CneL\H<jJIIKoii reHOTHnHqeCKIIX <jJaKTopoB, 06YCJIOBnHBalOll\IIX HX BapHaTHBHOCTb? JJ;JlH Toro '1To6bl npOBepHTb, KaKoe 1'!3 3THX npc.!1noJtoJKe- HI1H OKaJl(eTCH npaBHJ1bHbIM, 6blJIH TlOcTpoeHbI 6110MeTplI'ICCKlle MOl\enl1, n03B0J1J1IOll\HC pa3t{eJIIITb 061.L\He (cBJl3aHHble C IIHTeJI- JteKToM) II CnCQlIaJIbHble (npllcYll\lIe TOJlbKO KOHKpeTHblM KOrHH- THBHblM cnOC06HOCTHM) reHeTllqeCKHC BJIHHHHJI. B HccReAoBaHlfll, npOBCneHIIOM lIB J1.eTRX - lIB 6RI13HCLlBX, POI\HblX cII6cax H nplleMHI>IX clI6cax, - 6blJIO nOKa3aHO, qTO OT- 273 
Jl,eJIbllbIe KorHHTIIBHble cnoc06HOCTH IICnbI'l'bIBaIOT BJIIIJlHlle pa3- HbIX reHeTllqeCKIIX cj>aKTopOB - II Tex, KOTopbIe HBJlJlIOTCH 05- U(IIMI! ,I:\JIH HIIX 11 IIHTeJIJleKTa, I! Tex, KOTopbIe HBJIHIOTCH YHH- KaJIbllbiMII, cBoiicTBeHHLIH! TOJIbKO KOHKpCTHb1M KOfHIHIfBHblM oc06eHHOCTJlM (Cardon Lon R., Fulker D.W., 1993). TaKlle)Ke pe3YJlbTaTbi 6bIJIlI nOJlY'IeHbI II npll IICCJ1eI\OBaHHII pa3J1yqeHHbIX II Hepa3J1yqeHHblX 6J1H3HeLlOB, qeH Cpel\HIIH B03pacT paBHHJlCH 65 rO,I:\aM (Pedersen N.L. et aI., 1994). TaKIIM 06P330M, no KpaHHeH Mepe Ha )l.BYx KpaHHHx oTpe3Kax 0llToreHe3a, B l\eTCTBe H B no- JKIIJlOM B03pacTe, BJII'!JlHlle reHOTllna Ha BapllaTliBHOCTb KorHII- TIIBHblX cnoc06HocreH He OrpaHH'IHBaeTCH TOJIbKO TeMH B03,I:\eii- CTBIIHMH, KOTopbIe IICnblTblBaeT BapHaTIIBHOCTb IIHTeJIJIeKTa. 3aBeplllaJi onllcaHHe rCHeTII'IeCKIIX IICCJIel\OBaHIIH cneLlH- aJlbHLIX cnoc05HocreH, MOJKHO C,I:\eJIaTb CJleI\YIOU(lIe BbIBOJl,bI. Bo- nepBbIX, BapllaTIIBHOCTb KorHIITHBHblX cnoc05HOCTeii 05YCJIOB- JleHa He TOlIbKO CpeI\OBbIMII, HO II reHOTllnllqeCKIIMI1 BJlIIHHIIHMII. BO-BTOpbIX, BKIIa;J. reHOTlina B BapllaTHBHOCTb KOrHHTHBllblX cno- C05HOCTeii cyU(eCTBeHHO pa3JIII'IaeTCJI ,I:\JlH p33HbIX cnoc05HOCTeH " 3aBIICHT OT B03paCTa. .II.llana30H nOKa3aTeJIeH HaCJle,l\YeMOCTII, nOJlY'IeHHbIX A1IH pa3HblX KorHIITIIBHblX CnOC05HOCTeH, onpe)];e- lIeHHblX B pa3HbIX B03pacrax, HaXOl\lITCH B npel\eJIax OT 0 1\0 90%. B-TpeTbHX, pa3Hble KorHHTIIBHble cnoc05HoCTH IIcnblTbll!a- lOT BJIIIHHlle KaK O)];IfHaKOBbIX, TaK II pa3JIII'IHbIX reHOTl1nHqeC- KIIX lj)aKTopOB. B-'1eTBepTbIX, CBJl3b KorHIITIfBHbIX cnoco5Hocreii C reHOTllnOM 05YCJlOBJIeHa II IIX CBJl3blO C 06U(IfM I1I1TeJIJleKTOM, II If X co5CTBeHHOH Cnel.(lIcj>IIKO". 2.4. KOTHIfTlIBIILIC CTIIJIH B caMOM 06U(eM BlIl\e KOrHl1TIIBHblC CTIIJlH MOJKHO onpel\C- J1HTb KaK cnoc05b1 nepepa60TKII IIHcj>opMaI.(HII - ee nonyqeHIIJI, xpaHeHIIH II IICnOJIb30BaHHH. IIpe,I:\noJIaraeTcH, '1TO 3TII cnoco6bl HBJlHIOTCH OTHOCIITeJIbHO He3aBHCIIMblMH OT COp;epJKaHHJJ HHq,OP- MaI.(IIH, pa3JIII'IaIOTCJI Y pa3HbiX JIIOJJ;eH II YCTOH'IIIBbI Y KaJK,I:\OrO KOHKpeTHOrO '1eJIOBel<a. KorHlHHBHbIH CTHJIb npel\CTaBJIHeT C060" Xap3lCTepIlCTHKY, IIMelOU(YIO )l.Ba nomoca. MeJK,I:\Y KpaiiHIIMII 3Ha'leHHHMII nOJIlOCOB pacnOJlaralOTCH B BlI)J:e KOHTIIHYYMa 3Ha'ieHIIH, KOTopble nOJlY'IaIOT npH BbInOJIHeHlI11 TeCTa IIcnblT)'eMble. nOCTYJIHPYeTCH, '1TO npOTI!- BOnOJlOJl(HbIe nomoca KaJKl\oro KOrHHTI!BHOrO CT!IJIj! HMelOT paD- HYIO COL\HaJIbHyro 3Ha'lIlMOCTb: oTpaJKaJ! pa3JIII'IIIJI B cnoc06ax I\e- HTeJIbHOCTH, Ollll lIe CBH3aHbI C ee ycnelllHOCTbIO H3yqeHHe Korllll- TIIBHblX CT!IJIeH, TaKIIM 06Pa30M, no npeAnOJIOJKeHlllO IIX C03,I:\aTe- JleH, nOMoraeT nOHH11>, KaKUMU cnoco6aMu pa3Hble JIIO)J;II ,I:\OCTllra- lOT O,I:\HHaKOBorO pe3YJIbTaTa, a He KaKOB pe3YJIbTaT, npH .n:OCTIIJKe- HIlII KOToporo 6bIJIII IIcnOJIb30BaHbi pa3Hble cnoc06bl. K cepMIIHe 70-x rOI\OB B nCIIXOJIOrl1H IIHI\IIBH,l\YaJlbHbIX pa3JIllqHH 6bJJlO onllcaHO OKOJIO I\BYX l\eCJlTKOB pa3JII1'1HbIX Kor- HHTHBHblX CTIIJIeH, Q,l1l1aKO B reHeTII'IeCKHe pa60Tbl KorHHTHB- HbIe CTIIJIH BKJIlOqaJIHCb KpaHHe pe,I:\KO HCKJIlOqeHHe npe,I:\CTaB- JlHIOT .n:Ba KorHHTHBHb!X CTIIJIH. O.n:I1H 113 HIIX - 3aBIICHMOCTb- He3aBIICIIMOCTb OT nOnJl, )J;IIarHOCTHpyeMaH no JIeI'KOCTI1 Hbl.n:we- HII>I '1aCTII CTpYKTYPHPOB3HHoro nOIIJi. IIpll onpe,I:\eJleHHII 3aBH- CIlMOCTIi-He3aBHCHMOCTH OT nOJ1J1I1CnblTyeMOMY npe)l)lararoT, Ha- npllMep, Ha\lTH npocryro reoMC'I1J11qecKylO cj>llrypy II 60Jlee CJIOJK- HOll I1J1H onpe,l1eJIIITb, '1TO lIapllCOBaHO Ha KapTIIHKe, KOTOpaJi npe,l1'bHBJIHeTCJI C nOMexaMIl. Te, KTO JlCrKO CnpaBJIHIOTCH C TaKII- Mil 3al\aHIfHMII, JlBJlHIOTCJI He3aBIICIIMblMII OT 3pllTeJIbHOrO nOJIJI (OHI1 MOryT OTCTpOHTbCH OT KOHTCKCTa, II KOTOpOM npel\'bHBJlJleTCH 33t1aHHe). Te, KTD He CIJpaBJIHeTCH C 3a,I:\aHlleM, HBJIHIOTCH 33BIICII- MblMIl OT nOJIJI (OHII He MorYT npeOJl,OJIeTh Tex nOMeX, KOTopbIe HaXO,l1>1TCII B 3pllTeJIbHOM nOJIe). BTOpOH KorHIITIIBHbIii CTHJIh, HCCJIe,l10BaBWIIHCJI B reHeTll- Ke nOBel\eHIIH - 3TO HMnYJIbCIIBHOCTb-pecj>neKCHBHOCTb, npOHB- JI>lIOU(aHCH B 6bICTPOM, HeI\OCTaTO'lHO 061\YMaHHOM pearHpOBa- HIIII Ha np06JIeMHyIO cIITyal\lI1O (IIMnynhCI1BHOCTb) IIJlII, Ha060- POT, B nOtI]J06HOM npe,'UJaplfTeJlbHDM aHaJlH3e CI1Tyal\lIlI, npell- llIeCTBYIOU(eM ,I:\eHCTBIIIO (pecj>JIeKCHBHOCTI». Pa3BHTHe npe.n:CT3BJTeHlIll 0 cnoco6HOCTHX, 0 MexaHII3Max IIX CTaHOBJIeHIIH II CTeneHII reHeTli'!eCKoii 113MeHqHBOCTli npllae- JlO K BbIJI,eJIeHiHO HOBOii 06JIaCTII nCIIXOJlOrll'leCKIiX IICCJleI\OBa- HHii: nOJlBHJIIICb l\eJIbIe HanpaBJIeHliH, 113Y'HllOU(lIe He pe3YJIbTa- TI1BHYIO CTOPOHY J\eHTeJJbHOCTIl (KaK 3TO npOIlCXO,l1I1T npH ,l1l1ar- HOCTIiKe IIHTelIlIeKTa), a oco6eHHOCTII ee npOl\eCca, cc ,I:\IfHaMIIKY OAHHM H3 nOHJlTHH, nOHBIIBllllIXCH B nCIIXOJlOrl111 6J1arol\apJl 3TOMY paKYpcy paCCMOTpeHKI! Up<J6neMbl CUOco6Hocn:ii, I!HlIlleTCIl /COf- HIITIIBHblH CTIIJIb KJIH CTIiJIb n03HaBaTeJIbHOH l\eHTeJIbHOCTII. 274 275 
ITpl1 HCCJIe).\OBaHHH m.mYJIbCHBHOfo-peq,JleKCHBHoro KOf- HIfTHBHOrO CTHJIJI, Kat( npaBI'IJIO, He HaXOII)IT cYll\eCTBeHHOro BKJIa- ).\a reHOTHna B cro BapHaTI1BHOCTb. HHaqe 05CTOHT ).\eJ10 C 3aBII- CHMOCTbIO-He3aBHCHMOCTblQ OT nOJ1H: BJlIIJlHlle fCHOTHna Ha I'!H- ).\IIBII).\yaJ1bHble pa3JIHqllH, HB5JIIO).\aeMble no JTOMY KOfHI1TIIBHO- MY CTlIJIIO, 05HapY)!(HBaeTC H npH CpaBHeHHH M3 II ,lJ;3 6m13He- QOB, II B pa50Tax, BbInOJIHellHblX Ha npHeMHblX ).\eTJlX H IIX pO).\H- TCJIRX, H B ceMeHHblX lICCJICJI,OBaHHRX. ITpH COBMeCTHOM aHBJIH3e ).\aHHbIX, nOJIyqCHHblX B 12 HC- CJIe).\oBaHIIJlX, BKJIIO'IaHWHX pa3JI1I'1Hble napbl po).\cTBeHHIIKoB, 5blJIO nOKa3aHO, '1TO reHonm onpe).\CJIJleT nOJIOBI1HY BapHaTlIB- HOCTH nOKa3aTeJICH 3aBHCHMOCTH-He3aBHCHMOCTI1 OT nOJI (fpH- ropCHKo E.JI., JIa5y).\a M.C., 1996). IIpll 3TOM B nOKa3aTCJIRX HaCJIel\ycMocTH npllMCpHO B paBHOM COOTHOIllCHIIII npC.I\CTaBJIe- Hbl aJl,JJ:IITlIBHble H HCaJl,JJ:HTIIBHbIC COCTaBJI!lIOll\He reHCTl'!qeCKOH ).\HcnepCHlI (28% H 22% COOTBeTCTBeHHo). 05paTIIM BHlIMaHlIC Ha 3TOT q,aKT, nocKoJlbKy BO Bcex nOKa3aTeJI!lX KOfHI1TIIBI1OH cq,e- pbl, KOTOpblC omlCbIBaJIHCb ).\0 CHX nop, OCIIOBHYIO pOJIb HrpacT aJJ:)J,IIT1IBHOe HaCJ1C).\OBaHlle. 3Ha'lHTeJIbHaJi '1BCTb OCTaBllICHCJI nOJlOBHHbl ).\lIcnepcHH 3a- BIICHMOCTH-HC3aBIICI1MOCT\1 OT nOJIH onpc).\eJlJleTc!I pa:JJIl1qaIOll\cH- CR cpC).\OH, pOJIb KOTOPOH He CCBnB./(aeT y pa3HblX nap PO).\CTBCHHH- KOB. HanpHMCp, y CII5cOB P33JIllqBIOll\I1CCR cpe).\OBble BJlH!lHHJ[ on- pe).\CJIJlIOT 43% BBpl1aTHBHoCTH, a y 6J1H3HeQOB 34%. IToCJle,1\HJ[!I KOMnOHeHTa ).\I1CUCpCHI1- 06ll\aJl cpc,1\a - OKa3bIBaeT HaHMCHb- Ulee BJIIIIIHlIC liB .pOpMHpOBBI!HC IIH.a;IIBH).\yaJIbHbIX pB3JIHql'!H B no- Ka:JaTeJIJlX KOrHHTIIBBOfO CTHJ1H. ITPH HCCJIe.l\OBaHl1l1 3BBIICHMOCTH-He3aBI1CI1MOCTH OT nOJIH , KaK H npH IICCJIe).\OBaHHIl OT.I\eJ1bHbIX KOfHlITHBHblX cnoc06HOCTeH, B03HHKaeT Bonpoc 0 COOTHOWeHHIl KOfHHTlIBHOrO CTHJIH C IIHTeJI- JIeKTOM. B nCJlXOJJOrJlqCCKHX pB60Tax nO MepC I1CCJ1e).\OBaIJJlJI Kor- HllTllBHblX CTHJICH nOCTO!lHHO 06HapY)!(HBaJIHCb q,aKTbI, CBJI).\eTeJIb- CTBYIOll\He 0 CBJl311 3aBIICIIMOCTI1-He3aBHCJlMOCTIl OT nOJIR C YC- nCIlIHOCTbIO BblnOJlHCHJlR JlHTeJJJICKTYaJlbHblX TeCTOB (Witkin H. ct aI., 1974; McKinncy J.O., 1973). B KaKoH CTcnCHH q,eHoTl1nHqCCKOe CX0.llCTBO 3TIIX .lIByx xapaKTepllCTIIK (lI!ITeJIJIma II KOI1lHnIBf!orO CI'IIJIJI) MO)!(eT 6bITb (!e3YJlbTaTOM CXOJl,CTBa MCXaHII3MOBIIX peryJIRQIIII? .II.ml OTBeTa HB 3TOT Bonpoc B MOCKOBCKOM 5JIII3HCQOBOM JIOHrIlTIO).\HOM IICCJ1e)'\OBaHIIH 6blJIII COnOCTaBJIeHbl nOKa3aTeJIII HH- 276 TeJ1J1eKTa II 3aBIlClIMOCTlI-He3aBIICIIMOCTH OT nOJIJI y).\eTeH 6, 7 H 10 JlCT. fCHeTlI'IeCKlle KOppeJIRQI1I1, nO).\C'IIITaHHble Me)!().\y 3TIIMII nOKa3aTeJIJlMH, YBeJIllql1BaJllICb C B03paCToM, HO He npCBblC1I1I11 BC- JlllqllHbl 0,59. 3TOT pe3YJIbTaT CBeTeJIbCTBYeT 0 TOM, qTO no Mepe pa3BIITHR 3aBIICIlMOCTb-HC33BIICIIMOCTb OT nOJIR C6JImKaeTCJI C 1111- TeJlJIeKTOM no MexaH1I3MaM, JIe)i(all\IIM B OCHOBC CC perYJIJlQIIII, HO, TeM HC MeHee, coxpaH!leT onpe).\eJIeHHYIO cneQI1q,IIKY (EropOBa M C., 3blpJlHOBa H.M., 1997) B l1eJIOM, HeMHOfOqllCJleHHble JlCCJIe).\OBBHHR 3aBIlCIlMOCTII- HC3aBIlCHMOCTII OT nOJ1J1, npOBe).\eHHble B fCHeTIIKC nOBe).\eHHJI, )'Ka- 3b1BaIOT Ha TO, qTO MCJKIIH.a;IIBI1).\yaJlbHble Pa3JIHqllR 3TOH OC06CH- HOCTH KOrHI1TIIBHOH Cq,epbl HCUblTblBaIOT BJII1J1Hlle rCHOTllna (KBK 3I\)J,IITHBHOC, TaK II HeB,ll.ll)lTIIBHoe), KOTopoe onpe).\eJIJleT nOJlOBHHY ec ,1\IICnCpclIlI. Ii3 cpC).\OBbIX BJlIIJlIIIIH OCHOBHYIO pOJlb IIrpaeT pa:!- JlH'IalOll\aJlCJI cpe,1\a. 2,5. KpearnBHocTb KpcaTHBHOCTb 1IBJ1!1CTC!I cpaBHHTeJIbHO IIOBOH nClIXOJIOrll'!ec- KOH xapaJ<TepHCTIIKoH, nOJiBlIBWcilcJI B nCIIX0J10rIlH B H3'1aJIC 50-x rO).\OlJ. IIpel\noJlBraeTc!I, qTO KpeaTIIBHOCTb (1IJ111 I\JlBCpreHTHoc MbIIlIJlCHIIC), B OTJIII'IIIC OT 06ll\ero IIHTeJJJICKTa, CBJl3aHa C TBOP'!Cf;- KIIMH nOTCHI1HMII qell0BeKa, C HHI'!QllaTI1BHOCTbIO, IIHTepeCOM K HHTCJI]JeKTYaJIbHOH ).\eJlTCiIbHOCTII II npl1BO.a;llT K C03J1,3HlllO HOBoro, OplfflmaJIbHOfO npo.llYKTa 3TOii P;CJlTCJIbHOCTI/. IIcllxoJIorll'lecKIIC IICCJ1CI\OBaHHJI KpCBTI1BIIOCTH MIIOrO'lHC- JIeHHbl, O).\lIaKO COnOCTBBJlCHlle pe3YJlbTaTOB pa3HblX pa60T HBJIJleT. CR BCCbMa CJ10JKHOH 3aJl,aqeH, nOCKOJlbKY BbInOJIHeHbI 3TII pa60Tbl B pa3HblX TCOpeTII'IeCKIIX KOHTCKCTBX II BapbHpYIOT no TOMY, KaKOC co).\ep)!(aHlIe BKJ1B.!U>IBaIOT aBTOpbJ B nOHJlTlle "KpcaTIIBHoCTb", a TaK)!(e - no MeTo).\aM IICCJ1C)I;OBaHIIJI 11 no 06'beKTY IICCJ1e).\OBaHIIR (HanpIIMcp, no OPHCHTBQIIII Ha npOI\YKTbI ).\C!lTeJIbHOCTH, JlBJIJlIQ- wl'!CCJI HOBblMII II OpllrllHaJIbHbIMIi C TO'IKII 3pellllJl 06 w =a, HiIII lIa JlI1qHOCTHble oc06eHHoCTH TBOp'leCKllx JIH'IHOCTCH, IIJlII Ha npo- I1ccc peWCHHJI np06JIeMbl, KOTOpbIH CBI1).\cTeJIbCTBYeT 0 HeTpllBII- aJJbllOM no).\Xo).\e K 3aJl,a'le). B rCHeTlIKC nOBC).\CIIIIR, KBK npBBIIJlO, HCnOJIb3YeTC!I TOJIbKO OMH 113 nO).\XOJl,OB K 113yqeHHlO xpeaTIIBHOCT\1, CBR3aHHblH C opllelJ- 277 
TaQHeH Ha npoQecc peWCHIIJI 3aJl,a'lll 11 pa3pa60TaHHblH 8 nCHXO- MeTpll'lCCKOH TpaJl,llQHII .II.JK.fHJIIjJOPIl;OM H IT.ToppaHCOM. IICPBbIH I..\HKn pa60T, B KOTOPOM KpeaTH8HOCTb paCCMaT- pl1BanaCb KaK caMoCTORTcnbHaR nCHXOJIOrHqeCKaJl xapaKTepHC- THKa, 6bIn npOBCII;eH .II.JK.fHnljJopll;oM II CTO cOTpy,!1I1UKaMH npl'! C03,!1aHHH MOJl,enll CTpYKTYPbI HHTenneKTa (nonY'IHBWeH ono- cnCII;CTO"H Ha30aHHe Ky6HqeCKOH MOJl,eJlH HHTenneKTa). B TeCTax, KOTopble HcnOnb30BaJI .II.1K.nm<j!opJl,./l,JlJI ,!1HaTHO- CTIIKH KpcaTHOHOCTH, HcnbITyeMOMY npC./l,JlaraJIOCb ,!1aTb Ha30a- HHR pa3HbiM HCTOpHJlM, npll,!1YMaTb He06blqHb!C cnoc06bI IfCnOJlb- 300aHHR npel\MeTOB, nO.l\06paTl, CJIOBa COrJIaCHO KaKOMY-JIH60 npaBllny, HanpHMep, HaqHHalOll\HCCR Ha OIl;HY H TY JKe 6YK8Y HJlH JKe HMeIQll\l1e nOXOJKIIH CMblCJI H T ..1\. <l>aKTOpI1JOOaB PC3YJIb TaTbl paJHbIX TeCTOB, .II.JK.fHJI<j!OPJl, BbI,!1eJlHn pJlI\ OC06CHHOCTeii, KOTO- pble OH Ha3BaJI nOl\npOQcccaMH .l\lIBCprCHTHoro MbIIllJICHIIJ!. B HX '1HCnO 80WJIO 8 XapaKTepHCTHK, CO.l\epJKaTeJIbHO 06ToCt\HHIilOll\HXCJI 8 3 rpynnbl H CBHII;eTCJIbCTBYIOIl\HX 0 6erJlOCTH MbIWJIeHHJI, pa3- Ho06pa3HII H HOBH3He (HJIH YIfHKaJIbHOcTII) OToeTOB IICnbITye- MblX (Guilford J.P., 1956). HanpaBJIeHHe IIccrreI\OOaHHH, Ha'iaTOe ,Q1K.fHJIIjJOp.n:OM, HaH- 60nec nOCJIel\OBaTenbHO 6bl1l0 npO.l\OJI1KeHO II.ToppaHcoM (Torrancc E.P., 1966, 1977), KOTOpbli1 YTO'lHl1n npe.n:CTaBJIeHHJI 0 KpeaTHoHoCTH, 60JIee Tll.\aTenbHO oT06parr npOl..\eAYPbI ee .l\lIarnoc- THKII II Obl.l\CJIlIJI 4 pcljlepeHTHblx nOKaJaTCJIR - 6errroCTb (KOJIHqe- "TIIO 3a,!\lUmH, BbllIOllHeHHblX I!CnblryeMbIM), m6KoCTb (paJl!006pa- 311C THnOB npeJl,MeTOB, Ha3bIBaeMblX IfClIbITYCMbIM), opHTHHanb- Hoen (He06bI'IHOCTh, HHJK!UI 'IaCTOTa Bcrpe'laeMOCTIi B nonYJIJIQHII Tex OTBCTOB, KOTopbIe Jl,3eT IIcnbITyeMbIi1), pa3pa60TaHHoCTb (KO- nllqecrno .l\eTarreii, HaJBaHHbIX IIcnbITyeMbIM). Ha OCHOOaHI'!H pe3YJIbTaT08 3TIIX pa60T 6bm C,!1eJIaH BbI- BO.l\, '1TO KpeaTlloHocTb OTpaJKaeT oc06YIQ nCIIXOJIOrH'IecKYIO pe- aJIbHOCTb, He COO,ll)lll.\yroCJI K TOH, KOTopaH onllCbloaeTCH I\pyrH- MI1 xapaKTepHCTHKaMH, TpaJJ;HQHOHHO 113Y'IaeMbIMH 0 nClixono- nil!, II, npeJK)l,C Bcero, - He CBO,!1J1ll.\YIOCJI K 06ll.\eMY IIHTeJIJIeKTY. O,!1l1aKO npaOOMepHOCTb 3Toro BblBOJl,a nOCTOHHHO nO,lUlepraeTCH COMHeHIUO. HMeHHO pa3rpaHHQeHilIO KpeaTH8HOCTI1 H HHTeJIJIeKTa HJIII, B I\pyrl'!x TepMUHax, .l\HBCpreHTHoro H KOHocpreHTHoro HHTen- JICKTa, nOCBRll\eHb/ MHorHe nCIiXOnOrl1'1eCKHe I1CCJIe,!lOB3HIIJI. Hx 278 pe3yJIbTaTbl, HeCMOTpR Ita MHTeJILHLIH nepHOJl H3Y'leHHH Kpea- TIIBHOCTI!, OCTaIQTCR npoTIIBopeqHBblMH II lI;alOT OCHOBaHIIJI MR Tpex B3aHMOHCKJDO'IaIQll\IIX TO'leK 3peHIIR. O.l\l1a J3KJDOqaeTCR B TOM, '1TO KpeaTHBHOCTL He CBH3aHa C IIltTeJlJleKTOM 11 npel\CTaO- JIReT C060H caMOCTORTeJIbHYIQ nCIIXOJIOTH'IeCKYIQ X3paKTepHCTH- KY BTopaR - YTBep1KJlaeT, qTO KpeaTIIBHOCTb JlBJIReTCJI O.l\HHM 113 npOJlBnCHIIH IIHTeJIJIeKTa H TeCHO C HIIM CBJl3aHa. TpCTLR (Hal'!- 60JIee paCnpOCTpaHeHHaR) - npelJ;nOJIaraeT, '1TO MCJK.l\Y HHTeJI- JleKTOM II KpeaTHOHOCTbIQ CYll\CCTBYIQT HeJIHHeHHble CBHJII: no- BbllllCHHe YPOBHR HHTeJIJICKTa CBJl3aHO C nOBbIllJeHHeM KpcaTHB- HOCTH JIHlllb .110 onpeJleJIeHHOrO npe.l\ena. IIpH npeOb/weHHH He- KOToporo KpIlTII'IeCKOrO YPOBHH HHTeJ1JIeKTa (no pa3HblM .l\aH- HblM - OT 12011;0 127 6aJIJloo) ero CBJl3H C KPeaTIIBHOCTblO HJIII HC'IC3aIOT, HJ111 JKe CTaHOORTCJ! OTpHQaTcnbHbIMH, TO eCTb npH l(anbHeiiwCM nOBblweHIIH IIHTCJI!1eKTa KpeaTIIBHOCTb Ha'lUHaeT CHH)((aTbCJI. Bonpoc 0 COOTHOllleHIIH HHTeJIJ1eKTa H KpeaTHBHocTH 06- CY)!(l\aCTCR H B reHeTHKC nOBC.I\eHIIR, XOTR O.l\H03Ha'iHOrO OTOeTa Ha 3TOT Bonpoc reHeTII'IeCKI!e HCCJle,lJ;OBaHIIR KpeaTHBHocTH nOKa .l\aTh He MorYT HJy'ICHHe pOJ1H reHOTIma II cpe,!1b1 B nOKa3aTCnJlX, OTHOCR- ll\HXCR, no MHeHIIIQ onllcaBlllIIX HX aBTopOB, K KpeaTUOHOCTH, oe- ,!1eTCR C KOHl\a 60-x roJl,Oo. B nepBLIX pa60Tax, BbInOnHeHHblX C. BaH .l\CH6eproM (1968), <I>.l>appoHoM (1969) H r.OJ1I1BOM (1972), BnllHHHR reHOTl1na Ha 60J1bIllHHCTBO nOKaJaTCJlCH Kpea- TIIBHOCTH o6HapYJi(eHO He 6bIJJ0 (11111'. no FlIller J.L., Thompson W.R.,1978). ITpH nO.l\C'IeTe cpCI\HerO BHyTpHnapHoro CXO.l\CTBa M3 II Jl,3 6J1113HeL\OB no 11 nOKa3aTeJ1RM KpcaTIIBHoCTII aBTopbl .lIPYro- ro HCCJlC.l\OBaHI1R npHWJlH K BbIOOJl,Y, '1TO rCHonm 06YCJ10BJ1110a- eT He 60Jlee qeTBCpTI1 .l\lICnepCHH 3THX nOKaJaTCJleH: cpe)I,Hee BHYT- pHnapHoe CXO.l\CTBO OKaJaJlOCb paoHo 0,57 y M3 6JIH3HCL\OO H 0,44 - Y .II.3 6JIH3HeL\OB; cooToeTcTBeHHo, nOKa3aTeJlb H3CneJlYc- MOCTI! paoeH 0,26 (Reznikoff M. et al , 1973). AHaJlOrll'lHbIe PC3YJlbTaTbI 6bl1lH nOJ1Y'IeHbl H npH 0606- ll\eHIII! .l\aHHblX 10 I1CCJle,!loBaHHH .l\HBCpreHTHoro MbIIlJJIeltHJI: BHYl'pHnapHbJe KoppeJIRL\IIH M3 II .II.3 6J1H3HCQOB, Bbl'lIlCJleHHble npH 3TOM 06061.1.\CHHII, paBHJlJIIICb COOTBeTCTBCHHO 0,61 II 0,50, qTo n03BOJlReT 3aKJ1JOqHTb, '1TO rCHOTHn onpe.l\eJIJleT 22% .l\IIC- 279 
nepCHH nOKa3aTeJleH .l\I1BepreHTHoro MbIWJJeHHJ! (Nichols R.N., 1978). HeBblcoKHH ypoBeHb reHeTH'IeCKOH 06yCJIOBJICHHOCTH HH- .l\IIBH.I\yaJIbHbIX pa3nH'II'!H, OTHOCSlIlIHXCJI K Kpe3THBHoCTH H 1\11- BcpreHTHoMY MblwneHHIO, YK33blBaCT Ha TO, qTO 1jI0pMHpOB3Iilie TBOp'leCKHX cnoc06HOCTeH '1eJlOBeKa B 3HaqHTenbHoii CTeneHH CBJl3aHO CO cpC.n:OBblMIl oc06eHHOCTSlMH paJBI1THI!. IIpll 3TOM MHO- rHe HCCJle.l\OBaTem1 CKJIOHHbI C'IIITaTb, 'ITO H Te HeBblCOKlle nOK3- 3aTCJIII HaCJIe.l\yeMocTH, KOTOpb!e 06HapYJl(HB3IOTCII npH reHCTH- '1eCKOM 3HaJIH3e KpeaTHIIHOCTH, OTHOCIITCJ! He CTonbKO K cneQHIjIH- Ke TBOp'lCCKI1X oc06eHHOCTeH '1enOBeKa, C1(onbKO K 06ll1eMY HH- TeJIneKTY, 1\0 HCKOTOpOH CTeneHI1 113McpJleMOMY TeCTaMH Kpea- THBHOCTH. TaK, B O.l\HOi-\ H3 pa60T npl'! 06Cnel\OBaHHH 6JIH3He1.J;0- BOH Bbl60pKII no 5 IIOKa3aTenJ!M KpeaTliBHOCTH TonbKO OI\HH H3 nOKIl33TCneii (cnoBecHble aCCOQHaQI!I!) npoAeMoHCTpl!pOBaJI CBII3b C reHOTHIIOM. 3TOT Jl(e nOK333Telll. OKa33nCJI HaH60JIee TecHO CIII!- 3aH c pe3ynbT3TaMH IIbInonHeHIIII .!\BYX HHTeJIJleKTyanbHbIx Tec- TOB - TeCTa PaBeHa I! CJIOBapl!OrO TeCTa (Canter S., 1973). HHa- qe rOBopll, '1eM BbIwe nOKa3aTCJIb KpcaTHBHOCTH KoppeJlHpyeT C IIHTellJ1eKTOM, TeM B 601lbwcH CTeneHH ero BapHaTHBHOCTb OKa- 3blBaCTCJ! CBJ!33Ha C reHOTHnOM. IIpH HcnocpeACTBeHHoM COIIOCTaBneHHH HHTellJ1eKTa II KpC- aTHBHOCTII (TO eCTb npH nOI\CqCTe rCHCTH'IeCKHX KOppenlll\HH MeJl(- l1.Y HIIMII) CTonb 0i\H03Ha'iHOrO pe3YJIhTaTa HC nOJJY'IaCTCJ!; no Mepe B3pOCnCHH.II pe6CHKa (OT 6 1\0 10 neT) BCJIH'II1Ha reHemqeC- KIIX 1(0ppcnJ!QHH Me)J(Jl,y IiHTcnnCKTOM II KpeaTHBHOCTbIO YBenH- '1I1BaeTCJI, O.l\HaKO, He npeBblllIae-r cpe.l\llero .l\l1an330Ha 3HaqCHHH (To eCTb p3lIHa npIlMepHO 0,5). 3TO YKa3blBae-r Ha TO, qTO HHTen- JleKT II KpeaTI1BHOCTb .l\e-repMHHIIpYIOTCJ! He TOJIbKO CXO.l\HblMII, HO H pa3nHq3101lIIIMIICJj reHeTIIqeCKIIMII !j)aKTopaMH (EropOBa M.C., B ne'l3m). HHTeJUleKT - HC e.l\llHCTBeHHall nCIIxonOmqeCKall xapaKTe- pHCTI1Ka, KOTopaJ! npHBJIeKaeTCJ! )!JIJ! 06'(,J!CHeHIIJ! reHCTH'IeCKoii 06YCJTOBJIeHHOCTH nOKaJ:neneii Kpe3T1IBHOCTI1. B nOCIIC.I\IIee BpeMJI B CBJ!31i C rHnOTe:JOH f Ali3eHK3 0 CBJl311 TBOpqeCKHX cnoco6HOCTeH C nCliXOTI13MOM (Eysenck H., 1993) nOJlBMllliCb .l\aHHb!e 6nH3HeLlO- BblX IICCne.l\OBaHIIH, n03BOnJilOillHe npe.n;nonOJl(IITb, '1TO H3Cne.l\- CTBeflfl311 06YCIrOBlleHHOCTb Kpe3T1fBHOCTIi MOJl(eT 061>JlCHJlTbCJI TeM, qTO nOKa3aTeJIli Kpe3TI1BHOCTI1 B KaKOH-TO Mcpe oTpaJK3lOT 280 ypOBCHh nClixoTH3Ma, B3pHaTMBHoCTb KOToporo npl!MCpHO Ha 30-- 40% 06ycnoBneHa reHOTHnOM (Wallcr N.G. et aI., 1993). T3KliM 06pa30M, HeMHOrOqHCneHHble IICCJIe.n;OBaHHJ! Kpca- THBHOCTH, npOBe.l\eHHbfe K H3CTollilleMY BpeMeHI! B reHeTlfKe nOBe- lIeHHI!, nOKaJbIB3IOT, qTO Kpe3TIIBHoCTb i\OBOn"HO cna60 CBJl3aHa C reHOTHnOM, II He HCKJIlO'IeHO, qTO na CIIJ!3b JlIIJlJleTCJ! pe3ynbTaToM KOMnnCKCHoro xap3KTepa nOKa3aTeneH KpeaTHBHOCTH - TO eCTb Toro, 'ITO B HI1X OTpaJl(aIOTCJ! He TonbKO TBOp'leCKHC cnoco6HOCTM KaK TaKOBbIe, HO II I\pyme nCIIXOJIOrH'IeCKI1C X3p3KTepl!CTIIKH, IIC- nblTblBaIOll\lIe BJIIllIHHe reHomna (HHTenneKT, HeKOTopblC oc06eH- HOCTH IIHqHOCTHOH Ccpepbl). 2.6. H3pyweHHe cnoco6HoCTH K o6Y'leHHID 06n3CTb nCHJWnorHH, 33HIIMaIOUl3J1CJI HapYIIICHI!I!MII cno- C06HOCTI! K 06yqCHHIO, K3K C3MOCTOJITenbHOC H3npaBneHlle nCII XOJlOrH'ICCKOH HaYKH nO.llBHnaCb B H3q3JIe 60-x rOJl,OB. QenbIO HCCnei\OB3HI1H B nOH OOJlaCTII I!Bn>leTCJI 113Y'leHHc (II BnOCnel\CTBlI1I nOMolllb) Tex .n;CTeH, IWTopble HC OTCTaIOT B YM- CTBeHHOM pa3BHTIIH, HO I1MeIOT BblpaJl(eHHble np06JIeMbI C YCBO- eHlleM 3HaHIIH. 3TH .n;eTH He IIMeIOT ceHcopllhiX Ae4JeKTOB (CIIH- )J(eHHJ! OCTpOTbI 3peHIIJ! Hnl! rnyxOTbI) H, K3K np3BHno, P3CTYT B ycnOBHJIX, KOTopble He npc.n;nonaralOT neJl,arOrl!'ICCKOH 3anYllleH- 1i0CTH (TO eCTb y HIIX HopManbHoe .n;OMalliHee OKpY)J(eHlie, lIHI!- MaTenbHhle po.n;IITenl1 II BnonHe KBaJIH4JHQIIPOB3HHhle Y'IIiTenJl). IIp06ncMbi 3TIIX ):\eTeH KaCaIOTC>I HMeHHO 06Y'IeHH.II (npe)J(Jl,e Bce 1'0 - YCBoeHHJ! HaBblKOB '1TeHII>I II nHCbMa), n03TOMY IIX CIIMnTO- M3THKa JIyqllIe Bcero onHCh1B3e-rCII TepMHHOM "H3pyweHl1e cno- C06HOCTII K 06Y'IeHlllO". B reHeTI1KC nOBeHH>I IIccne):\YIOTC>I npeHMYll1eCTBeHHO .!\Ba acnCKT3 HapYll1CHI1J! cnoc06HOCTII K 06Y'leHHIO 0.1\1111 1i3 HHX CBJ!- 3aH C np06neMaMH B BbI):\eneHHII 1jI0HeM II B OBJIal\eHlI1I HaBbIKaMIi TeHI!J! II nllCbMa, TO eCTb C ):\lIcneKClieii. BTOpoii 3cneKT KacaeTCII CJIOJl(HOCTeH B OBJ13J!.eHHH pe'lbIO II OTHOCIITCJI K HapYll1eHHJ!M 3PTII- !<:YJIJIQHH II K TpYAI!OCTIIM, B03HIIKalOllIHM npl1 ycaoeHli1i rpaMMaTl1- 'ICCKOrO CTpOJl po.n;HorO .113bIK3. )1,nclIeKcHH 11 pe'lellble HapYWCHlf.ll 6blnl1l1nepBble onnC3HbI II HaY'IHOH JlHTepnype )1,)J(.KCppOM II Y II MopraHOM B KOHQC 281 
XIX B. (Tor,!J;a 3HI B!lCHH Ha3blBaJIHCb "BpOJK,!\eHHa C!lOBap- HaJi CJIenOTa"), a B caMOM Haqane XX B., B 1907 ro,!\)', C.CTelj)cH- COHOM 6blJl0 npoBe,!J;eHo nepBoe ceMeHHoe HCCJle,!\OBaHlie Ha Tpex rrOKOJIeHltllX pO,!J;CTBeHHHlWB, nOl<a3aBUIee, 'ITO !lP" HaJJ"'!"" Ha- pyweHHH cnOC061i0CTli K 06Y'lCHIIJO B O,!\HOM H3 nOKOJleHHH B nOCJIellYlOll\lIX nOI<OJIeHHHX nOBTopHIOTCH cJlyqall aHaJlorH'IHb!X HapyrneHHH. B COBpeMeHHOH relieTIIKe nOBeileHHH IICCJle,!J;oBaHHe .l.\HC- 1IeKClfIi H TpY)1.Hocrdi B O!ma,!J;eHIiH pe'll>lO npOBo,!\IITCH TpeMH ny- THMH. Bo-nepBbIX, npOCJIeJKIIBacrcH ceMeHHoe CXO,!J;CTBO no 3TliM xapaKTepllcTHKaM. ,AJlJI aHaml3a ceMeUHoro CXOilCTBa npHMe- HHeTCH cpaBHeHlle pa3Hblx nap pO,!J;CTBCHHHICOB (6JIII3HeI.\OB, CIIGCOB, pO,!J;IITeJJei! H ,!J;creH II 1'..1.\.). ECJlH CXO,!J;CTBO MeJK,!J;y POJl,- CTBeHHHKaMII no paccMaTpllBaeMoMY liapYllIeHHIO oKa3blBaeT- CH TeM 60nbrne, qeM GonbIlle IIX reHeTHqeCKOe CXO,!J;CTBO, eCTb OCHOBaHHH npe,!J;!lOnaratb, '1TO BapHaTIiBHocTb 3T0ro Hapywe- HH IicnblTbIBaeT reHOTllfIli'leCKHe BJIH>lHIfJl. B npOTllBon01l0JK- HOM cnY'lae MOJKHO C.I.\enaTb BbIIIO,!J; 0 cpe,!J;OBOH lleTepMHHal(HII HapYllIeHHH BO-BTOpbIX, IICCne,l1YIOTcH HH,!J;HBH)\bl, HMelOlI.\lle rCHCTII'IeC- Klle OTKnOHeHHJI (TaKHe, KaK XpOMOCOMHble aHOMaJIlIH), II aHa- JlH3HpyeTcll, IIpHBO,!J;HT 11M ,l10KYMCHTMpOBaHHble rCHCTII'ICCKHe OTKJIOHeHHH K TPY,!J;HOCTHM B 06yqeHIIH II B OBJlal!ellHH PCqblO H nHChMOM. B-TpeThIlX, npOBO,!J;IITCH aHanH3 Cl.\cnneHH, n03nonIOIl\HH onpe)\enliTh JIOKaJIlI3al.\l11O reHOB B TOH HJIH HHOH XpOMOCOMe. DplfMepbl pe:JynbTBToB, nOlIyqeHHh!X B Ka)/(,!{OM 113 Tpex Ha- npannCHIIH IICCJIel!OBaHHJI HapYllleHHH cnOC06HOCTIi K 06Y'leHlilO, 11 6Y,!\)'T npHBe,!J;eHbl ,!\anee. £JIU11Iett08b1e UCCJle006aHUJI ITpH 6!1H3Hel10BhIX I1CCne,!J;OBaHII>lX ,lUICJIeKCMII, KaK npanll- !IO, .n;eMOHCTpiIPYCTCJI 60JJbWee CXO,!J;CTBO M3, no cpaBHeHHlO C .II.3 PC3ynhTaTbI, 1I0nyqeHHble B paHHIIX pa60TaX, npe)\CTaBnCHbl B n6nllue 7.7 (nepBble 3 CTpOKII). B 60JIee 1I0311.1IMX IiCCJle,l10BaHMX (noCJIell.lille 3 CTpOKIf B Ta6J1I1UC 7 7) pe3ynbTaTbi OKaJblaalOTC He CTOJlb OM03Ha'lIibl. B IICCJ1e,!J;OBaHIIII, npOBc.aeHHOM .l!.JK.CTllBeIlCOHOM C coan- TopaMII, HCCJle.!\OBanOCb 285 nap 13-JleTHHx 6JIH3HeI10B. KpoMe MeTo.n:OB, paCCqHTaHHblx Ha ,l\lIarHocTIlKY ilHCJ1eKCIIII, aBTopaMH 282 Tafi!lUla 7.7 Cxoocm60 M3 U /(3 6J1U3l1ett08 110 nOKa3ameJTfI.M OUC!lt:J<CUU KOHKOPA3HT H OCTb I-1ccneD8aHMR 4C110 nap MJ1'" BHYTPMnap- Hoe CXOACTBO M3 A3 1.13 A3 Zeroin-Rubin E , 1967 17 34 100 52 Bakwin H 1973 31 31 91 45 Pennington B.F , 1983 43 64 91 31 Sleven.on J el al ,1987 14-19 27-42 33-59 29.54 Decker S N , Vandenber9 S G , 1935 133 98 66 43 DeFne. J.e , Gillis J L., 1991 96 72 71 49 l!CIIOnb30BaJlC 60JIbWOU Ha60p IIHTenJleKTyanbHbIX TeCTOB, qTO nOJBOnllno conOCTaBJlRTb ,lUICnCICCli1O C YMCTBeHHblM B03paCTOM. Bo BceH Bbl60pKe 6nH3HCl\OB aBTopbl BbJ,Jlemillll ,!(.BC n0.!1!'Pynnb, - Bo-nepBblX, C 3a,I\epJKKaMH B OBJIaileHHH '1TeHlleM (eCJ11i HaBblKH '1TeHHH COOTBCTCTBOBanll B03paCTY Ha 18 MeCl.\eB MeHbllle xpo- HOnOnl'leCKoro) II, BO-BTOPbIX, C OTCTaBaHHCM 1\ OBJlal!eHli1l '1TeHH- eM (3Haq1lTeJIbHOe OTCTaBaHl1e, no cpaBHeHHIO C HHTenneKTyaJIb- HblM H xpOHOnOrH'IeCKIIM BOJpaCTOM). KOHKop)\aHTHOCTb B na- pax M3 6J]1I3HeI10B, HMelO",HX XOT>I 6bl O,lUloro npo6aH,!J;a, obma 59% (33 napbl), B napax ,A3 6mi3HeUOB - 54% (29 nap), TO eCTb CXO,!J;CTBO M3 6JIli3Hel10B npaKTH'IeCKH He npeBblWaJ10 CXOIlCTBO ,A3. Ha BceH BbloopKe, BKIIIO'IalOll\eii H rrapbl C npo6aHp'aMI1, 11 napbl 6e3 HHX, 6blJ1H nOIlY'IeHbl He60Jlbwlle nOKa3aTelJII Hacne.n.y- eMOCTH MH HaBblKOB qTeHII Ii rpaMoTHoro IIHCbMa KOHKOp- ,l1aHTHOCTh M3 Om13Hel10B BapbHpOBaJIa )\JIJI pa3Hblx nOKa3aTe- !lei! B npe.l\enax 33-59%, a });3 6nH3Hel\OB - B npC,l\eJIax 29- 54%, TO ecn M3 6m13HeZjbl OKa3a!IHCb JlI1Ulb HeMHOTO 60Jlee 110- XOJKIIMH BHYTpHllapHo, '1eM .II.3 (Stevenson J. ct aI., 1987) B cepHH IICCnC,l10BaHHH, npoBe,!J;eHHbix B paMKax Konopa,!J;- CKoro npocKTa, HanpaBneHHoro Ha liCCJ1eJl,OBaHHe paJJIH'IHbIX «\JaK- TOPOB ycneIllHoCTH OBnal!eHIIH '1TeHHeM, pa3JIH'III MeJK'!\y M3 II });3 6!Ilf3Hel1aMI1, KaJ( npanllJlO, o6HapYJKIIBaJIHCb, XOTR Ii He CTonb pa311TeJIbHbIe, KflK B nepBblX IICCneI!OBaHI-!SIX. C..II.eKKepQM H C f.BaHileH6eprOM lIa 60JIbllloii no '1HCneHHOCTH Bbl6opKe, rJl,e B nape HMeI!C XOTSI 6bl OilHH np06aHJI, (133 napbl M3 Ii 98 lIap 0,1.\- HOIIOJ1bIX ,A3), KOHKopilallTHocTb 6bIna 06HapYJKeHa B 66% nap 283 
M3 H B 43% nap.II.3 6J1H3HeQoB (Decker S N., Vandenberg S G., ] 985) .lI.PyraJi pa60Ta, BbmonHeHHa Ha 'taCTH 3T01i )((e Bb!60pKH 6J11I3HeQoB, HO C HcnOJ1b30BaHHeM HeCKOJIbKO OTJIH'talOlI\HXC no- Ka3aTeneii ,D,I1CneKCHI1, npOJl,eMOHCTpllpOBaJ1a nOXO)!(lIe PC3YJ1bTa- Tbl (DeFries J.C , GIllIs J.1., 1991). Ce.l\leUHble uCCJle008aHllR .II.aHHbIe ceMeiiHblX IICCJIe.!lOBaHllii, B KOTOPb!X conOCTaBn- nllCb pO,D,HTenH II ,D,eTII, a TaKJKe cH6cbI, YKa3blBalOT Ha TO, qTO reHeTllqeCKHe BJIl1HHJI B03.n:eHCTBYIOT Ha BapllaTHBHOCTb nOKa3a- TeneH ,D,IICJIeKCHIi II OBJIa,D,eHH pe%lO: 6paTb, ceCTpbl H pO- .!lliTCJIII np06aHJI,OB .l1eMOHCTpIlPYIOT CHI1)((eHl1e peneBaHTHbIX no- Ka3aTeneH, no cpaBHeHHIO co cpe,D,HenonYJIQI10HHbIMI1. B Ta6J1llQe 7.8 npHBe,D,eHbl ,D,aHHbIe, nOJIyqeHHble B ceMH IIC- CJlC.!lOBaHHJlX peqeBbJX HapyweHHH Bo BCCX 3THX IICCJle.l10BaHIIJlX, KpOMe nOCne,D,HerO (BbIOonHeHHoro C.eJlb3eH(jIeJIb.n. C coaBTO- paIH), B KaqeCTBe np06aH.l10B oT6HpaJlIICb ,D,eTH, IIMelOlI\He Ie HJIlI I1HbIe HapyweHH - TPY,D,HOCTH B npOH3HoweHHH pa3JJl1q- HbIX 3BYKOB, 3aHKaHHe, HeYMeHHC npanl1JIbHO nOCTpOHTb (jIpa3Y, qaCTble 01l1ll6KH B YCTHOH peqll II T.,D,. I1x 6JII13KHe pOAcTBeHHH- KH, KaK npaBIIJIO, p0,D,liTeJIII II cII6cbI, TaK)((e npoxo,D,H11H 06cJle- ,D,OBaHHe. ,D,eTI1 TeCTllpOBaJIHCb, a C pO,D,HTeJIJlMI1, KpOMe TeCTHpo- BaHII, npOBO,D,I1JIOCb ,D,eTaJIbHOe I1HTepBblO, QeJIb KOToporo co- CTOHlIa B TOM, YTo6bI BbHICHIiTb, HMenH nil pOllHTeJUf alialIOrHY- Hble TPY,D,HOCTI'!, KOr,D,a HaXO,D,HJII1Cb B B03paCTe CBOHX ,D,eTeH (TO eCTb BbJCHJlJIOCb, eCTb JIll B CeMbe "n03HTHBHa" I1CTOpllJl pe'le- BbIX HapyweHIIH) B pa60Te )((.YaHTxepCTa c coaBTopaMIl (KO- TOpaJi npHBe.n.eHa npe,D,nOCJIe,D,HeH B Ta6JIIIQe), KpOMe pO,D,IITeJIeH, 06CJle.!lOBaJlHCb TaK)((e 6a6ywKil H ,D,e.n.YWKI1, TeTll II ,D,JI,D,II II )1,110- IOpO,D,HbIC 6paTb H CCCTpbI. B nOCJIe.l1HeH pa60Te {C.CJIb3eH- (jIeJIb,D, C coaBTopaMII) B KaqeCTBC np06aH.n.OB Bb!CTynaJIII pO.lUlTe- JIll, 11MeBWlle B .n.eTCTBe HapyweHHJI peqH, 11 paCCMaTpHBaJIOCb, CCTb JIl1 TpY.lUlOCTH C OBJ1a,/\eHlleM pe%1O y IIX ,D,eTeH. 06paTIIBWIICb K Ta6JIHQC 7 8, MOJKHO 3aKJIroqHTb, '1TO pO.l1- CTBeHHHKII np06aH.!lOB '1all\e 06HapY)((IIBaIOT HapywCHHJI PCqH, qeM pO.!lCTBeHHIIKIl HcnblTyeMblx, BOWe,!\lllI1X B KOHTpOJIbHYIO rpyn- ny (TO eCTb ypaBHeHHblX no p,/\y napaMeTpOB C np06aH,D,aMII, HO He HMelOlI\lIX HapyweHI1H peqH). Pe3YJlbTaTbl 3THX IICCJIC,D,OBaHHii nOKa3bIBaIOT, '1TO 60JIbWe nOJIOBHHbl np06aH,/\OB IIMeIOT po.n.- CTBeHHIIKOB c nOXO)!(IIMH HapyweHHJlMH {nepBblH cToJl6eQ B Ta6- 284 Ta6l1ua 7.8 BepOJIJIIHOCmb peQe8bLX Hap)'uU!HuU cpeou poocm8eHHuKo8 np06alJ- 006 (/fum. 110 Felsenfeld S. el al., 1994) (IIIccneAO!laHMe npoLl8HT npooHAo" npoHT nOpaJKeH.UX MM81OU,tM)( nOpa)l($HHoro POACT88HHMKOB POACTB8HHMIC8 Y npo6aHAOII Y I<OHTpOJ1bHoiI rpynnbl Byrne B..I 01.1974 59% . - Neils J . Aram D , 1986 . 20% 3% Talla' P et aI., 1989 77% 41% 18% Tomblin J B., 1989 53% 23% 3% Lewis B , 1990 - 33% 5% Whitehurst G el al., 1991 . 12% 7% Felsenfeld S" 1994 53% 33% 0 JlHQe 7.8) 11, B QenOM, npOQeHT IIX pO.l1CTBeHHIIKoB, IIMelOlI\lIX pC- qeBble HapyweHH (OTOpOH cToJI6eQ B Ta6JIHQe 7.8), OKa3bIoaeT- CJI 3HaqllTeJ1bHO BbllIIe, qeM y pO,D,CTBeHHIIKoB KOHTpOJIbHOH rpyn- nbl (TpCTHH CTOJI6Cl1 B Ta6JIIIQe 7.8). XpOMOCOMlJble OmKJlOHeHUJ/ U Hap)'lUeHUJ/ cnoco6Hocmu J< 06Y'leliulO I1CCJIC.n.OB311I1C XpOMOCOMHblX OTKJIOHeHllii IIIIX conOCTaB- JIeHlle C .lUICJIeKCllcii II pe'lCBbIMIi HapyweH"JlM .l1aeT B03MO)l(HOCTb HenocpeJl,CTBeHHo YKa3aTb Ha reHeTH'IeCKHe npllqHHbI CHH)((eHIIJI cnoc06HOCTeH. XpOMOcoMHble OTKJIOHeHHJI BCTpC'IaIOTCJI C '1ac- TOTOH 0,5% (TO eCTb 5 ,D,eTeH Ha ] 000 pO)((j\acTCJI C .pa3JIH'IHblMH XpOMOCOMHblMH aHOMaJIIIJlMH). IIpHHJlTO CqllTaTb, qTO 3TII aHO- ManHH npllBO,ll,llT K YMCTBeHHoH OTCTaJIOCTII. B 60JIbWIIHCTIlC CJlY- qaeB TO .l1eHCTBIITCJlbHO TaK II CCTb, OJ\HaKO B HeKoTopbIX CJJyqa- JlX Ha6JIro,/\aeTc coxpaliHOCTb HIITCJ1J1eKTa H, BMeCTe C TCM, Hapy- weHlle cnoc06HOCTli K o6yqeHIlIO. ITo OQeHKaM pj\a I1CCJIe,/\OBa- TeJleH, ,D,CTH C XpOMOCOMHbIMI1 aHOMaJIlIJlMII COCTaBJIJIIOT npliMepHo 5% OT qllCJIa j\eTeH, y KOTOpblX Ha6JIIO,D,aIOTC HapYUJcHHII eno- C06HOCTII K 06yqeHHIO. .II.JIJI npHMepa npllBc.n.eM O.l1HY H3 pa6OT, B KOTOpoii Hapy- weHIIC cnoc06HoCTil K 06yqCHIIIO paccMaTpIiBaIlOCb B CBJl311 C xpO- MOCOMHblMIi aHOMaJlIIMI1. B nOH pa60Te H3 40000 HOBOpO)l()\CHHb!X 6bIJIH oT06paHbI 46 Jl,CTeH, I1MelOll1HX pa3JI11qHble XpOMOCOMHblC aHOManIiH. KOH- 285 
TpOlIl,HaK rpynna 6bma C.pOpMupOBaHa 113 3JlOpOBbIX 6paTbeo II ceCTep 3TH X 46 JleTeH. Ha npOTJlJKeHll1l 26 neT 3a pa3BIITlleM II nCHXOJlOrHqeCKIlM CTaTYCOM JleTeH SeJlOCb Ha6moJl,eHlle. ITepllo- JlHqeCKlle 06CJleJlOBaHI1J1 BKJ!JO'IaJJH B ce6R, 0 'IaCTHOCTII, IIHTeJ1- neKTyaJlbHOe TeCTl1pOBaflHe H onpeJIeJIeHl1e pa3JIII'IHbIX napaMeT- pOB pe'leBOrO pa3BIITI1R Hero OTKJlOHeHHH (Bender RO. et a1. 1991). ' Y 60JIbllll1HCTOa JleTeH C XpOMOCOMHhlMI1 aHOMaJJIIJlMII Ha- 6mo,/\anacb Ta IIJlH HHaR CTeneHb YMCTBeHHOH OTCTaJIOCTII, o,!J;lIa- KO 8 )l,eBO'IeK C M03all'lHbIMH H3MeHeHHJlMII (HanpIiMep, 45, X/46, XXJ47, XXX 11J111 45, X/46, XX) MomH Y'IHTbCJI B HOpMaJlbHOH lllKoJte H HH no KaKIIM fIOKa3aTeJlJlM YMcToeHHoro pa30HTHJI He OTJlI1'JaJIIICb OT KOHTpOJIbHOii rpynnbI BMeCTe C TeM, HX pe'leooe pa3BIITue npOTeKaJJO C 60JlblllllMH TpY,!J;HOCTJlMH, qTO n03BOJlHJIO aBTopaM pa60Tb! paCCMaTpHBaTb M03all'lHbIC 113MeHeHHA KaK .paKTOp pllCKa MJI B03HIIKHOOeHIIJI HapYllleHI1H cnOC06HOCTlf K 06Y'1eHHIO. AH(lJlu3 c'leJlJleHWI AHanH3 Cl.\enrreHHJI, npoQeJIYpa KOToporo 6bIJJa KpaTKO onH- CaHa B pa3JleJle 2.1. ,!J;aHHoH rnaBbI, Heo,!J;HoKpaTHo npIlMeHJlJ1CJI npll 113Y'leHHII HapYllleHHii cnoc06HOCTII K 06Y'IeHHIO. B HaCTOJlII.(ee BpeMJI OfmcaHO .!!.Ba cnoc06a aHaJ1H3a Cl.\enJle- HilA, IIcnoJlb3yeMblx npll IICCJIeJlOBaHlI1'I HapYllleHHii cnOC06HOC- TH K o6YQeHHIO OAIiH H3 HHX COCTOHT B OllpCJleJleHHH BepOJITHO- CTH cQemrCHIIJI II COCTOIiT B cJle.aYlOlI.(eM. .II.J1J1 IICCJle.aoBamIA OT- 611paIOTcJI 60Jlbllllle ceMbH, BKJ!JO'IaIOII.(He B ce6J1 TPH nOKOJleHI1J1 pOJl,CTBeHHHKOB II I1MelOIl\IIe 00 Bcex nOKOJleHIIJlX CJIY'IaH Hapy- weHIIR cnoc06HoCTli K o6yqeHHIO. Bce pO,!J;CTBeHHHKII TecTHPY- JOTCJI no 60JlbWOMY KOJlllqeCTBY MapKepoB. ITepeJlaqa MapKepOB 113 nOKOJleHI1J1 B nOKOJIeHHe conOCTaBJlJleTCJI C llepeJl,a'leH 113 no- KOJlel1l1C B nOKOJleHHC, HanpllMep, .aHCJleKCHH. BepOIlTHOCTb cQen- JleHlI1I onpe.aenlleTCJI KaK .aeCJlTlfqHhlH JlOrapll.pM '1aCTHOro OT .aeJIeHIIJI TeopeTlI'IeCKOH nepOJlTHOCTII COBllall.eHHR MapKepa 11 MC- J1eKCIII1 lIa OepoJiTHOCTb I1X peaJJbHoro COBna.aeHHJI. B OMOM 113 IICCJleJl,OBaHHH, npOBe.aeHHbIX TaKIiM 06pa30M, 6blJlII oT06paHbI CeMbl1 C MarHOCTllpooaHHblMII 3aAepJKKaMli B OBJI3.l\eHIIII 'ITeHlleM. Pe3YJIbTaTbI, 1I0ny'leHHbre no .!!.BYM 113 MfIO- JKecna HCnOJIb30BaHHbIX MapKepOB (no XpoMocoMe 6 II no xpo- MOCOMe 15), n03BOJlAIOT npe,lUlOJIOJKI1Tb, '1TO TeHbI, pacnOJlo)J(cH- 286 H"Ie B nOKycax 3TIIX XpOMOCOM, CBJl3aHbi B HCKOTOpOH CTeneHH C nOJlOJIeHlleM HapyweHIIH cnoc06HoCTII K 06yqeHHIO (no KpaHHeH Mepe B HeKoTopbIX CeMbJlx) .II.PyroH MeTOII, 8H8JlJI38 CljenJleHHJI JaKJllO'IalOTCJI 0 aHaJIH- 3e .aaHHbIX, nOJlyqaeMblX Ha cH6cax. IIPHHljl1f1, JleJKall.(lIH OOCHO- oe noro MeTOAa, COCTOHT 0 npe,lUlOnOJKe!flIl1 0 TOM, '!TO npll cl.\en- ITeHHH reHOO KOHKOp.l!aHTHOCTb CH6cOB no MapKepy H H3Y'laeMO- MY npH3HaKY .aonJKHa COBnaJIaTb. I1Ha'ie rooopA, eCJIH Cn6Cb! KOH- KOpJ1aHTHbJ no MapKepy, TO OHH 6YiJ.YT KOHKOpJ1aHTHbl H, HanpH- Mep, no II,I1CJleKCHH; eCJJlI KOHKOpJ1aHTHOCTII no MapKepy He 6y- iJ.eT, TO npll CI(emreH!IOM H3CJletT.OOaItHI1 He J10JIJKHO 5blTb H KOII- KOpJ1aHTHOCTI1 no .aI1CJTeKCIIH. C'IIITaeTCJI, qTO BTOpOH MeTO,!J; (conOCT30JleHlle ClI6coo) HMe- eT MeHblIIYIO pa3pellla!OII.(YIO cnoco6HOCTb, no cpaOHeHII!O c aHa- JlI130M 60JlbWHX ceMeii (Smith S.D. et aI., 1991). OiJ.HaKO 06a Me- TOA3 npHoo,!\S/T K 1I0JlyqeHI1!O nOXO)l(l1X pe3YJIbTaToB. TaK, IIC- nOJlb3Y" .aaHHbIe, nOJlyqeHHbIe Ha cH6cax, .n ItIYJlKep C coaoTopa- MI1 (QIIT. no DeFries J.e., Orliis J.L., 1993) npl1MeHIIJlII MerOJl, MHO)l(eCTBeHHoH perpeCCHIi iJ.J]JI aHaJII13a pe3yJlbTaToo II conOCTa- Ol1m' 3a,!\epJKKH B OBJlaiJ.eHHII qTeHHeM C pa31<blMH MapKcpaMH. choT aHami3 OnATb npo.n:eMOHCTpHpOOaJI COS/3b HapYWCHIIH cno- C06HOCTH K 05yqeHHIO C HeKoTopbIMII MapKepaMI1, JIOKaJIH30B3H- HbIMH 0 XpoMocoMe 15. IIo/I.BoJ1JlIITor IICCJleJ10BaHHJlM HapyweHI1H cnoco6HoCTH K o6yqel<HIO, npoBc.n:eHHbIM 0 reHeTIlKe nOBell,eHIIA, MOJKHO CKa- 3aTb, qTO OHII n0300JlJl!OT c)J.eJlaTb ObIOOJ1 0 BJlIIS/Hlm reHOTHna Ha BapllaTHoHOCTb 3THX HapyweHI1H. 3. HencMxOMeTpM"IeCKMe nOAxoAbl K MccneAOB3HMIO ponM reHOTMna M cpeAbl B KOrHMTIoJBHOM c4>epe ITpll onl1caHHIf B npe.abIJI,yII.(eM pa3J1,CJIe 3KcnepllMeHT3JIb- HbIX pe3YJlbTaTOB, nOJlyqeHHbIX npH H3Y'IeHHH HaCJIeJl,CTBeHHblX II CPCJ\OBI>JJ\ Jl,eTepMHHaHT KOrHI1TIIBHOH cljJepbI, 6b1JIII npeJl,CTaOJle- HbI .l!aHHbIe, OTHOCJllI1l1eCA K caMbIM 0611.(I1M II KOMnJIeKCHbIM no 287 
COAep)l(3H>no KOrHHTHBHblM xapaKTepHCTHkaM - k 061I\eMY HH- TeJJJJeKT)', K .n:OCTlfJKeHIIJlM II aKaJ{eMH'IeCKOK clj>epe H T.,L\. MMeH- HO 3TII xapaKTepl1CTHKH HaH60nec nOCJIeJl,OBaTeJIbHO paCCMRTpI'!- BaJIIICb B reHeTHKe nOBC){eHHJI. .II.IlHHble, KaCalOlI\HeCJlIIMeHHO HX rCHOTlln-CpC){OBOH 06YCJIOBJIeHHOCTH, 1I1IJ1I1IOTCIi HIlH50nee Ha- ){e)((HbIMH - nOIlTOpJllOlI\HMHCJI OT pa60Tbl K pa60Te, nOJIyqeH- HblMH pa3HblMH allTopaMII, pa3HblMH reHeTlI'ICCKIIMH MeTO){IlMH (6i!1I3HeL\OBbIM, ceMeHHbIM II T.A.), Ha paJHblX IIbI6opKax, a'lac- TO - H B paJHbIX CTpaHax CaMhlH ncpBblH Bonpoc, KOTOpbIH B03HI1KaeT npll 06cy)((- ,L\eHIHt pe3ynbTaToB 3TIIX pa60T, CBJJ3aH C BbI60pOM XllpIlKTepHC- TI1K ,lI,JI1i reHCTllqeCKOrO HCCJIe){OBaHHJI llOqeMY HCCJ1eJl,OBaTeJlH HaXOJI,JIT I1cnecoo6paJHbIM paCCMaTpIfBaTb II reHeTH'IeCKOH pa60- Te CTOllb CJ'IO)l(Hble nCHXonor....CCKHe oc06eHHOCTH, a fie 06palI\a- IOTCJI K 3ncMeHTapHbIM npOJlBJ1eHHIIM n03HIlBaTCJJbHOH ){eIlTeJlb- HOCTII 'IeJlOBeJ<a, HanpHMep, K H3Y'IeHHIO noporOB OII\YlI\eHIIH II!!II nponyCKfloH cnoco6HOCTli CCHCOpHbIX CI1CTeM? Bce TeOpeTH'IeC- KHe nOCTpoeH1'!1I (II OTeqCCTBeHHbIe, H 3apy6cJKHble), cYlI\eCTBylO- II\lIe B cOBpeMeHHofi nCI'!XOnOrl1H H KacalOUllieCIi CTpYKTYPbI nCH- XOJIOrHqeCKIiX oc06eHHocTeH, npCl\nollaralOT, qTO ponb 6H01I0- rH'JeCKHX </IllKTOpOI! S/BJIS/CTCII onpC){eJlJlIOII\CH Mil 1j>0pMHpoBa- HIIJI IIMCHHO caMblX npOCTbIX ncnxOJIOrllqCCKIIX xapaKTepHCTHK, 3aHIIMalOUlHx Hall60llee HII3KIIH ypoBeHb B IICpapXHI'! nCHXOJIorll- qeCKHX CBOHCTB. llO'leMY )l(e OHII He npllllJICKaJOT BHHMaHHII IIC- ClleJl,OBaTeneH, pa60TalOII\IIX B reHeTlIJ<C nOBeAeHIIJI? eJlO II TOM, '1TO 60Jlee rrpocTble xapaKTepllcTIiKII, KaIC HH CTpaHHo 3TO MOJKeT nOKa3aTbCli Ha nepBb!H 83r1l1l){, II HCCJIeAOBa- HHIIX, rrpOIlOAJIII\HXCIi MeTO.IJ;aMH reHeTI'!KH nOBeJ1eHHJI, KaIC npa- BHJIO, AeMoHCTpHPYIOT O'leHb cJIa6yIO CBII3b C reHOTHnOM HnH Boo61I\e OKa3bIBalOTCJI C HIIM He CBJl3aHbi. qTO MOJKeT 6bITb npl'!- '''",0J! TaKOTO pe:JYJ1bTaTa, H He OlllH6aJOTCJJ J11f lfCCJ1eI\OBaTeJ1lf, npllnHCblBaJi 3neMCHTapHbIM nCHXOJIOrH'IeCKHM xapaKTcpHCTH- KaM llAanT"BHOC (8 6110nOrll'leCKOM CMbICJIe) 3IIa'leHHe? .I1.JIJ/ TOTO qTo6bl pa306pllTbCII II 3TOM Bonpoce, Heo6xoJUf- 1010 PIl3){eJlHTb JIBa nOHHMaHHII reHeTH'IeCKOfi 06YCJlOBJ1eHHOCTH. OJl,HO 113 HUX paCCMaTpHBlLeT HIlCJ1eJl,yeMoCTb XllpllKTepllCTHKH KalC nonYJ1I1I;IfOHHYIO Xllp/lKTepKCTKKY, IfCTO'lHifKK lI/lpKIlTKIIHO- CTH KOTOPOH MorYT MeHS/TbCIi no IIC!!I1'1I1He npll1l3MeHeHIIH pac- npe,l:(eJICIIIIJI KIlK relleTH'IeCKHX, TaK H Cpe,lI;OBbIX ljJaKTopoB II no- 288 nYJIlIl1HH TaKYIO reHeTHqecKYIO 06ycnOBJ1CHHOCTb H3yqaeT reHe- THKa nOBe,l:(CHlIIi. .II.pyroe nOHIlMaHlle reHCTHqeCKOIi 06YCiIOBneHHOCTH CBII- 3aHO C 113yqeHHeM BHYTPUBHII.OlJOH CneL\HIjJHKU. ITpH 3TOM, UCXO- II.H H3 npe,l:(CTIlBJIeHHH 0 eCTeCTBeHHOM oT60pe, HCCJIe,l:(YIOTCH  OCHOBHOM npUqHHb! COBna,l\eHHH npH3HaKOB Y npe)\CTaBllTeJIel! Hllwero 6UOJlOrH'IeCKOrO BHI\Il. CTaHAllpTHblM npHMepOM, npHBO,l:(IIUlltMCII npll nOHCHeHIIH pa3JIUqHH MeJK,I:(y 3THMII )\BYMH nOHHMaHIIJlMH rCHCTlI'IeCKOH 06yc- JIOBnCHHocTH, IIBJIIlIOTCH aHaTOMUqeCKHe npH3HaKU 'IeJIOBeKa. OIiU COBnal\alOT npaKTHqeCKIl Y Bcex npel\CTaBllTeneii Haruero !'H,I:(a (Bce HMelOT )\Bc PYKH, JIBe Horll H T )\.), J!BnHIOTCJI II BblcweH CTe- /JeHJ.f reHeTllqCCKH 06YCJlOBJIeHHbIMH, HO conOCTaBJleHHe HX C no- MOUlblO cTaH,I:(apTHbiX MeTOI\OB reHeTHKn nOBC.lI.eHl111 ljJaKTa I!X reUeTHqeCKOH 06YCJIOllJIeHHOCTII He 06HapYJKI'!T: M3 6JIII3Hel1bl 6Yl\YT no 3TJIM npH3HaKaM nOXOJKH TaK JKe, KBK 3. a CXO)\CTBO po,l:(I1Telleli H HX 6nonOT>,qeCKUX AeTeH He 6Y.LI.eT OTJ1HqllnCa OT CXO,l:(CTBa po.n:HTeJIeii H ,l:(eTeH, IIMH YCbIHOBJ1eHllbIX. TaKHM 06pa30M, 3J1eMCHTBpHble nCHXOJIOrll'leCKHe xapaK- TCpHCTHKH BnOnHe MorYT 6blTb reHeTlI'IeCKH 06YCJIOBneHbI B TOM CMblclIe qTO OHI1 B CBoe BpeMH IIrpaJIII a,l:(anTIIBHoe 3HIlqeHHC B npOl.(ece 3BOJIIOL{lfM HBwero 6HOJIOnJ'leCKoro BU,I:(a, H TCHeTII- qeCKII 06YCJIOBneHHbiM B 3TOM CMb!Cne MOJKeT 6blTb QuanmOH 111i- II.UBHAyanbHblX pa311l1qllH, HanpHMep, npe,l:(eJIb!, II KOTOpblX MOJKeT BapbHpOBIlTb nponYCKHaR cnoco6HOCTb CI/CTeM, BocnpHHHMIlIO- UlIIX ceHcopHYIO IIH!\>0PMBL\HIO. Ho npH TOM BKnllA relloTHna B uHiiu8ui!YaJIbH&le pa3J1UUR MO)l{eT 6bITb MIIHI1MllllbHbIM, H nono. MY MCTO,LIaMfI reHCTI1KH rrOBe,LIeHIII! reHCTlfqCCKal! 06YCJlOBJleH- HOCTb ]TIIX xapllKTepl1CTHK BblHBJIIITbCI! He 6Y,l:(eT. )].onYCTHM, no 3TOii npH'IHlle 06pllWCHHe K caMblM 3neMeH. TapHblM nCHXOJlOnI'IeCKHM XapaKTcpHCTffKaM B relfCTJlqeCKOM IICCne110BIlHHH ,l:(eiiCTBHTenbHO He I!BnJleTCH rrp0)\YKTHBHbIM. Ho eCTb H )\pyrlle BOnpOCbI. MOJKeT 6bITb, IIccne,l:(OBBTeJIlt, 3IlHHMa- IOUlHCCIi rCHeTHKOH nOBeAeHHJ!, qpC3MepHO npnBepJKCHb! /JCffXO- MCTPllqCCKOH TpaI\HL\IIH HCCJJeAOBIlHHI! HHTenJICKTyaJJbHOH c<jJe- pbl H HanpaCHO IIrHopnpYIOT '!\Pyrne TeOpeTlIqeCKHe HanpaBJIC- HHJI ec HCCrre,l:(OBaHHH? TaK, B nCIIXOJIOrHH 6bIJ1 pa3pa6oTaH pllJl, KorHHTHBHb!X TCOpHH HHTeJlIICKTIl, oplleHTllpOBaHHblX Ha l13yqe- Hl1e KOppeJIJ!TOB KorHIfTHBHblX xapaKTcpHCTHK. 289 
KOnmTlf8ltblC TOOp/f/f /fHTC1VICKTa npC.lU10J1araTOT, 'ITO ypO- BCHb HHTCl1J1CKTa 'IeJ10BeKa OnpeAeJ1ReTCH !jJ!jJeKTHBHOCTblO H CKO- pOCTbTO npou.CCCOB o6pa6oTI{If HHljJopMal1,H!f; '1eM 6blCTpee npo. I1CXO.1\HT o6pa6oTKa HH!jJopMal\HH, TeM 6bICTpee pcwaCTCH TeCTO- Boe 3a,!J;alflie If '!'eM BbIwe OKa.'1b1BaCTCJI ypOBeHb /fHTeJJJJCKTa. B Ka'leCTBe nOKa3aTeneH npol\eCca o6pa6oTKH HH!jJopMaL\HH MorYT 6bITb BbJ6paHbi lIT06bIe xapaKTepHCTIIKH, KOCOCHHO CBH,I\eTeJIb- CTOYlO!I.\He 06 3TOM npou.ecce  opeMR peaKI.\HIi, M03rOBble Plu- Mbl, pa3JIH'IHbIe IjJH3110JJOrH'IeCKlle peaKl.\III1. KaK npaOIiJIO, 0 Ka- qeCTBe OCHOBHbIX KOMnOHeHTOO IIHTenl!eKTyaJIbHOH AeJlTCJJbHOC- Tli B IiCClIC,I\OBaHIIJlX, npoBOJl,Jlll\liXCJI B KOHTcKCTe KorHHTHBHbIX TCOPIIH, IICnOl!b3yiOTcR pa3JIII'IHbIe CKOPOCTHb!e xapaKTepllcTH- KII, H3MepSieMbIe npll BbInOJIHeHl1H npOCTblX nCIiXOJJonl'lCCKIIX 3a,!J;aliHH. IIoAP06Hee 0 pe3ynbTaTax IICCJIeAOBaHHH, npooeAeH- HbiX B paMKax KOrHllTHOHblX TpaAIIl.\IIH, 6y.n:CT paccKa3aHO AaJJee, B V '1aCTIi KHHrH, nOCBJlIl\eHHOH reHeTII'IeCKIlM HCcne.n:ooaHIlSiM nCHxo!jJH3HonOrliqeCKIIX xapaKTepllcTHK. 3ACCb JKe MbI OCTaHO- BHMCJI TonbKO Ha OAHOM oonpoce, CBJl3aHHOM C npl{ql1HaMIi npo- THOOpeqHH, Ha6moAaeMblx npH IICClIeAOBaHHI{ 31IeMeHTapHbIx nClixonorliqeCKliX xapaKTepllCTI1K. B rCHeTllKe nOBe.LIeHHJI npeAnpHHHMaJIl{Cb nOnbITKII BKJIJO- ql1Tb KOppeJIJlTbl KorHHTHBHOH AeSlTcnbHOCTI{ B reHeTHqeCKOe HC- cne,!J;ooaHHe. OAHaKo pe3YJJbTaTbl TaKIiX nOnbITOK He n03BOJlHJIH npH/nli K KaKOMY-JII{60 OAH03Ha'lHOMY ObIOO.ny, nOCKonbKY Ol.\eH- KH reHOTliOl{'1eCKI1X H Cpe.n.OBbIX l1eTepMI1HaHT, nOJIY'laeMbIe 0 3TliX IIccne.n.OBaHIIJlX, Bapbl{pOoaJJ\i OT pa50TbI K pa60Te B O'leHb Wl1pOKIIX npel1cnax. 03HaqaeT 1111 3TO, qTO KorHHTHBHbIH nOAXO,!J; K IICC1Ie.n.ooa- HIiTO IIHTeJI1ICKTyanbHoi! c(jJepbl He HMeCT CMblCJla B nCI1XOreHeTI'!- 'IeCKHX IICC1IeI100aHIIJlX? OKa3I.IOaCTCJI, HeT. O.n.lla IIJ npII'lIiH He- coonaJl,eHHSI pe3YlIbTaTOB pa3HbiX IICClIe.n:OBaHIIH JaKmOqaCTCR B TOM, qTO !jJeHOTl1nIl'leCKII (TO eCTb no BHewHHM npOJlBJIeHIIJlM) noxoJlOle nCllxonOrllqeCKlle xapaKTepllCTHKH MorYT HMeTb pa3- JIH'IHOe nCIIXOJIOrll'leCKoe co.n.epJKaHlie, perYJIHpOBaTI.CR pa3Hbl- I,m MeXaHII3MaMII, '1TO II 06YCJIOBHT IIX pa3nli'lHOe OTHOllJeHHe K reHoTHrry (PaOIl'l-ll.{ep60 H.B., 1988). Pa3JIII'IHaJl pOJII. reHOTIma H cpeAbI 0 I1CTepMHHal.\HH IIHAH- 81f.ll:yaJIbHblX pa3JIK'IIfH ljJeHOTl!nl!'IeCKI! nOXOJKI!X llCI!X0J10rH'Iec- KI1X xapaKTcpliCTIIK OT'IeTJIIIBO npOCneJKIiBaeTCR B lU3yx CJIyqaJlx. 290 I I I oo-nepBbIX, npli Y'!eTC !jJYHKL\MOHaJII.HbIX CIICTCM, 0 KOTopble BKnTO- qeHbl 113yqaeMble nCHXOJIOrHqeCKHe xapaJ<TepHCTI1KH, H, BO-BTO- PblX, npH aHaJlHJe pe3YJIbTaTOB o6Y'leHHJI. ITpHMepoM nepooro H3 3TliX CJIY'laeB SlB1IReTCSi HCCJIe,!J;OBa- HHe JU!lIraTeJIbHbIX aXTOO, pa3JIH'IaTOIl\HXCJI no CTeneHII np0113- BonbliOCTH (MaJIbIX C Ii, 1988). B 3xcnepllMeHTe, npoBelteHHOM B nOM IICCJle.n.OBamlH, ABHJKeHHe perllCTpllpOBaJIOCb B JU!YX CIi- TyaHSlX. B OAIiOH HcrrblTyeMI.lii 1\0JJ)!(eH 6bIJI rrpoCTO rrpOH3B0J1h- HO HaJ\(IiMaTb Ha I<HOnKy, B ApyroH - OT HcnblTyeMoro T]Je60Ba- nOCb npeACKa3aTb nOJlBJleHHe Joyxa B npaBOM IfJlIi neBOM Hayw- HilKe (OCYIl\eCTOIiTb BepORTHOCTHbIH nporH03) If B 3aBliCIIMOCTH 01' CBoero perneHI'!SI HaJl(aTb I!a DAily 113 .lIHyx KHOllOK. B 06elix cHTyal.\HSlX Jl,BIIJKeHHe, KOTopoe COBcpwalI IicnbITY- eMblH, 6b1J10 OAHO H TO JKe, HO 8 nepBOM CJ1Y'lae I\BlfIKeHlfe SlBJ1S1' 110Cb ljeJIbiO l1eHCTBIiR Ii 5blJI0 npOI13BOJJblibIM, a BO BTOpOM - He L\CnbTO, a cpeACTBOM AOCTJiJKCHIfJ/ APyroH l1fflH (coo5lQeHHJI 0 rrpl1HJlTOM peweHIiH) H 6blJIO B MeHbweH CTeneHII npOH3BonbHbIM Ii B 50JJbllJeH CTenCHH BBTOMaTM3HpOB3HHbiM COOTBeTCTBeHHO 1'!3MeHeHiiTO pOJIII IlBHJKeHIIR B CT]JYKType l1,eJIOCTHOro AeHCTBHJI IiJMeHIIJlIiCb Ii Me)(aH1f3Mbl ero perYJ1J1QHJI, 'ITO CKa3aJJOCb Ha no- KaJaTenRX reHOTHn'cpe/l,OBbIX COOTHoweHHH. TaK, B nepBOH CII- TyaQHH, "PH npOliJ80JII.HOM Jl,BH)ljeHIfJI, oc06eHHOCTII KOpKOBOH pIlTMI'!KM, COSl3aHHbIe C JU!It)l(CHHCM (Bb13BaHHble nOTeHl\HaJJbI M03ra), 05HapY)!<JiJ1H MeHbWYTO CBR3b C reHOTHnOM, qeM BO BTC)- poi!, Kor,!J;a IlBIIJKeHlle 6bllIO aBTOMaTIt3HpOBaHO. TaKIIM o6pa- 30M, B 3aBltCHMOCTJI OT MeCTB )tBH)!(eHIIR B IjJYHKl.\ItOHaJIbHOH CII- CTeMe H3MellHJIaCb pOilb reHeTllqCCKHX Ii cpe.n.OBblX ljJaKTopOB B ero BapHaTHBHOCTH. COAepJKaliHe nCIiXOnOrll'leCKoi! xapaKTepllCTIIKH MO)l{eT 113- MellHTbCR H 6narOl\apH npOl\eccaM 06Y4eHIlR. B pJliJ.e pa60T nC)- Ka3aHO, '1TO rellOTHn-Cpel\OBble COOTHOWeHlIJl OKa3bIBalOTCJI '1YB- CTBHTenI.HblMIi K CTeneHIi 1I0BH3Hbi 3a,!J;aHIiJI HIIAHBH,!J;yanI.libIe pa3J1H'IHR B peweHIIH ncpBblX 3aAa'l, npeAJIOJKeHHbIX IIcnblTye- MI.IM, B 60JIbWcii CTeneHIi CBSl3aHbl C reHOTllnOM, 4CM nOcne/l,yJ()- Il\IIX, npli peweHHIi KOTOpbIX YJKe CKa3I.IBaeTCR HaY'leHilc (3blpR- HOBa H M., 1992). .I1eRTeJIbHOCTb HCnbITyeMoro nplt peweHHIl I3cex 3aAaq OCTaeTCR TOH JKe caMoH, HO nCHXOJIOrHqcCKOC COAep- )«aHlie nOH /l,eJlTenbHOCTIi MCIiReTcR, qTO H npOJlBnSleTCR B 1{3Me- HeHIIH reHoTHn-cpe,!J;oBblx COOTHOIIJCHIIH. 291 
TaKHM 06paJOM, npOTHBOpeQI1H, nOJlyqaeMble npH nOnbIT- Ka1'. HCnOJIbJOBaHI1H B reHenlqeCKHX HCCJlell.OBaHHHX KorHHTIIB- lIoro nO)l.1'.OlI.a, HBnH!OTCH COBeprnCHHO 3aKOHOMepHbiM pC3ynbTa- TOM Hell.OOQeHI\II pa3Horo nClI1'.onorHqeCKoro COlI.cp)!(aHHH I1ccne- II.YCMblX xapaKTepHCTHK. CaM )!(e KOrHHTlIBHblH nOA1'.OA MO)!(CT 6blTb BCCbMa rrpOIl.YKTHBeH, OIl.HaKO peaJlHJaQIIH 3Toro n0Il.1'.01\a Tpc6YCT Tll\aTCJIbHOrO HCCne,1\OBaHltH COlI.epJKaHHH paCCMaTpHBa- eMblK xapaKTepllCTHK, '1TQ I10Ka II rCHCTII'ICCKIIX pa60Tax BCTpe- 'IaeTCH KpaHHe pe,!lKo. QHlj>lIKO 3THX KorHIITIIBHblX XapaKTepllCTI{J( II JIlIllIb J\Olt; KOTOpO" CTenCHti 06YCJIOIIJl!!!! !IX lHpb!O. C 06II(HM IIHTeJI- .- . .. JleKTOM. BblBOAbl KorHIITIIIUlbie xapllKTepllCTIIJ(1I npe.lJ,CTaBJIHIOT C060H Tpa- Al\QIIOtiH/>IH npClIMeT HCCJJe.lJ,OBaHIIH IIJeHeTIIKe nOBeAeJlKJI. O"HOIIHble reHeTH'IeCICHP IICCJIeAOBaHIIH KorJlHTHoi! ellle- pbI '1eJ10BeKa BbllTOJlHeHbI B paMK8X nCHXOMeT]>H'IecKoro HOJI,XO- Aa. ITOJIY'leHHble np" 3TOM pe3YJlbTaTbI ITOK83b1BaIOT, qTO P83- HbIe HOKa38TeJlII KOr/UITHBHOH cljtepbl no-pa1HOMY CBJI38HbI CO cpeAOBbIMII H retIOTHHII'IeCKIIMH IjIIIKTopaMH. BapaaTIIBHOCTb TaKIIX ITOKa3aTeJleil, KaK IIHTeJIJIeKT, aKa- 1\eMllqeCKall ycnCHaeldOCTb, OT)J.e.IIbHble KorHHTIIBJ/I>Ie cnoc06HO- CTII, B 3Haql1TeJIbHOH CTCHeHII onpe,1\CnHeTCJI II.II,!lII'fHBHblMJI reHO- THrtH'ICCKIIMIi ljIaKTOpaMH IIljIaKTOpaMH o6II<eil. cpeJl,bl. HH.lJ,HBH" AYaJJ;!lbIe pa:JJlII'IHS B KorHHTHBHblX CTllJlHX, HCnbIThIBaJ()Il\HX He IIfCHblllee B.lIHJlHHe rCIIOTHna (II aJl,Jl,l1TIIBHOe, It lIeaMIIHIBHoe), OKa3!>IBliIOTCII CBII.3allbI C Ka'leCTBeIlJlO APyrllMH cpenOBblMII cjIaK- TopaMIi - C Pa:JJ1I1'1aJ()ll\eHCJI CPellO!!. B1IIIIIHlle rCHOTlina Ha 118- pHaTUBllpC'I'b Ho;i5!!3aTenCH KpeaTIIBHOCTIi OKaJbIB8eTCII He(jOJ]b- WIIM (no HeKoTopblM .lJ,8HHbIM, - Boo6II<e OTcYTCTByeT), II, Ta- KH, 06pa30,M, 'iWl"BIIAYam.Hble pa3JIII'IHH B nOKaJaTeJllIX Kpeac TIIBHOCTH Ij!dPMRpyroTCIi I1peIlMYII<eCTBeHHO no.lJ, B03AeHCTBHeli cpe.lJ,OBbiX .paKTOpOB. CooTHOlUeHl1e reHOTHn-CpelJ,OBbiX nOKaJareneH II Bap"- aTHBHOCTII IIHTeJlnelCTa H KOrHIITJlHHbIX cnoco6HOCTCH MeHII' eTCJI C B03paCTOM. CBJl3b OTlJ,eJlbHbIX KornHTHBHbIX XapaKTe- pliCTHK C reHOTlinOM B 3HaQllTCnbHOH Mepe onpe1eIDJeTCli clTe- 292 
rIlABA 8. TEMnEPAMEHT o MexaHM3Max, Jle)l(alI\MX B OCHOBe TemepaMeHTa. B pC3YJIbraTe OTKpblTHB CHCTeMbl KpoB006pall1eHIU nOBBHrrHCb TMnorrorHH TeM- nepaMcHTa, OCHOBaHHble Ha OC06CHHOCTBX CTpoeHIIB KpOBCHOC- Hb!X COCYAOB. B pa3Hbie BpeMeHa pa3rrHqUB Me)l(AY TllnaMH TeM- nepaMeHTa BHAeJlH B Bellli'lHHe M03ra H B Mop$OJlOrHH HepBOB, B AeBTCrrbHOCTH 3H.!I.OKpIIHH0i1 CIiCTeMbI H, Ha'iIlHaJi C XVII B., B pa3HOH qYBCTBHTenbHOCTH HepBHOH CIICTeMbl '1ellOBeKa He1l3- MCHHblM OCTaBBJIOCb 01\110: crpeMneHHe CBJl3aTb oc06eHHOCTH 6HO- JIorH'IeCKOH opraHH3al1HII qeJIOBeKa C ero nCHXOJIOrH'IeCKH- MH CBOHCTBaMH. B KOHl1e XIX - Haqalle XX BB. B nCIiXOnOrlm, CtjJOPMUPO- BaBllleiicJI K nOMY BpeMeHH KaK caMOCTOBTellbHaB HayqHaB .!I.HC- UUnJIHHa, HaqHHalOTCJI CUCTeMaTHqeCKlie IICCJle.!l.OBaHUJI TeMnepa- MeHTa. K aHanH3Y TunOB TeMnepaMCHTa 06pall1aCTCJI c03AareJlb 3KcllepHMcHTallbHoH nCHxonomH BHllbrCJIbM BYHI\T. B03HHKalOT TlinOIlOrlm TeMnepaMeHTa, OCHOBaHHb!e Ha oG061l1eHHII KJIIIHH- qCCKOrO onblTa - paGoTb! C naUHeHTaMu, I1MelOll1HMII nCIIXllqeC- Kl1e OTKJIOHeHHB (O.fpocc, K.IOHr, 3.Kpe'lMep, f.H. POCCOIlI1MO H I\p.). IIpH UCCJIe.!l.OBaHIiU crpYKrypbl IICHXOJIOrllqeCKHX CBOHCTB O.!l.HHM U3 lIepBblx 06'bCKTOB HCCJIe.!l.OBaHUJI CTaHOBHTCJI TeMnepa- MeHT (f XeHMaHc H E.BHpCMe) I1HTepec K reMncpaMeHTY He yracaeT Ha npOTB)I(eHlIH Bce- ro Hawero CTOJICTHJI, II Gonee Toro, B 80-bIe 11 90-bIe rO)l,bl OH Ha- CTOJIbKO B03paCTaer, '1TO OAHH 113 Be.!l.Yll1HX HCCne.!l.O)!arCJICH B 3TOH 06J1aCTII, JI.CTpenBY, Ha3bl)!aeT 3TH rOl\bI peHeccaHCOM B H3yqeHIIH reMnepaMeHTa K TeMllepaMeHTY 06pall1alOTCJI ncuxo- nom, 3aHHMalOll1ueCJI nCHxorromeH JIH'IHOCTH H B03paCTHoii nCII- XOJIOmeH, IIccneAOBaHlleM IiHIUIBI1.!1.yanbHblX pa3nli'lHii H nOIlC- KOM IIX nCllxo!jJII3UOJIOrl1qCCKIiX OCHOBaHHH, aHaJIII30M oc06eH- HOCTCH nOBe.!l.CHIiB .!I.CTeH )! nepBble rOAbl )l(113HH H 113yqeHlleM IIX aAanTal1HII K COUllaJIbHblM YCJIOBIIJlM TeMnepaMeHT, TaKIlM 06pa30M, OKa3anCJI npHBneKarcrrb- HblM 06"eKrOM HCCJIel\OBaHIlB IlHB nCHXOJIOrOB, H3Y'IaI01l1I1X ca- Mble pa3Hbie IIp06rreMbi. KaKOBbl )l(e COBpeMeHHblC npel\CTaBJIe- HIIB 0 TeMnepaMCHTe? KaKaB nCIIXOJIOrHqeCKaB pcarrbHOCTb MMe- eTCH B BHI\Y, Korl\a rOBopHrCB 0 TeMnepaMeHTe? BJIIIJleT JIH re- HOTlin Ha UHl\lIBHAyarrbHbte pa3rrllqHH B oc06eHHOCTBX TeMne- paMCHra? OTBeTaM Ha 3TII BOnpOCb! H nOCBJlll1eHa .!I.aHHaJi rlIaBa HCTOpl1J1 113Y'ICHIIB HH!l:I1BlIl\yarrbHblX pa31111'1l1ii nOpa)l(aeT Y.!I.HBIITeJlbHbIM nOCTOBHCTBOM HHTepeca IICCne)l;OBaTerreii K TeM- nepaMeHTY '1enOBeKa. IIpe!l:cTaBnCHl1c 0 TeMIICpaMcHTe nOJlBJIBCrCB B aHTH'IHOH !jJHnoco!jJ1111 B IV B. )1;0 H.3 fpeqeCKIIH Bpa'l H IjlHnoco!jJ f1111110K- paT, )l(11)!lllllii B V-IV BB. )1;0 H.3., Hero nOCJIe)l;OBaTerrb neH6- , MC)I;I1K npH ABope pHMCKoro HMnel'aTopa MapKa ABpeIlHJI, ra- neH (II B H.3.) OnHCaJlH '1eTblpe Tlllla teMnepaMeHTa, Ha3BaHilB KOTOpblX II CerO)l;HJI XopOWO 3HaKOMbI JII060MY qeJlOBeKY - caH- rBIIHHK, MeJIaHXOIIIIK, xorrepHK II !jJJlerMaTHK. H fHnnOKpaT, 11 raJIeH I1CXOAUJIII U3 Toro, '1TO !jJH3U'IeCKOe COCTOJlHHe '1eJlO)!CKa ero 3)1;OpOBbe II IICIIXllqCCKHH CKJIa)l; Ollpe)l;enBIOTCJI COOTHoweHII eM B opraHII3Me qeTblpex 3neMeHTOB. flinnOKpaT npC)I;CTaBnJln ce6e 3TU 3JIeMeHTbi KBK p!l3HbiC JKHI\KOCTH - KpOBb, !jJJIerMY, JKeJI- rylO H '!CPHYIO JKeJI'!b. faJIeH BHl\eJI )! HHX '1eTblpe cy6craHl11111 - TBepl\Oe, JKIIJI,KOe, ropJlqee H XOIIO)l;HOe Ho 06a OHII cornawa- JIIICb B TOM, '1TO IIMeHHO COOTHoweHHe 3rreMeHTOB (npe06JIa!l:a- Hlle O)l;HOrO 113 HIIX) H onpe!l:enBCT COOTBeTCT)!YlOll1I1H TeMllepa- MeHT C06CTBeHHO, H caMO CJIOBO "TeMnepaMeHT", "POHCXO!l:B- ll1ee OT JIarllHCKoro "temperamentum", 03HaqaeT He 'ITO HHOC " ' KaK COOTHOllleHlle qaCTeH". fHnnOKpaTOBCKo-raIlCHOBCKoe onllcaHlIC TcmepaMeHrOB npe)l;CTaBnBeT C060H nepBYIO THnOnOrH'IeCKYIO TeopHIO. Bce JIIOi\II, comaCHO 3TOH TeOpHI1, MOryT 6bITb pa3!1:eJleHbi Ha '1CTbtpe rpynnbI (OTHeceHbI K OAHOMY 113 '1eTblpeX THnOB TeMnepaMeHTa). Ka)(()l,blH TIIII 06na!l:aCT IIpl1CYll1HMIl TonbKO eMY CBOHCTBaMIl opraHlI3Ma, KOTopble onpel\eJlJlIOT H CKJIOHHOCTb K TeM IIJlH IIHbIM 3a60JIeBaHI1- JIM, H npOTeKaHIlC 6one:JHeii, 11 oc06eHHOCTil nCIIXHqeCKOH )l(1'!3HII. IIo Mepe pa3BIITilB eCTeCTBeHHOHaY'IHbIX npe)l;CTaBneHIIH 0 crpoeHll1l '1eJIOBe'leCKOrO opraHII3Ma MeHJlnHCb II npel\CTaBneHHJI 294 295 
1. Kpl1Tepl111 CBOMCTB TeMnepaMeHTa Ta6J1ulja 8.1* Omo8Hble IlPUJliaKU meMl1epa.MeHma 1. C!JopManbHo-AIIHaMII4ecH xapaKTep IIJIII cn1nb ,nOBeAeH\\ 2 CB3b C 6HonorH4ecKHMH nOAcTPYKTYpaMH 3 reHeTH4ecKa 06ycnoBneHHoCTb 4 npol1aneHHe B paHHeM ,IIeTCTBe 5 OHTOreHeTH4ecKa cTa6HnbHocTb 6 npoB.neHHe B WHpoKOM Kl1acce CIn)'BLlH ( ) 7. npQBneHHe B MaKCHM8J1bHQ TPYAHblX Al1 '1enOBeKa ycnQB\IX B Ta511L4e npeACTaSlleHbI OCHOBHble Kp'lTepM", HB3b1SaeMbie B pa150TaX OTel.leCTBeHHblX VI 3apy6e>KHblX aBfopOB (MepJ1l1H Be 1 1964.1986, He6b1. nH4b1H B.L! . 1976, nane. H M rp6a"e.c'Hii B.K.. 1972. PycanoB B M . 1966: CTpen.y f1 , 1982: Thomas A" Chess S , 1977. 1989. Buss A . Plomin R, 1975, 1964, Kagan J et .'.,1988, 1969: Rothbart M K. 1989) A H aJJlI31IpY5I TeMnepaMeHT, COBpeMCHHble HCCJle.ll.OBaTe.1I npel!nOQHTalOT onllCblBaTb H HCCJlel!OBaTb ero OTl!eJIbHble CBOH- crna. BbliJ,eJleHHe pa3J11I'1HbIX THnOB TeMnepaMeHTa, xapaKTepHoe AJ[JI nCHXOJlOmqeCKIIX pa60T KOHlla XIX II !laqaJIa XX BB., CMe- HHJlOCb aHaJIH30M qepT- nOHCKOM TaKHX nCIIXOJlOmqeCKHX oco- 6eHHocTeH, KOTOpbJe npHCYw11 BceM JIIOI!5IM, HO BbIpa)l(eHbl Y HIIX B pa3HoH CTeneHH. aT H3yqeHH5I KpaHHHX rpynn, KaKOBbIMH 5IB- JlJlIOTC5I ,l1HCKpeTHbIe Tlmbl, Onl1CblBaeMbIe B paHHHX pa60Tax, HC- CJ!eI!OBaTeJ!H nepeWJlII K 3H3J!H1Y nCHxOJlOrliQeCKHX XapaKTepll- CTlIK, HMelOlIJ,HX B nonYJl5l11HII HOpMaJlbHOe pacnpe,l1eJleHHe. Bbl60p 3THX xapaKTepHCTI1K, TO eCTb OTHeceHHe TeX liJlH HHblX nCI!XOJIOnlqCCKIIX oco6eHHOCTeH K qHCJlY CBOHCTB TCMne- paMCHTa, OCYlIJ,eCTBJlHeTC5I Ha OCHOBaHHII p5i1\3 KpHTepHeB, B KO- TOpblX CYMMHPYIOTC5i TeOpeTHqeCKHe npel!CTaBJleHI151 0 TeMnepa- MeHTe, c!\IOPMYJ!lIpOBaHHble Ja I!OJlryIO HCTOpHIO ero HJyqeHH5I. EblJIO 6bl npeYBeJ!HqeHHeM cKa3aTb, qTO 3TH KpluepllH nOJlHOC- TblO COBna):(3IOT y pa3HbiX 3BTOpOB, 3aHHMalOwHXC5I HCCJ!e,l10Ba- HlleM TeMnepaMeHTa 01!HaKO aBTopbl, palSOT31OlIJ,IIe B pa3HbiX HayqHblX HanpaBJIeHII5IX Ii npHHa,l1.Jle)l(allJ,He K p3JHbiM HayqHblM WKOJlaM, Ha3bIBalOT OJlH3KIIC no CO,l1ep)l(aHHIO II He npOTHBope- qaw He ):(pyr ,l1pyry npH1HaKil TeMncpaMeHT3. B qeM )l(e 3aKJllOqaIOTC5I 3TH KpHTeplll'!? I1JIH, HH3qe rOBO- pH, Ha OCHOBaHHH qcro pa3Hbie aBTopbI CQHTalOT B03MO)l(HbiM p3CCMaTpUBaTb 1'e HJIH HHbie I1CIIXOJlorl1qCCKlle OC06CHHOCTH KaK CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa? OCHOBHbIe KpHTepHH (I1JIH npll3HaKH TeMnepaMeHTa) npe,l1- CTaBJleHbl B Ta6JIlille 8.1. PaccMoTpHM IIX n0,l1p06Hee. B HCCHe,l10BalitHIX TeMl1epaMeHTa, npOBOJr!l!L(HXC5I a Hallien CTpaHe, OCIIOBHblM KpllTepHeM .!!HH OTHeCCHII5i TOH Hml HHOH nCH- XOJlOrHqeCKOH xapaKTepllCTI1KII K CBOHCTBaI,J TeMnepaMeHTa 5IB- J!JleTC5I ee !\IoPMaJlbHO-A\1HaMHQeCKIiH xapaKTep (He6bIJIHIIbIH B)J:., /976). CBoifcTBa TeMncpaMeHTa hl/lOpMaJlbllb!", nocKolIbKY OHH He CB5I3aHbl C CO,l1ep)l(aHHeM .lI.CRTeJIbHOCTH, C lleJl5lMH 11 MOTHBaMH qeJ!OBeKa, ocYweCTBJl5IIOlIJ,ero 3TY ):(e5lTeJlbHOCTb. CBOHCTBa TeM- nepaMeHTa JlBJIJlIOTCJI "./tIiHaMII'ICCKHMI1", nOCKOJlbKY OHH onpe- lIeJljJlOT 1I11HaMIIXY lIC5ITMbHOCTIi - HHTeHCIJBHOCTb, TeMn, PHT- 296 MllqHOCTb Tex nCIIXOIIOrHqeCKIIX oc06eHHocTeH, KOTopble BKJlIO- qeHbl B oCYllJ,eCTBJIeHHe 3TOH ,l1C5ITeJ!bHOCTH. <1>opMaJ!bHb!H xapaKTep CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa nO.!l.qepKII- BaeTC5I H 3apy6e)l(HbIMII I1CCJIC,l10BaTeJlRMIi, XOTH Ha3bIB3lOT OHH 31'0T npll3HaK TeMnepaMeHTa HHaqe - CTI1J11; nOBe,l1eHH1!. B OTJ!lI- qHe OT cnoc06HocTei1, KOTopble nOKa3b1Ba1OT, mo nOJlyqaeTCH y qeJlOBeKa Jlyqllle Bcero, KaKOB ypOBCHb ero ):(oCTlI)I(eHHH, II B OT- m,ql1e 01' MOTIIB311"I1, CBH,l1eTeJlbCTBylOlIJ,eH 0 TOM, nO'lCMY ,<cno- BeKOM OBepWaeTCJI TO HITH HHoe ACHCTBHe, CBOHCTBa TeMnepa- MeHTa onpeAeJIJlIOT, KaK qeJlOBel<: ,l1CHcTByeT B caMblX pa3HbiX CH- TyaUH5Ix (KaKOB TCMn cro ):(e5lTellbHOCTH, HaCKOJlbKO J!eT!<O H Obl- CTpO OH a,l1anTHpyeTcH B pa3HbiX ycnoBHRX, CBOHCTBeHHa JIll eMY pCJKaJl CMeHa 3MOllf!OHaJlbHbIX COCT05lHHH If T..n:.). CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa B 3HaqHTeJIbHOH CTeneHII1aBIIC5IT OT 6110JlOrHqeCKOH opraHH3aUl1H QeIlOBeK3. ITOIICK npllpO,l1HblJ\ (cjJII3HOJlOrHQeCKHX, 3H,l10KpHHHblX, 6110XHMlIqeCKIIX) ,l1eTepMH- lIaHT nCllxoJ!orllqeCKIIX xapaKTeplfCTlIK QeJ!Oaexa YXO,l1JIT KOpHJI- MH B ,l1aJleKOe npOllllIoe' nonblTI<:H CB5I3aTb CBOHCTBa opraHII3M3 H oc06eHHOCTH nOBe,l1eHHR ,l1eJlaJ!IICb y)l(e npH C03.l1.aHI1H aHTlI'I- HblX THnOJlorllH TeMncpaMeHTa. TeOpeTI1QeCKHe npe,l1CTaBJleHHJI o TCMnepaMeHTe BO Bce BpeMeHa HCX0,l1IIJ111 H3 npe)l.OOJIO)l(eHIIJI 0 TOM, qTO pa3J1l1qH5I I,JeJl(,l1y JlIOJI,bMH B CBOHCTBax TeMnepaMeHTa CB5I33Hbl C HHJJ:HBI1,l1yaJ!bHbIMI1 pa3JIHqHJlMH B HX 6HOJIOrH'IeCKHX nO,l1CHCTCMax (aHaTOMH'IeCKHX, Mop!\lOJlOrll'lCCKHX, IjJ 11311 0- JlOmqeCKI1X). 297 
B HaCTO'nllee BpeMJI MO)l(HO C YBcpeHHOCTblO rOBOplITb 0 TOM, '1TO HH)\IIBH)\yaJIbHble oc06eHHOCTil TeMnepaMeHTa TeCHO CBH3aHbl C nCIIxoljJ1!3110JIOrllqeCKlIMlI Ii HeHpOmlllalIIqeCKHMIl CBOHCTBaMH 'ieilODCKa. 0.llH3KO 6blJlO 6bl OWH6KOH CBOAIITb CDOH- CTBa TeMnepaMeHTa K iTC)I(all.\IIM B ero OCHOBe 6HOiTOrHqeCKlIM JaKOHOMepHOCTHM. TeMnepaMeHT H IjJH3HOJIOrH'ieCKlIe MCXaHIIJ- I.Ibl, KOTopbIe ero 06YCilOBiTHBaIOT, He H30MopcjJHbI (He TO)l()\e- CTBeHHbI )\pyr Jl,pyry) K3K 6bIJIO HeO)\HOKp3THO nOK33aflO, iTlO- 60e CBOHCTBO TeMnepaMeHTa CDH3aHO C pa3HbIMII 1jJ1i3110JlOrH- '1eCK II Mil II HeHpO)\IIHaMl1qeCKI!MH CBOHCTBaMII, TO eCTb JIIo60c CBOHCTBO TeMncpaMeHTa Henb3J1 p3CCMaTpllBaTb KaK npocTo no- Be)\eH'ieCKOe npOJlBJleHHe KaKorO-TO KOHKpeTHoro IjJH3110iTOrll- qeCKOrO CBOHCTBa. EOJIee Toro, JIIo6b1e IjJH3110JIOrHqeCKlie II HeH- pO)\IIHaMHqeCKHe CBo!icTBa BiTl1HIOT Ha oc06eHHocTI1 npOTeKa- HHJI p33HblX nCIIXOilOrll'iCCKIiX xapaKTepHCTI1K, B qHCiTO KOTOpblX BXOJI,JIT He TOJlbKO CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHT3 (MepJIHH B C , 1986; Buss A., Plomin R., 1984; Hinde R.A., \.989). 06cY)J()\aJl 6110ilOrHqeCKlie OCHOBaHHJI TeMncpaMCHTa, MHO- rIle IiCCile)\OBaTCJIIi C'iIlTaIOT, qTO CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa JlBJIjj- IOTCJI reHeTHqeCKII 06YCJIOBJIeHHblMli HiTH, no KpaHHeH Mepe, CBJI- 3aHbl C TeMH 1jJ1I3HOJlOrlt'leCI<I1MI1 11 HeHpO)\HHaMH'ieCKIiMI1 oco- 6eHHOCTJlMIi, KOTopble D 3H3'1I1TeiTbHOH CTeneHIi )\eTepMI1HHpOBa- Hbl rCHOTHnOM. COBpeMeHHaH nCHXOJIOrHJI 06JIa)\aeT Hat\e)J(Hbl- MH 3KcnepHMeHTaJIbHblMH )\aHHbIMI1, )\eMOHcTpHPYIOII.\HMIl CBj[3b CBOHCTB TCMnepaMeHTa C reHOTlinOM 3TIi )\aHHbIC 6Yt\YT no)\- P06HO 06cY)J()\ancj[ B CiTet\YIOIl\eM pa3)\erre )\aHHOH maBb!. CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa npOJlBJI>1IOTCJI B caMOM paHHeM )\eTCTBe. IiHt\HBH)\yanbHble pa3iTHqHj[ B t\BHraTerrbHblX peaKIUiJlX t\eTCH, B noporax peaKTHBHOCTH, B IIIITCHCHBHOCTH peaKl1HH 06- HapY)J(HBaIOTcH C nepBbIx )\Heii )l(113HII. B nepBbIe MeCJll1bI MO)l(HO onpe)\emlTb npe06iTa)\alOWIiH 3MOL\HOH3rrbHbIH TOH B HaCTpoe- HHH pe6cHKa, ilcrKOCTb ero a.n,3nTaUliH K HOBblM cIiTyaUHJlM, oco- 6eHHocTil peaKUIIH Ha 1I0BbIe CTIIMYJIbl, HanpliMep, HaCTOp0)l(eH- HOCTb II CTpeMrreHHe H36e)l(3Tb KOHTaKTa C HOBblM npeJI.MeTOM IImi )l(e, Ha060pOT, liHTcpec K HeMY H )l(CiTaHlle n06ml)l(e C HHM nOJEIa!(OMJlTbCJl Ot\HJI )jeT" c rOTOBHOCTbEQ npo5YIDT HOBYro nIlWY, TJlHYTCH K HOBOH IIrpYWKe, C HHTepeCOM pa3rJIJI)3.bIBaIDT He3HaKOMOro 'ieJlOBCKa, IIpyrl1e - C onaceHHeM paCCMaTpHBalOT HenpHBbl'iHYIO HrpYlliKY II t\OiTro 60JITCH B3J1Tb ee B PYKII, BblOJIe- 298 BblBalOT nllII1Y, KOTOPYIO HHKor,!:\a He eml paHbllle, nJIa'iYT H npli- )jUlMaIOTCJI K MaTepH, YBl1.ll.eB He3H3KOMoro 'iCJIOBeKa. Bce 3TII oc06eHHocTH npe.ll.CTaBJIJlIOT C060H paHHHe npOJlB- JIeHIIJI TeMnepaMeHTa. OHH onpe)\eJIJlIOT cywecTBeHHble oco6eH- HOCTi! nOBe,/J.eHIIH pe5eHKa H OqeBlllUIbl ,!\JJ>1 Toro, KTO 3a HIIM Hl1- 6J1IO,!:\aeT DJlarOAapJl 3THM xapaKTepHCTIIKaM TeMnepaMeHTa - Ba)i(HOeTH )\JlJI nOHHMaHHH nOBe)\elIHJI pe6eHK3 H JlerKOCTIIII113r- HOCTIiKIl - cBoiicTBa TeMnepaMellTa '1aCTO HCnOJIb3YlOTCH MJI nHcaHIIH paHHHX nCIIXOnOrH'IeCI<I1X oc06ellHOCTeH )\eTeH Ho BHHMalllle II HHTepec nCIIXOJIOrOB K TeMnepaMeHTY CBJlJall\,I He TonbKO C TeM, qTO ero npOJIBITeHIIJI OTqeTJI!iBO .l\eMOHCTpHPYIOT HII)\IIBH.l\yaJlbHbIe OC06CHHOCTII .neTeH nepBblX JIeT )l(1I3HI1 Hc- KJIlOqllTCJIbHO Ba1KHO TO, 'iTO CBOHCTBa TeMncpaMeHTa JlBJIHIOTCJI OHToreHeTIi'ieCKIl CTa6HJlbHbIMII, ro eCTb onllCbIBalOT oc06eHHO- CTII nOBe.l\eHIIR, xapaKTepHbJe 1IJ1J1 qeJIOBeKa B TeqCHlie JUII1TeJIb- HblX OTpe3KOB BpeMeHIi. Ii A3HHbIC HenOCpe.l\CTBeHHoro Ha6mo- lIeHHH 3a lIeTbMII, H oeHKH nOBe)\eH'IeCKI1X oc06eHHOCTeH lI eTe H, nOJIY'ieHHble B HHTepBblO C IIX pO.ll.ltTeJIJlMlI, 06HapY)l(I1B31OT BOJ- pacTHYIO cTa61U1bHocn 3MOIiOHa!IbHbIX peaKl1HH, )l,BllraTeJlb- 1I0H aKTHBIIOCTI1, JlerKOCTII B nepeKJIlOqeHl111 C OIlIlOH .l\eJlTeJIbHO- CTII Ha .npyrylO, cnoc06HOCTI1 II rOTOBHOCTII BCTynaTb B KOHTaT H 0611.\aTbCH C IIPYrllMH )\eTbMH H B3pOC!IbIMII (Buss A H , Plomm R., 1975, Rothbart M K., 1989). Henocpe)\CTBeHHoe BJIHHHHe CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa Ha oeo- 6eHHoCTH nOBe.l\eHHJI 'ieJlOBCKa MellJleTCJI C BOJpaCToM. H3McHeHHc pOil!i TeMncpaMeHTa C B03pacToM 11 npHq!iHbl 3Toro H3MeHeHHH OnCTJIJlBO nOKaJaH\,1 B JlOHrIlTIO.I\HblX HCCJIe.l\OB3HliJlX. 0)\110 H3 HHX - HblO-HopKcKoe JlOHrHTIO.llHOe HCCJIe)\OBaHHe TeMnepaMeH- Ta, npOBet\eHHoe AneKCaH.l\pOM TOM3coM 11 CTelIJlOH qecc, - HBJlJI- eTCH Hall60JIee JUIIITeJlbHblM lIa CerO)\IIHWHHH .l\eHb BOJpaCTHbIe H3MeHeHMJI TeMnepaMeHTa npoene)\(IIBalOTCJI B 3TOM HCCJIe.nOBaHlUi OT nepBbIX MeCHueB )l(H3Hlt )\0 30 JlCT (Thomas A, Chess S., 1977, 1987) KaK nOKa3aJlH A TOMac II C '-Iece, CBOHCTBa TCMnepaMeHTa B 3H3qHTenbHoH CTeneHH onpelleJIRIOT nCHXOJIOrH'IeCKHH CTa.yc pe6elil<a Ha npOTH)I(CHHIl Bcero .ll.OlUKOJ1bKOrO If MJlalllUerO WKO!1b- Horo B03pacTa, HenOCpe.I\CTBeHHO BJIlIJIR H Ha ypoBellb al1am'a- I1H pe6eHKa K nOCTOHHHblM YCJIOBHj[M ero cyweCTBoBaHIlj[, II Ha CKOPOCTI, aAanTal.\HH B HODblX JUIJI pe6eHKa YCJIOBliJlX, npe)l(.II.e 299 
Bcero, npll HaqaJIe llIKOITbHOrO 06Y'leHH. Ha'lI1HaR C 10-12 ITeT OCH01JHYIO pOITb HaqllHaJOT IIrpaTb He CTOITbKO CBOHCTBa TeMne- paMeHTa KaK TaKOBble, CKOITbKO TaK Ha3blBaCMbie BTOpH4HbJe CBOH- CTBa, TO eCTb cBoiicTBa, C!jJOpMllpOBaHHble lIa OCHOBaHll1l Tex HITH HHblX oco6eHHocTei1 TeMnepaMeHTa. HanpllMep, HH3KaR 06I11HTeITb- HOCTb pc6eHKa II 3aCTeH'lHBOCTb, 3aCTaBITJllOl11a era 1136eraTb CH- TyaUIIH, B KOTOpblX He06xo.!(UMbl KOHTaKTbl C .!(pyrllMIl JIIO.!(bMH, MorYT npllBCCTIl K HCC!jJOpMllpOBaHHOCTH HaBblKOB 06I11eHHR, qTO H 6YAeT B 60ITce CTapllleM B03paCTe OCHOBHOH npllqllHOH HeYAaq npl1 06111eHHil C APYrHMIl JIIOAbMII. OAHaKO BITHJlHlle TeMnepaMeHTa Ha oc06eHHOCTil nOBCACHllR He npona.!(aeT nOJIHOCTblO, II, KaK 6blJIO nOKa3aHO B TOM )l(e HCCJIe- AOB3HIIII, Aa)l(e BO B3pOCJIOM B03paCTe 06HapY)l(IIBalOTCJI CBH311 C TCMH oco6eHHOCTRMH TeMnepaMeHTa, KOTopble 6bIJII! onpe.n:eJIeHbl B AOlllKOJILHOM B03paCTe. TaK, B 3TOM )l(e IICCJleAOBaHHH nOKa3aHO , qTO OUCHKH TeMnepaMellTa pe6eHKa, nOJIyqeHHLle, Kor.n:a pe6eHKY 6bIJIO 3 rOAa, OKa3aJIIICb 3HaqHMO CBH3aHbI C HeKOTopblMII aHaJIO- rH'IllblMH !jJ0PMaJlLHO-,lI,IIHaMllqeCKHMI1 oco6eHHoCTHMH nOBeAClIlIJI BO B3pOCJIOM B03paCTe II C ycneilllloCTblO a.!(anTaQIlIl (Y.n:OBITe-rno- peHHOCTblO pa6oToH, OTHOllleHHRMII B CCMbC 11 T..!(.). TaKIlM 06pa- 30M, MO)l(HO 3aKJlIO'II1Tb, qTO CBOHCTBa TeMncpaMCHTa coxpaHRIOT- CH Ha npOTR)I(eHHII II,JIIITeJIbHbIX nepHOAOB )l(1I3HIIII, nORBilBilll1Cb B paHHeM ,l{eTCTBe, npOJ],OJIE3IOT OKa:JhIB3Th BllI1HHlIC H3 rrOBe,lJ,eHI1e 'leJIOBeKa II BO B3pOCJIOM B03paCTC. fOBOpH 06 OHTOrCHeTllqeCKOH CTa6HJILHOCTI'! CBOHcrn TeMnc- paMeHTa, Heo6xotJ,HMO nOMHUTb, LITO coxpaHHOCTb CBOHCTB TeMne- paMeHTa He 03HaqaeT HeH3MCHHOCTil IIX npOHBJlCHHH. Bo-nepBbIX, cBoiicTBa TeMncpaMeHTa H3MeHRIOTCR C B03pa- CTOM. TaK, MO)l(eT CHl1)1(aTbCR qYBCTBHTCJlbHOCTb K 3MoQHoreH- HblM cHTyaQIIRM, nOBbllllaTbCR HJlH nOHHJKaTbCH nopor pcaKTHB- HOCTlI, IIJMCHRTbCJI BeJ1llqHHa 06111eH aKTIIBHOCTIl. OAHaKO npll 113MCHeHilII a6COJllOTHOH BCJ1IlqllHbl Toro HJ1II II II oro CBOHCTBa TeMncpaMCHTa cro OTHOCIITeJlbHaH BeJIlI'lIIHa MO)l(eT OCTaBaTbCR HCII3MeHHOH: HanpllMep, AeTlI, KOTopble 6b1J111 Hal160Jlec 3MOQH- OHaJlbHblMIl B .!(OlllKOJlbHOM BOJpaCTe, 6YAYT 60Jlee 3MOUII0- HaJlbHbl, qeM IIX CBCpCTHHKII, H B nOApocTKOBOM, II BO B3pOCJIOM B03paCTe. BO-BTOPbIX, OAHH H Te JKe CBoHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa no-pa3- HOMY 06HapYJKIIBalOT ce6H B pa3Hbix B03paCTax. HH3KaH 0611111- 300 TeJILHOCTL Y BJpOCJIOro 'leITOBeKa 6y.n:eT npORBJlRTbCH He B IIcny- re, B03HIIKalOI11eM npH nORBJleHHII HeJHaKOMOro qeJlOBeKa, KaK y .n:BYXJleTHero pe6CHKa, a B CTpeMJIeHlI1I K yeiJ,HHeHI1IO, B HCJKeJla- HIIII nOcell\aTb illYMHbie II MHorOJlIOiJ,HLle KOMnaHHlI, B CKOBaH- HOCH!, nORBJlRIOl11eHCJI npll 061l\eHHI1 C He3HaKOMLIMH JIIOAbMH. BMeCTe C TeM, H cTpax He3HaKOMua, II CTpeMITeHHe COKpaTHTb '!HC- JlO KOHTaKTOB C iJ,pyrllMH moALMH RBJIHIOTCH npOJlBJleHI1RMl1 OA- Horo H Toro JKC CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa. B-TpeTbHX, qeM CTapwe CTaHOBIITCR qeJIOBeK, TeM 60JILllIHH OTneqaTOK Ha ero nOBeAeHHe HaKJlaAbIBalOT HOpMbl 06I11eCTBa. OHII MaCKllpYIOT Te oc06eHHOCTII TeMnepaMeHTa, npORBJIeHHe KO- TOpblX MOJKeT BblJBaTb Hco.n:06peHlle OKpY)KaIOI11HX. TaK, 6ypHoe npORBJIeHlle OTplIuaTeJIbHbIX JMOUIIH, npOCTHTCJIbHOe MaJleHb- KOMY pe6eHKY, y B3pOCJlOro qeJlOBeKa 6YAeT BOcnpHHRTO KaK He- YMeHlle BJlaAeTb C060H, HeYBa)l(eHlle K OKpY)l(aIOI11HM IfnH npOCTO KaK HeBocnllTaHHOCTb B npouecce COUHaJIIIJaUIIH pe6eHOK 06y- qaCTCR TOMY, KaK Ha.n:o pearHpOBaTL Ha pa3Hbie c1ITyaUHl1, KaKIIX peaKUIIH OT Hero )I(.n:YT OKpY)I(alOl11"e, II 3TO npHBOAHT K TOMY, qTO BHeillHee npOHBITeHHe OiJ,HIIX oc06eHHocTeH TeMnepaMeHTa YCIIJlIIBaeTCH, a iJ,pyrllx - YMeHblllae-rCR BCJIeiJ,CTBI1C noro, 'IeM CTapllle CTaHOBIlTCH qeJIOBeK, TeM TpYJl,Hee Ha6JIIO.!(aTCJlIO oope- l\eJlHTb oc06eHHOCTH ero TeMnepaMeHTa. TeM He MeHee .!(HarHOCTHKa TCMnepaMeHTa y B3pOCJlOro qe- JIOBeKa He RBJIJleTCJI Hepa3peillHMOH 3aAa'leH. )J,eJIO B TOM, qTO CBOHCTBa TCMoepaMeHTa onpel\eJIRIOT AHHaMllKY nCIIXl1qecKoii l\eHTerrbHOCTH B caMblX pa3HbIX cIlTyaUIIx, TO eCTb HBJIJlIOTCJI KpOcc-cHTyaTIIBHbIMH. B OiJ,HIIX crrY'laJlx npORBJleHlle CBOHcrn TeM- nepaMeHTa 6YAeT MaCKllpOBaTbCJI 60JIbille, B .!(pyrllx - HHBeJIII- pYlOl11ee B03AeHCTBlle COUllanbHblX ycrroBHH Ha CBOHCTBa TeMne- paMeHTa 6YAeT MeHbllle rIpeAnOJIaraCTCR, qTO TC iJ,IIHaMHqeCKHe oc06eHHOCTH nCIIXHqeCKOH )l(113HII qeJIOBeKa, KOTopble Hall60Jlce )l)IR Hero xapaKTepHbI, 06HapYJKHBalOTCR HaH60JIee qaCTO II CBOH- CTBeHHbI eMY B pa3HbiX (XOTH 11 l1e BO Bcex) cIlTyaUIIJlX, II BJlR- IOTC!! npOaBJleHHJlMIi ero TeMncpaMeHTa. KpOMe Toro, CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa OT'IeTJIIIBO OpOHBJlR- IOTCR B Tex cnyqaHX, KOr.!l.a '1CJlOBeK nona.n:aeT B HOBYIO, HenpH- BbJqHYIO AJIJI Hero HJIH TPY.!(HYIO cIlTyal\l1lO. HanpllMep, TaKoe CBOHCTBO TeMnepaMeHTa, KaK 06I11HTeJIbHOCTb, 60Jlee onpeiJ,eJleH- HO npOJlBHTCR npl1 Heo6xo,ll,llMOCTR BCTynllTb B KOHTaKT C He3Ha- 301 
KOMblMH mO,!\bMH, qeM npll 0611\eHIIII CO CBOIIMII 6J1113KIIMII. 06- l1\aJlCb C APY3bHMII, AaJKe caMbIe 3aCTeH'IHBble H lIeKOMMYHIIKa- 6eiIbHbie iIlO,!\1I 'IYBCTBYIOT ce6H C0060AHO II MaJlO OTJIHqalOTCH OT Tex, KTO HIIKorM He IIcnbITblOaJI CiIOJKHOCTeH 0 0611\eHIIII. ITpll Heo6)(QAHMOCTI'! 6bICTpO npllHHb perneHlle, CnpaBIITbCH C npo. 6iIeMoH B YCJlOBHJlX ,!\eljlllI.\IITa BpeMeHII ypoBeHb 3MOI..\HOHaJIbHO- CTH '1eJIOBeKa 3Ha'lllTeJIbHO 3aMCTHee, 'IeM B 06b1'1HOH .!VIH Hero clITyal..\lIH. HanpHMep, c,!\aBaJi 3K3aMeHbI, HeKOTopblC mo,!\H TaK BOiIH)'IOTCH, '1TO He MorYT OTBeTHTb Ha OOnpOCbI, KOTopble B cno- KOHHOH cIITyal..\HII He ObI10aJIII 6b1 Y HIIX HII MaJIeHrnerO 3aTpy,!\- HeH"H. 06b1'1HO JKe IIX BblCOKaH 3MOl..\HOHaiIbHOCTb MOJKeT 6blTb He 3aMeTHa JUlH OKpYJKalOl1\l1X Ha OCHooaHIHI onllcaHHblX KpHTepHeB MOJKHO Bbl,!\eJII1Tb CBOHCTBB TeMnepaMCHTa cpe,!\11 '!\pyrllx nCIIXOiIOrllqCCKIIX OCO- 6eHHOCTeH qeiIOoeKa. HTaK, K CBOHCTBaM TeMnepaMeHTa OTHO- CJlTCH Te IIH,!\IfOIl,!\yaiIbHble OC06CHHOCTII qeJIOBCKa, KOTopble onpe,!\en>lIOT ,!\HHBMIIKY ero ,!\CIITeJIbHOCTH, IIMCIOT TeCHble CBH3H C 6110iIOrll'leCKHMII nOJl,CTpYKTYPBMIl opraHH3Ma H 06ycnoBJleHbI reHOTlfnOM. OHII 06HapYJKHBalOTCJI B paHHeM l\eTCTBe, JlBJIHIOTCH OTHOCIITCJIbHO cTa6HJIbHbIMII, coxpaHHIOTCH Ha JIpOTHJKeHIIII .!VIIITeJIbHOrO ncpllo.n:a BpeMCHH 11 npOllBIIJlIOTCH B pa3HbIX cHTyaI..\HJlX. 2.1. HblO-:AopKcKoe JlOIITHTlOl\HOe HCCJIeAOOBHHe TeMnepBMeHTa 2. CBoiicTBa TeMnepaMeHTa 1'1 ponb reHOTl'lna B I'IX ,QeTepMI'IHaLlI'II'I B Ha'laJIe 60-x ro,!\oo B MeAHI..\"HCKOM l..\eHTpe HblO-HoPK- CKoro YHIIBepCHTeTa no,!\ PYKOBOI\CTBOM A.ToMaca 11 C.qecc 6b1JIO HaqaTO JIOHrIlTlO.!1HOe HCCJlC,!\OBaHIIC TCMncpaMCHTa, KOTOpOC npo- )10JlJKaeTCH II B HaCTOHl1\ec BpCMH (Thomas A., Chess S., 1977, 1987, 1991). CiIlI noro HCCJIeAOlJaHHH COCTO>lT B TOM, 'IT06bl I) Ol..\eHHTb OHToreHeTllqeCKYIO CTa6lfJIbHOCTb CBOHCTB TCMncpaMeH- Ta H BJIHJlHHe Ha HHX YCiIOBIfH pa3BHTIIJI; 2) pacCMOTpeTb, KaK oco6eHHocTli TeMnepaMeHTa, KOTopbIe o6HapYJKHBaIOTCH B ca- MOM paHHeM B03paCTe, npOHBJlHIOTCJI B i\aiIbHCHrnCM 0 iIllqHOCT- HblX oc06eHHocTHX, 3) BbIIICHIITh, BJIIiHIOT JIll cBoHCTBa TeMnepa- MeHTa Ha aJl,amal..\ll1O K COI..\HaJIbHbIM YCJlOBI1HM B i\eTCKOM II B3pOC- JIOM B03paCTC, Ha oepOHHOCTb nOHBJIeHIfH ,!\eBHaHTHoro (OTKJIO- HHIOI1\CrOCH) nOBei\eHIfJlI1 naToJloruqeCKIfX COCTOHHIIH (HanpI1Mep, HeBp030B). Ha OCHOBaHll1f onpOCHHKOB H IIHTepBblO C pO)1IfTeJlJlMII, a BnOCJlC,!\CTBIIII, KorAa ACTII ,!\OCTHrJIIf nOApOCTKOBoro B03paCTa, Ha OCHOBaHIfH HHTepBblO C caMHMI1 I1Cnb!TyeMhIMH aBTophl Ol..\e- HIfBalOT 9 CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa - aKTIIBHOCTb, pIITMII'IHOCTb, npH6J1lfJKeHIIC HiIlI y,!\ancHllc, a.n;anTIIBHOCTb, HHTCHCIIBHOCTb pe- aKI..\HH, nopor pcaKTHBHOCTI1, HacTpoeHlfe, OTBJIeKaeMOCTb, YC- TOHqllBOCTb BHII MaH"H/HaCTOH'IHBOCTb. Oc06eHHocTII nOBC)1e- HIIII, no KOTOphIM CYI\HT 0 OblpaJKeHHOCTII Toro IIJIII IIHoro ClJOH- CTBa TeMnepaMeHTa, MeHJlIOTC>I C B03pacToM. PaccMoTpHM COi\ep- JKaHlle 3TIIX xapaKTeplicTIIK y i\CTeH B nepBble rO)1bI )l(1I3HH. AKmu8HOcmb - ypoBeHb i\BlITaTeJlbHOH aKTIfBH0CT\111 COOT- HornCHlle nepHoAoB i\1mraTCllbHoi1 aKTHBHOCTII II naCCIfBHOCT\1. PUmMWlHOCmb (pezYl!JlpHOcmb) - npeAcKa3ycMocTb BpeMe- 1111 1I0HBJICHH>I nOBei\CH'ICCKHX peaKI..\HH, CBII3aHHbiX C 6110JlOrH- qCCKHMII lIoTpe6HocTHMil opraHlI3Ma, HanpllMep, XO'leT JIll pe6c- HOK eCTb B OAHO If TO JKe BpeMJI, ncrKO iIlf ero npllY'lIlTb 3aCbI- naTb B onpe,!\eJIeHHOe BpeMJI II T.A. llpu6J1u:JlceHue WlU ydCl/leHUe - HenOCpe)1CTBeHHaJi peaKl..\lfH Ha HOBbie CTIIMYJIbI. ITpll6JI11JKeHlle npOJlBJIHeTCJI B nOJIOJKIITeJIb- HblX 3MOl..\lfHX (HanpHMep, pe6eHoK YiIbI6aeTCH, YBIIJI,CO HOBYIO HrpYWKY) II B COOTBeTCTBYlOweH ABliraTeJIbHOH aKTIIBHOCTII (B JKenaHHH nOAOHTIf K nOH HrpyrnKe II B311Tb ee B PYKIf). IIpoTIIBo- 303 ,1],0 CIIX nop o6cYJKI\aJIHCb Te oCHoBaHIIH, no KOTOpbIM Ta HJlII IIHaH nCHXOJlOm'leCKaJl xapaKTepllCTI1Ka MOJKCT 6bITh OTHC- CCHa K qllCJlY CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. KaKHe JKe oc06eHHocTH nOBeAeHHII Y,!\OBJleTBOpJlIOT nepC'IIICJIeHHbIM KpHTepHHM II MorYT paccMaTplfBBTbCII KaK CBoHcTBa TeMnepaMcHTa? 3TOT Bonpoc II 6YJI,eT o6cY)I(MTbCII B MHHOM pa31\eJIC TCKCTa. ITpll onHcaHHII CBOHCTB TeMnepaMcHTa 6Yi1YT paccMoTpeHbI rneCTh IICCJle,!\OBa' TeJIbCKHX HanpaBiIcHIIH, B KOTOpblX reHeTH'IeCKBH 06YCJIOBJleH- HOCT!. CBOHCTB TeMncpaMeHTa HBiIIICTCH npei1MeTOM Cnel..\lIaJIbHO- ro 3KcncpllMeHTaJIbHOrO aHIIJIH3a 302 
nOilO)J(Ha peaKUIlJl, Y,!I;aJleHHe, XapaKTepH3yeTc B03HHKHOBellll- CM OTp"uaTeJIbHblX 3MOUIli1 Ha Bce HOBoe (HaCTopO)J(eHHOCTbIO, nila'leM, IIcnyrOM) H )J(eJIaHHeM OT noro HOBoro II He3HaKOMoro OKa3aTbCJI KaK MO)J(HO .n.ailblllC (OTToilKHyn HOBYIO I1rpYllIKY, y6e)J(an). A()anmu6Hocmb - ilerKOCTb npH8blKaHliR K HOBbIM Hilli 113- ldeHJllOllIHMCH YCJ10BIIRM. lfHme/JCU6/Jocmb peaKlfUU - 3HeprCTHqeCKIIH ypOBeHb pe- aKl\11H He3aBHCHMO OT ee KaqeCTBa II HanpaBileHHOCTIl (HaCKOilb- KQ HHTCHCH8HO Bblpa)!(aeTC pa:<OCTb, Hen080J1bCTBO). llOp02 peUKI1IU8HOCI1IU - ypOBeHb II HHTeHCIIBHOCTb B03- ,!I;eHCTBIIJI, Heo6xo,!l;IIMb[e ,!I;JIJI nOJIBileHIIJI peaKl\HII (HaCKOilbKO ,!!;Oil)J(HO 6blTb llIYIdHO, 'IT06bI pe6eHOK YCTail, ilerKO ilil pe6eHKa paCCMellillTb, ilerKO ilil OH paCCTpaHBaeTCR). H aCmpOeHUf! - COOTHOlIleHHe pa,!l;OCTlloro COCTOjlHHJI II CO- CTOJlHHH Hey.n:OBneTBOpeHHOCTH. Om8J1eKaelolOcmb - 3<j)<j)eKTIIBHOCTb l\eikmHJI H08b[X CTHMY- JIOB,!I;JIJI H3ldeHeHI1H nOBeAeHIIJI (HanpHMep, KorAa pe6eHOK nilaqeT, ilerno JlH ero ycnOKOIlTb, nOKa3aB eMY qTO-TO I1HTepeCHoe). Ycmouu80Cl1lb 8HUMa/JW! U /jacmoiiU60cmb -,!\Be 83aHMO- CBJl3aHHb[X xapaKTepHCTHKH, npOHBilHIOLl\HeCJI B TOM, HaCKOilbKO AOilro pe6eHoK MO)!(eT 3aHHMaTbCH OAHIIM H TeM JKe II CKJ10HeH 1111 OH npoAon)J(aTb KaKYIO-111160 AeHTcnbHOCTb, eCJ1H 803HltKaIOT TPY.ll.HOCTII B ee oCYLl\eCTBneHItH. ITpll AHarHOCTIIKe TeMnepaMeHTa y nOApocTKOB II B3pOC- JlblX 60JIblIlHHCTBO CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa oueHHBaeTCH no aHa- ilOrll'lHbIM oco6eHHocTHM nOBe,!!;eHHJI. HanpHMep, nopor peaK- TlIBHOCTH onpeAeJlJleTCJI no '1YBcTBHTeilLHocTH K )J(ape, XOilOAY, c8eTY, llIYMY H T.,!!;.; 0 HacTpoeHHII cy,!\n no npe06JIaAaHllIO no- JlOJKIITeilbHblX flilH OTplluaTeilbHb[X 3MOUI1H; IIHTeHCHBHOCTb pe- aKUIIH Ol\eHHBaeTCJlnO IIX BHCWHI1M npOJIBileHHJlM. HHaqe rOBO- PH, paCCMaTpliBalOTCJI BHeWlle nOXO)J(He ,!I;IIHaMllqCCKlfe (8 TepMH- H0)10rHIf aBTopOB - CTllileBble) oc06eHHOCTH nOBe,!l;eHII. O,!\HB- KO eCTL II TBKIIC CBOHCTBB TeMnepaMeHTa, CO,i:\ep)J(aHlle KOTOPb[X npll ,!I;I1arHOCTHKe BO B3pOCJlOM B03paCTe B 3HaqllTeJIbHOH CTene- HH 113MeHJleTC. TaK, 0 npn6JIH)!(eHIIH-y'!\aileHIIII CylIJiT no TOMY, HaCKOJlbKO ilerKO '1enOBeK BCTynaeT B KOH'raKT C lIPYrHMII ilIO,!I;b- Mil, npe,!\nO<JHTaeT illI npOBOJl,HTb CB060,!l;HOe BpeMJI B 0lIHHOqe- CTBe IIJIII )!(e B KOMnaHIfJlX, TO eCTb, <j)aKTllqeCKII, no CTeneHn ero 304 06Ll\IITeilbHOCTI1. TaKIIM 06pa30M, ,!I;I1HaMH'IeCKlie nOKa3aTeilH " " o6Ll\nTeJIbHOCTII paccMaTpllBalOTc aBTopaMH KaK B3pOCilbIII aHaJ10r npIl6i1HJKeHlIJl-y,!\aileHH AHaJlH311PYJI KilliHllqeCKHe cnY'lall, A.ToMac II C.qecc npll- LUJIII K BbIBO,!l;Y, '1TO pa3JIH'IHL!e CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa IIMelOT TeHAeHl\IIIO 06pa30BbIBaTb CIIHAPOML! CBOHCTB, TO ecn npH na- T0J10rHqeCKIIX OTKilOHeHIIHX CYLl\eCTByeT onpelIeileHHoe CoqeTa- HHe CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTB. BnOCilelICTB1t1l 3TOT Bb[80)l. 6bm no)l.- TBepJl()l.eH npH CTaTHCTH<JeCKOM aHaJIII3e (npH <j)BKTOpIl3al\IIH lIall- lib/X, nOJ1YQeHHblX Ha nOHrHTIO.IIHOH BbI60pKe), a BceTO 6bIilO Bbl- AcJIeHO Tpll CIIH,!\pOMa CBOHCTB, Ha3BaHHbIX aBTopBMII "ilerKIIH TeMnepaMeHT", "TPYMlb!H TeMnepaMeHT" II "TeMnepaMeHT C lIJlH- TeJIbHb[M npHBb[KaHHeM". ne2KUU melomepaMeHI1I xapaKTepH3yeTcJI PI1TMllqHOCTbIO B B03HHKHOBeHIIII 6I10J10rHqeCKIIX nOTpe6HOCTeH, nOilO)J(I1TenbHOH peaKl\lIeH Ha HOBbie cTlIMynbl (npII6nH)J(eHlleM), 6blCTpOH a.ll.an- Tal\HeH K 113MeHeIlI!JlM, npe06na,!\aHHCM nOilOJKI!TeilbHb[X 3MOl\IIH H HeBbIcoKoi1 HHTeHCHBHOCTblO HX Bb[paJKeHHH. B nepBbIe MeCJI- Ubi JKII3HH Jl,eTU C TaKI1MU C80HCTBaMH 6bICTpO npllBblKaIOT KO BpeMeHI1 KOpMJIeHH H Clla, npltyqalOTCJI K HOBOH nllLl\e II He 60- HTCH HOBblX nIOAeH. CTaHOBJICb CTapwe, OHI! ilerKO aJl,anTHpYIOT- CJI K AeTCKOMY ca.ll.Y H WKOJIe II JlerKO CXO)J.JlTCJI C '!!'PyruMIl lIeTb- MH Y pOJl,llTeJleH H BocnHTaTeJIeH peAKO B03HHKalOT C IIHMII npo- 6JIeMbI. 3TO - "nerKIIC" AeTU, qTO U )J.aJIO Ha3BaHHe 3TOMY CIIII- .IIpOMY CBOHCTB. B3pocnble nlOJI,II, 06i1BlIalOLl\HC TUMII cBoHcrna- MH TeMnepBMeHTa, He HCnbITb[BaIOT np06i1eM B 06Ll\eHIIII H ilerKO npllBb[KalOT K HOBOH pa60Te. Y HUX npe06JIalIaeT nOilO)J(HTenb- HbIH 3MOl\IIOHaJIbHbIH HaCTpOH, a Bblpa)J(eHHc 3MOLllIH He OTnlI- qaeTCJI CIIJlbHOH IIHTeHCIIBHOCTbIO. TpY()HbIU melomepOJl/eHm npeACTaBilHeT C060H nOJlHYIO npo- TUBOnOJIOJl{}lOCTb JIerKOMY II xapaKTepH3YeTCJI HepHTMH'IHOCTbIO B B03HHKHOBeHHil 61I0ilOrlI'IeCKllx nOTpe6HOCTeH, OTplIl\aTCJIb- HOH peaKLlHeH Ha HOBYIO CIITyal\HIO, Me,!I;JIeHHOH alIanTal\lIeH K H3MeHeHIIJlM, npe06naAaHKeM OTpHl\aTenbHbIX 3MOLIKH 11 Bb[CO- Koii HHTeHCHBHOCTblO UX npOH8J1eHII. B nepBb[C MeCJlUbI )/(H3HH .neTU C 3THMH CBOHCTBaMIl TeMnepaMeHTa He MorYT npHBblKHYTb K pacnopJlAKY )l.HJI: 01111 3aCbmalOT II nporbmalOTCJI B pa3Hoe Bpe- MH, npOMeJKYTKH MeJKAY KOPMJIeHHJlMIi OKa3blBalOTCJI ,!I;JIJI HUX TO CJIHWKOM )(JIHHHb[MH, TO cnllWKOM KOpOTKIIMH OHH qaCTO nJIa- 305 
qYT, a npHyqeHlle IIX K HOBOH nHwe Tpe6yeT orpOMHblX YCHJII'!H. IIO.l\paCTa, OHH OCTaIOTC "TPY.l\HbIMH" M OKpy)!(aIOWHX OHH HaCTOpOJKeHHO OTHOCJlTCJI K HOBbIM nlOlI,M, C Tpy.n:OM 3HaKOMT- CJI C .l\pyrHMH lI,eTbMH, nnoxo all,anTl1pYIOTC" I( HOBblM cHTyal\lI- "M, HM T)!(eJIO npl1BbIKHYTb K WKOJIe. Bo B3pOCIIOM B03paCTe y HHX OCTalOTCH CJlO)!(HOCTH B a.l\anTal\HH K H3MeHHlOwllMCJI YCJ10- BIIJlM )!(1I3HII (llanpHMep, npl1 ncpCXOlI,e Ha IIOBYIO pa60TY) H B 06weHHH OHn nOIl,Bep)!(CHbI nJ10XOMY HacrpoeHll1O II CKJlOHHbI 6YPHO BbIpa)!(aTb OTpHl\aTenbHble 3MOl\III1. TeMnepaMeHm c cJJ/umeJ/bllblM npu8blKaHueM xapaKTcpu3YCT' CJI MeMeHHOH aAaflTal\HCH H HeraTIIBHOH, HO cna60H no nUTeHCHB- HOCTn peaKl\lIeH Ha HOBbie cUTyal\HH. 06J1all,aTCJIM 3TUX CBOHCTB TemepaMeHTa He HpaBHTCH HenpHBbIqHa" mlIl\a, He3HaKOMbiC JIIO.l\II, HOBbie 3aHHTH", Oll,HaKO HX orpHl\aTClIbHa peaKl\H nMe- eT .l\OBOIIbHO cJJa60e BHeWHee BbIpa)!(eHHe H nOCTcneHHO MeHCT- C Ha nOJlO)!(IITeJIbHylO. Bo B3pOCJ10M B03paCTC TaKue JTIOII," CTa- palOTCJI u36eraTb HOBblX cHTyal\U", '1aCTO HMCIOT npo6JTCMbl C 06 W eHueM, XOTH OHH BbIpa)!(eHbl He TaK OTqeTJ1UBO, KaK y JIIO.II.eH C TPY.l\HbIM TeMnepaMeHTOM, U, KaK U B II,CTCKOM B03paCTe, moAU C 3TIIM TunOM TeMnepaMCHTa HC CKJTOHHbI K HHTeHCHBHOMY Bbl- pa)!(eHHIO 3MOl\I1H OImC8HHblC B HblO-ltOpKCKOM IIOHrlJTlO.lI.HOM IfCCJJC.lI.OBa- HHII 9 CBoilcTB TeMnep8MeHTa H TpH CI1H.l\pOMa CBOHCTB (lIcrKuH TeMnepaMeHT, Tpy.n:HblH TeMnepaMeHT II TeMnepaMeHT C MHTCJTb- HbIM npII.BbIKaHHeM) OKa3aJlIICb OHTOI'eHeTH'IeCKII cTa6HJIbHblMH , TO eCTb Bce 3T1I napaMeTpbI TeMnepaMeHTa, .n;HarHOCTl1pOBaHHble B paHHeM .n;eTCTBe, CBH3aHbI C aHaJIOrHqHblMH napaMerpaMn B 60- JIee CTapllIHX B03paCTaX. ITpH 3TOM oco6ylO npOrHOCTHqecKYIO l\eHHOCTb npo.n;eMoHcrplfpOBaJTH CHH.l.\POMbl CBolicTB' 06JIa.l\an- JIH "JlerKoro" TeMnepaMCHTa qawe HMelOT XOPOW)'IO COl\HalIbHYIO a.n;anTal\HIO (oHn qawe y.n;oBIICTBopeHbl CBoeH pa60Toii, OTHOWC- HIIMII C OKPYJKalOll.!IIMH, Y HHX pe)!(e o6HapY)J(IIBaIOTc HCBpOTII- qCCKne OTKJIOHeHHJI) BMecTe C TeM, TC HJJH IIHble cBoiicTBa TCMnepaMcHTa II CHH- .n;pOMbI 3T1IX CBOHCTB HC !jJaTaJTbHbl M 6y.n;ywero HX 06JIa.n:aTe- JIeR .II.cikTBIITeJlbHO, "Tpy.n;HbIH" TCMncpaMCHT OKa3bIBaCTCJI CTa- TIICTHqeCI(H '1all.!e, '1CM "JlcrKllii", CB3aH C pa:lHoo6p33HbIMH CIIOJK- HOCTJlMH, B03HHKalOWHMH II B .n;CTCTBe, II BO B3POCJIOM B03p3cTe OJl,l'l8KO, KaK nOK3JaJIH 3BT:JpbJ HblO-HopKcKoro HCCJlC,!{OB31!H.II, 306 ClIO)J(HOCTH TII He HCI136e)J(Hbl II HBIIIOTC pe3YJlbTaTOM OIlIH60K B BocnllTaHIIH. B Tex CJlY'IaHX, KorJl,a pOJl,l'lTeJII1 yqllTbIBalOT UH. IlHBn.n;yaJlbHbIC oco6eHHOCTH CBoero "Tpy.n;Horo" pe6eHKa 11 IIC- XOIlH H3 3THX oe06eHHOCTeH, nM y)J;aeTC nOMOqb pe6eHKY m6e- JKaTb MHODI:>; eiJOJKHOCTefi B I1aJ1bHeHUJeM. TaKl1e po.n;HTeJI\1 TWa. TeiJbnO 110.n;TOTaBJlHBaIOT pe6eHKa I( 6y.n;Yll.!I1M HOBblM cIITyal\l1- M. Hal1pHMep, K Ha'laiJY UJKOJlbHOrO o6yqeHII, nOMoralOT eMY HaJIa.l\HTb 06weHHe C .n;pyrllMn .n;eTbMII, TO eeTh 06Y'la1OT pe6eH- Ka HaBblKaM 06ll.!eHIIJI, KOTopble y HcrO canl Coao" He CKJlall,bI. BalOTCH OHn CTPeMHTCJI HC nepe.rrOMHTb He HpaBJlwl1eCIIIIM CBOH- CTBa, a 113MeHIITb IIX npOBJleHHH, He JK.n;YT 6bJCTpbIX pe3YJlhTa- TOB. B 3THX CIIY'iaRX 3$$eKT OKaJblB3eTC.II nOp33lfTeiJbHblM .[IeJIO B TOM, qTO, qeM CTapwe CTaHOBI1TC" pe6eHOK, TeM 60JlbUJYlO pOiJh B ero 110Be.n;eHlln HrpaeT He caM TeMnepaMeHT, a CBOHCTBa, C!jJOpMllpOBaHHble Ha ero oeHOBe. TaK, .l\eTCKIIH CTpax 06ll.!eHH C He:JHRKOMblMI1 JTIO.n;bMII npO.l\OJIJKaeT HrpaTb .n;eCTPYK- TIIBHYIO pOJIb BO B3pOCJTOM B03paCTe TOlIbKO B Tex CJlY'IaJlX, Kor- )J;a po60CTb II 3aCTenqnBOCTb pe6eHKa MHoro pa3 CTaHOBlI/lHCb npH'fH!-fOH ero Hey.n;aq B 06weHl1H, '!TO npHBOJl,l'lT K eCTeCTBeHHO- MY JKeJIaHll10 OKa3bIBaTbCJI B 3TIIX cHTyal(IIX KaK MO)J(HO peJKe Ho, H36era 3TIIX cHTyal\HH, cTapaHcb KaK MOJKHO MeHbllle 06- lIIaTbCJI C He3HaKOMblMI1 JIIO.l(bMII.. pe6enoK cOKpalllaeT CBOII B03- MO)!(HOCTII HaY'lHTbCII TOMY, B qeM OH U TaK He CJIHIlIKOM ycne- lieH. HMeHHO 3Tn BTOpll'lHbIe HaCJIOeHI1J1 Ha CBOHCTBa TeMl1epa- MeHTa 11 npHBo.n;JlT K TOMY. '1TO BO B3pOCJIOM B03paCTe coxpaHH- IOTCH Te JKe I1pOOJIeMbI, qTO 6bIJlII B lI,eTCTBe. TpYJl,l'lblH 1:eMnepaMCHT nOTOMY H Ha3hlBaeTC TPY,lI,IIbIM, '1TO 11.11" a.n;aI1Tal\Hn )J;eTeH, 06/1a,I\aIOWHX 11M, TPC6YCTCH ropa3.n;o 60JIb- lie BHIfMaHH.II H YClfJIIfH CO eTOpOHbJ pOJl,l'lTelIeH II BOCnHTaTeJIeil, '1eM .lUI aAanTaI.{HII ,[(eTCH C 60JIee 6JIarOnpHHTHhIMH cnOHCTBaMIJ TeMnepaMeHTa. He y Bcex XBaTaeT Ha :)TO CHJI 11 YMeHI1J1, H I1MeHHO nonoMY .l\CTI1 C ol1pell.e.rreHHblMH cBoilCTBaMII TeMnepaMeHTa '1all.!e OKa3bIBalOTCJI MeHee nOJl,rOTOBJleHHblMIi KO B3POCJIOH JKn3HH. Iic!jJaTaJIbHbIH xapaKTep CBOnCTB TeMnepaMcHTa npOHBJI- eTC H B npOTIIBOnOrrO)!(HOM 3!jJ!jJeKTe He6JTaronOJTyqHaJi ceMCH- RaN CI1TyaI.(HH, HenpaBlfllhHblii cmllh 05ll.!e1JlII' C pe6eHKoM MorYT IlpnBeeTII K TOMY, qTO IlCTIl C CUHllpOMOM CBOHCTB JIerKorO TeM- llepaMCHTa OKaJl(YTC BnOCJle.n;CTBnH 3aMKHYTbIMH, HCBPOTHqHhI- Mn, 60HIl\UMHCJl iJlO6bIX H3MeHeHnH 307 
TaKHM 05pa30M, OC05eHHOCTI'! TeMnepaMeHl'a, paCCMaTpl'!, BaeMble B HblO-HoPKCKOM JlOHrHTIO):{HOM HCCJleAOBaHHII, OKa3a_ JIHCb OHTOreHCTH'ieCI\II YCTOH'iHBbIMIl Ha npOTRJKeHHIl MHOrl1X IICT, HO B TO JKC BpeMR I1X pOllb B a.n.anTal\1I1I OKa3aJlaCb TeCHO CBJi3aHa C YCJlOBHJiMH pa3BHTIIJI H BocnHTaHHJi pe5eHKa. Tenepb paCCMOTpHM, KaKOBa pOJlb reHOTHna B opmpoBa. HIIII Tex CBOHCTB TeMlIepaMeHTa, KOTopble 5hlmi BbI):{eJIeHbI A.To- MaCOM H C.qecc. Hall50Jlee Tll(aTeJlhHOe I1CCJIeAOBaHlie reHeTII'ieCKOH 05yc, JlOBJIeHHOCTII 3TIIX CBoiiCTB TeMnepaMeHTa 5blll0 npOBe.n.eHO HOp- BeJKCKliM nCHXOJloroM A.ToprepceH (Torgersen A.M, 1987,1989). aHa oT05paJla BbI60PKY 5I1H3Hel\OB 11 npoCJIeJl,IIJla 113MeHeHHJi BO BHYTplmapHoM CxoAcTBe M3 11 .II.3 6JIII3Hel10B Ha npOTJlJKCHlI11 15 JleT Ha pHCYHKe 8.1 npCJ\CTaBJleHhI AaHHhIe, nOJJyqeHHble npll 06- crre.n:OBaHHH TeMnepaMeHTa 5J1113Hel\OB B qeTbIpeX B03paCTax - B 2 Mec.,9 Mec., 6 JIeT 1115 !leT. Ha OCII a6cl\lIcc OTMeqeHhI CBOHcrna TeMnepaMeHTa (aKTIf/JHoCTb, nplf6iIHJKCHHe--YJl.aJIeHIIC, 3J1.anTlI/J- HOCTh, IIHTeHcIIBHoCTh, nOpor peaKTIIBHoCTII, HacTpoeHlle, BHI1Ma- HIle/HacroH'iIiBOCTh). Ha OCH op):{HHaT pacnOJIOJKeHhl npOl\eHTIIJIII. B Jl.aHIiOM cJlY'iac npOl\eHTIIIIH 03HaqalOT J\01l1O BHYT]JllnapHbIx pa:JJlII'IlIiI 6J1113Hel\OB BO BHYTPHnapHbIX pa:JlIl1ql!liX HepoJ\CTIieHHII- KOB. PaCCMOTpHM, B 'leM COCTOIIT CMblCiI :Horo nOKaJaTeJIJI. Ecmt cIIY'IaHHblM 06pa30M nO,!l.o6pan napbl .n:eTeH II no- CMOTpCTb BHYT]JHnapHble pa3J1II'1I1J1 B cBoHCTBax TeMnepaMeHTa, TO OKaJKeTCJI, 'iTO J\ent B KaJK):{OH nape He nOXOJKH .n.Pyr Ha APY- ra: 3TH Jl,eTH He RBJIJiIOTca pOI\CTBeHHHKaMH (H, CJIe.n:OBaTeJlhHO, Y llliX HeT 06111"'x reHOB), OIlH JKHBYT B pa3HhiX YCJlOBllaX II HC 311a- KOMbI ):{pyr C ApyrOM. BbI'IIICJlHB BHYT]JIIJlapHble J\IICnepCIIII Y He- pOACTBeHHIIKOB, MhI nOJlY'IHM BeJlH'iIiHY pa3JIII'Il{ii Y MaKCHMaJlb- HO HenOXOJKUX JlPyr Ha Apyra JIIOJ\eii. 3TOT nOKa3areJIb - BHyrpll- napHble pa3J1UqHa Hepo,!\crneHHHKOB - IICnOJlb3ye-rCJI KaK TO'lKa OTC'ieTa. CpaBHHBaJi C :nIlM nOKa3aTeJleM BHYTpllnapHbIe pa3J1U- qHa 6JIH3Hel\OB (BbI'IHCJlaJi npOl\eHTHJIII), MOJKHO BhHICHIITb, B Ka- KOH CTeneHlt pa3J1HqHJi no TeMnepaMeHTY Y 6JIH3Hel\OB OTKIIOHJi- IOTCJi OT CJIyqaHHhIX, TO eCTb 6Y):{YT JIlt 3TH pa3J11iqHJi Y 6J1H3He- l\OB MCHbWe, '1eM Y HepOACTBeHHHKOB. COnOCT3BllaJi M3 H .Q3 6J1113HCL\OB no npOljeHTIIJlJiM, MOJKHO BbIJiCHHTh, BJlI{JieT JIH reHO- Tlln Ha HHJ\IIBII):{yaJlbHble pa3J1Hql{j{ B CBOHCTBax TeMnepaMeHTa. 308 SO 40 30 20 10 60 !:IO 40 '30 20  10 ::s: I- :c g} 60 8.. 50 J:: 40 30 20 10 60  40 30 20 10 t 2 MeCJ'!Lla  9 Me  LleB /  6 neT 15 neT v- HP A3 M3 ,Q3 HP M3 HP .Q3 M3 HP .Q3 M3 9 PUCYIIOK 8.1 BHympunapHble pa311U'IUR y M3 U 3 611UJlleIJ08 no xapClKmepuc- mUKIlM meMnepllMellma, aHIUlU3upyeMblJ\/ 8 Hb/()-HoPKCKOM 1IOH2U- m/()(J/IOM uccne(J08<llluU (Torgersel1 A.M., 1987) ---- --y I 1 3 4 5 1- aIa'MBHOCTb. 3 - npM6nM}KeHMe-YAaneHKe, 4 - ClAanTKBHOCTb, 5 - MHTeHCHB- HOCTb 6 - nopor peaBHOtTM, 7- HaeypoeHMe, 9 - B"HIMaHMe/HaCToHBocrb, HP - Hopo,qCTseHHHKJ4, M3 - MOHO$MfOTHtoie 6nM3H8Ubl. ..0.3 - AM3MrOTHbie 611M3Hell,lJrl 6 7 309 
Ta6Jlu/{a 8.2 Bl/ympullapHoe CXOOCm80 8 110Ka3ameJIJIX meMllepaJ.feHrna, pac- CMampU8aeAfblX 8 H&W-WOPKCKOM JfOHcUmWOHOM UCCJfe008a11UU (Torgersel1 AM., 1989) pellJlQHH M3 6m13Hel.\OB no aKTIIBHOCTH B 2 Mec , 9 Mec., 6 JIeT II 15 JIeT paBHbl COOTBeTCTBeHHO 0,75, 0,85, 0,93, 0,95. qTO )l(e KaCaeTCJI .II.3 6mI3HeQOB, TO OHII C BOJpaCTOM CTaHO- B"TCJI Bce MeHbwe nOXOJKH '!\Pyr Ha ,I1JJyra. HanpliMep, BHYTpHnap- HbIe KOppellJlQHII .II.3 6JIH3HeQOB no nOKaJaTcJUO aKTIIBHOCTII B 2 Mec.,9 Mec., 6 JleT II 15 JIeT p3BHbl COO1l!erCTBeHHO 0,47, 0,71, 0,14, 0,16. IIoCKOJ1bKY nOKaJaTeJJb HaCJIe.n:yeMocTH JaBHCHT OT COOT- HOWeHItJl BHYTpllnapHoro CXO,!\CTBa M3 H .II.3 6JJIIJHeI.\OB, MOJKHO CKaJaTb, qTO, Bo-nepBblx, 60llhlIUII1CTBO CBoiicTB TeMnepaMeHTa BO Bcex BOJpaCTaX OJ<aJhIBaeTCJI reHeTII'IeCKH 06YCJIOB!leIlHbIM II, BO-BTOpbIX, 'lTO BJ\\\5I\me rellOTlln01 1\01 CEOHCTBR TeMnepaMcHTa yBellwlIIBaeTcR C BOJpaCToM. BMeCTe C TeM, CJIC.l\yeT 06paTHTb BHIIMaHl1e Ha TO, qTO no JI.IlYM cBoiicTBaM TeMnepaMCHTa (no HH- TeHCIIBHOCTH II nopory peaKTIIBHOCT\I) 6hIJIH nO!lY'leHbI OTplll.\a- TellbHbIe KOppeJIRI.\HII y )];3 6J1HJHeI.\OB B 15 !leT. 3TOT ljJaKT Tpe- 6ye-r Jl,onOIlHI1TenbHOrO aHaJIl13a. ecJIH CBOHCTBO reHCTII'IeCKII 06yc- JloB!lelio, )],3 61lH3Hel.\bl, KOTopbIe I1MelOT B Cpe.l\HeM nonoBIIHY 06111 11X reHOB, He 1101l)l(Hbi 6blTb HaCTOllbKO He nOXOJKI1 I1pyr lIa I1pyra. JIII60 YCJlOBHJI paJBIITI1R 6ml3Hel.\OB cnoc06CTBYlOT YlJe- !lHqeHHIO \IX paJJlII'I\lH no 3TOMY CBOHCTBY, IlH60, '1TO 60nee Be- pORTHO B MHHOM CJlY'lae, npH'IIIHOH JTIIX pa3JIII'IIIH RBJUleTCJI pa3Hoe BpeMR ny6epTaTHbiX 113MeHeHIIH (TO CCTb Tex 113MeHeHIIH, KOTopbIe CBJl3aHbi C n01l0BbIM C03peBaHlleM) y .II.3 611I1JlleI.\OB. Y napTHepOB M3 napI>I npOQeCCbl nOJIOBOrO C03peBaHIIR npOTeKa- lOT 6o!lee CIIHXpOHHO. .II.3 6JI11JH, el.\bl HaXOI1J1Cb B O,!\HOM H TOM JKC XpOHOJIOrH'leCKOM B03paCTe, Moryl' HaXOJJ;I1TbCR Ha paJHblX CTal1l1J1X nOJIOBOrO C03peBaHIIR. TaKHe xapaKTepHCTl-IKI1, Kal< IIH- TellCIiBHOCTb peal<l\lIii II nopor I1X peaI<TIIBHOCTII, MorYT 6bITb qY13CTBHTellbHbl I< 61101l0rHqeCKOH nepecTpoiiKe opraHH3Ma, II IIMeHHO Ha HIIX MO>KeT CKaJaTbCR pa3HbIii TeMn 11 pa3Hoe 13peMJI nOJIOBOro C03peBaHII" .II.3 6JIII3HeQOB. TaKIIM 06pa30M, B pa60Tax ;)Toro HanpaBlIeHHJI 6bIJIO Bbl- AellCHO 9 cBoHm TeMnepaMeHTa II nOJlY'IeHbI JJ;oKa3aTeJIbCTBa HX reHeTII'IeCKOii 06yCJI013lIeHHOCTI1. eCJIII BeJlH'IIIHa npOQeHTIIJIeH Y M3 6JII13Hel.\OB OY,!\CT MeHbwe, '1eM y )],3, JTO OJHaqaeT, qTO pa311H'IIIR BHYTpH nap M3 6JI113He- 1.(08 6Yl1YT MeHbwe, '1eM paJJJII'III" BHYTpIi nap )];3 6JIIIJHeI.\OB, H, CJIe.n:OBaTCJIbHO, MO)l(HO npe.n:nOJIOJKHTb, qTO CBOHCTBa TeMnepa- MeHTa HcnblTbIBalOT 13JIlI"Hlle reHOTllnHqeCKl1x ljJaKTopOB. KaK BII/I,IIO no rpaljJl1KaM, npe/l,CTaBJIeHHblM Ha pHcYIIKe 8.1, BHYTpI1TIapHble pa3JI1lqll" M3 6J111311e1.\OB BcerM Ol<a3bIBalOTCR MeHbwe, '1eM BHYTPl1napHble paJJIII'I\lR )],3 6J1113HeQoB. )],JlR O,!\- HHX CBOHCT13 TeMnepaMeHTa JTa pa3HHQa MCJKJ\Y M3 Ii )],3 - He- 60JIbWaR, )I.JIJ! JJ;pyrl\X - 3Ha'iIlTeJIbHaR H YBellll'l\lBaeTcJI C B03- pacToM. KpOMe Toro, no 60Jlb!llHHCTBY CBoiicTB TeMnepaMeHTa BHYTp\lnapHble pa3JI11qllR MCJK,!\y M3 6JI113HeQaMII I1MeIOT TeH- .l\eHL\HIO YMeHb!llancR OT MJIal1eHqeCKOrO B03paCTa K 15 ro,!\aM, qero He npOI1CIWJ\HT Y .II.3 OJlH3HCL\OB TaKIIM 06pa30M, nOJIyqeH- Hble A.ToprepceH ,!\aHHbIe CBHJJ;eTeJlbCT13YIOT 0 13JlIIRHIIII reHOTH- na Ha IIH/I,lIBIIJI,yanbHble pa3JIllqllR B CBOHCTBax TeMnepaMeHTa. Bonee TpaJl,lIl.\HOHHbIH nyn aHaJIH3a l1aHHbIX - 13blqHCJIe- Hlle 13HYTpIlKJlaCCOBblX KOJljJljJlIl.\HeHTOB KoppemlQIiH WlR M3 11 )],3 6J1113He1.\OB - n03BOJl"eT c,!\enan TOT )l(e 13bIBO/l,. B Ta6J1l1l1e 8.2 npeJJ;cTaBJleHbI BHYTpHnapHble IWppenRI1111i M3 H.II.3 6JIIIJHe- QOB no CeMI1 CBOHCTBaM TeMncpaMCHTa BHYl'pnnapHoe CXO/l,CTBO M3 6JIIi3HeI.\013, 3a HCKJllOqeHlleM HeCKOJIbKIIX CJlY'IaeB B MJIa/l,WHX 1303pacTax, OKa3blBae-rCJI BbIllJe BHyTpllnapHoro CXO.l\CTBa .II.3 6JIII3HeI.\OB. C B03paCToM M3 6J1113- Hel.\bl coxpaHRIOT BblCOKoe BHYTjJllTIapHoe CXO/l,CT130 (B 60JlbWIIH- me cJlyqaeB OHO /l,dJKe YBeJIn'lIiBaeTCR). TaK, BHYTplinapHble KOP' nOKaJaTen K 2 MeCRua 9 MecRuee 6 net 15 net TeMnepaMeHTa 'u, '", 'u, '"' I" '.. 'u, '., AKTBHOCTb 75 47 85 71 93 14 95 16 npMenKeHMe-YAaneHKe 76 86 87 39 94 45 39 43 AA,anTM8HOCTb 81 83 95 53 81 68 92 35 (I1lfTeHCMBHoCTb 82 52 85 02 95 54 85 -19 nopor pealCTMBHoCTM 91 72 89 20 85 23 94 -29 HaCTpoeHMe 84 16 86 32 37 06 95 41 BHI"IMaHMe/H8croM'4MBOCTb . - 12 24 73 27 93 35 2,2, TpexKoMnOHeHTHaJi CTl'YKTypa TellmepaMeHTa AMepllKaHCKHe nCCJIe,!\013aTeJlH A.Dacc H P.IInoMIIH pac- clllaTpHBalOT TeMnepaMcHT KaK /l,HHalllHqeCKlle oc06eHHoCTII no- 311 310 
Bel\eHHQ, 06pa3YIOII111e nOI\CTPYKTypy JII1'1HOeTHbIX 'fepr (Buss A., Plomin R., 1975, 1984; Buss A., 1991). AHaJII131IPYJlI\IIHaMIi_ '1eeKlle oco6eHHOCTIi nOBe.o;eHHQ, y.o;OBJIeTBOPQlOll1l1e 06ll1 en pli3- HaHHblM KpllTeplHlM reMnepaMeHTa (nOJlBJIeHHe B paHHeM l\eT- eTBe, cTa61lJIbHOeTb Ii T.A.), OHU npIIlllJIlI K ObIBOp,y, '1TO OCHOB- Hb/MII CBOHCTBaMH TeMnepaMeHTa MOJKHO CqllTan aKTI1BHOCTb 3MOQIIOHaJIbHOCTb 11 eOlllla6cJIbHOCTb. ' .II.JIJI OlleHKH 3T11X CBOHCTB TeMnepaMCHTa A.Eacc H P.DJIO- MIIH pa3pa60TanH onpOCHIiKH II.IlQ pa3Hb!X B03paCTHbIX rpynn. ITPH I\l1arHOCTHKe TeMnepaMeHTa B3pOCJlb!X OnpOCl!lIKH 3anOJIHQ- IOTCJI JIII60 caMIiMIi HCnblTyeMbIMH, JIH60 3KCnepTaMil - TeMH, KTO XOpOIliO 3HaeT HcnbITYCMb!X. ITpll ,!I,I1arHOCTHKe TeMnepaMeH- Ta l\eTCH onpOCHIIKII 3anOJJHQIOTCJI HX pOAHTeJIQMII, BocmnaTe- JIJlMIIII yqHTeJIJlMI1. KpOMe onpOCHUKOB, HCCJIe.n:OBaTeJIIIIICnOJIb- 3YIOT II 06'beKTHBHbIC MCTOil.b!, npeJK.!le Bcero Ha6JIIOI\eHHe 3a no- oeil.eHlleM lJeJIOBeKa 0 eCTCCToeHHbIX YCIIOBHQX. AKmwmocmb npeil.CTaBillICT C050H npORBJICHI1C o6Il\cro 3Hep- reTllqCCKOrO YPOOHQ B MOTopHKe. 06 aKTHBHOCTH CBIlil.eTeJIbCTBY- lOT TPII nOKa3aTCJlR - TCMn JJ.BIIJKClIllii, HHTeHCHBHOCTb H Bb/HOC- JIlIDOCTb IICnblTyeMOrO. a TCMne pcaKQHH (oeHOBHOM nOKa3areJIe aKTIiBHOCTIi) MOJKHO CY):\HTb no 6bICTpOTC JJ.BIIJKCHHH. JIIO,!I,I1, 06JIa- ):\alOll1l1e BMCOKHM reMnOM, BCeril.a cncwaT, y HHX 6bICTpaQ peqb, CrpCMllTellbHbIe JJ.BIIJKeHIIJI, OHI1 XOART 6blCTpee, '1eM I\pynle, HC MorYT .!{OJIro CHl\eTb Ha OJl,I!OM MeCTe II T.iI.. HHTeHCIIBHOCTb npo- HBJIRCTCR B aMnJIHTYl\e I! CHJle I\BHJKCHI1H. JIIOI\H, KOTopbIe I1MelOT BbiCOKIIH ypOBeHb )Toro nOKa3aTeJlR, rpOMKO CTY'laT B JJ.Bepb H 1ll\1pOKO ce pacnaXlioalOT. Y HIIX JKCJIe3HOe PYKonOJKaTHe, rpOM- KUH rOJIOC, BbIpll3l1TeJIbHaJi JKeCTHKYJl>1I\I1H. TpCTHH nOKlI3areJlb _ BblHOCJIHBOCTb - CBHAeTellbCTOYeT 0 cnoco6HOCTI1 il.OJIro OCTa- BaTbCQ aKTHBHblM, He YCTaBarb. 3.I,IOII1JOHOJ1bHOCmb paCCMalJHloaeTC!! aOTopaMU KaK npO!!B- JIel'me JJ.BYX HeraTI1BHblX 3MOQI1H - CTpaxa H meBa. a cTpaxe cy- I\JlT no I1HTeHCHBHOCTI1 CTIIMYJIa, He06xol\I1MOro lVIQ B03HHKHO- BeIUl!! :noii :!MOQIII!; 110 lVIHTeJ1bHOCTIl 1I0ClIeAeiicTBI1H (TO, '1TO HCnyrallo, YJKe l\aBIIO HCqe3nO, a CTpax OCTaIlCJI), no pa3Ho06pa- 31110 cHTyal\I1H, KOTopble BbI3bIoalOT CTpax (OAHII 60HCH 3MeH, p:pyrlfC - fie TOllbKO 3MCJ!, HO If c06aK, DC II qepllblx KOWCK), 110 !j>H311OIlOrH'IeCKI1M peaKQHHM, CBl1l\eTeJlbCToYlOlI1HM 0 COCTOJlHHIl aKTHBaQHH. fHeB, TaK JKe KaK 11 CTpax, onpeAellQeTCJI no HIITeH- 312 CHOHOCTH cTHMYJIa, He06xoIUIMoro AIlQ B03HHKHOBeHI1J1 3MOQIII1, 3 KpOMe Toro -110 MHHe JI3TeHTHOTO nepHO,lJ.a (CKOJlbKO BpeMe- HI! npOXOl\l1T MeJKI\Y CTIIMYJlOM, BbI3BaBwliM peaKLllilO, II 1I0HBJle- HHeM pe3KQlm) H no npOAOJIJKIITCJlbHOCTI1 peaKI.(HH. DOIlOIKHTellbHbIe 3MOI.(1f1f HC BKJnO'IaIDTCJI B nOXa3aTeJIb MO- L(IIOHaJIhHOCTH, nOCKOJlbKY aBTopbI noro nO.!lXO,lJ.a He cornaCHbl C TeM, qTO n0J10JKliTCJ!bHhle 3MOQHH 06pa3ylOT caMOCTOQTeJIblfb.e npOR£JIeHIII! CBOHCTS TeMllepaMeHT3. Do MHeHJlIO A.£acca JI P.ITJIOMHHa, nOJIOJKHTeJ!bHble 3MOQllit HOJlQIOTCQ KOMnOlleHTaMl1 He 3MOQHOHaJIbHOCTli, a .l\Pyrl1x CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHT3 - aK- TIIBHOCTIi 11 COLllla6cJIbHOCT!I COljua6eJ!bIJOClI1b (WIU 06U1umeJ!bUOClI1b) - 06HapYJKIIBacrCQ B JKeJIaHliH 6b1Tb Cpel\H I\pymx JIlOl\eH. JIIOI\II C BblCOKOH COQHa- 6enbHOCTblO H36eralOT OIUlIIOqeCTBa, JICI'KO 3HaKOMJlTC1/ C tWynl&1II JIJO.n:bMH, npe.LUIO'lHTaIOT AeilTeIlbHOCTb, CBQ3aHHYlO C 06Il1eHJiCM. ITpOQBJIeHHe Tpex 3TH X CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa MOJKeT Me- HIITbCiI nOI\ BJII1QHl1eM BHeWHIIX B03i1.ei'icToHH, OI\Hal<O B03MOJK- HOCTII BJII1QIfI1J1 Ha pa311b1e CBOHCTBa He Ol\nHaKOBbl: 60JIbWe Bce- ro nOABepJKeHbl HayqeHll10 BHeWHHC npOHBJleHHQ 3MOQIIOHaJlb- HOCTH, a MeHbwe Bcero - aKrIlBHOCTIl. B 3TOM HanpallJleHHH IICCllel\OBaHlI1! TCMnepaMeHTa oc060e BHHMallHC Yl\ellQIIOCb aHalll13Y reHOTllnlI'ICCKHX BIIIIHHllii 11 HX pOJlII B AeTepMUHa1l1l1l CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. B HaCTOQlI1ee Bpe- MQ eCTb 3KcnepHMeHTaJIbHb!e pa60TbI, B KOTOpbIX no CBOHCTllaM TeMnepaMCHTa conOCTaBJlHJlHCb 6J1113HeQb1, CI16Cb1, pOAI1TeJlII 11 HX I\CTI1 (KaK reHCTH'IeCKH CBQ3aHHb1e C pO,lJ.I1TeJlJlMII, TaK H npll- eMHble). PaCCMOTpllM HeKOTopble H3 nOJlyqeHHbIX pe3YJIbTaTOB ITpH cpaBHeHlI11 BHYTpHnapHOTO CXOI\CTl\a M3 11 )13 6J1H3- HCI.(OB no aKTHBHOCTI1, 3MOl.(I'!OHaJIbHOCTI1 U cOQlla6ellbHoCTII, KaK npanHJIO, 06HapYJKHBaeTCQ BblCOKoe CXO.!{CTBO M3 6JIH3Hel.(OB H O'leHb HII3KOe - )13 6mI3HeL(OB: HX BHYTplinapHbIe KOppeJlQlJ,lill qaCTo npH06pCTalO1' OTplll.(aTeJlbHOe 3HaqeHlle B Ta6JIHl\e 8 3 npHBel\eHbI AaHHbIe '1eTbIpCX HccneI\OBaHHH, npoBeAclIHblX Ha Ae- TQX OT Tpex 1\0 ceMH JIeT. B JJ.BYx pa60Tax ,l],3 6J1113HeQbI OKa3a. JIlICb HaCTOllbKO He !10XOJKH 110 aKTl1l\HOCTH H 3MOLlHOHanbllOCTII, '1TO !IX BHYTpHnapHble KOppeJIQLlHH AOCTllrJIII BbiCOKI1X oTpllQa- TeJIbHblX 3HaqeHHH (1\0 -0,41). Hcnollb30BaB AaHHbIe pa3Hblx IICCJlel\OBaHIiH l\eTei1 nep- BbIX JIeT JKI13HII II ycpel\HIIB pe3YJIbTaTbI reHeTHqeCKOrO aHallll3a 313 
no TpCM CBOHCTBaM TeMnepaMeHTa, A.Dacc H P.ITJlOMI1H nOJ1Y'IH- J1H Cpe,lJ:Hlle BHY'I'pHnapHbIe KoppemlllHH (Buss A., Plomin R., 1975) ):\J1J1 M3 6JIH3HellOB CpCI\Hee BHY'I'plmapHoe CXO,lJ:CTBO no BceM 3T1IM cBoilcTBaM TeMnepaMeHTa OKa3aJ10Cb paBHo 0,59, I\IU .II.3 6ml3HeIloB -0,0 I. TaKHM 06pa:JOM, npH 06CJ1e,lJ:OBaHHH .l\eTeH nep1JbIX J1eT )l(H3- HI1 06HapY)I(I1BaeTC 3HaqllTeJIbHOe pa3J1l1qHe BO BHY'I'pHnapHoM Cxo.n;CTBe M3 II .II.3 6J1H3HelloB. OI\HaKO, HeCMOTp Ha 3IO, HH- TepnpeTHpOBaTb nOJ1Y'IeHHble pe3YJIbTaTbI KaK CBI1,lJ:eTCJ1bCTBO TonbKO rCHOTHnll'leCKOrO BnHHHSI Ha TeMnepaMeHT HeJ1b3S1, no. cKonbKY ):\3 onH3HcIlbI, HMeIOll\He nOJIOBHHY oomllx reHOB, He .n;OJI)I(HbI HMeTb CTOJ1b HI13KHe (II ,lJ:a)l(C OTpIIIlaTCJIbHbIe) BHyrpH- napHble KOppeJ1J1IlHH. ITbITaJiCb Haihll npl1'1HHbl CTonb OqeBH.n;Horo Hecxo.n;CTBa ):\3 6JIH3HellOB no TeMncpaMeHTY, A.Dacc H P.ITJ10MIIH npc.n;no- JIO)l(IIJIH, '1TO npH'IHHOH 3Toro SlBnJlCTCJI 3(jHjJCKT KOH'I'paCTa, Hf- paIOll\HH 3BMeTIIYIO ponb B <POpMllPOBBHHH ):\3 O)JI-I3HCI.\OB. "Po- ,lJ:I1TCnH MorYT npoTH80nOCTaBJISlTb CBOHX ACTCH, npllcBBHBaSi 0.1\- HOMY H3 HHX SlpnbIK aKTIIBHoro pe6cHKa, a .n;pyroMY - naCCIIB- Horo DJ1H3HeL\bI H caMH MorYT YCllnllBaTb pa3J1HqIlSl, cymcCTBY- IOll\HC MC)I(,lJ:Y HlIMH, H CTaHOBIITbCSI Bce GOJ1ce HenOXO)l(HMH no CBOUM nOBe.n;CHqeCKIIM OC06CHHOCTJlM. TOT, KTO 'IYTb-qYTb aK- THBHee .n;pyroro, MO)l(CT npeBpall\BTb 3TO OTJIII'IHe B nOCTOSlHHOC 314 npeIiMYll\CCTBO H BCCr):IB BblcTynaTb HHHI.\HBTOpOM, B BTOpOH - nO):I'IIIHSlTbCSI cBoeMY aKTIIBHoMY napTHcpy. flOqeMY 3TO He npo. IICXO):IJlT Y M3 6JIII3HCIlOB? BepOJITHO, H3-3a Toro, '1TO OHH CJ1I1W- KOM nOXO)l(H nOBc.n;eH'IeCKIi II npOTItBOnOCTaBJ1S1Tb HX ,lJ:pyr I\PY- ry OqCHb TPY.LlHO" (Buss A., Plomm R., 1984, C 119). TaKaSi IIHTCpnpeTal.\HSI nOJ1Y'leHHblx .D;aHHbIX n03BOJISIeT npe.LlIlOJIO)l(ltTb, '1TO rellOTIm BHOCIIT HCKOTOpbIH BKna,lJ: B HH):III- BH.D;yanbHblC pa3J11I'1I1S1 no aKTHBIiOCTII, 3MOllHOHaJ1bHOC111 11 CO- I1HB6eJ1bHOCTII, OL\HaKo OI.\CHHTb BCJIllqHl:y noro BKnBL\B 1\0BOJIbli0 TPY):IHO 6C3 .l\OnOJJHHTenbHbIX HcCne,lJ:OBBHHM YCJIOBHH pa3J!1IT1ISl 6JJH3HCI.\OB, HX OTHOllJCHIIH ):Ipyr C ):IPyroM H OTHoweHIlSi K HHM pO):IHTCJJei\ ):\aHHbIe, nOJIY'IeHHbIC B cCMeHHbIx HCCne.LlOBaHIISIx H npl1 IIC- CJ1C.LlOBaHHH nplleMHblx ):IeTCH, OKB3aJIHCb HeO)l(I1,lJ:BHllbIMIi (Plomin R., DeFrics J.C., 1985; Plomin R., DeFries J.e., Fulkcr D W., 1988). Y .LleTCH nepBblx JIeT )l(1I3HH KOPPCJJSllllI1I Me)l(l\Y CHOCBMII OKa3anl1Cb He3Ha'iIIMbIMH It He OTnHqaJIIiCb no BeJIII'IIIHC OT KOp- pCnSllll1H Me)l(.LlY np>1eMHblMIt .n:eTbMII, TO eCTb L\eTbMIt, BocnllTbI- BaIOll\HMI1CSI B OJl,HOH ceMbe, HO He HMeIOll\HMII 06ll\I1X reHOB Y l\eTCH npe.LlIlOL\pOCTI<OBoro B03paCTa COXpaHltnaCb Ta Jl(e caMaSi KapTHHa. TaK, B O.LlHOM H3 IICCJICI\OBSHHY. KOppeJISIllHII Me)l():I)' pO,lJ:- HbIMII C!l6CaMIi B 7-10 neT no aKTIIBHOCT!I, 3MOllIIOHaJlbllOCTli II cOL\>1a5CJlbHOCTH OKa3aJIliCb paBHb! COOTBeTCTBeHHO -0,18, -0,04 11 0,13 II HC OTIJllqaJJHCb 3HaqilMO OT KOppeJIllHii, nOJ1Y'IeHHbIX y npHeMHbIX cH6cOB (Schmitz S., 1994). TaKltM oopa30M, C O.LlHOH CTOpOHbl, nOBTOpSleTCJI TO )l(e CBMoe, '!TO HaOnIO,lJ:aJIOCb npn HC- cne.LlOBaHltli ):\3 OJlIl3HelloB' reHCTHqeCKJf nOXOJl(lle ):IeTiI (TO CCTb !(CTII, IIMCIOll\He B Cpe,lJ:HCM nOJIOBIlHY OOll\HX rCHOB), OKa3bIBa- IOTCSI a6COnIO'fIlO He nOXOJl(IIMIl no CBOHCTBaM TeMnepaMCHTB. C II.pyroH CTOPOHb!, OTCYTCTBIIC pa:JJIlI'IIIH Me)l(AY POI\HblMIl II npllCM- HbIMIi cII6caMH YKa3bIBaeT Ha OTCYTCTBlle reHOTlIllHqeCKHX BJIHH- HIIH lia 3TH CBOHCTBa 'feMnepaMCHTa. ITPII cpaBHCHIIH pO,lJ:I1TeneH H I\CTCi1 pC3ynbTaTbl OKB3aJIHCb npOTHBOpeqHBblMIl. Kor.LIa 3KcnepTaMH npH OlleHKe TeMncpaMCHTa AeTeH BblCTynanli Y'IIITeiIJI II nCHXOJIOr!l, CXOACTBO pO,IUITCJICH H nx POI\HblX ):IeTeH B 7 II B 10 neT OKa3anOCb BbIWC CXOI\CTBa POAII- TcneH H npHeMHbIX AeTeH no nOKa3aTeJ1S1M aKTHBIlOCTII H COL\lIa- 5enbHOCTH, TO eCTb .LlaHHble YKa3blBaJIII Ha HCKOTopoe B.HHHe 315 Ta6.ul(a 8.3 BHympunaplloe cxoiJcm80 8 nOKa3ameJ/RX meMl1epaMeHlna, pac- CMampU8aeMblX A.EaccoM U P.llJ/OMUHbU,/ (npu60iJumcR 110 pa60- mOM Buss A., Plomin R., 1975, Plomm R.. Foch T T, 1980,' Plomin R.. Rowe DC, 1977) nOKa3aTenM 3.5 'OA" 4.5 rOA3 4,5 'OA" 7.5 neT TeMnepar.leHTa '., r A , '., 'A' r., ra> '., 'A. n=JiG 0=31 n=&I n=81 n=61 n=57 n::51 .,=33 AKTM8HOCTb 65 .3S 41 -41 62 09 73 05 06LltaR 3MO,",MOHanbHOCTb 70 OS - - 64 03 60 27 CTpax - - 70 38 - - 66 05 rHea . - 57 -12 - - - - CoLtlotaOeI1bHOCTb 48 -1S - 62 13 - - 
reHOTHna Ha 3T1i xapaKTepHCTHKH. ITpH OQeHKe TeMnepaMeHTa p0jJ;IITeJlJlMII pa3JIWIHH MeJKjJ;Y pO):lHhIMH U npHeMUhIMU CeMhJlMU 06HapYJKCHO HC 6bIJ10 (Schmitz S., 1994). B 6oJ1ee CTapllleM B03paCTe, Ha'iIlHaJl C nO.ll.pOCTKOBOrO, no- J1yqaeMhIe AaHUbIe 06bI'IHO nO.ll.TBepJK.lI.aIOT runoTe3Y 0 reHeTH- '1eCKOH 06yCJlOBJleHHOCTII aKTIIBHOCTII, 3MOQIIOHaJ1bHOCTIi II co- I1l1a6eJIbHOcTH. O.n:HaKo OCTaIOTCH CYII\CCTBCHHble pa3J1I1'1HJI B Be- J111'1I1He nOKa3aTeJ1J1 HaCJ1CAyeMOCTIi ECJlH nOKa3aTeJll1 HaCJ1eAye- MOCTH 3T1IX CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa, BbIqHCJIJleMbIe Ha OCHOBaHlI1I 6J1U3HeQoBblx .lIaHHblX, OKa3blBaIOTCJI paBHbI npllMepHo 0,30- 0,50, TO nOKa3aTeJlH HaCJleJl,yeMocTII, nOJlyqeHHble B CCMeHHblX IIccnejJ;OBaHIIJlX U npH IICCJIejJ;OBaHHIl npHeMHbIX .lICTeil, OKaJbIBa- IOTCJI HIIJKe - OT 0,20.1100,40. ITPII aHaJlUJe 3TI1X CBOHCTB TCMnepaMeHTa y B3pOCJlblX Ha- 6J1IO.lIaeTCJI TaKJKe aCCUMI1J1J1QHOHHbIH 3CKT y M3 6JIH3HeQOB, TO eCTb YBeJIUqeHlie CXO!(CTBa M3 6J1113HeQOB 3a CqeT cpejJ;OBblX aKTopOB, qero He npOHCXO.ll.liT y .II.3 6JIH3Hei\oB. (Plomin R., Pedcrscn N.L. et aI., 1988). TaK, Ha llIBe.n:cKoil Bbl60pKe npH cpaB- HeHli1l nOJKHJ1bIX pa3JIyqeHHbIX 6J11i3HeL\OB II 6J1H3HeL\OB, JI(HBY- II\HX BMecTe, OKa3aJlOCb, '1TO Y JKIIBYII\IiX BMeCTe M3 6J1H3HeQOB BHYTPHnapHoe CXOjJ;CTBO Bblllle, '1eM y M3 6J11I3HeL\OB, JKIIBYII\HX Bp03b (Ta6!1HL\a 8.4). 3TO npllBOJl,IIT K TOMY, qTO nOKaJaTCJlH Ha- C!lel\yeMOCTli, BbI'IIiCJ1eHHbIe Ha OCHOBaHHIl jJ;aHHbIX HepaJJlyqeH- HbIX M3 II .II.3 6J1HJHeL\OB, OKaJbIBaIOTCJI Bblllle, qeM nOKaJaTe!l1l HaCJIeJl,yeMocTH Tex JKe CBOHCTB, BbI'IIICJICHHble Ha OCHOBaHl111 l\aH- HbIX 6J1113HeQoB, JKI1BYII\IIX Bp03b. nOJlee Toro, no couua6eJIbHOCTII B /lBYX Bbl60pKax 6JIIIJHe- I10B nOJlY'IeHbI npJlMO npoTIIBOnOIIOJKHbIe peJYJlbTaTbl: eCJlII nO .lI.BHHbIM HepB3IIyqeHHbiX 61IH3HeI10B nOKaJaTeJIb HaCJJe.ll.yeMocTH coQua6e!lbHOCTH paBeH 0,32, TO no )J;aHHbIM paJJ1Y'leHHbIx 6!1113- HeUOB OH JllIllIb He3Ha'liiTelIbUO OTJlII'IaCTCJI OT O. B KaKoH CTene- HII nOT pe3YJlbTaT Ha)l,eJKeH 11 caujJ.eTeJlbCTByeT 06 YMeHbllleHIIH reHCTII'IeCKOrO BJIUSIHIISI Ha cOL\Ua6eJlbHOCTb BO B3pOcnOM B03pa- CTe, TPY 1\110 CKa3aTb, nOCKO!lbKY nOKa CBoiicTBa TeMnepaMCHTa nOJKIIJlbIX J1IO)I,eH BHaJlH3lipOBaJlIICb TOJlbKO B OI\llOH pa60Te. ITO/lBOI\SI IITonl nonyqeHHbIM jJ.aHHbIM, MOJKHO CKB3aTb, '1TO npH IICCJlCjJ;OBaHUII TPeXKOMnOHeHTHOH CTPYKTypbl TeMncpaMeH- Ta 5bIJ10 BbI!(eJleHO TPH ero cBoiicTBa - aKTlI1JHOCTb, 3MOl(UO- HaJlbHOCTb H cOl(lia5eJlbHOCTb. Bce OHII, KaK npaBIi!lO, jJ;eMoHCTpIi- PYIOT CBJl3b C reHOTImOM B 5J1113HeL\OBbIX IiCC!le.!l.OBaHUJlX, HO no .lI.aHHblM ceMeHHblx HCCJle.ll.OBaHHH II npH cpiIBHeHHII nplieMHbIx jJ.e- TeH pe3Y!lhTaTbI OKa3bIBaIOTCSI npoTIIBOpeqliBblMIi. 3m npoTHBo- PCqllJl Hal160JIee OCTphI npH I1cc!lejJ.oaaHlIlI TeMnepaMeHTa y MJIa)l,- llIHX B03pacTHbIx rpynn H YMeHblllaIOTcSI npll aHaJIli3C TCMnepa- MeHTa y 60!lee CTapllll1X B03pacTHbix rpynn. Ha'lHHaJl C no.u.poc- TKOBOrO B03pacTa, .lI.BHHbie o6b1'IH0 jJ.eMoHcTPlipYIOT CBJl3b 3THX TPex CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa C rCHOTI1IJOM. B nOJKIIJ10M B03paCTc, no jJ.aHHbIM el\llHCrneHHoH Ha cerOjJ.MSlllIHIIH Jl,CHb pa6oTbl, COMHlI- TeJlbHbIM OKB3bIBaCTCJI allllSlHlle reHOTIma Ha cOl(lia6eJlbHoCTb. 2.3. llCHXo6HOJIOIll'IecKall MOjJ.Mb TeMnepaMeHTa Ta6Jluuu 8.4 BHympunapHoe cxo;)cm8o y paJRyqeHHblX U HepaJpyeHllblx 6RU3He- /JOB no C80UCm8aM meMnepaMellma (Plomin R.o Pedersen N.L. et al., 1988) ABTOpbI nCllx06110JIOrl1qCCKOrO no!(XO.ll.B K IIccnejJ.OBaHIlIO TeMnepaMeHTa, M.K.PoT6apT Ii ,a..II.eppIl6eppll, C'IHTaiOT, qTO TeMncpaMeHT npejJ.cTaBJlSlCT C060H CTPYKTYPY MHoroypoBHe1JblX CBOHCTB II npOJlBJISlCTCJI B iJ,eiiCTBIIII HeHpoHoB, B 1I3110JlOrll'leC- KIIX xapaKTepHcTIiKax H B )I,IiHaMII'ICCKIIX (CTII!lCBbIX) oc05eHHo- CTSIX nOBeiJ,eHIISI (RothbaTt M.K., Dcrryberry D., 1981; Rothbart M.K., 1989). K cBoiiCTBaM TemepaMeHTa aBTOphl 3Toro HanpaB- JIeHliJi OTHOCSIT oc06eHHocTH peaKTIIBHoCTIl II caMoperYJlJlL\IIH, KOTopbIe IICCJlC!(YIOTCJI III\I Y jJ.eTeH nepBbIX JIeT JKII3HlI no on- pocHIiKaM, 3anOllHJleMbIM MaTepJlMH, II no .lI.BHHbIM Jla60paTop- 1I0ro Ha5J1IOjJ;CHHSI. PeaKmU8Hocmb BJlJleTCSI pe3YJIbTaTOM peaKL\HII aKTIIBaL\HH Ii npOJlBJIJleTCSI B /lBllraTeJlbHOH aKTIiBHOCTII, 3M0I1110Ha!lbHOCTlf, 317 OOKa3areJHt Pa311j'4eHHble Cinlll:J.Heut:.l 611M3I1e4b1 )In'BYKe BMeCTe TeMnep3MeHT3 M3 113 M3 113 3MOUI-10HaJ1t.HoCTb Crpax 37 04 49 08 rHeB 33 09 37 08 AKTMBHOCTb 27 00 38 18 Coua6eJ1bHOCTb 20 19 35 19 316 
B )l.eJlTeJIbHOCTI1 HepBHOH CHCTeMblll JH)l.OKpHHHOH CIiCTeMbl. AHa- JIU3HpYR peaKTuoHoCTb, aOTopbl paccMaTpHBalOT, Bo-nepBblx, IIH- TCHCIIBHOCTb CTIIMYJIOB (KaKIiM )l.OJIJKeH 5bITb pa.JAjJaJKIITeJ1b, 'ITO- 6bl Bbl3BaTb peaKl\I1IO) 11 3HaqeHI1e CTIIMYJIOB (KaKYIO peaKl\111O 01111 BM3blBalOT - n0J10)!UlTeJIbHYIO 1IJ111 OTpI1QaTeJ1bHYIO). CaJ>lOpe2YJIRtfWI npe.n;cTaBJ1ReT C060H )l.I1HaMllqeCKHe OCO- 5eHHoCTI1 nOBeAeHIIR, KOTopble MO)l.YJIIIPYIOT (CHIIJKaIOT HIm no- BbiwalOT) aKTIIBal\111O II, CJIe)l.OBaTeJIbHO, nOKa3aTeJIII peaKTHB- HOCTII K \JHCJIY TaKIIX oc05eHHoCTeH OTHOCHTCJI, npe)J(,!\e Beero, npI16JImf(eHlle-YJl,aJIeHUe, TO eCTb )KCJIaHUe n05JI11JKe nO)l.OHTlI K HOBOMY CTHMYJlY 1I!!11 JKe, Ha060pOT, - !n6eJKaTb KOHTaKTa C HHM. B OCHOBe nOJIO)!(I1TeJIbHOH peaKljllil Ha HOBbIe CTIIMYJ1bl, TO eCTb B OCHOBe npIl6J1I1)!(eHHJI, JIe)l(l1T, no MHeHHIO aBTopOB, no- Tpe6HoeTb B YBeJIl1qeHHI1 aKTHBa[(I'!H, a B oeHOBC OTpllljaTeJIbHOH peaK[(IIII, npOJlBJlJlIOIl\eficJI B 1136eraHlIH HOBbiX CTHMYJlOB, - no- Tpe6HOCTb B CHII)!(eHHH aKTHBal\lIIf C npH6J1I1)1(eHlleM-Y)l.ane- HHeM CBJl3aHa BTOpaJi xapaKTeplfeTHKa caMoperYJIJI[(1I1I - oplleH- Ta[(IIJI BHHMaHIIJI, KOTopaR COH)l.eTe!!bCTByeT 0 TOM, KYM Hanpao- !!eHO BHIIMaHlle pe6eHKa npll nOJlB!!eHI'!I'! HOBoro CTIIMYJla - Ha JTOT CTIIMYJ1 UJ111 Ha OKPY)!(aI(>Il\IIX, KOTopble 0 CJIY1Jae 1Jero MO- rYT 3aIl\UTHTb OT HCII3BeCTHOrO npe)l.MCTa ilJ1U '1e!!OOeKa. TpeTbJl XapaKTepllCTHKa caMoperYJIJIl\III1-)TO caMOCTIIMYJIJll\HR' nOTpe6- HOCTb B nOOblllleHI1H aKTIIBal\IIH MOJKeT npOJlOJIJlTbCJI Y)l.eTeH B Ta- KI1X Jl,eHCTOHRX, KaK cocaHHe naJIbl\a, C)!(IIMaHHe If pa3)KI1MaHUe naJIb[(eB PYK, II 0 )l.pyrl1x Henp0l1300JIbHblX )l.BHJKeHlfJlX. H, HaKO- Hel\, eaMoperyJIJll\HR npOROJlJleTCJI B TOM, qero XOTJIT II )!()l.YT )l.eTH OT OKpy)!(aKHl\IIX - BOBJleqeHHJI B KaKYIO-HII6yJI,b aKTI1BHOCTb IIJII1 )lie, Ha060pOT, C031(aHIIJI cnOKOHHofi, HeCTHMYJlllpYIOIl\eH I'!X 06- CTaHOOKII' OI(HUM Jl,eTJlM HpaBHTCJI, KOr)l.a HX TopMowaT, nO)l.6pa- cblBalOT, J\pyrue JToro KaTerOpH'IeCKIi He nepCHOCJlT. 06paTliM OHUMaHl1e Ha TO, qTO M.K.PoT6apT II ,D;.,D;eppH- 6epPH OTHOCJlT Henocpe.n:CToeHHo f( CBOHCTBaM TeMnepaMeHTa 11 '1UCTO nooe.n:eH'IeCKlle, If (jJ1I3110J10rll'leCKlie nOKa3aTeJlH. TaKoe OIHeceHlle pa3HoypoBHeBbIx nOKaJaTeJleH K O.lUloit KOHKpeTHOH qepTe Bbl3bIBaeT COMlfeHile Y MlfonlX nCIIX0J10rOB. CBJl3aHbi 3T1f eOMHeHUJI C TeM, '1TO H!!ICaK!!e HMelOIl\!lceJl B HaCTOJlwee OpCMJI )l.aHHble HC n03BOJIRIOT CJI,enaTb BblBOI( 0 TOM, qTO KaKlle-Jl1I60 (jJH3HOJIOrll'leCKl1e oc06eHHOCII1 JlBJIJlIOTCJI Cnel\II(jJHqHbIMH TOJIb- KO MJI OD.lloro KOHKpeTHorO CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMCHTa. O.n;HaKo 318 nOl\P06HO OCTaHaOJ1I1BaTbCR Ha 3TOM Bonpoce Mbl He 6Yi\eM, no- CKOJIbKY peaJIbHble HCCJIeD.OOaHHR aBTopoB AaHHoro HanpaOJIe- HUR cOcpe)l.OTO'leHbI Ha aHaJIH3e HCI<J1IO'IHIeJlbHO nOBeAeHqeCKIIX npOROJleHHH CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. CBoHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa, paccMaTpliBaeMbIe M K.PoT6apT H ,D; ,D;eppu6eppll Ha ypooHe nOBe)l.eHIIH, B 3Ha'lIlTem,Hoit CTcne- HH cOBnal(alOT C TeMII, KOTopble Bbll(eJlJlJIII aBTOpb! HblO-HopKC- Koro JIOHrUTIOM II TpeXKoMnoHeHTHoH CTpYKTYPbl TeMnepaMeH- Ta. KaK II B Y)Ke omlcaHHblX B 3TOH maBe HanpaBJleHI1RX IICCJIe- D.OBaHHJI TeMnepaMeHTa, M.K.PoT6apT U ,D;.AeppH6eppu BblJ\e- J1RIOT 8 KaqeCTBe OCHOBHbIX C80i1CTB TeMnepaMeHTa aKTHBHOCTb, 3MOl\HOHaJlbHOCTb 11 npU611I1)1(eHlle-YJl,aJIeHHe, OJ\HaKO, COrJlac- HO nCI'!X06HOJIOrH'IecKoi1 MOl(eJlII, CBOHCT8a TeMnepaMeHTa He pR)l.onOJlO)KHbl: OHII 06pa3YIOT )l.Be rpynnbl (jJaKTopOB, O)l.Ha H3 KOTOpblX (peaKTlIBHOCTb) RBJIJleTCR HenOCpel\CTBeHHblM nOBeAeH- qeCKHM Bblpa)l(eHlleM peaK!(HIl aKTHBal\HII, a J\PyraJi (caMopery- IIHl\HR) - eBJl3aHa C 3.D.anral\HeH TOH pcaKl\HH aKTIIBal\1I11 K KOH- KpeTHJ,JM YCiiOBIIRM eYLI\eCTBOBaHIIJI. HCCJlel\OBalll1e pOJIII reHOTllna II cpe.n;bl B (jJOpMupOBaHHII CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa, BbIJ\eJIReMbIX B nCllx06110JIOrH'leCKOM no)l,- XOl\e, lIa'laJlOCb napanneJlbHO paJpa60TKe OCHOBHblX TeOpeTllqec- KI1X nOJlO)KeHI1H noro nOi\XO)l,a. B CBR311 C 3THM nepBble reHeTI!- qeCKlie pa60TbI 6bInH npOBel\CHbI Ha CTaJl,IIH nOIiCKOBblX Hccne- 1\08aHHH, Kor)l,a cnllCOK CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa eIl\e He 6bIn 01'- paHH'leH oco6eHHOCTJlMH peaKTIIBHOCTH H caMoperYJIRl\IIII. Pe- JYJlbTaTb! OI\HOrO H3 TaKIIX HCCJleAOBaHKl1 npe,n:CTaBJICllbl 11 TaG- J111l\e 8.5. CYIl\eCTBeHHble paJJlHql1R BO BHYTPHnapHoM CXOI\CTBe M3 11 .II.3 6J1HJHel\OB 06Hapy)!(eHbI MR YPOBHR aKTIIBHOCTlIl\eTeH II MR HeraTHBHblX JMOl\IIH. MO)KI!O npeAnOJlO)KHTb, TaKIlM 06- pa30M, qTO JTII TPIl CBOHCTBa TeMIIepaMcHTa HcnbITbIBaJOT BJlHJI- Hlle reHOTllna. B 60Jlee n03AHIIX reHeTllqeCKIIX pa60Tax HHTepCC UCCJIe)l.O- BaTeneH 6bIn COCpe)l.OTOqCH lIa aHaJIH3e pOJIII reHOTHna H cpeJl,bI B (jJOpMllpoBaHIIII nOJIO)KIITeJlbHbIX H oTpH[(aTeJlbHbIX peaKl\HII. B 6JIII3HellOBoM JIOHrIlTIO.n;HOM IICCJIeAOBaHlI1I paccMaTpHBaJlHCb paJJlJ.!'lHbIC npOJlBJIeHH>/ :)MOl\IIH II peaKQIIH ITpIl6JIUJKeHHR-y.n;a- rreHHJI Y l(eTeH B B03paCTe OT Tpex MeCRl\e8 AO )l.BYX J1eT B PaJJIII1J- HbiX CI1Tyal\UJlX - npH npeD.bHBrreHHI1 HOBOII HrpYWKII, npll no- JlBneHHH He3HaKOMoro qeJIOBeKa, a B 60Jlee CTapweM B03pacTe- 319 
Ta6l1uu,a 8.5 TeHomun-cpeiJo8b1e COOmHOUle/JWI 8 110Ka:Wrne.n.R.X metnepClMeli111a, paCCAfampU8aeMblX 8 paMKaX ncUX06UOl102U'leCKOU MoiJellu (803- pacm 8bl6opKU - 9 MeCRlfe8; Goldsmith H.H., Campos J.1., 1982) nOK833TetlM r., r. o h' c' e' TeMnepaMeHT8 n=29 n=61 AI(fBHOCTb 75 57 36 39 25 nOnO)l(MTenbHble 3MO"" B3 79 06 75 17 CTpax 66 45 40 26 34 MCTpecc Ha orpaHM'"IeHM (nn3'-1) 77 35 (77) . (23) C"OC06HOCTb 6wcrpo ycnOx.aJ.ma'Tb 7' 69 04 57 29 HaCTo"'MBOCTb 68 59 18 50 32 B ta6mu..l.e np!ACT8Bl1eHbI BHyrpMnapHble ICOppemU,I,MM M3 M ,Q3 ti.n"3HeOB M BbI'-IMCJ1eHHblB HI MX OCHOBaHMM KOMnOHeHTbI ctIeHOTIIII1M"IeCKOM AMcnep- CU'I - HacneAyeMoCTb (h 2 ), o(5L48f1 cp8Aa (c 2 ) III pa3.m'....al.L.IaJlc" cpeA3 (e 2 ) HanOMHMM. I.ITO h 2 :2(r,I'U- r A3 }, c 2 ;;;rl\l3 w h2;;:2r_ f"'3' =1_(h2+&) B Tex C11Y"1aAX, «OrAa cxo,qCTao M3 6n143HellOB npeBbiLUaeT C:XOACTBO A3 t5nM3HQ- 40B 6011ee '"18M B ABa pa3a. B K348CTBe nOKa33Tenp. l'IacneAyeMOCnt YKa3. saeTCR nOKa3aTenb BHyrpl4napHOro CXOACTBa M3 6n143Heu.08 B 3TMX cny- 'iBRX (8 3TO n5mll."e ill B nocne,Q,YKJLL!MX) nOKaa8Tenb Hac.neAyeMoCT ,Q,a- eTC 8 Cko5K.tIX, aHaJUl311pOBaJIlICb nOJI()JKIITeJIbHi>Ie H OTpHQaTeJIi>Hble peaKQHII pe6eHKa B pa3HbiX HrpOBbIX cHTyaQHX. 0606lI\eHHbie nOKa3aTCJ1H nOJIO)l(IITeJ1bHbIX 11 OTpHQaTeJ1i>- HblX 3MOl.\lIii, HX BHYTplinapHOe CXO)jCTBO Y M3 H .II.3 6JIH3HeQOB II KOMnOHeHTbI Q>eHOTl1nHqeCKOH JI,IICnepCIIII npeJJ;CTanJIeHbl B Ta6- JlHl.\e 8.6. HeraTHBHbie 3M0I.\HOHaJIbHbIC peaKQHI1 (nJIa'l), CH.!Ib- HbIe nOJIOJKIITenbHi>le 3MOl.\I1H (cMex) 11 JKeJIaHHC BKJIlOqHTbCJI 0 HOBYIO Hrpy (nOJIOJKHTeJIi>HbIH nOJlloc peaKI.\HH npIl6JIHJKeHHR- y.n:aJIeHHJI) OKa3aJIIICb IIHYTplinapHO 6oJIi>we nOX01KIIMH Y M3 6JIII3HeI.\OO, a nOKa3aTeJIli Hacne.n:ycMocnI, BbI'IHCJIeHHi>IC Ha oc- HOBaHHH 3THX 6J1H3HeI.\OBi>IX )jaHHbIX, npeBblwalOT 40%. B 60JIee cTapllleM B03paCTe, B 4 rOJJ;a H B 7 JIeT, HCCJ1e)jOBa- JlIICb TOJ1bKO HeraTHBHbIe peaKI.\HH, H 6blJ10 nOKa3aHo, 'ITO OTpH- l.\aTeJIbHble 3MOQIIH (paJ.npaJKHTenbHOCTb, CTpax) coxpaHIOT CBR3b C reHOTllnOM npHMcpHO Ha TOM JKe ypoBHe (Goldsmith H.H , Gottesman I.J., 1981) TaKIIM 06pa30M, eCTb OCHOBaHH nOJ1araTb, 'ITO nOKa3aTe- JIH H peaKTIIBHOCTH (aKTl1BHOCTb, 3MOQIIOHaJIbHOCTb), II caMope- rYJIJlQl1H (npH6J1I1JKeHHe-ynaneHHe), paCCMaTp!lBaeMble B nClI)w- 320 Ta6J1ua 8.6 Telwmun-cpeiJo8ble COQmJlOmeHWI 8 110KaJame.n.R.X, paCCMampueae- MblX e paMKax nCUX06UOJIQ2U'leCKOU J.wiJenu (/{eH8epCKoe 6J1U3I/etfO- 80(! UCCJ!£iJoeaHlJe me.wrepaMelJrrIa, 603pacm 3-24 MeCRIjll; Goldsmith H.H.. Campos J., 1982) nOKa3aTen r. o r h' c' e' TeMnepaMeHTil n=29 n= 1 HeraTMBH8:R pea""M" He.Q.08onbCT8o, nna 46 09 (46) - (54) Lr136eraHMe (YAa.nettl1e) 17 OB (17) - (83) n03..-rMBHa pe8KUHR YJ1b1t5Ka 22 28 - . - CM.' 47 19 (47) . (53) }l(enSKl1e nOMrpaTb 44 04 (44) - (56) I I I 6HOJIOrHqeCKOH MOneJIH TeMncpaMeHTa, o6HapyJKHOalOT CBJl311 C reHOTHJJOM. 2.4. HCcJIc)jooauHc 3aTOpMOJKCUUOCTH (rapoapAcKoe HanpaoncHIiC HCCJ1CJI,OBaUHII TCMncpaMcuTa) ITcIIX0J10rn fapBapJJ;CKora ()J,JK.K3raH, H.CHI1J1,MaH) H HeJlb- CKOro UJ:JK.Pe3HHK) YHHBepCHTeTOI' C'IIITaIOT OCHOBHblM napaMeT- POM TeMnepaMeHTa IIblCOKYIO HJIH, Hao60pOT, HH3KYlO 3amopMo- JlCeH/lOCmb (Kagan J. et a\., 1984, 1989). CQ>OPMllPOBaJ! penepe3cHTaTIIBHYIO Bbl60PKY IIBYX- TpCXJIeTHHX JJ;eTe", HCCJJeJJ;ooaTenH nOKa3aJ\H, 'ITO CYlI\ecTBYeT JJ;Ba nOJIRpHbIX CHH,D;pOMa CBOHCTB TemepaMeHTa. ITpHMepHO Y 15% JJ;e- Teii 06HapYJKIIBaeTCR 6ecnoKoHCTBO !lJIH CTpax npll nOBJIeHIII1 He- 3lfaKOMbIX npeJJ;MeTOB HJIII JllQ)jeii.. 311J }/.CfH CKOBaHHbI, MCJ\JIeHHO npHBblKaIOT K HOBOMY, 11M CBOHCTBeHHa peaKUHJlII36eraHHR (OHH npHJKHMaIOTC K MaTepl1, mraqyr, nona» B HC:JHaKOMYIO 06CTaHOB- Ky). .II.eTlI, 06J1Ma101I\He TaKIlM KOMnJIeKCOM CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeH- Ta, 6b1J1H Ha3BaHbI 3BTopM01KeHHblMH. ITpOTHBOnOJIOJKHble "PORO- JleHH!! TeMnepaMeHTa xapaKTepHbI ,lI,JI!! 25--30% lIeTeit 3TH )jeTH, 6i>ICTpO npHBblKalOlII,He K HOBOH CIITYBQIIH, He 60JllIl,lIec!! HO- ObIX J11011eH H HC3HaKOMbIX npej{MeToB, 6b!nH Ha3BBHbl 1/e3liTDp- MOJl(eHHbIMH. 321 
ITpoCne.l\l1B pa3BI1THe qeTblpeXCOT .l\eTeH OT lI.Byx .1\0 BOCbMH neT, aBTopbl 3TorO HanpaaJleHH B IICCne.l\OBaHlIIl TeMnepaMeHTa nOKa3anH, '1TO lI.Ba CI1Hl{pOMa CBOHCTB - Bb!COKaH 3aTOpMOJl(eH- HOCTb H HHJKaH 3aTOpMO)l(eHHOCTb - RBnJlIOTCJI cTa6l1nbHblMH' 60nbWIIHCTBO l{eTeH, oxapaKTepll30BaHHbie KBK 3aTOpMO)l(eHHble  2 ro.l\a, OKa3aJIOCb TaKOBbIMH II B 60nee cTapweM BOJpaCTe. ITpll conOCTaBneHll1l nOKaJaTeneH I1bICOKOH-HII3KOH 3a- TOpMO)l(eHHOCTH C QJH3110nOrn'leCKIIMIl xapaKTepllCTHKaMH 6blJl0 nOKa3aHO, qTO Bb!COKa JaTOpMO)l(eHHOCTb cOnpOBO)J(.llaerC KOMn- nCKCQM QJIt3IIOilOrlf'leCKIIX OC06ClllloCTCi!, HanpHMep, BblCOKHM MycKynbHblM Hanp)I(eHHeM, BbICOKOH pCal(TliBHOCTbIO CIlMnaTH- qeCI(OH HepBHoH CIlCTeMbI; y 3aTOpMOJKeHHbiX l{eTeH Bblwe ypo- BeHb pl\a rOpMoHoB, HanpllMep, Hop3nIlHe!\>pIiHa. B CBR31f C JTHM 6blJl0 BbICKa3aHO npc.I\nOnOJKeHI1C 0 TOM, qTO 3aTOpMOJKeHHble ,ll;eTH OTJlII'IaIOTCR OT .l\eTeH C HH3KOH 3aTOpMO)l(eHHOCTbIO no QJYH- Kl1l1OHHpOBaHlIIO nIlM6I1Ko-rHnOTaJlaMH'IeCKOH CIiCTeMbI M03ra KOTopaR B 3HaqHTenbHOH CTeneHH 06ecne'II1BaeT ypOBeHb QJH3H: OnOrHqeCKOH aKTIIBaQHH. BMeCTe C TeM, WIR Toro qTOGbl QJH3HOJIOrHqeCKlie npel{no- Cb[JIKII pCaJIH30BanllCb B nOBel{eHHII pe6eHKa, npOHBHnl1Cb B Tex HIIH HHblX pcaKQIIHX Ha HOBH3HY, He06xo,ll;HMbI OnpCl{elleHHble YCIIOBHH pa3BI1TI1R. AHaIlH3Hpy Cpe,ll;OBble oc06eHHOCTII, B KOTO- pblX JKHBYT l{eTH, ,AKKJraH npHWeJl K BbIBOI{Y, qTO 3aTopMO- JKCHHOCTb nOHBIHIeTCH B OTBeT Ha He6J1aronpl1THble ycrrOBIiR pa3- BIITHJI HJIII, no ero BbIpaJKeHHIO, Ha "XpOHl1qeCKIiH Cpe,ll;OBOH crpecc". TaKoH cTpecc MO)l(eT C03,11;aTb, HanpHMep, CTapwHH pe6e- HOK B ceMbe, KOTOpblH OTHHMaeT IIrpywKH Y Mnal{Wero, nyraeT ero H nOBe.l\eHHe KOToporo B QCIIOM Henpe.l\CKa3yeMo WIJI Mllal!- wero pe6eHKa. ITO-BHI!IIMOMY, TaKHe CJIyqaH pacnpocTpaHeHbl 60JlbWe, qCM no npHHRTo CqIlTaTb. TaK, B penpe3eHTaTIIBHOH Bbl60pKC I{CTeH 2/3 l{eTeH C BblCOKOH 3aTOpMO)l(eHHOCTbIO HMen" CTapwHx 6paTbeB H ceeTep, a 2/3 ,lJ.eTei! C HH3KOH 3aTOpMOJKeHHO- CTblO 6bIJIH nepBeHQaMH. C .n:pyroH CTOpOHbl, 6J1arOnpllRTHble YCJIOBlfH pa3BIITHR MO- rYT CHIIJKaTb HC TOllbKO nOBe,ll;eHqeCKHe npOJlBlleHHJI 3aTopld0- JKeHHOCTlI, HO II H3MeHJlTb conYTCTBYlOll\He 11M QJH3110nOrH'IeCKHe oc06eHHOCTII TaK, npll npOCJIeJKHBaHl1H pa3BIITHJI .n:eTCH OT II.BYX ,11;0 OCbMH lIeT 61.11111 06HapY)l(eHbi ,ll;eTll, Y KOTOpblX OTHOCIITeJIb- Hblll ypoBeHb 3aTOpMO)l(eHHOCTIi (TO eCTb ypOBeHb 3aTOpMO)l(eH- 322 HOCTII no cpaBHeHlllO C .l\PyniMIi ,ll;eTbMH) cyll.\eCTBeHHo CHII3HJICJI OT II.BYx I{O BOCbldH JleT. 3a :no )I(e BpeMJI BenH'IIIHbI HeKoTopblX QJH3HonOrllqeCKliX nOKa3aTeneH Y 3THX lIeTeH (qaCTOTa ceplleq- HbIX cOKpaweHHH, MycKynbtloe HanpR)I(eHHe) npll6JIH311J111Cb K CpellHerpynnoBoMY ypOBHlO. ITpoBepKa rHnOTe3bl 0 reHeTII'IeCKOH 06ycnoBneHHoCTil 3a- TopMOJKeHHOCTH 6blJla npOBel{etia B MaKapTYpOBcKOM nOHrIlTlOII- 110M IICCJIe,IJ.OBaHHH 6JJII3t1e110B, B KOTOpOM ,ll;eTH 06cne.l\OBaJIHCb B 14,20 H 24 Idec., TO eCTb TpIl)l(I\bI B Te'leHlle BToporo rOl{a )l(lI3HII. .II.narHOCTIlKa 3aTOpMO)l(eHHOCTH npOBOI{HJlaCb B CTaHl{apTHOH 3K- cnepHMeHTaJIbHoi! cHTyaQHII, KOTopa>! 3aKJIJO'!a.rraCb B CJleAYIDw eM 3HaKOMblH pe6eHKY no npe)l(HIIM KOHTaKTaM nCIIXOJIor npHBOI{IIJ1 pe6eHKa II ero MaTI. B KOldllaTY C HrpYWKaMIl H OCTaB- JlRn OIl.HIIX. MaTh HaqllHaJla 3anonHRTb 6JIaHKH onpocHIlKOB II, no npocb6e nClIxonorOB, crapaJlaCb KaK MO)l(IIO ldeHbwe 061l\aTb- C C pe6cHKoM. B Te'leHHe CTpOTO onpCl{eJIeHHOrO IIpeMeHH (12 MIIH.) pe6eHKY l{aBaJlaCb B03MO)l(HOCTb ornR.I\eTbCJI, nOCMOTpeTb II nOTporaTb HrpYWi<I!, B 06weM, OCBOHTbC B HOBOi! cHTyaQIIH. IIocJle JTOrO BXOJl,Hna He3HaKOMaJi pe6eHKY Jl(eHIl.\HHa C IIOBOH HrpywKoH (rpY30BHKOM). ITepBYlO IdHHYTY OHa npOCTO CII)I,Cna, He rnRII.JI Ha pe6eHKa, CO BTOpOi! MHHYTbI - Ha'illHana I1rpaTb C npliHeceHHoi! HrpYUlKOH, C Tpeneii MHHYTbl - HaqllHana KOM- MeHTHpoB3Tb ny I'!Tpy, He 06pall.\aRCb K pe6eHKY, lIa qeTBepTOH MHHYTe - npHrJIaWaJla pe6eHKa npliCOC.I\HHHTbCIt K IIrpe. EcnH pe6eHOK ell\e paHbUJe, I{O npHmaWeHlIJl, nO.l\xoJl,lm K Hei!, TO OHa cpa3Y Jl(e HaqllHana C HIIM IIrpaTb. qepe3 6 MHH., He3aBIICI1MO OT Toro, pHcKHyn pe6eHoK npll- 6nH3HTbcR K He3HaKoMoH WIlt HeTO )l(eHIl.\IIHe HJIII HeT, OHa yxo- I{lma, II BXO,ll;HJIa 3HaKOMa pe6eHKY )J(eHIl.\IIHa, C KOTOpOH pe6e- HOK Y)J(e BCTpe'lanCJI paHbUJe. aHa np"HOCIIJla HOllYIO HTPYWKY (TaKYro, C KOTOpOH .l\eTH He HMeJIII OnblTa Hrpbl, HanpliMep, pO- 60Ta C Jl,HCTaHLlHOHHbIId ynpaBJICHHeM) H HaqHHaJla C HeH IIT- paTb. qepC3 2 MIIH., eCJIli pe6eHoK ewe He nOI{OUleJI, npHmaUJa- na ero nOCMOTpeTb Ha IIrpYWKY II nOllrpaTb C IIC" qepe3 MHHY- TY, He3aBHCHMO OT Toro, nOl{owen pe6eHOK HJIlt HeT, )J(eHIl.\HHa YXOIIHJla. IIoBel{eHlle peGeHKa 3anHCblBaJlOCb Ha BII.lIeonJIeHKY, II 3a- TCM 3KcnepTaldH OLleHHBanliCb pa3J1H'IHl>Ie napaMeTpbI peaKQHII pe6eHKa Ha 3KcnepllMeHTanbHYIO CllTyaQHIO: OTOIlleJl JIll pe6eHoK 323 
OT MaTepH, nonaB B KOMHaTY C lIrpYIlIKaMlI; no.n;OIllCJl JlH K He- 3H8KOMOMY qeJlOBeKY C HOBOi! lIrpYIlIKOH H, eCJIH no.n;OllleJl, TO KaK 6bICTpO peUflfJICJI Ha 3T0; npH6Jll13HJICJI JIH K HC3HaKOMOH IIr- PYllIKe. Ha OCHOBaHlf1f TaKHX nOKa3aTeJIeH peaKlIl'!H pe6eHKa Ha HOBYIO ,!I,ml Hcro clITyallHIO BbIC'IHTbIBaJICJI CYMMapHblH HHl(eKC 3aTOpMOJKeHHOCTH. IIpH cpaBHeHHH BHyrpHnapHoro cxo.n;CTBa 6JIH3He110B no 38- TOpMO)l(eHHOCTIi (Ta61l!lQa 8.7) M3 6JIH3HeQbl 06HapYJKwU! 60JIb- wee CXO.l(CTBO, qCM .II.3, BO Bcex Tpex B03paCTax, qTO CBH.n;CTeJIb- CTBYeT 0 reHeTllqeCKoi! 06YCJIOBJICHHOCTH 3aTOpMOJKeHHoCTH: Ha- C!Ie.n;yeMoCTb onpe.l(emlJIa 60JIee nOJIOBIIHbI IfH.n;HBII4YaJIbHbIX pM- !IH'IHH 110 38TOpMO)j(CHHOCTII, HeCKOJIbKO CHIIJK8J1Cb C B03paCTOM _ OT 0,64 B J 4 Mec. .1\0 0,56 B 20 Mee. 11 0,5J B 24 Idee. (Robinson J.L. ct a!., 1992) '!eM KpOCc-KOppeJlJll1HH .II.3 5nH3HcllOB, TO, 3HaqHT, 113MeHeHIIH reHCTII'IeCKH 06YCJIOBJleHb!. no.n;C'IHTaB KpOCC-KOppCJIJll.\JlII M3 H .l13 6JIH3Hel101j II 06H3PY)f(!lS 60JIbillCe CXO.l\CTBO M3 6J1l!3HC110B (ra6J1H118 8.8), aBTopbl nOK333!IH, qTO H3MCHeHJlH 38TOpMOJKeH- HOCTII .n;o HeKoTopoH CTenCHII CBJl3aHbi C reHOTHnOM, B qaCTHO- CTlI, nOKa3aTeJIb HaCJIe.n;yeMocTH H3MeHeHIIH OT 14 .n;o 24 Mec. pa- BeH npllMcpHO 0,50. Ta6J1ua 8.8 KPOCc-KOppelUlljuu (2eHemU'leCKaR o6yeJl08JIeHHOemb 603pacmHblX u3MeHeHuu3amOpMO:IICeHHOCmu; Robinson J el at.. 1992) T a6J1ua 8.7 Buympul1apHble KOppeJUlljuu no nOKa3arneJIRM 3amopMo:IICeHHoernu (Robll1sonJ. etal..1992) CpaBHVlsaeMbie B03paCTa M3 A3 14-20 Me""40" 35 16 20-24 ..ec.a 32 04 14-24 MecRu,a 20 03 nOKa3aT&n.M 14 MeCR,-,es 20 Mecs"",,eB 24 MOCALta TeMnepaMeHT3 M3 A3 M3 A3 M3 A3 3aTOpMOJKeHHOCTb S Bbl60PKe MBnbl.fMKOB r 61 34 63 09 68 33 n 76 90 108 82 82 88 B stN60p;.ce AeBOLJe'1t , 52 16 34 21 49 30 n 108 82 102 72 96 76 HacneAy...ocrb (h') 64 56 51 TaKIlM 06pa30M, B HOM Hanp8BneHHH Hccne.n;OBaHIIH TeM- nepaMeHTa B KaqeCTBe OCHOBHoro nOKa3aTeJIJI TeMnepaMeHTa Ha- 3bIBaeTCJI 3aTOpMOJKeHHOCTb, CBJl3aHH3J1 C pcaKI1HJlMH pe6CHK8 H8 HOBYIO II He3H8KOMYlO cHTyal1l1lO, 11 npOl(eMOHCTpllpOBaJ.1a CBH3b HOH xapaKTepHCTIIKII C rCHOTHnOM. 2.5, JIYH3BUJIbCKOe 611H3HenoBoe HCCJle.n;OBaKKe B03paCTHble 113MeHeHIIJI 3aTOpMO)f(eHHOCTI'! TaKJKe OK33a- nllCb .n;o HeKoTopoii CTeneHH CBJl3aHbI C reHOTllnOM. ABTOphl 3T0- ro 6JIII3HeUOBoro IIccne.n;OBaHIIJI nO"CqIlTaJIH KpOCc-KOppe!IJll1I1H 6JIH3HeI10B, TO eCTI., HanpllMCp, KOppellJlQ1I11 Me)l(.n;y 3aTopMO- JKCHHOCTbIO OIl.HOrO 6JIII3HCQa B 14 Mec. II 3aTOpMOJKeHHOCTbIO BToporo 6nH3He118 B 20 Mec. CMbIClI KpOCc-KOppeJIJll1I1H COCTOHr B cJIe.n;YJ.OlI1eM: '1eM BblWC KpOCC-KOppenJlllHJI, reM 60JIbille Il3yqa- eMOC CBOHCTBO O.n;MOTO 611113Hel1a B CTapweM B03paCTe 3aBIICHT OT TOro, KaKIIM 6blJIO TO )f(e caMoe CBoi!CTBO y Apyroro 6JIH3HC- Qa B MlIa"llleM B03paCTC. ECJIH y M3 II .II.3 6JIII3He110B KPOCC-KOP- peJlJlQHI! He pa:JJII!'IaIOTCJI, TO, 3HaqHT, 113MeHeHHJI He CBJl3aHI.! c rCHOTHnOM. ECJIH KpOCC-KOpperrJll1HII M3 6J1113He110B 6Y4Y T Bl.ll1Ie, 324 enhlO JIYJl3BIlJlbCKoro JIOHrHTIO.n;Horo HCCJIe.n;OBaHliJi 6n1l3- HeQoB, HaqaTOrO B KOHl1C 50-x rOI(OB <I>.<I>onKHepoM H npo.n;oJI- )j(alOll1erocJI H B HaCTOJlll1ee BpeMJI, JlBJlJleTCJI BblJlCHeHlle pOJlH re- HOTllna B (jJ1I3I1qeCKOM II nCIIXOJIOrllqeCKOM pa3BHTlIII pe6eHKa. HCCJIe.n;OB8TeJIH, npol3o.n;Jlll1l1e JIYll3BHnhCKIIH JIOHrI1TIO", nony'!alOT 113 pOJI,HnbHh!X I(OMOB IIHIjJOPMal1HIO 0 pO)J(,!\CHHH 611113- He110B II o6pall1aJOTcJI K pO.D,HTeJIJlM 6JIH3HeQoB C npeJI,JIOJKeHlleM yqaCTBOBaTb 8 Hccnel(OBaHJlII. C(jJopMllpOaaHHaJi K HaCTOJllllcMY BpeMeHH Bbl60pKa JlBnJleTCJI penpe3CHTaTIIBHoi! HaCCJICHIofJO Toro paOHa, D KOTOpOM npODOII,HTCJI HCCJIe.l(OBaHHe, no pa3JIllqHblM napaMCTpaM COUllaJIbHO-3KOHOMllqeCKOro CT8Tyca (06pa30Ba- HIofJO H npoljJeCClI1I pOJl,HTcnei!, .n;OXo.n;y ceMci! II T..n;.) II HaC'IHTbI- BaeT OKOJIO 6QO nap 6JIII3HeQOB. 325 
06CJIe.a;OBaH'ffe 6IHfJlie!(OB U UliTepBbfQ C If X POJWTeJIJ!MJI npOBOAHTCJI Ka)f(Able Tplf Mec,-\a B TeqCJlHC nepBoro ml\a )f(H3HIf, Ka)f(Able 110l1rOl\a - Ha BTOpOM H rpenCM rOAY )f(H3HI'!, e)f(erOI\- HO - .11.0 9 rreT Ha'iIfHa C 10 JICT, KaJK.a;bIH rOA O/..teIiHBaIOTC OC06CHHOCTII TeMnepaMCHTa pe6eHKa, a 110Ka3arcnH KorHHTHB- Hoii c!j>epbI I\HarHOCTl1pYIOTCJI .!J.BaJl<JU>I - B 12 JI 15 JIeT. IIOCKOJlb- KY BbI60pKa Ha6HpaeTCJI nOCTeneHHO (no Mepe pOJK.a;eHI1 6JI1i3- He,-\01l), B Heii HeoAHHaKOIlO npeACraBJleHbI AeTII pa3HbIx B03pac- TOB: He Bce AeTH ycneJIH "AOpaCTIi" AO nOl\pOCTKOBoro B03paCTa. H3yqeHI1e TeMnepaMeHTa pe6eHKa H pOJiU reHOTurra B ero !jJOpMllpOJ!aHIIH H3Ha'laJIbHO He BXOAHJIO B nJIaHbI JIYH3BHJibCKO- ro HcCrreAOBaHH. TOJlbKO C 70-x roJl,OO, TO eCTb qepe:! 15 neT noc- JIe Ha'laJIa HCCJIeI\OBaIlHJI, B cxeMY JIOHrIiTIOAa, HapJlAY C xapaK- TepHCTMKaMH !jJM3MqeCKOrO M KorHIITHBHoro pa3BHTHli )leTeH, BKJIlOqaerCIi H Jl,HarHOCTHKa oco6eHHOCTeH TCMl1epaMeHTa. COOT- BCTCTBeHHO, BeJIH'IHHa BbI60PKH, Ha KOTOpOH MO)J(HO npOBCCTH c:pIllJHeHHC 6moHeu.OB no TeMnepaMCHTY, B HaCTOJlll\ee BpeMJI MeHb- WC, qeM Bcd! 06CJieAOBaHIiOH BbI60pKH. CrrcAyeT TaKJI(e OTMeTIITb, qTO aIlTopbI JIYH3BHrrbCKoro HC- CJfC}\OBaIiHH He npeMaralOT C06CT8CHHbiX TCOpeTll'leCKI1X pa3pa- 60TOK, KaCaIOll\IIXCJI TeMnepaMCHTa, a OCHOBbIBaIOTCIi Ha 06ll\e- npHHIITblX npeACTaBJIeHHIIX 0 HeM, onHpaliCb npeHMYll\eCTBeHHO Ha 83rJUl)l,b! M K. PoT6apT(Rothbart M.K., Derryberry D., 1981) H A.ToMaca Ii C.qecc (Thomas A., Chess S., 1977). HJla'le rOBOpJl, B JIYU3BI1JibCKOM JIOHrHTIOAHoM IICCI1CAOBaHHI1 C80HCTBa TeMne- paMeHTa paccMaTpHBaIOTCJI KaK CTHJICl!b!C OC06CHHOCHI !T08tAe- HH, npOJlBrrlllOll\lIec C nepBbix AHeH )KH3HH pe6cHKa H coxpaH- IOll\lfeCJI B TeqCHUe }3)IIfTemHOI'O BpeMeHJI. .II.JI o,-\eHKH TeMnepa- MeHTa Hcnorrb3YIOTCJlI\aHHbIe Jla60paTopHoro Ha6nIOAeHI1I1, 3KC- nepTHbie OlleHKH nCHxonorOB, CTaH,!J,apTHble onpOCHHKH, a.llP eco - BaHHble pOAHTeJlJlM, 11 HHTePBbIO C MaTepJlMH 6nH3Heu,OB. Pac- CMorpHM 110APo6Hec HeKOTopble 113 nonyqeHHblx pe3yrrbTaTOB. B paMKax J]YJl3BMJ1}.CKoro JJOHrllTIO,na 6bUlO npoBCAeHO nep- 8De reHeTHqeCKOe IfCCJIe,nOBaHl1e TeMnepaMeHTa HOBOpO)f(.a;eHHbIX 6JIlf3HeUOB 3a nooeJJ;ellHeM AeTeii, '1eH B03paCT He npeBblWaJI He. AClIH, I/a npOTJI)/{CHMH !TpHMepHD TPcx-qeTl>Jpex '1aCOB (Me)J()\y J\BYM KopMneHHIIMI1) BeJIOCb Ha6nlOJI,eHI1e no CTaHJI,apTHOH cxe- Me. B xOJJ;e :noro Ha6JIIO.n:eHI1J1 OTMe'l3JIHCL pa3Ho05pa3Hbie na- paMeTpbl nOBc.a;CHHI! - HlJTeHCHBHOCn, Ii MIfTClIbl/OCTb Jl,Bl1ra- 326 TeJlbHOH aKTHBIIOCTI1 pe5eHKa, ero pealnlf Ha pa3Hble CTJIMYJ1bI, pa3J1HqHble BblpaJl(CHHII HCYAOI!O!IbCTBH Ii YAOBOJILCTBHH H T.JJ;. TIonyqeHHble oco6eHHocTH none.n:eHHH 6blllH cnCACHbl B 6 oue- HOK, KOTopble, no npeJJ.n0J10JKeHHIO aBTopa, HBJlJllOTCJI paHHI1MH npOJlBJ1CHMMIi TeMl1epaMeHTa. K HHM OTHOCHTCJI pa3ApaJl(HMOCTb, cnoc06HoCTb ycnoKaHBaThCJI, peaKu.II IJa cTHMynbI, peaKIlH Ha nOAKpenneHHe, aKTHBHOCTL B 50/WCTBYIOIl\CM COCl'OJllUiM H aK- THBHOCTb BD CHe. Bce 3TH nOKa3aTenli OKa3aJlHCb nporHOCTII'IHbl- Mli }J;!IJI oc06eHHOCTeii TeMnepaMeHTa ACTeii 60nee CTapWHx B03- paCToB, l!anpHMep, ypoBeHb pa3apa)KHMOCTH nPCJ(CK8J:1BaeT CD- OTHoweHHC nOJIOJKIiTeJ1bHbtx H oTpluaTenbHblx 3MO,-\HH, TO eCTb 3MO,-\HOHaJlbHblH TOH, B 2 rOAa. TIpH Cpal!HeHI1H BHYTpHnapHoro CXO}\CTBa HOBOp0Jl(AeH- HblX M3 If .II.3 6JIH3Heu.oB no 3THM weC'!H paHHHM I1pOBJIeHI1I1M TeMnl(paMeHTa OKa3arrOCb, '1TO HeT HH OJI,Horo nOK8JaTen>l, no KOTOPOMY M3 6J1H3He'-\bl OKa3anHCb 61,1 BHYTpl1napHO 60nee no- XOJKIiMH, '1eM .II.3 6nH3HellbJ (Riese M .L., 1990). Donee TOro, B pMe Cl1yqaCB CXOJ1C'TBO .II.3 6JII13He,-\OB B nape OKa3bIIlaeTCH Bb\lne, qeM CXOACTBO M3 6J1H3He,-\oB TaKoc COOTHoweHHe BHYTPl1nap- Hb!X Koppeilnwii M3 H f.{3 6nlJ3He,-\oB YKa3blBaeT Ha TO, qTO II nepBbIC I\HH Jl(1f3HI1 HH}tHBH.n.yaJlbHble pa3J1l1ql1J1 B T(:MnepaMCHT(: OTpaJKaIOT oc06eHHOCTH CHCTeMaTHqeCKHX H cnyqaHHblX cpeJJ;o- BblX BIIHHHI1H H HHKaK HC CBH3aHbJ C pa.:JJ1I!'1MHMH B reHOTHne (Ta6- JlHu.a 8.9). B 60JIee cTapweM l!o3pacTc Bnl1l!Hl1e reHOTl1na lIa HHAH- BHAyanbHLIc pa3JII1'1HH B CBollcTBax TCMm:paMCIlTa npOJIBlIJleTCJi Ta6Jlulju 8,9 BI<yrnplmapltble KOppelUiljUU lt060pO:J/COel/HblX 6JlU3Uelj08 110 I10Ka3ameJUW rneJlflleptWeUrna (Riese M.L.. 1990) nOKa33renH M3 A3 n=45-47 n=38-39 Pa3Apa)l(i'lMOCTb 30 45 Cnoco5HoCTb ycnOK3HaaTbcR 06 59 PeaK,","' H3 cntMynbl \2 08 PeaK\IIR H3 nOAKpenn6HHe 31 49 AKTHBHOCTb B <50APCTBYU,\e"" 12 COCTOI=IHHH 09 A"'BHOCTb BO CHe 22 21 327 
1\0CTaTOqllO OT'IeTJIHBO, lIe3aBHCI1MO OT Toro, KaKHMH MeTOl\aMIi HarHOCTIlpyeTc TeMnepaMeHT. OI\HHM II3 TaKHX MCTOI\OB 6b1J10 IUfTepBblO C MaTepMH. Ma- TepeH npOCHJIH OnHCaTb, KaK npOBJHleTC Ta IIJlH HlIaB oc05eH- HOCTb nOBeACHH!t y l<a)l(Aol:o 3 5nIl3I1Cl.\OB, II CKa3aTb, Bblpa)J(C- Ha JIH JTB oc05eHHOCTb Y 5mI3He110B OJI,HHaKOBO IIJIII )ICe y O.l\HO- TO 113 HIIX npOJlBJIJleTC CHJlbHCC. CpaBHel!lIC BHyrplmapHoro CXO. CTBa no xapaKTepllCTHKaM, nOJIyqaeMbIM B IIHTepBblO C MaTepJl- Mil, l\eMOHcTpllpyeT, KaK npaBIIJIO, 60JIbWYlO KOHKOP.l\BlITHOCTb (CXOI\CTBO) M3 5J1113l1e110B. .II.JI npllMepa npllBCJI,CM .l\BHHble 01\- HOH 113 pa60T (MBtheny A.P. ct a!., 1981). ABTOpbl 3TOH pa50Tbi Bbll\Cmmll lIa OCHOBaHHII HHTepBblO C Ma'IepBMII Hall50nec 3Ha- '1HMbIC OC05CHHOCTII nOBeAeHHJI I\CTeH. B nCpHo,l\ OT 6 MCC. 1\0 6 JIeT 3TH oc06eHHOCTIf OTqeTJIHBO 06'be,l\IIHJlJIIiCb B ABe rpynnbI. OJI,Ha 113 lIlIX 6b1J1a YCJIOBHa HaJBaHa "TemepaMeHTIIOCTb" H BKJIIO- qaJla B ce6J1 10 KoppeimpYlOmHX .l\pyr C .l\pyroM OC06CHI!OCTeH nOlJc.n:eHHB (aKTHBlIOeI'b, p33pa)l(HTeJIbHOCTb, nJla1<CHBOCTb II T.A.) BTOPYIO aBTopbl Ha3SaJlH "COLlIIB6eJlbHOCTb". aHa 05'bCJI,HHJlJla 4 KOppeJlllpYIOIl{IIC Jl.pyr C ApyroM oc06ellHocTH nOBC.I\ClIHB (ro- TOBHOCT1. K KOHTBKTaM, YJIbl5KH H T.,/\.). IIo Ol1ellKaM MBTepcH CXOI\CTBO M3 6J1HJHeLlOB OK33BJlOCb 3Ha'lHTen1.HO BblUle, '1eM CXOACTBO ,l.J,3 6J1IfJHCl.\OB. B Ta6mmc 8.10 yKB3BH npOl1eHT nOKaJaTCJleii, no KOTOpblM KOHKOP.l\BHTHOCTb M3 6JIIIJHel\OB npCBblWBJIB KOHKOP.l\3HTHOCTb ,[(3 6JIII3J-1Cl{OB 3T11 .l\BHHbIC .lIeMOHCTpIlPYIOT BJlHBHHC reHOTlina Ha IlH.I\HBIl.l\y- aJIbHbIC pBJJIllqllJl B CBOHCTBBX TeMnepaMeHTa. AlIaJIOTI1'!HbIH B1.IBO.ll (BJIHBHHC rCHOTI1n3 liB CBOHCTBB TCM- ncpaMCHTB) MO)J(HO c,/\eJlBTb H no l\allHbIM JIa50paTopHoro HB- Ta6J1u/(a 8.10 llpO!feHm nOKa3ameJleu. no KOmOpblM 110JlY'ieHbl lHa'iUMble pa3J1U- 'iWl no KOHKopoaHmnocmu M3 u3 6J1U1He!f06 (Matheny A P el al.. 1981) 6JIIO.I\eHIIJI, B npol{ccce KOToporo nOBCACHIIC .l\eTeH 3anllCblBa- JlOCb Ha BII.n:eonJICHKY II 3aTeM OQCHIIBanOCb pa3HblMIl 3KcncpTa- MH. ITo cYMMapHblM nOKB3aTeJlBM TBKHX Ol{eHOK TeMncpaMeHTa M3 6JI1I3Hel.\bI OKaJBJlHCb 60Jlee nOXO)J(IlMII BHYTplmapHo, qeM A3, B 9,1& Ii 24 Mec. (ra6nlll\a 8. I I). Ta6,1u/(a 8.11 BHympunapHoe cxoocm8o M3 u3 6JfU3/1e'l06 110 O!feHKaM J/a6opa- rnopH020 Ha6J1100eHUR (!furn. 110 Loehlin J. C.. 1992). nOK338Ten.. Bo,paCT TeMnepaM81IT3 9 Mec.. 12 Mec. 18 Mec 24 Nee. M3 11.3 M3 11.3 M3 11.3 M3 11.3 3KcnepTHbie oueH" na6opaTopHoro Ha611IOAeHJ! 54 42 42 51 69 42 66 45 M3 - 30 nap. /1,3 - 28 nap \ .lI.PyroH MeTOI\, HCnOJI1.30BaHHbIH B JIYH3BIlJI1.CKOM JIOHrHTIO- lIe ,!UIJI OL\CHKIl CBOHCTB TCl-mepaMeHTa, COCTOJI B Ha6mo.l\CHHIl 33 l\eTbMH B npOl\Ccce TeCTllpOBBHlIB. IIcmlOJloT1l Ha6J1IDlIaJl>1 3a eTb- Mil np" npC,/\'bBBJICHIlH 11M 3B.ZJ.aHMH -reCTa H.DCHJIlI, HanpaBJleHHO- TO Ha j\lurHOCTIIKY nCIIxOMOTopHoro IIHTeJIJICKTa, 11 OQeHHOaJIli no 2S WKa.rraM oc06eHHOCTii 110BeAeHHR pe6CHKa BO BpeMB I1HTeJIJIeK- TYaJIbHOrO TeCTHpOBaHHB. 3TH WKaJl1.I npH rpaKTopll3al1 MM crpyn- TIlIpOBaJIHCb B 3 60JIce 05mHX nOKa3aTenB, H<lJBBHHbIX "opHeHTB- LlIlB B 3B.ZJ.aHIlI1" (1llHpoTa II YCTOH'IIIBOCTb BHHMaHHB, J-IanpaBJlCH- HOCTb Ha LleJIb » 'I.A.), "3MOl\IiOHaJIbHOCTb-KCTpaBCpCH" (3MO- QHoHaJlbHblH TOH, nyrmlBocTb, cTpeMJIeHlle J( 06meHIlIO H T..I\.) II "aKTHBHoCTb" (Jl,BlfraTeJIbHaB aKTIfBHOCTb, IIHTeHCIIBHoCTb ABI1)J(c- HH\\ H T .A.). no BceM 3TH'" nOKa3aTeJ1BM (KpOMe JMOIi,IIOHaJIbHOC- m-3KCTpaBepC!lH B 3 Mec.) M3 6JIM3Hel.\1.l OKaJbIBaJOTCIi 60JIee no. XO)l(HMIl Apyr Ha ,/\pyrB, "eM ,[(3, HB npoT)J(eHHli ncpBblx .IJ.BYX JIeT )J(1'!3HII (Ta6JIIIQa 8.12). B 60Jlce c-raplllHx B03pacn"C ,!UIB .l\HarHOC'IIlKII TeMnepa- MeHTa npHMeHIOTCB CpBBHHTenbHble Ol.\eHKIl MaTepeii 11 onpoC- HIlKIl, HCnOJIb3yeMbIc A.ToMacoM II C qccc B HblO-HopKCKOM JlOHnlTlOJ1HOM IICCJlCj\OBBH1Ul II OflHcaHHblC paHCC II 31'0\\ I'JlBIIC. Pe3YJIbTBTbI rC(lCTHqeCKOrO aHaJIH3a OKB3bIBBIOTC conOCTaBIlMbl C TeMII, KOTop1.le 6blJIII nOJIyqeHbl npH cpaBHeHHI1 M3 II ,l.J,3 5JI1l3- HeQOB B IICCJIC.I\OBaHHIl A.M.ToprepceH, npIlBOJI,HBWI1MIICJI paHec 329 nOIC33aTemi reMnepaMeHTa 6 Mec. 77 M3 46 3 62 75 33 93 60 100 53 60 25 60 40 100 Bee nOKa3aremi Te),mepaMeHTHOCTtt COI.I.Ma5enJHoCTb 328 
Ta6,zu1{a 8.12 BHymprmapHoe cxoiJcm80 M3 U 3 6JlU3Heij08 no oco6eHHocI11fI.M meMneplUleHma, oijeHu8a8!UUMcJ! I1CUXOJl02aMU, I1p08oiJu8!UUMU UH- meJIJlekmyanbHoe meCmupOBaHUe (Mathel1Y A.P. 1980) TaKIiM 06pa30M, ,l:\aHHble JIYI!3BllnbCKoro JlOHrHTlO,l:\HOro IIcCne,l:\OBaHIiH nOKa3bIBaJOT, '1TO reHOTHn Bnl1HeT Ha <jJOplIipOBa- Hlle HHAHBHAyanbHblx pa3JI11'IIIH B CBoiicTlJaX TeMnepaMeHTa C nepBoro rO,l:\a >K1i3HIi H '1TO H3MeHeHIIH H B03paCTHaH cTa6l1Jlb- HOCTb CBOHCTB TemepaMeHTa B HeKOTopoii CTeneHiI 3aBHCHT OT reHOTHnll"leCKIiX $aKTopOB. nOK33aTemii B03paCT TeMnepaMeHTa 3 Mec. 6 Mec. 9 Mec 12 Mec. 18 Mec. 24 MBC M3 .113 M3 113 M3 .113 M3 113 M3 .113 M3 .113 OpeHTa414S1 B 3al1aI1K 55 19 51 35 28 00 49 23 56 19 48 21 3M04110HaJ"1bHOCTb- 3KcTpaSepCI1f1 18 26 55 10 35 33 43 07 49 37 53 03 AkTI18HOCTb 30 33 24 11 25 22 33 28 43 14 58 14 . 2.6. IICCJlellOBaHHe TemepaMeHTa B OTe'lecTBeHHoii nCHXOJlOrHH Ta6Jlu1{Q 8.13 BHympul1apoe cxoiJcm8o MJ u P3 6JlU3Heij08 no 803pacmHw.1 u3- MeHeHUJU.1 (Matheny A.P., 1983; Wi/SOli R.S., 1986) HccneAOBaHlie TeMnepaMenra Hero $1I3110Jlorll'lCCKOH 6a3bl Bel\eTCH B pJllle HanpaBneHHH OTeqeCTBellHOH nCIIXOJlOrHH. B ,l:\aHHOil maBe 6YlleT paCCMOTpCHO TOJlbKO OAHO 113 HIiX, B pycne KOToporo 6bIJlII nOJly'leHbl IIBHHbIe 0 pOJlII reHOTHna Ii CpCAbl B lIeTepMHHal1liH TeMnepaMeHTa. OCHOBonOnO>KHHKaMII 3Toro Ha- npaBJleHHJI HBnHIOTC>I E.M.TcnnoB H B.A.He6b1nHl1blH, C03i\aB- illHe wKony AH$<jJepeHI1HaJlbHOH nCHxo<jJH3HOJIOnm, TO eCTb OT- paCJJJ' nCHxonorHII, KOTOpaJi H3Y'lae-r $H3HOJlOrH'IeCKlie Mexa- HH3Mbill H II IIBII AyanbHbiX pa3J1l1qll" B nCIIXOnOrll'leCKIIX oc06eH- HOCTHX '1eJIOBeKa. D M.TenJIOBbIM 6blna pa3pa6oTaHa nporpaMMa AH$<jJepCII- I1HaJlbHO-nCHxonOrH'IeCKOrO HCCJIeIlOBaHHH, l1eJlb KOTOpOH CO- CTOHna B TOM, '1TOObl "nOIlOHTH K nOHHMaHHIO H B03MOJKHO 50- nee TO'lHOMY H3Y'leHIlJO HeKoTopbIX IIHJI,HBH.l\yanbHo-ncllxonorl1- '1CCKllX pa3J1H'IIIH nIOAeH, oTnpaBnH>lCb OT 113Y'IeHI1>1 THnOJlOrl1- qO;:CKHX CBOllCTB HepBHoH cHcTeMbI" (TennoB p.M., 1985, T 2, C 140). C<jJOPMYJIllpoBaHa 3T3 l.\eJlb B CTaTbe E.M.TenJloBa, KOTO' paJi 6bma ony6JIHKOBaHa B 1957 rOilY II Ha3bIBaJlBCb "HccJleJ.\o- BaHlie CBOHCTB HepBHoH CI1CTeMbl KaK nYTb K H3yqeHHJO IIH.l\HBI1- J.\yaJlblw-nCIIXOJlOrH'IeCKIiX pa3nll'lllii". 3TanbI 3Toro nYTH, KaK nOKaJaJlH IiccneJl,OBaHHH, npoBelleHllble B 3TOM HanpaBJleHI1H, npell' CTaBJlHIOT COOOH nocneJ.\oBaTenbHbIH nepexo,l:\ OT H3yqeHHJI co6- CTBeHHO $H3110Jl0rl1'1CCKIIX OCHOB IIHAHBII.!\YaJIbHOCTII (CBOHCTB He- PBHOii CllcTeMbl) K aHaJlll3Y IIX COOTHomeHIIH C nCIIXOJIOnl'leCKII- MH Xap3KTepHCTHKaMH H lIaJlee - K 113Y'IeHIlIO coomeHHo AHI-Ia- MH'IeCKIIX xapaKTepucTHK nCIiXI1'.JecKoH J.\eJlTeJlbHOcTIi. K qUCJlY nOCJle.l\HHX OTHOCTC 3allaTKH cnocooHocTeH II TeMnepaMeHT, IICcnC,l:\OBBHlle KOToporo Ha'lBJIOCb B 60-bIe rOllbl nOli PYKOBOA- CTBOM B..II..He6b1nHl1bIHa. ,on.4eCTBO nap M3 - 72-91, .113 - 35-50 (TB6J1Iil.\a 8.2, PIiCYHOK 8.1), 11 CBUlleTeJlbCTBYlOT 0 BnHHHlUl reHO- THna Ha CBOHCTBa TCMnepaMeHTa. feHonln OKB3blBaeT BnllJlHl1e fI Ha fl3MeHeHI1e cBoikrn TeMne- paMeHTa, npOI'!CXOJ.IJIll\ee C B03paCTOM. COnOCTaBJlHH BeJIllqHHY H3- MeHeHIIH nOKaJaTeJIeH TeMnepaMeHTa OT B03paCTa K B03paCTY, IIC- Cne.llOBaTeJlII, npOBOJ.IJIIl\He JIYll3BHJlbCKIIH nOHrHTIO.l\, o5HapYJJ<II- JII', qTO M3 6J1113Hel\bI OKa3blBaJOTCJI 60nee nOXmKHMI1 BHyrpllnap- HO, B cpaBHeHIIH c.II.3 6J1113Hel1aMII, no HanpaBJIeHlllO H3MeHeHIIH II no BeJIH'IIIHe CKa'lKOB H CnBJ\OB B paJBHTIIH CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. B Ta6J1I1l.\C 8.13 npe.l\CTaBJleHbl AaHHble, AeMoHcTpHpYJOIl.\He, '1TO H3MeHeHHH Opl1eHTal.\1I1I B 3B./J,aHHI1, 3MOl.\HOHaJIbHOCTH-3KCT]Ja- BepCHfI II BKTHBHOCTH Ha npOTHJJ<eHHII 6-12-18 H 12-18-24 Mec., a TaK)J(e H3MeHeHHSI B OOlI1l1TeJIbHOCTH OT T]Jex K '1eTlpeM ro- .IIaM OKaJblBaJOTCH 60JIbWe nOXO)J(H y M3 6J1U3Hel.\OB. nOK333Temi B03paCT TeM n epaMeHT3 6.12.18 Mec. 12-18-24 Mec 36-48 Mec M3 113 M3 113 M3 113 OpeHTa"H B 38.A3H"U, 53 18 49 21 3u.OlJ,{lHanbCTb- 3KCTpaBepcMA 35 05 37 12 AlCTlIIBHOCTb 27 19 52 18 05l4I11TeJ1bHOCTb (onpOCHI1K) 50 -05 06llt.Te.nbHoCTb (tta6nIOAetotllle) 35 08 331 330 
TeMnepaMcHT paCCMaTpllBaeTCII B.)];.He6bIP.lIbIHbIM KaK "xapaKTepliCTIIKa IIHI!IIBHi\a co cropOHbl .l\HHaMII'IeCKHX OC06eH- HocTei1 cro nCHXllqCCKOH .l\eSlTeJIbHOCTH, TO eCTb TeMna, 6bJCTpO- TbI, piITMa, HHTeHCIIBHoCTH COCTaBJlJlIOIt\11x ny i\ellTellbHocTb nCH- XJjqeCKIfX fTp0l1eccoB " COCTOJ!HI1U" (HC6bIllHI./,bIH B.)];. 1976, c.178). B CTpYKType TeMnepaMeHTa B..II..He6bIJIHl.\bIH Bbri\CIIHIl ABa oc- HOBHblX KOMfTOHCI/Ta - aKTIlBHOCTb Ii 3MOI.\HOHaJ1bHO'Tb. AKm!i8Hocml> CBH3aHa C HepreTI1'1eCKHMI1 1I0TeHl.\I!aJlaMH '1e- J10BcKa, 1I0JBOJI>UOll\HMII eMY C 60llbllIe!i IIJIII MeHbllIei1 3<jJ$eKTlIB- HOCTbIO OCBaHBaTb II IIpe06pa30BblBaTb OKPY)I(alOll\lIii ero MHp. ITOCKOJIbKY 3HepreTH'IeCKHe nOTelll.\lIaJIbl onpei\ellHIOT i\HHaMI1KY .l\eIlTCJlhHOCTH 'ICJ10BeKa B caMblX pa:JHbiX cl1Tyal\lIHx II B caMblX PaJ- HblX c<jJepax, aKTHBHOCTb, 110 MHellil10 B..II..He6bIJIHl.\bllla, HeJIb3H orpaHII'IHBaTb TOJlbKO oc06eHHOCTJlMH MOTOpHKII: )\HHI\MII'IeCKlie xapaKTepHCTIIKH aJcTHBHOCTH, 110 cro IIpeIUlOIIOJKeHIlIO, MOrYT IIpO- JlBJIJITbCJI H B .npyrnx C<jJepax" B '1aCTHOCTII, B 06ll\eHI1I'! II B n03l1aaa- TellbHOH i\CIITem,HOCTH. IIepBble 3KcnepllMeHTB.lJbHbJe IICCJJCI\OB3HIfJl, IIpoBcJ};ellHblc B .l\H<jJ<jJepeHl\lIaJIbHOH nCI1XoIjJ1I3HOJIOfllll, 6brllH CBII3aHbr C aHa- JIH30M CTp}'KTYPbl aKTIIBHOCTlI1I BblllClleHIICM ex CBJl3eii C fTCIfXO<jJIf- 31101l0rH'IeCKIIMH oc06eHHOCTJlMH qeJI(mcKa (B.)];.He6bllllll.\blll, A.II KPYIIHOB, /970). 3TIl I1CCJIeJ};OBaHIIII lIoKa3allH, qTO 06 aK- THBHOCTI1 MO)KHO cY.l\lITb 110 TpeM ee IIpOJlBIICHIIIIM - 110 IIH.I\II- BIIII;yallbHoMY TeMny i\eHTeJIbHOCTI'! (110 CKOpOCTH ABHran:.nbHOH peaKl\lm, KOTOpaJi cBoi1crneHHa I'!CllbITyeMoMY H KOTOpYlO OH CIaIO- HCH caM BbI6I1paTb), no CKJIOHHOCTI1 K pa3Hoo6pa3111O peaKl\liH II no CKJIOHHOCTII K l\eHCTBIIHM B ciITyaUIIH, KOf.l\a, no YCJIOBIIJlM 3KcnepllMeHTa, Jl,ei1CTBlle He JlBJIlleTCII 06H3aTeJIbHbIM (Oi\HH JIIOI\H CKIIOHHbl, a .npYflle - He CKJIOHHbl K npOHBllellllHM CBepXHopMa- TIIBHOi1 I\KTHBHOCTH). B lIaJIbHei1wcM 6bmo 06HapY)J(eHO, 'iTO 3TH Tp" 1I0Ka3aTCJI!I aKTItBHOCTI'!, Ha:JblBl\eMbIe B pJllI;e pal50T CKOpOCTHblM (TeMfT), BapH- 811HOHHblM (nJlaCTH'lfIOCTb) If :Jpfl/qeCKI/M KOMfTOlleHTaMII aJITlfBflO- CTII, XOpOlllO OTpaJKaKIT jI,IlHaMliqeCKlle OC06eHitOCTH <lKTHBHOCTII B C8Ml,(X pa:JHblX c$epax - B lUmrareJIbHOii, KOrHIiTH/JHOif, Bonc/Joii II B c!/Jepe 06ll\eHI1Il (DOAYHOB M.B., 1982; KpynHoB A.H., )!(eM'IY- rOM JI 8., 1978). KpoMe 06'beKTHBHIX (TecToBbIX) nOKa3aTeJIeH, M ollpe- lIellCHHJI <lKTIIBHOCTIl HCnOJIbJYIOTCJ! II onpocHHKII. B OnpOCHIiKe 332 CTpYKTYpbJ TeMnepaMeHTa BonpocbI HanpaBJleHbI Ha jI,IlarHOCTII- KY Tpex onHcaHHblX KOMnOHeHTO/! aKTIIBHOCTII B TOM !I1Ii\e, II KO- TOPO/ Olloi npO"BJlIlIOTCII B npe.l\MeTHOii II COl\liaJIbHOH cQ>epax i\eHTellbHOCTIl (PYCaJIOB B.M., 1992). HanpHMep, npOHBlleHJle CKO- pocTHoro IIOKa3aTCJ11l aKTIIBHOCTIf B npe.l\MeTHOH c<jJepe onpe.l\e- J1ReTCR no BOnpocaM Tllna: "HpaBRTcJI JlJI BaM Itrpbl, Tpe6YIOll\lIe 6b1CTpOTbI H JIOBKOCTII?", a npOJlllJICHIle CKOpocTHoro nOKaJaTe- JlR B COl\lIaJIbHOH cljlepe- 110 BonpocaM mna "HpaBI1TCJI JIll BaM 6bICTpO rOBOpJlTb 1" B onpOCHII)(aX AJIJI jI,IlarHOCTIIKII TeMnepaMeHTa i\OIII)(OJIb- HIIKOB 11 MJ1<1i\llIHX 1II!(OJIbHI1KOB CKOPOCTHOH, BaplfaQHOHHbli{ II 3prn'lCCKIIH )(OMIIOHeHTbI 3KTlfBHOCTH He BbIlleJIJlIOTCJI KaK caMO- CTOSiTerrbHble (EropOBa M.C., 3bIpHHOBa H.M., (995). 06 aKTIIB- 1I0CTH CaIlJl,eTeJI\'CTBYIOT TpH OCHOBHblJ\ KOMnOHeHTa (ABllraTerrb- HaH aKTIIBHOCTb, n03HaaaTeJJbHaR aKTHBItOCTb II 06ll\HTCJ1bHOCTb) If Tpl/ .l\0/10JJHHTeJIbHbIX, BaJKHblX MJI IIOHHMaHIIJI TeMllepaMeHTa_ B nOM BOJpaCTHOM i\HanaJOHe (.!I.IIHaMII'IeCKlle nOKa3aTeJlH HaCTOIi- qIfBOCTIf, IIMIIYJIbCflBHOCTb 11 YTOMJIlleMOCT, CB"3aHHall C nopo- raMIl peaKTJlBHOCTII). 3MOt.(UOHClJ/6HOCm6 (BTOpOIt KOMfTOHeHT TeMnepaMeHTa, BbI- i\eJlJleMbIH B 3TOM HanpaBJIeHinJ HCCJlenOBaHHi1) paCCMaTpHBaeT- CR KaK "OCOeef/HOCTH BOJHIIKHOBeHIIJI, npOTCKBHlfll1l fTpCKpaU!c- HHII pa3Hoo06pa3HbiX 'IYBCTB, a!\JljleKTOB H HaCTpOeHHH" (He6b1- JIHl\blH B..II.., 1976, c. (79), TO eCTb, HHa'ie rOBOpSl, 3MOI\IIOHaITb- HOcTb CBII3aHa C i\HHaMIIKOH 3MOUHOHallbHOH JKH3HH '1eJIOBeKa. Oi\HaKO y O.l\HOfO 11 TOfO )Ke '1eJlOBeKa :na i\IIHaMIlKa MO)KeT 6bITb pa3J1I1'1HOH M pa:JHbrX 3MOl\IIOHaJIbHblX COCTORHlliI, AJIII 1I0JIOJKHTeJIbHblX H oTplll\areJIbHbIX 3M0l1I1H. HeD03MO)f(II0 no- HJlTb I1JJ.IIlIBlI.I\yallbHoc cBoe06pa:me 3MOI.\HOHallbHOCTH, eCJIII He Y'lHTblBaTb KaqeCTBeHHbIX pa:Jnll'IIIH B 3M0l1l1J1X. B CBH311 C 3TIIM IfCCJlei\OBaTeJlII eOl/JlII He06J\O.l\IIMbIM af/all1t3HpODaTb He TOJlbKO i\HHaMItKY 3M0l11'!OHallbHbIX lIepe)f(IIBaHIIH, HO Ii Blill (MOi\allb- HOCTh) Tex lIepe)J(IfBaHlfif, KOTOpble npeOMa.IlaIOT Y Toro IIJlllIIIIO- ro qellOBeKa. BblilO npcMorrO)KCHO, '1TO IIBH60nee BI!)KHbIMH l!1!,l\8MII 3MO. LlIIH (nepBH'IHbIMH, 6aJaJIbHbIMlI 3M0l1l1J1MII) H/!JIHIOTCII TPIl H3 HI/X - Yi\OBOllbCTBlie (pai\OeTb), rue/! If CTpax Ba3allbHblif xa. pa)(rep 3T11X 3MOl.\IIH OnpeI\CIIJ!eTCR, C 01\1I01t CTOpOHbl, \IX »enoe- pCl\eTBtllHOr'i CBJl3blO C 1jI1/3ItOIlOrH'IeCKHMH oc06eIlHOCTJlMIf, a, C 333 
APyroii, - TOH pOiTblO, KOTOpylO OHII HrpalOT B 3MOl.\HOHaJIbHOii )l(II3HII: CKIIOHHOCTb K nepe)l(HBaHHIO 31.101.\1111 TOH I1J1H IIHOH MO- AaiTbHOCTI1 BJIeTC YCTOj:jqIlBOH, a ypOBHII npOBlIeHII 31.101.\1111 pa3HbiX MOAaJIbHOCTell II HX COOTHOllleHHe Apyr C ApyroM B 3Ha- '1HTeJIbHOH CTeneHH OnpenelIJlIOT pa3Hoo6pa:Jlle MOI.\HOHalIbHbIX nepeJKIIBaHIIH qeJlOBeKa (OJIbWaHHHKOBa A.E., 1978, 1996). .n.JI AHarHOCTlIKIl MOL\1I0HaJIbHOCTIi 6bIIIH pa3pa60TaHbl pa3H006pa:3HbIe npOL\e.A)'pbl - Ha61IIOAeHlJe, WIlITeJIbHOe caMoHa6- JUO.n:eHlle, B XOAe KOToporo BeJIlICb e)l(eAHeBHbIe ./UIeBHIIKOBbIe 3a- nllCII, npOeKTIIBHbie MeTOAbI, onpOCHHKH, 3KcnepTHbIe OI.\CHKII. HccllenOBaHII aKTHBHOCTIl II 3MOL\1I0HaJlbHOCTII, npoBe- neHHbIe B 3TOM HanpaBJleHIIH H3yqeHIIH TeMncpaMeHTa, nOKa31\- iTlf, 'ITO TeMnepilMeHT 06HapYJKlfBileT OT'ieTJT/!Bble CBII3/! C nCI1XO- QJII3110JIOrlf'leCKIIMIl oco6eHHocTHMH '1eIIOBeKa. TaK, 60lIee BbICO- KIIH ypoBeHb aKTlIBHOCTIl OKa3aJlCa CB3aH C 60lIee BbICOKHM aK- TIIBIIPYlOllUIM BJIIfHHlleM nOAKopKOBbIX CTPYKTYP, C TaKIlM CBOII- CTBOM HepBHoH CHCTeMbI '1eJIOBCKa, KaK aKTIIBHpoBaHHocTb. C APyroii CTOpOHbl, 6blJIO nOKilJaHO, 'iTa oco6eHHOCTH TeMnepa- MeHTa onpel\eJlIOT cBoeo6pa311e npOQecCOB caMoperYIIHL\IIH Ii CBI/3aHbI C HeKOTopblMIi JlllqHOCTHblMIl oc06eHHOCTI/Mil II C YC- nelllHOCTblO B HeKOTopblX Bllnax AeTeJlbHOCTII. TaKIiM 06pa30M, IICCJIeAOBaHII noro HanpaBJIeHH nOKa:3aJIlI onocpeA)'IOlL\)'IO pOiTb TeMJ1epaMeHTa: 6Y)1Y<JH CBJl3aH C I/JH3HolIOnlqCCKilMil 3aKOHOMep- HOCTJlMH, TeMnepaMeHT BJlIIeT Ha I/JOpMHpOBaHlle IIHJI,IIBI1AyaJlb- HblX pa3JIllqllH B iTllqHOCTHOH ci/Jepe. feHeTllqeCKlle HCCJlCI\OBaHHH TeMnepaMeHTa HaqaJIlICb C ce- peJl,IIHbI 70-x r0)10B. ITpll HCCIIC.l\OBaHIIII rpex KOMnOHeHTOB aK- TlIBHOCTIl (CKOpOCTII, BapliaTIIBHOCTIl H CKJIOHHOCTII K npOI\OJl- JKeHll10 .l\eHTCJIbHOCTII) y AeTcH 9-10 JleT BHYTpllnapHoe CXO.1l- CTBO M3 OKa3aJlOCb Bblwe, qCM CXOJl.CTBO .II.3, no 60JIbillHHCTBY CKOpOCTHbIX II pe3YJlbTaTIIBHblX nOKa3aTeJIeH, nOJIY'leHHblx B nCII- XOMOTOpHOH II IIHTeJIJIeKryaJIbHOH c4Jepax, O./UI3KO pa3JI11'ille MeJK' AY M3 H .II.3 6J1H3Hel.\aMli He 6bliTO 06HapY)I(CHO B nOKaJaTeJlI/X, cBH.n:eTeJlbCTBYlOlllIIX 0 CTpeMJleHIIH np0.l\oJl)l(aTb HaqaTYIO .n:el/- TeJlbHOCTb (llIiTXTa H.<I>., He ony6J1I1KOBaHO). llOJIY'leHHbIe pe- 3YJlbTIITbI npC.l\CTilBJleHbI B Ta6J1l1l.\a 8.14 B HCCJIe)'\oBaHIIII, npoBeAeHHoM Ha B3pOCJIOil BbI60pKe (18- 25 JleT), II CKOpOCTHbIe rtOKa:3aTCJIII BbmOJIHeHIIJI IIHTeiTJIeKTyaJlb- HOH l\eTeJlbHOCTI1, II ee pa3HOo6pa3lle OKa3aJll1Cb Y M3 6JIH3He- 334 Ta6J1uu,a 8.14 BHympunapHoe cxoiJcmeo M3 u3 6J1U3Helj08 no I10Ka3amellJl.M aK- mU8Hocmu (1Il;/J!xma H </J., He 0l1y6J1UK08aHO) nOKa3aTe.n M3 .113 nCHXOMOTOPHAH C<I>EPA CKOpOCTb Ha",tCaHfllJI I1KHIoI{t 30 -05 KOCblX npAblx 23 19 ol5BoAKa 43 39 CTpeMneHMe K npOAOmKeHMIO AeCTBMR 06 41 BpeSI KOI1",eCTBO AeCTBI1'" 02 57 HHTEl1l1EKTYAI1bHAH C<I>EPA C4eT 62 28 KonMeCT80 npl1MepOB OUJ6K'" 28 25 CTpeMneHMe K npOAOl1)1(eHl11O AeCTBMR 14 15 BpeMR KOI1...eCTBO npl4MepOB 17 10 PeWeHl1e yp3BHeH'-' 48 38 KO!l4eCTBO CTpeMl1eHl1e 'J( npoAomKeH1O AeliilCTBiIIR -05 .04 BpeMR 00 -06 Ko.nM4eC;1'BO 110B BHyrpHnapHO 60Jlee rtOXO)l(IIMII, qeM Y ,Q3 6J1H3HeI.\OB (IllnHX- Ta H.11>., KpynHoB A H., 1982). IIpll aHanH3e H3MeHe!iIlH B CBOHCTBaX TeMnepaMeHTa Y Ae- TeH npH nepeXOi\e OT I\OIllKOJlbHOMY K IllKOJlbHOMY B03paCTY (OT 6 K 7 rOAaM) 6wIII nOJIY'IeHbi i\aHHble, CBIli\eTeJlbCTBYlOllllle 0 BJlIII/HIII! reHOTllna Ha HHAHBIli1yaJIbHble pa3nHqll B CBOHCTBax TeMnepaMCIHa (EropoBa M.C., 1995). ITo OL\eHKaM MaTepeH, BOC- nHTaTeJleH l\eTCKHX cal\OB II yqHTeJleH nepBoro KJlaCCa, M3 6iT1!3- HeQbI B 60JlblllHHCTBe CJIyqaeB (3a IICKJIIO'!eHHeM OJl,HOrO nOKa3a- TeJl!! - YTOMneMOCTIl B 6 JleT) OKa3bIBaIOTCH 60Jlbllle noxo)l(l! i\Pyr Ha I\PYI'a, "IeM ,Q3, H no pa3HblM nOj(a3aTeJlM aKTIIBHOCTlI, H no cYMMapHoMY nOKa3aTenIO 3MOl\IIOHaJlbHOCTII, CBIIJI,eTeiTb- CTBYlOllleMY 0 npe06JIa,l1aHIUi Toro HJlII I!Horo 3MoI.\IIOHaJIbHOI'O TOHa II JlerKOCTII 113MeHeHII HacTpOeHHJI. ITpH 3TOM OT 6 K 7 rO- i1aM BHYTplll1apHble pa31lHqH!! ,Q3 pe3Ko YBeJlII'lHBaIOTc (K03q,- QJHI1HeHTbI BHYTpllrtapHblX KOppeJlI.\HH .II.3 6iTH3Hel.\OB B 7 JIeT CTaHOBnc 3HaqllTeJlbHO HII)I(e, '!eM B 6 JleT), II, COOTBeTCTBeHHo, pa3nllql\ MeJK,ll.Y M3 II .II.3 6Jl1l3Hel\aM11 CTaHOBiITC1I 6011bille (Til6- 335 
mlla 8.15). 3TH .!taHHble CBH.!teTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 CBR3H nOKa3aTeneij aKTHOHOCTII H 3MOl\HOHanhHocTH C reHOTHnOM II Jl,eMOHCTpHPY- 101' Ty JKC l\apTHHY, KOTOpylO Mbl YJKe BI1,!\eJJn B reHeTl1'1eCKHX .!taH- HbIX, nOJIY'IeHHbIX B APyrHx HanpaBJIeHHJlX Hccne,!\ooaHIIR TeMne- paMeHTa, oTIIICaHHb!X 0 .!taIIHOH rnaBe: no lIeKOTopblM nOKa3aTe- nJlM, nonY4eHHblM 0 6 JleT, H no OceM nOKa3aTeJlRM B 7 JIeT cxo.!t- cno M3 OnH3HeL\oB npeBbIwaeT CXO,!\CTBO .II.3 5J1H3HCl\OB 60J1b- me '1eM B jijla pa3a. B 50nee cTapwcM o03pacTe, B 13-14 J1eT, KaK BI1.!tIIO 1'!3 Ta6J11I!hl 8.16, .!tallHble OnpoclIHKa CTpYKTypbl TeMnepaMeHTa, 3al10nHJlBWerOCJI caMHMII 5JJH3Hel\aMII, .!teMOHCTpIlPYIOT BJlHJlHHe reHOTHna IIa nOKa3aTCnl1 aICTHBHOCTH H 3MOL\HOHaJlbHOCTH, CBR- JalIHhle 0 3TOM OnpOCHHKe HCKJJI041'!TeJJbHO C nerKOCTblO B03HHK- HOBeHHJI OTpHl\aTCJ1hHbIX 3MOl\IIOHaJIbHbIX COCTORHHH (MaJJhIX C E. C coaBT., B neqaTH) AHaJlH3HPYJl 3TH .!taHHbIe, CJ1ellYeT TaICJKe 05paTHTb BHI'!Ma- HHe Ha TO, qTO nOKaJaTeJIH 3prnqHOCTH H 3MOL\liOHaJlbHOCTH, CBJI- 3allHble C npe.!tMeTHOH .1tCJlTeJlbHOCThlO, HcnblTblBalOT 50Jlblilec OITI{JlHHC reHOTllna, '1eM nOKa3aTeJll'! 3prHqHOCTil H 3MOL\1I0IlaJTb- HOCTH, COJl3aHHbTe C COl\HaJIbHbIM B3aHMOi\eHCTBHeM. B caMOM Ha4aJIC nOH rJlaObl rOOOpHJIOCb 0 TOM, qTO no Mepe BJpOCJIeHHR qenoBeKa CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa "MaCKHPYIOTCR": HX npOIlBlTe- HHJI MorYl' YCHJII10aTbCJI H!IH YMeHblllaTbCJI B 3aOHCliMOCTH 01' HOpM 05lIjeCToa, npe.!t1>JlB!IRCMbIX 4eJIOBeKy O'leOH.I1HO, '1TO B cIiTyaL\H- Tu6JJuJ(u 8.16 BHympunapHoe cxoiJcmao M3 uj],3 6RU31letl06110 I10Ka3amemIM aK- mU6110emu U 3M0tlUOHlUIb1l0emU « npeoMemlioli U e0tlUlUIbHOii epepe (MaJlblX C.E. c eOiJem., 8 ne'ianJu) N nOKa3aTeJ1 R., R" 1 3prw.IHoCTb 376 279 2 COLtIoHII1bHaA prM4HoCTb 197 277 3 n.naCTMHQCTb 226 218 4 Co,",anbHaA nn8CT144HaCTb 390 393 5 TeMn 254 312 6 COltHanbHbI TeMn 452 179 7 3Mo4 lotOHa nbHoCTb 594 236 8 COLtal1bHaFi 3MOOHaJ1bHQCTb 496 283 9 1{cHTponbHO'J.:A WKa.na 271 127 nQKa3arel114 OL\eHKM TSMnepaM8HT$. M8repei BOCOMraT6I1ell Y"IMTel1eili 6116T 6 lIeT 7.neT M3 .113 M3 .113 M3 .113 ,QSl4rSTel1bHaA aKTI4BHOmb 98 50 91 32 92 02 n03HaaaTe11bH8A 811CTHBHOCTb 97 83 77 59 89 49 OOlLlwrenbHoCTb 85 84 89 45 74 29 HaCToM4MBOC;rb 74 24 82 39 79 -07 MnynbCMBHOCTb - - 83 37 82 11 YToMn:R8MOC1h 73 90 37 44 84 33 3MO"OHaJ1bHOCTb - - 47 31 80 13 . Kon..O<;T80 nap: M3-37-41, .113 - 36-40 / IIX, eBR3aHHbiX (; 06111e/JlleM, O)/{I1)1aHHII H Tpe500aHHJI oKpyJKalO- Lu;HX BJII1J1IOT Ha nOBe.l1eHIIe B 50J1bweH CTeneHH, 'leM B cHTyaW1- IIX, CBII3aHHbIX C npeAMeTHOH AeRTe!IbHOCTbIO. HMeHHO B pe3YJ1b- TaTC 3Toro AmWMH'IeCKHe xapaKTeplleTl!l!H aKTHBHOCTI1 H 3MO- I.\HOHaiIbHocTIf, ICaCalOLu;l1eCIi cIITyal\HH 05w;eHI1I1, HaqHHalOT oT- pa)l(aTb He CTOJIbKO cBolicTOa TeMnepaMeHTa KaK TaKOBble, CKOJ1bKO oco6eHHOCTH ITH'!HOCTff, CcjJOpMHpOBBHHhle Ha 5a3e 3THX CBOHeTB TeMnepaMeHTa. B pe3YJIbTaTe 3TOrO .!tHHaMllqeCKHe xapliKTeplle- TIIKH 05Lu;IITelTbHOCTIi YTPaqllOalOT K 13-14 rOAaM COll3b C rCHO- TllnoM, KOTOpaJi 6blJla II 60llee MnaJl,UICM B03pacTc - II 6-7 JleT 'lITO KaCaeTCJI 3M0I1HOHaJIbHOCTH, TO ee no,!\po6Hoe IIeC!Ie- AOBaHlie Ha B3pOC!Ioii 5m13HeUOBOH BhI50pKe (18-25 !leT) Ae- MOllcTpHpyeT 60JIblllee CXOJl,CT80 M3 6I1H3HeLlOB, no "paBHeHIlIO c 3, nOqTI1 no BceM nOKa3aTenJiM (Ta5JIHl\a 8.l7), XOTII Jl,aHHbIC, nOJ1Y'IeHHble pa3HhlMH MeTOAaMII, CH!IbHO paeXOJl,JlTCIi B OL\eHKe BHYTPHnapHoro CXOACTBa H M3, II .II.3 611113He11011 (CeMCHOB B.B , 1981). B uelloM, MO)l(I!O CKa3aTb, '1TO eCTb HelWTOpoC OJ1lIRHHe reHOTHna Ha oe05eHHOCTH npOJlOlleH1l1i 6a3allbHb1X 3MOl\IIH (pa- .!tOCTII, rHeBa I'!J1H CTpaxa), XOTII ,!\aTb KOJ1l1qeCTBeHHYlO OQCHKY 3TOMY BJ1HIIHHIO no HMelOLu;IiMCR AaHHbIM HeB03MO)l(HO nOABOAH IiTor reHeT!1'!eCKHM flCCJ1eAOBaHIIRM, npoocileH- HblM B pyeJ1e KOHl\enl\HII TeMnepaMeHTa, npeJIIIOJKeHHOii B ,l{. He- 5bIJlI1JJ.blHbIM, MO)l(HO CKa3aTb, qTO reHOTHn BJ1I1ReT Ha I1H,!\I1BII- i\yallbHhle pa311I1'11i1i no aKTIIBHoCTH H 3MOQIIOHanbHOCTII, o.!tHa- 337 TaoJlu14a 8.15 Bnympul10pHble KoppeJlJllfllU 110xa30meJleii me.Mnep{1Memna (Ecopoea M.C.. 1995)* 336 
3. II!HTepnpeTalllul pe3YllbTaTOB, nOIlY'IeHHbIX npM Mcclle.qoBaHMM TeMnepaMeHTa HblX HanpaBnCHIIHX HCCJIe)l.OBaHHH TCMncpaMeHTa BbI)l.CJIHJOTCJI II myqaJOTCJI pa3Hble cBoiicTBa TeMnepaMCHTa. ITPII'UlHbI )IHX pa3- ImqHH MHoroo6pa3Hbl. ABTOpbl pa3HbiX HanpaBneHHiI B pa3nH'!HOH CTeneHH OCHO- BblBaJOTCH Ha npe.!l.8apllTeJIbHblX TCOpeTllqeCKHX npe)l.CTaBJleHIIJlX 0 cBoiicTBax TeMnepaMeHTa. ECJIH B IlIKOJIe B..II..Hc6b1J11Il\bIHa Mil B nCHxo6HOJIOnIqeCKOM nO)l.XO)l.e K TeMnepaMeHTY M .K.POT6apT aB- TOpbl HCXOMT 1t3 qeTKO C<jJOPMYJIHpOBaHHOH KOHl\enl\HH TeMnepa- MeHTa, TO nCIIXOJlOnI, npOBO)l.Hll1HC JIYII3BliJlbCKOe JIOHrIlTlO)l.HOe Mccne)l.OBaHlle, CTpeMHTCJI KaK 1010)1(110 IllIlpC OXBaTIITb Bce oc06eH- HOCTCH nOBe)l.eHIIJI (TO eCTb peanll3YJ01' '1I1CTO onllcaTeJJbHblH nOli- xo.n) H 3aTeM npM aHaJIII3C I(I!HaMII'ICCKIIX oc06eHHOCTeH nOBe)l.eHIIH paCCMaTpIlBaIOT HX KaK CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa. Pa3Hbie aBTOpbJ npeCJIC)l.YIOT B CBOI1X IICCJIC,llOBBHHJlX COBeeM HC COBna)l,aIOIllHC l\cnll. TaK, B HbIO-HopKCKOM JIOHrHTIO)l.C A.To- Mac II c.qecc CTpCMHJIIICb HaHTH YCTOH'IIiBbIe xapaKTepllcTIIKH, KO- Topble O)l,HoBpeMeHllo MomH 6bI II a,lleKBaTHO onllCblBaTb OC06CH- HOCTII )l,eTCH caMoro MJIa)l,IlIero B03paCTa, II BJIHHTb Ha a,llanTal\11JO K COl\lIanbHbIM ycnOBI'!>lM B 60nce CTaplllllx B03pacTax. A 3B1'Opbl nCHx06110JIonI,qecKoii MO)l.elI1I TCMnepaMcHTa OpllCHTllpoBamlcb Ha nOHCK TaKlIX )l,lIHaMHqCCKHX nOKa3aTeJJeH nOBe)l,CHII>I, KOTOPb!C HMCIOT OT'JeTJIMBYlO q,113HOJIOfll'lCCKYJO 6a3Y. BCne)l,CTBHe noro B onHCaTeJlbHOM nOj],Xo,!\e K TCMnepaMewry A.ToMaca If C. tIecc BblfJ.C- JIJlIDTCH TaKHC oco6eHfloCTH TCMnepaMcHTa, KOTOpbIX HeT Y CTOPOH- HIIKOB nCHxo6110JIon"qeCKOrO nO)l,xojJ.a (HanpHMcp, HaCTOHqll- BOCTb), HO BMCCTe C TeM MeHee nOAP06Ho IICCJIeJlYlOTCJI Xap3KTepll- CTIIKH, CBH3aHHbie C noporoM B03HIIKHOBCHHH 3MOl\HOHaJ1bHblX pe- aKl\IIH, CYJKCH Kpyr nOKaJaTeJIcii, CBH3aHHbiX C npOHBIICHI!HMII MO- TOpHOii aKTIIBHOCTII. HCKOTOpblC IiCCJ1C,llOBaTellli (HanpIiMep, npe)l,CTaBH1'eJlli fap- BapJ<cKoro HanpaBJ1CHIIH) IfCXO,W/T 1f3 npe.fJ.J10J10JKCH>lJI 0 TOM, qTO TeMncpaMCH1' IIMCeT CMblcn 113Y'laTb 1'OllbKO B jJ.eTCKOM B03paCTe, a B CTapIlleM B03paCTe CIICJJ.YeT paCCMaTpliBaTb IIII'IHOCTHble OC06CH- HOCTH, KOTOpblC q,OPMIIPYJOTCJI Ha ero OCHOBe. B CBJl3H C 3THM OHII C03HaTMhHD 01'pBHH'lIlBaIOT 113yqaeMbIC HM>! CBOHCTBa TCMIi, KOTO- pble, no IIX npe,tnOJlOJKeHHIO, HBJDIIOTCR npe.u.nOCbIJIKOH 3l<CTpaBep- CIII1-IiHTpOBepCIII1 (KOTOPYlO MbJ 6Y)l.CM paCCMaTpIlBaTh B clIeJl,yro- IllCH maBe). .lI.PyrHC HCCI1e.n:OBaTeJlH, A.Eacc II P.IIIIOMHfI, CTpeMH- CR HaiiTI! TaKHe cBoHCTBa, CTpYKTYpa KOTOpbIX COBna)l.aeT B paJHblX 339 Ta6J/Uqa 8.17 BHympunapHoe cxoocmeo 6JlU3Hetj08 no 110KmameJ/JlM 3MOI.jUOHMb- Hocmu (CeMeH06 B.B., 1981) nOK33aTem. M3 A3 3MOLtOHal1bHOCTM n = 24.28 n = 24-29 OnpOCHI1K PaAOCTb 29 11 rHea 03 19 CTpax 75 67 npOeKTMBHaJi MeTOAlIJlCa PCl,.QOCTb 35 01 rHea 68 26 CTpax 43 13 CaMOOeHl(a Pa.DtOCTb 40 12 rt\eQ 48 -01 CTpax 39 -15 04eHKa co-6mt3HeLl8 PB,AOCTb 08 .11 rHea: 21 -32 CTpa. 21 03 KO jJ.HHaMllqCCKHe nOKa3aTcnll aKTHBHOCTH, 11 npe)l()l.C Bccro, no- Ka3aTeJ111 aKT>!BHOCTI1, KOTOpblC npO>lBJI>lIOTCJI B cHTyal(HII 061l\c- HHH, K nO)!pOCTKOBOMY B03paCTY OKa3bIBaIOTCJI CB>l3aHbl HCKIiIO- qllTCllbHO co Cpe)l,OBbIMH BlIltHHHRMIi. B TOM pa3)!Cne TeKCTa 6Y)I,YT npoaHanll3HpOBaHbi PC3YJ1b- TUbl, nOJ1yqeHHbIe B pa3HbIx HanpaBJlCHH>lX HCCJIe)l.oBaHHJI TeM- nepaMcHTa. IIpc)K)I,e Bcero, 06paTHM BHIIMaHHC Ha TO, qTO npe)l.C1'aBH- TCIIII pa3HbiX HanpaBJIeHI1H, COrJ1aWaHCb B TOM, '11'0 TaKoe TCM- nepaMeHT (TO eCTb npH3HaBaH jJ.HHaMII'IeCKHH xapaKTep cro CBoiicTB, IIX B03paCTHYIO CTa61tIlbHOC1'b, CBH3b C q,1I31!0110rnqcc- K>!MH OC06CHHOCTRMII H T.)!.), COBceM He BCer)!a cornalllaIOTCH B TOM, KaKlle IIMeHHO nOBC)l.eH'ICCKHe oc06eHHOCTII CIIC)l.yeT pac- CMaTpHBaTb KaK CBOHCTBa TeMoepaMeHTa. HHa'le rOBopH, B pa3- 338 
B03paCTax H JlBIICTC nOI\CTPYKTYPOH IIIlqHOCTHhIX CBOHCTB II B I1CTCKOM, H BO B3pOCIIOM B03paCTC. HeKOTophle aBTophI He CKIIOHHbI OrpaHHqHBaTh npOHBJIe- HlIH TeMnepaMeHTa .neTCKHM B03paCTOM, HO peallhHO HCCIICI1YIOT TOJIhKO nepBbIe rOAhI )l(U3HII, H no 0TPa)l(aeTC Ha Cnel\HQ>HKe aHaJIH311pyeMhIx CBOHCTB TeMnepaMCHTa. Pa3HhlC aBTophI IfcnOllh3YIOT pa3HhIC MeTOl\bI ,!\lIarHOCTlIKII CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. OI1HII OT,!\aJOT npe,!\lIo'neHHe OllpOCIIII- KaM, I\pyrlfe HcnOllh3YlOT TOllhKO Jla60paTopHoe Ha6111OI1eHlle HeKOTophle oc06eHHOCTII IIOBe.n:CHIIH B03MO)l(HO OI1HHaKOBO YC- nCWHO ,!\HarHOCTHpOBaTb If TeM H I\pyrlIM MeTOI\OM. HanpHMep, MO)((IIO nOCMOTPeTh B JIa60paTopHhiX YCIIOBHJlX, KaK pe6eHOK pe- arllpyeT Ha nOHBlleHHe He3HaKOMoro qellOBeKa, II C TeM )((e ycne- XOM MO)((HO cnpOCHTh y MaTepH, 601lTC IIH pe6eHOK He3HaKOMhIX IllOl\eH. BMeCTe C TeM, lIa60paTopHblH MeTOA l\aeT B03MO)!(HOCTh 60llee ,!\eTaJIhHO IICCllel10BaTb npOBJIeHHe Toro UJIH IIHoro CBOil:- CTBa TeMllepaMeHTa (HanpHMep, nOCMOTPeTh i1JlIITellhHOCTh peaK- 1I1l11 npHB1.IKaHHH K He3HaKOMOMY qeIlOBeKY, HenOCpel1CTBeHHYJO MHMHKY), a onpOCHHKII n03BOJlIOT OQeHHTb TaKHe xapaKTepllC- TIIK>I TeMTIepaMeHTa, KOTop1.Ie He BI1I\H1.I TIPH KpaTKocpO'lHOM Ha6111OI\eHHlI H OqeBlIl1HbI TonbKO TOMY, KTO nOCTOJlHHO Haxo- ,!\IITCH pH,!\OM C pe6eHKOM (HanpllM ep, pIlTMH'IHOCTh B03HHKHOBe- HUH 6lfOllorl1qeCKUX lIoTpe6HoCTeit). HTaK, pa3Hble HanpaBlleHHH HCCJJC.IIOBaHHH TeMnepaMeHTa pa311l'!qalOTC no pa3pa60TaHHOCTII TeOpeTHqeCKHX npe,!\CTaBne- HHH 0 CBOHCTBax TeMnepaMeHTa, no QeIlHM, KOTophIe CTaBJIT ne- pe,!\ co60H nCHxOIIOfll, npOBo.n:H TY I1I1H uHylO pa60TY, 110 MI1- TellbllOCTH I1CCllel\yeMbIx B03paCTHhIx IIHTepBaIlOB, no MeTOJl,aM )l.UarHOCTlIKII. Bce JTO HaKlla,!\1.IBaeT OTlleqaTOK Ha cnHCKII cBoHCTB TeMllepaMeHTa, KOTopbIe BbI,!\eJIJlIQTcH pa311HqHbIMII IIC- Cne)l.OBaTeJlHMH. BMecTe C TeM, eCIIH OTBlle%CH OT l1eTalleH II nocMoTpen B 60llee o6061l\eHHOM BII,!\e Ha TO, B '1eM IIpe,!\CTaBHTeIlH pa3HbIX HanpaBlleHIIH BII,!\HT npOHBneHlle CBOitCTB TeMnepaMeHTa, TO CTa- HeT 3aMeTHO CYll\eCTBeHHOC CXO,!\CTBO B n0311I1I1HX pa311bIX aBTO- pOB. Bce 01'11 BH.n:HT 60JIbWIIHCTBO npOJlBlleHlliI: TeMnepaMeHTa B aKTHBHOCTII (60JlblllHHCTBO - B ,!\BllrareJIbHOH, HeKOTophIe - B 60,rec WllpOKOM Kpyrc npO>rBIICHllii), 3MO!.(1I0HamHocm (B ner- KOCTI'! B03HHKIIOBelllf JMOQIIOHallbHbIX COCTOJlHlliI:, B '1aCTOTe I1X CMeHbI, B npe06JI3Jl.aHIiH TOro Hnll HHoro 3M0I1IfOHanbHOro TOHa) H 1\ 06ll\1ITenhHOCTII (B npIl6J1I1)((eHIIH-y,!\aneHHlI, JlerKOCTH YCTa- HOBlleHIU KOHTaKTOB). MO)!(HO CKa3aTb, TBKIIM 06pa30M, 'ITO pa3- Hble a1\TOpbl B Ka'leCTBe C1\OHCTB TeMnepaMCHTa paCCMaTPHIIalOT ,!\IIHaMHqeCKl1e (CTlflleBbIC) npOHBlleHII aKTI1BHOCTH, 3MOQHOHallb- tlOCTII H 061l111TellbHOCTII. Teneph paCCMOTpHM, B '1eM )!(e 3aKIIJO'IaIOTCH pe3YllbTaTbI re- lIeTH'IeCKoro HCCJ1e,!\OBaHI1H cBoitcrB TeMncpaMCHTa. 0606Il\aH Te ,!\aHHhIC, KOTopbIe 6h1llH npe,!\CTaBlleHbl BO BTOpOH qaCTII rllaBbI, MO)l{HO c,!\enaTb cnWJOIl\lIe BbIBOJ!hl. EOllblilllHCTBO Hccne,!\OBaHIiH TeMnepaMeHTa npOBe,!\eHO Me- TO.1l0M 611113HeI\OB. Pe3YllbTaTbI 3TH X IIccne,!\OBaHllii OKa3hIBalOTCH HenpOTlIBOpe'lIlBbIMII Y pa3HblX aBTopOB: KaK npaBHIIO, M3 611H3- Hel\bl OKa3bIBalOTCH 60llee nOXO)((HMIt, qCM }:I3 6JI113HeQbl, no 60111.- I11I1HCTBY nOKa3aTeJIeH, OTHOCHIl1I1XCH K aKTlIBHOCTlI, 3MOQI10HBnb- HOCTH H 06ll\ItTeJlbHOCTII. EOllbllIe<1 CXOt(CTBO M3 611H3HeOB no 3THM rpeM rpynnaM CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa 06HapY)((HIIaeTC He3aBllCHMO OT BOJpaCTa, B 1(0TOpOM 611113HeQbl 06clle.n:YIOTcH, II MerO,!\OB, npllMeHHeMbIx B HCClleI\OBaHHII. ITpH 3TOM OqCHb qaCTO BHYTP"napHoe CXO.!!;CT1\O M3 6m13Hel\OB IIpe1\bllliaeT CXO)l.CTBO }:I3 6J1113HeI\01\ 60Jlec qeM B 2 pa:m. KpoMe TOro, HHOrl\a BHYTpHnapHhle KOppeJIJlQHH .II.3 6111f3He- I10B HMelOT OrpHI1aTeJlhHOe 3Ha'leHlle. L\pyme CXCMbI HCClleAOBaIfH (cpaBHeHlle CI16COB, pOIl:IITeJIei1 II iI.eTeH II T.'!\.) HcnOnb30BBnHCh i1JlH H3yqeHIIH IIpHpO)l.bl TeMnepa- MeHTa 3HaqHTeJlbHO pe)((e, a pe3YJIbTaTbI, nOJIyqaeMhle 3TIIMH MeTO- ,!\a Mil , OTIIHqaJOTCH OT pe3YllhTaTOB, nOJIyqCHHbIX B 611113HeI\OBhIX IICCJlC,!\OBaHHHX. CXO,!\CTBO CH6cOB (POt(HhIX 6paTbeB H ceCTep) no CBOHCTBaM TeMnepaMeHTa 06bIqHO >lBJIeTCH HeBblCOKIlM 11 He OTJIllqaeTc>I OT Cxo)].CTBa nplleMHbIX iI.eTeii (,!\BYX ,!\eTeH, BOCTIIIThIBaJOll\IIXCH B 0)].- HOH ceMhe HO He IIMelOll\HX 06Il\IIX reHOB, TO eCTh He COCTO>lll\HX B PO'!\CTBe). HHOrll:a KOppenJlI1HII pO,!\HhIX cII6cOB '!\pyr C .!\pyroM If Me- 101' oTpllQaTellhHoe 3HaqeHlle. CXO.1lCTBO pO.!!;l1relleH 11 l\eTeH HHor,!\a OKa3blBaeTCH BbIIIIe cXOAcTIla pO,!\I1TeJleH I'! ItX npHeM!lbIX ,!\eTeH, HO eCTb II CJlyqaH, Kor- ,!\a pa311HIIH OKa3bIBaIOTC He3Haq1lMbIMIt, TO eCTh pOJI,HTeIlH II HX 6 li O'lOrllqeCKlie .n:eTlI OKa3bIBaIOTC CTOllb )((e nOXO)((H IIpyr HB I1PY- ra, KaK pOiHTeJlli II IIX nplleMHbIC ,!\CTH. 340 341 
KaK MO)f(HO 06'b"CHHTb nO!IyqCHHbIe pe3YJIbTaTI,a I. ITpe)f(.n:e Bcero, nO!IyqeHHble pe3YJ1bTaTbl MorYT CBHj1e- Te!II,CTBOBaTb 0 HeaAAHTHBHOM HaC!Iej10BaHIIH CBOHCTB TeMnepa- MeHTa. BcnOMHHM, qTO 3TO 03HaqaeT. B r!IaBe 4 rOaOpll!IOCb 0 j1BYX THnax B3aIlM0j1eHcTaH" reo HOB - 3AAHTlIBHOM H HeaAAHTHBHOM B cJJyqae aAAHTHBHOH Ha- CJ1eyeMocTH !jJeHoTHnHqeCKOe npO"BJleHHe qepTbI, HanpHMep, CBOHCTBO TeMnepaMeHTa, "BJ1J1eTC" pe3YJ1bTaTOM cYMMapHoro .1I.eH- CTBHJI reHoa (CJIOIIO alIJ(lITIIBHbIH npOHCXOl\lIT OT aHTJlHHCKOro CJlOBa additive - CKJ1aJl,bIBaIOIl.\HiicJl). ECJ1H BapHaTHBHOCTb '1ep- Tbl nO!IHOCTblO onpe.1l.eJI"eTC" alIJ(HTIIBHblMIl reHeTH'IeCKlfMIf B!IH- JlHH"MH, TO M3 6J1H3Hel\bI 6Y.1l.YT nO!IHOCTbIO nOXO)l(H no 3TOH qepTe (nOCKOJ1bKY OHI1 nOJ1HOCTbIO COBna.1l.alOT reHeTliqeCKH); y j.(3 6J1H3Hel\oB, pOj1Hb!X cH6coB, PO.1l.lITeJIeH H .1I.eTei! CXOJJ:CTBO (KoppeJI"l\HH) no nOH qepTe 6YAeT paBHo B Cpej1HeM 0,5 (no- CKOJIbKY Y HHX a cpe.n:HeM nOJIOBHHa 06wllx reHOB); y npHeMHbIX CH6cOB, a TaKJKe y pO.1l.llTeJleii Ii I1X npHeMHblX .!leTCH CX0.1l.CTBO no 3TOH qepTe 6YJJ:eT paBHO 0, JIOCKOJlbKY Y HHX HeT o6U1HX reHaB. 3TO pacnpeJJ:eJIeHlle BeJIHqHH 3MHTlIBHOH reHeTl1qeCKOH BapHa- TlIBHOCTH y pa3HbIX pO.1l.CTBeHHHKOB npeI\CTaB!IeHO B TaOJ1I1l\e 8.18. Bce nCHXOJIOTHqeCKHe oc06eHHocTH '1e!IOBeKa, Ii B qaCTHO- CTI1 CBOMCTBa TeMITepaMCHTa, HCITblTbmaIOT BflWIIIHe He TOflbKO reHOTHna, HO II Cpel\bI, H n03TOMY reHeTH'IecKaJl BapHaTlIBHOCTb COCTaBJ1eT He 100%, a JlIIWb HeKoTopbIH npOl\eHT o6weii BapH- aTHBHOCTI'!. HHaqe rOBOp", He 6bIBaeT TaK, '1T06bl M3 6!III3Hel\bl 6bIJ1H nOJ1HOCTbIO nOXO)f(1I no KaKOH-TO nCIIXOJlOrH'IeCKOH qepTe, H HX BHYTpHnapHoe CXO.1l.CTBO 61,1110 paBHo 1,00. O.1l.HaKO II CJ1Y- qae aAAHTIIBHOH HaCJlel\YeMocTIl COOTHoweHHe BHYTPllnapHoro CXO.1l. CTBa Me)I()J.y pO.1l.CTBeHHIIKaMH J\OJ1JKHO cOXpaHHThCJJ 11 6blTb, HanpliMCp, TaKHM, KaK nOKa3aHO B n6JlHl\e 8.19. Ta6J1uu,a 8.19 llpwuepbl 6HympunapHo20 exooemea 8 pa:JHb!:x 2pYllllax pooem8eHHU- Koe I1pU aooumu8HOM HaCJIe008aHUU U HeaooumU8HoM /Jael/eoo/mHUU BHyTpMnapHoe CXOACTBO "PM napbl pOACfBeHHMI<OP 8AAWfI4BHOM t'le3AAM1MBHOM Hac.neAOBBHI'II4 HacneAouaHMM npoMep 1 npoMap 2 np.Mep 3 npl4Mep 4 M3 6-I1M3I1e4b1 I 0,60 0.80 0.5 0,8 >13 6n.'HebI 0,30 0,40 0,15 0.2 POAHble CWl6cbI 0.30 0,40 0,15 0.2 POAI4TeI1 III MX ABTM 0,30 0,40 0 0 pOAwrel1H ., npHeMHbJS' AeTM 0 0 0 0 \ Ta6J1uu,a 8.18 BllympunapHoe CXOOem80 8 pa311blX 2py"laX pOOcm6eH/JUK08 npu yel/06UU. qmO 6eR 6apUamU6110emb Ol1peOeJ/J/emCR OO/JOU aOOUmU8- Hoii 2eHemUeeKOU GapUamU6HOemblO, WlU l<eaOOUII1U8HOii 2e/JemU- «eeKOU 'iapUamU8HOemblO, WlU 8apUamU80emblO, e8R3aHHoii e ae- eOpmamU8/JOemblO BTOpOH BH.!l HaCJlel\YeMOCTIl - He3MHTHBHaH lIa cne .1l.ye- MOCTb (.!lOMHHaHTHOCTb H 3mU,;Ta3). B cnYlJae HeaJl.ll,lITHBHo!1 Ha- CJ1el\yeMocTH !jJeHOTllnll'leCKOe npO"lIneHlle qepTbI HB!IJlCTC" pe- 3YJlbTaTOM He TOJ1bKQ Toro, K3KlIe rellbl Ha lIee Bnll"IOT, 110 II B3a- IIMOl\eHCTBHH Me reHaMIi. ,[I;eTlI Hacne.1l.YIOT OT pOJJ:IITeneii reHbI, HO He HaC!Ie.1l.YIOT HI( KOHHTypa!1HIO (!IX COOTHOllleHHe), n03TO- MY eHOTHnllqeCKOe npOJlBJ1eHHe '1epTbI OK33blBaeTCH COBepllleH- HO i!PyrHM, qCM OHO 6b1J1o y pOI\IITeJIeH. Bcnll lIapHaTHBHOCTb qepTbI nOJIHOCTI,IO onpe.1l.eJlHeTC" HeaAAllTIIBHblMIl rCHeTH'IeCKII- Mil BJ1I1J1I1I1J1MIf, TO M3 6flH3Hel\hl 6Y.AYT nOJIHOCTbIO nOXO)f(1I no 3TOM '1epTe; Y ,[1;3 6JIII3Hel\OB 11 pO.1l.HbIX cn6coB CXOJ\CTBO no 3TOM '1epTe 6YJl,eT He 60JIbWe 0,25; y pO.1l.IITeJ1cii III\CTeH CXOI\CTBO no 3TOM '1epTe 6Y.1l.eT npIl6J1I1JKaTbCJI K 0 (Ta6JIHl\a 8.18), a 3Kcnepfl- MeHTaJIbHhle ,QaHHble, nOJ1Y'IeHHble npl! cpaDHeHllli pa3Hblx pow CTBCHHHKOB, MorYT BblrJIJl.1l.eTI, TaK, KaK nOK33aHO B Ta6JJIIl\e 8.19. Tenepb BepHeMcH K TeM pe3YJlbTaTaM, KOTopble 6blJ1H no- nyqeHbI B reHeTII'IeCKIiX IICCJ1eJJ:OBaHIiJlX TeMnepaMeHTa. O'leHb '1aCTO Oka3blBaeTC" TaK, '11'0 CXOI\CTBO M3 6!II'!3Hel\OB npeBblwa- 343 napbl pOCTBeHHKOB AAAi1ntBHaA HeiiA,G,MwIBHaR ACCOPTaT"B. reH9Tr,1\.1eCKall rel1ell'1"'1eClC3F1 HOCTb Bap..ant9HOCTb Bapl4antBHOCTb M36J1M3Heu,bI 1,0 1,0 1,0 ,[13 6nM3He4b1 D,S 0.25 0.5 PO,QHbre cl46c D,S 0,25 05 PO,AIo1TenH H HX Aen 05 a 0.5 POI'ITenL1 .. np..eMHble AerH a ° a 342 
eT CXO,QCTBO .II.3 6J1113HeOB 60nee qeM B Z pa3a. 3TOT !jJaKT, a TaKJ/(e HH3KHe KoppenIII1 MeJl(,QY CH6caMH, MeJl(,QY pO,QllTenMII II ,QeThMil n03BOnJilOT npe,QnonOJl(HTh, '1TO CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeH- Ta HCnblTblBalOT Hea.1IJJ.I!TlIBHble reHeTlI'leCJ<lIe Bnl1HIf. 2. .II.pyroii nplf'lHHOii, BnHlOllI.cii Ha CXOACTBO MeJKA)' PO,Q- CTBeHHIIKaMH, BnReTC aCCOpTaTI1BHO{,Tb B Bbl60pe 6pa'iHOrO napTHepa. ECJIH 6paKH 3aKnlOqalOTC MeJK./I.Y nlOII,bMII, nOXQ)!(HMI1 no K3KOH-TO reHeTHqeCKIi 06YCJlOBJleHHOH qepTe, 3TO npHBo,QHT K TOMY, qTO CXO)l.CTBO MeJKA)' .n:eThMI1, a TaKJI(e MeJKA)' pO,QHTenRMIf II ,QeThMH no nOH qepTe 6Y.1\eT nOBbllllaTbC. ACCopTaTliBHOCTb MO- J/(eT 6hlTh II oTpHl1aTenbHoH (no norOBopKe "npoTHBOnOnOJl(HOCTH CXO.ro<TCR"). PaCCMOTpHM, MOJ/(eT nH accopTaTHBHocTb 6bITb npHqlfHOii pe3ynhTaTOB, nonyqaeMhlX B reHeTHqeCKIfX IIccne,QOBaHHX TeM- nepaMeHTa. Ecnn BC BapHaTHBHOCTb H3yqaeMOH qepTbl 06ycnoBJ1eHa ac- copTaTIIBHOCTblO, TO nOKa3aTeJIH BHYTpHnapHoro CXO,QCTBa no 3Toii '1epTe y M3 6J1H3He110B 6Y.1\YT paBHbl 1,0; Y ):\3 6J11f3HeI10B, P0)l.HbIX C,,6COB, p0.1\HTeJ1eH n )l.eTeii CXO.1\CTBO no nOH qepTe 6Y)l.eT paBHO B Cpe,QlleM 0,5; y npl1eMHblX C,,6COB, a TaKJI(C Y p0.1\llTeneH II HX npHeMHblX .1\eTeH CXO.1\CTBO no 3TOH qepTe 6Y.1\eT paBHO O. 3TO pacnpel\eneH"e Benl1qHH BHYTpwapHoro CXO.1\CTBa y pa3Hbix pO,Q- CTBeHHI1KOB npe)l.CTaBJ1eHO B Ta6J1Hl\e 8.18. CJ1ellOBaTenbllo, accop- TaTHBHOCTb MOJl(eT !t3MeHTh pa3J11lq"e MeJK.1\Y M3 H ):\3 6J1"3Hea- Mil H, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, - nOKa3aTeJIH HaCJIep,yeMOCTII. TaK"M 06Pa30M, TCOpeTllqeCKII accopTaTIIBHOCTb MOJl(eT BMe- IlIHBaTbC B pe3ynbTaTbl reHeTI1qeCKHX IIccne,QOBaHIlH. Ho npoHC- XO.1\llT J1H TO B reHeTHqeCKHX HCCJle)l.OBaHHSlX TeMnepaMCHTa? ITpl1 3KcnepIlMeHTaJIbHOii npOBcpKe ponll accopTaTHBHocTIi B ypoBHe CXO)l.cTBa pa3J1l1qHbIX pO)l.CTBeHHHKOB 6bIJ10 nOKa3aHO, '1TO accop- TaTHBHOCTb no TeMnepaMeHTY BpJl,Q nH OKa3bIBaCT CHJ1bHOC BnHR- Hlle Ha CXO)l.CTBO pa3HbIX nap pO.1\CTBeHHHKOB no TeMnepaMeHTY: 06b1'1HO ee BenH'IHiia OKa3b1BaeTC He3HaqHTeJlbHOH, II n03ToMY Ma- nOBepmITHO, qTO OHa MOJl(eT 6blTh OTBeTCTBeHHOH 3a nOJIY'IaeMble pe3Y JIb TaThI. 3. .II.0 CIIX nop paccMaTpHBaJIHCh reHeTHqeCKlie npll'lHHbl, J1eJl(alll.He B OCHOBe TOH 3MnHpH'IeCKOH KapTIIHbl, KOTOpaJi nOJIY- '1eHa npH 113Y'iCHHII ponH HaCnC)l.CTBeHHOCTH II cpelI,bl B .1\eTepMIIHa- 11I1 CBoiicTB TemcpaMeHTa. Tenepb nepcii.1\eM K aHam13Y cpe.1\o- 344 BblX npHqllH, KOTopble MorYT YBenHqHBaTb BHYTplinapHoe CXO)l.- CTBO M3 6nH3HeoB H YMeHblllaTb CXO)l.CTBO MeJl(,QY BceMH .1\PyrIl- MJI p0)l.CTBeHHHKaMIi. KaK YJI(e rOBopHnOCh npl1 OnJlCaHliH TpeXKoMnoHeHTHoii TeOpHH TeMnepaMeHT3, Y ):\3 6J1H3HeOB MOJl(eT 6b1Tb 3HaqHTeJIb- HO CI1J1bHee, qeM y M3 6J1113HeOB, BblpaJKeH KOHTpacTHbIH 3!jJ- !jJeKT: Bo-nepBblx, pO)1I1TeJ1H aKlIeHTJlpYIOT pa3nllql1R MeJl(JI,Y 6mn- Hel1aMH (o6palll.alOT Ha :nil pa3J1nqHR BHIIMaHHe, nO,QKpennRIOT HX) II TaKHM 06pa30M YBenHqllBalOT HecxOACTBO .II.3 6m13He110B; BO-BTOPblX, Y caMHX ):\3 6J1H3Hel\OB 3HaqllTelIbHO 60JIbllle, qeM Y M3, BblpaJ/(eHo CTpeMneHJle 6bITb HenOXOJl(IIMH JlPyr Ha Jlpyra. HMeHHo 3TO 1\0 HeKoTopOH CTeneHH CHJlJI(aeT BHYTpHnapHoe CXO)l.- CTBO ):\3 6J11I3Hel\OB. AHaJ!orH'IHbIe npllqHHb! MorYT npHBo,QI1Tb 11 K CHHJKeHHIO CXOI\CTBa MeJl(I\Y cH6caMI1. 4. ECTeCTBeHHO TaKJI(e npeJln0J10Jl(IITb, qTO cpe,QoBbIe !jJaKTo- pbI MorYT nOBbIllIaTb CXOI\CTBO M3 6J1H3Hel\OB. OKpYJI(alOllI. He HX He pa3J1nqalOT H OTHOCSlTC K HI1M OI\HHaKOBO; OHI1 qalll.e, qeM ):\3 6J1H3HeUbI, Bbl6HpalOT OI\HHaKOBble 3aHRTHR; Y HIIX qawe 6blBalOT OI\HH H Te J/(e /l.PY3b. Bce 3TO MOJ/(eT nOBbllllaTb CXOI\CTBO B pa3HbIX oco6eHHocTRx !IX nOBe,QeHHR, B TOM qHCJIe 11 B Tex, KOTopble OTHO- CRTCSI K ql1cny cBoiim TeMnepaMeHTa- BMeCTe C reM, BJIHRHHe cneUl1qJH'IeCKOH MOH03HrOTHOH cpe- II,bI B pa3J1lfqHSlX Me)!{p,y M3 H ):\3 6JI!t3HeaMII He CTOHT nepeOl\eHH- BaTh. KaK 6b1JIO nOKa3aHO npH onHcaHHI1 reHeTlI'JeCKI1X Hccne.n:OBa- HIfH TeMnepaMeHTa, YJKe Ha nepBoM rOilY Jl(H3HH (TO eCTb Kor.11a .11eiiCTBHe BHeUlHIIX, CpC.110BbIX BnllHHH HMeeT O'leHb He.!{OJ1f)'lO HC- Topmo) 06HapYJKIIB<lIOTCJI TaKi'le CBOHCTBa TeMIIepaMeHTa, no KOTO- pbIM CXO.11CTBO M3 6JIH3HeI10B npeBbIllIaer CXO.11CTBO .II.3 6nH3Hel\OB 60JIee '1eM B 2 pa3a. S EllI.e OI\,Ha npH'IHHa, KOTopaSl BKnlOqaer B ce6 H feHerH- '1eCKHe, H cpeAoBblc !jJaKTopbt, CBSl3aHa C pa3J11iqHSlMH B B03paCTe MeJl(I\Y CpaBHIIBaeMblMIl napaMH p0.11CTBeHHI1KoB. nCHXOnOmqec- KHe oc06eHHocTil Y BCCX '1J1CHOB ceMbll .11l1arHocTHp)'lOTCSI B TOM B03paCTe, KOToporO OHII .n:OCTllrJII1 Ha MOMCHT 06CJ1e.110BaHII Ho MeTOl\b1 IICCJ1e.110BaHII TeMnepaMeHTa pa3nHqalOTCH B pa3HbIX B03 paCTax. COOTBerCTBeHHO, MeHSlIOTCSlII nOBeileH'IeCKlle npORBJ1eHHSI, no KOTOpblM CY.11RT 0 TeMnepaMeHTe. 3To MOJKeT CHI1J/(aTb CXO,QCTBO Y cpaBHI1BaeMblX nap pO,QCTBeHHIIKOB (CH6cOB, po.1\llTeneH H l\eTeH) 345 
C B03paCTOM MCI/RCTCR T3KJKe CeHCIfTHBHOCTb K Cpe,lJ;0BbIM ljIaKTOpaM, BnHJ!I01lI.I1M Ha CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMCHT3, n03TOMY BJlIIR- HHR Cpe,!\bl, BaJKHbie IUIR TeMnepaMCHTa, HanpllMCp, CTaplllcro pc- 6eHI(a IIJlII pO,!\I1TCJIeH, MorYT HM1<aK He CKa3bIBaTbCR Ha TeMnepa- MCHTe MJIa,!\lllcro pe6eHKa. H 3TO TOJKe MO)l(e'!' CHHJKaTb CXO,!\CTBO MCJK.l\Y pO,!\CTBeHHJ.lKaMH, pa3JJH'IaIOllIIfMHCJ\ no B03paCTY. KPOMC Toro, C B03paCTOM MCHReTeR 31<CnpeCCHJI reHOB, H3Me- HJIJI ypOBeHb reHeTIf'lCCKOif 06YCJIOBJIeHHOCTIf nCKXOJIOrHqCCKOi\, xapaKTCpHCTIIKII. H3-3a 3Toro CXO,!\CTBO MC1I<,!\y napaMIl pO,!\CTBCH- HHKOB, I1MCI01lI.HX pa3HblH B03paCT, Tal(1I<C MOJKe'!' CHH)I(aTbCR. BbIXO,l\OM H3 3T01i CI1Tyal\IIH 6bInO 6bI 06CJIeAoaa'ille pO.1l.- CTBCHHHKOB B O,ll,llOM II TOM JKe xpOHOnOrl1qecKoM B03paCTe: HanpH- MCp, 06cm:,!\OBan pe6eflKa, nop:0JK.l13Tb, 110Ka ero MJ!a.n.wHU 6paT HnH cCCTpa '!\opaCTeT ,!\O Toro JKC B03paCTa, 11 TOJIbKO noCJIC 3Toro 06CJle,n:OBaTb MJlaJI,lllero pe6eHKa. Ho nOKa TaKHe I1ccne,!\OBaHHR TOJIbKO nnaHHpYIOTCJI. HTaK, MO)l(HO npc,!\nOJlO)l(IITb, qTO eeTb 5 ljIaKTopoB, KOTO- pble MorYT 06YCJIOBJJHlJ3Th OC06eHHOCTII pe:JYJThTaTOB, nOJl}''1eHHbIX npl1 reHeTllqecKOM "CCM,!\OBaHIIH TCMncpaMcHTa - Hea.n.r\IITIIBHblH xapaKTep Hace,!\oBaHI{R eBOIICTB TCMllcpaMcHTa, accopmnIBHoCTb (B He60JIhlllOIl CTeneHI1), KOHTpacTHbIH 31j11j1CKT (crpC"InCHIlC K pa3- JIHqMJlM) Y .II.3 6JIII3HeL\O\l, aCCHMIIJIJlL\IIOHHbIH 31j1q,eKT (CTjJCMJIeHHC K CXO,l\CTBY) Y M3 6JII13HCL\OB H PaJHblH B03paCT HcnbllyeMbIx npl1 cpaBHeHHH pO,ll,llTenCH C ,LJ;eTbMII II cH6cOB /l,jJyr e /l,jJyrOM. M01l<HO npc,!\fIOJIO}f(HTb TaK1KC H TO, '11'0 3TH ljIaKTopbl P:cIiCTBYIOT COBMCCT- HO, HanpHMCp, He3Ml1THBHOC Hacne,!\OBaHHe npllBOll.liT K TOMY, '11'0 BHYTpllnapHoe CXO,LJ;CTBO CH6cOB OKa3blBaeTCR 3HaqllTeJlhHO MeHb- we, '1eM CXO'!\CTBO M3 GJIH3HeL\OB, a KOHTpaCTHbIH 31j11j1eKT e1ll.e 60Jlb1ll.C YCHnl1BaeT HeCXQ,LJ;CTBO C116cOB, CHH)I(aR IIX BHYTjJl1napHOe CXO,l\CTBO,l\O HC3HaqJfMOro. ITO,!J;BO,!\J! HTQrH, MOJKHO C,LJ;CJIaTb cne,n:YI01lI.He BbIBOI\I>]. Pe3YJIbTaThI reHeTHqeCKIIX HCCJJC,!\OBaIlHH TeMllepaMeHTa no,!(- TBepJK,n:aIOT npell)10JIOJKCHIIC 0 TOM, '1TO HH.!D1BII.I\YaJlbHble pa:mll- '1HH B CBoiiCTBl!X TCMnepaMeHTa IICllbITblBalOT BJIHHHlle reHOT:'l1a, TO eCTb .III1HaMH'IeCKlle oco6eHHOCTH aKTIIBHOCTII, 3MOl\IIOHaJlbHOC- TII H 061l1.HTeJIbHOCTH, HeCMOTpR Ha HCKOTOphlC pa3J1HqHJI B TOM KOHKpeTHOM co.u;epJl(aHHH, KOTopoe B HI!X BKJ1a,1\blBalOT PaJf/blC aD- TOpbI, B 60JIbllJI1HCTBe HCCJle.u;OBalmH OKa3bIBaIOTCR reHeTHqeCKII 06YCJlOBJICHHb(IH. 346 ECJIIi 06061l1.1ITb AaHHloIe pa3Hb!X pa60T, MOJKHO CKa3itTb, '11'0 ypoBeHb rCHeTHqCCKOH 06yCJIOBJIeHHOCTlI aKTlIBHOCTII, 31.101.1,110- HaJlbHOCTI'! H 061l1.HTCJlbHOeTH OKa3blBae'!'CJI npHMepHO O.I!)lHaKO- Db!M, TO eCTb 110 proYJIbTaTaM, IIMelO1lI.IIMCR Ha CCrO,ll,llRIllHI1H ,n:eHb, lIeJlbJH CKa3aT1, qTO KaKOe-TO H3 3THX CBOHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa HC- nblThIBaeT 60JIblliee BJIKHHI1C reHOTHlla, a KaKoe-TO - MeH11l1ee. feHCTH'ICCKaR KOMnOHeHTa B ljIeHoTlmH'IeCKOii .1I.HCnepCI1H CBOftCTB TeMnepaMCHTa CBR3aHa npeHMY1ll.CCTBeHHO C He3J!,ll,llTlIB- IIb!MH BJlIIJlHHRMII. Kill( npaBHJlO, BeJJI!qHHa nOKaJaTCJleH HaCJIe.I\YeMoCTIi aKTHB- HOCTfI, 3M0I1f10HaRbIlOCTH 11 061l1.HTeJJb}IOCTH, Bb]'1I1CJIClfHbIX Ha oc- HOBaHlIII 6nIl3HeL\OBbIX ,n:aHHbIX, HaXO.I!)ITCR B npe,n:enax 0,40- 0,50. O,ll,llaKO B pe3YJlhTaTaX, I1MeIOIllHXCJ! fla CCrOj1JlRUlHHIi ,n:CHb H OCHOBaHHblX npellMy1ll.eCTBeHHO Ha 6JIHJHel10BIoIX ,n:aHHbIX, BJlHHHHC reHeTH'ICCKHX ljIaKTopoB CMeWHBaeTCR C BJIHRHHCM cpe,n:OB\'!X ljIaK- TOpOB, qTO MOJl(e'!' HeCKOJlbKO yaeJJH'IHBaTb nOKa:JaTCJIb HacJle.lIye- MOCTH. IIo3TOMY He HCKJOO'IeHO, qTO B 6y,n:YUJ.HX HCCJ1e.1l.0BaHHHx, B KOTOpblX cpe,!\OBbrc ljIaKTopbI 6YilYT KOIITpOJIHpOBaTbCJJ GOJIee T1.1\a- TeJIbHO, 6y,n:t'T 06HapYJKIIBaTbCR 60nee HH3KIIH nOKa3aTen1 HaCJIC- ,n:yeMoCTH (npI1MepHO, 0,O,4). \ 11 B 3aKJUoqeHlle oTMeTHM, '1TO B 3TOH rnaBe MbI noqTH He KaCaJlHCb B03paCTHbix H3MCHCHHH B rellOTl1I1HqeCKOH 06yCJIOBJleH- HOCTI1 CBoIiCT!J TCMnepaMCHTa. a HHX 6Y,!\eT paCCKa3aHO n03)Ke, B maBe 16, nOCBH1lI.eHHOH npoGneMaM paJBHTHR. BbIB9Ab. l<;TeMl'lqJaMeHTy OTHOCRTCJI OOO6CHHOC- '\'II 'IemJBeKa, K9'l'0Phle pnpe,!I,eJJJlIq:r ,lUiIJaM.\!KY eg> .n1!!lbH0C11t, HMeIOT TeCHbIC CBJi311 C 61t0JJOnI'IecKHMIl no.rr.crpYJITYPaMH OpnIfUf3- Ma II 06Y\,-!,OBJIeHbI rCHOTllnOM. CuoiiCTBa Te.mepaMetml oOHapy- JlCHBaJQTCIi B palUteM ,aeTCT8C, JIBJIJIJOTCJI OTlJoClI'reJIbltO CTa6HJIbHbl- Mil, COxpallJlJOTCR Ha npOTJI:lCCUHJj .lIJIHTeJIbI{OI'Q..!1ep()JI,a BpeMeHH H B pa:3HbIX cmyaQHIIX. " " Teope11l'lecJ<oe H 3KCnpi{MCIt:TaJThHOC IC}"ICIfHe TeMI1epaMCH- 'fa II paJllhIX HaY'IHLlX llIKOJlax y6e,ll,llTeJIbHO 110KaJaJIO, '1TO K CBOH- C" 17.!o!,:p,:!l1;!!t.,()THOCSl'fe AIJHa!d!'l'le£I<He()co6eIJHOC'fH 347 
nOBe,/(CHIIH, KOTOpbIe CB"1a/;!!>I C IU<THBIIOCThIO, 3MOQHQHaJIbHOCThIO Ii 06W.HTeJThHOCTblO.'" . . .. HccnenOBaHe reHe'IWIeCKOH 06ycnOBJleHHOCTH HH)J)fBIli\Y- aJIbHb[X P33JI11qHH B CBOHCTBaX TeMnepaMellTa npOneMOHCTpKpOBa- )]0, 'tTO HH,!\IiBlI.!I.YaJIbllble pa3JIH'IIiR B ,/(MllaMHqecKHX npORBneHlIJIX aKTIIBHOCTII, 3MOQHOHaJIbHOCTH Ii 06ll\HTeJIbHOCTIi HCnb[ThIBaIOT BnHRHlie reHOTllna. ITo liMelOll\HMCJI Ha ceroAliRIIIHHH neHb naH- HbIM MO)l(HO CKaJaTb, O, Bo-nepBbIX, Hacne.l(yeMOCTh onpeneJl>leT ,/(0 n0J10BHHbI HH)J,IIBHAYaJIbHbIX pa3JI11'1Hi1 B 3Tnx cBoiic'rnax TeM- ncpaMCHTa If, BO-BTOpbIX, rCHeTlfqecKHe BJIID/HlfH Ha TeMnepaMeHT HMelOT lIea,!\.!\HTHBHbIi1 xapaKTep. rJ1ABA 9. JU14HOCTb O!lHCb[BaH B 70-e rOJl,b] npOlIJJlOrO BeKa Bb[l1alOll\HXCH aHr- JmilCKIiX yqeHb[X, C3p <I>peHcHc faJIbTOH, KOTOPb[H He pa3 Y)I(e ynoMHHaJICH B 3TOH KHllrc, o6panm BHHMaHHe Ha TO, qTO Bb[;1a- IOWHeCH JIlOnH Ii HX 311aMellliTble npeAKII HMelOT nOXO)l(He OCO- 6eHHOCTH J1HqHOCTH. 3TO ceMe.lHoe CXO.l(CTBO 4>.raJ1bTOH cqeJJ ;10CTaTO'lHbIM OCHOBaHHeM I1JIH BbIBO;1a 0 reHeTHqeCKOil o6yc- JlOBl/ellllOCTH HeKOTOpb[X CBOHCTB I/WIHOCTH, K qHCI/Y KOTOPb[X OH OTHec, B '1aCTHOCTH, HaCTOil'lHBOCTb, 3HeprHqHOCTb, He3aBH- CIIMOCTb, npaB,/(HBOCTb H l1a)l(c OTHOIIleHHC K peJlHrHIi II HHTepee K HaYKe. OCHOBOH nnR reHcanOrllqeCKOrO aHanH3a, npOBe,/(eHlIoro <I>.raJ1bTOHOM, nOCJlY)l(Hnll paCCKa3bl Bb[l\aIOWHXCH yqeHb[X 06 IIX pO;1CTBeHHHKax, TO eCTb MaTepllaJI 6e3yeJ10BHO HHTepeCHbIiI, HO BpH,/( JJH Hal1e)l(Hb[H AJIH reHeTllqeCKOrO aHaJ1113a. COMHeHHH B ero Hal\e)l(HOeTH CBH3aHbI C pHnOM np"qIlH. Bo-nCpBb[X, CXO;1CTBO Me)l(,/(y '1l/eHaMIi CCMbH MO)l(CT 6b[Tb pe3ynbTaToM BJlHHHHJI He TOJIbKO reHeTH'IeCJ<IiX, HO II cpe,/(OBblX ljJaKTopOB: ,/(eTH nOXO)l(1I Ha pO,/(HTeJ1eil lie TOJ1bKO 113-3a reHeTH'teCKoro CXO.!(CTBa, HO H nOToMY, '1TO OHII lI<HBYT 60K 0 60K C ponHTeJ1HMII Ii YCBaHBalOT HX 06pa3 )l(1I3I1H, npHBblqKH, npe,/(CTaBJ1eH HH 0 TOM, qTO XOpOIIlO, a 'iTO nnoxo. BO-BTOpbIX, B BocnOMHHaHHHX MorYT coxpaHHTbCH He CTOJJbKO TC cBoilCTBa, KOTopble 6bIJJII npIlCYll\H ,/(aBHO nOKH- HYBWIIM 3TOT MHp pO;1CTBeHHliKaM, CKonbKO ceMciiHbIe JIerCH.!lbl, COBceM He 06H3aTcnbHO IIMelOWHC OTHoweHlle K peaJJbHOCTII. B- TpeTbIlX, JIJo6b[e peTpocneKTIIBHbIe OL\eHKH (OQeHKII Toro, '1TO 6bIllO ,/(aBHO) Ii, TeM 60JIee, BneqaTneHHe 0 KOM-TO, CIjJOPMHPO- BaHHoe Ha OCHOBaHHH paCCKa30B ApyrHx JIlOneH (6a6YIllKa pac- CKa3blBana 0 npa,/(cnyWKe), C]inbllO HCKa)l(alOTCR no,/( BnllHHHCM KYJIbTYPHb[X CTepeOTHnOB. H3-3a 3Toro B BocnOMliHaHI1RX MO)l(eT Ha3bIBaTbCR He TO CBOHCTBO, KOTOpblM OQeHHBaeMblH qenOBeX Aei1cTBHTeJIbHO 06nanan, a TO, KOTOpblM 011 AOJIlI<eH 6bIll 6b[ 06- JlaAaTb, no MHeHll10 nOTOMKa, )l(HBYll\erO COBceM B !\pyroe BpeMR II B cOBepweHHo !\pyrllx yCJJOBHHX. 349 
B HCCJle,!!OBaHIIRX JIllqHOCTHOH ccjJepbl, npOBO,!!RlI.\IfXCR B re- HeTllKe nOBe,!!eHI1R B HaCTORlI.\ee BpeMR, npe'!!nplfHI1MaeTCR ropa3- ,!!O OOJIbWe YCIfJIIIH ,!!JlR pa3,!!eJIeHHH reHeTH'IeCKliX Ii HereHeTII- qeCKIIX npll'lIlH CXO,!!CTBa Me)/(,!!y pOJ{CTBeHHHKaMIl. COBpeMeH- Hble nCliXOreHeTlIKH, OOpall.\alOlI.\l1eCH K 113y'leHHIO ocooellHOCTeH JlllqHOCTII, OOJla,!!aIOT oOJlee TOHKIIMH MeTo,!!aMIl aHami3a, qeM C3p <I>peHclic f'aJIbTOH, HaqllHaBWHH 3aHIII3TbCR 3TOH npOOJIe- MOH 50JIec 120 JIeT Ha3aJ{. KpoMe Toro, B cerO,!!HHWHIIX pa50Tax CBoHcTBa JIH'IHOCTII Ol.\eHIIBaIOTCH 3Kcnep1fMeHTaJIbHO, TO eCTb IfCnOJIb3YlOTCJI aKTYaJIbHble, a He peTPocneKTI1BHble Ol.\eHKII. TeM He MeHee reHeTII'IeCKIIH aHaJIII3 JII1'1HOCTII, npOBe,!!eH- Hblii <I>.raJlbTOHOM, I1MCeT OJl,IIY IfHTepeCHYlO OC05CHHOCTb, Ha KOTOpylO CTOIIT 05paTIITb BHHMaHlle, Ha'lHHaH 06CY)/()'IeHlle co- BpeMCHHblX reHeTH'IeCKHX I1CCJIe)'lOBaHIIH JIliqHOCTHOii cljlephl. B cmlCKe CBOHCTB JIllqHOCTIf, oTHeceHHbIX <I>.faJIbTOHOM K rCHCTH- qeCKIf 06YCJlOBJIeHHblM (3HeprHqHOCTb, npaB,!!I1BOCTb, HHTepec K HaYKe H T.JI,.), MO)/(HO YBII,!!eTb 11 xapaKTepHCTIlKII, KOTopble, CKO- pee Bcero, CBJl3aHbI C TeMnepaMeHTOM, II oc06eHHOCTH MOTHBaQU- OHHOH ccjJepbl, Ii aTTHTIO.IU>I, H UHTepCCbl. HH3'1C rOBopH, K JIl1qHO- CTHOH ccjJepe OTHeceHhl caMhle pa3HbIe oco5eHHocTil qeJlOBeKa - onpe)'leJIJllOlI.(lie CTHJleBhle oc06eHHOCTI1 ero nOBe.n:eHuR, CBR3aH- HblC C cro OTHOWCHHRMH C l\PyrmlH JIIOAbMI1, RBJIHIOlI.(lIeCR 0TPa- )/(CHIICM ero pOJleBoii n03HI.\III1. B 3Ha'lUTeJIbHOH CTenCHIl TaKoii nO'!!XOA K cljlepe JIU'IHOCTII (06'beJ{UHeHlle Ka'leCTBeHHO pa3JI1i'lalOlI.\IIXCR, pa3HOypoBHeBblX CBoiicTB nOJ{ 06l1.\CH BblBeCKOH "JlllqHOCTb") COXpaHHJICH II B CO- BpeMeHHOH reHeTUKe nOBc,!!eHI1J1. ITpllqHHbI noro MHoro06pa3- Hbl U CBJl3allbi C COCTOHHUcM U pa3pa50TaHHOCThIO np05JIeMbI JIli'lHOCTH KaK B nCUXOJIOrHI1, TaK Ii B rCHeTUKe nOBc,!!eHHJI. ITpe)J(}J.e Bcero, B nCHXOJIOrUH CYll.\eCTBYlOT pa3Hbie II 'IaCTO BCTynalOlI.(llC B npOTIiBOpC'II1C J{pyr C J{pyroM B3fl1H!1.b1 Ha TO, Ka- Kue nCIIXOJIOrll'leCKlle OCOOCHHOCTII HMeeT CMblCJI paCCMaTP"BaTb KaK oc05eHHOCTH JIUqHOCTH. HCMaJIOBa)J(HO II TO, 'ITO HeKOTO- pble nO}J.XO.IU>I, BeChMa nonYJIHpHble B nCUXOJlOrHIl JlII'IHOCTII, JlB- JIHIOTCJI qHCTO 3MnllpllqeCKHMII, He IIMelOU1IlMH '1CTKO clj!opMynll- pOBaHHblX KpI1TCpHeB, KOTopble onpe.n:eJlHJlH 5bl 050CHOBaHHOCTb oTHeceHIIH Toro IIJIH IIHoro CBOHCTBa K clj!epe JlllqHOCTII. 3TO n0J10)f(eHlic C IICCJIe}J.OBaHlleM JIII'IHOCTII B nCHXOJIOrliH He MO)J(CT He 0TPa)J(aTbCR Ha CMC)J(HOH 05JIaCTH - reHeTHKe nO- 350 Be,!!eHHH, B KOTOpOH np05JIeMa JlllqHOCTlI, ee CTPYKTypbl II COOT- , HOIllCHI1H C l\PyrllMH nCHXOJIOfllqeCKHMH oc05eHHocTRMii HC HB- JIJleTCH caMOCTOHTeJ1bHbIM 05'beKTOM HCCJIe}J.OBaHHH. KpoMe Toro, B reHeTIlKe nOBC,!!CHHH eCTb TeH}J.eHI.\HJI K HeKoTopOMY ynpoll.\c- HHlO nCHXOJIOrHqeCKOH peaJIbHOCTH, KOTopaH npll OOpal11eHHII K IICCJIe.n:OBaHl1lO TelleTII'IeCKIIX II cpe,!!oBhlX ,!!eTepMIIH3HT JIU'IHOC- TH npHBo,!!HT K CMeweHlllO KaqCCTBeHHO pa3nU'IHhlX nCHXOJIOrll- qeCKux xapaKTepliCTIIK, B 'I3CTHOCTH, ocooeHHocTeH TeMncpa- MeHTa Ii CBoiiCTB JIU'IHOCTII. KaKHC )J(e nCI1XOJlOrnqCCKHe xap3KTCpHCTI1KI1 paCCMaTP"- 8alOTCH B rCHeTUKe nOBc,!!eHIIH KaK oco6eHHOCTU JIl1qHOCTHOH ccjJe- phi? BJlHHeT JIH reHOTHn Ha IIH)'IIIBI1,!!yaJ1bHble pa3JIH'IHH B 3TlIX xapaKTcplICTHKax? KaK MO)/(HO 05'bHCHHTb nOJlyqCHHblC pe3YJIb- TaTbI? 3TII BonpOCbI H 5Y.D.YT 05CY)J(AaTbCH B .D.aHHOH maBC. 1. \IIccneAOBaHlul CBOMCTB n"'1HOCTM KpMTepManbHblMM MeTOAaMM \ B nO}J.aBJIHIOI1(eM 60JlblllHHCTBe HCCJIeAOBaHHii JIH'IHOCTH, \ npoBOAHlI.\HXCH B rCHeTUKC nOBCACHI1H, Ol\eHKa C80HCTB JIII'IHOC- TH npoH38oMTCH Ha OCH08aHIII1 onpocHHK08 Pa3HhiM ucnblTye- MblM npe,!!'bHBJ1ReTCR OI\HI1 H TOT JKe Haoop BonpOCOB 00 IIX npl1- BblqKaX H 05 HX nOBeAeHll11 B pa3JIHqHbIX cHTyal.\l"lx. Ha OCHOBa- HHH OTBCTOB IIcnblTyeMblx ,!!eJI3eTCH BbIBO,!! 0 TOM, B KaKOH CTe- nCHn UM npUCYI1(H Ie HJIH HHbie CBOHCTBa JIII'IHOCTH. IIpll TaKOM cnoco5e Ol\eHKII C80HCTB JIH'IHOCTH HeOOXO,!!H- MO OhlTb YBcpeHHbIM, qTO 3a,!!aBaeMhle BonpOCbI AalOT B03MO)J(- HOCTb Ol\eHHTb iJ,eHCTBIITeJlbHO Ba)l(HblC ocooeHHOCTI1 JlH'IHOC- TH - TC, KOTOpblC onpc,!!eJlHlOT nOBe,!!eHne qCJlOBeKa B pa3HbiX cHTyaIjlfj!X, HBI!I!IOI'CI! YCTQii'lIfBbIMIf B Te'lelUle ,VUlTeJlbHOrO J1e- pHo,!!a 8peMeHH H pa3JIHqalOTCH y pa3HblX IIIO,!!eH. TaKHM oopa- 30M, BOnpOCbl, HcnoJlb3yeMble }J.JI>I ,!!HarHOCTIlKH CBOHCTB JlHqHO- CTlI, HC MorYT ObITb CJlY'laHnbIMH, IIX OTOOP TPe5YCT cnel\HaJIh- HblX MCTO,!!OB npOBcpKH II JlBJIHeTCH caMOCTOHTeJlbHOH 3Kcncpll- MCHTaJlbHOH 3a,!!a'leH. B COBpeMeHHOIl nCHXOlIorliH na 3a,!!a'la peWaeTCH pa3HbIMH cnoc06aMH OiJ:IIIIM H3 HIIX HBJIJleTCI! KpllTe- pHaJlbHblH HJlH 3MnHpH'IeCKHH MeTO,!! COCTaBJleHnl! onpOCHIII<OB, OCHOBaHHblH Ha cpaBHCHHH rpynn HcnblTyeMbIx, OTqeTJIHBO pa3- 351 
JIH'!alOllI.IIXCSI no l<aKOMY-JIII60 KpHTCpIllO. 1<JIaCCl1qCCKHMH npll- MepaMH IICnOJII>30BaHilSi KpliTepllaJII>HOrO MeTOAa RBJIRIOTCR MIIH- HecoTcKuH MHoro!jJa3HblH JIHqHOCTHblH onpOCHIiK (MMPI) II 1<a- JIH!jJOPIIHi1cKHH nCHX01WrHqeCKHH onpOCHHK (CPI). 1.1. Pa3paOQTI\:a KpHTepllaJII>HblX onpOCHHKOB pOBblX lUo.aei! " nal1"e!!TOB c TeM Imll M}lbJM nU,lIOM ,l\lIarHOCTH- pOBaHHOH R<lTOJJOrHH) .ll.OnOJIHHTeJIbHO K 1 Q OCHOBHI>IM IllKaJIaM MMPI 6blJI0 nOJIY'IeHO 60JIbillOe Konno/eCTBO 60nee 'laCTHbIX 110- Ka3aTerreH, xapaKTepH3YlOllI.HX MCHee rJI06aJIbHble OTKJIOHeHIIR B nCHXOJIOrllqeCKOM cTaTyce II nOBel(eHHI1. XOTJI MHHHecoTcKHH onpocHHK C03J\aBaJICSI 1<aK MeTOI( 1(11- arHOCTHKI1 Tex oc06eHHocTeH JIH'JHOCTII, KOTopble conytcTBYIOT pa3JIH'!HbIM nCnXHqeCKI'!M 3a60JleBaHIISlM, OH npaKTHqeCKII cpa3Y )l(e nocJle ony6J1I1KoBaHHR ero nepBoro napl1aHTa (!943 r.) CTaJI HCnOJIb30BanCR H JI,IIR 06CJIcJJ:oBaHHJI 3JJ:OpOBbIX JIIOJJ:CH. B nOM, eJIyqae, TO eeTb npH 06CJIe,lJ;OBaHHn 3.n:OpOl!bIX JIIOJI,eii, OI1CHKH, JIOJlyqaeMbIe Hcnl>lTyeMblMIi no IllKaJIaM onpOCHnKa, TpaKTYIOTCH C TOqKH 3peHIIJI C6aJIaHCllpOBaHHoro n rapMOHII'IHOrO (IIJIH, Ha- 060pOT, HeC6anaJJCllpOBaHHoro H ,lJ;I1CrapMOHH'IHOro) pa3EI1TnH JIHqHOCTH (Ta6nl11.\a 9.1). MI1HHecoTcKnii OnpOCHl!K OKaJa!JC.sJ IIH!jJopMaTIIBelI npll pa60Te KaK C JIIO,l\bMH, HMelOllI.HMH nCHXI1'JeCKHC OTI<JIOHeHI1J1, TaK II C HOpM31IbHbIMH nonYllill1l1l!MI1, 11 no 06ecne'll1!Jo CMY qpe3-1 BblqaHHYIO nonYJIHpHOCTb cpe,lJ;1I nCIIXOJIOrOB. ):IocTaTo'!110 CKa, j 3aTb, qTO TOJIbKO B aHtjlOJl31>1qHbiX CTpaHax K HaFolHQeMY Bpe- MeHI1 ony6JIHKOBal1bl pe3YJIbTaTbi nOqTH 10 TbICIl'! I1CCJIC.II.OBa- HUH, B KOTOpblX Henonb30BaJICH MMPI. TeM HC MeHee, aHanH3H- PYJI oc06eHHoCTII JIH'IHOCTH 3/1.0POBbIX JIlOJJ:eH, HCCJIeJ\oBaTeJIIi nOCTOSlHHO '1YBCTBOBaJIH, qTO OlJ,eHOK 1'10 Illl<:aJIaM MHlIl1eCOTCKO- ro onpOCHHKa OKa3blBaeTCJI HBHO HCI(OCTaTO'lHO Jl,IlJI c03AaHnH a,llCKBaTHoro 06pa3a JlI1'1HOCTn TOrO HJlII HHoro '1eJIOBeKa: He JI,H- arHOCTI1pOBaHHbJMI1 OCTaJ01'CH Ba1KHble cBoiicTBa rrllqHOCTH, on- peJl.errJllOllI.He II 06pa3 Jl.CHCTBIiH '1eJIOBeKa, II OTHoweHIIC K HeMY OKpY)!(liKJllI.HX B CSR3H C :HI1M C KOHl,a 60-x rO.ll.OB Ha'ianaCb pa- 60Ta no C03J1.aHHIO onpocHHKa, aHaJIOrllqHOrO MMPI, HO pac- C'II'!TaHIiOro Hcnocpc.acTBeHHo Hli 05Clle.ll.OBliHI1e 3,lJ;0POBhIX mo- AeH. 3Ta pa60Ta 3aBepWIIl.laCb c03p:aHHeM KallH!jJopHHHcKoro nCIIXOJIOrH'ICCKOrO onpocHHKa (CPI). llpH C03,lJ;aHHII CPI HCCJIe,lJ;OBaTeJIIi BbIAeJII1J111 anplIOpl1 18 CBOHCTS J111'JHOCTH, B '1aCTHOCTH, AOMHHaIlTHOCTb, OTSCTCT8CH- Hocn, nOTpe5HocTb B AOCTII1KeHHI1, npllHHTHe ce6S1, caMOKOHT- POJII>, cOlJ,lIa5enbHOCTb H T.J\. 1<a)l(,lJ;oe H3 :HHX CBOHCTB 6bIJIO nop:- p06HO oxapaKTeplI30BaHO - B '1eM OHO npOJlBJIJleTCH, KaK pa3JlH- '1aeTCJI nOBe.ll.eHHe JIIOJ\eH, y KOTOpbIX 3TO CBOHCTBO BbIpa1KeHO B 353 C03,!\arC!JH MMPI, C XaTy.:JH H .II.)!( MaKKHHJIH, cr!JOpMII- pOnanH pa3JII1'1HblC rpynnl>I IICnblTyeMbIx H3 3P:0POBI>IX JIIOAeH H 113 llaUl1eHTOB IlCI!XllarpH'leCKHX KJII!HIIK, HMeJO!.UIIX pa311Hqf/b1e ,l\HarHOCTHpOBliHHble 3a60JIcSaHHH (1ll1130!jJpeHHIO, HCTepHIO, Ae- npccculO H ,l\pymc). Oco6oc BHI1Mlilll1e YJl.eJ/Jl1!OCb TOMy, qm6bl C!jJOpMHpOBaHHble rpynnbI HcnblTyeMblx pa311HqalJI1Cb 1'01lbKO no O,lJ;HOMY KpHTepHIO - HaJIII'IHIO HJIH OTCYTCTBHIO ,lJ;lIarHOCTHpO- BaHHoro 3a60JIeBaIIHSI, HO COBnaJl,aJIli no ,lJ;PYrHM KpI1TeplISiM - CO- l\HaJlbHO-3KOHOMH'IeCKOMY CTaTYCY, nOJIY, B03paCTY 11 PJlJl.Y /l.pyrHx oco6eHHocTeij, KOTopble MorYT nOBJIHHTI> Ha OTBCTI,I Ha BonpOCbl. ITpoUe.IJ.ypa oT60pa BonpOCOB 3al<JIIOqaJlaCI> B CJle,lJ;YI01l\CM. Ka1KJ\oij rpynne HcnblTyeMl>lx 3aJl.aBanOCI> MIIOJKeCTBO 1I0npOCOB, KaCalOllI.I1XCH OlJ,eHKI1 ce6H 11 Apyntx JIIO,lJ;eH, !jJ113H'ICCKOro H 3MO- I\HOHaJILHOrO COCTOHHHH, peaKL(I1H Ha pa3JII1'1Hbie cHTyaIjI1I1. ):Ia- JIee COnOCTaBJIllJIl1Cb OTBeTbl 3,lJ;OpOBbIX HCnLlTyeMb!X II nal\HeH- TOB, HMelOllI.HX KaKoe-llll60 3a60llCBliHHe, HanpHMep, HCTepHIO. ECJIH OTBeTbl 3AOpOBblX I1CnblTyeMblx Ha 3a,lJ;aBaeMblH Bonpoc OT- 1111'1a1!I1Cb or OTBCTOB naIjUeHTOB, UMelOwuX HCTepmo, TO 3TOT Bonpoc paceMaTpHBaJICJI KaK .ll.l1arHOCTHqHblli (TO eCTb ACMOHCT- PHPYI01l\IIH pa3JIII'IHe Me1KJl.)' rpynnaMH 3J1.0pOBI>IX 1I1OJl.eii H na- lJ,ueHTOB-HCnpI1KOB) H BKJIIO'JaJICH B onpOCHIIK KaK O/l.IIH 113 no- Ka3aTeJIcii no IllKaJIe "IICTepHH". ECJII1 OTBeTbI 3,lJ;OpOBbIX 11 60rrb- HbIX HCnl>ITyeMl>lX Ha 3a,lJ;aBaCMb1H Bonpoc He pa3J1HqaJlHCb 111111 pa3J1I1qa1lHcb He3HaqHTeJIbHO, TO Bonpoc B onpOCHHK He non a- Jl.aJI. TaKHM 06pa30M 61>IJIO oTo6paHo 550 BonpOCOB, .n:alOllI.lIX B03MOJKHOCTI> OlJ,CHHn 10 OCHOBHblX BapHaHToB naT01l0rlIqeCKHX OTKJIOHeHHii - HnOXOH,l\pHlO, ,lJ;enpeCCHIO, HCTepI11O, nCHxona- TI1IO, MYJKeCTBeHHOCTI>-JKeHCTBeHHocTI> (aJ\eKllaTHocn nOJIopoJIe- Boro nOBe.aeHHH), napaHoilHJIbHOCtb, nCIIXaCTeHI1IO, 1ll1130ImHOCTb, THnoMaHHIO, COl\l1a1!bHYIO HHTpOBepCHlO. BIlOCllel(CTBIIH C nOMo!.UblO Toro JKe KpHTepllaJII>HOTO Me- TOJl.a nOCTpOeHI1H OnpOCHIiKOB (TO eCTb cpaBlIeHHSI OTBeTOB 3/1.0- 352 
Ta61/U£fa 9-1 llIKaJ/br MHozOIjJa3HOZO 1/UqHOCmHOZO onpocHuKa (MMPI) U UH- mepnpema£fUR 8brCOKUX 6aJ1J108 110 3mw, U1KaJ/iIM 1.2. HCCJlei\OBBKKe pOJIK reHOTHna H Cpei\bl C nOMODl.blO KpHTepHaJlbHblX onpocHHKOB v Ha3BaHe WKanbi Bblcok\'llii l5ann no WKaJ1e VlnoxoHAP" 6one3H8HHoe BHMM3HVle x M3""IeCKOMY COCTOAHMIO, OTHQ-o weHKe- K CB08MY 3.QOpOBb'lO Kak K caepXLleHHOCTK lIenpeccKA nQABBneHHOCTb, neCCMMVl3M, CmOHHOCTb K 4YSCTeY 8I4Hb4, ouweH..e ceeiA HeCI-IBCTHblM, nnoxae cpVl31i44eCKoe COCT().. .HMe. II1crePMA CTpeMl1eHMe npMBI181CaTb BHMM8HMe oKp.Y'KalO"X. *811a- HMe Ka38TbCR 6oJ1ee 3HB"IKTeI1bHbI.... ew eerb H8 caMOM A8ne, H30eraHMe cnO>+cHbiX CHryBLI"" VI "'fXOA" B 6one3Hb "PM Heo6xOA14MOCTIII IIIX pa3peWSHKFI. nCMxonanUI COl-l14anbH3R ,q,e38AanT3Lj,M$I, ttenOHMMBHM8 COLlMaJ1bHblX trOpM VI He>Ken8H'rt8 14M cne,qOSSTb My)KecraeHHOCTb- He8A.8KBaTHOCTb nono-ponesoro nOBeAeHM11: Y M)'J'K'-IMH - >t<8HCTBeHHOCTb cpeMHMHHbI tlitn I1511"'1HOCTM (riOBblweHHiiA (:KnQHHOCTb k caMoaHamt"y \lYBCTBMTeflbHOCTI:I), y »ceH"H - MaCKyI1MH- HWi! Ttm mNHOCTM (nOBWW8HHaA AOMVlHaHTHOCTl:I, arpec- CMBKOCTI:I, CK110HHOCTb K MCKIo'jM 3aHHTMM), napaHORnj:)KOCTb nOA03pMTeflbHOCTb.06MA\lH80CTI:I, MCTWTeflbHOCTb.nCMXa- CT8HA, rp9BO>KHOCTb HSBepM9 B co6CT8eHHbI& C,"bi. nCMxaCTeHM TpeSO)l(HOCTb. HeaepMe B coC5CTBel.Hte CMI1b1 WM30MAHOCTb napaAoKcafll:lHOe MblwneHMe, HVI3KaJ1 KOHqJOpMHOCTb, 01- pbl8 OT peaIlbHOCTM. rlotnOM3HMR MnynbcMBHOCTb, nOBblweHHaR B036Y"'MOCTb. COL(VlanbH8R 3aMKHyrOCTb. opMemaLlHS1 Ha co6CTBeHHbl8 '4YBCTBa " ne- MHTpOBepCMR pe>KMB8HVlA. HeYMeHe 061.L18TbCA C APYn1MM MIIHHCCOTCKHII Ii KaJIlltjJopHIIHCKHH onpOCHIIKI1 HeOJUlOK- paTHO IICnOJIb30BanllCb B reHeTHqeCKHX HCCne,lJ.OBaHHX MJI Bbl- CHeIlIlH pOJIII reHOTHnll'leCKIIX II Cpel\OBblX tjJaKTOpOB B tjJOpMII- pOBaHIIH I1Hi\I1BH.llYaJIbHbIX pa:JJlHqHH B CBOHCTBaX JIH'IHOCTH. MaKCIIMaJIbHOH II MIIHIIMaJIbHOH CTCnei!lI. )J;!lJIee IlcobITyeMblc Ol\e- Hlloanll CBOHX 6nll3KIIX 3HaKOMbiX no 3THM CBOHCTlJaM II Ha OC- , HOBaHHII 3TI1X Ol\CHOK 6blJ111 CtjJOpMllpOBaHbl KpaHHlle TpynnbI - mO)];H C BbiCOKOH " HH3KOil nOTpe6HOCTbIO B )];OCTIIJI(eHIIII, JIIOJUI C BbICOKIIM H HII3KHM npHHSlTliCM cc6S1 " T.i\. OT60p BonpOCOB, '!aCTb KOTOpblX 6blJ1a B3S1Ta "3 MMPI, npOH3BOJUlnC TaK Jl(e, KaK B CBoe BpeMJI 3TO )];eJIaJIOCI> npH C03JJ;a- HIIII MllHHeCOTCKoro onpOCHHKa. Ecnll, HanpnMep, B KpailHHX Tpynnax, pa3JIII'IaIOIIUIXC no YBepeHHOCTn B ce6e, OTBCTbI Ha Ka- KOH-JIlI60 Bonpoc 5b1JIII )];HaMeTp!IJIbHO npOTnBOIIOJIOJl(HbIMH, TO 3TOT Bonpoc paCCMaTpHBanCSI KaK xopoWllii nOKa3arenb )'BepeHHO- CTII B ce5e Ii BKJIIO'l:trrCJI B COOTBCTCTBYIOWYIO WKaJIY. 354 MWfHecomCKUU ,lfH020rjJa3HbIU 1/U'IIfOCmHblu Ol1pOCHUK Hali60nee H3BeCTHbIe 6JIII3Hel\OBble HCCJle,lJ.OBaHIIJI MMPI 6blJ1H npoBe,!\eHbI D CepeJJ;IIHe 60-x rO,!\OB. B HIIX 06bIqHO 06Ha- PYJI(HB!lJIOCb reHeTHqeCKOe BJIliJlHlle Ha Ol\eHKIi TeX HJ1I1I1HbIX WKaJI MMPI, O,lJ.HaKO B pa3HbIx pa50Tax 3TII WKanbI He COBllai\aJlII. 05bei\IIHIIB }l.aHHbIe Tpex TaKIiX IICC!lei\OBaHHH, ):\JI(.<1>YJIJlep II Y.ToMncoH 1I0nY'IIIJlII HeCKOJIbKO 60!lbWee BHYTpllnapHoe CXO}l.- CTBO M3 6nIl3Hel\OB, no cpaBHeHHIO C ):\3, 110 DceM WKaJIaM, O,!\- HaKO pa3nll'lIlJl MeJl(J!.Y M3 H ):\3 6J1113Hel\aMII OKa3!IJIHCb He60J!b- IllHMH. TonbKo no TpeM IllKa!laM -- i\enpeCCHII, ncxacTeHlm II COl\lIaJIbHOH IIHTpOBepCHII - Hame,!\yeMoCTb 06ycnoBJIIIBaJIa npll- MepHo TpeTb !\>eHoTHnH'JeCKOH JUlCnepcHII. IToKa3aTenll HaCJIe,!\y- CMOCTII no 3TI1M WKaJIaM paOHb! COOTBeTCTBeHHO 0,35,0,35 H 0,37. HaCJle.!l:yeMocTb OCTaJIbHblX WKaJlbHblX oueHOK OKa1anaCb HHJI(e (Ta6JI11l\a 9.2). B TC Jl(e caMbIe rO,!\b1 H.ro'ITCCMaH IlCOOJlb30BaJI MMPI .1I.JlJl 06CJJe,lJ.OBaHII 147 lIap 6mi3Hel\OB nOl\PoCTKoBoro B03paCTa (15- 16 JleT). 1J:epe3 12 !leT 42 napbI 6J!1I3HeUOB 113 3TOH Bb!60PKH BTO- pOH pa3 3anOnHliJIH MIIHHeCOTCKHH onpocHHK (Dworkin R.H. et aI., 1976, 1977). ConocTaoHB i\aHHb.e, nOJ!yqeHHbIC B Jl,BYx B03pa- CTax 110 OCHOBHblM H }l.OnOnHI1TenbHbIM UIKaJIaM MMPI, aBTopbl 3Toro JIOHrHTIOJUlOro HCCJIe,!\OBaHH npllwnH K BbIBOJl.Y, '1TO Ha- ) CJ\ei\)'eMOCTb CBOHCTB J\U'!HO, A\lIU'HOCTllpyeMbIx MMPI, YMeHb- WaeTCJI C B03paCTOM: emn B nOI\POCTKOBOM B03paCTC 06HapY)J(H- BaeTCH 9 WKaJI, JicnJ,ITbIBalOll.\HX 3HaqnTe!lbHoe BJIIIHHe reHOTH- na, TO DO B3pOCJJOM B03paCTe TaKHX WKaJl OKa3blBaeTCJI Bcero 5. ITpH nOM HeT Hn OJUIOH 6a30BOH IllKaJlbl, KOTopaH OKa3al1aCb 6bl CB3aHa C reHOTHnOM II B nOI\POCTKOBOM, I'! BO B3pOCJlOM B03- paCTe. JIHlllb Ol\eHKfI no Jl,BYM i\OnOJIHIITe!lbHbIM WKaJIaM (Tpe- ) .  BOHOCTH II 3aBIICIIMO) coxpaHSIIOT CBJl3b C reHornnOM OT nOI\- P POCTKOBoro ,!\O B3pocnoro B03paCTa. 355 ,j y' \/ v 
Ta6.1u1{a 9.2 lloKa3amelU' Hacnei)yeMocmu UtKanHbIX 0tleHOK MwmecomcK02o MI/02oq,a3H02o nU'lHOCmI/020 01lpOCHUKa (Fuller J L., Thompsol1 w.R.. 1978)' Ta6Jlulja 9.3 BHympunapHble KOppeJlJ/l{tm M3 U /I3 DllU3Helj06 no nOKa3ameJ11O II(lJ1U'lUJ/ I1UK06 6 npoq,umlX MwmecomCK020 MH020q,a3H020 JIU'lI/D- cmH020 Ol1pOCHUKa Ha3BaHllle WK311b1 nOK333TenID HaCI1eAyeMoCT (h 2 ) lo1ncXOHAPlllft 17 ,nenpeCCI1R 35 CTep"'s:I 21 nCIoIxonantR 26 MYMecrseHHOCTb->KeHCTBeHHoCTb 09 napaHoHS111bHOC!b 21 nCJ4X3creHHA 35 WIII30lllAHOCTb 27 rliinoMaHR 17 COl...Ial1bHall HTpoaepclIIA 37 nOKa3'al"em M3 )13 n:25 n:17 HamN",e mtiCOB nOAPOCTKIII 57 -01 B3pocnbl'e 47 57 3MeHeHllle OT nOApOCTI(OBOrO KD 83P0CJ10MY B03paCTy 49 -16 . - neHHOt:Tb Bbl60pKU - '20 fJap M3 .II 132 napbl .Q3 MMJHeLiOB. >13 Ta6J11I1.\bl 9.3, HJMCHCHIIR CBOltCTB imqHOCTII, npoIlCXOMll\HC C TCQCHHeM BpeMcHH, OKa3bIBalOTCR BHYTpHnapHO nOXOJKHMIl Y M3 6i1113HCI.\OB: Y HI!X K03<jJ<!JlII.\HCHT BHYTpHnapHoH KOppCJ1Rl.\>lH no nOKa3aTCJ11O H3MeHCHHR nHKOB B npm!JI1i1J1x MMPI paDeH 0,49. Y .II.3 5i1H3He1..\OD 113MeHeHHJ!, npoHcxoJ{Rll\He C Te'leHHeM BpeMeHH, HC TOilbKO He nOXOJKH, HO J{aJKe Jl,0 HCKOTOPOH CTeneHH pa3HO- H3npaMeHHbI (J(03<\J<\JHI.IHCHT KOppeJ1RI1HII paBCH -0,16). B 60ilee n03J1,HHX 6JIH3He1..\ODbIX HCCJ1eJl,OBaHIIJlX '1aCTO 06- HapYJKHBaeTCJ! 3HaqllMaJi pOJIb HaCJICAYCMOCTH ,!UIJI ,ncHxonaTIIH - I npHMepHo 50% Bap>laTHBHOCTIt 3TOH xapaKTepllcTHKII .lIeTCpMH- \ HHPYeTCR TeHOTHnOM (Gottesman 1.1., Goldsmith H.H., 1993, Rose ) R.J , 1988). ITo BceH BepOJITHOCTII, 3T1I .lIaHHble MOJKHO cqllTaTb AOCTaTOQHO HaI..\CJKHbIMH, nocKoilbKY reHeTllqeCKlle HCC1Ie.llOBa- HHI! aHaJlOrH'IHhlX oco6etlHoCTeii J/HqHOCTH (paJHbIX npO)/BJleHHH arpecclIBHOCTIt) T!lKJKe CBI'!J{eTeJIbCTBYIOT 0 BKJ1a)J,e reHomna B HX BapHaTHBHOCTb (Gottesman 1.1., Goldsmith H.H., 1993). He npo- TlIBOpeQHT no MY BblBOAY II HCClleJ{OBaHHC npllCMHblX AeTeH, B KOTOpOM 6b!JIa nOilY'JCHa npllMepHO TaKaJl JKe BeilHqllHa nOKa3a- TellS! HaCile.llyeMocTIt nCHxonaTHH (Loehlin J.C , Willerman L., Horn J.M., 1985). B 8()-ble rO.!U>1 nOJlBllillICb pe3YJIbTaThI conOCT8BJleHffl! npH- eMHblX .lIeTeH C HX 6HoilorH'JccKHMI'! pOJl,CTBCHHHKaMII H pOJ{HTe- ilRMH-YCbIIlOBIITeJlJ!MH no IlIKaJIaM MMP1. ):(eTH II HX 6Hoilorll- qeCKllc MaTepll, OTllaBWl1e J{eTeii Ha YCbIHo811eHlle B .u.pYrHC cc- Mbll, OKa3blBalOTCJI He nOXO)l(HMH (TO eCTb ItMelOT HH3Klte Koppe- JIRI.\HII APyr C APyroM) no 60ilbll\IIIICTBY w](an MMPI (Hanpll- Mep, Loehlin J.e., Willerman L., Horn J.M., 1982). CpaBHeHlte 357 AHaJ10rllqHaR KapTHHa Ha6i1IO.lIaeTCJI H npH conOCTa811C- HMI1 npoqmilcii OCHOBHblX I() nOKa3aTeJIcii MMPI. B nO.ll]JOCTKO- 80M B03paCTe M3 6i1H3Hel.\(,1 OKa3blBalOTCR nOXO)l(HMH APyr Ha Apyra no HanHqlllO nHKOB B npo<jJItIlRX MMPI, TO eCTh, ecJIII OI1eH- Ka no KaI(OH-TO 1II1(aJIe (HanpHMep, ItnOXOll.llpHH I1JIH AenpeCClII1 IIIIH JII060H .lI]JyrOH) OKa3b!BaeTCJI BbICOKOH y O.llHOrO H3 M3 6JIH3HeI.\OB, TO BblCOKa BepORTHOCTb TOTO, '1TO II Y ero napTHepa no 6JIH3He1..\080ii nape Ol.\ellKa no nOH WKaJIe OKaJKeTCJI TaKJKe BbICOKOH. KOJ<jJ<jJHI1HeHT BHYTpltnapHOH KOppeilRI.\HII M3 OJIH3- Hel.\OB no COBna.llCHHIO nHKOB paBCH 0,57. .II.3 6J1H3Hel.\bl, Ha060- pOT, COBceM He nOXOJKH l\Pyr Ha l\Pyra no 3TOMY nOKa3aTeJ11O (BHYTpllnapHoe CXOACTBo):(3 paBHo '(),01). TaKoe pa3JJH'I>le BO BHYTpHnapHbIx KOppei1I!I.\HJ!X M3 H ):(3 611113Hel.\OB CBHAeTeilb- \ CTByeT 0 TOM, qTO B nOI\POCTKOBOM B03paCTe 5J1H30CTb K TOMY ItIlH IIHOMY Tllny naTOJlOrH'JeCKoro !lJIH Hec6aJlaHClipOBaHHoro I pa3B>lTItI! JIIt'lHOCTH B 3HaqllTellbHOH CTcnCHH CBJ!3aHa C reHOTH- nOM (T36JIlIlta 9.3). Bo B3pOCilOM B03paCTe 3TOT nOKa3aTeJIb (coBnaJ{eIlHe nll- KOB B npo<jJlfill!x MMPI) YT)J3'1I1BaeT CBl!3b c reHOTHnOM. O,llHa- KO, KaK nOKa3blBalOT pe3YJ1bTaTbI Toro JKe ItCCJle.llOBaHIIJ!, reHO- T!ln B 3HaqHTCllbHOH CTeneHII KOHTpOJIIIPYeT 113MeHeHHS!, npoHC- XOJ{Rll\IIC OT no.u.pocTKOBoro KO B3POCJIOMY BOJpacTY. KaK BHAHO 356 
KMU</!0PUUUCKUUI1CUXOJl02u,<eCKUU Ol1pOCUUK HCnOJII>30BaHHC KanH!jJOpHHiicKOrO nCI1XOJIorH'lCCKoro on- pOCHHKa B reHeTli'leCKHX IICCJIe,!J;OBaHHHX Ha'laJ10Cb TaKJKe, KaK II MMPI, B 70-bIe rO,!J;bI. ITepBbIC.l\BC pa60Tbl, BbInOJrnCHHble H.rOTIecMaHoM II P HII- KOJICOM Ha 3Ha'iIlTeJlbHbIX no qllCJIeHHOCTI1 BbI60pKax (817 II 147 nap 6JIH3HeQoB) OKa3aJIHCb npoTIiBOpe'lHBbIMIi no pe3YJtbTaTaM. B 06ellx pa60Tax 6bIJtll Bbl,!J;eneHbIHa60pbI CBOHCTB (8 - B O,!J;- Hoii pa60Te, ft 9 - B i\]JyroH), no KOTOpl>IM M3 6JIH3HeQI>! 61>1JIIi BHYTpHnapHo 60JIee nOXO)!(HMH, 'IeM ,[13 6nH3HeQbI. ITpll 3TOM B 06ellx pa60Tax B 3TII Ha60pbl CBOHCTB BOWJIII TaKHe oc06eHHoc- TII nft'lHOCTH, RaK "coQlla6enI>HOCTI>", "noHHMaHHe COQllanbHI>!X HOpM", "npHHJlTI1:e ce6:sr", UqeHHOcTHbfe OpHeHTIUJ;Iflf", ('3KCTpa. BepCHJI-IIHTpOBepCIIJI" ITpH Y'leTe nonOBbIX pa3JIH'IlIii COBna,L\e- HnH B pe3YJIbTOT3X .l\BYX pa60T npaKTft'leCKH He 6bIJtO: TOJlbKO O.L\HO CBOHCTBO nHqHOCTIi H TOnl>KO Y MYJK'IHH OKa3aJlOCb reHeTlI- '1eCKI1 o6ycnOBJIeHHbIM B 06eHx pa60Tax. 3THM CBOHCTBOM OKa- 3aJ10Cb "I\OMIIHaHTHOCTb" (QftT. no Fuller 1.L., Thompson W.R., 1978). B 60nee n03)J;HCM IICCJle,!l,OBaHHII, BI>InOnHeHHOM .II.JK.JIo:mft- HOM II P.HHKOJICOM Ha 800 napax 6JI1i3HeUOB, pe3YJIbTaTbI OKa3a- JIliCb HHbIMIi. TonbKo no O.L\HOMY CBOHCTBY - no "cnoco6HoCTH K JIlVlepCTBY" - DHYTpHnapHoe CXO,l.\'CTDO M3 6J1HJHeI10D J1HllIb He- 3Ha'iIlTCJIbHO npeBbIIl10nO CXO.n:CTBO .II.3 6nH3HeuOB. IToKa3aTenH Hacne,u,yCMOCTl! i\]Jynlx CBOHCTB nHqHOCTH OKa3anHCI> B npe.n:eJlax 0,3--0,5. Cpe.L\HHe TIOKa3aTeJtIl cxoJl,cwa M3 1I.II.3 6J1\!3HeQOB 6b1J1\! 358 paBHI>! COOTBeTCTBeHHO 0,50 II 0,32, cpe.L\HIIH nOl(a3aTeJIb HaClIe,u,y- eMOCTH - npHMepHo 0,4, a nOKa3aTeJ1b HeCHCTeMaTII'leCKHX cpe.n: o - BblX BJlHJlHIIH (pa3JIHqalOmeHCH cpe,!J;b!) - npHMepHo 0,5 (Loehlin J C , Nichols R.C., 1976). ):(nH Toro ';T06bI npoBepHTb Ha,ae)!(HOCTb nOJlY'IeHHI>!X pe- 3yJIbTaTOB, aBTopbl cnyqaHHbIM o6pa30M pa3.L\CJ1HJIII BbI60pKH M3 H ,[13 6JII13HeQOB nononaM H nonY'IIIJIII 8 rpynn - no 2 rpynnbl M3 MYJKqIlH, M3 JKCHLUIIH, ,[13 MYJK'lIlH, ,[13 JKCHLUHH ConOCTaBHB Bce B03MOJKHbie COqeTaHHJI M3 II ,[13 6nH3HeQoIl, aBTopbI He 06HapYJKHJ111 npOTI1BOpeqIlH. ITpll KOJK.n:OM conOCTOB- neHHH pe3ynbTaTbI OKa3bIBanHcb aHanonl'JHI>!MI1 TCM, KOTOpblC 61>!J1Ii nOJIY'leHbI Ha BceH BI>I6opKe - npHMepHO O,!J;HHaKOBbIe no- Ka3aTCJIlI HocnellyeMocTH MH Bcex CBoiiCTB nHqHOCTH, npH6nll- JKalOlQlleCH K 0,4, Ii 3HaqHTenLHoe BJlHJlHHe HeclicTCMaTlIqCCKOH cpelll>l. 06paTHM BHHMaHHe Ha pe3ynbTaTbl 3Toro IICCJ1e,L\OBaHIiJi. BnoCJIe,L\CTBIIII B pa60Tax, npoBOMmHXCH B rCHeTHKe nOBe,!J;eHHJI, 'JaCTO 06HapYJKlIBaCTCH aHanorll'JHblH pe3ynbTaT - O.L\HHaKOBaH rCHeTI'!'IeCKaH o6ycnoBncHHocTb IIHI\IIBH.n:yanbHLIx pa3nllqliii B pa3HblX CBoHcTBax nll'lHOCTII, CYLUeCTBCHHaH pOJIb B 3THX HH.L\HB- l\Yanl>HblX pa3nHqHilX pa3J1l1qalOLUeHCH Cpe,L\bI II OCHI, CKpOMllblii BKnall B 3TlI pa3J1HqllH o6meii Cpe,!J;bI. \ ITpll aHanH3e npo!jJlIncH, 110nY'leHHblX no WKaJlaM KaJIli- !jJOPHI1HCKOrO nCI1XOnOrll'leCKOrO onpocHHKa, npoBe,!J;eHHoro P .II.BOPKI1HOM C KOJ1JIeraMH Ha TOH JKe caMOH 6nl13HeUOBoH Bb160p- Ke, KOTopaH yqaCTBOBlI.Ila B 06CJ1CI1:0B3HIIH no I11K3J13M MMPI II 6bIJIa Y)f(e onllcaHa B nOH rnaBe, 6b!JI0 TaKJKe BblHBneHO 60nb- wce cxo,!J;cwo M3 6J1113HCUOB, no cpaBHeHIlIO C ,[13 (Dworlsin R.H. et aI., 1976, 1977). 06LUnc KOHTYPb! npo!jJHJIeH (TO CCTL nOKa3a- Tenb, CBHJI,CTeJJbCTBYIOlQlIH 06 opralU13aUilif JIliqHOCTHblX CBOHCTB) H nliKH npo!jJHJIeii OKa3anHCI> 50Jlee nOXO)!(I1MII y M3 onH3HeQOB H B 110i\]JOCTKOBOM, Ii BO B3pOCJlOM B03paCTe H3MeHeHlIe 060HX 3TIIX nOKa3aTeneH OT nOi\]JOcTKoBoro KO B3pOCJlOMY B03paCTY TaKJKe 60nbwe noxoJl(e y M3 6J1113HeI.\OB. B QenoM, 3TII ,!J;aHHble CBI'!,!J;CTeJlbcTBYIOT 0 3HaqilTenbHbiX reHeTft'leCKIIX BnHRHHHX K3K H3 OpraHH3aQllIO nll'lHOCTHbIX CBOHCTB" TOK H Ha IIX B03pOCTHOC 113MeHeHile (T36n1lQa 9 4). ITO,!J;BO,!\R IiTor 3TOMY pa3,L\eJIY, B KOTOpOM 6blJ1H OTIlIcaHbI pe3YJIhTaTblllcnonb30B3HHR KpHTepmUlbHbIX onpOCHHKOB B rCHe- 359 pO.n:IiI>IX Ii YCblHOBJIeHHblX cH6cOB .n:aCT npOTI1BOpe'll1Bble pe3ynb- TaTb!. TaK, no JlaHHbIM TexaccKoro I1CCJIe,!J;oBaHHH nplleMHblx ,!J;e- Tel!, pa3nllqllH MCJK,lJ,y PO.L\HLIMI1 H HCpO.L\HbIMH cH6caMH BbIHBJIe- HO He 6h1JI0: II Te II i\]Jyrllc npaKTllqeCKII He 6bIJ1H nOXOJKII no II1KanaM MMPI. B MIIHHeCOTCKOM IICCJICJI,OBaHI111 npHeMHbIX ,!J;e- Tcii 6110JIOrll'leCKlle CII6cbI OKa3aJIHCb nOXO)f(H i\]Jyr Ha APyra He- CKOJIbKO oonbwe, 'IeM Jl,eTli, Jl(IIBymlle B OJlIlOH ceMbe, HO HC IIMC- IOmHC o6ml1x rCHOB (Scarr S. et aI., 1981). CpC.n:HIIC KOppeJlHQIIH no WKanaM MMPI paBHHnl'!Cb COOTBeTCTBeHHO 0,19 11 0,01, O,L\- HaKO He60JIhlllaJi BbI60pKa 3Toro I1CCJIe.n:OBaHIiR He n03BOJIRer paCCMaTpHBaTb 3TO pa3nllqHe MCJK,lJ,y P0.L\HbIMH II HepO.L\HblMft c'I6- caMIi KaK O'ieBII.L\HOe CBII,L\C'renI>CTBO BJIHJlHftR rCHOrHl1a. 
Ta6J11t/{a 9.4 BHymplmapHble 1<0ppellRIJuu M3 U 3 611U3He1J08 110 I1PO!j;UJIRM c(Joiil:m811wlHocmu, (JuazHOcmUp08aJillblM K(1JIu!j;0PIIUUCI<UM ncux01l0- ZU'U'CI<U>lonpOCI/UKOJ./ (Dworkin R.H. el al.. 1976, 1977) 2. Cl)aKTopHO-aHanMTM'IeCKMH no,qxo,q K MccneAoaaHMIO nK'IHOCTM nOK333renb M3 113 n=25 n:::17 00111"6 KOKT)lp", npo<l>.ne fIoAPDcrKU 43 26 B3pocnble 46 20 B03paCTHoe M3MeHettiole 36 13 HamN148 nK09 S npoMn,..x nOApoCTKI4 76 56 B3pOcnbl8 55 00 B03paCTH08 M3MBHeKMe 69 30 B COBpeMeltHOH nCIIXOJlOI'JIH JIII'IHOCTII KPHTepllaJlIH Me- TO.!! pa3pa60TKI'! OnpOCHI'!KOB, OnllCaHHbIH B npe.abl.l\Yl1\eM pa3.aC- JIe, pC.aKO IICnOJlb3yeTc KaK CaMOCTOTeJlhHbIH. KaI< npaBHJlO, OH npHMeHCTCJI WI .aOnOJlHIITeJlhHOH BaJlIl.a1l3al.\lIlI OnpOCHII- KOB, pa3pa60TaHHb!X pal.\HOHaJlhHhlMIi MeTOJl,aMII, TO eCTb MeTO- AaMII, B OCHOBC KOTOphIX lIeJKaT Ma1'CMaTllqCCKlle np0l.\e.ayphI MHO- rOMepHoro aHaJlH3a - MHorOMepHoe lllKaJlllpOBaHHe, KJIaCTep- HbIH aHaJIH3 HJlII, '1TO 6bIBaeT qal1\e Bcero, ljJaKTopHblH aHaJIH3 IIp II onHC8HHH IICCJ1e.l!OBaHIIU IIHTeJlJ1eKTa (maBa 7) 6hIJIII ,!\aHbl OCHOBHhIe npe,!\cTaBJleHH 0 CYTI1 ljIaKTopHoro aHaJlH3a. HAeOJlOrl1J1, KOTopa J1C)J(HT B OCHOBe npllMeHeHII ljIaKTopHoro aHaJIH3a, npH HCCJle,!\OBaHIIH JIllqHOCTH Ta JKe CaMaJi. Hcnonb30BaHl'lc ljIaKTopHoro aHaJIII3a KaK MeTo,!\a onpe'!\e- JleHH OCHOBHbIX CBOHCTB JlHqHOCT\1 6a3HpYeTC Ha npeiUloJloJKe- HHI1 06 l1epapXH'leCKOii opraHII3al.\HI'I CTpYKTypbI JlI'!'1HOCTHhIX CBOHCTB. CXeMaTH'IeCKH ee MOJKHO npe,'{CTaBIITb CJ1e.l\YIOI1\HM 06- pa30M. CaMhIM HII3111HM ypOBHeM BJlJlIOTCI! OT.aCJ1bHbIe oco6ell- HOCTH nOBe.aCHIIJI '1eJlOBeKa. OHH 06pa3YIOT CHH.apOMbl, TO eCTh HeKOTopble oc06eHHOCTH nOBe,!\CHH OKa3bIBalOTCR B3aIlMOCBR3a- HbI .apyr C .apyrOM. B3allMOCBR3H MeJK.ay nOBe.aeH'IeCKIiMII OCO- 6CHHOCTRMIJ, BXo.aaI1\HMIJ B O,!\HH CHHAPOM, BJlJlIOTCI! CJle.aCTBII- eM Toro, '1TO B IJX OCHOBe JleJKHT lIeKOTopoe 60Jlee 0611\ee CBOH- CTBO JIJI'IHOCTII B3aIJMOCIJa311 MeJK,U,y 3THMII, 60Jlee 06I1\HMII, CHOti- CrnaMIJ JlHqHOCTI1 JlBJlJlIOTCJI, B CBOIO O'lepe.ab, CJleACTBlleM I1X npll- HapJleJKHOCTH K ell1e 60Jlee 06Ll\eMY JlII'IHOCTHOMY cBoiicrny H T .'!\. IIOJlCHIlM 3TO Ha npllMcpe. TaKHe ocooeHHOCTH nOBeAeHHJI, KaK 50nHb TeMHoTbl, 6eCCOIIIIHl.\a lIaKaHYlle BaJKHOro II OTBeT- CTBeHHoro AeJla, lIaBJl3'1HBbIe MblCJIH 0 HenpmITHOCTJlX, KOTopble, XOTJI I'! He npOIl30111JIH, HO MOrJIII npol130iiTH, B3al1MOCBI13aHbl: JlIO.aIJ, KOTopb1e He MorYT OTBJle'lbCJI OT MblCJIeH 0 B03MOJKHblX HeCJlyqllBllllIXCJI 6c.aax, 60ilbwe BOilHYIOTCJI, KorAa 11M npe.aCTOIlT c.aeJlaTb '1TO-TO BaJKHOe, '1eM Te, KOMY AaJKe peailbHble HenpllJlT- HOCTI! He nopTIIT anneTIfT H He yYlJ,lliaIOT COH. IIpl1'1I1Ha B3all- MOCBJl3H MeJK.ay 3TIIMH oc06eHHOCTJlMil nOBe.aeHIIJI COCTOIIT B TOM, '1TO Bce OHI1 IIBJlJlIOTCJI npOJlBileHHJlMH o.n:Horo II Toro JKe cBoiicrna ilH'IIIOCTIl - TpeOOJKHOCTIl TpeBoJKHOCTb, B CBOIO o'le- 361 i TII'IeCKIIX IIcClIeAOBaHI1RX, MOJKHO CKa3aTb ClIeAYlOll1ee. KplITeplI- aJIbHbIe OnpOCHHKIf, JlBJIJlIOLl\HeCJI BaJIl.I,!\HbIM II HalJ,eJKHblM HHCT- pYMeHToM Ol.\eHKH JIH'IHOCTHbIX CBOeCTe, AalOT Jl,OCTaTOqHO npo- TlIBOpeQIlBble pe3YJlbTaTbI B l'eHeTII'IeCKI1X HCCileI\OBaHHllx. B Tex cilyqaJlx, Kor.aa oOlJapYJKHOalOTCJI pa3J1l1qHJI B reHeTII'IeCKOH 06YCJlOBJleHHOCTII pa1Hblx c!loi1cT1I nJl'lHOCTlI, .TH peJYJlbTaTbl, «aK npaBIIJlO, BCTynalOT B npoTHBOpe'llie C AaHHbIMIi Apyrllx pa- 60T, KOTopbIe TaKJKe 06HapYJKIIBalOT BJlHJlHHe reHOTllna Ha CBOH- CTBa JlH'IIIOCTH, HO YJKe Ha .apyrlle. ITpH'IHlJbI 3THX npoTHBope- QIlH nO'ITIl He HCCJle.aOBaJIIJCb, IJ n03TOMY OCHOBaHIIH WIll Toro, '1T06bI OTAaTb npellnO'ITCHHe pe3YilbTaTaM TOH I'IJIH HHOjj pa60- Tbl, HeT. BMecre C TeM, pe3YJlbTaTbl onHcaHHblX pa60T rr03BOJ/RIDT CAeJlaTb IJ HeKOTop!'Ie n03HTlIBHbie BbIBOAbI. TaK, pe3YJIbTaTbI HC- CJIeAOBaHliH, B KOTOpblX IICnOJlb30BanllCb onpOCHIlKII, pa3pa6o- TaHHbIe KpllTepllailbHblM MeTOiJ,OM, YKa3b!BaIOT Ha TO, '1TO HHAH- IJHAyaJIbHble pa31111<jHR II CIIOHCTBax JlI'!'1HOCTIl IIcnbITbIBaIOT on- peJl,eJIeHHOe BJn1J1Hl1e reHOTllna. 3TO BJII1J1HHe 06YCJIOBlIHBaeT lie 60JIee 30-50% BapllaTIIBHocTH " nOKa3aTeJIJlX JlII'IHOCT- I1bIX CBOHCTB H MOJKeT CKaJbIBaTbCJI lIa OTJI,eJlLHblX CBOHCTBax lIH'JHOCTII, Ha HX 0606ll1eHHbIX nOKa3aTeJlJlX (TaI<IIX, KaK npOIjlH- JlH JlH'IHO<:THbIX cBoiiCTB) II Ha B03pacTHblX 113MeHeHI1RX CBOHCTB JlII'JHOCTH. 360  \  
pe,n.b, OKaJblBaeTCJI B3aHMOCBJlJaHa C TaKIIMH CBOHCTBaMH, KaK i\enpeCCHBHOCTb, nO,D;Bep)l(eHHOCTb 'IYBCTBY BHHbI, 3aHH)I(eHHaJi CaMOOl(eHKa. B3allMOCBHJII Me)l(i\Y 3THMlI CBOHCTBaMH 06"HCHJI- IOTCJI TCM, qTO B OCHOBC I1X nCJKIIT ClI1C 60nce 061I1ee cBoi1.cTBO - HeBpOTHJM.  U. ., <i". "'...'" '" I..A.! V BblHBJIeHHe HepapXH'IeCKHX CTpYKTYP, nOi\06HbiX TOH, KO- TOpaJi npHBe,n.eHa B npHMepe, JlBJlHeTCJI B ljJaKTOpHO-aHaJlHTH'IeC- KHX HCCile,n.OBaHIIHX qHCTO 3Mnllpl1'1CCKOH 3ai\a'leH. TOJIbKO Ha nepBOM 3Tane (nplI oT60pe KOHKpeTHbIX nOBe,n.eH'IeCKI1X OC06CH- HOCTeH) IICCile,n.OBaTeJlI1 MorYT PYKOBOi\CTBOBaTbCH HeKOTOpblMI1 TeopeTHtJeCKHMII npe.n.CTaBJIeHIIJlMIl 0 B03MOJKHbIX CHH.n.POMaX CBOHCTB. Bce .n:aJlbHeHWl1e warH I1CCileJl,OBaHHH JI,IIKTYIOTCJI JIOrH- KOH ljJaKTopHoro aHaJIlI3a, a HaJl,e)J(HOCTb pe3YilbTaTOB onpc.n:eJIH- eTCH ai\eKBaTHOCTblO H pa3pewalOWCH cnoc06HOCTbIO BbI6paH- HOH ljJaKTopHo-aHailHTl1qeCKOH npOl(c.n:ypbI. RBHblH 3MnllpH3M ljJaKTopHo-aHailHTII'IeCKHX HCCile,/\OBa- HHH HeO,ilHOKpaTHO Kpl1THKOBailCJI npe.n.CTaBHTeJlHMI1 i\PyrHx Ha- npaBJleHHH HCCile,/\OBaHHH ilHqHOCTH - nCHxoaHailH3a, 6I1xeBHO- pH3Ma, rYMaHIlCTH'IeCKOH nCHXOJlOrlUl, HMelOlI1"x 3HaqHTeilbHO 60ilce IjJYHi\aMeHTaJlbHOe TeOpeTllqeCKOe OCHalI1eHlle. YnpCKI1 B aTeOpCTHqHOCTH 3TIIX HCCJle.n:OBaHHH MO)J(HO BCTpeTHTb B pa60- Tax H OTeqeCTBeHHblX nCI1XOJlOrOB. HeJIb3H OTpI1QaTb, '1TO 3Ta KpllTIIKa 6b1BaeT CnpaBe.l\JlIIBOII, HO He CTOI1T 3a6b1BaTb 0 TOM, '1TO nOJl,aBJIHlOlI1eC 60JIbWUHCTBO CBOHCTB JIII'IHOCTI1, KOTopbIe paCCMaTpI1BalOTCJI B COBpCMeHHOH nCHXOilorHII, 6blJlH BbIJIBileHbI IIMeHHO B ljJaKTopHo-aHaill1THqeCKHX I1CClle/l.OBaHUHX. ---. <1>aKTopHO-aHaJIIITH'IeCKHH nO,ilXOi\ K I1CCJle,n.OBaHIlIO IIl1q- HOCTI1 nOJlBIIJICH B nCIIXOJIOrHH B HaqaJle XX BB. C KOHQa 30-x rO,ilOB OH HBJlJleTCJI OCHOBHblM MCTO,n.OM B TCOpll11 '1epT, npe.l\JlO- )J(eHHOH f.OilnopTOM KaK aJlbTepHaTI1Ba Tl1nOIIOrl1'1eCKIIM 11 nCII- XO,/\IIHaMII'IeCIUlM (nCIIXOaHaJIHTH'ICCKIIM) TeOpllJlM J1H'IHOCTII. C 0( nOMOlI1blO ljJaKTopHoro aHalI1I3a B TeopHH qepT OCYlI1eCTBJ1J!eTCH ) Bbli\eneHHe CBollcTB JlHqHOCTU (HJIII qepT IIl1qHOCTII, eC1l1I npll- ,/\ep)J(IIBaTbCJI TepMI1HOJIOrllH f.OJInopTa) H BbIJlCHeHlle COOTHO- weHnli, CYlI1eCTBYlOlI1"X Me)l(,ilY pa3HbIMH CIIOHCTBaMII JlII'IHOCTH. .II.aJlee B nOH m<IBe 6YAYT Onl1CaHbl OCHOIIHble 3Tanbl pa3BIITIIJI noro HanpaBJIeHHH. B CerO/l.HHWHeii nCHXOJlOrHH npe.n.CTaBJICHIIJI 0 JIII'IHOCTH, pa3pa60TaHHbIe Ha OCHOBaHlII1 ljJaKTopHo-aHailllTllqeCKOrO noJl,- 362 " xOAa, npHHHTo Ha3blBaTb TeOpllJlMII MHoroMepHblx CIlCTeM IlJIH MHoroMepHbIMH TeOpllJlMI1 JIH'IHOCTII. OCHOBHblMI1 113 HIIX JlBJIJI- IOTCH 5 TCOPIIH, npeTeH.n.YlOlI1HX Ha onHCaHl1e OCHOBHbIX napa- MCTpOB JlllqHOCTHOii cljJepbl '1eJlOBCKa. K IIX qHCJlY OTHOCIITCJI, j npe)!(,ile Bcero, '1pe3BbI'IaiiHO pacnpOCTpaHcHHaH TeopHJI f.AH- , 3eHKa, OCHOBHbIe nOJIO)!(eHI1J1 KOTOpOH 6b1J1H cljJoPMYJlHpOBaHblll KOHQe 60-x ro.n.oll. COrJ1aCHO 3TOH TeOpl1l1, I1HJ1.\1Blli\YaJIbHbIe pa3- nHql1J1 B Tpcx CBOHCTBaX - 3KCTpaBepcHU-HHTpoBepclIlI, HeBpo- TH3Me 11 nCHXOTII3Me - onpe.n.enJiIOT OCHOBHbIC KOHTYPbI nCHXO- JIOnlqeCKOrO nopTpeTa '1eJlOBeKa. B TeopHJlX A.KoMpCH, ,A)J(.fHiI- 1jJ0p.n. a II P.J0TTeJla, nOJlBI1BWHXCJI B 70-e rOJl,bI, HaJblBaeTCJI 60nb- wee 'IHCrrO napaMeTpoB, He06xol1HMbIX .l\JIJI a.n.eKBaTHoro npe.n.- CTaBileHHH 0 ilH'IHOCTHOH cljJepe, - 8, 13 11 35 COOTBeTCTBCHHO. HepapXII'IeCKaJl TeopllH ,A)I(.Poi!ca 11 .II..ITayeilila, COJ.n.aHHaJl B HaqaJIe 80-x ro,ilOB, npe,/\CTaBilJleT C060H 06061I1eHI1e MHO)J(eCTBa ljJaKTopHo-aHaill1THqeCKIiX HCCile,/\OBaHIIH J1H'IHOCTII H BKJIIO'IaeT I B CC6H OKOJIO 200 nCpcMeHHblx. B .n.aHHoli maBe 6Yi\YT paCCMOT- I peHbl TOJIbKO ,D;BC 113 3TIIX TeopHH - f.AH3eHKa 11 P.K3TTeJla, no- I CKOJ1bKY TOJ1bKO CBOHCTlla IIHqHOCTlI, Bbli\CrreHHbIe 3TIIMI1 aBTO-  \ paMH, CI1CTeMaTHqeCKH HCCile/l.OBaJIHCb B reHeTlI'IeCKI1?t pa60Tax. \ BeHQOM ljJaKTopHO-aHaJlHTH'IeCKOrO HCCJIe/l.OBaHIiJi illI'IHO- CTiI B cerO,/\HHWHeH nCHXOJIOrHII JlBIIJlCTCH BblAeJ1eHHe TaK Ha3bl- BaeMOH "DOlIbWOH nJlTepKI1" - nHTH 6a30Bblx CBOHCTB, KOTO- pbIe, KaK npeIUlOJlarae-rCJI, JIC)J(aT B OCHOBe Bccro MHoro06pa3HJI eBOMeTH, OTHOCHlI1l1XCJI K J1H'IHOCTHOH cljJepc. tITo 3TO 3a CIIOH- CTBa, KaKI1M 06pa30M OHH 6bl/lH nOJIY'ICHbl II KaKOBa pOJIb reHO- THna H Cpe,ilbI B I1X i\CTepMIIHaQHH, MbI TaK)I(e 6Yi\eM 06cY)J(AaTb B 3TOM rJIaBe. r 2.1. "EUOJlOnl'leCKHe" CBOHCTBa JlH'IHOeTH MO)l(HO, He 60Heb npeYBCilHqeHHH, CKaJaTb, '11'0 B reHeTII'Icc- l KIIX Hccnei\OBaHIIHX nHqHOCTHOH C(jJCpbI HaH60JlbWee IIHHMatilie YI\CJ!JleTCJI i1BYM xapaKTepHCTIIKaM - :7KCTpaBcpClm-I1HTpOBepCHH H HeBpOTI1JMY. AHrnHHCKHii IIcc.nc.n.OBaTenb f.A1I3CHK, C HMeHeM l' KOToporo aCCOUIIHpYIOTCR 3TH CBOHCTBa BO BCCM nCI1XOnOrH'IecKoM MllpC, Ha3BaJl 3TH xapaKTepl1CTHKH 6H0J10rHqeCKIIMI1 CBOHCTBaMII J ' JlHqHOCTI1, TO eCTb CBOHCTBaMH, B 3Ha'lI1TeJlbHOH Mepe 06yCilOBJIeH- HblMI1 1jJ1I3110JIOrHqCCKHMH OC06CHHOCTJlMII qenOBeKa. B 3TOM pa3- 363 
HccJleoQeaHl<R He8pOmU3J1fa U 3Kcmpaeepcuu-wunpoeepcuu 8 nCUXQJ/OZUU IIpeACTaBJIeHHe 0 HeBpOTI13Me KaK 06 YCTOH'IIiBOM cBoHCTBe JlII'IHOCTM nOJlBHJIOCb B nCI1XOJIOrHH B caMOM HaqaJIe XX B. B 1915 r. aHrJIHHCKMii MCCJleAOBaTeJlb C DepT (jIaKTOpH30BaJI nOK33aTeml pa3JJH'IHb1X oc05eHHoCTeii nOBeAeHHH, KOTopbIe, no ero npe)J,l1oJIo- JKeHHIO, OTHOCHJIHCb K TeMnepaMeHTY. O,!\!lH li3 nOJIY'IeHHbIX B pe- 3YJIbTaTe (jIaKTOpOB OH H33BaJI 3MOIIOHaJIbHOii CTa6HJIbHOCTbIO - 3MOHOHaJlbHOii HeCTa6HJIbHOCTbIO. B 60JIee n0311HIIX IICCJleAOBa- HHHX aHaJIOnl'lHaJlnCHXOJIOrH'ICCKaJl XapaKTepMCTI1Ka, BblJ\eJleHHaJi B (jIaKTopHO-aHaJIIITH'IeCKOM HCCJleAOBaHHII f.AH3eHKoM, nOJIY'III- rra Ha3BaHHC "I-fCBpOTU3M". 3KCTpaBepCHH-HHTpoBepcHJI, B TOM nOHHMaHIII1, KOTopoe eii npHJl,aeTCJI COBpeMeHHOH nCHXOJIOrlieH, nOHBI1JIaCb TaKJKe B (jIaK- TopHO-aHaJIIiTII'IeCKHX HCCJIeAOBaHllax C.I>epTa, HO 3Ha'iIlTeJlbHO n03JKe - B KOHe 30-x rOAOB. CBOHM H33BaHHeM 3Ta IICHXOilorll- qCCKaH oc06eHHOCTb 06J13aHa K.IOHry. C03AaBaH TllilOnOn1qeCKYlO TeopHIO JIllqHOCTH, K.IOHr nOJIOJKHJI B ee OCHOBY cy6'beKTHO- 06'beKTHYIO opHeHTaIIIO 11 BblAenllJI Aaa Kpai1HHx Tl1l1a JIJOAeH - 0,!l.l1H, .lI,JIJI KOToporo xapaKTepHa oplleHTaHH Ha BHellIHHe 05'beK- ThI, II APyroH, .lI,JIJI KOToporo xapaKTejJHa HanpaBneHHOCTb Ha Ce6H, Ha CBOH BHYT)1eHHIIH MHp. B H33BaHlIJlX, Hcnonb30BaHHblx K.IOH- rOM MJI 0603Ha'leHHJI 3THX THIIOB, CO)J.CpJKIITCH 6yKBaJIbHOe YK33a- Hl1e Ha pa3HbIe TlinbI OplleHTaIjllH' cnOBO 3KCTpaBepCIIH npolicxo- ]J;UT OT naTHHCKHX enOB '''extra'' - "SHe" J.! '''versio'' - HnoBopalfu- BaTb", TO eCTb 3KCTpasepT- 3TO TOT, KTO 06paLQeH BOBHe; CnOBO HHTpOBepCIIJI COAepJKHT ilaTIIHCKHH KopeHb "intra" - "BHYTpb", TO eC1'b IIH1'pOBepT -O TOT, KTO o6pall\eH Ha Ce6H. XOTH npHBepJKeHbI (jIaKTopHo-aHailHTHqeCKOrO nOAXOAa n03aIlMCTBOBaJIl1 Ha3BaHliH nCl1xonOrllqeCKHX cBoiiCTB y K.IOHra, OHII 11'aK1)'IOT I1X IIHaqe: B cOBpeMeHHoM nOHMMaHI1M 11 HHTpOBep- Thl, M 3KcTpaBepTbi OplleHTl1pOBaHbl Ha 06beKThI, HO Ha pa3Hble 3KcT)1aBepTbI HanpaBneHbl Ha JIJOAeii, a HHT)1oBepn,I - Ha BeLQH, Ha HeoAyllIeBJleHHbIe npeAMeTbI. HaqaJIo AeTaJIbHbIM nCHXOJlOrllqCCKMM HccneAOBaHIIHM 3KCT- paBepcHII-HHTpOBepCI1I1I1 HeBpOTI13Ma 6bIilO nOnOJKCHO pa60TaMH 364 allrllHHCKOro nCHXOilora faHca AH3eHKa. B KOHL\e 40-x rOAOB 011 , 06cneAoBail COTHH HClIbITyeMblx, 3i1OPOBbIX H HeBpOTlIl<OB, MH Toro qT06bl YTO'lHIiTb IIpeACTaBileHIIJI 06 3KCTpaBepcIIII 11 HeBpo- T113Me H C03J1,aTh Ha)J.eJKHble MeTOAbI HX ,!I.I!arnOCTI1KII. B 3TO JKe Bpe- MH OH BblCKa3an npe)J,l10nOJKeHlle 0 cYll\eCTBOBaHIlIl eLQe O,!l.l!OH (jIYIIAaMeBTaJIbHOH nCHXOnOrll'leCKOH oc05eHHoCTH - nCIIXOTli3Ma, npOHBilHIOll\erOCa B IIMnynbclIBHoCTl1, HH3KOM caMoKOHTpOile H ar- peccHBHoCTIl. ITCMXOTll3M no ceH AeHb paccMaTpHBaeTCJI fAii3CH- KOM KaK oAHa H3 Tpex 6330BbIX COCTaBnHIOLQHX ilHqHOCTHOIl CTpyK- ,ypbl, OAliaKO IIccileAoBaH OH MeHee 1I0AP05HO, qeM 3KCTpaBepcIIH H HCBpOTH3M, H IIcilOJIb3YeTCH B nCI1XQilOrH'JeCKIiX HCCJle.n:oBaHliax ropa3Ao peJKe. B 50-ble roAbI f.AH3eHK AeJ1aeT nOnblTKY HHTepnpeTllpOBaTb cOAepJKaH!1C 3KCTpaBepC!1H H HCBpoTH3Ma B KOHTeKCTC (jI!13110nOrH- J qCCKIIX TeopHH H nOABeCTH, TaKHM 06pa30M, eCTeCTBeHHoHayqHYIO 'I 6a3Y nOil CBOII npeACTaBJleHHH 05 oc05ellHocTaX lIH'JHOCTHOH c(jIe- pbI. BHaqaJIC OH OCHOBbIBacrca Ha TeopllH HepBHOH cMCTeMbl H.IT- \(\ nasnoBa !1 paccMaTp!1Bacr npOL\eCCbl B035YJKJJ.eH!1a H TOpMOJKCHIIH .j KaK onpeAeJUlIOIl\He .lI,JIJI (jIopMHpoBaHMa 3KCTpaBepC!1H-MHT)10BCp- CHM. OH npeilnOJlarae-r, '11'0 3KcTpaBepTbi xapaKTepll3YlOTCJI Cila- ) 6bIM npOljeCCOM B036YJKilCHMH II CllnbHblM TOpMOJKeHlleM, '1TO npl1 lIaT01l0rllqeCKHX OTKnOHeHHJlX npliBOAHT K CT epH'IeCKHM HapyrneHIIJlM, a B npeAeJIe - K MaHHaKanbHO-ilenpeCCIIBHOMY nCH- X03y. HHT)10BepTbI, Ha060po1', xapaKTepll3YIOTCH CllnbHblM npOIjec- COM B036YJKJJ.eHliH Ii cila6b1M TOpMOJKeHlleM 11 HMCIOT n03TOMY CKJlOHHOCTb K nCHxaCTeHH'IeCKHM OTKJIOHeHIIHM (B npe,!\ene - K wH30(jlpeHHM). IT03i\Hee f.AH3eHK MeHaeT CBOH B3rl1ail Ha (jIH3110nOmqCCKMe MeXaHII3Mbl, ileJKaWHe B OCIiOBe 3KCTpaBepCIII1-MHTpOBepCIIII, H paCCMaTpHBaeT B KaqeCTBe TaKOBblX BocxoilaLQHe aKTHBllpYIOll\He BJII'!JlHH peTHKYJlHpliOil lj!opMaIjMH. COrllaCHO nUM npeAC1:BMeHU- HM, 3KCT)1aBepTbl 05i1ailalOT 60nee ClIlIbHblM KOPTlIKO-peTHKynJlp- / HbIM TOpM03HblM npOIjecCOM, qeM HHT)10BepTbI, qTO npl1BOAliT K HX 60nee HII3KOH, no cpaBHeHI1IO C IIHT)10BepTaMI1, aKTI1BaL\HII. Pa3nli'lHH B ypoBHe aKTIIBaMI1 3KCTpaBepTOB M I'!HT)10Bep- TOB npOaBJIHIOTCJI Ha nOBeAeH'IeCKOM ypOBHe. HHT)10BCpTbl, KO- Topble ilerKO aKTHBl1pYIOTCH H C TI>YAOM CHHJKalOT YPOBeHb aKTM- Bal1l1, CKJIOHHbI 1136craTb cTIIMynllpYlOll\lIX CI1TyaL\IIH, KOTopbIe ell\e 60JIbWe nOBbIwalOT MX H TaK BblCOKYIO aKTIIBaIjI1IO. 3KCTpa- 365 .n:ene maBbl MbI paccMoTpIlM, qTO C060H npeACTaBJIJlIOT 3TH CBOH- crna H KaKOBa pOilb reHOTl1na II cpeAbI B MX ACTepMHHaljI1H. 
BepTbl, HMelOll\He IIH3KHH ypooeHb aKTHOal.\HH, lIa06opOT, CJ<JIOH- Hbl HCKaTb BHe11JHIOIO CTftMynHl.\IflO ,!\JIJI nOBblllleHHH aJ<THB<il.\HH. \ Ponb cTHMynJlTopoB npll 3TOM MorYT IIrpaTb nlO6bIc (j!aKTopbl _ II 06ll\eJllle C .upyrliMH mO)\bMIi, Ii J1106aH ceHcopHaH CTIIMYJIJll.\IIH I (lIanpIlMep, e,l\a), Ii 3MOl.\HOreHHbIe clITyal.\HH. B pe3ynbTaTe no- \ ro 3KCTpaBepTbI 60J!bllle, '1eM IIHTpoBepTbI, J!106RT 06ll\aTbcR C .lIpyrHMH, Goncc CKJIOHHbI K pa.3Ho06pa3HbIM npHJ<JllOqCHHHM II He 60JlTCJI pHcKoBaTb. qTO KaCaeTCH HeBpOTI13Ma, TO pa3nli'lHR B ero ypoBHe pac- CM3TjJHBalOTCR f.AibeHKOM KaK p33JmqJ.!R B Tonyce CHMnaTHqeC- KOH H napaCHMnaTH'IeCKOii HepBHOH CHCrCMbl. ITcHxonOrHqeCKHe I1CCJle,l\OBaHIiJi 3KCTpaBepCHH-HHTjJO- Bepcmf If HCBpOTIf3Ma, npo80,l\RU;HeCH lIa npOTJI)!(elllfH nOJlYBeKa, n03BOnJilOt C ,l\ocraTO'lHOH onpe,l\eJleHHOCTblO oxapaKTepH30BaTb HX OCHooHbIe oc06eHHocTH. 06a 3TI1X CBOHCTBa HMelOT WHpOKlle HHJI,IIBH.l\yaJlbHbfe pa3J1H'I1f1l B nonYJlllU,HH, RBJIHIDTCR OIlToreHC- TH'IeCKH cTa611J!bllbIMH Ha npOTJlJI(eHlI1I ,l\CTCKoro H B3pOCJIOro B03pacra, XapaKTCpH3YlOT nOBe,l\elllle qCJIOBCKa B WHpOKOM KJIaCCe cUTya[(uii, HMCIOT OTqCTJII1BbrC CD"3H C <jJH3HOJIOrll'leCKIIMI1 oeo- 6eIlIlOCTHMII. Bee 3TO n03BOnJleT npe,l\nOJIO)((HTb, qTO 3KcTjJaBep- CHsr-IIHTjJOBCpCHJI H HCBpOTll3M OTHOCHTCR, cKopce, K c<jJepe TeM- nepaMeHTa, qeM JIII'IHOCTII. qaCTo 3T1I CBOHCTBa IIMeHHO TaK H HHTepnpCTHpyroTcsr, Ha- nOMIIHM, '1TO HeBpOTI13M 6blJ! BbI,l\eJ!eH npll 113yqeHIIH C!!OHCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. B 3ana,l\Hoi'i nCHXOnOTlm npH aHaJII13e COBpeMeH- HbiX KOHl.\cnl.\IIH TeMncpaMCHTa HcnpcMeHHO paCCMaTjJIIBaeTcsr TeOpllJl r.AiheHKa. B OTe'leCTBeHHOii nCHX0J10TlIH 3KcrpaaepCHH- HHTpOBepCIIH H HeBpoTH3M BKmoqalOTcH HenOCpe,l\CTBeHHO B CHH- '!\POM CBoiiCTB TeMnepaMeHTa. --' BMccre C TeM, caM LAibeHK (II He TOJIbKO OH) CKJIOHCH pac- ( CMaTpllBaTb 3TH CBOHCTBa IIMeHHO KaK CBOHCTBa nll'lHocrll II Ha- 3bIBaJi IIX 6110J!Orll'leCKHMII CBOHCTBaMl1 J!H'IHOCTH C'IIITaeT' qTO , , OHII IIrpalOT B CTpYKType nCHXOJIOrllqeCKIiX CBOHCTB '1eJlOBeKa 60JIbWYlO pOJIb, '1eM CBOHCTBa TeMnepaMeHTa. POllb ZeHOmUl1a U cpeObl 8 oemepMUHalfUU "6UOJlOZUWCKUX" C80ucm8 Jlu'mocmu HCCJ1e,l\OBaHHJI reHOTIm-Cpe,l\OBbIX ,!\CTepMHHaHT Tpex, OC- HOBHblX, no MHeHHIO f.AH3eHKa, CBOHCTB JIllqHOCTII (3KCTpaBep- 366 CHH, HeBpOTI'!3Ma H nCHxoTH3Ma), KaK npaOIlJlO, YKa3bI!!aIOT Ha . TO, '1TO reHOTHn OKa3bIBaeT !!nHJlHIIC Ha 1j>0pMI1pOBaHI'!e IIHJI,I1!!H- .n:yanbHbIX pa3J1HqHii, Ha6nlO,lJ;aeMblX no 3THM CBOHCTBaM. .II.mI Toro '1T06bl npo,!\eMOHCTpHpOBaTb no, paCCMOTpHM pe3YJlbTaTbi HeKOTopblX 3KcnepHMCHTOB. B IICCJIe,l\OBaHHH, npOBe,l\eHHOM npH y'IaCTIIH r.Aii3eHKa, conOCTaBJlJlJ1HCb AaHHbIe, nonY'leHHble Ha BbI60pKax B3pOCJlbIX 6J1113HeL\OB, 5nIl3Hel.\OB no.upOCTKOBoro B03paCTa H !IX pOJl,llTe- neH, O,lJ;IIHO'IHOpO)[(AeHHblX AeTeH H HX pOJl,llTeJleH (Eaves L.J , Eysenck H.J., Martin N.G., 1989). TaKoii COC'l'aB BbI60pKII IIC!!bI- TyeMbIx n03BOJIJleT 3KcnepHMeHTanbHO onpeJl,enllTb H yqecrb npH Ou.eliKe nOKa3aTenH HaCne,l\yeMocTII l.\enbIH pR,l\ Cpe,l\O!!bIX 3(j!(j!eK- TOI' (TaKJlX, KaK CneIjH(j!HKa 6nJl3HcL\OBOH CpC.IJ;bI, CI16COBOH cpe- )J.bI), !!nHJlHHe accopTaTHBHOCTI1, a TaK)[(e ,lJ;aeT B03MO)J(HOCTb Ol.\e- IIHTb npceMcTBeHHocTb reHeTH'IeCKHX BnHJlHHH. Ha nOCJIe,l\HCM, TO eCTe Ha Ol.\eJlKe npeeMCTBeHHOCTH reHeTH'ICCKIIX BJIHRHIIH OT nO!\pOCTKOBoro KO B3pOcnOMY B03pacry, OCTaliOBIIMCJI nOi\P06HCC. B HCCJIe,!\O!!aHHI1, oprallH30BaHHOM no TaKoii cxeMe, T.e CO- Aep)!(au;eM TaKO» Ha60p pOACTBeHHIIKO!!, eCTb B03MO)[(HOCTb cono- CTaallTb ,!\pyr c ,!\pyrOM B3pOCJlbIX 6JI113HCl.\OB, 6J1113Hel.\OB-no,!\poCT- KOB H pOJl,llTcneii C ,l\CTbMI1. ITpH BHY11mnapHOM cpaaHcHHH B3pOC- JlblX 6nH3HCI10B MO)!(HO nony'mTb ou.eHKH reHOTHIJHqecKJlX Ii cpc- ,l\OBbrX lj>aKTOPOB, !!nHJlIOlIJ.HX Ha Hccnell,yeMb!e CBoMCTBa BO B3pOC- nOM B03paCTe. CpaBHeHl1e 6i1H3HeUOB-nOI\POCTKOB ,l\aeT OUeHKII re- flOTl1IJIi'lecKI1X H cpC.z<OBblX <jJaKTOpOB, BJlHRIOIIX Ha 3T11 :>Ke CI'OH- CTBa B no,!\pOCTKOBOM B03pacre. KOppenHl.\IIH MC)[(1I,y P0)l,llTeJlJlMI'! H AeTbMII nOJ<a3bIBaIOT, OJI,HHaKOBble JIll reHOTllTIlI'lCCKHe II cpe,l\O- ODIC (j!aKTOpbl BJ!HRIOT fliII1CCnC.1I.YCMblC CBoikTIJa B pa3HblX B03pa- CTax IInH HeT. EcnH IICCJIe,l\yeMoe CBoiiCTBO OKa3blBaeTCJI B 3Ha'lH- TeJlbHOH Mcpe rCHeTH'ICCKH 05yCJlOBJleHHblM Ii B no,!\pOCTKOBOM, H 1'0 B3pOCJlOM B03paCTC, a pOJl,liTeJ!H Ii .n:eTfI OKa3blBaIDTCIl no 3TOMY CBOHCTIlY HenOXO)[(IIMI'!, 3TO CBHJI,eTenbCTBYcr 0 TOM, '1TO !! pa3HbIX B03paCTax :aapllaTIIBHOCTb CBOHCTBa 05YCJlOBneHa pa3- HblMH reHOTHnHqCCKIiMII !!JlHHHItIlMI!. ECJ!II 31H1.'!IiMall TCHeTlt'lec- KaH 06YCJIOBJleHHOCTb CBOHCTIla II B nOJl,pOCTKOBOM, H BO B3pOC- nOM B03pacre COqCTaeTCH co CXOJl,CTBOM pOJl,llTeJleH II ,!\eTeH, 3TO CBH.D;eTenbcTBycr 0 npeeMCTlleHHOCTH reHeTH'ICCKHX BJ!I!JlHHi'i, 0 TOM, qTO O)l,HH II Te :>Ke reHLI 06ycnOBJIHBaIOT H3Y'laeMoe C!!OH- CTBO B pa3HbiX B03paCTax. IToKa3aTeJlCM npeeMCTBeHHOCTII reHe- 367 
r THqeCKHX BJIIIRHI1H RBJIJleTCR reHeTH'IeCKaR KOppeJIRQIIR, KOTOpax nOi\CqHTbIBaeTCJI Ha OCHOBaHHH BHYTpllnapHblX KOPPeJIJlL\HH B3pOC- JlblX 6J1H3HeQOB, BHYTpHnapHbIX KOppeJIRQHH 6JII'!3HeQOB-nOi\PO- CTKOB II KOppeJIJlQIli1 pOi\IITeJleHIl i\eTeH. Pa3YMeeTCR, TaKOH cnoc06 OL\eHKII reHeTlI'leCKIIX KOppeJlR- QH" JlBJlReTCR npH5JIII3HTeJIbHbIM' H Cpei\OBbIe, II reHeTlI'leCKHe (jJaKTopbl MorYT H3MeHJlTb CTeneHb CXOi\CTBa MeJKA)' pOi\HTeJlRMH II i\CTbMII. Tal<:, l\eTlllI POi\IITeJll1 MorYT 6blTb nOXOJKlIl1JIII He no- XOJKII 6JIaroi\apJl Cpei\OBbIM (jJaKTopaM, a HcaMIITIIBHoe HaCJIe- i\OBaHne, KaK YJKe HeOI\llOKpaTHO rOBOpHJIOCb B JIO" KHHre, YMeHb- waeT CXOi\CTBO MeJKA)' pOAI1TeJIRMIi II i\eTbMII. 3HaqllTeJIbHO 50- JIec H3,D,CJKHbIM cnow60M OL\CHKII reHCTl1qCCKIIX KOppeJlJlQIIH 6bIJ! 5b1 aHaJII13 JIOHrJlTlOl\llblX i\aHHblX, TO CCTb i\aHHblX, nOJlY'ICHHbIX npn npOCJIeJKHBaHnl1 Ha OI\llOH H TOH JKe Bbl50pKe IIcnblTyeMbIx Toro, Kal( 113MeHRCTCJI KaKOC-JIII60 CBOHCTBO II ero reHOTIm-Cpc- i\OBbIe i\eTepMHHaHTbl Ha npOTRJKeHHH MHTeJIbHOrO nCpHOi\a Bpe- MeHH. Ho, nOCKOJlbKY B reHeTHKe nOBCi\eHI'!R nOKa HeT JlOHrll- TIOi\HbIX HCCJ!ei\OBaHIli1 KTpaBepCHH-IIHTpOBepCHn, HeBpOTli3- Ma II nCI1XOTII3Ma OT nOl\pOCTKOBoro KO B3pOCJIOMY B03paCTY, i\aHHbIe r Ai13eHKa II ero KOJlJ!er 0 npeeMCTBeHHOCTH reHeTllqeC- KIIX BJIHJlHHH BnOJIHe MOJKHO npllHRTb BO BHHMaHHC KaK HeKOTO- pbIH OpIICHTIIPOBO'lHbIH pe3YJ!bTaT. HTaK, nOJ!yql1o OIleHKI1 3KcrpaBepCIII1-IIHTpOBepCIIH, He- BpOTH3Ma H nCHXOTII3Ma MJI Bcex yqaCTBOBaBlIJHX B HCCJIei\Ooa- HilI'! Bbl6opOK II paCCMOTpeo COOTBeTCTBlie 3T11X OQeHOK pa3HbiM reHeTH'IeCKIlM MO)J.eJ!RM, aBTopbl pa60TbI npHWJ!11 K I\BYM Bb1BO- )J.aM. Bo-nepObIX, reHornn onpe)J.eJIJleT cYU;eCTBeHHYIO qaCTb (jJCHO- THnllqeCKoi1 i\HcnepCIIII )TIIX CBOHCTB 11 Y no.u.pOCTKOB, H Y B3pOC- JIbIX. BO-BTOPbIX, OT n0.l\PoCTKOBoro KO B3pOCJIOMY B03paCTY CY- u;ecTByeT onpei\eJleHHaR npeeMCTBeHHOCTb reHeTHqeCKHX OJIIIJI- HIIH, KOTOpa>l OKa3bIBae-rC>I BCCbMa 3Ha'lHTCJlbHOH MJI HeBpOTli3- Ma II )J.OBOJ!bHO cYU;eCTBeHHOH - IJ.illI Jl,BYX .l\Pyrux COOHCTB (Ta6- J1HL\a 9.5). Cy.n:JI no 3TIIM )J.aHHbIM, MOJKHO CKa3aTb, '1TO rCHOTH- nllqeCKHe (jJaKTopbI, )J.eTepMHHllpYIOU;I1C BapliaTIIBHOCTb HeBpo- TII3Ma BO B3pOCJIOM B03paCTe, OCTalOTCR TeMIl JKe, qTO 6bIJlII B nO)J.pOCTKOBOM B03paCTe. qTO JKe KaCaeTCJI reHeTII'IeCKI1X (jJaKTO- pOB, BJIH>lIOU;I1X Ha Oapl1aTI1BHOCTb 3KcrpaoepCIIII H nCIIXOTII3Ma, / TO OHII JI\IWb )J.O HCKOTOpOH CTeneHIl COXpaHJlIOTCR HCH3MeHHbI- Mil OT nOiqJOCTKOBoro KO B3pOCJIOMY B03pacTY. 368 Ta6J1uu,a 9,5 . [JoKa3ameJlU /taCJleiJyeAtoCmU 3Kcmpa8epcuu-u//mpoeepcuu, He8po- mUJMa U ncuxomU3Ma (Eaves L.J., Eysenck N.J., Marril1 N.G., 1989) HacneAyeMOCT" HacneAyeMoCTb reH8TM\.IeCK"e nOKS3aTeml y npocnblx y nO.D.pocTtCO B KoppeI1f1ltlolM Me""AY ABYMR B03paCTSMM 3KCTpaaepcIoIA 51 55 43 HeBpoTH3M 42 44 84 nCIolXOn13M 49 42 34 I l KaK H HCCJ1ei\OBaTeJlH, 113Y'IalOU;IIC TCMnepaMeHT, aBTopbl 3TOH pa60Tbi CTOJIKHYJIIICb C 60JIbWilMII pa3JIH'IIIJlMII BO BHYTpIl- napHoM CXO)J.CTBe M3 11 3 6JIII3He1l0B (BHYTpllnapHble KoppeJlR- QHH M3 OJlH3He1l0B oorrcc '1eM B 2 pa3a npeBblWaJlII BHYTpHnap- IIbIe KOppCrrJlQIIH .II.3 6J1113HeQOB). OcooeHHo OT1JeTJ!HBbIMIl 3T1I pa3J1l1qllJl MeJKA)' M3 11 .II.3 6rrH3HellaMII 6blJ!H B 0llCHKax BHyrpIl- napHoro CXOi\CTBa, norryqeHHorO no 3KcTpaBepclIlI-IIHTpoBep- CHI1 (Ta6J1HL\a 9.6). IIpll aHaJlH3e npHql1H nOJIyqeHHblX pe3YJ!bTaToB paccMaT- pliBaJIOCb COOTBeTCTBlie nOJIyqeHHblX i\aHHbIX (KoppeJIRQIIH MeJK- J1,y Pa:JJIHqHbIMIi pOi\CTBeHHI1KaMH no OL\eHKaM CBOHCTB JlII'IHOC- TII) pa3HbIM reHeTHqeCKI1M MOl\eJIJlM. B pe3YJlbTaTe aBTopbI npll- Willi K BbIBOi\Y, qTO BapHaTIIBHoCTb 3KcTpaBepcHH-IIHTpOBCp- CIIII JIyqWC Bcero onllCblBaeTCJI JlHOO MO)J.eJIblO, BKJ!lO'IalOu;eH B ce6H KaK aMIITHBHYIO reHeTllqeCKYIO cocTaBJ!RIOU;YIO, TaK 11 He- a)J,1l,llTIIBHyro (I1oMHHaHTHoCTb HIDI 3nIlCTa:J), J!H60 MOJl,eJlblO, yqH- TbIBalOu;ci1 aMIITIIBHoe HaCJIel\OBaHIIC II KOHTpaCTHblc OTHowe- HIIJI MeJKA)' .II.3 6J!1I3HellaMII II cII6caMil (a1JTOpbl Ha3bIBalOT 3TII OTHOlllCHlIR conepHII'Iecrl\OM). COnCpHH'ICCTIIO, 110 IIX MHCHIlIO, 3aKJlIOqaeTCR B TOM, 1JTO Hc60JIbWIIC pa3J1l1qllJl B 3KCTpaocpCIIH, CBH3allHblC C pa3JIHqHHMH B reHOTHnc napTHepOB .II.3 nap, YCllmi- BalOTCJI 113-3a Cnellll(jJHqeCKIIX OTHOWCHIIH MeJK)J.y OJIII3HellaMH. ECJlI'! Oi\HH, oJlaroi\apJl CBOHM reHeTH1JCCKIIM npCMOCbIJlKaM, OKa- 3blBaeTCJI 60Jlee ycnewcH B 06u;eHIIII, TO i\pyrOH crpCMIITCJI npe- B30i1TII cro B KaKOH-TO J1,pyro" c(jJepe, KOTOpOH '1aCTO OKa3b1Ba- IOTCJI 3aHRTHJI, He Tpe6YIOU;He 05U;CHIIJI: "OOU;IITCJIbHbIH pe6e- HOK 3aBOJ1,I1T i\pY3eH II OCTaBJIReT KHllrI1 CBoeMY 60JIce IIHrpOBCP- 369 ( 
Ta6J1ulja 9.6 BHympuI1apHo6 cxoi)cm80 6JlU3He!jo6 no 3Kcmpaeepcuu-uumpoeep- cuu (Eaves L.J., Eysel1ck H.J.. Marlin NG., 1989) HLie Bapl1aTHBHOcTb HeBpoTH3Ma CBR3aHa C a,ll,lJJ1T1tBHbIM HaCJIe- 1J;0BaHl1eM, KOTopoe onpClI.enRCT npllMepHo 40% BCCH oapHaTHB- HOCTH, II pa3J1Ii'JaIDIl\CHCR cpelloH nOKa3aTenH HaCJIellycMOCTII nCHXOTH3Ma HaXOI\RTCJI B npellenax 40-50%, a OCTaJlbHaJi AOJUI uapua-ruBRoCTH npltXOIJ:HTCJI Ha pa3nHqaIDIl\YIOclI cpeAY. )XpyrHe 6JIH3HCI10BbiC HCCJIeAOBaHHlI nClIxonOrH'ICCKIIX oco- 6eHHoncH, paccMaTpHBaeMblx f Ai13eHKoM KaK OCHOBHblC CBOH- CTBa JIHqHOCTII, KaK npaBIIJlO, orpaHwUlBalOTCJI 3KCTpaBepcHeH- HHTpOBepcHcH H HeBpoTII3MOM H 06HapYJKHBalOT aHaJIOrH'IHble pe3YJIbTaTbI TaK, npaKTHQeCKH BcerAa pa3J1H'IIIR BO BHYTpHnap- HOM CXOIJ:CTBe M3 6JII13HeUOB 60JIee QeM B 2 pa3a npeBbllIIalOT CXOIJ:CTBO 3 6m13HeI10B, npH'IeM, KaK It B onHcaHHoi1 pa60Te f AH3eHKa C KOJIJleraMII, :nll pa3JIHQllR OKa3bIBalOTClI 60JIbillC BblpaJKeHbI ,!\JIR nOKa3aTeJIeH 3KCTpaBepCHI1, qeM ,!\JIR nOKa3aTe- JIeH HeBpOTlI3Ma, II 06HapYJKHBalO-rclI KaK Y JKeHIl\HH, TaK II Y MY"'- "IIH H XeH,l!epCOH, npOaHaJIH311pOBaB 30 60JIblIIIIX IICCJIe,l!OBU- HIIH TIIX CBOHCTB, He 06HapY)KIIJI HII OAHoro CJIyqaR, KOr,l!u no 3KCTjJaBepCHH 6WIH 6bI nOJIyqeHblllHbIe pe3YJIbTaTbl, a no nOKa3a- TeJIRM HCBpOTH3Ma TOJIbKO B 8 H3 30 pa60T BHYTpHnapHOC CXO)'\- CTBO M3 6JIII3HeUOB MeHbllle '1CM B lJ.Ba pa3a npeBbllllaJIO CXOll- CTBO 3 6J1H3He110B (Henderson N D., 1982). 3Ha'ieHIIR BHYTpHnapHblx KOppeJ1RUIIH M3 11 .II.3 OIca3bIBa- IOTCR TaKJKe 6JIII3KHMH K TeM, KOTopble 6blJIlI nOJIyqeHbI B pa6o- Te f.Ai13eHKa, B qeM MOJKHO y6ei\HTbCJI, nocMoTpeB Ha pe3YJIbTa- Tbl '1eTblpex 60JIblllHX 6JI113Hel100blX HCCJIe)'\oBaHHH, npooeAcH- HblX B pa3Hbix cTpaHax (ra6JIHUa 9.7). .II.JK. JI03JIHH 06"eAHHHn lJ:aHHble 3THX qCTblpeX pa60T (0 061l\eH CJ10)l(HOCTIl OHH OKJIlOqalOT B ce6R 23000 nap 6JI1I3HeI\OB) \I nO!1C'!HTaJI cpeAHHe K031j!1JlltUHCHTbi BHYTPHnapHoH KOppCJIR- 111m. ITo 3KcTpaBepcHH--HHTpOBepcHH OHH OKa3aJIIICb pasHbl 0,51 .l\JIR M3 H 0,18 .l\JIR.II.3 6JI113HC1\00, a no HCOPOTII3MY - 0,48,!\JIR M3 \I 0,20 .l\JIR .II.3 6JI1-13He110B 3TII AaHHbIe n03BOJIRIOT CACJIaTb Te JKe BbIBOlI.bI, qTO 6hlJIH Ci\eJIaHbl 1 AH3eHKoM C KOJIJIeraMH - o HeCKOJIhKO 60JIbWeM BJIlIRHHH rCHOTHna Ha BapHaTHBHocTb 3K- CTpaBepC\lH, qeM HeBpoTH3Ma, 0 BepoRTHoM npHCYTCTBHH Heak llH'tmmoH KOMUOHeHTbl B nme'tH'!CCKHX OJlI!!!HI!!!X Ha 3KcTpaBep- CillO, 0 B03MOJKHOM BJIHJlHIIII Ha 3KCTpaBepcIIID oc05eHHoCTcH 5m13rICI10BOH cpeIlbl1i 0 HC3HaQllTenbHOM BJ1I1RHIIH 061l\ei1 cpe)'\bi (Loehlin J , 1989). nOKa33Ten'o >KeHLltI4HbI MY""'"H" M3 A3 M3 113 3KcTpasepcMR (r} 46 18 65 25 Koml...eCTBO nap 233 125 70 47 TllpOBaHHOMY 6paTY" (Eaves L J et aI., 1989, p 403). TaKaJl Opl-!- CI-!TaUII" Ha pa3HbIe BlIlI.bl aKTIIBHOCTII YCHJIIIBae't pa3JII<QIl", KO- TOpble !!BJIJlIOTCJI CJIe,'J;CTBHCM pa3JIH'IHH B reHOTllnax napTHepOB .II.3 nap, II npIlBO,l!HT K CTOJlb "BHOMY IIX HeCXOACTBY no 3KcTpa- BCpCIIH--HHTposepcHH. qTO KaCaeTCR HeBpOTll3Ma, TO, no lJ:allHblM 3Toro I1CC;lC,l!O- BaHIIJI, Bapl1aTIIBHOCTb HCBpOTI13Ma C01l3aHa npeHMYll\eCTBCHHO C aJJ:llHTI'!BHbIMH lj!aKTopaMH II BpR,'J; JIll I1CnblTblBaCT BJ1H"HHe He- a.ll:ll.IITIIBHbIX. ITpH npOBepKe nmOTeJbI 0 B03MOJKHOM BJIIIRHIlIi accopTa- TlIBHOCTH aOTopbl npllwnll K BbIBO,l!Y, qTO OHa OKa3blBaCT BJI",,- HHe TOJIbKO Ha nOKa3aTCJIII nCIIXOTII3Ma. HI1 3KCTpaBepCHR, HII HCSpOTII3M He HCnbITbIBalOT BJIIIJlHH" accopTaTIIBHOCTII H nocnCAHHII.paKT, 0 KOTOpOM Hc05xo,'J;HMO CKa3aTb, 06- cYJK,'J;aJl 3TO HCCJIe,!\OBaHl1e. CpeAoBble lj!aKTopbI, BJIII"IOIl\IIC Ha I1HJl,HBlIllyaJlbHbIe pa3JIi-l'lHJI no 3KcTpasepclIH, HeBpOTIIJMY H nCII- XOTH3MY, npaKTllqeCKH nOJlHOCThlO IICqepnblBalOTc" pa3JIHqalO- ll\eHC>I cpeAoH KOMnOHCHTbI o6 w eH CpC,l!bl B lj!eHoTllnHqeCKOH IlHcnepcHH 3THX CBOHCTB OKa3bIBalOTCH npeHe6pcJKHMO MaJIbl. 3TO 03HaqaeT, '1TO IIH,'J;IIBlIllyaJIbHbIH on biT, OTJII1qaIOIl\HHC" OT Toro, KOTOpblH CCTb Y .LIPyrllx qJIeHOO CCMbll (y napTHepa 6JIHJHCI10BOH napbl, Y 6paTbeo II ceCTep, Y pO,l!IITencli), OKa3bIBaeT 3Ha'lHTeJlb- HO 60JlbWee BJIHJlHHe Ha 1j!0pMHpOBaHI1e IIHAHBII,'J;yaJlbHbIX pa3- JIllqllH no 3THM CBOHCTBaM, qeM 06WHH ceMCHHblH onhlT. TaKHM 06pa30M, Ha OCHOBaHHIl HCCJIe,!\OBaHH!!, npOBC,l!CrI- Horo f Aii3CHKOM Hero KOJIJICraMH, MOJKHO 3aKJIlOqHTb, qTO IIH- ,'J;IIOHAyaJILHble pa3JIII'IHJI no TaKOMY COoi1cTIIY, KaK 3KC'tpaoep- CH>I, Onpe,l!elllllOTCJI npHMcpHO B paBHOH CTenCHIl pa3JII1'1alOweii- C" cpellOH H reHOTHnOM, npHqeM cpe,'J;1I reHOTHnHqeCKHX BJIIIJI- HIIH CYll\eCTBeHHbIMH OKa3bIBalOTCH H a,lI,DJITHBHbIC, II HCaJJ:llHTHB- 370 371 
Ta6.11uI{a 9.7 BHymprmapHbJe KOppe.I!JIlJuu M3 U 3 6llU3HeIJ06 110 3Kcmpa6epcuu U He8pOmrJ3MY, nOllyqeHHble 6 CllMblX 60llbUJUX 6llU3Hetj06blX ucelle- 0060Hlmx (Plomin R., Chipuer H.M.. Loehlin J. C.. 1990)' Ta6JlUI{a 9,8 J1eCJle008(j/jUR 3Kcmpa6epcuu U He8pomU3Ma Ha 6b160pKax pa3llY- euHblX 6JIU3Hetj08 (Loehlin J.e., 1992) Bbl6opK3 3KCTpaBepCI'IA.HTpOl3epCA HnpOn'l3M M3 finM3Ke4b1 ,[13 6nM3tte4b1 M3 6n"3He4 .Q3 I5nlol3He4b1 >KeHL4. MY"'" )l{eH, MY"'" J!(eH. MY"'" )l{eH. MY""'. CWA 62 57 28 20 48 58 23 26 Wae4MA 54 47 21 20 54 46 25 21 ABCTpamlR 53 50 19 13 52 46 26 18 <!>IoIHJ1AHAIoIR 48 48 14 15 43 33 18 12 \1ccneAoBaHMA pa3nj'4eHHblx 15J13HeLl.OB nOKa38Tel1b MHCKoe Wae,Q,cKoe MMHHeCOTcKoe M3 A3 M3 A3 M3 ,[13 n=30 n=95 n=95 n=218 n=44 n=27 311'CTpaBepcIoIR 38 12 30 04 34 -07 HeepoTM3M 25 11 25 28 61 29 CYMMapHoe ICDfI.....eCTBO nap 23000 6b1ilO 6b! HenpaBHllbHO Ha OCHOBaHliH 31'UX AaHHblX OrneprSTb rll- nOTe3Y 0 reHeTHqeC\(oii 06YCIlOBIleHHOCTII HeopoTH3MS. OJl,HaKO 31'11 AaHHble n03BOJlJlIOT Bb!CKa3aTb npe.IUlOIlOJKeHHe 0 TOM, 'ITO IIC- CJleAOBaHIIJI Hepa:JIIyqeHHb!X, JKIIBYIl\IIX BMeCTe 6JIII3HeI\OB, nO-BII- AHMOMY, He)\OOl1eHI'!OaIOT Cpe)\OBble BIlUJlHHJI Ha nOKaJaTeJIII He- BpOTH3Ma, H HMeHHO 31'0 II 6bllI0 OT'IeTIlIIBO nOKa3aHO B APyroM I1CClleAOBaHIIH - Ha qaCTII'IHO pa31lY'IeHHb1X M3 6J1HJHel\aX (Kaprio J., Koskenvuo M ,Rose R.J., 1990). ITo pe3YllbTaTaM, nOJIyqeHHbIM Ha IjIIIHCKOH 61l113Hel\OBOH Bbl6opKe, 6bllIO nOKa3aHO, '1TO BHYTpHnapHOe CXOACTBO no HeBpo- TII3MY y JKeHIl\HH II MYJKqllH II no 3KCTpaBepCliH Y JKeHIl\IIH OK33bl- BlleTCH Y B3pOCilblX Oml3He110B TeM !deHbllle, '1eM !deHbllle OHM 06- IIJ,aIOTCJI APyr C ApyrOM. ITOJIY'lI1B 3TH peJYJIbTaThI, HCClle.!J,OBaTeIlH 3a.!J,aJ1H ce6e Bonpoc; KaKOBbl npHqHHHo-cneACTBeHHble OTHOIneHIIJI MeJl(Jly 3T11MII ABYMJI IJepeMeHHbIMH? qaCToTa 061l\eHHJI npHBOI\HT K 60llbweMY CXOI\Crny 111111 JKe, Ha060poT, qaCTO 06Il\aIOTCJI Te, KTO 60llbwe nOXOJK .l\Pyr Ha .l\Pyra? ,[(JIJI IJpOBepKII 3Toro aBTopbl 06cneJl,OBaJIII JKHBYIl\IIX BMeCTe 1\13 6JIlf:JHel10B (B /975 r.), a qepe3 611eT (15 1981 r.) IJOBTOpllllH 3K- cnepllMeHT. Bo BpeMli BToporo 06cne.!J,015aHIIJI )'JICC He Bee 6JIII3Hel\bl )!(1I])f1 BMeCTe, H HccnelloBaTClII1 pa3.n;eIlHJIH BbI60PKY Ha TpH rpyn- nbI - Tex, KTO npOAOJlJKaeT JKIITb BMeCTe, Tex, KTO JKlIBeT Bp03b, HO I1pll 3TOM '1aCTO BCTpeqac-rCJI, H Tex, KTO Jl<IIBCT Bp03b II BCTpC'IaeT- CJI pellKO. ITOAC'II1TaB 15HYTpllnapHbIC Koppemll\lIlI B 3TIIX Tpex rpynnax 6JIH3Hel\OB no nOKa3aTeJIJlM 3KCTpaBepCHH 11 HeBpOTII3Ma, IlOJIY'IeHHblM B KaJKAOM 113 ABYX 06cneAoBaHIIH (B 1975 r. II 15 1981 r.), OHI'! npHIlIIIH K peJYJIbTaTaM, npe.!J,CTaBJIeHHbIM B Ta6JIIII.\e 9.9. 373 CeMeiiHble HCCJle.!J,oBaHIIJI, IICCJIel(OBaHHJI npHeMHblX Jl,eTei1 II paJJI)''1CHHbIX 6J1IJ3HellOB He CTOllb MHOrO'lIlClleHHbl, KaK 6mf3Heu.o- Bble, H He Beer.n:a IJpllBO.ll,JlT K CTOJIb JKe 01l,H03HaqHbiM peJYJIbTaTaM. B pa6oTax, IJpOBeAeHHbIX Ha pa3JIY'leHHbIX 61I113Hel\aX, nOKa- 3aTeJIH BHYTpllnapHoro CXO.!J,CTBa II M3, II ,[(3 61l113Hel\OB no 3KCT- paBepcHH OKa3bIBaIOTCJI HI1JKe, 'IeM B IICCJIellOBaHIIJlX Hepa3JIY'leH- IIblX 61lH3He1\01>, HO M3 6JIH3Hel1bI BcerAa nOXOJKIIAPyr Ha JlPyra 60JIbWC, qeM .lI.3, a CaM!! nOKaJaTeJll1 BHYTp!mapHOro CXOACTBa- He CHiIbHO MeHJlIOTCJI OT IICClleIlOBaHHJ! K IICClleAOBaHIIIO. B l\eJIOM, 3TII i1aHHble YKa3bIBaIOT Ha BJIHJlHlle reHOTIma Ha 3KcTpasepC!!IO, npll'IeM, Y'IHTbIBaJi 6J1H3KHe K HYIllO BHYTpHIJapHble KOppeJIJll1l1H .II.3 611I1JHeI\OB, - Ha BJIliJlHlle npeHMYIl\eCTBeHHO HeaMHTHBHoe (Ta6JIlIl\a 9.8). KapTHHa, nOJlyqeHHaJi npll conOCTaBJIeHI1H pa31lY'IeHHb1X 61I113HeUOB no HeBpOTll3MY, OKa3bIBaeTCJI BeebMa neCTpoH. B OIl,HOM HCCJleAOBaH!!11 pamyqeHlIble M3 II ,[(3 61l113HCI\bl BOOOIl\e He p33JIH- '1aIOTCJI no BHYTpllnapHOMY CXOACTBY, B .l\PyrOM - paJIIII'IHe MeJ!(- IIY M3 11 .lI.3 MeHbwe, qeM B HCCJlellOBaHIfJlx Hepa31lyqeHHbiX 6JI113- HeI\OB, B TpeTbeM - 60llbwe (Ta6JIIIl\a 9.8). IIOCKOllbKY B IICClleAOBaHIIJlX pa311yqeHHbiX 6JIII3Hel10B Bce. rlla B03HIIKaeT MHoro BonpOCOB 0 Bbl60pKC (06 oc06eHHoCTJ!X ce- Mei'i, OTlIaBWliX lIeTeii HS BocnHTaHHe K ApyrnM JlIOAJlM, 0 B03pac- Te pa3JIY'IeHHJI, 0 TOM, nO'IeMY, CTaB B3pOcnb1MII, He Bce p33l1yqeH- Hble 61l113Hel1bl o0306HOBJ!JlIOT KOHTaKTbI JlPyr C .l\PyrOM H T..n;.), TO 372 
Ta6J1uu,a 9.9 JI3MeHeHlIe 8HympllnapHblX KOppel/Jlljllu M3 6JlU3HeIj08 npll YMeHb- WeHUlII<OHmaKrn08 MeJ/Coy 6JlU3Hel{lUtu (Kaprio J Koskenvuo M, Rose R.J, 1990). Ta6Jluu.a 9.10 KoppeJUll{lIu no 3l<Cmpa8epCtlU, nOJlyeHHb/e 8 UCCJle008aHWIX npueMHblX oemeii (Loehlil1 J.e., 1992) 3KCTpaBepC-HHTpOBepc HellpOT3M GTaTYc 1975 19B1 1975 19B1 .19Bl r M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 ')I(eH. "I"K" )f(eHL4. M)1tN )f(eH "I"K" )t(eH. "I"K". IKByr ElMeCTe 70 71 73 41 63 36 71 52 4aCTD 8CTpeaIOTCA 59 52 40 48 58 50 41 43 PeAKD 8CTpel.4aTCR 43 4D 26 27 65 52 37 24 CpaBt'l1r18aelWlble napbl IIIccneAoBaHI4A npll!eMHblX ,QeTe pOCTaeHHI1KOB ArJ1l1l1CKOe MMHHecoTcII:oe T eXaCCKoe MaTb III ee pe6eHoK 21 04 .03 OTe 11 era pe5eKoK 21 21 20 Man. Ir1 npl1eMHbI pe6eHoK .D2 .03 00 !)Tell M npl1eM'HbI pe5eHoK -03 05 03 CM6cbI 25 06 13 np...eMHPle ,AeTVI .11 07 .13 3TH pe3YJIbTaTbl n03BOJIHIOT OTBeTHTb Ha ABa Bonpoca. ITepBblH Bonpoc - eCTb nH CBH3b Me)l(A)' qaCTOTOH KOHTaK- TOB II BHYTpl1napHbIM CXOI\CTBOM 6J1H3HeUOB no 3KCTpaBepCHH H HeBpOTH3MY? KaK COBepweHHO OTqeTJIlIBO BHI\HO no nOJIyqeH- HblM .naHHblM, OTBeT Ha nepBblH Bonpoc MO)l(eT 6MT!> TOJIbKO YT- Bep.nHTCJIbHbIM: qeM 50JlblIle KOHTal\TOB y 6JIH3HeOB, TeM 60JIb- we OHH nOXOJKH BTOpOH Bonpoc - HBJIHeTCH JIll qaCTOTa KOHTaKTOB npHqH- HOH 50JIblIlerO cxo.nCTBa M3 6J1113HeUOB nO 3TI1M cBoiiCTBaM? OT- BCT OKB3b!BReTCJI pa3HblM ,!VI.\! 3Kl'TpB8CpCIIH II HeBpOTII3Ma. BHYT- pH nap Hoe CXo.nCTBO no HeBpOTll3MY .neIiCTBHTeJIbHO 3aBHCHT OT Toro, KaK qaCTO 6JI113HeUbI 061l\alOTCH Apyr C .npyrOM. qTO )l(e KaCaeTCJI 3KCTpaBcpCIII1, TO cllTyaUIIH HeCKOJIbKO IIHaH. DJIlt3He- UbI, KOTopble pe.llKO 061l\alOTCH l\Pyr C l\PyroM, ell\C paHblIle, Kor- )J.a OHH )l(I1JIH BMeCTe (B 1975 r), 6bIJII-{ Y)I(e MeHblIle nOxOJKH .l1Pyr HB .IIpyra. TaKHM 06pa30M, qaCTOTa KOHTaKTOB HBJIHCTCH B Ka- KOH-TO CTeneHIl ClIe)J.C'I'BHeM cxo.n:CTBa 6JIH3HeUOB no 3KCTpaBepCH!I: qawe 06lI\aIOTCH Te 6JI1I3Hel./bl, KOTopble nOXOJKH l\Pyr Ha .l1Pyra B IICCJIe.llOBaHHJlX npHeMHblx l\eTeH )J.aHHble no 3KcTpaBepcIIII TOJKe He OTBepralOT BblBO.lla 0 ee reHCTHqeCKOH 06YCJIOBneHHOCTII, XOTJI II HMelOTCH HeKOTopble npOTHBOPCqllH B qeM 3aKJIlQqalOTCH 3TI1 npOTIIBOpeqIlH, BH)J.HO H3 Ta6JIIIl(bl 9 10, B KOTOpOH npe)J.CTaJ!- neHbI pe3YJIbTaTbI Tpex HCCJIe)J.oBaHH!i nplleMHbIx )J.CTCH. B AHrJIHHCKOM IICCJIeAOBaHI'!H Bce napbI 6HOJIOrnqeCKHX pO.ll- CTBeHHIIKOB (pO)J,BTeJlH II HX .ne-m, a TaK)I(e CI16Cbl) OKa3bIBalOTCH nOXOJKH Apyr Ha l\Pyra no 3KCTpaBepcHII 60JIblIle, '1eM JIIO)J,B, JKIIBY- 374 Il\He BMecTe, HO He HMelOll\He 061l\Hx reHOB (pO)J,BTenll H npHCMHblC I\CTH, np""MHble ./lCTII, )l(IIBYIl\He B OI\HOH ceMbe, HO He HBJIJlIOWlle- CH POI\HblMII 6paTbHMH II CeCTpaMH) B .IlByx l\Pymx IICCJIe./lOBaHH- HX He 06HapY)l(HBaCTCH CXO./lCTBa Me)l(.!lY MaTepJlMI1 II I1X C06CTBeH- HblMM tl.eTbMIf, B B O)J.HOM 113 HIIX 6HOJIOnjleCKIIC cH6cbI OKa3b18a- IDTCH CTOJTb JRe He nO)(OJKII .llPyr Ha J!,Pyra, KaK H nplleMHblC Jl,CTI1. TaKIIM 06pa30M, rHnOTe3a 0 TOM, '1TO, '1eM 60JII>we reHeTllqeCKoe CXOtl.CTBO, TeM 60nbllle CXO)J.CTBO no 3KCTpaBepCIIH, nOI\TBCpJK./laCT- CH B 50JIblllHHCTBe cnyqaeB, HO HC BCer./la. EClIH JKe Ha OCHOBaHlIH Tex .IIaHHI>IX, B KOTOpblX nO,!1TBepJK.IIaCTCJI BbIBO)J. 0 BnHHHHII reHO- Tllna Ha 3KCTpaBepCIlIO, BbIC'IIITaTb nOKa3anmH HaCJIeA)'eMoCTI1 3K- CTpaBepCHII, TO OHII OKaJKYTCH HHJKe, qeM no pe3YJTI>TaTaM 6iIH3He- UCBblX IICCne.llOBaHIIH, - He 50%, a 30-40%. AHanOfH'IHbIe .IlaHHble no HCBpOTlI3MY, nOJIyqeHHble B Tex )l(e Tpex HCCJIe)J.OBaHIIHX nplleMHblx ./leTeH, OKa3blBaIDTCH ell\e 50- nee npOTHBOpe'lIlBbIMIl ECJIII AaHHbIe MHHHecoTcKoro HCCJIeJl,O- BaHIIH npHeMHblx .n:eTeli nOJIHOCTblO no.nTBCpJK./laIOT rl1noTe3Y 0 BJIIIHHIIH reHOTHna Ha BapHaTIIBHocTb HCBpOTH3Ma, TO .naHHbIe TexaccKoro HCCJIel\OBaHIIH ee nOJIHOCTbIO onpOBepraIOT (Loehlin J C , 1992) TIPII 3TOM nOKa33TeiIII HaCJIe./lyeMocTiI HeBpoT1I3Ma, BblCqHTaHHble no pe3YJTbTaTaM MHHHecOtCKoro I'! AHrnlliicKoro HCCne./lOBaHIIH, BeCbMa pa3J1H'IaIOTCH B 3aBIICI1MOCTII OT toro, Ka- KHe napbl pO)J.cTBeHHHKoB CpaBHIiBaIOTcH, H HaXO./lHTCH B AHana- 30He 20-45% ITOABO./lH IITorH HCCJIe.nOBaHIIJlM pOJIIi reHOTHna II cpe)J.b1 B Tex nCHXOJlOfHqeCKHX xapaKTepHcTHKaX, KOTOpb!e r.Aii3eHK Ha- 375 
3Baii 6HOIIOrH'ICCKHMI1 CBOHCTBaMI1 IIH'IHOCTH, MOJKHO CKa3aTb, '1TO rCHOTHn, Kal( H npct/.noIJanm f.Aii3CHK, BHoenT BKJIatl. B nx BapHaTHBHOCTb. a BIIKRHI1H rCHOTHna Ha HHlUIBIit/.yalIbHbIe PaJ- 1II1'1HR nOKa3aTCJJeH 3KCTpaBepCHH-HHT})QBepCHH MOJKHO rOBO- pHTb C nOJIHOH YBcpeHHOCTl>IO. a BIIHRHHH reHOTHna Ha nOKa3a- TeJIH HelJpOTH3Ma II nCHXOTII3Ma - J1l1llIb npet/.nOJ1O)/(HTCJ1bHO: )l;aHHbIe no HeBpOTII3MY HMelOT HeMMO npOTHBOpeqHH, a no nCH- XOTH3MY - CIIHWKOM MaJIOqHCJICHHbl. 2.2. CBoiicTBa JIH'IHOCm, BblJ\MlleMbIe B TeOpl1H '1epT ITPII onHcaHHH oc06eHHoCTcH IIH'IHOCTI1 Hel136eJKHO BCTaeT Bonpoc 0 TOM, HaCKOllbKO nOIlHO TOT IIJI!I IIHOH cnHCOK CBOHCTB IIHqHOCTH, nOIlY'IeHHbIH B (jIaKTopHO-aHaJIHTHqeCKOM !lCClIe)l;OBa- HHH, orpaJKaeT JIH'IHOCTHYIO c!jJepy qeJIOBeKa. ECJIII npll opraHH3aL\HH HCCJIe)l;OBaHHR 6Y)l;YT oT06paHbi TOJIbKO Te nOBe)l;CH'IeCKHe oc06eHHOCTII, KOTopble CBR3aHbl C 31010- L\IIOHaJIbHbIMH peaKL\HRMIl '1eJ10BeKa, TO pe3YJlbTaTbI (jIaKTopHO- ro aHa1ll13a nOMOrYT pa306paTbCR TOJIbKO B CTpYKType CBOHCTB 3MOL\HOHaJIbHOCTH H HH B '1eM 60Jlbwe. EbIJIO 6bl Heileno Ha OC- HOBaHlI1I TaKOrO HCCllet/.OBaHI1R YTBepJK)I;aTb, qTO CBOHCTBa 1111'1- HOCTH CBO)l;RTCR K oc06eHHOCTliM 3MOL\110HaJIbHOrO pcarHpOBa- HHH. OqeBHJl,HO, qTO pa3HOCTopOHIITOIO II HCqepnbIBaIOIl\Yro CTpYK- TYPY J111'1HOCTHb!X CBoitcTB MOJKHO nOIIY'IlfTb JIlIllIb B TOM CIIY'Iae, eCJlH B HCClle)l;OBaHlie 6YJI,eT JaIIO)KeHO )l;OCTaTOqHO HH(jIopMaL\IIH, TO eCTb BlUIIOqeHbl caMble pa3Hbie ()KenaTeJIbHO, Bce) nOBe)l;eHqeC- KHe oco6eHHOCTI1. OnpOCHB paJHbIX JIIOl\eH 0 TOM, KaK OHH BC)I;YT ce6R BO Bcex JKliJHCHHbIX CIITyaL\liIlX, H (jIaKTopll30BaB HJ[ OTBeTbI, MO)KHO BbI)I;elIlITh IIC'ICpnbIBaroIl\IIH cnHCOK JllI'IHOCTHbIX CBOHCTB PellleHHC npOCToe, HO, K COJKaJlCIIHro, a6COlIIOTHO He oCYIl\eCTBH- Moe ECTb JlH KaK!le-TO I\PyrHe, pCaJIbHbIe, nYTII 60lIee !lIIH MCHee L\eJIOCTHOro aHaJlHJa IIHqHOCTHOH c!jJepbI? HCCl/e008aHue cmpYKmypbl l/UHOCmHbIX epm B 20-30-e rO)l;bI B Ka'leCTBe OTnpaBHoii TO'lKII MJI HCClle)l;O- BaHHR CTpYKTypbI 1III'IH0CTHbIX CIIOHCTH 6bIII0 npe,lUlOJKeHO npo- aHaJIlI3l1pOBaTl> Te CJIOBa, KOTopbIe CYIl\eCTByroT B Jl3blKe MH onH- caHnR eaMbrx pa3HblX oco6eHHOCTeii qellOBeKa ITcpBbrii cnHCOK 376  TaKHX CJIOB 6b!JI COCTaBIlCH B ) 926 r. HeMCL\1<HM IICCJIC)I;QBaTelleM . II KJIHreCOM, HeCICOJ1bKO 1103JKC aHaJlOrll'lHa!l pa60n 6bI!Ja npo- )l;eJlaHa ero COOTeqeCTBeHHHKOM !II.DaYMrapTeHoM H aMepl1KaHC- KIIMH nCHXOJlOraMII f.OJlnOpTOM H f.O)l;6epToM. Bce OHH I1CXO- II,HIIII H3 Toro, '1TO 60JIblllllHCTBO 3Ha'iIlMbIX xapaKTepHCTHK qe- JlOBeKa I\OIlJKHO 6bITb TaK IIJIH lII;aqe OTpa)KeHO B HalIleM JlJbIKe. CIlOBapb paJJlllqHblX xapaJ<Tepl1CTHK '1eIlOBeKa, C03)1;aHHbIii f.OJlnOpTOM H r.0t/.6epTOM K Cepe)l;HHe 3D-x TO)l.OB, COCTaBIIJI 17953 CIlOBa. Y6paB 113 3Toro cnllCKa Te CJIOBa, KOTopble 0603Ha- qaJlII (jIH3HqCCKile OC06CHIIOCTII qCJJOBeKa (TOJlCTbIH, I!bICOKIIH, 6rre)l.HbIH), npeXOJ\RIl\l'!e COCTOJlHHR (06paI\OBaHHblii, Y)I;PyqCH- HblH), OL\eHO'lHble xapaKTepHCTHKU (XOpOWIIH, paJ)ij)aJKaroIl\KH), aBTOpbl CJIOBapR OCTaBHJlU TOllbKO TC TepMHHbl, KOTopble OTHO- CIIIIIICb K YCToiiqHBblM oc06eHHOCTJlM 'IeIlOBeKa, xapaKTepl13YIO- Il\HM ero nOBeJ\eHHe B caMbIX paJHb!X JKII3HeHHblX CHT)'aL\HJlX OHH Ii paCCMaTpHBaJUfCb f.OJInOpTOM KaK '1epTbi JlH'IIIOCTII (Allport G.w, Odbert H.S., 1936). COl(paIl\eHHbIii Ha 3TH X OCHOBaHIIJlX CJIOBapb OKa3aJICJI no- qTH B qeTbipe pa3a KOpOqe, 110 nO-npe)KHeMY OCTaBaJICJI Heo6bJlT- HbIM ,lUIH IiCCJICl\OBaTCJIbCKIIX I\cJIeii: B Hero BXOI\HJIO 4504 CIlOBa (HIIII, nplll\epJKIIBaliCb TepMHHOJ'IOnm f.OllnopTa, 4504 qCPTbI). ):\aJlbHeHruaH pa60Ta C 3TI1M cnllCKOM CJIOB - cro al\anTal\HJI ,lUIH 3KcnepHMeHTaJIbHOH pa60TbI - 6b1J1a npO)l;erraHa P.K3TTeJIOM B 40-e ro)l;bl. P.K3TTell y6pan 113 cnllCKa f.OllnopTa H f.0l\6epTa pC.llKO ynorpe511MbIe CJlOBa H crpynnl1pOBaJl OCTaBlIIHeCR no CHHOHH- MH'IHOCTI'! HX 3HaqeHIIH. KaJK)I;OH rpynne CHHOHHMOB OH no)l.o- 6paJI rpyrmy aHTOHIlMOBI1 nOJIyqliJIl60 rpynn 6HnOJIJlpHblX qepT. II aHaJlOrHqHblX 6HnOJIRpHblX rpynn 6blJl0 nOllY'leHo Ha OCHOBa- IIUH TepMI'!HOB, HCnOJJb3yeMbIx MJI onllcaHHR IIII'IHOCTH B nC!iXO- Jlorll'lecKoii JIUTepaType. TaKHM 06pa30M, OI(OHQaTeJIbliOe '1HCJIO 611nOJlHpHbIX 'IepT OKa3aJlOCb paBHO 171. C :nHM cnHCKOM '1epT P.K3TTeJl HaqaJl np080l\IITb 3KcnepHMeHTalIbHYro pa50TY. IIepBbIH :nan pa60TbI COCTOJlII B )l;aJ1bHeHlIIeM COKpall\eHliU cnHCKa QepT, KOropblH Ha OCHOBaH!!!! 3KcnepliMeHTaJ1bHblX JJ.aH- HblX (3KcnepTHb!X OL\CHOK ) 00 qeJlOBeK no 171 6HnOJIHpHOH xa- paKTepllcTHKC) II IIX I<JIaCTCpHoro aHaJlH3a 6blJl AOBe)l;eH )1.0 35. Ha BTOpOM 3Tane pa3Hble 3KcnepTbi OL\eHIIBaJlU HcnblTye- MJ.,JX 110 3THM 35 rpynnaM 'IepT. Me)!():{y 3KcncpTHbIMH oQeHKaMH 377 
35 rpynn nOKa3aTeJIeH nOACqllTblBaJIIICb KOppeJII1II11; Koppen. L\HOHHbIe MaTpHL\bl, nOJIyqeHHble Ha pa3HbIx rpynnax, ycpeAH- JIHCb, H Ha 3aI<JIIO'IHTeJIbHOM 3Tane pa60Tbl ycpCAHeHHaJi MaTpH- l1a KOppeJIJlI1HH 6blJla <l>aKTopH30BaHa. B pe3YJIbTaTe 6bIJIO BbIAeJIeHO 12 <l>aKTopoB H, TaKHM 06pa- 30M, 4504 JIHqHOCTHbIX oc06eHHOCTlI, BOllle):\IlIHe B CnllCOK f.OJI- nopTa II f.On6epTa, 6bIJ1H CBe):\eHbI K 12 60JIee 061l1HM no- Ka3aTeJ1J1M. COCTaB '1epT, BoweAIlIHX B Ka)!(AbIH H3 12 lj!aKTopoB, 6blJI npOaHaJ1H3HpOBaH, 11 )J)I Ka)!():\oro <l>aKTopa 6bIJlH no):\06paHbl BonpOCbI, OTBeTbl Ha KOTopbIe nOKa3bIBaJ1l1, B KaKoH CTeneHH Ta IIJIH HHa '1CpTa BbIpa)l(eHa y ):\aHHoro qeJIOBeKa B pe3YJIbTaTe 6bIJI C03):\aH onpOCHHK, n03BOJIHIOIlIHH OL\eHHTb 12 cYllIecTBeH- HbIX xapaKTepl1CTlIK JII1'1HOCTHOH clj!epbI. HO, KaK C'IHTaeT P.K3T- TeJI, He Bce oco6eHHOCTH J1HqHOCTH BIIAHbl 3KcnepTaM H MorYT 6bITb HMH Ol\eHeHbI, n03TOMY OH A06aBHJI B OnpOCHHK TaKlle xa. paKTepllCTHKH JIII'IHOCTH, KOTopble MO)«eT OL\eHHTb TOJIbKO caM '1eJIOBeK. r B L\eJlOM, nOJIyqllJIOCb 16 06 1l1 HX qepT JIllqHOCTH, a MeTO- ):\HKa, KOTopaH IICnOJIb3yeTcH )J)IH HX I1HarHocTIIKH, nOJIyqHJIa Ha- . 3BaHHe 16-<I>aKTopHoro OnpOCHIiKa P.K3TTeJIa. Ha3BaHIIH '1epT JIHqHOCTH, AllarHocTlipyeMblx 3THM OnpOCHI1KOM, npe):\cTaBJleHbI B Ta6JIIII\e 9.11. ITo MHeHl110 P.K3TTeJIa, BblAeJlCHHble 11M 16 '1CpT JJH'IHOCTH npe):\CTBBJIHIOT C060H YCTOH'IHBble oco6eHHocTH, o6HapY)«HBae- MbIe y Bcex JIIO):\eH, coxpaHHlOllIHeCJI HB npOTJI)!(eHI1I1 )J)IIITeJlbHO- ro BpeMeH1I1I 06YCJlOBJIHBBIOIlIliC AO ABYX TpeTcii HHI1I1BI1AYBJIb- HbIX PB3JIllqllH B JlH'IHOCTHOH c<jJepe. BKJIan B IlHl1I\BHAyaJIbHbIe pa3JIllqHJI '1eTbIpeX eIl1e 60Jlee 06I11HX (BTOpH'IHbIX) cjJaKTopoB, nOJIyqeHHbIX npH lj!aKTopll3aQHH 3T1IX 16 'IepT (Jl,Ba 113 KOTOpblX MO)KHO HHTepnpeTl1pOBaTb KaK 3KCTpaBepCHIO-IIHTpOBepCIlIO H BbICOKHii-HII3KHii HeBpOTII3M), OKB3bIBBeTCH HeCKOJIbKO MCHb- llIe - ):\0 60%. AHanOnlqHB pa60Ta no BbIACJIeHHIO cYII1eCTBeHHblx nCHXO- JIOrH'IeCKHX oco6eHHoCTeH 6bUJa npoAenaHB P.TTenoM JI,IIJI MOTII- BBI1HOHHOH c<jJepbI JIHqHOCTH H JI,IIJI COCTOHHIIH OJI,HaKO CTpYKTYPbJ 3TIIX OC06CHHOCTCH ml'lHOCTH He nOJJyqHJIlI Wl1pOKOrO pacnpOCT- paHeHIIJlII HHKOrl1a He paCCMaTpHBaJIHCb B reHeTllqeCKHX HCCJIeAO- BaHHJlX, n03TOMY OCTaHaBJIHBaTbCH Ha HliX Mb! He 6y):\eM 378 Ta6JluI(a 9.JJ . Ha38a1iWl ljJaKmopo6, 6XOOJlU/UX 6 16-ljJaKmopHblu onpOcHuK p K3mmeJla 0603Ha nonO)I(TeJ1bHbI" nanlOC OTpu.aTenbHbI nonlOc "IeHMa <I>.ICTOp. Ha3saHille OCHOBHblB "IepTbi Ha3BaHe QcHOBHble \leprbl A Act3cpeI(TOn'MA CepAHoCTb, W30TIIIMIIIR 06oco6neH- (l.\MIU10TIIIMHSI) Ao6p01. HOCTb, OY>K AeHHOCTb B BbiCOKIII YMHbI" HIII3I(M rnynbl IIIHTenJlelIT HTeJ1neKT C CMn8 "j=I" 3MO1010'rlaJ1bHaA Cna60CTb R" 3MOlU'lOHaJ1bHVI ycrO"I.IIIIBOCTb HeYCTO4MBOCTb E AOMIIIHBHTHOCTb HaCTOM""I'oBOCTb, Kmt4>opMHOCTb nOI<OpHoctb, HanopCTOC1'b 3a8CMMCCTb F 3HeprMYHOCT fieCneYHOCTb QrcyrCTBMe 03a6ol.leHHOCTb -3'Hepn1M G CHI1a cynep-3fo COBeCTnBoCTb Cna60CTb HM3Koe np"HSI- cynep-3ro nile rpynnoBbix HOP"" H Parmia TRra K np"KI1IOe Threet;. Po6ocn;t HRM, CMenOCtb I Premsla MfirKoCTb, Harria. CYPOBOC1b He>KHOCTb L Protenslon nO,D,03pMTeJlb- AI..i. .QoBep"'''BOCTb HOC1b M AyrM"'IHOCTb Me"'lTaTeI1bHOCTb npaKTM"4HOCTb np3eMJ1eHHOCTb KHTepecoB N npOtUI48Te.nD- XHTpOCTb, HailtBHOCTb npAMOT3 HDCTb l(osapCTPO 0 BbipaeKHoCTb TpeSO>KHOCTb, AAeKeaTHOCTb YsepeHHoCTb B \.IYBCTea BMHbI AenpeccHBHoCTb ceoe Q1 P3AiltKaI13M CKI1CH HOCTb II; KOHcepBanll3M CKI10HHOCTb JKCnep",""eHntpo- OT,A3B3n BaH1O npeAnO\fTeHMe YCTOJ=lBUJHUCR B3rJ1R,A3M Q2 CaMoAOCT3TOI.I- CKJlOHHOCTb 3aBI1CI1MOCTb OT CmoHHoCTb HOCTb nonaraTbCJ! Ha rpynnbi nonaraTb HB ce6A APyr.. 03 BbiCOKBJI B",co",, Hr.3K3J1 HM3KMtI I1HTerpaMA C8MOKoHTponb MHTerp3t1 MR caPt'oKoHtpOl1 b 04 BbicoKoe <l>PYC1J'.pO..H- H143KOe 3prl1eC- Pacc.naonett- 3prl1eCKOe HOOTb-, HanpR- KOEt HanpR)KtHMe HOCTb HSnpR}f(eHMe )KeHHOCTb 379 
B 50ilee n03J\HHX pa50Tax KOJlHqeCTBO q.aKTOPOB, BbIJ\e- ileHHbfX P.I<3TTeiloM, II I1X cOJ\epJKaHI1C Ha'lHHaJOT nOlUlepraTbCJI COMHellllJO TaK, I1CnOJIb3yn TOT JKe cnHCOK CBOHCTB, K IWTOPOMY npHweil P.K:,.fTeJl B pe3YilbTaTe KJlaCTepHoro aHailH3a, HO pac- wllpnn rpynny 3KcnepTOB, KOTopbIe 3T11 CBOHCTBa Ol1eHI1BaIOT, pa3HbfC HCCJleJ\OBaTeillf BblJl,eilnlOT Bcero 5 q.aKTOpOB (John O.P., 1990). K 3TOMY JKC PC3YJIbTaTY npHIJOAIlT II cCMaHTII'IeCKHH aHa- JUn* nepBOHa'laJlbHOTO cnllCKa 'IepT, COCTaBilCHlloro r.Oilnop' TOM H f.0J\6epTOM (Norman W T., 1963). COJ\epJKaHlie 3THX 5 q.aKTopoB B 3Ha'iIlTeJlbHOH CTeneHii COBnaJ\aeT B pa50Tax pa3Hbix anTopoB, He3aBHCIIMO OT Toro, Ka- KHe MeTOJ\bl MHorOMcpHoro aHaJIH3a II KaKlie Bapl1aHTbI q.aKTop- Horo allaJIII3a OIlH HcnOJlb3YKlT II KaKOH HMelIlIO cnllCOK 'IepT 6epeTCJI 3a OCHOBY - HCXOJ\Hbfll (r.OJInopTa H f.0J\6epTa) IIi1U MOJ\Hq.Hl1l1pOBaHHbIH B 50ilee n03J\HIIX pa50Tax. ITepBblH q.aKTOp, KaK npaBIIJIO, Ha3bIBaIOT JKCmp08epcueil. Ero nOJIOJKIITeilbHbli! nOilIOC 06pa3YIOT TaKlle xapaKTepHCTHKI1, KaK 05Il\HTCIlbHOCTb, Ha.CTOH'lHBOCTb, YBepellHOCTb B ce5e, pa3- rOBOp'lIlBOCTb, aKTHBHOCTb, 3HeprHqHOCTb, J\OMHllaHTHOCTb. OT" plIl1aTeilbHblH nOJlIOC - CJ\epJKaHHOCTb, 3aCTeHqHBOCTb, CTpeM- neHJiC 6blTb OJ\HOMY, a He C illOJ\bMH. ITo cpaBHeHHIO C 3KCTpa- BepClIeH-IIHTpOBepCl1eH, paCCMaTpHBaeMOH r.AH3eHKOM, nep- BblH q.aKTOp BJlJleTC 50Jlee 061l\HM, BKllIOqa.eT B ce6!l 60lIee lIlli- POKIIH Kpyr illI'IHOCTHbIX qepT. 3KcTpaBepCI1R-HHTpOBepCIIR Ai!- 3eHKa IJXOJ\HT B 3TOT q.aKTOp KaK O,llHH 113 ero nOKa3aTeileH. BTOpOH q.aKTOtl - aJlbmpYU3M. CKJIOHHOCmb uOmu Ha8cmpe- 'Iy J//OORM Te, KTO nOilY'laIOT BblCOKHe Ol1eHKIJ no 3TOMY JIHqHO- CTHOMY CBOHCTBY, BOCnpIIHHMaIOTC!l KaK IIIO.lIH OT3blBqlIBble, J\PY- JKeil106HbIe, rOTOBble nOMOqb, .n:06pble, MJlrKOcepJl,eqHble, qYB- CTDIHeilbHble, JIerKO npOll\alOll\lIe OKpYJKalOll\HX II BbI3blDaIOIl\IIe K ce5e J\ODeplle. HH3KHe Ol1eHKI1 - CBOHC'fBeHHbI ilIOIIJIM XOilOJ\- IIbIM, lieJ\PY:KCJlI05HbIM, B3J\OpHbIM, 3JIbIM II He5i1aroJ\apHbIM TpeTHH q.aKTOp - COJl<ameJlbl<OCmb. IWl<mpOJlb U.W1YJIbCU8- I<ocmu. Ha nOJlO)l(IJTeilbHOM nOJIlOce Oli xapaKTepH3yeTCJI opra- liH30BaHHocnIO, OTBeTCTBeIlHOCTbJO, CKilOHHOCTbIO nJlaHHpOBaTb CBOI1 J\eHCTBHR 11 q.q.eKTIIBHOCTbIO 3TII.X J\eHCTBHH, npaKTllqHOC- nIO H 3aBHCHMOCTbJO. Ha OTplll1aTeilbHOM nOilIOce - He06J13a- TeilbHOCTbIO, HeaKKypaTHocTbIO, 3a6bIBtJHBOCTblO, HeYMeHIICM opraHH30BbIBaTb CBOH ACHCTBHJI, q.pHBOilbliOCTbIO B OTHOWeHH!lX c OKpY)l(aIOl1!HMII II He3aBIICHMOCTbIO. qeTBepTbIH q.aKTOp - lI£8pomU3M, HeZamU8Hb12 3.MOIjUU. BbI- COKHii HeBpOTH3M (OTpmaTeilbHblll nomoc) CBR3aH C HanpllJKelI- HOCTbIO, TpeBO:KHOCTbIO, CKilOHHOCTbIO K nilOXOMY HaCTpoeHIIIO, nOJ\BCp)J(eliHOCTbIO pa3J1H'IHbIM 6ecnOKOIICTBaM H CTpaxaM. ITo- i10JKIiTeilbHbIH nOJlIoc COOTBeTCTBYeT 3M0l1nOHailbHOH cTa511i1b- HOCTH, cnOKOHCTBIlIO II YJI,OBJleTBOpCHHOCTIl. IlIITbl1\ ljJaKTOp - (}mKpbllnOC»lb IW60MY Ol1btmy. 60cnpuUM- qU80Cmb, KOZHUmU8/1l1Jj CJlO:J/CHocmb. JIIOJ\Ii, xapaKTepll3YIOIl\IIeCJI BblCOKHMI1 Ol\eHKaMn no 3TOMY q.aKTOpy, IIMeIOT WHpOlme IIHTC- peCbl, pa3BHToe Bo06paJKenlie. OHn mo603HaTeilbHbl, apTnCTH'I- Hbl H BocnpHHIlMalOTCR OKPYJKaIOl1!HMH KaK YMHhle, OCTpOYMHblC 1\ JlOI'H'IHble. Te, 1('1:0 "MeeT HH3Klle ou.el\KII no 3TOMY q.aKTOPY, np0I13Bo.n:RT BneqaTJIeHlle JlJOJ\ei! npOCTOBaTbIX, cepblX Ii HeIlHTe" peCHbIX. KaJKJ\aR H3 JlH'IHOCTHbIX oc05eHHOCTCH, onHCblBaCMall 3TII- Mii nHTbJO q.:lKTOpaMII, IIBJlRCTCR 50JIee 061l\eH no OTHOweHHIO K orpOMHOMY KOilHqeCTBY qCPT, BXOIIJIW.HX B cnllCOK f.OJJnopTa II r 0J\6epTa. HHa'le rOBopR, KaJKJI,bIH 113 3TIIX nRTH q.aKTOpOB on- peJ\eJIReT B TOH lIill1 IIHOH CTeneHI! ItHJ\nBlIl\yaJIbHhle pa3i1lI'IIIJI no MHorOM tJepTaM ilHqHOCTH. TaK, npn ceMaHTllqCCKOM aHailH- 3e B3allMOCBJl3eH MCJKAY pa3i1H'IHbIMH qepTaMII 6b1JIO nOKa3aHO, HanpHMep, '1TO q.aKTOp, Ha3BaHHblH "aJlbTpYIi3M", BKJlIO'IaeT B ce6R OKOilO TpeXCOT nepBH'IHbIX '1epT JlllqHOCTlI, a B l1eJIOM Bce 5 q.aKTopoB 05YCJIOBJlHBaIOT HHII.HBHJ\yaJIbHble pa3JIII'IIIJI, npOJlB- JlRIOl1!HeCJI npHMepHo B BOCbMIICTax '1epTax JIHqHOCTli. BblCOKHH ypoBeHb o5061l\eHHOCTH 3TIIX 5 q.aKTopoB (BilHJI- Hl1e !IX Ha pa3Ho06pa3Hble MeHce o61l\IIe JIlI'IHOCTHbIe '1CpTbI) on- pe)\eilHiI Ha3BaHliC 3T!lX q.:lKTOpOB - EOJlblUM IIHmepKa. . CMblcn CCMaHTHlJeCKoro aHalUt3a 33KnJOl.]3CTCR B YCT3HOBJleHHH CBR3CH Me)KJ1Y pa3HblMH nOHj(TH1IMH, CYUleCTBYlOll.111MH B JlJb!Ke. B 3KcnepHMeHTaJIbHbiX nCCJlenOBaHHSlX mfQHOCTHbiX oco6el-fHoCTel1, npOBOlIJllUHKCA C :JTOH tmJl.b1O, :)K- cnepTbl ou.eHWBafOT He nOBeJ],eH'IeCKHe oco6eHHOCTJI pa3Hb]X J1lOJJ.eH, a TO COOT- HOweHHe, KOTopoe, no HX MHeHHto, CYUlecTByer Me)tC)];y pa3HblMH l.JepTa1J{ 3k cnepHMCHT B 3TOM cl1YQae MO)Ker 5h1Tb nOCTpoeH no TaKon c"eMeo JKCnepT8 npOCRT OTsen1Tb, KaKHMI.f 1iepTaMH, KaK npaB1J10, 06Jl3JJ,3cT YMlihlH qenOHe" (6b1B3er J1H 01-1 06blttHO BeCCJ1btM. .a06PbIM, pe1UHTenbHblM H "T..a:.) BJaHMOCB:R3Ji MeiK.QY pa3HbJMII 'lJepTaMH rf CTpYKTypa J)WtHOCTHbJX LJepT npc;::e,CTaumnOT co6oi1 B JTOM cnY"Iae HMnJ1H'JTI-IYIO KOHQen:H1O JIH'iHOCTH 380 381 
BaJKHO OTMeTIITb, qTO DOnblllaH nJlTepK3, BbIl\eJIeHHaJi H<, OCHOB3HIIII Tex TCpMIIHOB, KOTOpblMH CBOficTBa JIII'IHOCTII onll- CblB3fOTCa B aHrnlliicKOM Jl3b1Ke, He OKa3anaCb CneQII<jJII'IHOH TonbKO ,!InJi aHrJIlliicKOro R3blKa HCCnel\OB3HIIH B j:{3HlIH, fepMaHI!, JIrroHfHI II KilT/ie, npoBep,eHHb1e no TOK JKe cxeMe (TO eCTb HaqHHaH C aHaJIH33 TepMIIHOB, KOTopble CYllIeCTBYfOT B H3bIKC, H KOHqaa <jJ!iKTOpHbIM 3H3n1130M) npO,!leMOHCTpHPOB3JIII 3HanOnlQHble pe3YJlbT3Tbl' CBe,!leHl1e Bcero MHoroo6pa3HJI qepT JlllqHOCTII K n>IT1I OCHOBHblM xapaKTcpHCTHKaM (John a P , 1990). TaKI'!M 06pa30M, B KaqCCTBC HaH60nee CYIl1eCTBeHHblX CBoiicTB nnqHOCnl, o6ycnoBnllBafOIl111X HH,!IHBIIJI,yanbHble pa3nH- '1HJI no M3KCIIManbHO llIHpOKOMY Kpyry OC06CHHOCTeH nOBe,!le- III1H, B COBpeMeHIIOH nCIIXOJIorl1H npllHHTO lIa3bIB3Tb nJlTb xa- paKTepHCTIIK 3TIf XapaKTepHCTIiKIf 6bIJIli nonyqeHbl B pC3ynbTa- TC aHanlf33 BCCX TCX OC06CHHOCTCii nOBCI\CHHH, KOTopble IIMCIOT lIa3B3Hlle B a3bIKe, II IIX nOCJIell.yfOIl1eii rpynnHpoBKH C nOMOIl1bIO pa3nllqHbIX MeTOII.OII MHorOMepHoro 3l1anH3a. HHJ\I\BII,!IyanbHble pa3nll'lHR B 3TIIX nRTH cBoiiCTBax 06yc- nOBnllBaIOT 3H!iqIlTCnbHYIO q3CTb IIH,!II1BlIl\yaJlbHbIX pa3Jlllql'!H, 06HapYJKHBaeMbIX B Apyrllx, 60nee QaCTHblX CBOHCTBaX JIII'IHOC- TH. 3TO He 3H3'1HT, '1TO 'laCTHble, KOHKpeTHblC CBoiicTB3 1111'1HO- CTiI He HMCIOT C06CTBCHHOH cnQH<jJHKn, He BHOCHT CBoero YHII- KaJIbHOrO BKnaA3 B nCHXOJlOrllqeCKHH nopTpeT JllltfHOCTII II '1TO IIX Bo06Il1e He IIMeeT CMblcna p3CCM3TpHB3Tb B nCIIXOJlOnltfeCKIIX IICCJIC,!IOBaHHHX. OJlHaKO ccnH B03HIIK3eT Heo6xoJ\l\MOCTb oxa- paKTepH30BaTb nllqHOCTHble oco6eHHOCTH qCnOBeKa, HCnOJIb3YH MHHHMaJIbHoe KOJIIlqeCTBO nOKa3aTCneii, TO HaHJlyqllIlIM cnoco- 50M ,WIll 3Toro IIBJIlleTCII onpe,!leJIeHHe Tex xapaKTeplfCHIK, KOTO- pble BXO,ll.JlT B EOJIblllyIO fiSITCPKY. lfcClleiJoeaHue pOJIU UHomuna u cpeiJbl 8 Hau60nee o6UJu:x C80ucm8a:x !1U'iHOCmu KaK 6bIno nOKa3aHO, npll nonhlTKe lIenOCTHoro 3HaJlll3a nllQHOCTHOii C<jJephl II TCOpHH qepT OAHI1M H3 HTorOB pa6oTl,1 ol<a- 3anaCh 16-<jJaKTopHall c-rpYKTypa J]llqHOCTHhIX CBOHCTB P.K3TTeJl3, BTOpblM - 5-<jJ3KTopHaJi CTpYKTypa, K KOTOpOH npl1ll1JIII pa3Hbie IfCCJIeAOBaTeJIH. CBoiicTBa, BXOAHIl1I1C II B TY II B ApyryIO crpYKTY- PM, HeOJ\l\OKpaTHO cr3HOBMJI!lCb 06},eKTOM IICCJle.QOB3HHH B pa6o- 3&2 I I TaX, npoBoJ\l\BllIlIXCJI B reHeTHKe nOBe,!leHII!!. Hx pC3YJlhTaTbl H 6y- J.J.yT paccMoTpeHbi B 3TOM p33ACJle TeKCTa. B 6JI1I3He!.(OBblx IICCJIe,!lOBaHIIHX qepT JlH'lHOCTlI, Bbl,!leJlelJ- HblX P K3TTenoM, pe3YJlbTaTbi OKa3anHCb nOXOJKHMI1 Ha Te, KOTO- pble 6WJ1H nOJ1yqCHhI npll I1CnOnb30BaHI111 KpHTepllanhHblx on- pOCI!HKOB. Bcer,!la 06HaPYJKHBaJlOCb BJlHHHHe reHOTlln3 Ha HI!,!IJ.!- BHAyanbllble pa3J1H'lH!! B HeKoTopblX cBoiicTBax JIH'IHOCnI, KOTO- poe 06ycnOBJlI1BanO 30-45% <jJeHOTIllill'lCCKOH BapllaTHBHOCTII CBOHCTB nHqHOCTI1. OJ\l\aRO cnHCKH CBOHCTB, BapllaTHBHocTb KO- TOpblX OKa3bIBaJIaCb CBH3aHa C reHOTHnOM, He COBnaAaJ111 B pa3- HbiX pa60Tax HanpllMep, ecnll, no ,!IaHHblM C.BaHAeH6epra H P K3TTcna, rCHOTI1J1 cTepMHHllpYeT 31!aQJJ'l'eJlbllYJO qacTb BapH- aTI':BHOCTII TaKOH Ba)j(Hoii xapaKTepHcTIIKIl nH'IHOCTII, KaK CllJIa ".5{" (<jJaKTop C B 16-ljJal<TOpHOM onpOCI!HKe P.K3TTen!i), TO, no /l.aHHJ,IM APYrH)( HCCJlCAOBaTeJIeii, H.fOTICCM3Ha JJ C K3HTep, re- HOTHn Bo06Il1e He OR33b1BaeT JIJIHJlHHJI Ha cHny ".5{" (I.\IIT. no Flliler J L , Thompson W.R., 1978). BMCCTe C TeM, HecMoTpH Ha npOTI1Bope'JHBOCTb nonY'leIJ- HblX pe3YJlbTaTOB, HC!!OJf!.30BJHHe 16..qJaRTopHoro onpocHIIKa B rCHCTII'JeCKIlX HCCJIC,!IOBaHHHX n03BOJIIlnO nOJIyqllTb BeChMa no- ne3HYIO HH<jJopMaQIlIO CBH3aH3 3Ta I1H<jJPMaI1H!! C Tali ponbIO, KOTOpylO IlrpaeT 6nll3HCQOBaJi clITyal.\HH B <jJOpMllpOBaHHH JIII'I- HOCTHblX CBOHCTB. IIOCKOJlbKY CBOHCTIla JIH'IHOCTH <jJOpMHPYfOTCJI B 3HaqHTeJIb- HOH CTenCHII nOA BnllJlHlIeM cpeAOBblX YCJIOBHii, nOrllqHO 6bIJlO 6b1 npCAnOJIOJKI1Tb, qTO CXO,!lCTBO CBoiiCTB nH'IHOCTII Y M3 6nH3- HCI.\OB, Cpe,!lOBble ycnOBII!! KOTOphlX JlBJIRIOTCH 60Jlee J10XOJKIIMII, qeM YCJIOBIIJI .II.3 6m13Hel.\OB, 6YAeT 06YCJIOBJIeHO HC TonbKO reHC- THqCCKI1MH, 110 11 Cpe,!lOBbJMJI npJl'JIIHaMH .II.nJl npoaepKH noro npC,!InOJlOJl{CHHH 6hIJIH COnOCTaBJIel!bI rpynnhl 6nH3HCI.\OB, pa3J!II'IaIOIl1l1eCJI no oco6eHHOCTHM BHYTplI- napHhlX OTHOllICHHH. B OMY rpynny BownJl TC 6JJH3Hel.\OBblC nap!'l, KOTOp!'le HMeIOT OTqeTnllBOe p33ACJleHile pOJIeH - OJ\l\I! 113 6nH3- HeQOB HBnHeTCH JlH,!IepOM, APyroH - BeAOMblM .II.pyryIO rpynny 05pa30Banli 6J1H3HeQbl, He I1MeIOIl1I1C O