Author: Duzer Chet Van   Dines Ilya  

Tags: religion   geography  

ISBN: 978-90-04-30453-6

Year: 2016

Text
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ApocalypticCartography
© koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_001


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iii  Apocalyptic Cartography Thematic Maps and the End of the World in a Fifteenth-Century Manuscript By ChetVanDuzerandIlyaDines LEIDEN|BOSTON
iv  Thispublicationhasbeentypesetinthemultilingual“Brill”typeface.Withover5,100characterscovering Latin,ipa,Greek,andCyrillic,thistypefaceisespeciallysuitableforuseinthehumanities. Formoreinformation,pleaseseewww.brill.com/brill-typeface. isbn978-90-04-30453-6(hardback) isbn978-90-04-30727-8(e-book) Copyright2016byKoninklijkeBrillnv,Leiden,TheNetherlands. KoninklijkeBrillNVincorporatestheimprintsBrill,BrillHes&DeGraaf,BrillNijhoff,BrillRodopiand HoteiPublishing. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,translated,storedinaretrievalsystem, or transmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise, withoutpriorwrittenpermissionfromthepublisher. AuthorizationtophotocopyitemsforinternalorpersonaluseisgrantedbyKoninklijkeBrillnvprovided thattheappropriatefeesarepaiddirectlytoTheCopyrightClearanceCenter,222RosewoodDrive, Suite 910,Danvers,ma01923,usa. Feesaresubjecttochange. Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper. Coverillustration:HuntingtonHM83,f.10v.Aprophesymapoftheworldfrom1600to1606[Fig.25]. CourtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary. LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData
v Contents Contents Contents Acknowledgements vii List of Figures viiix Introduction 1 1 Description of Huntington HM 83 4 2 The Historical Context: Lübeck in the Fifteenth Century 15 3 The Author 21 4 The Geographical Sections 29 ExcerptsfromtheGeographicalSection 31 ExcerptsfromtheSectiononAstronomyandGeography 64 LinkswiththeRudimentum novitiorum 76 EarlyThematicMapping 80 TheMapsintheGeographicalSections 93 5 The Treatise on the Apocalypse 129 LateFifteenth-CenturyGermanApocalypticism 135 TheApocalypticMapsandTexts 145 ProofofCirculation:Wolfenbüttel,HAB,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst 196 OtherAttemptstoMaptheApocalypse 218 Conclusions 233 Index 235 251 C onte nts C onte nts  v Acknowledgements  vii Lis t  of  Fig ure s  v iii In troduc tion  1 Chapter  1  4 Description  of  H unting ton  HM  83  4 1  ff .  1r–8v ,  The  Brie f  Geographical  Treatise  6 2  ff .  8v–12v ,  The  Treatise  on  the  Apocalypse  8 3  ff .  13 r–1 8r ,  Heterogeneous  Section  on  As tron omy  and  Geography  9 4  ff .  19r–25v ,  Treatise  on  As tronom ica l  Me dic ine  10 Chapter  2  15 The  Historical  Context :  Lübeck  in  the  Fifteenth  Ce ntu ry  15 Chapter  3  21 The  Au thor  21 Chapter  4  29 The  Geographical  Sections  29 Excerpts  from  the  Geographical  Section  31 Excerpts  from  the  Section  on  As tr onomy  and  Geography   64 Link s  wit h  the  Rudime nt um  nov itior um  76 Early  Thematic  Ma ppi ng  80 The  Ma ps  in  the  Geographical  Sections  93  The  Map  on  f .  1r 94  The  Map  on  f .  3r 97  The  Ma ps  on  f .  3v 100  The  Map  on  f .  5r 102 The  Map  on  f .  6r 105  The  Map  on  ff .  6v–7r 107  The  Map  on  ff .  7v–8r 111  The  Diagram  on  f .  13r 116  The  Diagrams  on  f .  13v 116  The  Map  on  f .  14r 117  The  Map  on  f .  14v 119  The  Map  on  f .  15r 121 Chapter  5  129 The  Treatise  on  the  Apocalypse  129 La te  Fifte e nth- Ce ntur y  German  Apocalypticism  135 The  A poca ly ptic  Ma ps  and  Texts  145  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  8v 147  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  9r 149  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  9v 160  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  10r 164  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  10v 167  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  11r 175  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  11v 181  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  12r 184  The  Map  and  Te xt  on  f .  12v 192 Pr oof  of  Cir cul at ion :  W olfe nbütte l ,  HAB ,  Cod .  Gue lf .  442  Helmst .  196  Beilage  f .  1r 203  Beilage  f .  2r 207  Beilage  f .  2v 209  Beilage  f .  3r 209  Beilage  f .  3v 210 Other  Attempts  to  Map  the  Apocalypse  218 C onclu sions  233 In dex  235
vi Contents
vii Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Acknowledgements One of the authors(Van Duzer)had had digital images of the curious maps fromHuntingtonLibraryHM83onhiscomputerfor someyears, meaningto findanopportunitytostudythem,wheninlate2011hereceivedanannounce- mentoftheconference“ChartingtheFutureandtheUnknownintheMiddle AgesandRenaissance,”tobeheldatBarnardCollegeinNewYorkinDecember of 2012.A proposal to present apaper titled “Mapping the End oftheEarth: ApocalypticMappaemundiinaFifteenth-CenturyManuscript”attheconfer- encewasaccepted,anditwastheresearchdoneinpreparationforgivingthat paper, and the positive reception of the paper at the conference, that made him appreciate just how rich and important the Huntington manuscript is. OurthankstoPhillipJohnUsherfororganizingtheconferenceatBarnard. Oursubsequentworktogetherintranscribingandunderstandingthetexts inthemanuscript—conductedduringlongSkypecallsbetweenCaliforniaand Jerusalem—went very smoothly, though it was laced with some choice re- marksaboutthehandwritingofthescribeswhowroteHM83.Wewishother authors working together as positive and enjoyable a collaborative relation- ship. Wegive our enthusiastic thanks toLauraSmoller,NataliaLozovsky,Bene- dicteGamborgBriså,AmnonLinder,LeonidChekin,FelicitasSchmieder,and BarryHinmanforreadingadraftofthisbookandgivingustheirsuggestions andcomments. Chet Van Duzer LosAltosHills,CA,2015 Ilya Dines Washington,DC,2015
viii ListOfFigures ListofFigures List of Figures 4.1 MosaicmapoftheislandsoftheEasternMediterranean,latethirdorearly fourthcenturyAD,inHaïdra,westernTunisia 82 4.2 DetailofthePeutingerMap,Vienna,ÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothek,Codex Vindobonensis324,segment1 84 4.3 MapofCyprusinBartolommeodaliSonetti’sIsolariopublishedinVenice c.1485(LibraryofCongress) 88 4.4 Unfinishedmapoftheworld’smountains,latefifteenthcentury,inParis,BnF, MSfr.22532,f.186v 90 4.5 Mapoftheworld’smountains,c.1480,inParis,BnF,MSfr.9140,f.237v 91 4.6 Mapoftheworld’swaters,c.1480,inParis,BnF,MSfr.9140,f.226v 92 4.7 Mappamundithatcombinesinformationaboutrivers,mountains,andcities, c.1480,inParis,BnF,MSfr.9140,f.243v 94 4.8 HuntingtonHM83,f.1r,theopeningofthetreatiseongeography 96 4.9 HuntingtonMS83,f.3r,mappamundioftheislandsoftheocean 99 4.10 HuntingtonHM83,f.3v,mapsofEuropeanandAsianislands 101 4.11 HuntingtonHM83,f.5r.Agenericviewofsomemountains,followedbyalistof themountainsoftheHolyLand,andthenalistofmountainsoutsidetheHoly Land 103 4.12 F.Humphreys,Heights of the Principal Mountains in the World,publishedin HenryS.Tanner,A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the Various Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics of the World(Philadelphia:H.S.Tanner, 1836) 104 4.13 HuntingtonMS83,f.6r,listofthelandsinwhichtheApostlespreachedand mapofthecapitalsofthefourkingdomsoftheworld 106 4.14 HuntingtonMS83,ff.6v–7r,alargedetailedmappamundi 108–109 4.15 HuntingtonMS83,ff.7v–8r,alargemapofthewatersoftheworld 112 4.16 HuntingtonMS83,f.14r,mapoftenclimaticzonesandthewatersofthe earth 118 4.17 HuntingtonMS83,f.14v,mapofnineclimaticzones 120 4.18 HuntingtonMS83,f.15r,mapshowingsevenclimaticzonesandwherethe Apostlespreached 122 5.1 TheCreationsequenceinamanuscriptofCorbechon’sFrenchtranslationof BartholomaeusAnglicus’sDe proprietatibus rerum,c.1400,inMadrid, FundaciónLázaroGaldiano,MSI15554,f.16v 134 5.2 HuntingtonHM83,f.8v,textdescribingthefourdifferentfunctionsofa mappamundiandasimplemapshowingtheworldfromthebirthofChristto theyear639 148
ix ListofFigures 5.3 HuntingtonHM83,f.9r,mapshowingtheworldfrom639to1514 150 5.4 Thematicmapoftheworld’sreligionsfromDr. Heinrich Berghaus’ physikalischer Atlas oder Sammlung von Karten(Gotha:JustusPerthes,1845– 48) 155 5.5 HuntingtonHM83,f.9v,prophecymapshowingtheworldfrom1514to 1570 161 5.6 HuntingtonHM83,f.10r,prophecymapshowingtheworldfrom1570to 1600 165 5.7 HuntingtonHM83,f.10v,prophecymapoftheworldfrom1600to1606 168 5.8 HuntingtonHM83,f.11r,prophecymapoftheworldfrom1606to1661 (amistakefor1651) 176 5.9 HuntingtonHM83,f.11v,theLastJudgment 182 5.10 HuntingtonHM83,f.12r,textontheLastJudgmentandsmallmapofa featurelessearthaftertheLastJudgment 185 5.11 HuntingtonHM83,f.12v,diagramoftherelativediametersoftheearthand Hell 193 5.12 MapsoftheHolyLandandoftheworldinWolfenbüttel,HerzogAugust Bibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Vorderseite 199 5.13 FourapocalypticmappaemundiinWolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek, Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Beilagef.1r 204 5.14 MappamundisimilartoHuntingtonHM83,f.9r,inWolfenbüttel,Herzog AugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Beilagef.2r 208 5.15 MappamundisimilartoHuntingtonHM83,f.10r,inWolfenbüttel,Herzog AugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Beilagef.2v 210 5.16 FoliowithelementssimilartothoseinHM83,ff.11v,12r,and12v,in Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Beilagef. 3v 212 5.17 MappamundiillustratingRevelation7:1–3inamanuscriptofBeatusof Liébana’sCommentary on the Apocalypse,lateeleventhcentury,inParis,BnF, MSlat.8878,f.119r 221 5.18 NortheasternAsiaontheCatalanAtlasof1375,Paris,BnF,MSEspagnol30 226 5.19 ConradRudolph’sreconstructionoftheimageoftheworlddescribedbyHugh ofSaint-VictorinhisDe Arca Noe Mystica 230
x ListOfFigures
1 Introduction Introduction Introduction Inthisbookweofferadetailedanalysisofthemapsandsomeofthetextinan unusualandunstudiedfifteenth-centurymanuscript,SanMarino,Huntington Library MS HM 83, which contains interrelated texts composed in 1486–88, almostcertainlyinLübeck,Germany.Themanuscriptconsistsoffourparts:a briefgeographicaltreatiseillustratedwithmaps(ff. 1r–8r);aconcise account oftheApocalypse,alsoillustratedwithmaps(ff.8v–12v);asomewhathetero- geneous section with material on astronomy and geography, also illustrated with maps (ff. 13r–18r); and a collection of texts on astrological medicine (ff.19r–25v). Themanuscriptisofsignificancebothforthehistoryofcartographyandfor thehistoryofApocalypticism.Itcontainswhatisbyfarthelargestcollection ofmappaemundiinanyonemanuscript,andalsotheearliestsetsofthematic maps, or maps thatfocus on a specific theme.Everystudyofthematic maps thatwehaveconsultedindicatesthatthisgenredidnotexistbeforetheseven- teenthcentury,butinfactmapsthatcanandshouldbeidentifiedasthematic wereproduced hundreds ofyearsbefore that period, as we willshow below. The mapsin theHuntington manuscript are not the earliest thematic maps, butthemanuscriptcontainstheearliestsetsofsuchmapsthatseemtohave been produced in accordance with the modern understanding of the genre, and thus represent a remarkable achievement in the history of mapmaking, albeit one that had a verylimited influence.The manuscript also contains a passageaboutthedifferentfunctionsofmapsthatisuniqueinfifteenth-cen- turycartographicalwritings,andconfirmsthattheanonymousauthorhadan essentiallymodernunderstandingofthematicmapsasagenre. ThereareintriguingconnectionsbetweentheHuntingtonmanuscriptand anotherworkproducedinLübeckafewyearsearlier:theRudimentum novitio- rum,whichwasprintedbyLucasBrandisin1475.TheRudimentumcontainsa world map and a map of the Holy Land, both accompanied by extensive descriptivetexts.TherearemanydifferencesbetweentheHuntingtonmanu- scriptandtheRudimentum,mostnotablydifferencesofpurposeandtone,and therearealso significantdifferencesbetween the mapscontainedin the two works,butthereareenoughconnections—whichwillbedetailedbelow—to suggestsomedegreeofinfluenceoftheprintedworkonthemanuscriptone. The use of maps to illustrate what will happen to the earth during the Last Days in HM 83 not only creates a very distinctive, original, and striking © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_002
2 Introduction iconographical program for the Apocalypse,1 but also involves an unusual meldingofthesymbolicandcartographic.Theauthorboldlymapsthefuture transformationstheworldwillundergo,includingtworemarkablemapsofthe earthdevoidofallphysicalfeaturesfollowingtheApocalypse(ff.11rand12r). Themanuscriptisofsignalinterestforitsinnovativeexplorationofwhatcan bedonewithmapsinthefifteenthcentury.Studyoftheapocalypticsectionof the manuscript reveals the mosaic of different sources that the anonymous authorused,andoneofhismapsisacartographicinterpretationofapassage in the Compendium theologiae or Compendium theologicae veritatis by Hugh RipelinofStrasbourg(c.1205–c.1270).Thereisastronganti-Islamicstrainin theapocalypticsectionofthemanuscript,andtheanonymousauthoradopts a belief that goes back to John of Damascus (c. 645 or 676–749)2 that MuhammadwasaprecursorofAntichrist.Theauthoralsoinvokesthelegend of the Last Emperor, which was initially promulgated in the Apocalypse of pseudo-Methodius;3althoughtheauthorcitesMethodiusonf.9rofthemanu- script,heseemstohavemadelittleornodirectuseofthattext.Wehavenot been able to determine the sources of all of the parts of the manuscript’s uniquechronologyoftheApocalypse,butsomepartsarebasedontheauthor’s interpretationofreferencestodaysinvariouspassagesintheBibleasindicat- ing years, no doubt inspired, like so many other interpreters of biblical chronology,byaphrasein2Peter3:8, “WiththeLordadayislikeathousand years,andathousandyearsarelikeaday.”Thisbookbeginswithadiscussion ofthemanuscriptanditshistoricalcontext,whichisfollowedbydetaileddis- cussion of the geographical sections, together with analysis of their maps. 1 For a detailed list of other manuscripts that contain illustrations of the Apocalypse see Richard Kenneth Emmerson and Suz anne Lewis, “Census and Bibliography of Medieval ManuscriptsContainingApocalypseIllustrations, ca.800–1500,”Traditio40(1984),pp.337– 379;41(1985),pp.367–409;and42(1986),pp.443–472.Forchaptersthattogetherformagood discussion ofartbasedonthe Apocalypse seeRichardK.Emmerson andBernardMcGinn, eds.,The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages(Ithaca, N Y: Cornell University Press, 1992), part 2, pp.103–289. 2 SeeJohnW.Voorhis,“JohnofDamascusontheMoslemHeresy,”The Muslim World24.4(1934), pp.391–398;SaintJohnofDamascus,Writings: The Fount of Knowledge(NewYork:Fathersof theChurch,1958)(=TheFathersoftheChurch,ANewTranslation,vol.37),p.153;andDaniel J. Sahas, John of Damascus o n Isl am: The ‘H ere sy of the Ishmaelites’ (Leiden: Brill, 1972), pp.68–69and131–141. 3 FordiscussionofthislegendseePaulJ.Alexander,“TheMedievalLegendoftheLastRoman EmperoranditsMessianicOrigin,”Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes41(1978), pp. 1–15. For an edition and translation of Pseudo-Methodius see Pseudo-Methodius, Apocalypse; An Alexandrian World Chroni cle, ed. andtrans.BenjaminGarstad(Cambridge, M A:HarvardUniversityPress,2012).
3 Introduction Finallythereisafullanalysisoftheapocalyptictreatiseanditsmaps,including transcription,translation,andcommentaryonthefulltextoftheapocalyptic section. The authors’ hope is that the present work will substantially enrich our understandingoffifteenth-centurycartographyandApocalypticism,andalso make known the work of a man who was one of the most original cartogra- phersoftheperiod.Andperhapsthisstudywillinspireandaidotherscholars inundertakingastudyofthelastsectionofthemanuscript,thecollectionof textsonastrologicalmedicine.
4 Chapter1 Chapter1 Description of Huntington HM 83 HuntingtonLibraryHM83hasbeendescribedtwicebefore.1Whilerelyingon thoseearlierdescriptions,wewilladdanumberofdetailsinourdescription; in particular, we will supply a much more thorough account of the manu- script’s contents. The manuscript was bound by Rivière and Son sometime between1880and19402inbluemoroccostampedwithdecorativeornaments in gold. Codicological analysis shows no evidence that the folios were ever boundwithotherworks.Itconsistsof25foliosofyellowingpaper,measuring 315×215mm(textarea265×170mm),precededandfollowedbytwoflyleaves ofmodernpaper(contemporarywiththebinding).Thetextisinonecolumn, withupto62linesperpage;theinkisdarkbrowntobrown.Theruling,which isoftenveryfaint,consistsofoneandoneverticalandoneandonehorizontal boundinglines.Thesequenceofthefoliosshowsnodiscontinuities;thefolia- tion, in pencil, is modern. The manuscript has red rubrics, and the capital lettersaremarkedwithred.Therearenumerousunderliningsinbluepencilin thefirstsixteenfoliosthatsignalpassagesrelatingtotheauthor,theyearofthe manuscript’s creation, and passages of geographical interest, probably made byadealerpreparingadescriptionofthemanuscript.Thepaperhasawater- mark(acrownwithatallcross)similartoBriquet’s11807,3whichcomesfrom abookpublishedinVenicein1487.Themanuscriptisinverygoodcondition. According to Dutschke et al. in the Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library,thetextwaswrittenbythreescribes,ff. 1–18,20–21,and22–25bythefirst;ff.19r–19v(thebeginningofthesectionon 1 Forpreviousdescriptions ofHM83seeBibliotheca americana et philippina(London:Maggs Bros., 1922–30),partIV(1925), n. 2588,pp. 1–3, withplate 1followingp.32, whichillustrates themaponff.6v–7r;andC.W.Dutschkeetal.,Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library(SanMarino,CA :TheLibrary,1989),vol.1,pp.141–143,andvol.2,fig. 29. 2 ForotherbindingsbythiscompanyseeRare Books in Fine Bindings from Robert Rivière & Son of London(NewYork:Anderson Galleries, 1916);and Examples of Bookbinding Executed by Robt. Riviere & Son(London:R.Riviere&Son, 1920).Onthedate ofthebindingimpliedby theexactnameusedforthecompanyseeMichaelRiviere,“TheHuguenotFamilyofRiviere inEngland,”Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London21(1970),pp.219–240,at221. 3 SeeCharles-Moïse Briquet,Les filigranes: dictionnaire historique des marques du papier dès leur apparition vers 1282 jusqu’en 1600; avec 39 figures dans le texte et 16,112 fac-similés de fili- granes(Leipzig:K.W.Hiersemann,1923;NewYork:HackerArtBooks,1985),invol.3. © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_003
5 DescriptionofHuntingtonHM83 astrological medicine)bythe second; and ff. 21r–21vby the third.4 All of the textisinascholarlycursivescript;themanuscriptisnotaluxuryproduction, butwaslaidoutwithcare.Therearenomarginalglossesandthecornersofthe foliosareclean,sothereisnoevidenceofheavyuse. TheevidencethatthemanuscriptwasmadeinLübeckconsistsinthemen- tionsofthatcityonff.4r(transcribedbelow),6r(transcribedbelow),6v(ona map), 14r (twice, transcribed below), and 15v (twice). The otherwise unex- pectedprominenceofLübeckinthemanuscriptmakesitnaturaltoconclude that the manuscript was made there. The evidence provided by the promi- nenceofLübeckonthemaponf.6visdilutedsomewhatbythefactthatBrema (Bremen) is also conspicuous, but nonetheless the aggregate of evidence in supportofLübeckastheplaceofcompositionisstrong.Itwasacommonprac- tice for medieval cartographers to give prominence to their home cities or regionsontheirmaps.5 Theauthorspeaksofhimselfinthefirstpersononff.2v,8vand12v,passages thatwillbediscussedbelowinthesectionontheauthor,buthedoesnotname himself.Withregardtothedateofthemanuscript,onf.2vthetextreferstohoc anno Christi 1486;onf.9rtherearethreereferencesto“thisyear1486”;andonf. 16rto“thisyear1488.”Thepresenceofthehandsofthreescribesshowsthatthe manuscriptwehaveisacopy,ratherthantheautograph.Thedifferenceinthe datesseemsmorelikelyduetodelaysinthecompositionofthetextthanina protractedperiodofcopyingjusttwenty-fivefoliosoftextandmaps.Thusthe dates1486and1488seemtoindicatewhenthetextwascomposed;thescribes maywellhavewrittenoutHM83later,withoutalteringthedatestheyfoundin thetext,butweseenoevidenceforassigningthemanuscriptadatemuchlater than1488. Thecontentsofthemanuscriptareasfollows. 4 Dutschke,Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Huntington Library(seenote 1),vol.1,pp.141–143. 5 Theeleventh-centurySt-SeverBeatusmappamundi(BnFMSlat.8878,ff.45bisv–45terr)gives amuchgreaterprominencetoFrance,andparticularlytotheabbeyofSaint-Seversurl’Adour in southwestern France whereitwas made,thanthe mappaemundiinBeatus manuscripts madeinSpain:seeFrançoisdeDainville,“LaGalliadanslamappemondedeSaint-Sever,”in Actes du 93e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes, Tours, 1968(Paris:BibliothèqueNationale, 1970),pp.391–404,esp.391.OntheEbstorfmappamundiofc. 1300thereisa vignette ofthe churchandthegraves ofthemartyrsofEbstorf,seeHartmutKugler,Die Ebstorfer Weltkarte (Berlin:AkademieVerlag,2007),vol.1,pp.128–129,nos.50.12and50.14,andvol.2,p.280,nos. 50.12 and50.14.AndthesizeoftheBritishIslesisgreatlyexaggeratedontheEvesham map - pamundiofc.1400,seePeterBarber,“TheEveshamWorldMap:ALateMedievalEnglishView ofGodandtheWorld,”Imago Mundi47(1995),pp.13–33,esp.23–24.
6 Chapter1 1 ff. 1r–8v, The Brief Geographical Treatise • f. 1r: The treatise opens with a discussion of the three Babylonias, and then addresses the three-folddivision ofthe worldamongthe sons ofNoah, illustrated witha mappamundithat emphasizes the circumfluent ocean and theMediterranean. • f.1v:ListstheprovincesofGreaterAsia,includingScythia,MagnaGraecia, andSyria,withmoredetaileddescriptionsofEgyptandEthiopia. • f. 2r: The description of Ethiopia continues, followed by Arabia, Mesopotamia,Chaldea,Hyrcania,Armenia,Parthia,andIndia.Thenfollowsa listoftheoceanicislandsthatpertaintoGreaterAsia,andalistoftheislands oftheMediterranean. • f. 2v: A digression on Esther 1:1 which mentions 127 provinces between IndiaandEthiopia,andthenalistoftheprovincesofEurope,beginningwith theoceanicislandsthatpertaintoEurope.6 • f.3r:Amaplabeledfigura insularum maris occeani,“mapoftheislandsof theocean,”withalargecircumfluentoceanfilledwithcircularislandswhose size is exaggerated for clarity—except in the south, where the cartographer doesnotlocateanyislands.Belowthemapisalistoffiveoftheislandsinthe MediterraneanthatpertaintoEurope,fromVenicetotheBalearics,withanote toseethefollowingfigure. • f.3v:Twooverlappingmappaemundi,theupperoneemphasizingthefive Europeanislandsjustlisted(plusportugalia,probablyan errorfor theportus said on f. 3r to belong to one of the islands); and the lower one of the MediterraneanislandsthatpertaintoGreaterAsia(seethelistonf.2r). • f.4r:AlistoftheprovincesofmainlandEurope,beginningwithadetailed listoftheprovincesofGermany,thenItaly,andthenSpain. • f. 4v:The list of the provinces of Spain continues, followed by those of France.ThenthereisalistoftheprovincesofmainlandAfrica.Thisistheend ofthelistingoftheworld’sprovinces. • f.5r:Agenericview ofsomemountains,followedbyalistofthemoun- tainsoftheHolyLand,andthenalistofmountainsindicatedasbeingonthe edges of the Holy Land (Montes qui sunt termini terre promissionis sunt hii), thoughthelistincludesmountainsasfarwestasthePillarsofHercules. • f.5v:Thelistofmountainscontinues,followedbyashortlistofthelands of the kings of the Four Kingdoms of the Book of Daniel(Nebuchadnezzar, 6 ThematerialaboutoceanicislandsofEuropeonf.2vistranscribedbyAxelAnthonBjørnbo, “Adam af BremensNordensop fattelse,” Aarbøger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 24.2 (1909),pp.120–244,at240–241.
7 DescriptionofHuntingtonHM83 Cyrus,AlexandertheGreat,andOctavian),andalistofthelandsinwhichthe twelve Apostles preached (there is a map that shows where the Apostles preachedonf.15r,somedistancefromthistext).7 • f.6r:ThelistofthelandsinwhichtheApostlespreachedcontinues,fol- lowed by a map of the most important cities of the ancient world which is basedonthediscussionoftheFourKingdomsontheprecedingfolio. • ff.6v–7r:Alarge maplabeledMappa mundi localis that combinesinfor- mation from a few of the preceding sections, and thus shows many of the islandsinthecircumfluentoceanlikethemaponf.3r,andalsoprovidesmore detail about the mainland. The sphere of earth is shown off center in the sphere ofwater(see Fig. 4.14 below),in accordance with one explanation of howtherewaslandabovethewaters,despitethefactthatthesphereofearth waswithinthesphereofwater.8 • ff.7v–8r:AlargemaptitledMappa de Aquis terram irrigantibusormapof thewatersthatirrigatetheland,whichplacesgreatemphasisonthefourrivers flowingfromParadiseandthewatersthatmakeupthe‘T ’ofaT-Omap,9but doesnotgiveinformationaboutotherrivers. 7 AlistoftheplacestheApostlespreachedalso occursinacontextassociatedwithbothcar- tograp hy and the Apocalypse in manu scripts of Beatus of Liébana’s Commentary o n the Apocalypse,wherethelistintroducestheworldmap.ThelistiseditedinBeatusofLiébana, Obras completas de Beato de Liébana,ed.andtrans.JoaquínGonzálezEchegaray,Albertodel Campo, and Leslie G. Freeman(Toledo:EstudioTeológicode SanIldefonso; andMadrid: BibliotecadeAutoresCristianos,1995),pp.135and137.Butwedonotdetectanysignofinflu- enceofBeatus’slistintheHuntingtonmanuscript. 8 ThisexplanationgoesbacktoPeterAbelard(1079–1142),Expositio in Hexameron,inPatrologia Latina 178:748: se e W. G. L. Ran dles,  “Classi cal Mod els of  World Geogra phy an d their TransformationFollowingtheDiscoveryofAmerica,”inWolfgangHaaseandMeyerReinhold, eds.,The Classical Tradition and the Americas(BerlinandNewYork:W.deGruyter,1994-),vol. 1,European Images of America and the Classical Tradition,part1,pp.5–76,at22,andalsosee thequotationonthissamesubjectfromPaulofBurgos(PablodeSantaMaría)inhisAdditiones (writtenin1429)tothePostillaofNicholasofLyra,citedonRandles’sp.76.Randles’sessayis reprintedinhisGeography, Cartography and Nautical Science in the Renaissance: The Impact of the Great Discoveries(Aldershot, Hampshire, GreatBritain;andBurlington, VT :Ashgate/ Variorum, 20 00).Thereis a dramaticillustration ofthis explanationinLyon,Bibliothèque Municipale,MS1351,f.35r,afourteenth-centurymanuscriptoftheBreviari d’amor. 9 AT-Omap,themosttypicalmedievalmappamundi,issocalledfromthe‘O’ofthecircumflu- entoceanthatsurroundsthecircleofthelands,andthe‘T’formedbythebodiesofwaterthat dividethelandintoAsia,Europe,andAfrica.UsuallytheMediterraneandividesEuropeand Africa,theTanaisorDonRiverdividesEuropeandAsia,andtheNiledividesAsiaandAfrica. As we willseebelow,the cartographerofthe mapinff.7v–8ridentifiesthebodies ofwater thatseparatethecontinentsdifferently.
8 Chapter1 • f.8v:Thegeographicaltreatiseendswithanaccountofthefourdifferent functions or themes that a mappamundi can have; the treatise on the Apocalypsebeginsonthelowerpartofthefolio. 2 ff. 8v–12v, The Treatise on the Apocalypse • f.8v:The treatiseon theApocalypsebegins witha simple mapshowing the worldfrom thebirthofChrist to theyear639, whichis when the author holds that Muhammad began his career (though this is not the traditional date). • f.9r:Adetailedmapshowingtheworldfrom639to1514,particularlyillus- tratingthespreadofIslam,whichissaidtobeinallpartsoftheworldexcept Europe, andEuropeis saidtobeveryweak.In thetextsurroundingthemap theauthorsaysthatitisbasedontheBookofRevelationfromchapter12tothe beginningofchapter19. • f.9v:Aprophecymapshowingtheworldfrom1514to1570,whenSwordof IslamhasconqueredEuropeandreachedallthewaytotheedgesoftheearth, but nottotheislandsintheocean.Theauthorsaysthatthemapisbasedon Revelation19:5–11. • f.10r:Asymbolicprophecymapshowingtheworldfrom1570to1600.The series of small-to-large triangles in the center represent the increase of Antichrist,andtheauthorsaysthattheotherspikesthatradiatetotheedgesof theearthrepresentthetenhorns ofthebeastofDaniel7—thoughthere are actuallyelevenspikesdepicted.Tenkings(Rex Egipti,Rex indie,etc.)areindi- catedattheedgeofthemap. • f.10v:Aprophecymapoftheworldfrom1600to1606.Antichristisindi- catedatthecenteroftheearth,inJerusalem,andthefourpeninsulasthatjut intotheoceanaresymbolicgeographicalrepresentationsofthefourhornsof Antichrist by which he will persuade people to join him (Deceit, Cunning, Cruelty,andImitationoftheDeity).ThetentribesofIsraelareshowntravel- lingfromtheirislandtoJerusalemtojoinAntichrist. • f.11r:Aprophecymapofthe worldfrom 1606to1661(thoughaswe will see,thelatterdateisanerrorfor1651).Thesituationhaschangedcompletely: thecenteroftheearthisnowoccupiedbytheflagandlawofChrist,whichwill be raised and worshipped throughout the world. At the bottom of the folio thereis a secondmapthat shows the surface of the earthdevoidof features andplacenames,andthecircumfluentoceanemptyaswell.Thetextnearby explainsthatallofthefeaturesoftheearthhavebeenburnedaway.
9 DescriptionofHuntingtonHM83 • f.11v:AnillustrationoftheLastJudgment.ThegatesofParadiseareatthe top,theelectin acurvedbandjustbelow,thenJesusandtheApostlesinthe sky;belowon the earthis theMount ofOlives,thenthedamnedin a curved bandstandingabovetheabyssthatleadstoHell.Thecenteroftheearthdoes notcoincidewiththatofthewater,asisalsothecaseinthemapsinff.6v–7r and7v–8r. • f.12r:DescriptionoftheLastJudgment,Resurrection,andrenewalofthe earth.Atthebottomofthepagethereisamapofafeaturelessearthwhichthe textsaysrepresentstheworldaftertheLastJudgment. • f.12v:AdiagramoftherelativediametersoftheearthandHell.Thetext discusses theirdimensions, andthe crystallization ofthe earthfollowingthe LastJudgment andits rolein separatingtheblessedandthedamned.At the bottomofthepagethereisapassageaboutthethreeBabyloniasverysimilar tothatonf.1r. 3 ff. 13r–18r, Heterogeneous Section on Astronomy and Geography • f.13r:Thecosmosisdepictedinadiagramofthesphereslabeledhec fig- ura appellatur ffabrica mundi,fromthesphereoftheearthouttotheEmpyrean. • f.13v:Above,adiagramshowingthesphereoftheeartheccentricwiththe sphereofwater,withanindicationofthecourseofthesunaroundtheearth anddiscussionoftheirrelativesizes.Below,adiagramoftherelativesizesofa star,theearth,andthemoon. • f.14r:Adiagramoftenclimaticzonesoverlaidonacopyofthemapofthe watersoftheearthinff.7v–8r.Thetextlistsvariousplacesandtheclimatesin whichtheyarelocated,andalsothedistancesbetweenafewplaces. • f.14v:Adiagramofnineclimaticzones,withatablesupplyingtheeleva- tion of the North Pole, the length of the longest day, and the width of each climateinGermanmiles.10 • f.15r:Amapshowingsevenclimaticzonesandalsothelocationsinwhich the Apostles preached (see the list of these places in f. 5v). Below the map, 10 Johannes deSacrobosco inhis De sphaera, book3, supplies the elevation,dies prolixior, andmeasurementinmiliariaofeachclimate,butforaseven-climatesystem,andthushis numbersareverydifferentthanthoseintheHuntingtonmanuscript.Itseemsthatsuch a table originally accompanied Roger Bacon’s Opus maius: see Roger Bacon, The ʻOpus majus’ of Roger Bacon,ed.JohnHenryBridges(London:WilliamsandNorgate,1900),vol. 1,p.296:Ostendam etiam cum latitudine cujuslibet climatis quot milliaria quodlibet contin- eat in se, & quot gradus in coelo cuilibet respondeant, & quot horas habet dies prolixior.
10 Chapter1 undertheheadingOccidens,thereisalistofseveralregions,islands,andcities, togetherwithindicationsofwhichclimatestheyarelocatedin. • f.15v:Thelistofplaceswiththeirclimatescontinues,withashortdiscus- sionofGogandNoah’sArk. • f.16r:Asummaryofworldhistory,emphasizingtheLastDays.Historyhad threeparts:thefirstendedwiththeFlood,thesecondcoincidedwithBabylon, andthethirdwithRome.ThebirthofMuhammadcoincideswiththebegin- ningofRome’sdecline,andtheglobalruleofIslamwillbeendedbytheLast Roman Emperor and Jesus Christ. Then Antichrist will arise and come to power, gaining followers through Deceit, Cunning, Cruelty, and Imitation of theDeity(seef.10v).Hewillrulefor1000years—averyunusualdurationfor his reign in the Apocalyptic tradition—with only Enoch and Elias, who will returnfromParadise,preaching againsthim; theythen rise toHeaven again. Antichristpromises todo the same andrises above theMount ofOlives,but Jesuskillshimandbeginshisreign. • f.16v:Twogenealogicaltables,onefromAdamtoJesus(ignoringthelin- eagethroughNathan),andonefromAdamtoDavid. • f.17r:Continuationofthesecondgenealogicaltable,splittingnowintwo, andtracingontheleft,thelinefromDavidthroughNathantoHeli(andthen wearetounderstandthatMary,whoislistedontheright,wasthedaughterof Heli);andontheright,thelinefromDavidthroughSolomontoJacob,ending withJesus. • ff.17v–18r:DiscussionoftheFourKingdomsoftheworld,11withdetailson symbolsinthepropheticbooksoftheBible. • f.18v:blank. 4 ff. 19r–25v, Treatise on Astrological Medicine • f. 19r: The beginning of the texts on astrological medicine. The section opens with two canonsfromBartholomäusMariensüss.12The firstisheaded Canon primus de fleubotomia, “First precept on phlebotomy,” and begins 11 SeeH.H.Rowley,Darius the Mede and the Four Empires in the Book of Daniel: A Historical Study of Contemporary Theories (Cardiff: University of Wales Press Board, 1935);Joseph WardSwain, “TheTheoryoftheFourMonarchies:OppositionHistoryundertheRoman Empire,”Classical Philology35.1(1940),pp. 1–21;andJanetL.R. Melnyk, “TheFourKing- doms in Daniel 2 and 7: Chapters in the History of Interpretation,” Ph.D. Dissertation, EmoryUniversity,2001. 12 OnthesecanonsseeDavidJuste,Les manuscrits astrologiques latins conservés à la Bayer- ische Staatsbibliothek de Münich(Paris: CNRS éditions, 2011), p. 161; they were printed in
11 DescriptionofHuntingtonHM83 Notandum primo volens eligere dies aptos pro fleubotomia primo eligat signa ignea que sunt aries et sagittarius....13 The second, which also begins on this folio,isheadedCanon 2us de farmacia id est medicina,andbeginsYpocrates ait Cecus medicus est qui astronomiam nescit nam si dabit medicinam.14 • f.19v:Thetextonmedicinecontinuesfromthepreviousfolio. • ff. 20r–21r: The text begins Incipit messehallach de coniunctionibus, and comesfrom Messahallah’sEpistola Messahalae de rebus eclipsium, et de coni- unctionibus planetarum, translated by Joannes Hispalensis, which was later printed in Liber quadripartiti Ptholemei (Venice: Octavianus Scotus, Bonetus Locatellus,1493),andeditedbyJoachimHellerinMessahalae antiquissimi ac laudatissimi inter Arabes astrologi, libri tres (Nuremberg: Apud Ioannem Montanum&VlricumNeuberum,1549),Fiii-Giiiverso.15 JohannesRegiomontanus,Ephemerides(Venice:Ratdolt, 1481), on[a8v]-[a9v].Wethank DavidJusteforthesereferences. 13 A text with essentially the same incipit(Volens eligere dies...)also appears in Augsburg, Staats- und Stadtbibliothek, 2o Cod. 208, ff. 2r–10v: seeHandschriftenkataloge der Staat- sund Stadtbibliothek Augsburg(Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1974–1993), vol. 3, pp. 209– 216, at 211; Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, MS 5184, ff. 8v–10r: see Grażyna Rosińska, Scientific Writings and Astronomical Tables in Cracow: A Census of Manuscript Sources (XI Vth-X VI th Centuries)(Wrocław:Ossolineum,PolishAcademyofSciencesPress, 1984),p.455,no.2373;andinMunich,BayerischeStaatsbibliothek,CLM24865,ff.25r–28v: seeLynnThorndike and PearlKibre, A Catalogue of Incipits of Mediaeval Scientific Writ- ings in Latin(London:MediaevalAcademyofAmerica,1963),col.1707F.Thismanuscript islistedinCatalogus codicum manu scriptorum Bibliothecae regiae monacensis(Munich: sumptibusBibliotecae,prostatinLibrariaPalmiana, 1858–2000),vol.4,part4,p. 150, no. 1533, as afifteenth-centurymanuscript,Calendarium cum excerptis ex Johanne de Monte regali et aliunde ( f. 29 Tabula facta a. 1466 ad meridianum Patauii). 14 ThissametextoccursinLondon,BritishLibrary,HarleyMS2269,anastrologicalcompen- diumfromthefirsthalfofthesixteenthcentury,onff.91r–91v. 15 OnMessahallahseeDavidPingree, “Māshā’allāh,”inCharlesCoulstonGillispie, ed.,Dic- tionary of Scientific Biography(New York: Scribner, 1970-), vol. 9, pp. 159–162. Onthe De rebus eclipsium see F.J. Carmody, Arabic Astronomical and Astrological Sciences in Latin Translation: A Critical Bibliography(BerkeleyandLosAngeles,1956),pp.30–32;andLynn Thorndike, “The LatinTranslation of AstrologicalWorksby Messahala,” Osiris 12(1956), pp.49–72,at62–66,includingalistofmanuscriptsofthework.ThereisanEnglishtrans- lation and discussion of the Hebrew version of the work in B. Goldstein, “The Book of EclipsesofMasha’allah,”Physis6(1964),pp.205–213;andinAbrahamIbnEzra,The Book of the World: A Parallel Hebrew-English Critical Edition of the Two Versions of the Text, ed. andtrans.ShlomoSela(LeidenandBoston:Brill, 2010),pp. 240–259.ThereisanEnglish translationoftheLatinversioninBenjaminN.Dykes,Astrology of the World(Minneapo- lis:CazimiPress,2014),vol.2,pp.145–155.
12 Chapter1 • ff.21r–21v:ThetextbeginsMiliaria ptholomei de magnitudinibus corporum celestium et distantiis orbium sunt hec redacta ad theutonica miliaria secundum quod 60 agri faciunt miliare,andendsutrum tam magne sint vel tam distent vide in passionale de ascensione domini Raby moyses dicit ibi et cetera. Sed oportet addiscentem credere. We have not succeeded in determining the source. Ptolemy does supply the distances between the planetary spheres in his Planetary Hypotheses, but this workwas unknownduringtheMiddle Ages.16 ThereferencetoRaby moysesistoMosesMaimonides(1135–1204),specifically to a passage about the distances between the planetary orbs in Jacobus de Voragine’sLegenda aureathatJacobusattributestoMaimonides.17Onf.21rof HM83thecircumference oftheearthisgiven as9100 miliaria theutonica,but onf.12vourauthorindicatesthatitis8000 miliarium teutonicorum,whichindi- catesthatheisusingadifferentsourcethanintheearlierpassage(itisworth mentioningthatthetwopassageswerewrittenbydifferentscribes). • f.21v:AbrieftextDe virtute et proprietate planetarum,“Onthevirtuesand properties oftheplanets.”Wehavenotbeenable todetermine the source of thetextonthefirsthalfofthefolio;thetextonthesecondhalf,whichbegins Notandum quod 12 sunt signa, is excerpted and paraphrased from Robert Grosseteste,De impressionibus aeris seu de prognosticatione.18 16 FortheGreektextofBook1ofthePlanetary HypotheseswithaGermantranslation,anda German translation of Book 2(which does not exist in Greek, only in Arabic), seeJ. L. Heiberg, ed.,Claudii Ptolemaei opera quae exstant omnia(Leipzig:Teubner, 1907), vol. 2, Opera astronomica minora,pp.69–145.FordiscussionoftheworkseeNoelM.Swerdlow, “Ptolemy’sTheoryoftheDistanceandSizesofthePlanets:AStudyoftheScientificFoun- dationsofMedievalCosmology,”Ph.D.Dissertation,YaleUniversity,1968;andAlbertVan Helden,Measuring the Universe: Cosmic Dimensions from Aristarchus to Halley(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), pp. 21–25. The Arabic version of the text has been translatedintoEnglishbyBernardR.Goldstein,“TheArabicVersionofPtolemy’s‘Plane- taryHypotheses’,”Transactions of the American Philosophical Society54.4(1967),pp.3–55; and into French by Regis Morelon, “La version arabe du Livre des Hypothèses de Ptolé- mée,”Mélanges Institut Dominicain d’Études Orientales du Cairo21(1993),pp.7–85. 17 SeeGörgeK.Hasselhoff,“MaimonidesintheLatinMiddleAges:AnIntroductorySurvey,” Jewish Studies Quarterly9.1(2002),pp.1–20,at11–13;JacobusdeVoragine,Legenda aurea, ed.GiovanniPaoloMaggioni(Florence:SIS M E LandEdizionidelGalluzzo,1998),sect.67, pp.483–484;andJacobusdeVoragine,The Golden Legend or Lives of the Saints,trans.Wil- liamCaxton,ed.F.S.Ellis(NewYork:AMSPress,1973),vol.1,p.111. 18 ThetextofRobertGrosseteste,De impressionibus aeris seu de prognosticatione,issupplied in Die Philosophischen Werke des Robert Grosseteste Bischofs von Lincoln,ed.LudwigBaur (Münster:Aschendorff,1912),pp.41–51,withthepassageintheHuntingtonmanuscriptat 42–43.Fordiscussion oftheworkseeSamuelHarrisonThomson,The Writings of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, 1235–1253(Cambridge,England:TheUniversityPress,1940),
13 DescriptionofHuntingtonHM83 • f. 22r: Text and two tables from Robert Grosseteste, De impressionibus aeris seu de prognosticatione,19togetherwithacirculardiagramthatindicates whichsignsofthezodiaccorrespondtowhichpartsofthebody—adiagram- matic renderingoftheZodiacMan.20This materialdoesnot comefrom this sameworkbyGrosseteste. • ff.22v–24v:TextbeginningDe divisione corporis humani secundum plane- tas in natura eorumdem propria et cum egritudinibus sibi propriis, which consistsofexcerptsfromWilliamofMarseille,De urina non visa(1219).21 • f. 25r:Text under the heading De diebus criticis with a large square dia- gramfordeterminingone’shoroscope;sourceundetermined. • f. 25v: Text ends: ...et tristicie nunc aspicit ascendens est quod locorum gaudii saturni, Saturnus enim gaudet in lamentacione planctu et tribulatione. ThistextseemstobeaparaphraseofapassageintheDe astronomia tractatus x of Guido Bonatti, the celebrated thirteenth-century astronomer and astrologer.22 pp. 103–104, which includes a list of manuscripts; to that list should be added Harvard University, Houghton Library, MS Lat 361, ff. 104r–105r, thirteenth century. Also see Ezio Franceschini, “Sulla presunta datazione del ‘De impressionibus aeris’ di Roberto Gros- satesta,”Rivista di filosofia neo-scolastica44(1952),pp.22–23. 19 This text from Grosseteste‘s De impressionibus aeris is supplied in Die Philosophischen Werke des Robert Grosseteste Bischofs von Lincoln(seeCh.1,n.18),pp.43–44 . 20 SeeCharlesWestClark,“TheZodiacManinMedievalMedicalAstrology,”Ph.D.Disserta- tion,UniversityofColoradoatBoulder,1979;andthe sameauthor ’s “TheZodiacManin Medieval Medical Astrology,” Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association3(1982),pp.13–38. 21 See William of Marseille, Guillaume l’Anglais, le frondeur de l’uroscopie médiévale (X I II e siècle): édition commentée et traduction du ‘De urina non visa’, ed. and trans. Laurence Moulinier-Brogi(Geneva:LibrairieDroz,2011),pp.144–148and254.Thetextofthischap - teris alsosuppliedinGrazielaFredericiVescovini, “Iprogrammidegliinsegnamentidel collegio di medicina, filosofia e astrologia, dello statuto dell’Università di Bologna del 1405,” in Jacqueline Hamesse, ed., Roma, magistra mundi: itineraria culturae medievalis: mélanges offerts au Père L.E . Boyle à l’occasion de son 75e anniversaire(Louvain-la-Neuve: Fédération des Institutsd’EtudesMédiévales, 1998), vol.3,pp. 193–223, esp. 213–214. For discussions of the work beside the very thorough one offered by Moulinie-Brogi in his introductionseeLynnThorndike,A History of Magic and Experimental Science(NewYork: Macmillan, 1923–58), vol. 2, pp. 485–487; and Roger French, “Astrology in Medical Practice,”inLuisGarcíaBallester etal., eds.,Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 30–59, esp. 44–48. 22 SeeGuidonis Bonati foroliviensis mathematici De astronomia tractatus x. universam quod ad iudiciariam rationem Nativitatum, Aëris, Tempestatum, attinet, comprehendentes(Basel, 1550), Parsprima, cols.92–93, “InquibusdomibusPlanetaegaudentCap. XI”;translated
14 Chapter1 Someaspectsofthearrangementofmaterialinthemanuscriptaredifficultto understand. The manuscript has three well-defined parts: the geographical materialonff. 1r–8v, whichends withadiscussion ofthefourdifferentfunc- tions of mappaemundi; the treatise on theApocalypse onff. 8v–12v; and the materialonastrologicalmedicineonff.19r–25v.Thegeographicalmaterialon ff.1r–8vmaybetakenasasortofprefacetotheapocalypticsection,describing theworld’sgeographybeforeitunderwentdramaticchangesintheLastDays, andreviewingtheFourKingdomsoftheworld(f.5v)andalsothemissionsof theApostles(ff.5v–6r).The role oftheheterogeneous section on astronomy and geography onff. 13r–18r is less clear. On the one hand, the astronomical material makes the section a good transition to the material on astrological medicine, but on the other, there are strong connections between the geo- graphicalmaterialinthissectionandthatinff.1r–8v:forexample,themapof thePtolemaicclimaticzonesonf.14r(seeFig.4.16)isclearlybasedonthemap oftheworld’swatersonff.7v–8r(seeFig.4.15below),andthemapoftheloca- tionswheretheApostlespreachedonf.15riscloselyrelatedtothelistofthe places that the Apostles preached onff. 5v–6r.For convenience,in what fol- lows,thegeographicalmaterialinthesetwosectionswillbetreatedtogether. into English in Benjamin N. Dykes, The Book of Astronomy (Golden Valley, M N: Cazimi Press, 2007), vol. 1,pp.140–141.OnBonattiseeCesareVasoli,“L’astrologoforliveseGuido Bonatti,”Atti del convegno internazionale di studi danteschi (Ravenna, 10–12 settembre 1971) (Ravenna: Longo, 1979), pp. 239–260; and Bernhard Dietrich Haage, “Bonatti, Guido,” in Wolfgang Stammler and Karl Langosch, eds., Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon(BerlinandNewYork:deGruyter,1978-),vol.11,cols.269–270.
15 TheHistoricalContext:LübeckintheFifteenthCentury Chapter2 The Historical Context: Lübeck in the Fifteenth Century The city of Lübeck was founded on an island in the river Trave by Adolf II, CountofSchauenburgandHolstein,in1143.ItspositionontheTrave,witheasy accesstotheBaltic,gaveitgreatpotentialasacenteroftrade,andthatpoten- tialwasrealizedthroughitsleadershipoftheHanseaticLeaguebeginningin thefourteenthcentury,anditsroleasanodeintheBaltictradenetworkthat stretchedfromNovgorodintheeasttoLondonandFlandersinthewest,and includedNorwayandSwedentothenorth.Timber,fur,honey,andgrainflowed fromeasttowest,whileclothandmanufacturedgoodsflowedeast,andcopper ore,ironore,andfishcamesouth.1 Lübeckwasatthepeakofitspowerduringthefifteenthcentury,inthelat- terpartofwhich(1486–88)thetextsinHuntingtonHM83werecomposed.The city’spoliticianswerewidelyrespectedandhelpedresolveanumberofinter- nationaldisputes,andthecity’sdynamicmayor,HinrichCastrop(1419–1488), strengthenedthecity’swalls,improveditsharbor,andin1478organizedwhat wasperhapsthemostspectacularpageantthecityhadeverseentohonorthe arrivalofAlbert,DukeofSaxony.2 1 OnthetopographyandgrowthofthecityseeManfredGläser,“TheEmergenceofLübeckas aMedievalMetropolis,”inNilsEngbergetal.,eds.,Archaeology of Medieval Towns in the Baltic and North Sea Area(Copenhagen:TheNationalMuseum,DanishMiddleAges&Renaissance; andOdense:UniversityPressofSouthernDenmark,2009),pp.79–92.Thereisagooddiscus- sion of the nature of the Hanseatic Leagu e and Lübeck’s role as its head in StuartJenks, “A Capital withou t a State:Lübeckcaput tocius hanze(to 1474),” Historical Research65.1 57 (1992),pp.134–149;forbriefdiscussionofLübeckinthecontextofnorthernEuropeantrade seeMichael Postan, “TheTrade ofMedieval Europe:TheNorth,”in EdwardMiller, Cynthia Postan,andMichaelM.Postan,eds.,The Cambridge Economic History of Europe,vol.2,Trade and Industry in the Middle Ages(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,1987),pp.168–305 passimandesp.237–239and277–279.ThereisanextensiveaccountofLübeckintheMiddle AgesinErichHoffmann, “LübeckinHoch- undSpätmittelalter: Die großeZeitLübecks,”in AntjekathrinGrassmann, ed.,Lübeckische Geschichte(3rd edn.Lübeck: Schmidt-Römhild, 1997),pp.79–340. 2 WilsonKing,Chronicles of Three Free Cities, Hamburg, Bremen, Lübeck(London:J.M.Dent& Sons;andNewYork:E.P.Dutton&Co.,1914),pp.380–383;alsoseeGerhardNeumann,Hinrich Castorp: Ei n Lübecke r Bürgermei ste r aus de r zweiten Hälfte des 15. Jahrhunderts (Lübeck: Staatsarchiv,1932)(=VeröffentlichungenzurGeschichtederFreienundHansestadtLübeck, © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_004
16 Chapter2 Aletterwritteninabout1453oralittlelaterbyadoctortoapatrononthe city council was preserved by the Councilman Simon Batz, who was active from1457–1464,andoffersaglowingdescriptionofthecity,anditisworthcit- ingthedescriptioninfull:3 Sethercleunumscio,uthiclocusegregiusadivinaterrenaqueimperiali maiestate plerisque dodatus est muneribus. Hic sunt fluenta limpidis- sima, aer serenissimus, terra opima, nemora iocundissima, pomeria florentissima,edificiapulcherrima,plateefecibussemperpurgate,presul devotissimus, clerus disciplinatus, beneficia grassa, templa politissima, in quibus divine laudes perpetim summo cultu peraguntur, turres altissime que suis aureis fulgoribus intuencium oculis eminus chorus- cant, cenobia preclara omni religione fulgencia, bibliotece numero librorum ditissime, divini verbi precones disertissimi, mercatores in negociacionibus studiosissimi, cives omnium rerum opulentissimi: Et quodsuperest,policiareipubliceornatissima,civitasomnibusdefension- ibus munitissima, totaque gens apprime pacifica. Sed taceo de pulchro femineosexu,cuiusdelectabilisintuituslassataingeniavirescogitrecu- perare. Venus enim ac Dyana nostras Lubicenses in pulchritudine antecedunt; illas enim vero morum venustas, personarum proceritas, melliflua eloquia, roseus lilialisque aspectus opulentissime decorant. Sagaxquippenaturainearundemnobilicreacionepenitusinnulloerra- vit. Porro ut summarie proferam: quidquid boni ac pulchri est hic 11); FritzRörig, “HinrichCastrop,Bürgermeister vonLübeck,” inPeterRichardRohden, ed., Gestalter de utsche r Vergangenheit(Potsdam and Berlin:Sanssou ci, 1937), pp. 215–216;and AntjekathrinGrassmann,“Castorp,Hinrich:geb.1419Dortmund(?),gest.14.4. 1488Lübeck. – Kaufmann, Bürgermeister, Diplomat,”Biographische s Lexikon für Schleswig-Holstei n und Lübeck(Neumünster:Wachholtz, 1970–2011), vol. 13,pp.96–99.For moredetailontrade in LübeckintheearlyfifteenthcenturyseeMichailLesnikov,“LübeckalsHandelsplatzfürost- europäischeWarenim15.Jahrhundert,”Hansische Geschichtsblätter78(1960),pp.67–86;and HarmvonSeggern,“DieführendenKaufleuteinLübeckgegenEndedes15.Jahrhunderts,”in Gerhard Fouquet, ed., Netzwerke im europäischen Handel des Mittelalters(Ostfildern: Thorbecke,2010),pp.283–316. 3 TheLatintext quoted hereis supplied byV.Wattenbach, “AusdemBriefbuchedesMeister Simon von Homburg,”Anzeiger für Kunde der deutschen Vorzeit, Neuefolge, 20.2(February, 1873),cols.33–36,at35–36;andCarlFriedrichWehrmann,“EinUrtheilüberLübeckausder MittedesfünfzehntenJahrhunderts,”Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde4(1884),pp.271–274,at273;aGermantranslationissuppliedbyAntjekathrin Grassmann,“Lübeck–‘EinZweitesParadies’?:EinBlickaufdieReichs-undHansestadtinder zweitenHälftedes15.Jahrhunderts,”inBernt Notke. Das Triumphkreuz im Dom zu Lübeck(Kiel: Ludwig,2010),pp.35–48,at35–36.TheEnglishtranslationhereisours.
17 TheHistoricalContext:LübeckintheFifteenthCentury splendidius copiosiusque quam in ceteris invenitur locis. Alter quoque paradisusnoninmeritopoteritappellari. TheonethingIknow,byHercules,isthatthisexcellentplaceisprovided by the divine and the earthly imperial majesty with many gifts. Here there are the clearest streams, the brightest air, the best soil, graceful groves,flourishingparks,beautifulbuildings,streetsalwaysfreeoffilth,a godlybishop,well-orderedclergyandrichbenefices,beautifulchurches wherethepraiseofGodisalwayssunginthemostsplendidmanner,high towers,whosegoldenlustershinesintheeyesofbeholdersfromafar,and famous monasteries shining with religion, libraries very rich in books, and eloquent preachers of the divine word, merchants very zealous in their businesses, and citizens wealthy in all things. What is more, the stategovernmentishighlyhonored,thecityiswellprotectedbyramparts ofallkinds,andthepopulationisverypeaceful.ButIsaynothingofthe beautifulwomen,whosedelectableappearancecausesone’stiredspirits torecoverenergy.VenusandDianamayexceedthewomenofLübeckin beauty, but the city’s women are abundantly endowed with charming manners,height, mellifluous eloquence,andtheaspectofrosesandlil- ies. Indeed, wise Nature made not the slightest error in their noble creation.Tosumup:whateverisgoodandbeautifulispresentheremore splendidlyandcopiouslythaninothercities,sothatLübeckcanrightly becalledasecondparadise. Ofcoursetextspraisingcities,laudes urbium,wereawell-establishedliterary genre,4butinthecaseofLübeckinthesecondhalfofthefifteenthcentury,the cityseemstohavemeritedthispraise:soconcludesAntjekathrinGrassmann at the end of her article just cited. There is a somewhat less encomiastic, but still enthusiastic description of the city in Hartmann Schedel’s Liber 4 SeeJ.K.Hyde,“MedievalDescriptionsofCities,”Bulletin of the John Rylands Library48(1965– 1966),pp.308–340;reprintedinJ.K.Hyde,Literacy and its Uses: Studies on Late Medieval Italy, ed. DanielWaley(Manchester andNewYork:ManchesterUniversityPress, 1993),pp. 1–32; CarlJoachimClassen,Die Stadt im Spiegel der Descriptiones und Laudes urbium in der antiken und mittelalterlichen Literatur bis zum Ende des zwölften Jahrhunderts(HildesheimandNew York:Olms,1980);andHartmutKugler,Die Vorstellung der Stadt in der Literatur des deutschen Mittelalters(Munich:Artemis,1986).
18 Chapter2 chronicarumof1493,5andJohannesSchönerin1515describesthecityasnego- ciatoro locus celeberrimus,“aplaceverywellknowntothebusinessman.”6 ItisinterestingthattheauthorofHM83wouldwriteabouttheApocalypse in a city that at the time was a “second paradise.” While plagues and other eventssuchasthefallofConstantinopletotheTurkscouldinclineauthorsto thoughtsoftheendoftime,7authorsarenotmerelytheproductsoftheirsur- roundings:forexample,althoughhelivedinatimeof“plague,famine,extreme weather,earthquakes,aviolentcivilwar,andbarbarianinvasions,”Andrewof Caesarea(563–637)inhisCommentary on the Apocalypse concludedthat the end of the world was not approaching.8 It is also worth keeping in mind BernardMcGinn’s observation that “Apocalypticismhas alwaysbeen charac- 5 HartmannSchedel,Liber chronicarum(Nuremberg:Anton Koberger, 1493),ff. 270v–271r(in theGermaneditionthepassageisonff. 265v–266r);HartmannSchedel,Sarmatia, the Early Polish Kingdom: From the Original Nuremberg Chronicle, Printed by Anton Koberger in 1493, trans.BogdanDeresiewicz(LosAngeles:PlantinPress,1976),pp.37–40.Onthedescriptions and im ages of cities in the Liber chroni carum see Albrecht Classen, “Hans Sachs and his Encomia Songs on German Cities: Zoom ing Into and Out of  Urban Space from  a Poetic Perspective. With a Consideration of Hartm ann Schedel’s Liber Chroni carum (1493),” in AlbrechtClassen,ed.,Urban Space in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age(BerlinandNew York:WalterdeGruyter,2009),pp.567–594.ForHansSachs’sencomiumofLübeck,whichwas writteninthesecondhalfofthesixteenthcentury,seeHansSachs,Hans Sachs,ed.Adelbert vonKellerandEdmundGoetze(Hildesheim:G.Olms,1964),vol.23,pp.450–452.Volume23 inthis reprintingis vol. 207 of the Bibliothekdes LiterarischenVereins in Stuttgart in the earlieredition(Tübingen:Literar.Verein,1870–1908). 6 SeeSchöner’sLuculentissima quaedam terrae totius descriptio(Nuremberg:IoannisStuchssen, 1515),f.31v.Thereisamid-sixteenth-centuryaccountofthecityinMünster’sCosmographia: see Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae unive rsalis Lib. 6 (Basel: Petri, 1552), Book 3, pp. 733–737. 7 SeeforexampleLauraAckermanSmoller,“OfEarthquakes,Hail,Frogs,andGeography:Plague andtheInvestigationoftheApocalypseintheLaterMiddleAges,”inCarolineWalkerBynum and Paul Freedman, eds.,  Last Things: Eschatology and Apocalypse in the Middle Ages (Philadelphia: UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress, 200 0), pp. 156–187and316–337; Robert E. Lerner, “The Black Death and Western Europ ean Eschatological Mentalities,” American Historical Review 86.3(1981),pp.533–552;Wolfram Brandes, “DerFall Konstantinop els als ap okalyptischesEreignis,” in SebastianKolditz and Ralf C. Müller, eds., Geschehene s und Geschriebenes: Studien zu Ehren von Günther S. Henrich und Klaus-Peter Matschke(Leipzig: Eudora-Verlag, 2005),pp.453–470;andKayaŞahin, “ConstantinopleandtheEndTime:The OttomanConquestasaPortentoftheLastHour,”Journal of Early Modern History14.4(2010), pp.317–354. 8 AndrewofCaesarea,Commentary on the Apocalypse,trans.EugeniaScarvelisConstantinou (Washington,DC :CatholicUniversityofAmericaPress,2011),esp.pp.12–15.
19 TheHistoricalContext:LübeckintheFifteenthCentury terized by an intricate mixture of optimism and pessimism.”9The choice of subjectbytheauthorofHM83mayreflectapiousthinkeruninfluencedbyhis prosperoussurroundings;itmayalsoindicateamanwithadifferentlifeexpe- rience than most other citizens ofLübeck, apossibilitythat willbeexplored below. LübeckdidnothaveauniversityintheMiddleAges,butprintingwasestab- lishedreasonablyearlyinthecity,in1474,fouryearsafterthetechnologyhad reachedNuremberg,andtwoyearsbeforeitreachedRostockandLondon,for example. One of the first books published in the city was the anonymous Rudimentum novitiorum,printedbyLucasBrandis,whichcontainsmaps,and whichwewilldiscussinmoredetailbelow.10Theencomium ofLübeckcited abovementionsthe“richlibraries”ofthecity’smonasteries,andwedoknow thattherewereatleasttwoextensiveprivatelibrariesinthecity.Onebelonged to Simon Batz, the councilman and humanist who preserved the letter con- tainingtheencomium;11andtheotherbelongedtothevicarConradStenhop: intheUniversitätsbibliothekRostocktherearetwenty-ninefolioincunabula, all of them on juridical subjects, which Stenhop illuminated himself. Given that his library must have included theological works as well, Stenhop had an unusually large collection for the time.12 Additional information about 9 Bernard McGinn, “The Apocalyptic Imagination in the Middle Ages,” in Jan A. Aertsen andMartinPickavé,eds.,Ende und Vollendung: Eschatologische Perspektiven im Mittelalter (Berlin:W.deGruyter,2002)(=MiscellaneaMediaevalia29),pp.79–94,at84. 10 On early printing in Lübeck see IsaakCollijn, “Lübecker Frühdrucke in der Stadtbiblio- thekzuLübeck,”Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde 9 (1908), pp. 285–333; and Dieter Lohmeier, “Die Frühzeit des Buchdrucks in Lübeck,” in AlkenBrunsandDieterLohmeier, eds.,Die Lübecker Buchdrucker im 15. und 16. Jahrhun- dert. Buchdruck für den Ostseeraum(Heide inHolstein:Boyens, 1994),pp. 11–53 .Fordis- cussionoftheadventoftheRenaissanceinLübeckseeTheodoreHach,Die Anfänge der Renaissance in Lübeck(Lübeck:H.G.Rahtgens,1889). 11 SeeRobert Schweitzer andUlrichSimon, “‘Boeke, gude undeböse...’:DieBibliothekdes Lübecker Syndikus Simon Batz von Homburg; Rekonstruktionsversuch anhand seines Testaments und der Nachweis aus dem Bestand der ehemaligen Ratsbibliothek in der StadtbibliothekLübeck,”inRolfHammel-KiesowandMichaelHundt,eds.,Das Gedächt- nis der Hansestadt Lübeck: Festschrift für Antjekathrin Grassmann zum 65. Geburtstag (Lübeck:Schmidt-Römhild2005),pp.127–158;fordetailsonBatzseeGerhardNeumann, “ Simon Batz, Lübecker Syndikus und Humanist,” Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde58(1978),pp.49–73. 12 G. Kohfeldt, “Der LübeckerVikar Conrad Stenhop, ein mittelalterlicherIlluminator und Büchersammler,” Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 20 (1903), pp. 281–285; English sum- maryinThe Literary Collector: A Monthly Magazine of Booklore and Bibliography6(1903),
20 Chapter2 librariesinLübeckinthefifteenthcenturywouldcertainlybewelcome,butit does seem that the author of HM83wouldhavehadaccess to amplebiblio- graphicresourcesforresearchingandcomposinghisbook. p.97.AlsoseeNilüferKrüger,Conradus Stenhop: Geistlicher – Gelehrter – Sammler; Inku- nabeln der Universitätsbibliothek Rostock(Rostock:Universität,1998).
21 TheAuthor Chapter3 The Author TheauthoroftheworksinHM83doesnotindicatehisname,buthedoesgive somecluesabouthisidentity.Asindicatedabove,theworksinthemanuscript seem to have been composed in Lübeck, so we can confine our attention to candidatesfromthatcity.1OfcoursethefactthatHM83includesasubstantial and apparently original section on the Apocalypse suggests that the author wasamanofthecloth,andthislikelihoodseemsconfirmedbyhisindication of his purposein writing his book(on f. 12v): Arbitror ergo quod harum figu- rarum firma fides et frequens consideratio efficacius hominem retraherent a peccatis quam multa bona verba, “I believe therefore that a firm faith in and frequentcontemplationofthesediagramswillmoreeffectivelyrestrainaman fromsinsthanwouldmanygoodwords.”Thatis,thestatedaimoftheworkis religious edification, while its implicit purpose is preparation for the Last Judgment. Onthe samefolio(f.12v),whichcontainsadiagramoftherelativediame- tersofearthandofHell,theauthorwrites,Hanc figuram calculavi secundum regulas geometrie ex supposita quantitate ambitus terre 8000 miliarium teutoni- corum...,“Icalculatedthisdiagramaccordingtotherulesofgeometryfromthe supposed circumference of the earth, 8000 German miles...,” and this state- mentimpliesthathehadatleastsometraininginmathematics. The author’s most interestingand revealing statements about himself are onf.8v,inhisdiscussion ofthedifferentpurposes ofmappaemundi.Thefol- lowingpassagerevealsthattheauthorhadexperiencemakingmapsandhad thoughtabout theproblemsinvolved,particularlythelackofspacefor allof the place names; had traveledto the Holy Land; had read at least one travel book; and had studied other mappaemundi, including their sources. As the Latinissuppliedbelow,wequoteonlyourEnglishtranslationhere: 1 InoursearchfortheauthoroftheworksinHM83weconsultedRhimanA.Rotz,“Profilesof SelectedLubeckCitizens,1360–1450,forInvestigationsintoPoliticalandSocialHistory,”type- written m anuscript, on dep osit in the Archiv der Hansestadt Lübeck, 1975, Bestand 9.1, SignaturLXIII12_1 .Rotz’sworkwouldofferagreaterchanceofincludingtheauthorofthe worksinHM83ifitextendedlaterintothefifteenthcentury,butitdoesincludeinformation abou t the travels of the people listed.Wedidnotfind anygoodcandidates am ongthese profiles. © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_005
22 Chapter3 Andevenifthefirstpainterofamapputthetruedistanceofplaces,yet <his> successors, one after another, significantly transposed the places anddistances,forcedbythenarrownessofspaceintheillustratedmap, where even one place name written in full would force another to an incorrectlocation.BecauseofthisIdecidedtowritethewholenamesof places eachopposite to thepreceding <one?>, andin the mapto write justthebeginningsofthenames,sothatthenarrownessinthemapwill not restrict the names and places because of their position, as may be seeninthemap....Ihavebeeninthelandofpilgrimageinwhichthere arenosuchgatheringsofmonstrousmenasaredepictedthereinmaps. Because ofthis,Iargue that suchmen are onlyinallotherparts ofthe world,andthat consequently,thecommon mappamundiisinthatpart once again mistaken. However, in certain islands there are monstrous men whom I read in a travel book are born as follows. A woman gave birthtoa monstrousfemalechildwhom she wasashamedto raise, and shewishedtokillher,soshecastherawayonacertaindesertedisland.In another place, another womangavebirthto a male monster, whomfor the same reason, by an accident offortune, she cast awayon the same island.ThroughGod’swillandcare,theywerebroughtup,andwhenthey were adults, they came together and thereupon they generated mon- strousmeninthatisland.Andthepainterofthefirstillustratedmapthus paintedmonstrousmeninthatoneisland,orratherinmanyislands.To latermappainters,suchmonstrousmenandotherthingsstillmoremar- velouspaintedeverywhereinalloftheislandsintheocean<and>inthe edge of the mainland appeared to be a <mere> decoration of maps. Thinkingnothingofthefalsehood,theypaintedthemincommonmaps in the circuit of islands in the ocean.... From the beginning, mappae- mundiwerediverselypaintedfromHolyScripture,chronicles,andpagan cosmography. Thisfascinatingpassageraisesmanyinterestingquestions,forexample:What werethemappaemundithatshowedmonstrousracesintheHolyLand?And whatisthetravelbookthatgivesthisaccountofthegenerationofmonsterson islands? These and other questions that the passage raises will be discussed below,butsufficeittosayherethatthepassageestablishestheauthorasaman with abundant experience studying mappaemundi. It is worth pointing out thattheauthorsaysthathe“wasinthelandofpilgrimage”(eram in terra per- egrinationis),butnotthathewasapilgrim—thoughhedoesnotexplicitlysay thathewasnotapilgrim,either.
23 TheAuthor Withregardtotheauthor’sjourneytotheHolyLand,Lübeckwasacommon stoppingpointofnorthernEuropeanpilgrimsgoingtoSantiagodeCompostela inSpain,andinfact ahostelforpilgrims,namedforSt.GertrudeofNivelles, patron saint of travelers, was built in the city in 1360.2There was no similar buildinginLübeckforpilgrimstotheHolyLand,andtheexpenseanddifficul- ties ofthat voyage to the east entailedthat the number ofpilgrims traveling therefromGermanywasnothigh.3Butwedohaverecordsofseveralresidents ofLübeckwhomadethejourneyatsuchadatethatitisatleastpossiblethat HM83wascomposedbyoneofthem(orbyamanthatoneofthemhadsent to the Holy Land in his place).4 The standard route to the Holy Land from Germany was overland to Venice, and then by ship from Venice to Acre.5 2 See Herta Borgs, “Abenteurer, Söldner und Pilger fanden Unterkunft im Gasthaus zu Lübeck,”Lübeckische Blätter141(1981),pp.363–364and366–367;WolfgangErdmann,“Zur geplanten ‘Sanierung’desLübeckerGertrudenspitals(GasthausdesHeiligen-Geist-Hos- pitals),GroßeGröpelgrube8,”Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Alter- tumskunde 70(1990), pp. 61–69; and Manfred Eickhölter, “Das St. Gertrud-Gasthaus des Heiligen- Geist-Hospitals: Eine mittelalterliche Pilgerherberge in der Großen Gröpel- grube,”Lübeckische Blätter172.13(2007),pp.222–224. 3 On thehighcost of thejourneysee NorbertOhler, “ZurSeligkeitundzumTrostmeiner Seele.Lübecker unterwegs zu mittelalterlichenWallfahrtsstätten,” Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde63(1983),pp.83–103,at89–90;andMarie- Luise Favreau-Lilie, “The German Empire and Palestine: German Pilgrimages toJerusa- lembetweenthe12thand16thCentury,”Journal of Medieval History21(1995),pp.321–341. 4 OnearlymodernpilgrimagefromLübecktotheHolyLand,inadditiontotheworkscited inthefollowingnotes,seeOhler,“ZurSeligkeitundzumTrostmeinerSeele”(seeCh.3,n. 3); Otto F. A. Meinardus, “Mittelalterliche Heilig-Land-Pilger aus dem norddeutschen Raum,”Familienkundliches Jahrbuch Schleswig-Holstein30(1991),pp.15–23;andOttoF.A. Meinardus,“DiemittelalterlicheUmweltdesLübeckerSchmerzensweges,”Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde72(1992), pp. 265–276, esp. 268– 270. 5 OnpilgrimroutesfromGermanytotheHolyLandseeH.F.M.Prescott,Jerusalem Journey: Pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the Fifteenth Century(London:Eyre&Spottiswoode,1954), pp. 69–114;John Kenneth Hyde, “Navigation of the Eastern Mediterranean in the Four- teenthandFifteenthCenturiesAccordingtoPilgrims’Books,”inH.McK.Blake,T.W.Pot- ter, and D. B. Whitehouse, eds., Papers in Italian Archaeology, 1: The Lancaster Seminar: Recent Research in Prehistoric, Classical, and Medieval Archaeology=British Archeological Reports, Supplementary Series, 41 (1978), pp. 521–537; reprinted in the author’s Literacy and its Uses: Studies on Late Medieval Italy,ed.DanielWaley(ManchesterandNewYork: ManchesterUniversityPress,1993),pp.87–111;LiaScheffer,“APilgrimagetotheHolyLand and Mount Sinai in the 15th Century,” Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 102 (1986),pp.144–151;AndreaDenke,Venedig als Station und Erlebnis auf den Reisen der Jeru- salempilger im späten Mittelalter (Remshalden: Hennecke, 2001), esp. pp. 29–47 and
24 Chapter3 ResidentsofLübeckwhoundertookthejourneytotheHolyLandaroundthe middleofthefifteenthcenturyinclude: • 1431HenrichVicke,alsocalledGrambeke;6 • 1432HenrichZeleghe;7 • 1434HenrichTorssentamantotheHolyLandinhisplace;8 • 1436GerhardvonBergenwrotehiswillbeforegoingonpilgrimage(noaddi- tionalrecords);9 • 1440HenrichGherekenbeganhisjourneytoJerusalem;10 • 1457JohannesBoysenborchsentamantotheHolyLandinhisplace;11 • 1468 Hinrich Constin (or Heinrich Constantin), a rich citizen of Lübeck, returnedfromapilgrimagetotheHolyLandin1468andbuiltasmallmonu- ment to give thanks for his safe return onJerusalemberg,just outside the city.12 97–107; and Renard Gluzman, “Between Venice and the Levant: Reevaluating Maritime Routes from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century,” The Mariner’s Mirror 96.3(2010), pp. 262–292. For an analysis showing that the average speed of travel of ships carrying pilgrimsfromVenicetoJaffainthefifteenthcenturywas2.8knotsseeSergioBellabarba, “ The Sailing Qualities of Venetian Great Galleys in the 15th Century: Evidence of their InfluenceontheDevelopmentofSailingShipsintheAtlanticAreaDuringtheFollowing Century,” in Carlo Beltrame, ed., Boats, Ships, and Shipyards: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Venice 2000 (Oxford: Oxbow Books,2003),pp.201–211 . 6 OnVicke seeJacobus aMelle,De itineribus Lubecensium sacris, seu de religiosis et votivis eorum peregrinationibus, vulgo Wallfarthen, quas olim devotionis ergo ad loca sacra suscep - erunt, commentatio (Lübeck: Böckmann, 1711), pp. 21 and 79; and Reinhold Röhricht, Deutsche Pilgerreisen nach dem heiligen Lande(Gotha:F.A.Perthes,1889),p.122. 7 OnZelegheseeMelle,De itineribus Libecensium sacris(seeCh.3,n.6),p.79;andRöhricht, Deutsche Pilgerreisen(seeCh.3,n.6),p.122. 8 On Tors see Melle, De itineribus Libecensium sacris (see Ch. 3, n. 6), pp. 46 and 73; and Röhricht,Deutsche Pilgerreisen (seeCh.3,n.6),p.123. 9 On von Bergen see Melle, De itineribus Libecensium sacris (see Ch. 3, n. 6), p. 15; and Röhricht,Deutsche Pilgerreisen(seeCh.3,n.6),p.127. 10 On Ghereken see Melle, De itineribus Libecensium sacris (see Ch. 3, n. 6), p. 15; and Röhricht,Deutsche Pilgerreisen (seeCh.3,n.6),pp.131–132. 11 On Boysenborch see Melle, De itineribus Libecensium sacris (see Ch. 3, n. 6), p. 79; and Röhricht,Deutsche Pilgerreisen(seeCh.3,n.6),p.142. 12 On Constin see Melle, De itineribus Libecensium sacris (see Ch. 3, n. 6), p. 14; Röhricht, Deutsche Pilgerreisen (seeCh.3,n.6),p.153;JacobvonMelle,Gründliche Nachricht von der kaiserl. freyen und des H.R. Reichs Stadt Lübeck(Lübeck:G.C. Green, 1787), pp. 533–540; HeinrichAsmus,Leitfaden zur Lübeckischen Geschichte: Nebst einer Sammlung Legenden, Volkssagen, Mährchen und kurzer Beschreibungen einiger Merkwürdigkeiten der freien
25 TheAuthor Wehave noadditionalevidence that wouldsingleoutanyofthe menin the precedinglistasacandidateforauthorofHM83.Moreover,itispossiblethat the author ofHM83movedtoLübeckafter visitingtheHolyLand,in which case he would not appear on this list—and there also might simply be no recordofhisvoyage. However,therewasanothermanfromLübeckwhospenttimeintheHoly Landandwhodoesseemlikeagoodcandidate.Inthesecondhalfofthefif- teenthcentury,amanfromLübecknamedBaptista,adoctor,wasinchargeof caringforpilgrimsattheFranciscanmonasteryonMountZion;hehadbeen appointedtothisdutybyPopePiusII.13Baptistawasevidentlyaverycapable man,forinadditiontohisjobcaringforpilgrims,hesupervisedrepairstothe roof of the Church of Bethlehem.14 Pius II was Pope from 1458 to 1464, so Baptista was appointedduringthatinterval;he treatedFelixFabrionMount Hansestadt Lübeck (Lübeck, 1834), pp. 115–116; Theodore Hach, Die Anfänge der Renais- sance in Lübeck(Lübeck:H.G.Rahtgens,1889),pp.4–5;EmilF.Fehling,Lübeckische Rats- linie von den Anfängen der Stadt bis auf die Gegenwart(Lübeck: Max Schmidt-Römhild, 1925),p.79,no.551;andJohannesBaltzer,FriedrichBruns,andHuigoRathgens,eds.,Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler der Freien und Hansestadt Lübeck, vol. 4, Die Klöster: die klei- neren Gotteshäuser der Stadt; die Kirchen und Kapellen in den Außengebieten; Denk- und Wegekreuze und der Leidensweg Christi(Lübeck:Nöhring,1928),pp.623–627. 13 Meinardus, “Mittelalterliche Heilig-Land-Pilger” (see Ch. 3, n. 4), pp. 17–18, relying on LukeWadding,ed.,Annales Minorum seu trium ordinum a S. Francisco institutorum(Flor- ence:Quaracchi,1931-),vol.14(coveringtheyears1472–1491),thesectionfortheyear1478, p. 194, no.8;andGuidoFarrisandAlbertStorme,Ceramica e farmacia di San Salvatore a Gerusalemme(Genoa: Sagep, 1982), p. 22, who write: “Como infermiere del convento, il papaPioI IinviòilfrateBattistadaLübeck,cheavevailgradodidottore,echelacronaca qualifica molto esperto in medicina.” Farris and Storme cite as sources Felix Fabri and Paul Walther (see just below) and a note in Le Voyage de la saincte cyté de Hierusalem, whichcitesCalahorra—seethenextnote.OnBaptistaalsoseeOttoF.A.Meinardus,“Die Franziskaner in Bethlehem: Bruder Battista aus Lübeck,” Zeitschrift des Vereins für Lübeckische Geschichte und Altertumskunde71(1991),pp.349–351;andPrescott,Jerusalem Journey(seeCh.3,n.5),pp.121–122,144–145,and202. 14 JuandeCalahorra,Chronica de la provincia de Syria, y Tierra Santa de Gerusalen: contiene los progressos, que en ella ha hecho la religion serafica, desde el año 1219 hasta el de 1632 (Madrid: Por Iuan Garcia Infançon, 1684), pp. 297–298: “No obstante esto era el Soldan muy afecto à losReligiosos; y assi le permitiò,que reparasse muy à su satisfacion aquel SantissimoTemplo,elcualbolviòàcubrir,comoantesestaua,deplanchasdeplomo,sir- viendose de las antiguas, y añadiendo aquellas que fueron necessarias de nuevo. Para todo estolefuedegrande alivio un ReligiosoAleman,llamadoFrayBaptista deLubige, Varónmuyingenioso,yenlamedicinaperitissimo,aqualaviagraduadodeDoctor,enla dichafacultad,elPontificePioSegundo,ylaaviaembiadoàTierraSantaparaquecurasse àlosReligiosos.”
26 Chapter3 Zionin1482,15andalsoPaulWaltheraroundthesametime,16soBaptistaheld hispostonMountZionforapproximatelytwentyyears.GiventhatHM83has a substantialsection on medicine, andthat the authorhadbeen to theHoly Land, Baptista must be considered a strong candidate for the author of the works in the manuscript. Further, it is worth mentioning that Enea Silvio Piccolomini (later Pope Pius II, who appointed Baptista to his post) had a stronginterestingeography, andwrotegeographicaltreatisesonEuropeand Asia.17OfcoursenoteveryonewhoknewPopePiusIIwroteaboutgeography, butitisinterestingthatoneoftheveryfewpeoplewhowedoknowwascon- nectedwithBaptistawasageographer.IfBaptistadidreturnhometoLübeck afterhisyearsintheHolyLand(whichwedonotknow),andifitwashewho composedtheworksinHM83,thiswasaprojectofhisolderyears. TwootherstatementsbytheauthorthatrelatetotheHolyLandareparticu- larlyilluminating.Onf.2rofthemanuscript,weread: 15 SeeFelixFabri,The Wanderings of Felix Fabri,inThe Library of the Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society (London: Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, 1887; New York: AMS Press, 1971), vols. 7–10,invol.9,p.113. 16 SeePaulusWalther,Fratris Pauli Waltheri Guglingensis Itinerarium in Terram Sanctam et ad Sanctam Catharinamm, ed.M.Sollweck(Tübingen:LitterarischerVereininStuttgart, 1892), pp. 136–137: Post hoc in festo sancti Petri cathedra [22 Febr.], quod erat in sabato sequenti scl. ante Reminiscere, visitavit me dominus misericorditer ex alto cum colica pas- sione, que me tantum torquebat per tres dies et noctes, quod suspicabar me exalare spiritum. Tandem per devotas preces effusas specialiter pro me ab omnibus fratribus recordatus est dominus clementie sue et per suam misericordiam mediante medicina, quam studiose devo- tus frater Baptista adhibuit, tranatulit a me dominus talem vehementem et horribilem dolorem adiciens vite mee adhuc aliquos dies, ut me emendarem. On Paul see Kristian Bosselmann- Cyran, “Walther, Paul (von Guglingen),” in Wolfgang Stammler and Karl Langosch, eds., Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon (Berlin and New York:deGruyter,1978-),vol.10,cols.655–657. 17 OnPius I I ’sinterestingeographyseeAlfredWilliBerg,Enea Silvio de’ Piccolomini (Papst Pius II ) in seiner Bedeutung als Geograph: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Erdkunde im Quat- trocento(Hallea.S.:BuchdruckereidesWaisenhauses,1901);NicolaCasella,“PioI Itrageo- grafia e storia:La ‘Cosmografia’,”Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria95(1972), pp.35–112;andLuigiGuerrini, “Un ordine ancoraimperfetto.Ricerche sullagenesidegli interessigeograficie storicidiEneaSilvioPiccolomini(1430–1445),”inUn pellegrinaggio secolare: due studi su Enea Silvio Piccolomini(Rome:Edizionidistoriaeletteratura,2007), pp.1–109.Piccolomini’sgeographicalworkswerefirstpublishedafterhisdeathasHistoria rerum ubique gestarum(Venice:JohannvonKölnandJohannesManthen,1477);histrea- tise onAsiahasbeen editedandtranslatedintoSpanishbyDomingoF.SanzasDescrip- ción de Asia, Eneas Silvio Piccolomini (Papa Pío II) (Madrid: Consejo Superior de InvestigacionesCientíficas,2010).
27 TheAuthor ArbitrorprincipiumIndiedeterrasanctadistarevix600miliaribusteuto- nicis.Et200miliariaperindiamadInsulasocceanimarisqueetiamper 200miliariaprotrahanturinlatumusqueadparadisum. I judge that the beginning of India is barely 600 German miles <east> fromtheHolyLand,and<itis>200milesacrossIndiatotheislandsofthe <Indian>Ocean,whicharespreadwidelyforadistance of200milesall thewaytoParadise. TheauthorcalculatesthatthedistancefromtheHolyLandto theTerrestrial Paradisewasnotinsurmountable,anditcertainlyseemsthathehadcontem- platedthepossibilityofavoyagethere.Itiseasytoimaginehimonahillinthe HolyLandlookingtotheeastandthinkingaboutmeansoftransportandcosts, orelsemakingthecalculationafterhereturnedtoLübeckandponderingwhat mighthavebeen.Thereisasimilarpassageonf.6rofthemanuscript,though heretheauthormentionstheeasternedgeoftheworld,ratherthanParadise: NotaJerusalem distat secundum taxationem viatorum et nautarum de lubeck,queest<secunde?>aquilonaris,circa777miliariateutonica,etde lubecksuntquasi223miliariaadIslandiam,etiamdeJerusalemcircuiter mille miliaria ad finem terre. Sed astronomorum minor est computus; potest tamen utrorumque esse verus, quod viatores et naute oblique vadunt, Astronomi vero in aere recte computant vero obstaculum non habent. Notethataccordingtotheestimateoftravelersandsailors,Jerusalemis about777German miles fromLübeck, whichwell <to?> the north, and fromLübeckitisabout 223miles toIceland, andfromJerusalem about 1000milestothe<eastern>endoftheearth.Thefiguresoftheastrono- mersaresmaller,butitispossiblethatbotharecorrect,fortravelersand sailorstravelwithturns,whiletheastronomerscalculatestraightlinesin theair,andhavenoobstacle. Thatis,theauthorthoughtthatwhenhewasintheHolyLand,hewasnotfar frombeinghalfwaytotheeasternedgeoftheworldfromhisstartingplacein Lübeck. Given that he had read some travel literature, he must have known that reachingParadise or the eastern edge of the world would haveputhim
28 Chapter3 among the boldest travelers of all time, such as Alexander the Great, John Mandeville,Giovannide’Marignolli,andJohannesWittedeHese.18 TheauthorofHM83,then,wasaman ofreligion,experiencedwithmaps, wellread,welltraveled,andaboldthinker. 18 OnAlexandertheGreat’sinterestinreachingtheTerrestrialParadiseseeM.Esposito,“A Mediaeval Legend of the Terrestrial Paradise,” Folklore 29.3 (1918), pp. 193–205, Mary Lascelles, “Alexander and the Earthly Paradise in Mediaeval English Writings,” Medium Aevum 5(1936),pp.31–47,79–104,and173–188;andRichardStoneman,Legends of Alexan- der the Great(LondonandRutland,VT :J.M.DentandCharlesE.Tuttle,1994),pp.67–75. OnMandevilleseeIainMacleodHiggins,Writing East: The ‘Travels’ of Sir John Mandeville (Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,1997),pp.203–204;onGiovannide’Mari- gnolliseeAnandaAbeydeera,“InSearchoftheGardenofEden:FlorentineFriarGiovanni deMarignolli’sTravelsinCeylon,”Terrae Incognitae 25(1993),pp. 1–23;andonJohannes WittedeHeseseeScottD.Westrem,Broader Horizons: A Study of Johannes Witte de Hese’s ‘ Itinerarius’ and Medieval Travel Narratives(Cambridge,M A:MedievalAcademyofAmer- ica,2001),pp.10,223,and272.
29 TheGeographicalSections Chapter4 The Geographical Sections Thecontentsofthegeographicalsection(ff.1r–8v)andthesectiononastron- omyandgeography(ff.13r–18r)inHM83havebeendetailedabove.Inthefirst section,afterintroductorytextsonthethreeBabyloniasandthedivisionofthe worldamongthesonsofNoah,thereisalistoftheprovincesofAsia,andthe islands that pertain to it; then a list of the islands and provinces of Europe; thenalistoftheprovincesofAfrica.Nextthereisalistofthemountainsofthe HolyLand,andofthemountainsbeyondtheHolyLand;thenofthelandsof theFourKingdomsoftheBookofDanielandofafewothers,andofthelands in whichthetwelveApostlespreached.The section ends withan accountof thefourdifferentfunctionsor themesthata mappamundicanhave.In allof thelistsofprovincesandislands,briefdescriptivedetailsabouteachentryare supplied,andthissectionisillustratedwithsevenmapsandonegenericbird’s- eyeviewofmountains. Inthesecondsection(ff.13r–18r)therearediagramsofthespheresandof thecourseofthesunaroundtheearth,followedbythreeclimaticmapsofthe earth,thefirstoverlainonamapoftheearth’swaters,thesecondonasimple T-Omap,andthethirdonamapshowingwheretheApostlespreached.There followasummaryofworldhistory,tablesofBiblicalgenealogy,anddiscussion oftheFourKingdomsoftheworld. Asindicatedabove, the mapsin these sections are ofgreatimportancein thehistoryofcartographyforbeingtheearliestknownsequenceofthematic mapsclearlyconceivedassuch.Themapswillbediscussedbelow,butherewe wouldliketomentionthatatfirstblushtherewouldseemtobeaconnection betweenthewaythetextofthefirstsection(ff.1r–8v)isdividedintosections (mainlandprovinces,islands,mountains)andthethematicmaps.Theauthor mighthavedrawninspirationforhis‘thematic’divisionsofthetextfromany ofa number ofdifferent sources. For example,Book 14 ofIsidore ofSeville’s Etymologiae,1 the first great medieval encyclopedia, has chapters about Asia (14.3),Europe(14.4),andAfrica(14.5)(HM83followsthissameorder),andthen aboutislands(14.6),promontories(14.7),mountains(14.8),andcavesandthe underworld (14.9). Lambert of Saint-Omer in his Liber Floridus, composed 1 ForanEnglishtranslationoftheEtymologiaeseeIsidoreofSeville,The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville,trans.StephenA.Barney,W.J.Lewis,J.A.Beach, andOliverBerghof(Cambridge, UK,andNewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,2006). © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_006
30 Chapter4 between 1090 and 1120, has chapters on islands (34) and rivers, springs and lakes (34 and 35).2 Bartholomaeus Anglicus in his De proprietatibus rerum,3 writtenc.1240,similarlydiscussesthephysicalworldbydividingitintocatego- ries,andthushaschaptersthatlisttheriversoftheworld(13.5 –13.13)andthe mountainsoftheworld(14.3 –14.44),aswellaschaptersonsuchspecificsub- jectsasfishponds(13.14),whirlpools(13.17),valleys(14.46),deserts(14.51),and caves (14.52). Examples from other medieval encyclopedias might easily be adduced.Thepointwewishtomakeisthatwhiletheauthorsofothertreatises employedthesame‘thematic’divisionofgeographicalmaterial,noneofthem usedmapstoindicatethelocationsofthoseelements—noneofthemchoseto interpretthosedivisionscartographically.Thatispreciselytheoriginalstroke oftheauthorofHM83. Inthepresentworkwehavechosentofocusontheapocalypticsectionof HM 83, as it seems more distinctive and original (to our way of thinking at least)thantheotherpartsofthemanuscript.Therefore,wewillnotprovidea full transcription and translation of the geographical sections. However, we nowsupplytranscriptions,translations,andcommentaryonseveralexcerpts fromthegeographicalsectionsthatwillgivethereaderafullerunderstanding oftheworkthanthesummaryabovecoulddo,andwillalsoshedlightonthe author’soutlookandsources. IntranscribingthetextofHM83wehavealtereditaslittleaspossible,but haveexpandedabbreviations,changed‘u’ to ‘v ’ and‘i’ to ‘j’ where this would helpmakethewordunderstandable,andaddedpunctuationwherenecessary forthesense.Triangularbrackets<>areusedtoindicatewordsthat wesup- pliedthatwerenecessaryforthesense;tomarkwordofwhosereadingsweare notentirelysure,thus:<habet?>;andtoindicatelacunae,thusforonemissing word: <...>, and thus for two missing words: <... .> . Parentheses are used to markouroccasionalexplanatoryremarks. 2 SeeLambertofSaint-Omer,Lamberti S. Audomari Canonici Liber Floridus: Codex authogra- phus bibliothecae universitatis Gandavensis, ed.Albertus Derolez(Ghent:In aedibusStory- Scientia, 1968),p. 104,transcribingf.51v,chapter33;pp. 104and106,transcribingff.51v and 52v,chapter34;andp.107,transcribingf.53r,chapter35. 3 For discussion of Bartholomaeus Anglicus’sDe proprietatibus rerum seefor exampleLynn Thorndike, A History of Magic and Expe rimental Sci ence(NewYork:Macmillan, 1923–58), vol. 2,pp.401 –435;and Heinz Meyer, Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus: Unter- suchungen zur Überlieferungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichte von ‘De proprietatibus rerum’ (Munich: Fink,2000).
31 TheGeographicalSections Excerpts from the Geographical Section We translate and transcribe all of the text on f. 1r, piece by piece, beginning fromthetop: Nota tres fuerunt babilonie. Una super flumen chobar ubi regnabat Nabuchodonosorinquafuitturrisbabelethicdiciturdesertaetdistata novababilonia30dierum.Aliainegiptosupernilumsitainquaregnabat pharaodistansanovaquinquedierum.Esttertiascilicetnovababilonia quediciturgairvelkairvelcarraquedistatabalexandriatribusdierum perterramsedsexperaquas. Note that there were three Babylonias, one on theRiverKhabur where Nebuchadnezzar reigned, in which <city> was theTower of Babel, and thisregioniscalledadesertanditisathirty-dayjourneyfrom theNew Babylonia. The second was in Egypt, located on the Nile, in which the Pharaohruledanditisafive-dayjourneyfromtheNewBabylonia.The third,thatis,thenewBabylonia,iscalledGairorCairoorCarra,andisa three-dayjourneyfromAlexandriabyland,butsixbywater.4 The abrupt opening of the treatise gives it the flavor of being the author’s notes,orelseanabbreviatedversion ofalongerwork, ratherthanapolished discourse; andthe remarkable emphasis on Babylon suggests that thisques- tionwasoneofparticularinteresttotheauthor,notleastbecausehediscusses Babylonagainlaterinthetreatise.Hemayhavebeeninspiredtoassignsuch importancetothecitybythepropheciesagainstBabyloninIsaiah13and14.5 Withregard to the source of this passage, several earlier authors discuss the threeBabylonias,6buttheclosesttowhatwehaveinHM83istheaccountin 4 The new Babylonia by Cairo is depicted on the map of the Holy Land in Bernhard von Breydenbach’sPeregrinatio in terram sanctam(Mainz:ErhardReuwich,1486)—aworkalmost exactlycontemporarywithHM83. 5 FordiscussionofthepropheciesagainstBabyloniaseeSethErlandsson,The Burden of Babylon: A Study of Isaiah 13:2–14:23,trans.GeorgeJ.Houser(Lund:Gleerup,1970). 6 The three Babylonias arediscu ssed in the Narratio de Statu Terrae Sanctae , published in SabinodeSandoli,ed.,Itinera Hierosolymitana crucesignatorum: saec. XI I -X I II ,vol.3:Tempore recuperationis Terrae Sanctae (1187–1244)(Jerusalem:FranciscanPrint.Pr.,1983),pp.374–391, towardstheendofchapter2,atp.380;GerardofStrasbourg,inArnoldofLübeck,Chronicon Slavorum,inMonumenta Germaniae Historica,Scriptores 21, ed. G.H. Pertz(Hannover:im- pensisbibliopoliiHahniani, 1869),pp. 100–250,at235–241, esp. 237;andbyJohnPoloner,in TitusTobler,ed.,Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae, ex saeculo VIII. IX . XII . et XV.(Leipzig:J.C.
32 Chapter4 theso-calledRothelinContinuation,writteninthemidthirteenthcentury,of theHistoriaofWilliamofTyre(c.1130–1186):7 But you must know that there are three Babylons. The first is in Mesopotamia; there lay the field of Shinar on which the giants built a towertoreachuptoHeaven.Thatiswherelanguageswerecreated.This Babylon stands on thegreat river, theEuphrates, which flows from the earthly Paradise and runs through the land of Mesopotamia, and on another river calledChobar.Davidspoke of themin thepsalms, saying Super flumina Babilonis.NebuchadnezzarwaslordofthisBabylon,aswe findwhenwereadtheBibleintheBookofKings.ThesecondBabylonis inEgypt.SomesaythatwhenthechildrenofIsraelwereinEgyptitwas known asMemphis.These twoBabylonslie destroyedanddesolate, no man or woman lives there. In the Babylon in Mesopotamia live huge numbersofserpents,addersandothersnakeswhichdwellintheruined walls of the tower built by giants, more such creatures than anywhere else onearth.ThethirdBabylonissometimescalledNewBabylon.This hastheCairoasitsmaincastleandstandsontheRiverNilewhichflows fromtheearthlyParadise.FromNewBabylontoAlexandriaisthreedays’ journeybyland, sixbywater.From thisBabylon toDamiettatakesfour days.ThesultanwaslordofthisNewBabylon,ofthewholelandofEgypt, ofthesurroundingcountryandofalargepartofSyria. TherefollowsinHM83apassage on thedivision ofthe worldamongNoah’s sons8 that in a more conventional work would be the beginning of the geo- Hinrichs,1874;HildesheimandNewYork:G.Olms,1974),pp.225–281,at279,withanEnglish translationinJoannesPoloner,John Poloner’s Description of the Holy Land (circa 1421 A.D.), trans.AubreyStewart(London: PalestinePilgrim s’TextSociety, 1894), p.41 . Bernhard von BreydenbachinhisPeregrinatio in Terram Sanctam,whichiscontemporarywithHM83,has onff. 115v–116r a chapter “DeBabilonia egipti”thatoffers muchmoredetailthan HM83:by comparison,theinterestoftheauthorofHM83inthisBabyloniaseemsrathertheoretical. 7 The French text is su pp lied in Recue il des historie ns des croi sades, publié par le s soins de l’Académie royale des inscriptions et belles-lettres(Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1841–1906), Historiens Occidentaux,vol. 2(1859), “ContinuationdeGuillaumedeTyr,de1229à1261,dite dumanuscritdeRothelin,”pp.489–639,Chapitre24,“QuantesBabiloinnessont,”pp.536–537; andtheEnglishherecomesfromJanetShirley,trans.,Crusader Syria in the Thirteenth Century: The Rothelin Continuation of the History of William of Tyre with Part of the Eracles or Acre Text (Aldershot,England,andBrookfield,VT :Ashgate,1999),p.44. 8 For discussion ofthe conjunctionbetween adifferent text aboutthe division of the world amongNoah’s sons andmappaemundiseeChetVan Duzer andSandraSáenz-LópezPérez, “ Tres filii Noe diviserunt orbem post diluvium:TheWorldMapinBritishLibraryAdd.MS37049,” Word & Image26.1(2010),pp.21–39 .
33 TheGeographicalSections graphical section, rather than the passage about the three Babylonias (still f.1r): Orbis autem utdicitysidorinlibroquintodecimo tripharie estdivisus. Nam unaparsAsiaaliaEuropatertiaAffricaappelatur.Quastrespartes orbis non equaliterdiviserunt.NamAsia a meridieper orientem usque ad septentrionem pervenit. Europa vero a septentrione usque ad occi- dentempertingit.SedAffricaaboccidentepermeridiemseextendit.Sola quoque Asia continet unam partem scilicet habitabilis nostri medieta- tem. Alie vero partes scilicet Europa et Affrica aliam medietatem sunt sortite.Interhasautempartes abocceanomarem magnumpregreditur easqueintersecat.Quaproptersiinduaspartesorientemetoccidentem orbemdividasinunaparteeritAsiainaliaveroaffricameteuropam.Sic autemdivisesuntpostquamdiluviumfiliisnoeinterquosSemcumpos- teritatesuaAsiamJaphetEuropamChamAffricampossederuntutdicit glossasupergenesis10etsuperlibrumparalippo1.IdemdicitOrosiuset ysidorusacplinius. Theworld,asIsidoresaysinhisfifteenthbook,isdividedinthree.Forone partiscalledAsia,the secondEurope,andthethirdAfrica.These three partsofthelandshavenotbeenequallydivided.ForAsiastretchesfrom the south through the east to the north; but Europe stretches from the north even to the west; whileAfrica extendsitselffrom the west to the south. And Asiaby itselfcontains halfof our habitableland, while the othertwoparts,namelyEuropeandAfrica,wereallocatedtheotherhalf. ButbetweenthesetwopartstheMediterraneanextendsfromtheOcean andseparatesthem.Therefore,ifyoudividetheworldintwoparts,east andwest,inonepartwillbeAsia,andintheotherAfricaandEurope.For thiswashowtheyweredividedaftertheFloodamongthesonsofNoah, among whom Sem with his descendants possessed Asia, Japhet pos- sessed Europe, and Cham possessed Africa, as the gloss on Genesis 10 says,andalsothatonthebook1oftheParalipomenon(i.e .Chronicles). Orosius,Isidore,andPlinysaythesamething. Thepartofthispassageabouttheorientationsofthethreepartsoftheworld goesbacktoAugustine,De civitate Dei,16.17,whenceitwasborrowedbyIsidore inhisEtymologiae(14.2.2–3)andDe natura rerum(48), andbytheVenerable Bede in his De natura rerum (51).9 But the whole passage is taken from 9 SeeThe Etymologies of Isidore of Seville,trans. StephenA. Barneyet al.(Cambridge,UK, andNewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,2006),p.285;Patrologia Latina83:1017;andPL 90:276, respectively. For discussion of cartographic interpretations of this sentence see
34 Chapter4 BartholomaeusAnglicus,De proprietatibus rerum15.1,10whereitstandsatthe beginningBartholomaeus’sbookongeography.11 FollowingthepassagefromBartholomaeusisamappamundithatshowsthe division of the world among the sons ofNoah, whichwe willdiscuss below. ThenthereisapassagecomposedbytheauthorofHM83:heproposesthatthe actual colonization of the parts of the world assigned to Cham(Africa)and Japhet(Europe)onlytookplacefollowingthePlaguesofEgypt,whichscared peopleout oftheEast,atheorywehavenotseeninothersources.12He adds that the ‘plagues’ ofIslam are causing Christians to remember theTrue God (stillf.1r): Hanc terram habitabilem noe divisit tribus filiis suis ut patet in figura. Antediluviumetpostusqueadpredictashorribilesplagasomneshomi- nesmanseruntinoriente.Nemoinaliisquartishabitabat.Seddeustam horibiliteregiptumplagavitpropteroppressionemetretensionempopuli sui per unum integrum annum quo sane mente putabant orientem et Asiamprorsusperireetitatimoreperterrititransnavigaveruntpermare magnum. Et quod de genere Cham habitabant circa mare magnum e regioneAffriceetJapheteregioneEurope.SicDeinutucompletaestdivi- sioper noefactaquasiante900 annos.InEuropa etAffrica verideiper plagas<cogniti?>xquartepopulaverunthodiepostquam3000annorum ChetVanDuzer, “ANeglectedType of MedievalMappamundiandits Re-Imagingin the Mare historiarum(BnFMSLat.4915,f.26v),”Viator43.2(2012),pp.277–301. 10 ForanEnglishtranslationofthepassageinBartholomaeusseeBartholomaeusAnglicus, On the Properties of Things: John Trevisa’s Translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus De propri- etatibus rerum: A Critical Text, eds.M.C.Seymour etal.(Oxford,ClarendonPress, 1975– 88),vol.2,p.726. 11 For comments on the influence of Bartholomaeus’s Book 15 see Heinz Meyer, “Bartho- lomäusAnglicus,‘Deproprietatibusrerum’:SelbstverständnisundRezeption,”Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur 117.4(1988),pp. 237–274, atp.262, note82; andMeyer,Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3),pp.272–273.The samepassagefromBook15isborrowedintheEulogium (historiarum sive temporis): Chro- nicon ab orbe condito usque ad annum Domini M. CCC . L XCI ., a monacho quodam Malmes- buriensi exaratum, ed. Frank Scott Haydon (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longsmans, andRoberts, 1853–1863), vol. 2,Book4, chapter9, “De orbe,” withsomedis- cussionofthischapterinvol.2,pp.xxiv-xxv. 12 For general discussion of the reception of the storyof the division of the world among Noah’ssonsseeBenjaminBraude,“TheSonsofNoahandtheConstructionofEthnicand Geographical Identities in the Medieval and Early Modern Periods,” The William and Mary Quarterly54.1(1997),pp.103–142.
35 TheGeographicalSections eiusdem veri dei quasi oblita machometi plage vastavere opprimere et subjugaveredoneceiisdemeundemverumdeumrecognoscas(sic). Noahdividedthishabitablelandamonghisthreesons,asisclearinthe map.BeforeandaftertheFlood,anduntilthepredictedhorribleplagues, allofmankindlivedintheEast,andnoonelivedintheotherquarters<of theworld>.ButGodsohorriblyplaguedEgyptbecauseoftheoppression and holding back of his people for a wholeyear, that many reasonably thoughtthattheEastandAsiawouldentirelyperish,andsoterrifiedby fear, they took ship across the Mediterranean. As a result, the descen- dants of Cham who lived near the Mediterranean <were from> Africa, and<thoseof>Japhet<werefrom>Europe.AndthusbythewillofGod the division made by Noah about 900 years earlier was completed. In EuropeandAfrica,thepeopleawareofthetrueGodbecauseofplagues livedin thetenquarters.Today, after3000years, when theyhadalmost forgotten that same true God, the plagues of Muhammad devastated, oppressed,andsubjugated<them>untilbecauseofthosesameplagues theyacknowledgedthatsametrueGod. Thustheapocalypticthemesthataresoimportantinthesecondsectionofthe manuscriptarehintedatinthebeginningofthegeographicaltreatise. On f. 1v, in hislist oftheprovinces of Asia, the author mentions theHoly Land,andashehadbeenthere,wemighthopeforsomedetailsbasedonhis ownexperiences,butsuchisnotthecase.SomevisitorstotheHolyLandmade side-trips to Egypt, but the description of Egypt also lacks any details that would seem to have come from personal observation. Neither of these pas- sagescomesfromBartholomaeusAnglicus.ThepassageaboutEgyptsupplies evidence of the author’s continuing interest in the different cities called Babylonia: PalestinamquahabetinseJudeamphilistinamSamariamgalileaminfe- riorem et superiorem penthapolim hec etiam palestina fuit in terra chananeorum Palestine, which has within it Judea, Philistina, Samaria, Lower and Upper Galilee, and Pentapolis. This Palestine was in the land of the Canaanites. Egiptus olim habuit quinque nominatas civitates in honore deorum. Quarum una fuit solis et eius proprium nomen Naia quam alexander
36 Chapter4 magnus destructam reedificavit et ampliavit et ex suo nomine alexan- driam baptisavit que hodie est nominatissima civitas prope mare magnuminegipto.Etalkariaquamidemalexandernominatnovambab- iloniam quasi in fine egipti versus ortum solis sicut alexandria in fine egipti versus occidentem et circumdatur egiptus desertis ex austro ori- enteetaqulionemarimagnoexoccidenti. Egyptoncehadfivecitiesnamedinhonorofgods,ofwhichonewasof thesun,anditsnamewasNaia,13whichAlexandertheGreatrebuiltand expanded after it was destroyed, and from his own name he called it Alexandria,whichtodayisaveryfamouscityontheMediterraneancoast in Egypt. And Cairo, which is the same that Alexander named New Babylonia,isintheendofEgypttowardstheeast,justasAlexandriaisin theendofEgypttowardsthewest.Egyptissurroundedbydesertsonthe south,east,andnorth,andbytheMediterraneanonthewest. On f. 2r,in apassage cited above in the section on the author ofHM 83, the author indicates distances from the Holy Land to India, from India to the IndianOcean,andfrommainlandAsiatoParadise: ArbitrorprincipiumIndiedeterrasanctadistarevix600miliaribusteuto- nicis.Et200miliariaperindiamadInsulasocceanimarisqueetiamper 200miliariaprotrahanturinlatumusqueadparadisum I judge that the beginning of India is barely 600 German miles <east> fromtheHolyLand,and<itis>200milesacrossIndiatotheislandsofthe <Indian>Ocean,whicharespreadwidelyforadistanceof200miles all thewaytoParadise. Ofcoursethedistancessuppliedaremuchsmallerthantheactualdistances. Inadditiontosheddinglightontheauthorandhisthoughtsaboutthepossi- bilityoftravelingtoParadise,thispassagemayhelpuslearnabouttheauthor’s sources. It would be interesting to know where the author obtained his 13 We do not know the source of the name Naia for the city that existed on the site of AlexandriabeforeAlexander refoundedit;infactthename ofthecitywasRhacotis.For discussionseeMichelChauveau,“AlexandrieetRhakôtis:lepointdevuedesÉgyptiens,” inJean Leclant, ed., Alexandrie: une mégapole cosmopolite: actes du 9ème colloque de la Villa Kérylos à Beaulieu-sur-Mer, les 2 & 3 octobre 1998(Paris:AcadémiedesInscriptionset Belles-Lettres,1999),pp.1–10.
37 TheGeographicalSections distances.Therearenotmanymedievalmapsthatincludeascaleofmilesand alsoshowtheeasternedgeofAsia:theonesthatcometomindaretheCatalan Atlasof1375,14AndreasWalsperger’smapof1448,15theso-calledGenoesemap of1457,16 andtheCatalanEstense mapofc. 1460.17In this case,Walsperger’s mapistheeasiesttoworkwith,ashisscaleisinGermanmiles,whicharewhat the author ofHM 83uses.18Walspergerdoes notindicate the extent ofIndia 14 The Catalan Atlas is in Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS Espagnol 30; it has been published in facsimile several times, for example as Mapamundi del año 1375 de Cresques Abraham y Jafuda Cresques,ed.GeorgesGrosjean(Barcelona:S.A .Ebrisa,1983); amorerecenteditionisEl món i els dies: L’Atles Català(Barcelona:EnciclopèdiaCatalana, 2005);theatlasisalsoreproducedinRamonJ.PujadesiBataller,Les cartes portolanes: la representació medieval d’una mar solcada(Barcelona: Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya, 2007),ontheaccompanyingCD ,numberC16. 15 Walsperger’smapisinVaticanCity,BibliotecaApostolicaVaticana,MSPal.Lat.1362B;see KonradKretschmer,“EineneuemittelalterlicheWeltkartedervatikanischenBibliothek,” Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde 26 (1891), pp. 371–406 and plate 10, esp. 397, reprintedinActa Cartographica6(1969),pp. 237–272.Thisarticleincludesalargerepro- ductionofthemap.Thereisalsoafacsimileofthemap:Weltkarte des Andreas Walsperger (Zurich:Chr.BelserAG,1981). 16 The“GenoeseMap”of1457isinFlorence,BibliotecaNazionaleCentrale,Portolano1.For discussion seeEdwardLutherStevenson,Genoese World Map, 1457(NewYork:American GeographicalSocietyandHispanicSocietyofAmerica,1912),withwhichacolorfacsimile ofthemapwaspublished;andthemorerecentfacsimileeditionofthemap,withanew transcription and translation of the legends by Angelo Cattaneo, in Mappa mundi 1457 (Roma: Treccani, 2008). Also see Alberto Capacci, “Planisfero detto ‘genovese’,” in Guglielmo Cavallo, ed., Cristoforo Colombo e l’apertura degli spazi (Rome: Istituto Poli- grafico e Zecca delloStato, 1992), vol. 1, pp.491–494; and GerdaBrunnlechner, “The So- Called Genoese World Map of 1457: A Stepping Stone Towards Modern Cartography?” Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art & Architecture4.1(2013),pp.56–80. 17 The Catalan Estense map is inModena, Biblioteca EstenseUniversitaria, C. G. A. 1, and hasbeenreproducedinfacsimile,withtranscriptionandcommentary,inErnestoMilano andAnnalisaBatini,Mapamundi Catalán Estense, escuela cartográfica mallorquina(Bar- celona:M.Moleiro, 1996);thereis ahigh-resolutiondigitalimage ofthe mapontheCD - RO MtitledAntichi planisferi e portolani: Modena, Biblioteca Estense Univesitaria(Modena: Il Bulino; and Milan: Y. Press, 2004), and a good study of it in Konrad Kretschmer, “Die katalanischeWeltkartederBibliotecaEstensezuModena,”Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin32(1897),pp.65–111and191–218. 18 Somedistancesmeasuredonvariousnauticalcharts,includingtheCatalanAtlas,aresup- pliedbyA.E.Nordenskiöld,Periplus: An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing- Directions(Stockholm:Norstedt,1897;NewYork:B.Franklin,1967),p.20.
38 Chapter4 veryclearly,butfromtheHolyLandgoingasthecrowflies19hesaysthatitis about325GermanmilestotheclosestpointthatmightbecalledIndia—much lessthanthefigureof600milesthattheauthorofHM83gives—andabout290 Germanmiles acrossIndia to the easternedgeofthe continent, rather more thanthefigureof200milesjustquotedinHM83.Thetotaldistancefromthe HolyLandtotheeasternedgeofAsiaonWalsperger’smapisabout615German miles,quiteabitlessthanthe800GermanmilesindicatedbytheauthorofHM 83.SoitseemsthattheauthorofHM83wasusingasourcequitedifferentfrom theWalspergermap. Atthesametime,thedistancesontheWalspergermaparemuchcloserto thosesuppliedinHM83thanthosefromanitineraryfromParadisetoRome, writteninGreekprobablyinthefourthcentury,andsurvivinginahandfulof manuscriptsfromtheendofthetwelfthcenturyandlater.Attheendofthat brieftext,thejourneyissaidtoconsistof1425stages,eachofwhichmeasures 60 miles,for a totalof85,550miles.20Even allowingfor thefact that thedis- tancefromParadise toRomeisgreater thanfromParadiseto theHolyLand, andforadifferentdefinitionof‘mile,’thedistanceindicatedbytheitineraryis muchgreaterthanthatindicatedbyWalsperger. Moreover,neithertheWalspergermapnortheothersjustmentionedshow Paradiseasanisland,whichseemstobetheconceptionthatourauthorhasof it:hesaysthattheislandsoftheIndianOceanarespreadwidelyfor200miles allthewaytoParadise.ThereareseveralmedievalmapsthatshowParadiseas 19 TheauthorindicatesalongerdistancefromtheHolyLandtotheeasternedgeofAsiaf.6r thanhedoesonf.2r,andonf.6rsaysthatthedistanceshegivesaretravelers’distances, whicharelongerthanthedistancesindicatedbyastronomers,whichdonotincludethe turnsmadeonajourney,soitissafetoconcludethatthedistancesindicatedonf.6rwere measuredasthecrowflies. 20 The Greek text of this itinerary from Paradise to Rome is supplied in Alfred Klotz, “ὉδοιπορίαἀπὸἘδὲμτοῦπαραδείσουἄχριτῶν ̔Ρωμαίων,”Rheinisches Museum für Philolo - gie65(1910),pp.606–616;andwithaFrenchtranslationandnotesinJeanRougé,Exposi- tio totius mundi et gentium. Introduction, texte critique, traduction, notes et commentaire (Paris:ÉditionsduCerf,1966)(=SourcesChrétiennes324),pp.346–357;thereisalsodis- cussionofthetextandtheGreektextoftheSt.PetersburgmanuscriptinN.Pigulewskaja, Byzanz auf den Wegen nach Indien: Aus d. Geschichte d. byzantinischen Handels mit dem Orient vom 4.–6. Jh.(Berlin:Akademie-Verl.;Amsterdam,Hakkert,1969),pp. 100–109and 323–324. For discussion of the calculation of the total distance of the itinerary see FriedrichPfister, “Die Ὁδοιπορία ἀπὸ Ἐδὲμ τοῦπαραδείσου unddieLegende von Alexan- ders Zug nach dem Paradies,” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 66 (1911), pp. 458–471, at470.
39 TheGeographicalSections anisland,21includingtheSawleymap(c.1110);22somemapsbyLambertofSt. Omer(twelfthcentury);23theHerefordmappamundi(c.1290–1310),24ananon- ymous mappamundi ofc. 1450, onceinOlomouc, Czech Republic;25 and the mappamundiontheso-called‘ColumbusMap’;alatefifteenth-centurynauti- cal chart.26 However, none of these maps places the island of Paradise at a 21 On paradise as an island, in addition to the passages citedjust below from Alessandro Scafi, Mapping Paradise: A History of Heaven on Earth (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2006),seeScafi’sbriefarticle“L’îleduParadisdanslacartographie médiévale,”inDomi- niqueGuillaud,ChristianHuetzdeLemps, andOlivierSevin,eds.,Îles funestes, îles bien- heureuses (Paris: Transboréal, 2004) (=Chemins d’étoiles, 12), pp. 148–156. There is also discussion of the medieval geography and cartography of paradise in Jean Delumeau, “ TheEarthlyParadiseandMedievalGeography,”inhisHistory of Paradise: The Garden of Eden in Myth and Tradition, trans. Matthew O’Connell (Urbana: University of Illinois Press,2000),pp.39–70. 22 TheSawley mapis inCambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS66, p. 2;fordiscussion see P. D. A. Harvey, “The Sawley Map and OtherWorld Maps in Twelfth-Century England,” Imago Mundi49(1997),pp.33–42;andScafi,Mapping Paradise(seeCh.4,n.21),pp.141– 144. 23 On Lambert of Saint-Omer’s maps thatshow paradise on anisland see Danielle Lecoq, “Lamappemondedu‘LiberFloridus’oula visiondu mondedeLambertdeSaint-Omer,” Imago Mundi39(1987),pp.2and9–49,esp.2,16,and17no.1(themapisinWolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Gud. lat. 1.2°, ff. 69v–70r); and Scafi, Mapping Paradise (seeCh.4,n.21),pp.144,146,157,andplate5b. 24 TheHerefordmappamundiisonpermanentdisplayatHerefordCathedral,andhasbeen reproducedinfacsimileasMappa Mundi: The Hereford World Map(London:FolioSociety, 2010). Regarding paradise on the map see Scafi, Mapping Paradise(see Ch. 4, n. 21), pp. 145–149. 25 The anonymous mappamundi in question was once in Olmütz, Studienbibliothek MS g/9/155,butwaslostafterWorldWarI I.Itslegendsandtoponymsaretranscribedanditis well illustrated in Anton Mayer, Mittelalterliche Weltkarten aus Olmütz (Prague: André, 1932)(=Kartographische Denkmäler der Sudetenländer,8);andthemapisillustratedand brieflydiscussedinScottWestrem,“AgainstGogandMagog,”inSylviaTomaschandSealy Gilles, eds., Text and Territory: Geographical Imagination in the European Middle Ages (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998), pp. 54–75, at 62–65; and Scafi, Mapping Paradise(seeCh.4,n.21),pp.214–215and248. 26 The ‘Columbus Map’ is in Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Rés. Ge AA 562; the mappamundi on the chart is conveniently reproduced in Kenneth Nebenzahl, Atlas of Columbus and the Great Discoveries (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1990), p. 22; and in Scafi, Mapping Paradise(see Ch.4, n. 21),plate 14and figs. 8.12a and8.12b, with discussion on p.217.Themaphasbeenreproducedinfacsimilethreetimes,inCharlesdeLaRoncière, La carte de Christophe Colomb(Paris: LesÉditions historiques, 1924); Carte nautique sur vélin de l’Atlantique et de la Méditerranée, attribuée à Christophe Colomb, 1492 (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1992); and La carta de Cristobal Colon, Mapamundi, circa 1492
40 Chapter4 significant distance from the mainland, and in particular, none shows any islandsbetweenthemainlandandtheislandofParadise. Giovannide’Marignolli(fl.1338–53)inthenotesfromhisvoyagetotheeast locatesParadiseonanislandnearCeylon,butthetravelnarrativewhosegeog- raphyofParadiseseemsmostsimilartothatinthepassagequotedabovefrom HM 83 isJohannes Witte de Hese’s Itinerarius, which describes an imagined journeytotheeastthatbeganinJerusalemin1389.27FromeasternAsia,Hese sailsintotheIndianOcean.Hestopsononeisland,andthencontinuestothe mountain-islandwhereParadiseislocated:28 And then, having obtained authorization from Prester John and other lords,weboardedashipandsailedfartherfortendaystoaverybeautiful, levelisland,four miles across andfullofbeautifultrees, withfruits and otherkinds ofvegetation, andadornedwithflowers,andrepletewitha greatmanysweetlysingingbirds.Andtwelveofus,alongwithourcap- tain, got off the ship and passed through this island looking at this splendor.Andourcaptainforbadeustotakeanythingawayfromthere. Andwewereinthatplace—soitseemedtous—foraroundthreehours, butwhenwegotbacktotheship,ourshipmatessaidthatwehadbeenin thatplacefor threedays andnights.Andthere was nonight there, and indeedIbelievethatthereneverhasbeennightthere.Andthisislandis calledtheRootofParadise. And sailing farther for twelve days <we came> to Mount Edom.The EarthlyParadiseissaidtobe atopthis mountain.Andthis mountainis extremelyhighandsheerlike atower, so thattherecanbe no accessto thatmountain.Andaroundthehourofvespers,whenthesungoesdown (Barcelona: Moleiro, 1995). For discussion of the map see Monique Pelletier, “Peut-on encore affirmer que la B N possède la carte de Christophe Colomb?” Revue de la Biblio- thèque Nationale 45(1992),pp. 22–25;andValerieI.J. Flint, “Columbus, ‘El Romero’ and theSo- CalledColumbusMap,”Terrae Incognitae24(1992),pp.19–30. 27 For brief accounts ofJohannesWitte de Hese see BettinaWagner, “Witte,Johannes, de Hese,”inWolfgangStammlerandKarlLangosch,eds.,Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelal- ters: Verfasserlexikon(BerlinandNewYork:deGruyter,1978-),vol.10,cols.1276–1278;and Scott D. Westrem, “Witte de Hese, Johannes (Jan Voet) (fl. 1389–1392?),” in John Block FriedmanandKristenMosslerFigg,eds.,Trade, Travel, and Exploration in the Middle Ages: An Encyclopedia(NewYork:Garland,2000),pp.649–651. 28 Scott D.Westrem, Broader Horizons: A Study of Johannes Witte de Hese’s ‘Itinerarius’ and Medieval Travel Narratives (Cambridge, M A: Medieval Academy of America, 2001), pp.149–150(Latin)and223(English).
41 TheGeographicalSections and shines on the mountain, the wall of Paradise can be seen in great clarityandbeauty,likeastar. Whileitisanengagingtasktospeculateaboutthesourcesofthedistancesto IndiaandParadiseinHM83,thereisnotenoughevidencetobesurewhether the author was consultinga mapor a travelnarrative, orperhapscombining informationfromboth. Apassage onf. 2rabout some oftheislandsofAsiaprovidesfurtherclues abouttheauthor’ssources: Amasonia habet duas insulas quarum unam principalem femine reg- nantespossident,aliamviriquisuarumuxorumfamulinonconvenientes nisicausaconcipiendi Amazoniahastwoislands,ofwhichwomenruletheprinciple one,and men the other—men who are servants of their wives, and only come togetherinordertogeneratechildren. ThemythoftheislandsofmenandwomenenteredEuropeanculturethrough thetravelnarrativeofMarcoPolo,29andtheearliestmaptheyappearonisFra Mauro’s large mappamundi of c. 1450.30 Neither Marco Polo nor any other Europeansourcethatweknowofpriorto1486associatestheislandswiththe Amazons,butthereissomesensetotheconnection,anditseemstohavebeen madebytheauthorofHM83.Hedoesnotshowtheseislandsonhismaps,but doesshowstheRegnum Amasonumasasingleislandinthenortheasternpart oftheworldinthemapsonff.3rand6v–7r(seeFigs.4.9and4.14).Inanycase, 29 See MarcoPolo, The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East,transl.anded.HenryYule(3rdedn.,London:J.Murray,1903),vol.2,pp. 404–405, with Yule’s discussion pp. 405–406; also see Domenico Silvestri’s De insulis et earum proprietatibus, in José Manuel Montesdeoca, Los islarios de la época del human- ismo: el ‘De Insulis’ de Domenico Silvestri, edición y traducción(LaLaguna:ServiciodePub- licacionesUniversidaddeLaLaguna,2004),s.v.“Femininainsula”and“Masculinainsula,” pp. 256–257and376–377.PaulPelliot,Notes on Marco Polo(Paris:Impr. nationale, 1959– 73),vol.2,pp.671–725hasalongsectiononeasternanaloguesofthetale. 30 FraMauro’slegendruns:Queste do’ isole sono habitade per christiani. In una de le qual çoè in nebila habita le done e in l’altra dita mangla habita li lor homeni, i qual solamente tre mesi de l’ano stano con le done;“ThesetwoislandsareinhabitedbyChristians.Inoneofthem, called Nebila, live the women; in the other, called Mangla, live the men, who pass only threemonthsayearwiththewomen”:seePieroFalchetta,Fra Mauro’s World Map(Turn- hout:Brepols,2006),p.175,*6.
42 Chapter4 thepresenceoftheseislandsindicatesthattheauthorhadaccesstoinforma- tionfromMarcoPolo,whetherdirectlyorindirectly. Also on f. 2r there are passages about Mediterranean islands, specifically Venice,Rhodes,andCyprus.Wemighthopetoseefirst-handinformationhere from a man who had traveled to the Holy Land, in all probability by way of Venice,butwedonotdetectanyfirst-handknowledgeinthesepassages: Venecia venetorum nunc civitas metropolis provincie venecie in mari magno magna situ et potestate se tenens ad europam habens multas insulasmaris RodusmetropoliscicladumCicladesenimsuntinsule13quarumuna et maxima est Rodus tenens se hodie <domina?> ad europam sed situ distat<tantum?>perduasdietasnavigalesaterrasancta Cyprusinsula a cipro civitatein ea,distans unadietanavigalia terra santa et est hodie regnum tenes se ad dominum europe et dicitur hec insulaetiampaphorum. Venice, now the city of the Venetians, is the capital of the province of Venice, a large city in the Mediterranean, by both its location and its powerdirectsitselftowardsEurope,controllingmanyislandsinthesea. Rhodes is the capital of the Cyclades, and the Cyclades are thirteen islands,ofwhichthelargestisRhodes,maintainingapositionofpower withrespecttoEurope,butbyitslocationitisjusttwodaysbyshipfrom theHolyLand. Cyprusis namedfrom thecityonitcalledCyprus, andis onedayby shipfromtheHolyLand,andtodayisakingdomthatdirectsitselftothe powerofEurope,anditissaidtobetheislandofthePaphians. Felix Fabri in his journey to the Holy Land made the crossing from Limasol (Cyprus)toJoppa in one day, but it is worth mentioning that the departure fromCypruswasdelayedfortwodaysbycontrarywinds,andafterhearrived inJoppaitwasfourdaysbeforehegotashore.31 Atthetopoff.2vofHM83theauthorlaunchesintoadigressionaboutthe number of provinces in Asia that is revealing in terms of his ideas about exploration: Adprecedentiaconsiderailludhesterprimo“AssuerusregnavitabIndia usque ad ethiopiam super centum vigenti septem provincias,” quod 31 SeeFabri,The Wanderings of Felix Fabri(seeCh.3,n.15),vols.7–10,invol.7,pp.201–222.
43 TheGeographicalSections utiqueestinAsiamaiori,inquatotanondumtaxatabindiaadethiopiam neque127provinciastaxare,etiamtantumverumestquoddivinascrip- tura ait. Qua ex re etiam nemo hoc anno christi 1486 praesumat certitudinaliter velle et precise describere Asiam et Affricam cum nulli concedaturillasterrasvidere,cumnec europam alicuieuropianoliceat explorare. Sed tum universalium potest sagax mens conjecturare. Nec hodiesicterreomnesnominantur.Sedmagisutvidesinfigurain<qua> dominiamodernadescribuntur. Together with the preceding, consider that verse in Esther 1: “Xerxes reigned over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces from India to Ethiopia,” which certainly refers to Greater Asia, in all of which, from IndiatoEthiopia,therearenotsomanyas127provinces:andyetevery- thingthatDivineScripturesaysistrue.Thereforeletnobodyinthisyear 1486presumetowishtodescribeAsiaandAfricacertainlyandprecisely, sinceitisgrantedtonoonetoseethoselands,andnotevenEuropecan be <fully> explored by any European—but then a sagacious mind can visualizethewholeworld.Eventodaynotallofthelandshavenames.But thatyoucanseebetterinthemap,in<which>themodernkingdomsare written. ThepassagequotedisEsther1:1;32thereferencetothemapisprobablytothat onff.6v–7r,whichisthemostcompleteanddetailedworldmapinthemanu- script(seeFig.4.14).ThenumberofprovincesinAsiaindicatedbythisversein Estherishighinrelation to thefigures offeredbyother sources:apassagein some manuscripts of Nennius’s Historia Brittonum which was repeated on a numberofmappaemundisaysthattherewerefifteenprovincesinAsia,33and PtolemyinhisGeography8.2lists48provincesinAsia.Theauthor’ssuggestion thatAsiaandAfricaarepoorlyknownisveryreasonable,buthisclaimthatno one has managed to see those lands is puzzling, as he says that he has read travel literature, and indeed he supplies maps of those regions. We are to understandthat the authorhadahighstandardforaccuracyingeographical andcartographicknowledge. 32 Esther 1:1: In diebus Asueri qui regnavit ab India usque Aethiopiam super centum viginti septem provincias, “In the days of Assuerus, who reigned from India to Ethiopia over a hundredand twentyseven provinces.”The 127 provinces over whichAssuerus ruled are alsomentionedinEsther8:9and13:1. 33 SeeVanDuzerandSáenz-LópezPérez,“Tres filii Noe”(seeCh.4,n.8),pp.28–32.
44 Chapter4 Onf.5vthereisalisttitledSequitur de terris in quibus Monarchi residebant et operabant, and the text makes it clear that the monarchs in question are thoseoftheFourKingdomsoftheBookofDaniel.34Thetextexplainsthatthe kingdomofthefirstmonarch,Nebuchadnezzar,wasconfinedtoAsia,asAfrica andEuropewerenotyetcompletelypopulated.ThesecondwasCyrus,kingof Persia,whoextendedhispowertotheMediterranean,particularlytoCyprus. Thetextcontinues: Alexander magnus macedo rex macedonum tertius monarcha circa annummundi4900inasiatotatamaridaquaminsulariNabuchodonosor etcirusinsulasocceanimarisnonhabueruntquodomnessubiecteerant Alexandro et figurantur Amasona maxima insula et insula X tribuum israeli <etiam?> magna. <ymo?>Alexanderpersonaliter venit usque ad suetiam sed non intravit Romani etiam ex Europa ultra miserunt Alexandro sua munera sedtamen sapiensAlexander non dominabatur eis contentus <vii?> <conuictione?> per munerum oblationem et hic alexanderinsuamonarch<i>aalkariammagnamcivitateminfineegipti ampliatetfortificateteamnovambabiloniambaptisavit.Eccesecundus monarchusCirusinsecundamonarchiaantiquambabiloniaminCaldea destruxit et tertius monarchus alexander in tertia monarchia in egipti novamBabiloniamreedificavitetinquartamonarchiaRomaantiquaet novasunt. OctavianusRomanusAnnomundi7172incepitmonarchisareetanno mundi7200ut<cecidit?>fuitmonarchusquartusAsieAffriceetEurope ita ut universum orbem describetur luce ii quod nullus ante eum fecit. Ipseergofuitmonarchustotiusorbisterre. AlexandertheGreat,aMacedonianandKingoftheMacedons,wasthe thirdmonarchabout theyearofthe world4900,inbothmainlandand insular Asia: Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus did not control the islands of theocean,butthesewereallsubjecttoAlexander,and<inthemap>are depictedthelargeislandoftheAmazonsandislandofthetentribesof Israel, whichis alsolarge.Infact,Alexander cameinperson toSweden but he did not enter it. The Romans even sent their gifts from Europe abroad to Alexander, but he was wise and was not won over by them, contentwiththedemonstrationof<...>throughthepresentationofgifts. AndthisAlexanderduringhisreignexpandedandfortifiedCairo,alarge city at the edge of Egypt, and named it New Babylon. Note that the 34 ForbibliographyontheFourMonarchiesseeCh.1,n.11.
45 TheGeographicalSections second monarch, Cyrus, in the second monarchy destroyed ancient BabyloninChaldea,andthethirdmonarchAlexanderinthethirdmon- archyrebuilttheNewBabyloninEgypt,andancientandnewRomeare inthefourthmonarchy. TheRomanOctavianbegantorulein theyearofthe world7172,and whenhediedintheyearoftheworld7200hewasthefourthmonarchof Asia,Africa andEurope. <He ordered>“that thewholeworldshouldbe described”(Luke2),whichnoonehaddonebeforehim.Hewastherefore themonarchofthewholeworld. ThereferencetoAlexanderreachingSwedenisprobablytobeunderstoodin connection with the Alexander Romance, according to which Alexander reachedthefarthestpointsoftheknownworldinalldirections:onthemaps onff.3rand6v–7rofHM83(seeFigs.4.9and4.14),Suetiaisrepresentedasan islandinthenorthernoceanthatjusttouchesthenorthernshoreoftheorbis terrarum. Thispassage shows the author’s continuingfascination withBabylon, and also that thelist ofsovereigns onf.5v wasintendedtodemonstrate that the areaonekingwasabletoruleexpandedoverthecenturiestoencompassthe whole known world by the time of Octavian (Augustus). Given the author’s strong interest in cartography, it is not surprising that the reference to Augustus’sachievementofworldruleshouldinspirehimtomentionAugustus’s projecttomaptheworld.ThispassagefromLuke2:1,35and/ormaterialrelating to the survey of the world first ordered by Julius Caesar, and completed by Augustus,36 appears in other medieval cartographic contexts. In two manu- scripts of Lambert of Saint-Omer’s Liber floridus, which contains a rich collectionofmappaemundi,37thereisanimageofAugustusseatedonathrone 35 Luke2:1:Factum est autem in diebus illis, exiit edictum a Caesare Augusto ut describeretur universus orbis,translatingliterally,“Anditcametopass,thatinthosedaysadecreewent outfromCaesarAugustus,thatthewholeworldshouldbedescribed.” 36 For general discussion of the medieval reception of this survey see Claude Nicolet and Patrick GautierDalché, “Les ‘quatre sages’deJules César etla ‘mesure du monde’ selon JuliusHonorius: réalitéantique ettradition médiéval,”Journal des Savants4.9(1987),pp. 157–218. 37 OnthemappaemundiinmanuscriptsoftheLiber floridusseeManuelFranciscodeBarros Santarém,Essai sur l’histoire de la cosmographie et de la cartographie pendant le Moyen- âge(Paris:Maulde etRenou, 1849–52), vol. 2,pp. 153–204;Youssouf Kamal, Monumenta cartographica Africae et Aegypti(Cairo,1926–51),vol.3,fasc.3,ff.775–784;MarcelDestom- bes,Mappemondes, A.D. 1200–1500(Amsterdam:N.Israel, 1964),pp.111–116;andKarende Coene and Philippe de Maeyer, “One World under the Sun: Cosmography and
46 Chapter4 and holding an orb inscribed with a T-O map, and the passage from Luke is writtenin the circularborder aroundtheimage.38Inthelowerleftcornerof theHereford mappamundithereis anillustration of Augustus sending three surveyors out to explore the world, and the passage from Luke is inscribed above his head; the text in thedecorative border surrounding the map indi- cates that the project was begun by Julius Caesar.39 Caesar’s project is also briefly mentioned on the Ebstorf mappamundi, but without any citation of Luke2:1.40 Thelistofsovereignsonf.5vdemonstratestheexpansionofthearearuled bygreatkingstoencompassthewholeknownworld,andimmediatelyfollow- ingthelistofsovereigns,thereisalistoftheplacesthattheApostlespreached (ff. 5v–6r), which shows theWord of God reaching across the whole known world (illustrated in a map on f. 15r, see Fig. 4.18), so there is a connection betweenthetwolists.ItseemsthattheauthorofHM83viewedtheextension ofunifiedpoliticalcontroltotheendsoftheearthasaprerequisitetothedif- fusionoftheWordofGodtotheendsoftheearth. On f. 6r there is a passage quotedabove on the distances fromLübeck to JerusalemandtoIceland,andfromJerusalemtotheeasternshoreofAsia: Cartography in theLiber Floridus,”in Karen de Coene, Martine deReu, andPhilippede Maeyer, eds.,Liber Floridus 1121: The World in a Book(Lannoo:Tielt, 2011),pp.90–127and 172–173. 38 The manuscripts ofthe Liber floridus that containthis image of Augustus are inGhent, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, MS 92, f. 138v; and Paris, BnF, MS lat. 8865, f. 45r. For discussion ofthisimage seeSantarém, Essai sur l’histoire de la cosmographie(seeCh. 4, n. 37), vol. 2, pp. 160–163; and Nicolet and Gautier Dalché, “Les ‘quatre sages’ de Jules César”(seeCh.4,n.36).TheBnFimageisreproducedincoloronthecoverandthetitle pageofDestombes’sMappemondes(seeCh.4,n.37),andinblack-and-whiteinT.P.Wise- man,“JuliusCaesarandtheHerefordWorldMap,”History Today37.11(1987),pp.53–57,at 57;andinT.P.Wiseman’sTalking to Virgil: A Miscellany(Exeter:UniversityofExeterPress, 1992),plate2followingp.116,illustratinghisessay“JuliusCaesarandtheMappaMundi,” pp.22–42. 39 ScottD.Westrem,The Hereford Map: A Transcription and Translation of the Legends with Commentary(Turnhout:Brepols, 2001),pp. 8–9, no. 12;Wiseman, “JuliusCaesar andthe HerefordWorldMap”(seeCh.4,n.38),pp.53–57;Wiseman,“JuliusCaesarandtheMappa Mundi,”inhisTalking to Virgil: A Miscellany(seeCh.4, n.38),pp. 22–42;andValerieI.J. Flint, “The Hereford Map: Its Author(s), Two Scenes and a Border,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society,SixthSeries,8(1998),pp.19–44. 40 SeeKonradMiller,Mappaemundi: Die ältesten Weltkarten(Stuttgart:J.Roth,1895–98),vol. 5,p.5;quotedbyNicoletandGautierDalché,“Les‘quatresages’deJulesCésar”(seeCh.4, n.36),p.205.
47 TheGeographicalSections Nota Jerusalem distat secundum taxationem viatorum et nautarum de lubeck,queest<secunde?>aquilonaris,circa777miliariateutonica,etde lubecksuntquasi223miliariaadIslandiam,etiamdeJerusalemcircuiter mille miliaria ad finem terre. Sed astronomorum minor est computus; potest tamen utrorumque esse verus, quod viatores et naute oblique vadunt, Astronomi vero in aere recte computant vero obstaculum non habent. Notethataccordingtotheestimateoftravelersandsailors,Jerusalemis about777GermanmilesfromLübeck,whichiswell<to?>thenorth,and fromLübeckitis about223milestoIceland, andfromJerusalemabout 1000milestothe<eastern>endoftheearth.Thefiguresoftheastrono- mersaresmaller,butitispossiblethatbotharecorrect,fortravelersand sailorstravelwithturns,whiletheastronomerscalculatestraightlinesin theair,andhavenoobstacle. Likethesimilarpassage onf. 2r, thispassagemayoffer some cluesabout the sourcestheauthorwasusing.Hereheclearlystatesthatthefigureshesupplies aretraveldistances,ratherthanmeasurementsasthecrowflies,andthisdis- tinctionishelpful,forthereisadifferencebetweenhisfigureshereandthose onf.2r.Intheearlierpassagehesaidthatitis600GermanmilesfromtheHoly LandtothebeginningofIndia,and200milesacrossIndiatotheIndianOcean, or800GermanmilesfromtheHolyLandtotheIndianOcean,whereashereon f.6rhegivesthisdistanceas1000Germanmiles. ReturningtothemapofAndreasWalsperger,assumingthatatravelerwent fromLübecktotheHolyLandbywayofVenice,measuringinstraightlineson the map south from Lübeck to Venice, from Venice southeast to the open Mediterranean, andfrom there east toJoppa, weget adistance ofabout 620 Germanmiles,ratherlessthanthe777GermanmilesthattheauthorofHM83 indicates.Wecantrytocheckourcalculationofthedistancebyconsultingtwo latermaps.TheroutefromLübecktoVeniceasindicatedonErhardEtzlaub’s ‘Romweg’Mapofc.1500isquitedirect,41soitdoesnotseemthatturnsonthat part of thejourney would have added substantiallyto the distance. Also, on 41 FordiscussionofEtzlaub’sRomwegmapseeHerbertKrüger,“ErhardEtzlaub’s‘Romweg’ MapandItsDatingintheHolyYearof1500,”Imago Mundi8(1951),pp.17–26;TonyCamp - bell,“TheWoodcutMapConsideredasaPhysicalObject:ANewLookatErhardEtzlaub’s ‘ RomWeg’Mapofc. 1500,”Imago Mundi30(1978),pp.79–91, withapostscriptinImago Mundi33(1981),p.71;andBrigitteEnglisch,“ErhardEtzlaub’sProjectionandMethodsof Mapping,”Imago Mundi48(1996),pp.103–123.
48 Chapter4 MartinWaldseemüller’sCarta itineraria Europaeof1511,whichsurvivesinone exemplar of a 1520 printing,42 there is a legend indicating that the distance from Venice to Modona (Methoni, Greece) is 870 Italian miles, and from ModonatoJoppa1000Italianmiles,so1870Italianmilesinall,andfourItalian milesequaloneGermanmile,43sothisis467.5Germanmiles—quitedifferent from the measurement of this trajectoryonWalsperger’s map.44 So it seems thattheauthorofHM83wasusingasourcequitedifferentthanWalsperger’s map.Walsperger’s map does not includeIceland, so we cannot compare the distancetothatislandsuppliedinHM83withthatonthemap. With regard to our author’s indication that it is 1000 German miles from Jerusalemtotheeastern edgeoftheearth,ifweplota routeonWalsperger’s mapstartingfromJerusalemandgoingeasttonearBabel,andthenfollowing theTigrisnortheasttotheTorre Lapidea,andtheneastsoutheasttotheeastern coast ofAsianotfarfromParadise,thedistancewouldbeabout727German miles,quiteabitlessthanthefigureof1000GermanmilesmentionedinHM 83,f.6r.Thisconfirmsthathisfigurescamefromasourcequitedifferentfrom Walsperger’smap. Thegeographicaltreatiseendsonf.8v withaunique andextremelyinter- esting discourse on the different purposes or functions of mappaemundi. In 42 The unique surviving exemplar of Waldseemüller’s Carta itineraria Europae is in Inns- bruck, in theTiroler LandesmuseumFerdinandeum.Fordiscussion ofthe mapsee Leo Bagrow, “‘Carta Itineraria Europae’ Martini Ilacomili, 1511,” Imago Mundi 11 (1954), pp. 149–50; and Peter H. Meurer, Corpus der älteren Germania-Karten: Ein annotierter Katalog der gedruckten Gesamtkarten des deutschen Raumes von den Anfängen bis um 1650 (Alphen aan den Rijn: Canaletto Uitgeverij, Repro-Holland, 2001), pp. 155–160; the map has been reproduced in facsimile as Martin Waldseemüller, Carta itineraria Europae (Bonn: Kirschbaum Verlag, 1972), with an accompanying study by Karl-Heinz Meine, Erläuterungen zur ersten gedruckten (Strassen-)Wandkarte von Europa, der Carta itiner- aria Europae der Jahre 1511 bzw. 1520 von Martin Waldseemüller (um 1470 bis etwa 1521), Kost- barkeit des Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck (Bonn-Bad Godesberg: Kirschbaum,1971). 43 TheequivalenceofoneGermanmiletofourItalianmilesisassertedbyMartinWaldsee- müller and Matthias Ringmann in their Cosmographiae introductio (St-Dié: G. Ludd, 1507),chapter9:seeThe ‘Cosmographiae introductio’ of Martin Waldseemüller in Facsimile, Followed by the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, with their Translation into English, ed. and trans. Joseph Fischer and Franz vonWieser (New York: The United States Catholic HistoricalSociety,1907),pp.xxxvi(Latin)and77(English). 44 Thereis alegendverysimilartothatonWaldseemüller’sCarta itineraria Europae about thedistancefromVenicetoJoppaonthemodernmapofGreece(Tabula moderna Bossi- nae, Serviae, Graeciae, et Sclavoniae)inthe1522,1525,1535,and1541editionsofPtolemy ’s Geography.
49 TheGeographicalSections lessthanonepagetheauthorrevealsanunderstandingoftheconceptofthe- matic maps, touches onproblemsinvolvedin the creation ofmappaemundi, addressesthetransmissionoferrorsinmaps,mentionsthedifferenttypesof sourcesusedbycartographers,anddiscussestheoriginofthemonstrouspeo- ples(the‘Plinianraces’).Thispassagecallsforanextendeddiscussion: Mappamundimultipliciterconsideraturprimoquoadlocaterrehabita- bilis que sunt valles montes et plana flumina silvestria campestria et cetera. Terra habitabilis prout <quod?> est nunc sicut est a deo creata aliqualocalicetpaucasuntsubmersa.Etsiprimusmappepictorveram posuiturdistanciamlocorum,tamensuccessoressuccessivevaldetrans- posuerunt situm et distanciam coacti artitudine loci in mappa figurali ubietiamunum nomenlociin extensoscriptumrepellitaliudadextra- neam distantiam. Propter quod ego decrevi perfecta nomina locorum <non?>scribereadcontrariumprecedentemetinfiguraprincipianomi- num figurare et <tamen?> artitudo in figura non permisit nomina loca proptersitumutvideturinfigura. Secundoconsideraturmappamundiquoadedificiaetculturamterre etceteraterrahabitabilisabolimestmultumvariataetubipriusfuerunt desertaibinuncculturaethominumhabitaculaet<eiusverso?>,etcon- sequenteroportetursepepinginovammappammundi. Tertioconsideraturmappamundiquoadhominesterrehabitatoreset egoeraminterraperegrinationisinquanunquamsuntcongregatitales hominesmonstruosiquosfiguralismappaibiessesignificat.Exquoego arguoutinaliisterresaltemomnibustalesesseetperconsequenscom- munis mappa mundiproillaparteiterumestfalsa.Sunt tamenin certe insulemonstruosihominesquosinquodamperegrinolibrolegiforesic exortos.Aliquafeminapeperitfemellammonstruosamquamverecunda- batureducareutvoluitoccidereprojecitergoeamadquandamdesertam insulam. Alia alibi peperit masculum monstruosum quem ex eadem causaexeventuetfortunaprojecitineandeminsulametdeinutuetcura educatietadulticonveneruntetultraexsemonstruososhominesgener- averuntintaliinsula.Etprimefiguralismappepictorsictameninillauna velcertepluribusinsulishominesmonstruo<sos>depinxit. Successoribus mappe pictoribus apparuit fore ornatum mapparum tales homines monstruosos & mirabiliores ubique in cunctis occeani marisinsulisincircuituarideessedepictos&falsitatemnichilpendentes sicutcerniturinmappiscommunibusincircuituinsularemareocceani depinxerunt.
50 Chapter4 Quarto consideratur mappa mundi quoad homines aliisdominantes et cetera. mappe mundi ab exordio possunt diverse depingi ex divina scriptura,cronicis,etgentiliumcosmographia. A mappamundi is considered in several ways. First with regard to the places of the habitable land, which are the valleys, mountains, river plains,woodedfields,etc.Thehabitablelandisnowjustasitwaswhenit wascreatedbyGod,althoughsomeplaceshavebeensubmerged.45And evenifthefirstpainterofamapputthetruedistanceofplaces,yet<his> successors,oneafteranother,significantlytransposedtheplacesanddis- tances,forcedbythe narrowness ofspacein theillustratedmap, where evenoneplacenamewritteninfullwouldforceanothertoanincorrect location.Because ofthisIdecided <not?> to write the whole names of places eachopposite to thepreceding <one?>, andin the mapto write justthebeginningsofthenames,sothatthenarrownessinthemapwill not restrict the names and places because of their position, as may be seeninthemap. Second,amappamundiisconsideredasfarasbuildings,farming,etc. Foralongtimetheinhabitedlandshavebeenchanging,andwherethere werepreviouslydeserts,in those sameplaces thereis nowfarmingand humandwellingsand<... .>,andconsequently,itisappropriatetomake anewmappamundifrequently. Third,amappamundiisconsideredwithrespecttomenasinhabitants oftheworld,andIhavebeeninthelandofpilgrimageinwhichthereare no such gatherings of monstrous men as are depicted there in maps. Because ofthis,Iargue that suchmen are onlyin allotherparts ofthe world, andthatconsequently, the commonmappamundiisin thatpart once again mistaken. There are, however, monstrous men in certain islands, who Iread in a travelbookare born as follows.A woman gave birthtoamonstrousfemalechildwhomshewas ashamedtoraise,and she wished to kill her, so she cast her away her on a certain deserted island.Inanotherplace,anotherwomangavebirthtoamonstrousmale 45 Foraclassicaldiscussionofwatertakingoverwhatwaspreviouslylandandviceversasee forexampleAristotle,Meteorologica 351a –353 a ,trans.E.W.Webster,inThe Works of Aris- totle,ed.W.D.Ross(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1908–52),vol.3,at1.14;onthispassageand othersonthesamesubjectinotherclassicalauthorsseeAdrianJ.Desmond,“TheDiscov- eryofMarineTransgression andtheExplanationofFossilsinAntiquity,”American Jour- nal of Science 275(1975), pp. 692–707; also see Pliny 2.86 .200–206 and Rhiannon Evans, “ TheCruelSea?:Ocean asBoundaryMarker andTransgressorinPliny’sRomanGeogra- phy,”Antichthon39(2005),pp.105–118,esp.111–114.
51 TheGeographicalSections child, whom for the same reason, circumstance, and chance, she cast awayonthesameisland.ThroughGod’swillandcare,theywerebrought up,andwhentheywereadults,theycametogetherandthereuponthey generatedmonstrousmeninthatisland.Andthepainterofthefirstillus- tratedmapthuspaintedmonstrousmeninthatoneisland,orratherin manyislands. Tolatermappainters,suchmonstrousmenandotherthingsstillmore marvelouspaintedeverywhereinalloftheislandsintheocean<and>in theedgeofthemainlandappearedtobea <mere>decorationofmaps. Thinking nothing of the falsehood, they painted themjust as they saw themincommonmapsinthecircuitofislandsintheocean. Fourth, a mappamundi is considered with regard to men rulingover other men, etc. From the beginning, mappaemundi could be diversely paintedfromHolyScripture,chronicles,andpagancosmography. Thisdiscussionofthedistinct rolesthatmappaemundicanplay,i.e .showing geographicalfeatures,theworksofhumanbeings,thedifferentracesofmen, andpoliticalrelationships,revealsaconceptionofmapsthatlednaturallyto thecreation ofthe thematic mapsthataccompanythegeographicaltreatise, whichwillbediscussedbelow.Thesophisticationoftheauthor’sconception oftherolesofmapscanbeappreciatedbycomparingthispassagewithsome othermedievaltextsabouttherolesofmaps.TheintroductiontotheDescriptio mappe mundi, a text written c. 1130 and convincingly attributed to Hugh of Saint-Victor,emphasizesthatthepurposeofmappaemundiistomakedistant andunknownregionsknowntothosewhocannottraveltoseethem:46 Sapientes uiri, tam seculari quam ecclesiastica litteratura edocti, in tabula uel pelle solent orbem terrarum depingere, ut incognita scire uolentibusrerumimaginesostendant,quiaresipsasnonpossuntpresen- tare. Sed nec omnes ualent circuire occeanum, ut positiones uideant insularum, non omnes possunt adire longinquas regiones, ut aspiciant situs,qualitatesetdiuisionesearum.Indeest,quodeademdescriptioque mappamundiappellatur,diuersismodispropterrerumdiuersitatemcol- oratur,utalioquidemmareMagnum,aliomareRubrum,aliofluminaet alio montes colore uestiti, facilius ab inuicem discernantur. Sed et sin- guiis rebus que in hac mappa mundi depinguntur, titulus scripture 46 TheLatintextcomesfromPatrickGautierDalché,La ‘Descriptio mappe mundi’ de Hugues de Saint-Victor: texte inédit avec introduction et commentaire (Paris: Etudes augusti- niennes,1988),p.133;theEnglishtranslationisours.
52 Chapter4 apponitur,quiarerumincogitarumimaginessinescriptureuelsermonis magisterioautnullatenusautdifficileintelliguntur. Wise men,both laypeople and thoselearned in ecclesiasticalwritings, painttheworldonwoodoronparchment,sothattheycanshowimages ofthings to those who wishtoknow things thatare unknown,because theycannotpresentthethingsthemselves.Fornoteveryonecansailon theocean,sothattheycanseethelocationsofislands,norcaneveryone visitdistantregions,sothattheycanperceivetheirsituations,qualities, anddivisions.Itisforthisreasonthatsuchadelineation,whichiscalled a mappamundi, is colored in diverse colors because of the diversity of things, so that the Mediterranean is painted one color, the Red Sea another,riversanother,andmountainsanother,inorderthattheycanbe easilydistinguishedonefromanother.Andforeachthingthatispainted insuchamappamundi,alabeliswrittenbesideit,forimagesofunknown thingswithoutwritingortheguidanceofwordsaredifficultorimpossi- bletounderstand. ThusforHughofSaint-Victor,thepurposeofamapistoteachaboutgeogra- phy.AverydifferentpurposeisascribedtomapsbyFraPaolinoVenetoinhis “Demapa mundi,”partofhisCompendium, seu Satyrica historia rerum gesta- rum mundi(1321):47 Incipitprologusinmapa mundicumtrifaria orbisdivisione.Sinemapa mundi ea, que dicuntur de filiis ac filiis filiorum Noe et que de IIIIor monarchiisceterisqueregnisatqueprovinciistamindivinisquamhuma- nisscripturis,nontamdifficilequamimpossibiledixerimymaginariaut menteposseconcipere.Requiriturautemmapaduplex,pictureacscrip- ture. Nec unum sine altero putes sufficere, quia pictura sine scriptura provincias seu regna confuse demonstrat, scriptura vero non tamen 47 The Latin text here is from Biblioteca ApostolicaVaticana MS Lat. 1960, f. 13r; it is tran- scribedanddiscussedbyAnna-DorotheevondenBrincken,“...ut describeretur universus orbis:ZurUniversalkartographiedesMittelalters,”inAlbertZimmermann,ed.,Methoden in Wissenschaft und Kunst des Mittelalters(Berlin:deGruyter,1970)(=MiscellaneaMedi- aevalia 7), pp. 249–278, at 261; and the same author’s “‘Quod non vicietur pictura.’ Die Sorge umdas rechte Bild inderKartographie,” inFälschungen im Mittelalter: lnternatio- naler Kongress der Monuments Germaniae Historica, Munchen 16–19 Sept. 1986(Hannover: HahnscheBuchhandlung,1988),vol.1,pp.587–599,at590.TheEnglishtranslationisfrom VanDuzerandSáenz-LópezPérez,“Tres filii Noe”(seeCh.4,n.8),p.32.
53 TheGeographicalSections sufficienter sine adminiculo picture provinciarum confinia per varias partescelisicdeterminat,utquasiadoculumconspicivaleant. Herebeginstheprologuetothemappamundiwithathreefolddivisionof the world.Without a worldmap,Iwouldsaythatitis notjustdifficult, butimpossibletopictureforoneselforgraspwiththemindwhatissaid of the sons and grandsons of Noah, and of the Four Kingdoms (i.e . Babylon,Persia,Greece,Rome)andothernationsandprovincesindivine and human writings.What is needed is a two-fold map, withboth pic- turesandtext.Norwillyou thinkonesufficientwithouttheother,fora picturewithouttextindicatesprovincesorkingdomsunclearly,andtext without the aid of pictures does not show the boundaries of the prov- incesinalloftheirparts,sothattheycanbeperceivedalmostataglance. ForFraPaolino,theprimaryfunctionofamapistofacilitatetheunderstand- ingofhistoryandtheworld’spoliticaldivisions,andhesaysnotawordabout geographicalfeaturesorethnography,andnothingaboutamaphavingmulti- plefunctionsthatmightbetreatedseparatelyinseparatemaps.Theauthorof HM83wouldcertainlyagreeabouttheutilityofcombiningmapswithexplan- atorytext. TheCatalanAtlasof1375includesinitspreliminarymatteradefinitionof mappamundi,adefinitionwearetounderstandasincludingnauticalcharts,as theCatalanAtlasitselfisanauticalchart.Thatdefinitionruns:48 Mapamondivoldirayantconymagedelmónedelesdiversesetatsdel mónedelesregionsquesónsuslaterradediversesmanerasdegensqui enelahabiten. Mappamundiroughlysignifiesapictureoftheworld,ofthevariousages oftheworld,oftheregionsoftheearth,andofthevariouskindsofpeo- plewholiveinit. Thisdefinitionisveryinterestinginsofarasitindicatesthreecomponentsofa mappamundi,historic,geographical,andethnographic.Thoughmuchbriefer thanthecharacterizationinHM83,thisdefinitionpointstowardsarichnessof functionofmedievalmapssimilartothatsuggestedinHM83. 48 Thequotation is from Mapamundi del año 1375 (see Ch.4, n. 14),p. 15; thetranslationis ours.
54 Chapter4 AndreasWalsperger,ingivinganaccountofhismappamundiof1448,places greatemphasisonthemathematicalfoundationsofhiswork,andonthefacil- ityitoffersformeasuringthedistancesbetweenplaces:49 Iteminhacpresentifiguracontineturmappamundisiuedescriptioorbis geometrica,factaexcosmographyaptholomeyproportionabilitersecun- dumlongitudines etlatitudines etdiuisiones climatum.Et cum uera et integracartha nauigationis marium.Itaquodquilibet clarein eapotest viderequodmiliaribus una regiouelprouincia abaliasitsituata,uelad quam plagam, si ad orientem, occidentem, austrum vel aquilonem extensa.Terraetenimestalba,mariaviridiscoloris,fluminadulcialasurri, montes varii<item?>.Rubrapuncta suntchristianorum ciuitates.Nigra ueroinfideliuminterramariqueexistentium. Volensigiturscireinhacpresentifiguraquotmiliaribusunaregiosew ciuitasabaliasitsituata,accipecirculumetponepedemeiusadmedie- tatempuncticumnominealicuiusciuitatisinpresentifigurasignati.Et exiendealiumpedemadpunctumalteriusciuitatisadplacitum.Ettunc circulumsicextensumponesuperscalamlatam:metrumhicinseruitper puncta diuisa et quilibet punctus in praetacta scala cuiusvis sit coloris datdecemmiliariathevtunica.Etnotaquodunummiliaretheutunicum continentinsedecemmiliapassuumetunuspassusduospedes<inde?>. FactaesthecmappapermanusfratrisAndreeWalspergerordinissancti benedictidesaltzburga.Annodomini1448Inconstantia. Inthisdiagramiscontainedaworldmaporgeometricdescriptionofthe globe, based on the Cosmography of Ptolemy, designed proportionally accordingtolongitude,latitude, andthe classification ofclimates.And with the true and precise nautical chart of the seas, in sucha way that anyone can clearlyseehow many miles one region or provinceis from another, and in which direction it extends, whether to the east, west, southornorth.Thelandis white,the oceansgreen, theriversblue,and the mountains various colors.The red dots are cities of the Christians, 49 TheLatin textat thebottom ofWalsperger’s mapistranscribed by KonradKretschmer, “EineneuemittelalterlicheWeltkartedervatikanischenBibliothek,”Zeitschrift der Gesell- schaft für Erdkunde26(1891),pp.371–406,at376–377;thearticleisreprintedinActa Car- tographica6(1969),pp.237–272.AtranslationofthepassageintoGermanissuppliedby Karl-HeinzMeine, “ZurWeltkarte des AndreasWalsperger, Konstanz 1448,”inWolfgang Scharfe,HansVolletandErwinHerrmann,eds.,Vorträge und Berichte: Kartenhistorisches Colloquium Bayreuth ’82, 18. –20. März 1982(Berlin: D. Reimer, 1983), pp. 17–30, at19.The Englishtranslationisours.
55 TheGeographicalSections andtheblackonesarethecitiesoftheunbelieverswholiveontheland andbythesea. Thus,ifyouwanttoknowhowmanymilesaregionorcityinthisdia- gramisawayfromanother,takeadividerandplaceoneleginthemiddle ofapointmarkedwiththenameofacityinthisdiagram.Andthenplace theotherleginthepointmarkinganothercity,whicheveryouwish.Then putthedivider,openedtothatsameamount,onthewidescale.Hereit offers a measure dividedinto sections, and eachsection of the marked scale, whatever its color, is ten German miles. And notice that one German mile contains ten thousand paces, and one pace two feet, etc. This map was made by the hands of Brother AndreasWalsperger from theOrderofSaintBenedictinSalzburg.IntheyearofourLord1448,in Constance. An indication of the purpose of a map also follows the world map in the Rudimentum novitiorum,aworldhistoryprintedbyLucasBrandisinLübeckin 1475,abit more than adecadebefore HM83was composedin the samecity. The map (ff. [85]v-[86]r) precedes a long description of the world (ff. [87] r-[117]r),andintheprefacetothatdescription,onf.[87]r,thereisthisaccount ofthemap’sintendedfunction:50 Prepictaigiturfigura,tenaciconsiderationeinspecta,clarebit,auditaali- quaregione,evidentissimescriptisinsubsequentibus,quainparteorbis tripartitisitsituata,primoprocedendoperregionesasie,deindeaficeac aurope(sic)degimus,51quainnosprogressualphabetico,utdiligenslec- tor tenaci memoria valeat apprehendere distancias coniunctionemque regnorumatqueregionum.Quibusignoratisindicaturdeveritatehysto- riesacre,librisincanonicis,iudiciocecidecolore,quiaIo.iii:Siterrena dixivobis et non creditis,id est apprehendere non valetis, quomodo, si dixerocelestia,credetis,idestcomprehendetis. Sotheforegoingmap,ifcarefullystudied,willmake clear,foranygiven countryinthefollowingchapters,inwhatpartofthetripartiteworlditis 50 Thispassageaboutthemap’sintendedfunctionistranscribedanddiscussedbyMichael Herkenhoff, “Das Rudimentum novitiorum (1475),” in Die Darstellung außereuropäischer Welten in Drucken deutscher Offizinen des 15. Jahrhunderts(Berlin:AkademieVerlag,1996), pp.100–111,at104–105. 51 Thewordorderisincorrectfollowingaurope,andwehavetranslatedsoastorecoverwhat mustbetheintendedsense.
56 Chapter4 situated—whichchaptersproceedfirstthroughtheregionsofAsia,then Africa and Europe(in which we live), in alphabetical order—so that a careful reader with a good memory can understand distances and the conjunctionbetweenkingdomsandregions.Ifthesethingsareignored, the judgment of a blind man about color is likely regarding the truth of sacred history in canonical books, in accordance with John 3:12: “If I have spoken to you earthly things, and you believe not: how will you believe, if I shall speak to you heavenly things?” that is, <how> will youunderstand? Thusthepurposeofthemapistohelpthereaderunderstandthespatialcon- textoftheplacesandeventsdescribedinthefollowingchapters,andthusto comprehendthespiritualsignificanceofwhatisrecounted.Abitmoreinfor- mationaboutthepurposeofthetwomaps(oftheworldandoftheHolyLand) intheRudimentum novitiorumiscontainedintheprinter’sadvertisementfor thebook,whichsurvives.52Thepartaboutthemapsruns: Itemdescribit totumorbem triphariumin suis regnis etprovinciiscum proprietatibus eorundem. Item terram sanctamita luculenter expandit omnibussuisinlocis,utdiligenslector,habituacquisito,tociusbiblietex- tumpossitlocaliterscire,versusquemcumqueventumetplagamtocius mundiquequehistoriatamnoviquamveteristestamentisitperacta,quo ignorato, nemo quantumcumque doctus directe capit silencio transeo textumutriusquetestamentiquantumadcircumstanciaslociettempo- risreigeste. Thebookalsoincludesamapofthewholetripartiteworldwithitsking- domsandprovincesandthecharacteristicsofthoseregions.Italsoshows theHolyLandveryclearlyinallitsparts,sothattheseriousreader,with practice,canknowthewholetextoftheBiblegeographically—towards whichcardinaldirection andpart ofthewholeworldeverystoryofthe 52 On the advertisement for the Rudimentum novitiorum see A.W. Kazmeier, “Eine bisher unbekannte Buchhändleranzeige und andere früheDruckedesLukas Brandis aus einer alten Schloßbibliothek,” Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 57(1940), pp. 292–299, with a reproduction of the advertisement between pp. 292 and 293; Julius Victor Scholderer, “ TwoUnrecordedEarlyBook-Advertisements,”Library,Series5,vol.11(1956),pp.114–115; andHansMichaelWinteroll,Summae innumerae: Die Buchanzeigen der Inkunabelzeit und der Wandel lateinischer Gebrauchstexte im frühen Buchdruck(Stuttgart:H. -D.Heinz,1987), with the advertisement reproduced onp. 384 and transcribed on pp.385–386, with the partaboutthemaponp.385.
57 TheGeographicalSections New and Old Testaments took place. Unless this is known, no one, no matter how learned he may be, clearly understands the text of both Testaments with regard to the circumstances of time and place of the occurrence. The maps of the Rudimentum novitiorum are thus intended to facilitate a better understandingof the Bible.53 A similar statement appears on another map of the Holy Land printed by the same printer a few years later in the Prologus Arminensis in mappam Terraesanctae (Lübeck: Lucas Brandis, ca. 1478),ff.[11]v-[12]r.54 Inapassageonf.12vofHM83citedabove,theauthornotesthathismaps haveamoralpurpose,specificallytorestrainmenfromsin,55buthisstatement occursattheendoftheseriesofapocalypticmaps,andseemstoapplyonlyto those maps, and not necessarily to those in the geographical treatise. In his discourseaboutthefunctionsofmapsonf.8v,heseemstoviewmapsastools for understanding the world,particularly byconsidering different aspects of theworldseparately.Althoughheliststhedistancesbetweensomeplaceson ff.2r,6r,and14r,hismapsarenotdesignedtohelponedeterminedistances,as 53 RogerBaconalsospokeofaknowledgeofgeographyasbeingessentialtoaproperunder- standingofScripture: seeRogerBacon,The ‘Opus Majus’ of Roger Bacon,ed.JohnHenry Bridges(London:Williams andNorgate, 1900), vol. 1,pp. 183–187, esp. 183; this sectionis translatedintoEnglishinThe Opus majus of Roger Bacon,trans.RobertBelleBurke(Phil- adelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; and London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press,1928),vol.1,pp.203–208,esp.204. 54 FromthePrologus Arminensis,mapoftheHolyLand,f.11v:Assumpto hic tue consideratio- nis loco, civitatis scilicet castelli aut ville aut alio quocumque recurre cum quota eiusdem ad notulam sequentem ad eandem quotam capituli, et ilico occuret desideratus tam novi quam veteris testamentorum per te locus famosus iuxta omnem plagam mundi in situatione sua, quod prevalide unumquenque sacre historie predicatorem juvabit, ac sacre scripture diligen- tem indagatorem quempiam animabit, quo ignoro audeat nemo feliciter de his quantum ad situm secure fabulari, “Havingchosenhereaplaceforyour consideration,takethenum- berbesidethecity(i.e.thecastle)ortown,oranyotherfeature,andgotothetextfollow- ing the map,tothe chapter withthatnumber, andimmediatelyyou willfindthatplace (whetheroftheNeworOldTestament)thatisfamousthroughouttheworldinitsproper place, which will greatly assist every preacher of sacred history, and it will inspire any diligentinvestigatorofHolyScripture;butnoonewhodoesnotknowthesethingswillbe abletosuccessfullytalkaboutScriptureasfaraslocations.” 55 Fromf.12vofHM83:Arbitror ergo quod harum figurarum firma fides et frequens consider- atio efficacius hominem retraherent a peccatis quam multa bona verba,“Ibelievetherefore that a firm faith in and frequent contemplation of these diagrams will more effectively restrainamanfromsinsthanwouldmanygoodwords.”
58 Chapter4 Walsperger’sis;noraretheyexpresslydesignedtoassistreadersinunderstand- ingtheBible,asarethemapofFraPaolinoandthemapsintheRudimentum novitiorum,thoughsomeofthemwouldcertainlybehelpfulinthatenterprise. The author of HM 83 has a broader conception of the possible functions of maps. Intheremainderofhisconsiderationofthefirstfunctionofmappaemundi, the author of HM 83 discusses an important problem in the transmission of maps:inthecopyingofamap,lackofspacecancauseoneplacenametodis- placeanother,resultinginerrorsoflocationanddistance.Theauthorsaysthat hehasthereforejustwrittenthebeginningsofplacenamesonhismaps,add- ingthefullnamesintheaccompanyingtext—thoughinfactthemapsinHM 83 have full place names, which raises the possibility that the maps were smaller in the autograph manuscript. The author’s remarks about this issue bespeakconsiderableexperienceinmakingmaps;atthesametime,othercar- tographersbeforehimhadofferedsimilarwarnings.PtolemyinhisGeography 1.18.2 –3mentionedtheerrorsintroducedduringthecopyingofmaps:56“After all, continually transferring <a map> from earlier exemplars to subsequent onestendstobringaboutgravedistortionsinthetranscriptionsthroughgrad- ualchanges.” ThesubjectisalsoaddressedbyGervaseofTilbury(ca.1150-ca.1228)inhis Otia imperialia,thoughhiscomplaintisaboutpaintersaddingtheirowninfor- mationtomapsratherthanaboutaccidentalcorruptionofplacenames:57 Vt autem oculata fide auidis mentibus et sitientibus auribus satisfacia- mus,insummanaturalemprouinciarumordinemetsitumpertresorbis partesdistinctaruminemendatiorepicturesubiunximus,considerantes quodipsapictorumuarietasmendaceseffecitdelocorumueritatepictu- ras quas mappam mundi uulgus nominat, plerumque enim pictor, ut 56 J.LennartBerggrenandAlexanderJones,Ptolemy’s Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,2000),p.80.Foradra- matic illustration of errors in the transmission of coordinates in the text of Ptolemy’s Geography see Alexander Jones “Ptolemy’s Geography: A Reform that Failed,” in Zur Shalev and Charles Burnett, eds., Ptolemy’s ‘Geography’ in the Renaissance (London: WarburgInstitute;andTurin:NinoAragnoEditore,2011),pp.15–30,at27–28. 57 Gervase ofTilbury, Otia imperialia: Recreation for an Emperor, ed. andtrans. S.E. Banks andJ.W.Binns(Oxford:ClarendonPress,2002),Book2,chapter25,pp.526–527.Thistext isdiscussedbyAnna-DorotheevondenBrincken,“‘Quodnonvicieturpictura.’DieSorge um das rechte Bild in der Kartographie,” in Fälschungen im Mittelalter: lnternationaler Kongress der Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Munchen 16–19 Sept. 1986 (Hannover: HahnscheBuchhandlung,1988),vol.1,pp.587–599,at592–594.
59 TheGeographicalSections aliastestis,cumde suo adicit,partis mendaciototam testimoniiseriem decolorat,utinDecretis,C.tercia,q..ix.,“Puraetsimplex.” Itwas,then,tosatisfyhungrymindsandthirstyearswithreliableinfor- mationthatweappendedthissummaryofthenaturalorderandsituation of the provinces, as they are distributed through the three parts of the world,soaddingtotheaccuracyofourpicture;forweareawarethatthe veryvarietyofpaintershasresultedintheproductionofpictureswhich departfromthetruthofthelocalitiesthemselves—thosepictureswhich are commonlycalledmappae mundi—since veryoften thepainter,like anykindofwitness,marsbythefalsityofapartthewholeformulationof hisevidence,whenheaddsmaterialofhisown,asitsaysintheDecretum, C.3q.9,“Pureandsimple.” AndFraPaolinoVeneto,inhischapter“Demapamundi”inhisCompendium, seu Satyrica historia rerum gestarum mundi,58 warns: Quod vero per pictores non vicietur pictura, magna est cautio adhibenda, “But great caution is to be exercised, lest the map is vitiated by the painters.” Errors by copyists of mappaemundi were evidently a widespread and well recognized problem; the author of HM 83 distinguishes himself by focusing on a solution to the problem. Inthesecondsectionofhisdiscourseonthepurposesofmappaemundi,the author ofHM 83addresses the representation of human activities(building, farming,etc.)onmaps.Inthefirstsectionhesaysthat“Thehabitablelandis nowjustasitwaswhenitwascreatedbyGod,althoughsomeplaceshavebeen submerged,” but in the second he notes that “theinhabited lands have been changing,andwheretherewerepreviouslydeserts,inthosesameplacesthere isnowfarmingandhumandwellings,”sothat“itisappropriatetomakeanew mappamundi frequently.” Our author sounds here like a cartographer who worksforagovernmentalDepartmentofAgriculture. In the third section of his discourse on the functions of maps our author considersethnography.Hespeaksofmapsthatshowmonstrouspeoplesinthe ‘landofpilgrimage,’i.e .theHolyLand,andsaysthathehasbeentothatarea anddidnotseeanymonstrousraces,andagaincriticizesothermapmakersfor 58 ThetextfromFraPaolinoVenetoistranscribedanddiscussedbyvondenBrincken,“...ut describeretur universus orbis”(see Ch. 4, n. 47), p. 261; and the same author’s “Quod non vicietur pictura”(seeCh.4,n.47),p.590.
60 Chapter4 their errorsinthis regard.59Wedonotknow ofanymappamundithatshows monstrouspeoplesintheHolyLand:indeed,suchamapwouldhavetobevery large, since on most mappaemundi there is not room for more than brief descriptivetextsorsmallimagesinthatregion.Nordoweknowofamedieval map specifically of the Holy Land that shows monstrous peoples there.60 Indeed,near the endofthelate twelfth-centuryepicpoemHerzog Ernst,the hero brings a few examples of the monstrous peoples toJerusalem,61 which tendstoconfirmthattherewasnolongtraditionofmonstrousraceslivingin theHolyLand.Sotheauthor’ssourcehereismysterious. Ourauthorthengivesanaccountoftheoriginofmonstersonislands,where he believes they do exist. A woman gives birth to a monstrous female child, andabandonsit on a desertisland, and a woman bears a male monster and abandons it on the same island, whence a race of monsters was born. This accountisallegedtocomefromatravelnarrative,butwehavenotbeenableto determine the author’s source.62Most other accounts of the origins ofmon- sters are very different. Aristotle and Pliny, for example, hold that Africa 59 OtherauthorscriticalofreportsofmonstersinspecificareasincludeFraMauro,whohas alegendonhismappamundiexpressinggravedoubtaboutreportsofmonstersinMauri- tania,seeFalchetta,Fra Mauro’s World Map(seeCh.4,n.30),pp.386–387, *1043;Caspar Vopel, whoin alegendoffthe easterncoastofSouthAmerica onhis worldmapof1558 (Nova et integra universalisque orbis totius ... descriptio)saysthatinfacttheSpanishhave searchedthecontinentfromtheWest,andthePortuguesefromtheEast,andthatnocan- nibals have been found; andJean de Léry, Histoire d’un voyage fait en la terre du Bresil, autrement dite Amerique(LaRochelle:PourAntoineChuppin, 1578),chapter15,pp. 245– 246; translated into English in Jean de Léry, History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, trans.JanetWhatley(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1990),chapter15,“Howthe AmericansTreattheirPrisonersofWar,”pp.126–127. 60 KennethNebenzahl,Maps of the Holy Lands: Images of Terra Sancta through Two Millenia (NewYork:AbbevillePress, 1986);P.D.A.Harvey,Medieval Maps of the Holy Land(Lon- don:TheBritishLibrary,2012). 61 SeeThe Legend of Duke Ernst,trans.J.W.ThomasandCarolynDussëre(Lincoln:Univer- sityofNebraskaPress,1979),pp.125–126. 62 The most similar story we have found—and it is not very similar—is Geoffrey of Mon- mouth’s accountofthe earliest settlingoftheBritishIsles(Albion), accordingto whom Albina,thedaughterofaGreekKing,andhersistersmurdertheirhusbandsandforthis crimearesetadrift,reachanuninhabitedisland.Thesistersfeellonelyanddesirous,and arevisitedbythedevil,whocopulateswiththem,andtheybeargiantswhoruletheisland forhundredsofyears.ForasummaryofthestoryseeJefferyJeromeCohen,Of Giants: Sex, Monsters and the Middle Ages (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), pp. 47–50;fordiscussionseeLisaM.Ruch,“TheBritishFoundationLegendofAlbinaandher Sisters: Its Sources, Development, and Placein Medieval Literature,”Ph.D. Dissertation, PennsylvaniaStateUniversity, 2006;andAnkeBernau,“BeginningwithAlbina:Remem-
61 TheGeographicalSections producedmanymonstersbecauseoftheshortageofwater,whichcauseddif- ferentspeciestomeetatwaterholesandthereinterbreed.63AlbertusMagnus attributestheproductionofmonsterstoproblemswiththesperm,asuperflu- ityofnutritivefluidinthefemale,orotherproblemsofimpregnation,64while NicoleOresme attributes monsters to alackor overabundance ofone ofthe prerequisitestogeneration.65TheanonymousauthoroftheRudimentum novi- tiorum(f.59r)citesatextcalledDe spermateorLiber spermatis,attributedto Galen,66onthegenerationofmonsters,accordingtowhichmonstersareborn when the generative force is weak and allows the planets to influence the natureofababy.Islands,likedistantpartsoftheworld,areseparatedfromthe known and familiar, and for that reason are often settings for marvels and monsters,67butweknowofnoprecedentforHM83’saccountofthisunnamed islandasthecrucibleforthegenerationofmonsters. bering theNation,”Exemplaria: A Journal of Theory in Medieval and Renaissance Studies 21.3(2009),pp.247–273. 63 Aristotle,On the Generation of Animals746b7–13;Pliny,Naturalis historia8.17.42. 64 See Albertus Magnus, De animalibus, 18.1 .6 and 18.2.3: Albertus Magnus, De animalibus libri X XV I, nach der Cölner Urschrift, ed. Hermann Stadler (Münster: Aschendorff, 1916), vol.2,pp.1214–1218and1224–1226;andAlbertusMagnus,On Animals: A Medieval Summa Zoologica,trans.KennethF.KitchellJr.,andIrvenMichaelResnick(Baltimore:JohnsHop - kinsUniversityPress,1999),vol.2,pp.1303–1307and1312–1313.FordiscussionseeLukeE. Demaitre andAnthonyA.Travill, “HumanEmbryologyand DevelopmentsintheWorks ofAlbertusMagnus,”inJamesA.Weisheipl,ed.,Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Com- memorative Essays 1980 (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1979), pp. 405–440,at434–439. 65 SeeNicoleOresme,Nicole Oresme and the Marvels of Nature: A Study of his De causis mira- bilium with Critical Edition, Translation and Commentary, ed. and trans. Bert Hansen (Toronto:PontificalInstituteofMediaevalStudies,1985),pp.228–229. 66 Onthis workattributedtoGalen seeOutiMerisalo, “Currunt manus, psallunt homoeote- leuta.TransmittingMedicalTextsintheLateMiddleAges:TheCase ofDe Spermate,”in IvoVoltandJanikaPäll,eds.Quattuor lustra. Papers Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Re-establishment of Classical Studies at the University of Tartu(Tartu:SocietasMorgenster- niana,2012)(=ActaSocietatisMorgensternianaeI V–V),pp.245–256. 67 SeeforexampleFrancisDubost,“Insularitésimaginairesetrécitmédiéval:‘l’insularisation’,” in Jean-Claude Marimoutou and Jean-Michel Racault, eds., L’insularité thématique et représentations: actes du colloque international de Saint-Denis de La Réunion, avril 1992 (Paris:L’Harmattan,1995),pp.47–57;andDanielleLecoq,“Lesîlesauxconfinsdumonde,” inDanielReig,ed.,Île des merveilles: mirage, miroir, mythe(Paris:L’Harmattan,1997),pp. 13–32.Forageneraldiscussionofthegeographyandcartographyofmonstersfromantiq- uitytotheRenaissance seeChetVanDuzer,“Hic sunt dracones:TheGeographyandCar- tography of Monsters,” in Asa Mittman and Peter Dendle, eds., The Ashgate Research
62 Chapter4 TheauthorofHM83thenoffersaremarkableexplanationforthefactthat other cartographers mistakenlyplacedmonstrouspeoplesinlocations other thanthefewislandsonwhichtheyhadbeengenerated.Hesaysthattheymis- tookthemonstrouspeoplesdepictedonthefewislandsonthefirstillustrated map(prime figuralis mappe),whichwereinfactscientificillustrationsshowing wherethosecreatureshaddeveloped,formeredecorations,andthusfeltfree to copy them in other parts of their maps, where those creatures had never lived(stillf.8v): Tolater mappainters, such monstrous men andother things still more marvelouspaintedeverywhereinalloftheislandsintheocean<and>in theedgeofthemainlandappearedtobea<mere>decorationofmaps. Thinkingnothingofthefalsehood,theypaintedthemincommonmaps inthecircuitofislandsintheocean. Thisdistinctionbetweenscientificanddecorativeimagesonmapsisextraor- dinary, and shows our author to have made a verycareful study of available mappaemundi,consideringthesourcesoftheimagesandthecreators’motiva- tions in painting those images. Several decades later, in 1551, Pierre Belon complainedabouttheimagesofseamonstersoncontemporarymaps,buthis complaint wassimplythattheimages were not naturalistic,andhedoesnot offersuchasophisticatedetiologyfortheincorrectimages,suggestingthatthe artistshadimaginedthebeastsincorrectlybasedontheirmisleadingnames, havingneverseentheminnature.68Belon’schapteristitled“Qu’onaitgrande- ment abusé en peignant les poissons sur les cartes, & que l’ignorance des hommessoitcausequeplusieursmonstresdemeraientestéfaulsementpor- traicts sans aucuniugement,”thatis, “That therehasbeengreat abuseinthe paintingoffishonmaps,andthatmen’signorancehascausedmanyseamon- sterstobefalselyportrayedwithoutanyjudgment.”Thechapterbegins: L’Euident erreur de plusieurs hommes ignorants l’artifice de nature ne me permet passer oultre sans m’esmouuoir, & les toucher de leur Companion to Monsters and the Monstrous(Farnham,England, andBurlington, V T:Ash- gateVariorum,2012),pp.387–435. 68 Pierre Belon, L’histoire naturelle des estranges poissons marins avec la vraie peincture & description du daulphin, & de plusieurs autres de son espece(Paris:Del’ImprimeriedeR. Chaudiere,1551),Book1,chapter30,f.16v.ThereissomediscussionofthispassageinWes Williams, Monsters and their Meanings in Early Modern Culture: Mighty Magic (Oxford andNewYork:OxfordUniversityPress,2011),p.52.
63 TheGeographicalSections temerité. N’est ce pas une faulte digne de reprehension, de les veoir mettre tant de monstres marins en peincture, sans auoir discretion? Inconstantsespris,queneconsiderentilsqu’ilyaperfectionennature? Voulants donc peindre & representer les choses naturelles, ne pouez mieulsfairequesuyurelenaturel.Etsiilsignorentlachosepourquoyla feignentils?Quiestcausedesigranderreur,sinonleurfolie?Qu’onvoie lespeincturesescartesmarines,combienleursmonstressontesloignez dunaturel.Oquelsestrangespoissonsmarins? Icannotpassbytheevidenterrorofseveralmenignorantoftheartifice ofnaturewithoutgettingupset,andupbraidingthemfortheirtemerity. Is notit a reprehensible error, to see thempaint so many sea monsters withoutdiscretion?Inconstant spirits, whodo not consider the perfec- tion there is in nature! Wishing to paint and represent natural things, theycoulddo nobetter than tofollownature.Andiftheydo notknow thething,whydotheyfeignit?Whatisthecauseofsogreatanerror,if nottheirlunacy?Whenoneseestheimagespaintedonnauticalcharts, howfartheirmonstersarefromnature!Ohwhatstrangefish! ThedifferencesbetweenthepassagesaboutmonstersinHM83andBelonshed lightonthecharacterofourauthor:heislessrhetorical,certainly,andperhaps wecanevensaythatheismoreintrovertedthanBelon. Manyofthemonstersonmedievalmapswereinspiredbyhistoricalorency- clopedicworks,suchasIsidore’sEtymologiae,Orosius’sHistoriarum adversum paganos libri viiandSolinus’sDe mirabilibus mundi,andthuswouldqualifyas scientific according to the division implicit in HM 83. However, there were indeedmapswhosemonsterswerepurelydecorative,ratherthanbeingbased onscholarlyworks.Themostimpressiveexamplethatweknowisthemid-fif- teenth-centurymanuscriptofPtolemy’sGeographyintheBibliotecaNacional deEspañainMadrid(MS Res.255),whosemapsaredecoratedwitharemark- ablenumberandvarietyofseamonstersthatbearnorelationtocontemporary scientifictexts,andseemtohavecomefromasourcelikeamodelbook.69 Inhisfourthparagraphonthefunctionsofmappaemundi,theauthorofHM 83writes: 69 SeeChetVanDuzer,“TheSeaMonstersintheMadridManuscriptofPtolemy’sGeography (Biblioteca Nacional, MS Res. 255),” Word & Image 27.1(2011), pp. 115–123; and Chet Van Duzer, Sea Monsters on Medieval and Renaissance Maps(London: British Library, 2013), pp.61–65.
64 Chapter4 Fourth,amappamundiisconsideredwithregardtomenrulingoverother men, etc. From the beginning, mappaemundi were diversely painted fromHolyScripture,chronicles,andpagancosmography. Thereferencetopowerrelationsbetweengroupsofpeoplepointstowardsthe apocalyptic section of the manuscript, in which the relations between Christians and Muslims figure prominently. Our author’s concern with the sourcesofmappaemundiagainshowshiscarefulanalysisofthegenre. OneofthemanyremarkablethingstheauthorofHM83doesonf.8visto proposeamythologizedearlyhistoryofcartography.Inthefirstparagraphhe saysthatthefirstpainterofamap(primus mappae pictor)placedhistoponyms accuratelysothatthedistancesbetweenplaceswereindicatedcorrectly,and in the thirdparagraph,in addressingthequestion ofthe monstrouspeoples, hesaysthatthepainterofthefirstillustratedmap(prime figuralis mappe pic- tor)understoodhowmonstersweregeneratedandpaintedthemonthecorrect islands.Whowasthissupremelytalentedandknowledgeableearlycreatorof mappaemundi?Wearegivennoclue.ButhisprimordialmapislikeAdamand EveinParadisebeforetheFall,perfectanduncorrupted,whilelatermapsmir- rorthehistoryofhumansfollowingtheirexpulsionfromEden,vitiatedandin needofasavior,withtheirtoponymsoutofplaceandtheirmonstrouspeoples onthewrongislands. Excerpts from the Section on Astronomy and Geography FollowingthesectionontheApocalypse(ff.8v–12v),theauthorchangesper- spectiveentirely,andopensthisnewsectionofhisworkonf.13rwithadiagram ofthewholecosmos:thesphereoftheearthrisingpartlyoutofthesphereof water,whicharesurroundedbythespheresofairandfire,thentheplanetary spheres,andthecelestialspheres outtotheEmpyrean.The texton thisfolio startstoofferanaccountofthespheres,butisincompleteandneednotdetain us here.Two brief texts on f. 13v address the relative sizes of the earth, sun, ocean, moon, and the stars, and theydo not require transcription andstudy here. Onf. 14rthereisamapthat copiesthedepictionoftheworld’s waterways (seeFig.4.16below)fromthemaponff.7v–8r(seeFig.4.15below),andadds parallelsthatdefineasetoftenclimata,andthetextsurroundingthemaplists manyplacesandindicateswhichclimatatheyarein.Thetwocolumnsofthe text,whichrunalongsidethenorthernandsouthernpartsofthemap,seemto reflectageographicaldivisionoftheircontents:thefirstcolumn,i.e . thetext
65 TheGeographicalSections alongside the northern part of the map(the first paragraph below)includes moreplacesinthenorth,whilethetextalongsidethesouthernpartofthemap (the second paragraph below) includes more places in the central climates, that is, in regions to the south of the places in the first column(though not placesinthesouthernhemisphere).Mostoftheplacesinthesetwolistsarein Europe:therearejustafewinAsiaatthebeginningofbothlists,andonlyone placeinAfrica,Cepte(Ceuta),appearsineitherofthelists.Sotheemphasisis on the better known parts of the world. Rostock and Wismar, mentioned towardstheendofthefirstlist,were,likeLübeck,membersoftheHanseatic League;thereseemstobesometextmissingafterwismaria.Inthesecondlist, considerablespaceisdevotedtotheIberianPeninsula,butthereasonforthis emphasisisnotclear. Amasones insula X tribus Caucasus mons in oriente. Caspias montes Olimpus in macedoniam7° climate Ethna in cicilia in 4 climate. Rucia extra climataIslandiainfineaquilonaris norwegia extra climataSuecia extraclimataGronlandiacircaaquilonemadhucpaganaignoransevan- geliam. Ungaria <magna?> adhuc paga<na> ex quibus exierunt ungari christiani. Dacia in X climate. Bornholm insula intra IX et X climata. Godlandia insula de lubeck 89 miliaribus livonia in asia in 10 climate. Poloniainasiain9climateLet<u>aniasubpolonia.Ungariachristianain 7climate.liptzichinmedia8climateLubeckinprincipionoviclimatede roma220miliaribusPruciainter8et9climapartimestasia.Rostigwis- maria<...>lucananiadhucpaganiinterruthenosetsuetosquidicuntur acopmannisdelappen. Babiloniaantiquain1°climatecircaEufraten.Babilonianovain2°cli- mate circa nilum qui cadit vel verius ascendit in mare magnu per 7 flumina.Babilonianovaetantiquadistantper36dietasquisunt216mili- ariateutonica.Constantinopolisinfine6ticlimatis.Ceciliain3°climate. Portugaliain 3° climate. Kataloniain 3° climate. Compostella in 3° cli- mate qua taxatur a viatoribus distare de hamborth 700 miliaribus et totidem de roma. Cepte regnum et 3° climate quod christiani hyspani acquisieruntcircaannumchristi1411.Notacastellaestregnumetprovin- cia pars hyspanie. Sed Compostella est civitas in qua est cor<p>us san Iacobiingaliciaquod etiam est parshyspanie. Romainprincipio7cli- mate. Ffrancia in 7 climate et Britannia in fine 7 climate. Anglia in 8 climate et 3100 miliaribus de hamborth. Scotia in 9 cli<mate> in quo etiamhibernia.
66 Chapter4 TheAmazons, theislandoftheTenTribes,andthemountainCaucasus areintheeast.TheCaspianMountains<and>OlympusareinMacedonia <inthe>seventhclimate.EtnainSicilyisinthefourthclimate.Russiais outsidetheclimates,Icelandisinthedistantnorth;Norwayisoutsidethe climates,Swedenisoutsidetheclimates;Greenlandisinthenorth, still pagan and knowing nothing about the Gospel. Greater Hungary is still pagan,<and>fromittheHungarianChristianshavedeparted.Daciaisin the10thclimate.TheislandofBornholmsitsastridetheninthandtenth climates.TheislandofGotlandis89milesfromLübeck,andLivoniaisin Asia in the tenth climate. Poland is in Asia in the ninth climate, and LithuaniaisbelowPoland.ChristianHungaryisin the seventhclimate. Leipzigisinthemiddleoftheeighthclimate.Lübeckisinthebeginning oftheninthclimate,andis220milesfromRome.Prussiasitsastridethe eighthandninthclimates,andpartlyinAsia.RostockWismar<...>;the Lucanani,stillpagans,arebetweentheRussiansandtheSwedes,andby thecopmani(i.e .merchants,cf.Swedishköpman)theyarecalledLapps. Ancient Babylonia is in the first climate by the Euphrates. The new Babylon is in the second climate near the Nile, which falls or rather ascends into the Mediterranean through seven channels. The ancient and new Babylonia are separated by a 36-day journey, which is 216 Germanmiles.Constantinopleisintheendofthe6thclimate.Sicilyisin thethirdclimate,Portugalinthethird,Cataloniainthethird,Santiagode Compostelainthethirdclimate,whichtravelersestimatetobe700miles fromHamburg,andthesamefromRome.ThekingdomofCeutaisinthe third climate, and Spanish Christians took in about the year 1411. Note that Castileisboth akingdom andaprovince thatispart ofSpain,but Compostela is a city(in which lies the body ofSaintJames)in Galicia, whichisalsoapartofSpain.Romeisinthebeginningoftheseventhcli- mate. France is in the seventh climate and Britain is in the end of the seventhclimate.Englandisintheeighthclimateandis3100milesfrom Hamburg.Scotlandisintheninthclimate,inwhichIrelandisalso. On f. 14v there is a map that offers an absolute minimum of geographical details,justthebodiesofwaterofatypicalT-Omappamundi,butwithanextra bodyofwaterparalleltoandsouthoftheMediterranean(seeFig.4.17below); thesurroundingtext explains that the extrabodyofwateristhemare artum (‘narrow sea’)orwesternmouthoftheMediterranean: this separationofthe MediterraneanproperandtheStraitofGibraltarintodifferentclimataispuz- zling. On the map are indications of nine climates(the last of which is not numbered), and spread across the map is a table that for each climate gives
67 TheGeographicalSections elevatio poli articiorelevationoftheNorthStarineachclimate,thedies prolix- iororlongestdayofeachclimate,andthewidthinmilesofeachclimate.The systemofclimateshereisdifferentfromthatonf.14r:thesystemdepictedon f.14rhastenclimates,whileherehesaysthatmodernastronomersdonotadd anyclimatesbeyondtheninth,becausenightisnotdistinguishedbythe set- tingofthe suninthose northernregions.The textabove andbelowthemap reads: Figurahecclimatumastronomorumquiclimatadistinguunt secundum diversitatemmundietquodultranovumclimasolnonocciditnecoritur in suis stationibus estivali ethyemali. Ergo novi astronominon addunt antiquorumclimatibusdecimumetinfraclimataquodnoncognoscitur ibinoxpersolisoccasumsedpereiusmotuminaquilonamplaga<m>. In hac figura patiatur mare artum in medio tertii climatis et in fine sextisumaturmaremagnumquihicneglectumestsignare Thisisadiagramofthe climates oftheastronomerswhodividethecli- matesaccordingthediversityoftheworldandbecausebeyondtheninth climate the sundoes not set, nordoesit riseinits summer andwinter stations.Therefore the modernastronomersdonotaddatenthclimate and beyond those of the ancients, because night is not distinguished therebyofthesettingofthesun,butbyitsmotiontothenorthernregion. Inthisdiagramisrepresentedthenarrowseainthemiddleofthethird climate,andattheendofthesixthisincludedtheMediterranean,which hereisnotdepicted. Thepointseemstobethattheclimatesindicatedonthemaponf.14rderive fromgeographicaltexts,whilethoseonthismaponf.14vderivefromastrono- mers.Onf.15rthereisanothermapwiththeclimates,andtheauthorsaysthat those climates are based on the writings of theologians—and the map indi- cates the locations where the Apostles preached. So these three maps have threedifferentsystemsofclimates. Thelastpart ofthegeographicalmaterialinHM83that we willtranscribe andtranslateis the summaryofworldhistory, withan emphasis on theLast Days, on f. 16r. In this narrative, most of the stages of the Apocalypse are describedmuchas theyareillustratedanddescribedintheApocalypticsec- tion of the manuscript (these connections are indicated in the footnotes below), but the correspondence between the narrative here and that in the Apocalypticsectioniscertainlynotperfect.Moreover,therearesignificantdif- ferencesinemphasisbetweenthenarrativeonf.16randinthetreatiseonthe
68 Chapter4 Apocalypse.Inthenarrativeonf.16r,theauthortellshowAntichristwillcon- quer people through his four-fold method (which corresponds with events depictedinthemaponf.10v),thenhowEnochandElijahwillpreachagainst GogandthenrisetoHeaven.Themaponf.11rportraysathoroughvictoryby Christ,withhisbannerspreadoverthewholeworld,withnomentionofEnoch andElijah(theyappearinthemaponf.10v,butthetextonthatfoliodoesnot mentionthemeither).Moreover,whilethenarrativeonf.16rthendescribesa battlebetweenChristandAntichristintheskyabovetheMountofOlives,and the mapon f. 11v shows the skyabove theMount ofOlives, the mapon that foliodoesnotdepictsuchabattle,nordoesthetexttheredescribeit;instead, thefocusisontheLastJudgmentandtherisingofthesavedwithJesusandthe Apostles,andthedescentofthedamnedintoHell.Thesedifferencesmayindi- cate that the author was still refining his ideas about the Last Days, or that whatwehaveinHM83isanabbreviatedversionofafulleraccounttheauthor hadwritten,andthattheprocessofabbreviationresultedindifferentempha- sesinthetwodifferentaccounts(i.e .thatinff.8v–11randthatonf.16r). Therearesomeunusualandapparentlyoriginalfeaturesinthisaccountof the Last Days. In pseudo-Methodius’s influential account of theLast Roman Emperor,whowastoleadthefightagainstIslam,70theLastEmperorlayshis crown on theCross onGolgotha, andthen theCross andcrown together are raisedtoHeaven,71whileinthenarrativeonf.16rinHM83,theLastEmperor placeshis crowndirectlyonJesus’shead, “recognizingthat that crownishis, andalwayswashis.”ThisisaremarkablepoliticizationofJesus’sreignonearth. Asthesametime,theauthormakesabsolutelynoattempttoconnecttheLast Roman Emperor with any historical figure, and thus avoids politicizing that figure—something often done by other authors. Another unusual feature of 70 OntheideaoftheLastEmperorseeMarjorieReeves,“JoachimistInfluencesontheIdea of a Last World Emperor,” Traditio 17 (1961), pp. 323–370; Marjorie Reeves, “The Worst AntichristandtheLastEmperor,”inherThe Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages: A Study in Joachimism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969), pp. 306–319; Paul J. Alexander, “ TheMedieval Legendofthe LastRomanEmperor and ItsMessianic Origin,”Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes41(1978),pp.1–15;GerritJ.Reinink,“Pseudo-Metho- dius und die Legende vom römischen Endkaiser,” in Werner Verbeke, Daniel Verhelst, and Andries Welkenhuysen, eds., The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages (Leuven:LeuvenUniversityPress,1988),pp.82–111;andHannesMöhring,Der Weltkaiser der Endzeit: Entstehung, Wandel und Wirkung einer tausendjahrigen Weissagung (Stutt- gart:Thorbecke,2000). 71 See Pseudo-Methodius, Apocalypse; An Alexandrian World Chronicle, ed. and trans. BenjaminGarstad(Cambridge,M A:HarvardUniversityPress,2012),chapter14,pp.64–65 and132–135.
69 TheGeographicalSections thisnarrativeisthattheauthorsaysthatthereignofAntichristwillbeathou- sand years, which of course is the duration usually ascribed to the reign of Christ(Revelation20:1–6),andinfactRevelation13:5waswidelyinterpretedas indicatingthatthereignofAntichristwillbe42months.72Also,attheendof thenarrativetheauthorsaysthatChrist’sreignwillbe47years.Theascription ofa1000yearreigntoAntichristcouldbetakenasaninstanceofAntichrist’s ‘imitation’ofChrist,buttheshorteningofChrist’sreignfrom1000to47years, inthefaceofscripturalauthorityforthe1000yearfigure,isboldindeed.Itis noteworthythatthenarrativeonf.16rdoesnotincludetheResurrection;there is more room on thefolio,but thereis no waytoknow whetherperhaps the scribe simply did not copy this material, or whether the Resurrection was omittedtocreatemoreofafocusonthe‘highlevel’actorsintheApocalyptic drama. Thechronologyofthis summaryofthe world’shistorybearsexamination. TheauthorsaysthatMuhammadbeganhiscareerintheyear639—thesource of this non-traditional date for the beginning of Muhammad’s career is not clear—andthathissectwouldlast931years,i.e .totheyear1570,whentheLast RomanEmperor wouldput an end toIslam(and 1570 is the end date ofthe apocalyptic map on f. 9v, which shows Islam spread throughout the world). The Last Roman Emperor then comes to Jerusalem and gives his crown to Christ,andinthatmoment, theRomanEmpireis saidtoend.SotheRoman Empire is to end in 1570, and the author says that the decline ofthe Empire would last 931 years, so the decline began in the year 639, i.e. exactly when Muhammadbeganhisactivities,wellaftertheyear476,thetraditionaldateof thefall of the Roman Empire.73The author’s setting aside of this traditional date in favor of one based on the chronology of Islam clearly indicates his focusonreligion.HesaysthattheRomanEmpirewaspowerfulandstablefor 639years,whichputsthebeginningofthatperiodattheyearzero,theyearof the birthof Christ—so that what ispurportedly a chronologyof the Roman Empireisinfactbasedonreligion.Finallytheauthorsaysthattheperiodwhen Romewasrisinglasted750years,whichputsthefoundingofthecityat750BC. Although753BCis the most commonlyciteddatefor thefoundingofRome, 72 ForassertionsthatthereignofAntichristwouldbethreeandahalfyearsseeforexample St.Augustine,De civitate Dei20.23;andSt.Jerome,Commentariorum in Danielem libri I I I, ed.F.Glorie,inJerome’sOpera(Turnhout:Brepols,1958-)(=CorpusChristianorum,Series Latina,vol.75A),p.849(2.7.25c). 73 See Brian Croke, “A .D. 476: The Manufacture of a Turning Point,” Chiron 13 (1983), pp. 81–119, reprinted in his Christian Chronicles and Byzantine History, 5th–6th Centuries (Aldershot,Hampshire,GreatBritain:Variorum;Brookfield,VT :Ashgate1992),pp.81–119; andGiuseppeZecchini,“Il476nellastoriografiatardoantica,”Aevum59(1985),pp.3–23.
70 Chapter4 PolybiusandDiodorus,forexample,datethefoundingofthecityto750/751.74 TherearenumerousgrammaticalerrorsintheLatin: Epilogustotiusperiturimundiquihabettrespartes,primaparstermina- tur diluvio, 2a pars est duratio babilonie, 3a pars duratio Rome. In qua partenossumushodiequodRomaadhucpresentoest.Alieduedudum transieruntetcumdiciturhodiebabiloniastatdenovaintelligendumest, non de antique. Roma habet tres partes secundum hec Crevit statit et decrescit. Prima pars est crementum et erat 750 annorum, in tot annis crevitaminimousqueadmaximum.Secundaparsestplenitudoetstatus et erat639annorumtotannisimperavittotimundo.Tertiaparsestdec- rementumetdiscessioetetiam931annorumtotannisdescrescitdonec nichilsit sicut nichilfuit.Circaprimam <partem> natus estJesus verus Christus. In totali fine Rome nascitur Gog falsus Christus et apparebit in 30 annis prius Rome totalem cassationem. Anno nativitatis Jesu Christi 639Machometus incepitRomanumimperium cassare et ab illo anno usque in hunc 1488 successive abstraxit quasi totum mundum preter hanc quartam in quam nos sumus.75 Quantum Romanorum imperator hodie habeat videmus. Et quando Machometus totum mun- dum subiciet tunc dominabitur in plena postestate 56 annis in quibus 656 annis Roma nihil habet nisi tantum occultum jus sine omni potestate.76Infineillorum56annorumultimusimperatorRomanorum velperillosabsconditusvelnominatusachristianisoppressibuselectus exsurgitcumomnibuschristianisetJesuChristoadiutoredelebittotam sectammachometicamquiduravit931annis.77Quibusdeletisimperator 74 Dionysius ofHalicarnassusindicatesthattheRomanEmpirelastedfrom751 BCto7BC, abouttheperiodthattheauthorofHM83ascribestotherisingofthestatetopower.See Dionysius of Halicarnassus, The Roman Antiquities, trans. Ernest Cary (Cambridge, M A: HarvardUniversityPress;andLondon:W.Heinemann, 1937–1950),vol.1,p.11(1.3 .3 –4).It isDionysiuswhoindicatesthatPolybiussaidthatthecitywasfoundedin750BC. 75 Seethemaponf.9r,whichshowstheworldfromtheyear639to1514,andshowsEurope under the control of the Roman Emperor and the Pope, while much of the rest of the worldhasfallentoIslam(seeFig.5.3). 76 Seethemaponf.9v,whichshowstheworldfromtheyear1514to1570(56years),onwhich theswordofMuhammaddominatesthewholeearth(seeFig.5.5). 77 ItwassaidabovethatMuhammadbegantoattacktheRomanEmpireintheyear639,and adding931and639weget1570,and1570isthelastyearrepresentedonthemaponf.9v, whichshowsthe swordofMuhammadcontrollingthe world, andisthefirstyear repre- sentedon the maponf. 10r, which shows the increase of Antichrist—andthe texthere mentions the birth of Antichrist momentarily. Incidentally two ninth-century Islamic
71 TheGeographicalSections RomanorumcesarultimusvenietJerusalemetoffertibisuperunamalta- rem coronam romani regni domino Iesu christo recognoscens illam coronamsuiesseetsemperfuisse.Etinillahoraquaillacoronaoffertur expirat Romanum imperium totaliter. In eadem hora verum dicitur: Nunc natus estGog antichristus sednemo noscit eum. Ab hora eadem eritregnumChristianorumpertotummundumper30annosper10reges quimajoremlaboremfeceruntindelendosectammachometicam.Etgog antichristuseducaturetcrescit. Circafinemillorum30annorumilli10regesincipientlitigarequisillo- rum sit caput omnium. Et apparebit gog antichristus78 et subiciet sibi primo36regesindealios7etvenietinJerusalemetdicetseesseverum Christumetillamcoronamsibipertinere,quamsibiutsuamimponetet dicetJesumessedeceptoremetnequaquamesseChristum.Habetsuum regnum initium medium et finem. Initium ipsius gog antichristus m annorumeritperquodtempusemittetsuosnuntiospertotummundum etiamadinsulasmarisoceaniquiducatuspiritusmalignicitovenientet probatostampaucosutquasiomnesdecipient(i.e .decipiet)quadruplici modo79scilicetCrudelitatepertormentorumillationemetc.superatcar- authors,al-KindiandAbuMa‘sharal-Balkhi,hadmade adifferentestimateofthemaxi- mumdurationofIslam, namelythatitcouldnotlastmorethan693years,andthis esti- matewasrepeatedbyRogerBaconand(fromhim)byPierred’Ailly.SeeYahyaJ.Michot, “Ibn Taymiyya on Astrology: AnnotatedTranslation ofThree Fatwas,”Journal of Islamic Studies 11.2(2000),pp. 147–208, at185–187;PaulineMoffittWatts, “ProphecyandDiscov- ery:OntheSpiritualOriginsofChristopherColumbus’s‘EnterpriseoftheIndies’,”Ameri- can Historical Review 90.1(1985), pp. 73–102, at 88–89; Roger Bacon, The ‘Opus majus’ of Roger Bacon, ed.JohnH.Bridges(Oxford:Williams andNorgate, 1897), vol. 1,p.266;and Roger Bacon, The Opus majus of Roger Bacon, trans. Robert Belle Burke (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1928), p. 287. Also see Pierre d’Ailly,Tractatus de legibus et sectis contra superstitiosos astronomos ([Rouen]:[GuillaumeLeTalleur],1489),chapter4,argument5. 78 The fact that Antichrist begins his activities when he is thirty years old mimics Jesus’s beginninghispublicministrywhenhewasthirty(seeLuke3:23),andthis‘imitation’isa traditionalelementofthelifeofAntichrist. 79 Seethemaponf.10v,whichshowstheworldfrom1606to1660,andrevealsthroughsym- bolicgeographythefourhornsofAntichristbywhichhewilldeceivethepeople(seeFig. 5.7).Fordiscussionofthesourceofthefour-hornsymbolismhereseeouranalysisofthe maponf.10v.Aswewillshowinourdiscussionofthatmap,thissymbolicinterpretation of the four horns of Antichrist comes from Hugh Ripelin of Strasbourg’s Compendium theologicae veritatis 7.9, published in Albertus Magnus, D. Alberti Magni Ratisbonensis episcopi ordinis Praedicatorum Opera omnia,ed.A.Borgnet(Paris:apudLudovicumVivès, 1890–95),vol.34,pp.1–306,at242–243.
72 Chapter4 nales seipsos amantes. Dolositate per munerum collationem etc. Decipient(i.e .decipiet)carnales avaros.Caliditateperdivinie scripture falsamexpositionemetc.decipietinflatosfalsascientia.Sceleritatemen- titedeitatispermiraculorumoperationemquasuperatypocritasseipsos sanctificantesetjustificantes.Mediumquoquetenettotummundumin plenapotestateestmannorum.ProillotemporeomnesJesuChristicon- fessoressuntinheremo(i.e .eremo)abantichristiconfessoribusincogniti. Tantumenochetheliasaudentvenireexparadisoetcontragogpredicare a termino mundiad gogpresentiam inJerusalem80 ubi eos occidet qui manebunt insepulti per m diem tunc resurgent et ascendent in celum cunctisvidentibus.Ettuncnecumtalifactosuperent,81vaditsupermon- tem oliveti promittens se ascensurum in caelum post illos et ductu dyaboliascenditin aerem ubiobviabit eijesus verus christus et occidit eumetcaditcadaverinrupturasmonteolivetiquaeibifiuntquandogog indepedeselevat82ettunc12tribusIsraelquiadgogvenerunttanquam suumChristumdiuexpectatumconvertenturadverumChristumsimili- ter omnes alii. Et incipiet regnum Jesum Christi per totum 47 annis 80 EnochandElijaharenotmentionedbynameintheBookofRevelation,buttheyaretra- ditionallyidentifiedwiththetwowitnesseschosentorefutetheerrorsofAntichrist(Rev- elation11:3–12),particularlyasthereturnofbothprophetsispredictedinotherbooksof the Bible: see Malachi 4:5, Ecclesiasticus 48:10, Matthew 17:11, and Ecclesiasticus 44:16 (thislastonEnoch).OntheroleofEnochandElijahintheLastDaysseeHughRipelinof Strasbourg’sCompendium theologicae veritatis7.12,publishedinAlbertusMagnus,Opera omnia(see Ch.4, n.79), vol. 34,p. 244.The cycle ofillustration of theplayJour du Juge- mentinthefourteenth-centurymanuscriptinBesançon,BibliothèqueMunicipal,MS579, containsaparticularlylargenumberofimagesoftheeventsinvolvingEnochandElijah: seeRichardK.Emmerson,“VisualizingPerformance:TheMiniaturesoftheBesançonMS 579 Jour du Jugement,” Exemplaria 11.2 (1999) pp. 245–284; and Karlyn Marie Griffith, “Illustrating Antichrist and the Day of Judgmentinthe Eighty-NineMiniatures of Besan- çon, Bibliothèque Municipale MS 579,” M A Thesis, Florida State University, 2008, which reproducesthe miniaturesinthe manuscript, andis available at<http://diginole.lib.fsu. edu/etd/3956/>. 81 Giventhegeneralcorrespondencebetweenthenarrativehereandthesequenceofevents in the apocalyptic section of the manuscript, it is here that we would expect to have eventscorrespondingtothosedepictedinthemaponf.11r,thatis,thetriumphofChrist throughout the earth, and the flattening of the earth to smoothness, as depicted in the smaller map at the bottom of f. 11r(see Fig. 5.8)—but there are no such corresponding events.Itistemptingtothinkthatthissignificantdifferencebetweenthetwonarratives indicatesthattheauthorcontinuedtorevisehiswork. 82 ThetopographydescribedhereisverysimilartothatinthemapthatshowstheLastJudg- mentonf.11v,butAntichristisnotmentionedinthetextonthatfolio.
73 TheGeographicalSections quibusfinitisomnesbeatihominessempersuntparatietexspectantreg- num quo mundus dominatur. Impii non credent sicut iis inire finem mundi. Theepilogueofthewholedoomedworld,whichhasthreeparts:thefirst endedwiththeFlood,thesecondcoincidedwithBabylon,andthethird with Rome, in which part we now are, because Rome still exists. The othertwopassedlongago,andthatwhichtodayiscalledBabylonisthe newone,andmustnotbeunderstoodastheancientone.Romehasthree parts,andtheyare:itgrew,itwasstable,anditdecreased.Thefirstpartis itsgrowth, anditlasted750years.Throughout alloftheseyearsitgrew fromminimumtomaximum.Thesecondpartwasitsfullnessandstabil- ity,anditwas639years,forthatperioditruledthewholeworld.Thethird part was its decline and division, and indeed for 931 years it decreased untilitwasnothing,justasithadbeennothingoriginally.Duringthefirst <part>JesusthetrueChristwasborn.AttheveryendofRome,Gogthe falseChristisborn,andhewillappearinthethirtyyearsbeforethecom- pletefallofRome.In theyear639afterthebirthofChrist,Muhammad begantodestroytheRomanEmpire,andfromyearuntilthisyearof1488, stepbystepheconqueredthewholeworldexceptthisquarterinwhich wearenow,whichweseetheRomanemperorholdstoday.83Andwhen Muhammadwillcontrolthewholeworldthenhewillruleinfullpower for56years,duringwhich56yearsRomehasnothingexceptforahidden tradition without any power.84 At the end of those 56 years, the last Roman emperor, either hidden or named by them, is elected by the oppressedChristiansandrisestogetherwithallChristians,andwiththe help of Jesus Christ will destroy the whole Muhammadan sect, which lasted 931 years.85 When it is destroyed, the last Roman emperor will 83 Seethemaponf.9r,whichshowstheworldfromtheyear639to1514,andshowsEurope under the control of the Roman Emperor and the Pope, while much of the rest of the worldhasfallentoIslam(seeFig.5.3). 84 Seethemaponf.9v,whichshowstheworldfromtheyear1514to1570(56years),onwhich theswordofMuhammaddominatesthewholeearth(seeFig.5.5). 85 ItwassaidabovethatMuhammadbegantoattacktheRomanEmpireintheyear639,and adding931and639weget1570, and1570isthelastyear representedonthemaponf.9v, whichshowstheswordofMuhammadcontrollingthe world,andisthefirstyearrepre- sented onthe map on f. 10r, which shows theincrease ofAntichrist—and thetext here mentions the birth of Antichrist momentarily. Incidentally two ninth-century Islamic authors,al-KindiandAbuMa‘shar al-Balkhi,hadmadeadifferentestimate ofthe maxi- mum duration of Islam, namely that it could not last more than 693 years, and this
74 Chapter4 cometoJerusalemandthereofferononealtarthecrownoftheRoman kingdom to Lord Jesus Christ, recognizing that that crown is his, and alwayswashis.Andinthatverymomentwhenthatcrownisoffered,the RomanEmpireexpirescompletely.Inthesamemoment,itwillbetruth- fullysaid,“NowGogAntichristisborn,”butnobodyrecognizeshim.From thatsamemoment,thekingdomofChristianswillexistthroughoutthe wholeworldforthirtyyearsthroughtenkingswhoperformedalargetask in destroying the Muhammadan sect.AndGog Antichrist is raisedand grows.86 Around the end of those thirty years, those ten kings will begin to quarrel about which of them is the leader of all of them. And Gog Antichrist will appear87 and he will subject to himself first thirty-six kings,andthensevenothers,andhewillcometoJerusalemandsaythat heisthetrueChrist,andthatthatcrownishis,whichhewillputitonhis head as his own, and he will say thatJesus is a deceiver, and not at all Christ.Hisreignhasabeginning,middle,andend.Thebeginning<ofthe reign>ofGogAntichristwillbeathousandyears,duringwhichtimehe willsendhismessengersthroughoutthewholeworld,eventotheislands oftheocean, whichthroughtheleadershipofanevilspirit willquickly come.Theloyalaresofewthathewilldeceivealmosteveryonebyafour- foldmethod.88Thatis,bycruelnessthroughthe useoftortures, etc.,he estimate was repeated by Roger Bacon and (from him) by Pierre d’Ailly. See Yahya J. Michot, “IbnTaymiyya onAstrology:AnnotatedTranslation ofThreeFatwas,”Journal of Islamic Studies 11.2(2000),pp. 147–208, at185–187; Pauline MoffittWatts, “Prophecyand Discovery:OntheSpiritualOriginsofChristopherColumbus’s‘EnterpriseoftheIndies’,” American Historical Review90.1(1985),pp.73–102,at88–89;RogerBacon,The ‘Opus majus’ of Roger Bacon,ed.JohnH.Bridges(Oxford:WilliamsandNorgate,1897),vol.1,p.266;and Roger Bacon, The Opus majus of Roger Bacon, trans. Robert Belle Burke (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1928), p. 287.Also seePierred’Ailly, Tractatus de legibus et sectis contra superstitiosos astronomos ([Rouen]:[GuillaumeLeTalleur],1489),chapter4,argument5. 86 TheideathatAntichristwas notknownduringhisyouthwastraditional: seeSt.John of Damascus,An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith,Book4,chapter26,inSaintJohnof Damascus,Writings(NewYork:FathersoftheChurch,1958)(=TheFathersoftheChurch, ANewTranslation,vol.37),p.400:he“isbroughtupunnoticed.” 87 The fact that Antichrist begins his activities when he is thirty years old mimics Jesus’s beginninghispublicministrywhenhewasthirty(seeLuke3:23),andthis‘imitation’isa traditionalelementofthelifeofAntichrist. 88 Seethemaponf.10v,whichshowstheworldfrom1606to1660,andrevealsthroughsym- bolicgeographythefourhornsofAntichristbywhichhewilldeceivethepeople(seeFig. 5.7). As we will show in our discussion of that map, this symbolic interpretation of the
75 TheGeographicalSections conquers the carnal people who love themselves; by deceitfulness, throughthegatheringofgifts,etc.,hewilldeceivethegreedy;bycunning, throughafalseinterpretationofthedivinescriptures,etc.,hewilldeceive thosepuffedupwithfalseknowledge;bythewickednessofimitatingthe deity,throughtheperformanceofmiracles,bywhichheconquershypo- crites who sanctify andjustify themselves. In the middle of his rule he holdstheworldinfullpowerforathousandyears.Duringthattime,allof those who acceptJesusChrist areinthedesert, unknown to those who acceptAntichrist.OnlyEnochandElijahwilldaretocomeoutofParadise andpreachagainstGogfromtheendoftheworlduntilGogispresentin Jerusalem,89wherehe(Gog)willkillthosewhowillremainunburiedfor athousanddays,andthentheywillriseagainandascendintoHeaven,in the sight ofall.Andthenlest they(EnochandElijah)triumphthrough this deed,90 he (Gog) will arrive above the Mount of Olives, promising thathewillascendintoHeavenafterthem,andbeingledbytheDevil,he ascends into the air, where the trueJesus Christ will meet him and kill fourhornsofAntichristcomesfromHughRipelinofStrasbourg’sCompendium theologi- cae veritatis 7.9, published in Albertus Magnus, D. Alberti Magni Ratisbonensis episcopi ordinis Praedicatorum Opera omnia, ed.A.Borgnet(Paris: apudLudovicumVivès, 1890– 95),vol.34,pp.1–306,at242–243. 89 EnochandElijaharenotmentionedbynameintheBookofRevelation,buttheyaretra- ditionallyidentifiedwiththetwowitnesseschosentorefutetheerrorsofAntichrist(Rev- elation11:3–12),particularlyasthereturnofbothprophetsispredictedinotherbooksof the Bible: see Malachi 4:5, Ecclesiasticus 48:10, Matthew 17:11, and Ecclesiasticus 44:16 (thislastonEnoch).OntheroleofEnochandElijahintheLastDaysseeHughRipelinof Strasbourg’sCompendium theologicae veritatis7.12,publishedinAlbertusMagnus,Opera omnia(seeCh.4,n.88),vol.34,pp.1–306,at244.ThecycleofillustrationoftheplayJour du Jugement in the fourteenth-century manuscript Besançon, Bibliothèque Municipal, M S579,containsaparticularlylargenumberofimagesoftheeventsinvolvingEnochand Elijah:seeRichardK.Emmerson,“VisualizingPerformance:TheMiniaturesoftheBesan- çon MS 579 Jour du Jugement,” Exemplaria 11.2 (1999) pp. 245–284; and Karlyn Marie Griffith,“IllustratingAntichrist and the Day of JudgmentintheEighty-NineMiniaturesof Besançon, Bibliothèque Municipale MS 579,” M A Thesis, Florida State University, 2008, whichreproducesthe miniaturesinthemanuscript, andisavailable at<http://diginole. lib.fsu.edu/etd/3956/>. 90 Giventhegeneralcorrespondencebetweenthenarrativehereandthesequenceofevents in the apocalyptic section of the manuscript, it is here that we would expect to have eventscorrespondingtothosedepictedinthemaponf.11r,thatis,thetriumphofChrist throughout the earth, and the flattening of the earth to smoothness, as depicted in the smaller map at the bottom of f. 11r—but there are no such corresponding events. It is tempting to think that this significant difference between the two narratives indicates thattheauthorcontinuedtorevisehiswork.
76 Chapter4 him,andhisbodywillfallintotherupturesoftheMountofOlives,which werecreatedtherewhenGograisedhisfeetfromthatpoint.91Andthen thetwelvetribesofIsraelwhohadcometoGogasiftotheirlong-awaited Christ will be converted to the true Christ, and similarly all the others. AndthereignofJesusChristwillbeginforforty-sevenyearsinarow,and whenthattimeisover,alloftheblessedmenarealwaysreadyandexpect the kingdom by which the world will be ruled. The impious will not believethattheendoftheworldwillcomeforthem. ThissummaryoftheLastDaysneartheendoftheastronomicalandgeograph- ical section of HM 83 (ff. 13r–18r) makes no explicit reference to the earlier Apocalyptictreatise(ff.8v–12v),andthus,unfortunately,wehavenoinforma- tionabouttheauthor’sconceptionoftherelationshipbetweenthem,orwhy thesummaryoftheLastDayswasthoughtnecessary. Links with the Rudimentum novitiorum In1475,about adecadebeforethecompositionofthe worksinHM83,Lucas Brandis92 printed in Lübeck the Rudimentum novitiorum (Handbook for Beginners),auniversalhistorythatwehavementionedseveraltimesprevious- ly.93Thiswasoneofthefirstbooksprintedinthecity,94andcontainsthefirst printededitionofBurchardofMountSion’sDescriptio Terrae Sanctae, which occupies ff. 162r–188r, and also contains two maps that have an important 91 ThetopographydescribedhereisverysimilartothatinthemapthatshowstheLastJudg- mentonf.11v(seeFig.5.9),butAntichristisnotmentionedinthetextonthatfolio. 92 UrsulaAltmann,“DieLeistungenderDruckermitNamenBrandisimRahmenderBuch- geschichte des 15. Jahrhunderts,” Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, 1974; and DieterLohmeier,“Brandis,Lucas:geb.vor1450Delitzsch(Sachsen),gest.nach1500;Buch- drucker,”in OlafKlose andEva Rudolph, eds., Biographisches Lexikon für Schleswig-Hol- stein und Lübeck(Neumuenster:Wachholtz,1970-),vol.10,pp.53–56. 93 Andrea Worm, “Rudimentum Novitiorum,” in Graeme Dunphy, ed., Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle(Leiden: Brill, 2010), vol. 2, pp. 1304–1307; there is some good discus- sion of the 1475 Latin edition in an article that focuses on the later French translation, namelyEdithA.Wright,“La Mer des Hystoires,Paris1488,”Boston Public Library Quarterly 11(1959),pp.59–74. 94 GustavKohfeldt,“ZurDruckgeschichtedesLübeckerRudimentumNovitiorumvomJahre 1475,” Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 24(1907), pp. 26–30; Dieter Lohmeier, “Die Früh- zeitdes Buchdrucksin Lübeck,” in AlkenBruns and Dieter Lohmeier, eds., Die Lübecker Buchdrucker im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert. Buchdruck für den Ostseeraum(HeideinHolstein: Boyens,1994),pp.11–53.
77 TheGeographicalSections placein thehistoryofcartography.Thefirstis aworldmap(ff.85v–86r)that standsatthebeginningofageographicaltreatise(ff.87r–117r)basedinparton IsidoreandBartholomaeusAnglicus.95Thismappamundiisthefirstdetailed printedworldmap,96andismadeinastylesimilartothatofanearlyprinted mappamundithatsurvivesinjust afragment,97andto thatofthe somewhat later printed maps of Hans Rüst (c. 1480) and Hans Sporer (c. 1480–1500).98 There is also a map of the Holy Land (ff. 174v–175r) at the beginning of Burchard’sdescriptionoftheHolyLand,verysimilarinstyletotheworldmap, witheachnamedlocalityrepresentedbyahill.99 The combination of the Rudimentum novitiorum’s geographical treatise, maps,interestintheHolyLand,andproductioninLübecksuggestthepossi- bility of a connection with HM 83. We have seen above some important 95 On the dependence of the geographical treatise in the Rudimentum novitiorum on Bar- tholomaeusAnglicusseeAnnaDorotheavondenBrincken, “Universalkartographieund geographische Schulkenntnisse im Inkunabelzeitalter (Unter besonderer Berücksichti- gung des ‘Rudimentum Noviciorum’ und Hartmann Schedels),” in Bernd Moeller, Hans Patze, andKarl Stackmann, eds., Studien zum städtischen Bildungswesen des späten Mit- telalters und der frühen Neuzeit(Göttingen:Vandenhoeck& Ruprecht, 1983)(=Abhand- lungenderAkademiederWissenschafteninGöttingen,Philologisch-HistorischeKlasse, 3.Folge,Nr. 137, 1983),pp.389–429, at406–407;andMichaelHerkenhoff, “DasRudimen- tum novitiorum(1475),”inDie Darstellung außereuropäischer Welten in Drucken deutscher Offizinen des 15. Jahrhunderts (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1996), pp. 100–111, at 106–107. Herkenhoffalsosays(p.106)thatthedescriptionsofsomeoftheislandsandriversinthe Rudimentum novitiorumcomefromIsidore. 96 Theearliestsurvivingprintedmapisasmallschematic mappamundiprintedinthe1472 AugsburgeditionofIsidore’sEtymologiae:seeTonyCampbell,The Earliest Printed Maps, 1472–1500(London:BritishLibrary,1987),p.108andFig.7.Fordiscussionoftheworldmap intheRudimentum novitiorumseeCampbell,The Earliest Printed Maps,pp.144–145with Fig.26;andWesleyA.Brown,The World Image Expressed in the Rudimentum novitiorum (Washington,DC :GeographyandMapDivision,LibraryofCongress,2000). 97 On the fragmentary printed mappamundi see Campbell, The Earliest Printed Maps(see Ch.4, n.96),p. 216;andMargrietHoogvliet,Pictura et scriptura: textes, images et hermé- neutiques des Mappae mundi, X I II e-XV Ie siècles(Turnhout:Brepols,2007),p.212. 98 On Rüst and Spörer’s maps see Leo Bagrow, “Rüst’s and Sporer’s World Maps,” Imago Mundi 7 (1950), pp. 32–36; and Campbell, The Earliest Printed Maps (see Ch. 4, n. 96), pp.79–84withfigs.29and30. 99 OnthetreatiseontheHolyLandintheRudimentum seeMichaelHerkenhoff, “DasHei- lige Land im Rudimentum novitiorum (1475),” in his Die Darstellung außereuropäischer Welten (seeCh.4,n.95),pp.147–156.OnthemapoftheHolyLandintheRudimentumsee Campbell,The Earliest Printed Maps(seeCh.4,n.96),p.146withfig.61;Nebenzahl,Maps of the Holy Lands(seeCh.4,n.60),pp.60–62;andHarvey,Medieval Maps of the Holy Land (seeCh.4,n.60),pp.146–147.
78 Chapter4 differencesbetweentheRudimentumandHM83:theauthors’descriptionsof thepurposesofthemapsinthetwoworks(Rudimentum,f.87r;HM83,f.8v) are very different, as are their accounts of the creation of monsters (Rudimentum,f.59r;HM83,f.8v).Thetonesoftheworksarealsodifferent,and onemayfindotherspecificdifferencesbetweenthem,casesinwhichitisclear thattheauthorofHM83wasnotfollowingtheearlierwork.Forexample,the description ofBabylon in the Rudimentum(ff. 88r–88v)comes straight from BartholomaeusAnglicus15.22,whereasHM83hasafewdifferentpassageson Babylon (ff. 1r, 1v, 5v, and 12v), the first of which comes from Rothelin ContinuationoftheHistoryofWilliamofTyre,andnoneofwhichbearsany relationtothetextfromBartholomaeus. However, there are some similarities between the two works that make it seemlikelythattheauthorofHM83wasfamiliarwiththeRudimentum.First, the description of the three parts of the world on HM 83, f. 1r, comes from BartholomaeusAnglicus15.1,asshownabove,justlikethecorrespondingpas- sageintheRudimentum(f.87r).Itseemsunlikelythattwoauthorsinthesame cityaboutadecadeapartwouldusethesamesourcefortheirdescriptionsof theworldunlessthere was someinfluenceofone on the other.Also,inboth bookstherearecomplaintsabouthowalackofspace(artitudo)onmapscan causeproblemswithplacenames.Aswesawabove,theauthorofHM83writes (f.8v): ... tamen successores successive valde transposuerunt situm et distan- ciamcoactiartitudinelociinmappafiguraliubietiamunumnomenloci inextensoscriptumrepellitaliudadextraneamdistantiam.Propterquod egodecreviperfectanominalocorum<non?>scriberead<contrarium?> precedentem etinfiguraprincipia nominumfigurare et <tamen?> arti- tudo in figura non permisit nomina loca propter situm ut videtur in figura. ... yet <his> successors, one after another, significantly transposed the placesanddistances,forcedbythenarrownessofspaceintheillustrated map,whereevenoneplacename writteninfullwouldforceanotherto anincorrectlocation.BecauseofthisIdecided<not?>towritethewhole namesofplaceseachoppositetothepreceding<one?>,andinthemap towritejustthebeginningsofthenames,sothatthenarrownessinthe mapwillnotrestrictthenamesandplacesbecauseoftheirposition, as maybeseeninthemap.
79 TheGeographicalSections The author oftheRudimentum writes(f.87r):Presens tamen spera non plene omnium nominum, terrarum, regnorum ac regionum propter artitudinem folii fuit capax, “Thepresentmapcouldnotaccommodateallofthenames,lands, kingdomsandregionsbecauseofthenarrownessofthepage.”Thereisasimi- larcomplaintonthemapoftheHolyLandinbookprintedbyLucasBrandisa few years later, the Prologus Arminensis in mappam Terraesanctae (Lübeck: LucasBrandis, ca. 1478),ff.[11]v-[12]r:100Nec plica libri dorsea et folii artitudo sinunt in hac arte impressoria unumquoque castellum directissime suo compre- hendatur punctuali locello,“Butinthisprinter’sart,theinnergutterofthebook andthenarrownessofthepagedonot allow eachtown tobeincludedinits exactlocation.” Also,boththeRudimentum novitiorum andHM83mentionthe somewhat unusualplacenameVinlandia,i.e .Finland:101intheRudimentumitappearson theworldmapandisdescribedonf. 102v,andinHM83itismentionedonf. 2v.102 The chapter on Vinlandia in the Rudimentum is copied from Bartholomaeus Anglicus 15.172; but while the author of HM 83 made use of Bartholomaeus elsewhere,his text onFinlandcomesfrom a different source that we have not been able to identify. The presence of this unusual place nameintwoworksproducedinthesamecityaboutadecadeapartseemsto suggest that the author ofHM83hadconsultedtheRudimentum, though, as hispurposeswereratherdifferentwiththeworkhehadinmind,hemadelittle useofit. 100 On the map of the Holy Land in the Prologus Arminensis see Campbell, The Earliest Printed Maps(seeCh.4,n.96),p.121withfig.60;MichaelHerkenhoff,“DerPrologus Armi- nensis (ca. 1478),” in his Der Darstellung aussereuropäischer Welten (see Ch. 4, n. 95), pp.156–164;andHarvey,Medieval Maps of the Holy Land(seeCh.4,n.60),p.147. 101 For the identification of Vinlandia as Finland see Fridtjof Nansen, In Northern Mists: Arctic Exploration in Early Times,trans.ArthurG.Chater(London:W.Heinemann, 1911), vol.2,pp.31–32.ItisnotrelatedtotheVinlandoftheNorsediscoveriesintheNewWorld: seeCampbell,The Earliest Printed Maps(seeCh.4,n.96),p.145. 102 The textin HM 83,f. 2v runs: Vinlandia que habet extensum spacium, in quibus omnibus degunt christiani specialis ydyomatis, quod extenditur in livoniam, “Finland, which has muchspace,inallofwhichliveChristians<whouse>speciallanguages,anditextendsto Livonia[on the eastern Baltic].” The section about islands on f. 2v, which includes this passage aboutVinlandia,istranscribedinAxelAnthonBjørnbo,“AdamafBremensNor- densopfattelse,” Aarbøger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie 24.2 (1909), pp. 120–244, at240–241.
80 Chapter4 Early Thematic Mapping Intheexaminationthatwillfollowofthemapsinthegeographicaltreatisein HM83,wewillarguethatthosemapsaretheearliestsetofmapsconceivedas thematic maps in accordance with a modern understanding of that genre. ArthurRobinsondefinesthematicmapsthus:103 Incontrasttothegeneralmap,thethematicmapconcentratesonshow- ingthegeographicaloccurrenceandvariationofasinglephenomenon, oratmostaveryfew.Insteadofhavingasitsprimaryfunctionthedisplay of the relative locations of a variety of different features, the pure the- maticmapfocusesonthedifferencesfromplacetoplaceofoneclassof feature,thatclassbeingthesubjector‘theme’ofthemap.Thenumberof possiblethemesisnearlyunlimitedandrangesoverthewholegamutof man’s interests in the present and past physical, social, and economic world,fromgeologytoreligion,andfrompopulationtodisease. Heproceedstonote:104 Nomapwhichisprimarilythematic appearstohavebeenmadebefore thelasthalfoftheseventeenthcentury.Tobesure,occasional‘thematic’ additionshadbeen enteredonotherwisegeneralmaps,but theidea of makingamapsolelyforthepurposeofshowingthegeographicalstruc- tureofonephenomenonseemsnottohaveoccurredtoanyone. Robinsonisrighttomention‘thematic’additionstosomemapsmadebefore thesecondhalfoftheseventeenthcentury,buthedoesnotdiscussormention maps that have those additions, and thus loses an opportunity to show the development in ideas about maps that led to thematic mapping. The other studiesofthematicmapsthatwehaveconsulteddonotmentiontheseearlier maps with ‘thematic’ additions, or give any hint that anything like thematic maps existed before the seventeenth century,105 except for some articles by 103 Arthur Howard Robinson, Early Thematic Mapping in the History of Cartography (Chi- cago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1982),p.16. 104 Robinson,Early Thematic Mapping(seeCh.4,n.103),p.17. 105 SeeGeorgeKish,“EarlyThematicMapping:TheWorkofPhilippeBuache,”Imago Mundi 28 (1976), pp. 129–136; Alan M. MacEachren, “The Evolution of Thematic Cartography: A Research Methodology and Historical Review,” Canadian Cartographer 16.1 (1979), pp.17–33;GillesPalsky,“Originesetevolutiondelacartographiethématique(XVIIe-XI Xe siècles),” Revista da Faculdade de Letras: Geografia 14 (1998), pp. 39–60; Colette Cauvin,
81 TheGeographicalSections Petra Svatek in which she discusses thematic elements in some maps by WolfgangLazius(1514–1565).106 In theinterestboth of creatinga fuller understanding ofthe early history anddevelopmentofthematicmaps,andofcontextualizingthemapsinHM83, wewillnowbrieflydiscussafewexamples—moremightbeadduced—ofpre- seventeenth-century maps that either have thematic additions or that quite simplyarethematicmaps. InthecityofHaïdra(RomanAmmaedara)inwesternTunisia,inaRoman building of uncertain function there is a mosaic of about 30 square meters fromthelatethirdorearlyfourthcenturyADthatisamapoftheislandsand somecoastalcitiesoftheEasternMediterranean(Fig.4.1).107Themapiscarto- graphicallysomewhatnaïve,assomecitiesarerepresentedasislands,sothat forexamplethereisarepresentationthecityofIdalium(whichisonCyprus) asanisland,rightbesidearepresentationCyprus.Nonetheless,itsstatusasa FranciscoEscobar,andAzizSerradj,“ABriefHistoryofThematicCartography,”inColette Cauvin,FranciscoEscobar,andAzizSerradj,Thematic Cartography,vol. 1,Thematic Car- tography and Transformations (London: IST E; and Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2010), pp. 5–23; John M. Delaney, First X, Then Y, Now Z: An Introduction to Landmark Thematic Maps (Princeton,NJ :PrincetonUniversityLibrary,2012). 106 PetraSvatek,“DieGeschichtskartendesWolfgangLazius–dieAnfängederthematischen Kartographie inÖsterreich,” Cartographica Helvetica 37(2008), pp. 35–43; Petra Svatek, “Austria:ThematicCartographyfromthe 16thto 18thCentury,” I MCoS Journal130(2012), pp.7–11;andPetraSvatek,“ThematischeKartenundihreQuellenvom16.bisins19.Jahr- hundert unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der österreichischen Kartographie,” in Christian Reder, ed., Kartographisches Denken (Vienna and New York: Springer, 2012), pp.319–327. 107 Fathi Bejaoui, “Une nouvelle mosaïque de Haïdra: note préliminaire,” Africa: Revue des études et recherches préhistoriques, antiques, islamiques et ethnographiques 15 (1997), pp. 1–11;FathiBejaoui, “Iles etvillesdelaMéditerranée sur une mosaïqued’Ammaedara (Haïdra, Tunisie),” Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles- lettres141(1997),pp.825–858;FathiBejaoui,“L’îledeChypresurunemosaïquedeHaïdra enTunisie,”Cahier, Centre d’Études Chypriotes28(1998),pp.87–93;FathiBejaoui,“Décou- vertedansl’antiqueHaïdra:LaMéditerranée sur une mosaïque,”Archéologia357(1999), pp.16–23;KaiBrødersen,“NeueEntdeckungenzuantikenKarten,”Gymnasium108(2001), pp. 137–148, at 143–145; and Féthi Béjaoui, “Deux villes italiennes sur une mosaïque de Haïdra,”inMustaphaKhanoussi,PaolaRuggeri,andCinziaVismara,eds.,L’Africa romana. Lo spazio marittimo del Mediterraneo occidentale: Geografia storica ed economia: Atti del X IV convegno di studio, Sassari, 7–10 dicembre 2000(Rome:Carocci, 2002),vol. 1,pp.503– 508.ThereisaverygoodcolorimageofthemosaicinAïchaBenAbed-BenKhader,Elisa- beth de Balanda, and Armando Uribe Echeverría, eds., Image de pierre: La Tunisie en mosaïque(Paris:ArsLatina,2003),fig.401.
82 Chapter4 thematic map of the islands of the eastern Mediterranean is undeniable.108 Themaphasanadditionalthematicelementaswell,asthesitesitshowsare associatedwiththeworshipofthegoddessVenus. Zonalmappaemundi,manyofwhichillustratemanuscriptsofMacrobius’s Commentary on the Dream of Scipio, and thus are called Macrobian maps, portray the world dividedinto climaticbands,hot at the equator, temperate northandsouthoftheequator,andcoldatthepoles, andare certainlytobe 108 Theancientscomposedbooksdevotedtoislands,butnot,asfaraswecantell,illustrated withmaps: seePaola Ceccarelli, “I Nesiotika,”Annali Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa 19 (1989),pp.903–935. Figure4.1 A mosaic thematic map of the islands and some coastal cities of the Eastern Mediterranean, about 30 m2, late third or early fourth century AD, in Haïdra, western Tunisia, in a Roman building of uncertain function (pho toFathi Bejaoui,INP,Tunis).
83 TheGeographicalSections consideredthematicclimatemaps.Macrobius’sCommentary,writteninabout A.D.450,containsclearinstructionsforthemakingofthismap(2.5 .13–14),and themapsappearinmanuscriptsandprintedbooksfromtheninthtothesix- teenthcenturies.109 ThereareseveralmedievalandearlyRenaissancemapsthatarebasedonor includeinformation about road networks, and these maps rangefrom being thematicmapstomapstowhichthematicinformationhasbeenadded.110The earliestsurvivingsuchmapisthePeutingerMap,111whichmeasuresabout675 cmlongand34 cm wide, andshows the roadnetworkoftheRomanEmpire fromtheAtlantictoIndia;itssizemakesitclearthatitwasintendedfordisplay ratherthanpracticalusebytravelers.Themapdoesdepicttopographicalfea- turessuchasmountains,rivers,andlakes,anditalsoincludesimagesofcities, butitsemphasisisontheroadnetwork,anditincludesindicationsofthedis- tancesalongtheroadsbetweenmanypoints:itisathematicmap(seeFig.4.2). Themapwasmadec.1200,butmayultimatelybebasedonaRomanoriginal 109 OnMacrobianandzonalmappaemundiseeDestombes,Mappemondes(seeCh.4,n.37), pp.43–45and85–95;CarlosSanz,El primer mapa del mundo con la representación de los dos hemisferios concebido por Macrobio: estudio crítico y bibliográfico de su evolución (Madrid:Impr.Aguirre,1966),alsopublishedinBoletín de la Real Sociedad Geográfica102 (1966),pp.133–217;DavidWoodward,“MedievalMappaemundi,”inJ.B.HarleyandDavid Woodward,eds.,The History of Cartography(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,1987-), vol.1,Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean,pp. 286–370,at298,300,and353–355;AlfredHiatt“TheMapofMacrobiusbefore1100,”Imago Mundi 59.2 (2007), pp. 149–176; and Stefan Schröder, “Die Klimazonenkarte des Petrus Alfonsi. Rezeption und Transformation islamisch-arabischen Wissens im mittelalterli- chen Europa,” in Ingrid Baumgärtner, Paul-Gerhard Klumbies, and Franziska Sick, eds., Raumkonzepte: Disziplinäre Zugänge Unter Mitarbeit von Mareike Kohls(Göttingen:V&R Unipress,2009),pp.257–277. 110 CatherineDelano-Smith, “MilieusofMobility:Itineraries,RouteMaps, andRoadMaps,” inJamesR.Ackerman,ed.,Cartographies of Travel and Navigation(Chicago:ChicagoUni- versityPress,2006),pp.16–68and294–309,offersagooddiscussionroadmapsandroute maps in relationto itineraries,but seems to entertain a negative view ofmedieval road androutemapsbecausethesurvivingexemplarswerenotdesignedtobeusedbytravel- ers.Wedonotseethefactthatamapwasdesignedforusebytravelersassomethingthat addsintrinsicvaluetothatmap. 111 ThePeutingerMapisinVienna,ÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothek,CodexVindobonen- sis324, andhasbeen reproducedinfullseveraltimes,for exampleinTabula Peutingeri- ana: Codex Vindobonensis 324 (Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1976); and Luciano Bosio, La Tabula Peutingeriana: una descrizione pittorica del mondo antico (Rimini:Maggioli,1983).
84 Chapter4 Figure4.2 Detail of the Peutinger Map, made c. 1200, possibly a copy of an original dating from the fifth century. By both its form and content, the map places great emphasis on the Roman road network (Vienna,ÖsterreichischeNational- bibliothek,CodexVindobonensis324,segment1,bypermissionof theÖsterreichischeNationalbibliothek).
85 TheGeographicalSections fromthefourthcentury,112andthusmayprovideevidenceofthistypeofthe- maticmapbacktoclassicalantiquity. Inabout1250theEnglishchroniclerandmonkMatthewParismadeasetof itinerarymapsthatshowthewayfromLondontothecoastofEngland,across theEnglish Channel and then acrossFrance and throughItalytoRome, and fromRomesouthtoOtranto.AtOtrantoweseeaboatinthewater,andfollow- ingthis segment of the map thereis a map of theHolyLand, with the clear implication(fromtheboatsnearAcre)thatthisisthedestinationofthejour- ney.113Themapssurviveinthreemanuscriptsets andonefragment.114Inthe landportionsofthejourney,thepageisdividedintotwo,three,orfourvertical stripsbyacoloredframework,andtheroutetobefollowedgoesstraightupthe middleofthesestrips,firstuptheleftstrip,andthenupnextonetotheright. Thecitiesalongthewayaredepictedinvignettes.Theseelaboratemapswere 112 Richard J. A. Talbert et al., Rome’s World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversityPress,2010);withvaluableadditionstothediscussioninthereview ofTalbert’sbookbyTimothyD.BarnesinJournal of Late Antiquity4.2(2011),pp.375–378. BenetSalway, “TheNatureandGenesisofthePeutingerMap,”Imago Mundi57.2(2005), pp.119–135,suggeststhatwhentheRomanarchetypeofthemapwascreated,itwaswith- outprecedentinRomancartography,andthatthearchetypewasornamentalratherthan practical; Emily Albu, “Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Map,” Imago Mundi57.2(2005),pp. 136–148, arguesthatthe archetype of thePeutinger Mapwas not Roman,butratherCarolingian. 113 The bibliography on Matthew’s maps is substantial; valuable works include Suzanne Lewis,The Art of Matthew Paris in the ‘Chronica majora’(Berkeley:UniversityofCalifornia Press, 1987), pp.323–364;DanielK.Connolly, The Maps of Matthew Paris: Medieval Jour- neys through Space, Time and Liturgy(Woodbridge,Suffolk,UK, andRochester, N Y:Boy- dellPress,2009);andSalvatoreSansone,Tra cartografia politica e immaginario figurative: Matthew Paris e l’Iter de Londinio in Terram Sanctam(Rome:Istitutostoricoitalianoperil MedioEvo,2009). 114 Thesetsare(1)asaprefacetoamanuscriptofMatthew’sChronica majorainCambridge, CorpusChristiCollege,ParkerLibrary,MS26,ff.1r–3r;(2)asaprefacetoamanuscriptof Matthew ’sHistoria Anglorum,inLondon,BritishLibrary,MSRoyal14CVII ,ff.2r–5r;and (3)an abbreviatedversionin a manuscript of Matthew’sLiber additamentorum,in Lon- don, British Library, MS Cotton Nero D I, ff. 183v–184r. The damaged fragment forms a preface to a manuscript of the Chronica majora in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, ParkerLibrary,MS16,ff.2r–2v.DanielK.ConnollyinThe Maps of Matthew Paris(seeprevi- ousnote),pp.174–182,andin“CopyingMapsbyMatthewParis:ItinerariesFitforaKing,” inPalmiraJohnsonBrummett,ed.,The ‘Book’ of Travels: Genre, Ethnology, and Pilgrimage, 1250–1700 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009), pp. 159–203, argues that the maps in B L MS Royal14CVIIweremadeafterMatthewdied,possiblyaslateasthe1290s;whileSansone in Tra cartografia politica e immaginario figurativo (seeprevious note)retainsthe tradi- tionalviewthatMatthewmadeallfoursets.
86 Chapter4 neverintendedforpracticaluse,butratherforstudyandcontemplation.The veryshapeandformatofthemapswasdeterminedbytheirfocusontheroute: theyarethematicmaps. The Gough Map of Great Britain, which was made in the fourteenth century,115hasanetworkofstraightredlinesdrawnfromonetowntoanother, withthedistancesbetweenthemindicatedinRomannumerals.Thisinforma- tionseems tohavebeenon themapfrom thebeginning,andthepurposeof thelinesanddistances,andthequestionofwhethertheGoughMapshouldbe consideredthefirstroadmapofBritain,havegeneratedconsiderablediscus- sion.116Manyimportant and well-established roads are not indicated on the map,andthusitisnotclearthatthelinesareintendedtorepresentroads,but theGoughMapistheearliesttoincludesystematic(albeitincomplete)route information with indications of distance, and this information is certainly thematic.Two earlysixteenth-centurymaps thatincorporate thematicinfor- mationaboutroadsareErhardEtzlaub’s‘Romweg’Mapofc.1500,andMartin Waldseemüller’sCarta itineraria Europaeof1511,whichsurvivesinoneexem- plarofa1520printing,mentionedabove.117 Theearliestmedievalislandbookassuchlacksmaps,118butthegenreofthe isolario,orislandbookillustratedwithmaps,119cameintobeingwiththeLiber 115 The Gough Map is usually assigned a date of c. 1360, but recently T. M. Smallwood has argued that it was made c. 1400: see “The Date of the Gough Map,” Imago Mundi 62.1 (2010),pp.3–29. 116 SeeF.M.Stenton,“TheRoadsontheGoughMap,”inE.J.S.Parsons,Map of Great Britain circa A.D. 1360, Known as the Gough Map: An Introduction to the Facsimile (Oxford:Bod- leianLibrary,1958),pp.16–20;BrianP.Hindle,“TheTownsandRoadsoftheGoughMap,” The Manchester Geographer 1 (1980), pp. 35–40; and Nick Millea, The Gough Map: The Earliest Road Map of Great Britain?(Oxford:BodleianLibrary,2007),esp.25–32. 117 For details on Erhard Etzlaub’s ‘Romweg’ Map and Waldseemüller ’s Carta itineraria EuropaeseeCh.4,n.41andCh.4,n.42,respectively. 118 WerefertoDomenicoSilvestri’sDe insulis et earum proprietatibus,an alphabeticalency- clopedia of islands writtenbetween 1385 and 1410. For discussion of Silvestri’s work see MaricaMilanesi,“IlDe Insulis et earum proprietatibusdiDomenicoSilvestri(1385–1406),” Geographia Antiqua2(1993),pp.133–146.Thetexthasbeeneditedtwice,firstinDomenico Silvestri, De insulis et earum proprietatibus, ed. C. Pecoraro = Atti della Accademia di scienze, lettere e arti di Palermo14.2(1954),pp.1–319,andinJoséManuelMontesdeoca,Los islarios de la época del humanismo: el ‘De Insulis’ de Domenico Silvestri, edición y traducción (La Laguna: Servicio de Publicaciones Universidad de La Laguna, 2004) (CD -RO M edition). 119 FordiscussionoftheisolarioasagenreseeMarzianoGuglielminetti,“Perunsottogenere della letteratura di viaggio: gl’isolari fra quattro e cinquecento,” in Silvia Benso, ed., La letteratura di viaggio dal Medioevo al Rinascimento: generi e problemi (Alessandria:
87 TheGeographicalSections insularum archipelagioftheFlorentineCristoforoBuondelmonti(c.1385–c. 1430),whocreatedfourdifferentversionsoftheworkca.1418,1420,1422,and ca. 1430.120 In his book Buondelmonti describes and supplies maps of the islandsoftheAegean,andalsoofConstantinople;themapsareinthestyleof nautical charts, and the work survives in more than sixty manuscripts. The popularityofBuondelmonti’sLiberisalsoattestedbytheauthorswhocreated newisolariifollowing and expandingonhis model: BartolomeodalliSonetti createdanisolariothatexistsinthreeundatedmanuscriptsandwaspublished inVeniceinabout1485;121Sonetti’swerethefirstnauticalchartstoappearin print (see Fig. 4.3). Henricus Martellus, a German cartographer working in Florence in the late fifteenth century, created an isolario that is based on Buondelmonti’s and survives in six manuscripts apparently made c. 1490.122 MostofthesemanuscriptsbearthetitleInsularium illustratum;Martelluswas the first to include islands beyond the Mediterranean, and three surviving Edizioni dell’Orso, 1989), pp. 107–117; Tarcisio Lancioni, Viaggio tra gli isolari (Milan: Edizioni Rovello, Almanacco del Bibliofilo, 1991); and Massimo Donattini, “I libri delle isole,”inhisSpazio e modernità: Libri, carte, isolari nell’età delle scoperte(Bologne:CLUE B , 2000),pp.167–192. 120 On Buondelmonti and his Liber insularum archipelagi see Hilary Turner, “Christopher Buondelmontiandthe Rise of the Isolario,” Terrae Incognitae 19(1988), pp. 11–28;Laura Cassiand AdeleDei, “Le esplorazionivicine:geografia eletteratura negliIsolari,”Rivista geografica italiana 100(1993),pp. 205–269;GiuseppeRagone, “IlLiber insularum Arcipe- lagidiCristoforodeiBuondelmonti:filologiadeltesto,filologiadell’immagine,”inDidier Marcotte,ed.,Humanisme et culture géographique à l’époque du Concile de Constance. Aut- our de Guillaume Fillastre. Actes du Colloque de l’Université de Reims, 18–19 novembre 1999 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2002), pp. 177–217; and Benedetta Bessi, “Cristoforo Buondelmonti: GreekAntiquitiesinFlorentineHumanism,”The Historical Review – La revue historique9 (2012),pp.63–76. 121 FordiscussionofSonetti’sisolarioseeWouterBracke,“Unenotesurl’IsolariodeBartolo- meo da li Sonetti dans le manuscrit de Bruxelles, B R , CP, 17874(7379),” Imago Mundi 53 (2001),pp.125–129;andMassimoDonattini,“BartolomeodaliSonetti,ilsuoIsolarioeun viaggiodiGiovanniBembo(1525–1530),”Geographia Antiqua3–4(1994–95),pp.211–236. There are two facsimile editions of Sonetti’s book: Bartolommeo dalli Sonetti, Isolario (Amsterdam:TheatrumOrbisTerrarumLtd.,1972);andBartolomeodalliSonetti,Isolario (Valencia:VicentGarcía,2006),thelatterofahand-coloredexemplarofthework. 122 For general discussion of Martellus’s isolario focusing on the manuscript in the James Ford Bell Library see Rushika February Hage, “The Island Book of Henricus Martellus,” The Portolan 56 (2003), pp. 7–23; while Nathalie Bouloux, “L’Insularium illustratum d’Henricus Martellus,” The Historical Review – La revue historique 9 (2012), pp. 77–94, focuses onthe manuscriptintheMusée CondéinChantilly.Fordiscussion ofallofthe manuscripts of the work seeChetVan Duzer, Henricus Martellus’s World Map at Yale (c. 1491): Multispectral Imaging, Sources, Influence(forthcoming).
88 Chapter4 Figure4.3 The map of Cyprus in Bartolommeo da li Sonetti’s Isolario published in Venice c. 1485 (courtesyoftheLibraryofCongress).
89 TheGeographicalSections manuscripts ofhis workinclude a worldmap.123Theisolarioreacheda truly globalscopewithBenedettoBordone’sLibro de tutte l’isole del mondo,ormore fully, Libro di Benedetto Bordone nel qual si ragiona de tutte l’isole del mondo (Venice, 1528 and 1532), which was reprinted(1534 and later)under the title Isolario di Benedetto Bordone.124 The genre continued into the seventeenth century,butthereisnoneedtotraceitscontinuationhere;sufficeittosaythat eachisolarioisclearlyacollectionofthematicmaps. Theseexamplesshowthatthematicmapsdidexistpriortotheseventeenth century,andalsopriortothecompositionofthetextsinHM83in1486–88.The materialwascertainlyavailable,then,thatmighthaveinspiredalatefifteenth- century cartographer to expand from one genre of thematic map to several, andcreateaseriesofthematicmapsthatreflectageneralizedandfullymod- ern conception of the type. We would also like to mention some other important earlythematic maps that mayhave servedasdirectinspiration to thecartographerofHM83. Earlierwesuggestedthatthethematicarrangementofgeographicalmate- rial in some medieval encyclopedias such as Isidore’s Etymologiae and Bartholomaeus Anglicus’s De proprietatibus rerum may have inspired the author of HM 83 in his creation of thematic maps. In fact, the relationship between Bartholomaeus Anglicus and the maps in HM 83 may be closer. By way of preface, it is important to recall that the description of the tripartite divisionoftheworldinHM83,f.1r,isdrawnfromBartholomaeusAnglicus,De proprietatibus rerum 15.1, so the author of HM 83 was probably familiar with thatwork.AndthereareillustratedmanuscriptsofBartholomaeusAnglicus— oftheFrenchtranslationbyJeanCorbechoncompletedin1372,ratherthanof theLatinoriginal—thathavethematicmapsatthebeginningoftheirbooks. The manuscript BnF MS fr. 22532, which is of Corbechon’s translation of BartholomaeusAnglicus,125andwasmadeinthethirdquarterofthefifteenth century,hasatthebeginningofBook13(usuallyBook14),onf.186v,aremark- able unfinished thematic map of the world’s mountains, to the exclusion of 123 See Roberto Almagià, “I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di CristoforoColumbo,”La Bibliofilia42(1940),pp.288–311. 124 OnBordone’sisolarioseeLuísdeAlbuquerque,“Algumasnotassobreo‘Isolario’deBene- dettoBordone,”Revista de História das Ideias8(1983),pp.579–596;reprintedinhisA Náu- tica e a Ciência em Portugal. Notas sobre as navegações(Lisbon:Gradiva,1989),pp.71–90. 125 FordiscussionofCorbechon’stranslationseeMichelSalvat,“JeanCorbechon,traducteur ouadaptateurdeBarthélemil’Anglais?”inCharlesBrucker,ed.,Traduction et adaptation en France à la fin du Moyen Âge et à la Renaissance (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1997), pp. 35–46; and Bernard Ribémont, “Jean Corbechon, un traducteur encyclopédiste au XI Vesiècle,”Cahiers de recherches médiévales6(1999),pp.75–97.
90 Chapter4 other geographical elements (see Fig. 4.4).126 There are a total of 27 named mountains,manyofthemintheHolyLand,butEtna,theRiphaeanMountains in the far north, and Olympus and Parnassus are also depicted. In another manuscriptofCorbechon’stranslation,BnFMSfr.9140,madec.1480,thereisa 126 ThereisabriefdiscussionoftheillustrationsatthebeginningofBook14inmanuscripts ofCorbechon’stranslationofBartholomaeusAnglicusinDonalByrne,“TheIllustrations totheEarlyManuscriptsofJeanCorbechon’sFrenchTranslationofBartholomaeusAng- licus’De proprietatibus rerum:1372–1420,”Ph.D.Dissertation,CambridgeUniversity,1981, pp.84–86. Figure4.4 An unfinished map of the world’s mountains in a manuscript of Jean Corbechon’s French translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus’s Deproprietatibusrerum made in the third quarter of the fifteenth century (Paris ,B nF, MSfr .22532,f.186v, bypermissionoftheBibliothèquenationaledeFrance).
91 TheGeographicalSections Figure4.5 A map of the world’s mountains in a manuscript of Jean Corbechon’s French translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus’s Deproprietatibusrerum made c. 1480 (Paris,BnF,MSfr.9140,f.237v,bypermissionoftheBibliothèque nationaledeFrance).
92 Chapter4 Figure4.6 A map of the world’s waters in a manuscript of Jean Corbechon’s French translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus’s Deproprietatibusrerum made c. 1480. Compare figs. 4.15 and 4.16 (Paris,BnF,MSfr.9140,f.226v,bypermission oftheBibliothèquenationaledeFrance).
93 TheGeographicalSections bird’s-eyeviewonf.237vofalargegroupofgeneralizedmountains—without namesinthiscase—setinacircularmappamundi-styleframe(Fig.4.5).Other manuscriptsofthesamework(BnFMSfr.136,f.36v;BnFMSfr.22533,f.203v)127 present a view of a mountainous countryside similar to theimagein HM 83, f.5r(seeFig.4.11below). Moreover,themapsoftheworld’swaters(withemphasisonthefourrivers ofParadise)inHM83,ff.7v–8r(Fig.4.15)and14r(Fig.4.16)bearsomesimilarity toamapoftheworld’sriversinoneofthemanuscriptsofCorbechon’sFrench translationjustmentioned,namelyBnFMSfr.9140,f.226v(seeFig.4.6).Inthis samemanuscript,themappamundionf.243v(seeFig.4.7)seemstocombine information from different parts of Bartholomaeus’s work, including infor- mation about rivers, mountains, and cities, much the way that the mappa mundi localis in HM 83, ff. 6v–7r, does. While the author of HM 83 quotes Bartholomaeus’saccountofthetripartitionoftheworldinLatin,themappae- mundiinmanuscriptsofBartholomaeuswehavebeencitinghereareallfrom manuscriptsofCorbechon’sFrenchtranslationoftheDe proprietatibus rerum, andweknowofnoLatinmanuscriptoftheworkthathasmappaemundisimi- lartothese.128Ontheonehand,itseemslikelythattheauthorofHM83drew inspirationforhisthematicmapsfromthoseinamanuscriptofBartholomaeus Anglicus,butontheother,suchaninfluencewouldentailthatourauthorhad access either to botha Latin(for the text)and aFrench manuscript(for the maps)ofBartholomaeus,ortoaLatinmanuscriptwithamoreelaboratepro- gramofillustrationwithmapsthananyLatinmanuscriptoftheworkthathas comedowntous. The Maps in the Geographical Sections WewillnowdiscussthemapsinthegeographicaltreatiseinHM83,transcrib- ingthe toponyms, transcribingandtranslatinglegends anddescriptive texts, discussingsourceswhererelevant,andalsoaddressingtheirthematicnature. 127 Images of these folios are available through <http://mandragore.bnf.fr/html/accueil. html>. There is a similar view in a printed edition of Corbechon’s translation, Bartholo- maeusAnglicus,Le proprietaire des choses(Lyons:Siber,1486),atthebeginningofBook14. 128 On illustrated Latin manuscripts and printed editions of Bartholomaeus Anglicus see HeinzMeyer, “DieillustriertenlateinischenHandschriftenimRahmenderGesamtüber- lieferung der Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus,” Frühmittelalterliche Studien 30 (1996),pp.368–395;andJamesSnyder,“TheBellaertMasterandDe proprietatibus rerum,” inSandraHindman,ed.,The Early Illustrated Book. Essays in Honor of Lessing J. Rosenwald (Washington,DC :LibraryofCongress,1982),pp.41–62.
94 Chapter4 Figure4.7 A mappamundi that combines information about rivers, mountains, and cities, much the way that the mappamundilocalis in H M 83, ff. 6v-7r, does (Paris , Bn F, MSfr.9140,f.243v,bypermissionoftheBibliothèquenationalede France). TheMaponf.1r Thissmallandrelativelyundetailedmappamundi—oriented,likemostmedi- evalmappaemundi,witheastatthetop—shouldbeunderstoodasillustrating
95 TheGeographicalSections thetextsaboutthetripartitionofthe worldamongNoah’ssons thatprecede andfollowit(Fig.4.8).Thetextabovethemaptotherightreads:Iste circulus exterior habet mare occeanum. Spatium vero intra nigrum notat terram habita- bilem que est quarta pars totius,“Thisexteriorcirclecontainstheocean,while theblackspacesinsideindicate thehabitableland,whichis aquarter ofthe whole”;thetextwrittenonacurvedlineparalledtotheouteredgeofthecir- cumfluentoceanreads:mare occeanum terram circumdans et dat windesmer, “The ocean sea, surrounding the land, also the windy sea.” Within the map, readingfromthetop(east)downwards,wehave:India,Asia maior,Sem qui et melchisideck(“Sem, alsoknown as Melchisideck”),129 mare magnum, egiptus, Europa Japhet,mare artum,Affrica Cham. The map’s treatment of the seas is quite different than we find on most other mappaemundi. A typical T-O map has the Mediterranean (sometimes called mare magnum) dividing Europe and Africa, the Tanais or Don River dividingEuropeandAsia,andtheNiledividingAfricaandAsia.Herethecar- tographerdistinguishesbetweenthenarrowwesternMediterranean,whichhe calls the mare artum, no doubt referring specifically to the area around the StraitofGibraltar;andthemoreampleeasternMediterranean,whichhecalls mare magnum(compare the maponf.3v).He seems to conflate the eastern Mediterranean with the Nile, and shows what is evidently this combination flowing all the way through Africa to the southern part of the circumfluent ocean.OnmostmappaemunditheTanaisisshownflowingnorthandsouth,in effectjoining the Mediterranean with the northern part of the circumfluent ocean,herethereiswhatseemstobeariverflowingnortheastandsouthwest betweenthesetwobodiesofwater.Wehavenotfoundanytextthatspeaksof thewesternMediterraneanasamare artum,thoughLudolfvonSachsen,inhis accountofhisvoyagetotheHolyLandwritteninabout1350,saysthatpeople livingbytheStraitofGibraltarcalleditstrictumornarrow,130andinanycase 129 TheidentificationofMelchizedekasShemissupportedbySaintEphremtheSyrianinhis Commentary on Genesis,section11:seehisSelected Prose Works,trans.EdwardG.Mathews, Jr. and Joseph P. Amar, ed. Kathleen McVey (Washington: The Catholic University of AmericaPress,1994)(=TheFathersoftheChurch,vol.91),p.151;andJeromeinhiscom- mentaryonGenesis14:18:seehisLiber quaestionum hebraicarum in GenesiminhisOpera (Turnhout:Brepols,1958-)(=CorpusChristianorum,SeriesLatina,72),p.19. 130 SeeLudolfvonSachsen,Iter ad Terram Sanctam(Gouda:GerardLeeu,1483–1485),chap- ter4,“Debarbaria”:Et est notandum quod inter regnum marrochie et hyspanie mare medi- terraneum influit ex occeano per brachium latitudinis vix quarte partis unius miliaris. Itaque in una ripa stat mulier cristiana et in alia mulier barbara vestimenta earum lauantes et ad inuicem rixantes, et dicitur illud brachium maris ab incolis strictum, ferit de baltar et alio nomine strictum.... This passage is translated into English in Ludolf von Sachsen,
96 Chapter4 Figure4.8 Huntington HM 83, f. 1r, the opening of the geographical treatise, with mappa- mundi (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
97 TheGeographicalSections it is easy to imagine the author of HM 83 inventing this name based on the presenceoftheStraitofGibraltar. TheMaponf.3r Thismap(seeFig.4.9),substantiallylargerthanthepreceding,illustratesthe listoftheoceanicislandspertainingtoAsiaandEuropeonff.2rand2v,respec- tively,andislabeledfigura insularum maris occeani,“mapoftheislandsofthe ocean.”Inthismapthewidthofthecircumfluentoceanisincreasedtoaccom- modate exaggerated representations of the oceanic islands, eachshown as a circlewithitsnameinside.Someoftheislandsarelargerthantheothers,and this seems to be the result of an attempt to reflect the physical sizes of the islands asknownin the fifteenthcentury, withthe understanding, evidently, thatgroupsofislandsmeritlargercircles:thusitisthatthefortunate insule 4or andtheGor<gon>ides insulearelargerthanAnglia,forexample.Theislandson the map, reading from the southeast counterclockwise, are: Crisse insule auree,131 Thabrona (Taprobana), X tribus Israel (ten tribes of Israel), Tilos Caucasus,132 Ungaria magna,133 Regnum Amasonum (the kingdom of the Ludolph von Suchem’s Description of the Holy Land, and of the Way Thither, Written in the Year A.D. 1350, trans. Aubrey Stewart (London: Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society 1895) (= LibraryofthePalestinePilgrims’TextSociety12.3),p.6. 131 Chryse,theislandofgold,isusuallymentionedinconjunctionwithArgyre,theislandof silver;thetwoislandsaredescribedbyPomponiusMela3.7,Pliny6.80,Solinus52.17,and Isidore14.6 .11 . 132 ThisAsianislandofThule, nottobe confusedwiththeAtlanticThule,is mentionedby Pliny6.148,Arrian7.20.6,Solinus52.49,andIsidore 14.6 .13.FordiscussionseeVincentH. deP.Cassidy,“TheVoyageofanIsland,”Speculum38(1963),pp.595–602,esp.597–602. 133 The relevanttextonHM83,f.2v,reads:Ungaria magna hodie est tributaria duci mustarie et ex illa terra venerunt ungari nostri christiani retinentes idem ydyoma proprium quibus nondum evangelium est predicatum et magis proprie pertinent ad Asiam maiorem utpote supra ubi Sithia superior, “GreaterHungarynowadayspaystributeto theleader ofMos- cow,andfromthatlandcameourHungarianChristians,retainingtheirdistinctlanguage, who have not yet been evangelized, and their land pertains more to Greater Asia, like northern Scythia, just mentioned.” The Latin is transcribed by Axel Anthon Bjørnbo, “AdamafBremensNordensopfattelse,”Aarbøger for Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie24.2 (1909), pp. 120–244, at 240. On Hungaria Magna see Heinrich Dörrie, Drei Texte zur Geschichte der Ungarn und Mongolen: Die Missionreisen des fr. Julianus O.P. ins Uralgebiet (1234/5) und nach Rußland (1237) und Bericht der Erzbiscofs Peter uber die Tartaren(Göt- tingen:Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht,1956)(=NachrichtenderAkademiederWissenschaften in Göttingen. I. Philologisch-Historische Klasse, 6); and A. H. Chalikow, “Auf der Suche nach Magna Hungaria,” Hungarian Studies 2 (1986), pp. 189–216. We thank Felicitas Schmiederfortheformerreference.
98 Chapter4 Amazons),134 lucanania (Lapland),135 Islandia (Iceland), Suecia (Sweden), Norwegia,Gronlandia(Greenland),Dacia,Scotia,Hibernia,Britannia minor,136 Anglia, Tanatos,137 Tile (Thule),138 Fortunate insule 4or, Gor<gon>ides insule, and Hesperide insule. There are no islands in the southern ocean, and this reflectsthefactthatthereisnoseparatelistofislandsthatpertaintoAfricain the text.Also absentfrom the mapareislandspeculiar to the nautical chart tradition,suchasBrasilandAntilia:139theauthorofHM83seemsnottohave beenconversantwithnauticalcharts. The names on land, readingfrom east to west, are:India,Asia maior,Asia minor,Ungaria,Jerusalem,Etiopia,Europa,Affrica,mauritania,hispania. The map is clearly—as its title indicates—a thematic map of the world’s islands, and in this case, it seems unlikely that the creator of HM 83 drew 134 FordiscussionseeAlbrechtRosenthal,“TheIsleoftheAmazons:AMarvelofTravellers,” Journal of the Warburg Institute1.3(1938),pp.257–259. 135 The relevant text on HM 83, f. 2v, reads: Lucania etiam magis proprie habet se ad Asiam maiorem quam copmanni nominant laplant,“LucaniapertainstoGreaterAsiaevenmore, andtheCopmannicallitLapland.”TheLatinistranscribedbyBjørnbo,“AdamafBremens Nordensopfattelse”(seeCh.4,n.133),p.240. 136 The relevanttexton HM83,f. 2v, reads: Anglia et Brittannia pro quibus notum quod olim hoc spatium ab hybernia ad thanatos dicabatur brittannia maior et minor et maior habuit xxxiii insulas quarum erant xx deserte et appelebantur iste 33 insule orcades ex quibus sax- ones expulerunt britones in montem brittaniam et maiorem Angliam nominaverunt Adhuc notum quod una 33 insularum dictarum in anglia vocatur Cancia qui magna provincia attingens occeanum britanicum et eius metropolis est cantuaria cuius Archiepiscopus fuit sanctus Thomas,“EnglandandBritain,forwhichitisknownthatinthepastthisareafrom IrelandtoThanatoswascalledGreaterBritainandLesserBritain,andGreaterBritainhad 33islands, of which20 were uninhabited, andthese33 islands were calledtheOrcades, fromwhichtheSaxonsexpelledtheBritonsintoMountBritain,andtheycalledthelarg- est island England. Moreover, it is known that one of the 33 just-mentioned islands in EnglandiscalledCanterbury,whichisalargeprovincethatreachestotheBritishOcean, anditsleadingcityisCanterbury,the archbishopofwhichwasSaintThomas[Becket].” ThispassageistranscribedbyBjørnbo,“AdamafBremensNordensopfattelse”(seeCh.4, n.133),p.241. 137 On the island ofThanatos see A. R. Burn, “Procopius andthe Islandof Ghosts,” English Historical Review70(1955),pp.258–261. 138 On the Atlantic island ofThule seeVincent H. de P. Cassidy, “The Voyage ofan Island,” Speculum 38 (1963), pp. 595–602; Luigi de Anna, Thule: le fonti e le tradizioni (Rimini: Ilcerchio, 1998); and Monique Mund-Dopchie, Ultima Thulé: Histoire d’un lieu et genèse d’un mythe(Geneva:LibrairieDroz,2009). 139 On the islands of Brasil and Antilia see William H. Babcock, Legendary Islands of the Atlantic: A Study in Medieval Geography(NewYork:AmericanGeographicalSociety,1922), pp.50–67and144–163,respectively.
99 TheGeographicalSections Figure4.9 Huntington MS 83, f. 3r, a mappamundi of the islands of the ocean, an early thematic map (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
100 Chapter4 inspiration from the text of Bartholomaeus Anglicus. As mentioned above, Bartholomaeusdoes have abrief chapter(14.6)about islandsingeneral, but weknowofnomanuscriptofhiswork,eitherLatinorFrench,thatillustrates this chapter with anything resembling a thematic map of islands. Isidore of Sevillehasachapter(14.6)onislands,butagain,weknowofnomanuscriptof his encyclopedia that illustrates this chapter with a thematic mappamundi. ThismapseemstobetheparticularcreationoftheauthoroftheworksinHM 83. As we saw above, there are earlier thematic maps of islands in Buondel- monti’sLiber insularum archipelagi, whichwas composed in about 1420,but Buondelmonti does not combine many islands in one map, and this map in HM83isthefirstofthistypethatweknowof.Thenextmapsexplicitlydevoted totheworld’sislandsweremadeaboutfortyyearslaterbyBenedettoBordone inhisLibro di Benedetto Bordone nel quale si ragiona de tutte l’isole del mondo (Venice:perN.d’AristotledettoZoppino, 1528),inthethreeindex mapsnear thebeginningofthework.Butthegenreofthematicmapsofislandsdidnot becomecommonuntilalmostfourhundredyearsafterthemakingofHM83, beginningwithJohnRapkin’smapstitledA Comparative View of the Principal Waterfalls, Islands, Lakes, Rivers and Mountains, in the Eastern Hemisphere and A Comparative View ... in the Western Hemisphere, and published in The Illustrated Atlas, and Modern History of the World Geographical, Political, Commercial & Statistical, ed.R. MontgomeryMartin(London andNewYork: J.&F.Tallis,c.1851). The Maps on f. 3v Thesetwooverlappingmappaemundiarethematicmapsoftheislandsofthe Mediterranean (Fig. 4.10). The upper map illustrates the list on f. 3r of the islandsoftheMediterraneanthatpertaintoEurope,andthelowerone,which bearsthetitleffigura hec est Insularum maris magni respicientium Asiam maio- rem,“ThisisamapoftheMediterraneanislandsclosetoAsiaMinor,”illustrates thelistonf.2roftheislandsoftheMediterraneanthatpertaintoGreaterAsia. TheuppermaplabelsthepartsoftheworldAsia,Europa,andAffrica,and likethemaponf.1r,labelsthebodyofwaterthatwouldbetheNileonother mappaemundiasmare magnum,andlabelsthewesternMediterraneanmare artum.Someoftheislandsintheuppermaparerepresentedinabodyofwater thatstretchesdiagonallytothenortheast.Atthetopofthisstretchisthetop- onymvenecia,butitisnotinacirclelikemanyoftheotherislands.Giventhe locationofVeniceatthetopofthisbodyofwater,itistemptingtointerpretthe branch as representing the Adriatic, but this is not confirmed by the other islandsinthisbodyofwater.EastofthebodyofwateriswrittenStrata,which we have not been able to identify. Then in circular islands are written from northeast to southwest geneve, cilicia (i.e . Cicilia, Sicily), portugalia, Ebulus (Ibiza),andBalearis.Withregardtogeneve,onf.3rwereadgeneve civitas etiam
101 TheGeographicalSections F i gu re 4 .1 0 Huntington HM 83, f. 3v. Two overlapping mappaemundi, the upper one of five European islands, and the lower one of the Mediterranean islands that pertain to Greater Asia (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
102 Chapter4 maris portus, which suggests that portugalia may be an errorfor this portus, butdoesnothelpidentifygeneve. Thelower maplabels thepartsoftheworldEuropa andAffrica,labels the Mediterranean mare magnum, and the mouth of the Mediterranean in the westthemare artum.TheislandsintheMediterranean,fromlefttoright,are: Creta, Abibos (i.e . Abydos), Venecia, Rodos, Ciprus, Tyrus, Sydon, Sardus, and Corsile Insule. TheMaponf.5r As mentionedabove, thisimageis as muchabird’s-eye viewofsome moun- tains as amapofmountains(Fig. 4.11).Itillustrateslists ofthemountains of theHolyLand(Montes terre sancte,f.5r)andofothermountainsaroundthe HolyLand(Montes qui sunt termini terre promissionis sunt hii,ff.5r–5v);assug- gested earlier, this map-view was probably inspired by a similar map-view illustratingBook14ofJohnCorbechon’sFrenchtranslationofBartholomaeus Anglicus’sDe proprietatibus rerum, suchas thoseinBnFMS fr. 136,f.36vand BnFMSfr.22533,f.203v.Thenextthematicmapofmountainsthatweknowof that does not appear in a manuscript of Bartholomaeus Anglicus is Johann WolfgangvonGoethe’sfamousmapHöhen der alten und der neuen Welt bildlich verglichen,published in theAllgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 41(1813), pp. 3–8,140 which was quickly followed by others, such as Charles Smith’s Comparative View of the Heights of the Principal Mountains &c. in the World (London:C.Smith,1816).141Thismapdoesnotreproducewellatasmallscale, so we illustrate here a slightly later thematic map of the world’s mountains, that of F. Humphreys titled Heights of the Principal Mountains in the World, published in Henry S. Tanner, A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the Various Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics of the World(Philadelphia:H. S.Tanner,1836)(seeFig.4.12).142 140 On Goethe’s thematic map of mountains see Gisela Nickel, “‘Höhen der alten und der neuenWeltbildlichverglichen’:EinePublikationGoethesimBertuchVerlag,”inGerhard R. Kaiser and Siegfried Seifert, eds., Friedrich Justin Bertuch (1747–1822): Verleger, Schrift- steller und Unternehmer im klassischen Weimar(Tübingen:Niemeyer,2000),pp.673–689; and MargritWyder, “Vom Brocken zum Himalaja. Goethes ‘Höhen der alten undneuen Welt’undihreWirkungen,”Goethe-Jahrbuch121(2004),pp.141–164. 141 Ahigh-resolutionimageofthismapmaybeconsultedonthewebsiteoftheDavidRum- seyMapCollection,at<http://www.davidrumsey.com>. 142 There is athematic map ofthe mountains of Europe and Asia, butin theirproper geo- graphical locations, titled Bergketten in Asien und Europa, in Heinrich Berghaus, Dr. Heinrich Berghaus’ physikalischer Atlas oder Sammlung von Karten(Gotha:JustusPerthes, 1845–48). A high-resolution image of this map may be consulted on the website of the DavidRumseyMapCollection,at<http://www.davidrumsey.com>.
103 TheGeographicalSections Figure4.11 Huntington HM 83, f. 5r. A generic view of some mountains, followed by a list of the mountains of the Holy Land, and then a list of mountains outside the Holy Land (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
104 Chapter4 F i g u r e  4 . 1 2 F . H u m p h r e y s , H e i g h t s  o f  t h e  P r i n c i p a l  M o u n t a i n s  i n  t h e  W o r l d , p u b l i s h e d i n H e n r y S . T a n n e r , A  N e w  U n i v e r s a l  A t l a s  C o n t a i n i n g  M a p s  o f  t h e  V a r i o u s  E m p i r e s ,  K i n g d o m s ,  S t a t e s  a n d  R e p u b l i c s  o f  t h e  W o r l d ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : H . S . T a n n e r , 1 8 3 6 ) ( b y  c o u r t e s y  o f  t h e  D a v i d  R u m s e y  M a p  C o l l e c t i o n ) .
105 TheGeographicalSections TheMaponf.6r Thismappamundi(Fig.4.13)lacksdesignationsofthecontinents;theconfigu- rationoftheMediterraneanitshowsissimilartothatinthemaponf.1r,but here theparts of the sea lackthelabels mare magnum andmare artum.The mapissurroundedbyatextthatindicatesthedistancefromLübecktoIceland andtheHolyLandwhichwastranscribedandtranslatedabove(Nota Jerusalem distat secundum taxationem viatorum et nautarum...),butthereisnorelation- shipbetweenthattextandthemap;themapratherillustratesthetextabout theFourKingdomsoftheworldonf.5v. The map is labeled figura metropolium mundi, “Map of the metropolises of the world,” and has the cities Babilonia, Niniue, Constantinopolis Roma nova (Constantinople the new Rome), ultima erit Jerusalem (the last will be Jerusalem), Alkraria Antiqua babilonia (Cairo, the ancient Babylon), Roma antiqua,Carthago antiqua.Itrepresentsameditationonandextensionofthe traditionalideaoftheFourKingdomsoftheBookofDaniel,anextensionthat includesnotonlyCarthage(whichOrosius2.1 .5includesinhisaccountofthe FourKingdoms)butalsoCairoandJerusalem,thelatteraverysensible addi- tion accordingtoChristian eschatology, as theHeavenlyJerusalem wouldbe thefinalstoppingpointinthetranslatio imperii. The map should be understood as a thematic map of the capitals of the most important empires of world history (the traditional Four Kingdoms, together withthe author’s extension of that set); thatis, it is apolitical map that showshow the center ofthe world’spower moves over time.It is also a historicalmap,andmorethanthat,amapoftheworld’shistory,andassuch,it prefigures the apocalyptic maps in the next section of the manuscript that showwhatwillhappentotheworldateachstageoftheLastDays. There are earlier examples of historical maps. The Peutinger Map, which wascopiedc.1200,wascertainlycopiedinordertopreserveandputondisplay animage of the worldpast, andthus shouldbe considered ahistoricalmap, whetheritisacopyofanancientRomanorofaCarolingianarchetype.143The maps in manuscripts and printed editions of Ptolemy’s Geography, when unmodified by late medieval and early Renaissance cartographers, were his- toricalmaps,astheyshowedtheworldasithadbeeninancienttimes—even iftheywerenotoriginallydesignedashistoricalmaps.Variousmedievaland earlyRenaissancemapsoftheHolyLandwereconceivedinpartashistorical maps: on the one hand, they showed the modern traveler how to reach the Holy Land and the sites within it, but on the other, those sites were chosen precisely for their historical Christian significance, particularly their signifi- cance in the Bible and in the life of Christ.144 Thus there certainly were 143 ForreferencesonthePeutingerMapseeCh.4,n.111and112. 144 On medieval and Renaissance maps of the Holy Land see Nebenzahl, Maps of the Holy Lands(seeCh.4,n.60);andHarvey,Medieval Maps of the Holy Land(seeCh.4,n.60).
106 Chapter4 Figure4.13 Huntington MS 83, f. 6r. The end of the list of the lands in which the Apostles preached, followed by a thematic map of the capitals of the four kingdoms of the world, with some additional capitals the author deemed important in the translatioimperii (courtes yoft heHu nt i ngto n Li b rary).
107 TheGeographicalSections historicalmapsbeforethemaponf.6rinHM83,butthismapisadistinctive earlyexampleofthiscategoryofthematicmap,145notonlyshowingtheworld’s history,butalsoalludingtoitsfuture. The Map on ff. 6v–7r Thislargemap,whichisspreadacrosstwofolios,islabeledMappa mundi loca- lis, which title seems to indicate that the map offers a greater level of local detailthantheothermapsinthemanuscript(Fig.4.14).Asindicatedabovein thedescriptionofthecontentsofthemanuscript,thismapcombinesinforma- tionfromafewoftheprecedingsections,andthusshowsmanyoftheislands inthecircumfluentoceanlikethemaponf.3r,andalsoprovidesmoredetail aboutthemainland.Thesphere ofearthisshownoffcenterinthesphereof water,incontrastwiththemaponf.3r,andinaccordancewithoneexplana- tionofhowtherewaslandabovethewaters,despitethefactthatthesphereof earthwaswithinthesphereofwater.146 Thereareafewtextsandindicationsoutsidethecircleofthismap.Northis indicatedwiththewordaquiloattheright,andsouthbyAustrumattheright, andthereisa curious setoflines onthenorthernsideofthemapthatseem intendedtoindicatetheeast-westextensionofSithia,i.e .Scythia.Asthearea demarcatedbytheselinesreachesasfarwestasAlimaniaandGallia,thelines have not been drawn with muchcare, andwe have not seen a similar set of linesonanyothermedievalmap. 145 FordiscussionofthecollectionofhistoricalmapsinOrtelius’sParergonseePeterH.Meu- rer, “Ortelius as the Father of Historical Cartography,” in Marcel van den Broecke, Peter vanderKrogt, andPeterMeurer, eds.,Abraham Ortelius and the First Atlas: Essays Com- memorating the Quadricentennial of His Death, 1598–1998(Utrecht:HESPublishers,1998), pp. 133–159; Liliane Wellens-De Donder, “Un atlas historique: le Parergon d’Ortelius,” in Robert W. Karrow et al., Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598): cartographe et humaniste (Turn- hout:Brepols,1998),pp.83–92;WalterS.Melion,“Ad ductum itineris et dispositionem man- sionum ostendendam: Meditation, Vocation and Sacred History in Abraham Ortelius’s Parergon,”The Journal of the Walters Art Gallery 57(1999), pp. 49–72;and GeorgeTolias, “Glose, contemplation et meditation: Histoire éditoriale et fonctions du Parergon d’Abraham Ortelius, 1579–1624,” in Les méditations cosmographiques à la Renaissance (Paris:PU PS,2009),pp.157–186.Foradditionaldiscussionofthegenreofhistoricalmaps seeWalterGoffart,“WhenDidHistoricalAtlasesReallyOriginate?”Humanities Research Group 9 (2001), available at <http://celt.uwindsor.ca/ojs/leddy/index.php/HRG/article/ viewFile/268/262>;GoffartalsohasagoodbriefdiscussionoftheParergoninhisHistori- cal Atlases: The First Three Hundred Years, 1570–1870(Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress, 2003),pp.30–35 . 146 For references onthe non-coincidence ofthe centers of the spheres of earthandwater seeCh.1,n.8.
108 Chapter4 Figure4.14 Huntington MS 83, ff. 6v-7r. A large map labeled Mappamundilocalis that combines information from other maps in the manuscript (courtes yoft he HuntingtonLibrary).
109 TheGeographicalSections
110 Chapter4 Outsidethecircleofthemapinthesouththereisatextthatreads: Egyptusaboccidentehabetmaremagnumexaliistribuspartibus,deserta ab oriente desertum arabie ab austro desertum superius ab aquilone desertuminferius Egypthas theMediterranean on the west, andin the other threedirec- tions,deserts:ontheeastithasthedesertofArabia,onthesouthishas upperdesert,andonthenorththelowerdesert. This confused passage (Egypt has the Mediterranean to the north, not the west)wasprobablymodeledonapassagelikeIsidore14.3 .27orBartholomaeus Anglicus 15.53, where the regions around Egypt are listed, but the cartogra- pher’smemorydidnotservehimwellhere.Inageneralway,thedepictionof Egyptontheadjoiningmapagreeswiththispassage,asitshowsEgyptbetween twodeserts(seethetranscriptionoftheplacenamesinAfricajustbelow).Just outside ofthe southern edge ofthe mapnear the wordAustrum thereis the brief text mare magnum sive mediteraneum to identify the Mediterranean, whichistoonarrowtobearaplacenameinthemapproper. Theislands on the map,proceedingfrom the east(top)counterclockwise, areasfollows;sincethislistisalmostidenticaltothelistofislandsonthemap onf.3r,wereferthereadertothatlistfornotesontheidentityofandliterature about each island: Tabrona (Taprobana), X tribus Israel, Tilos, Caucasus, regnum Amazonum, Ungaria vaga (Hungaria magna), lucanania (Lapland), Islandia,Suecia,Norsvegia,Gronlandia,Dacia,Hibernia,Scotia,Anglia,brittan- nia minor,Tanatos,Tile,Fortunate insule,Gor<go>nides insule,Hesperide insule. TheplacenamesinAsia,readingfrom toptobottom andlefttoright,are: montana, (perhaps referring to the location of the Terrestrial Paradise on a mountain), India, Armenia superior, Ass< >edia persida, parthia, <Semaria>, Caldea,Mesopotamia,Arabia,Hircania,Armenia inferior,Capadocia,desertum arabie, Sicilia (i.e . Cilicia), Antiochia, Siria, Asia minor, Jerusalem, desertum, Egyptus,desertum,Insulares,Inferior Ethiopia,Superior Ethiopia.It shouldbe remarkedthatwhileJerusalemisindicatedbyaprominentcirclenearthecen- terofthemap,itisnotpreciselyinthecenter,butsomewhattothenorthand east. In Europe: Rucia, Livonia, Polonia, ungaria, Gothia, lubeck, Roma, Brema, ytalia,Alimania,Gallia.Herethecartographer’sreasonbecomesclearforhav- ingthenorthernriveroftheT-Ostructureofhismapsflownortheastinstead ofnorthasitdoesonmostothermappaemundi:hecountsRussia,Livonia,and
111 TheGeographicalSections PolandpartofEurope,andhasarrangedthegeographyoftheriverthatdivides AsiaandEuropeaccordingly.147 In Africa: libia cyrenensis, yponis (i.e . Hippo), pentapolis, <Ethiopia> occi- dentalis hic evangelium non audivit (“In western <Ethiopia> they have not heard the Gospel”), visantia (i.e . Byzacium or Byzacena),148 Cepta (Ceuta), Tripolis, Carthago, Getulia, Mauritania, Numidia, Maurochia. The phrase in southwestern Africa to the effect that Gospel has not reached there clearly reflects the author’s interestin the approach oftheApocalypse, as Matthew 24:14saysthattheendwillcomeaftertheGospelhasreachedtheendsofthe earth.149Given the cartographer’sinterest in the Apocalypse,itisinteresting thatonthemapofwheretheApostleswenttopreachonf.15r(seeFig.4.18), thereisnosimilarlegendabouttheGospelnotreachingsouthwesternAfrica. The Map on ff. 7v–8r Alargemappamundi,spreadovertwofolios,titledMappa de Aquis terram irri- gantibus, showing the world’s main rivers. From a castle in the east that represents theTerrestrial Paradiseflow the four rivers of Paradise(Fig. 4.15). Therestoftheworld’shydrographyismuchasinthemaponff.6v–7r;alsoas inthatmap,thesphereoftheearthisrepresentedashavingadifferentcenter than the sphere of water, but while this disposition of the map and also its largesizeleaveroomforislandsinthecircumfluentocean,noislandsarepres- ent.Certainlytheirabsenceisintendedtoplacemorevisualemphasisonthe riversoftheworld.Thetextoutsidetheeasternpartofthemapreads: Ita isti quattuor fontes paradisi vadunt secundum glossam integralem super 24 ecclesiasticus et sepe perduntur meatibus subterraneis et nominamutant. 147 ThegeographyofnorthernEuropeasindicatedonthismapisreflectedinaremarkbythe makerofHM83onf.9r:livonia Polonia ungaria hic angulus tenet se ad huc ad Europam et papam et imperatorum aqualiter, “Livonia,Poland,Hungary:this angleisloyaltoEurope andthePopealsototheEmperor.” 148 OnAfrican Byzacium orByzacena seeWilliam Smith,A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (London: J. Murray, 1878), vol. 1, p. 461; there is discussion of the difference betweenByzaciumandByzantiuminGervaseofTilbury,Otia imperialia(seeCh.4,n.57), Book1,chapter11,pp.318–319. 149 Fordiscussionofandbibliographyregardingtheglobalscopeofthe evangelicalmission seeChetVanDuzerandIlyaDines, “TheOnlyMappamundiin aBestiaryContext:Cam- bridge,MSFitzwilliam254,”Imago Mundi58.1(2006),pp.7–22,at13–15.
112 Chapter4 ThusthesefourriversofParadiseflowaccordingtothe‘integralgloss’on Ecclesiasticus24,andtheyoftendisappearinundergroundpassagesand changetheirnames. Thefour riversflowingwestward from Paradise are labeledthePhison, Gyon andNilus,Tigris, andEufrates.Thefact that the one riverislabeledboththe Gyon and the Nilus is to be taken as reflecting the name change that the F i g ure 4 .1 5 Huntington MS 83, ff. 7v-8r. A large map titled MappadeAquisterramirriganti- bus or map of the waters that irrigate the earth, which places great emphasis on the rivers of Paradise, rotated so that east is at the top (courtes yoft he HuntingtonLibrary).
113 TheGeographicalSections cartographeralludestointhetextoutsidethemap,eventhoughhedoesnot showtheriverdisappearinginsubterraneanpassages.150Indeed,thecartogra- pher mighthave takenadvantage ofa subterraneanpassage tohave theNile appearinAfricaanddebouchintotheMediterraneanfromAfrica,buthedoes not, and as a result the geography of this river of Paradise on this map is less than satisfying.151As things stand,in a waytheNileis representedtwice on the map, onceflowingfromParadise, andalso aspart ofthe ‘T ’ ofwaters that divide the continents on the mappamundi. The Glossa ordinaria on Ecclesiasticus 24doesdiscuss the rivers ofParadise,152butdoesnot mention 150 For discussion of the rivers of Paradise see Paul Albert Février, “Les quatre fleuves du Paradis,”Rivista di archeologia cristiana32.3 –4(1956),pp.179–199;andS.G.Darian, “The GangesandtheRiversofEden,”Asiatische Studien – Études Asiatiques31(1977),pp.42–54. Onthe subterranean andsuboceanic courses ascribedto the rivers ofParadise bysome ancient and medieval authors see Chet Van Duzer, “The Cartography, Geography, and Hydrography of the Southern Ring Continent, 1515–1763,” Orbis Terrarum 8 (2002), pp.115–158,esp.118–121 . 151 OnAndreasWalsperger’smappamundiof1448fourriversleaveacastleintheEastrather likeonHM83,ff.7v–84;twooftherivers arelabeledGangesandTigris, anditis reason- abletothinkthatoneoftheothertwowasintendedtorepresenttheGyon/Nile,andthe Niledoes appearinitsproperlocationin Africa, so we are probablyto infer a subterra- neanpassage.Adifferentsolutiontothisproblemisadoptedinanunsignedandundated Venetian copperplate world map of ca. 1485: the Nile arises in Paradise with the other threerivers, andthenflowsviaalandbridgejoiningAsiatoAfricaintoAfrica,andthen north to the Mediterranean. For discussion of the map see Erich Woldan, “A Circular, Copper-Engraved,MedievalWorldMap,”Imago Mundi11(1954),pp.12–16. 152 The textof theGlossa ordinaria onthis passage suppliedin Patrologia Latina 113:1210, is incomplete,andwesupplyherethetextfromvol.2oftheBibleprintedinStrasbourgby AdolfRuschnotafter1480:Quasi Phison. Phison qui et Ganges qui de paradiso exiens vadit ad indiam, et interpretatur caterua quia sic magnis fluminibus impletur. Ganges autem dicitur a gangaro rege indie, et fertur sicut Nilus super Orientis terras exundare. Sicut Tigris. Tigris fluvius mesopotamie qui pergit contra assirios, et post multos circuitus in mare mor- tuum fluit, et tirgris vocatur quia sicut Tigris bestia velociter fertur. Quasi Euphrates. Euphra- tes fluvius mesopotamie gemmarum fertilis. Eufrata enim hebraice fertilitas latine. Mesopotamiam namque per loca irrigat, sic nilus alexandriam. Salutius asserit tigrim et eufraten uno fonte in armenia meare sed postea dividuntur maximo inter se spacio. Ter- raque quae ab ipsis ambitur mesopotamia dicitur. Quasi Gyon. Gyon, hic ethiopiam cingit. sic vocatus quia irrigat terram egypti, ge enim graece terram significat, qui apud aegyptios nilus vocatur propter limum quem trahit, qui fecunditatem efficit, unde et Nilus dictus est. There is a facsimile edition of this Bible: Biblia latina cum glossa ordinaria: Facsimile reprint of the Editio Princeps, Adolph Rusch of Strassburg 1480/81, introd. Karlfried Froe- hlichandMargaretT.Gibson(Turnhout:Brepols,1992).
114 Chapter4 anysubterraneanpassages or changes ofname,but these characteristics are mentionedintheGlossa ordinariaonGenesis2.153 InnortheasternAsia,thebodyofwaterthatflowsnortheasttothecircum- fluent ocean, which also appears in the maps on ff. 1r, 3v, and 6r, is finally identifiedin thelegendRa flu<v>im fluit per hiberniam, “TheRhaRiverflows through Iberia”: the Rha River is the Volga, mentioned by the name Rha by Ptolemy (Geography 5.9 and 6.14),154 and hibernia is an error for the Asian Iberia.155AtthecenterofthemapisJerusalem;andinthewesternhalfofthe mapthevariousseasarenamed:theseatothenorthis(quitestrangely)labeled mare ori<entails>,andisperhapstobeidentifiedwiththeBaltic;thechannel thatrunsbetweenthenorthernMediterraneanandthewesternMediterranean islabeledStrataasitisonthemapinf.3v,butremainsunidentified;andthe bodyofwater thaton most mappaemundiwouldbelabeledtheNileishere, muchasonthemaponf.3v,labeledmare magnum sive mediteraneum.Inthe west,aseathatisperhapstobeidentifiedwiththeBayofBiscayisdesignated themare occidentale,andthewesternMediterranean,asonthemapsonff.1r and3v,islabeledmare artum. Justoutsidethecircumfluentoceantothewestisaphrasethatreads:Mare occeanum circumdans terram totam <impenetrans?> quartam partam et est mater aquarum, “The ocean sea encircles all of the land, <penetrating?> the fourthpart,anditisthemotherofthewaters.”Thephrasemater aquarumis lesscommonthanonemightsuppose,andtheonesourceearlierthanHM83 wherewehavefounditseemsunlikelytohavebeenconsultedbytheauthorof 153 FromtheGlossa ordinariaonGenesis2intheBibleprintedinStrasbourgbyAdolfRusch not after 1480: Ferunt historici tigrin et eufratem et nilum plerisque locis terre absumi: et paulo post emergentia silitum agere cursum.... Haec flumina gentibus per quas fluvunt notis- sima sunt: duobus vetustas mutavit nomina: Geon enim nilus nunc vocatur. Phison ganges. Tigris et eufrates antiqua nomina servaverunt. 154 TheRhaRiverappearsastheRasonGiovanniLeardo’sworldmapof1452or1453:seeJohn KirtlandWright,The Leardo Map of the World, 1452 or 1453, in the Collections of the Ameri- can Geographical Society(NewYork:AmericanGeographicalSociety,1928),p.33. 155 ThenameHiberniaisalsousedfortheAsianIberiabyAndreadaBarberinoinhischival- ricromanceIl Guerrin Meschino,whichhecompletedinabout1410andwhosegeography isbasedonthatofPtolemy:seeRudolfPeters,“ÜberdieGeographieimGuerinoMeschino desAndreade’Magnabotti,”Romanische Forschungen22.2(1908),pp.426–505,at473.The Asian Iberia is mentioned inPtolemy 5.11, andseeWilliamSmith,A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography(London:J.Murray,1857),vol.2,pp.9–10.
115 TheGeographicalSections HM83,156sothephraseseemstohavebeenre-inventedherebytheauthorof HM83. Thismapisessentiallyathematicmapoftheworld’swaters,thoughitscov- erageofEuropeanrivers,forexample,leavesmuchtobedesired.Asindicated earlier, the map is quite similar to a map of the world’s rivers in one of the manuscripts of Corbechon’s French translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, namelyBnFMSfr.9140,f.226v(seeFig. 4.6),whichleadsone to suspect that thisthematicmapwasinspiredbyoneinaFrenchmanuscriptofBartholomaeus. The mapis also verysimilartoafifteenth-centurymapinthefrontflyleafof Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.(seeFig.5.12 below).157 The relationship between the maps in this manuscript in Wol- fenbüttelandthoseinHuntingtonHM83willbeexploredinmoredetailbelow; forthemoment,sufficeittosaythatthismapalsoseemstohavesomeconnec- tion with Bartholomaeus Anglicus, as the first part of the legend about the river Dorix or Araxes on the map comes from Bartholomaeus 13.7, and the manuscriptcontainsgeographicalexcerptsfromBartholomaeuson118r–121r.158 TheseconnectionsbetweentheWolfenbüttelmapandBartholomaeusonthe onehandandthemapinHM83,ff.7v–8r,ontheother,tendtoconfirmacon- nectionbetweentheHM83mapandBartholomaeus. The thematic map of the world’s mountains mentioned and illustrated above, F. Humphreys’s Heights of the Principal Mountains in the World, pub- lishedinHenryS.Tanner,A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the Various Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics of the World (Philadelphia: H. S. Tanner,1836),isalsoathematicmapoftheworld’srivers—seeFig.4.12 —and isoneoftheearliestnineteenth-centurymapsofthattype.Anineteenth-cen- tury thematic map of the rivers in Europe and Asia, titled Asia-Eüropa; in 156 Theonlysuchtextwefoundisfromthetwelfthcentury,HermannusdeRuna,Hermanni de Runa Sermones festivales, ed. Edmond Mikkers (Turnhout: Brepols, 1986) (= Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis, 64), Sermon 87, line 129: Mare uocatur mater aquarum pro eo quod omnia flumina fluunt in mare et ipsum non redundat. 157 OnthemappamundionthefrontflyleafofWolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod. Guelf.442Helmst.seeJörg-GeerdArentzen,Imago mundi cartographica: Studien zur Bild- lichkeit mittelalterlicher Welt- und Okumenekarten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Zusammenwirkens von Text und Bild (Munich: W. Fink, 1984), pp. 128–129, 212, 276, and plate 36; and Christian Heitzmann, Europas Weltbild in alten Karten: Globalisierung im Zeitalter der Entdeckungen(Wiesbaden:HarrassowitzinKommission,2006),pp.36–37. 158 On the material from Bartholomaeus Anglicus in Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Biblio- thek, Cod. Guelf. 442 Helmst. see Otto von Heinemann, Die Helmstedter Handschriften (Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 1963–65), vol. 1, pp. 343–345; and Meyer, Die Enzy- klopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3),pp.132–133and272.
116 Chapter4 Beziehung auf das Fliessende, und seine Vertheilung in Stromgebiete, which shows the rivers in their proper geographical locations, may be found in HeinrichBerghaus,Dr. Heinrich Berghaus’ physikalischer Atlas oder Sammlung von Karten(Gotha:JustusPerthes,1845–48).159 The Diagram on f. 13r WemoveonnowtothediagramsandmapsinHM83’sheterogeneoussection onastronomyandgeography(ff.13r–18r).The author opensthissectionwith viewofthewholecosmos:onf.13rthereisadiagramofthesphereslabeledhec figura appellatur ffabrica mundithatshowsthesphereoftheearthrisingpartly outofthesphereofwater,whicharesurroundedbythespheresofairandfire, then the planetary spheres, then the Celum stellarum or sphere of the stars, then theCristallinum, then the Primum mobile, andfinallythe Empureum or Empyrean.160 Just one part of this diagram, to which we will return later, requiresmention:outsideofthespheres,attheverytopofthediagram,there isarectanglecontainingagridthatseemstobeintendedtorepresentthewall surrounding the HeavenlyJerusalem: thisinterpretation is confirmed by the verysimilargridtotherightofthegatesofParadiseonf.11v,inthesectionof the manuscript that addresses the Apocalypse.161 As mentioned earlier, the textonf.13risincomplete,anddoesnotdiscussthispartofthediagram. The Diagrams on f. 13v The upperdiagram shows the sphere ofthe earthrisingoutofthe sphere of water, and the text explains that a quarter of the earth is above the water. Aroundtheseisatraceofthecourseofthesunaroundtheearth,andthetext suppliesinformationabouttherelativesizesoftheearth,ocean,andsun.The diagrambelowillustratestherelativesizesofastar,theearth,andthemoon.162 Itseemsverylikelythatwearetounderstandaprogressionintheimagesonff. 13r,13v,and14r,fromaviewofthewholecosmos,toaviewofthecentralpart ofthecosmos,toaviewoftheearth.Thisuseofdetailmapsisunusualinthe lateMiddleAges,butthereisanotherexampleinHM83,namelyonf.11v(see Fig. 5.9), where the view of the Mount of Olives and some other mountains 159 Ahigh-resolutionimageofthismapmaybeconsultedonthewebsiteoftheDavidRum- seyMapCollection,at<http://www.davidrumsey.com>. 160 ThereisagoodbriefhistoryoftheideaofthespheresinE.J.Aiton,“CelestialSpheresand Circles,”History of Science19(1981),pp.75–114. 161 Ahigh-resolutionimageofHM83,f.13risavailableviatheDigitalScriptoriumat<http:// dpg.lib.berkeley.edu/webdb/dsheh/heh_brf?Description=&CallNumber=HM +83>. 162 Ahigh-resolutionimageofHM83,f.13visavailableviatheDigitalScriptoriumat<http:// dpg.lib.berkeley.edu/webdb/dsheh/heh_brf?Description=&CallNumber=HM +83>.
117 TheGeographicalSections functions as a detail of the image of the earth below, and we will discuss anotherexampleintheworldmapandmapoftheHolyLandinthefrontfly- leaf ofWolfenbüttel, HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf. 442Helmst.(see Fig.5.12),amanuscriptcloselyrelatedtoHM83. The Map on f. 14r Thismapisthefirstofthreeclimaticorzonalmaps,eachwithadifferentcli- maticsystem,sothatthethreemapsshowathematicinterestinclimate.The maponf.14r(Fig.4.16)isbasedonamapoftheworld’sriversverysimilarto thatinff.7v–8r,emphasizingtheriversofparadise,butwithfewerplacenames elsewhere.Overlainonthesegeographicaldetailsaretenparallelsthatdemar- cate ten climates. This system is obviously different from the system of five climata proposed by Aristotle and used in many Macrobian maps,163 or Ptolemy’ssystemofsevenclimata,164andseemstobebasedonanothersystem ofclimataelaboratedbyPtolemyinhisGeography1.23.165Themapispuzzling, asthereisnoconnectionbetweentheriversandthesystemofclimata,andthe mapdoesnotincludemostoftheplacenameswhoseclimataareindicatedin thesurroundingtext.Sotheauthorgeneratedthattextusingadifferentmap. Theplace names on the map,beginning in the east andmovingwest, are as follows: Eufrates, Tigris, Phison per evilat,166 India, Gyon, Nilus, Etiopia (repeated), Egiptus,Jerusalem.The scribe had initially drawn theTigris with thewesterncourseoftheEuphrates,butthendidhisbesttoremovetheerro- neous course of the Tigris. The first climate begins at the northern limit of Etiopia. 163 SeeAristotleMeteorology2.5(362a32);onMacrobianmapsseeDestombes,Mappemondes (see Ch. 4, n. 37), pp. 43–45 and 85–95; Leonid S. Chekin, Northern Eurasia in Medieval Cartography: Inventory, Text, Translation, and Commentary (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), pp. 95–120; and Alfred Hiatt, “The Map of Macrobius before 1100,” Imago Mundi 59.2 (2007),pp.149–176. 164 Ernst Honigmann, Die sieben Klimata und die πόλεις ἐπισήμοι: Eine Untersuchung zur Geschichte der Geographie und Astrologie im Altertum und Mittelalter(Heidelberg:Winter, 1929); and Dmitriy Shcheglov, “Ptolemy’s System of Seven Climata and Eratosthenes’ Geography,”Geographia Antiqua13(2004),pp.21–38. 165 SeeBerggrenandJones,Ptolemy’s Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters(seeCh.4,n.56),pp.84–85. 166 ThePhison river is said toflow aroundEvilath inGenesis 2:11, and see Genesis 10:7.For discussion ofEvilathseeIvarHallberg,L’Extrême Orient dans la littérature et la cartogra- phie de l’Occident des XIIIe, XI Ve, et X V e siècles; étude sur l’histoire de la géographie(Göte- borg: W. Zachrissons boktryckeri a. -b., 1907), p. 202, s.v. “Evilach”; and Samuel Krauss, “‘Euilat’intheLXX,”The Jewish Quarterly Review11.4(July,1899),pp.675–679.
118 Chapter4 F i g ure 4 .1 6 Huntington MS 83, f. 14r. A diagram of ten climatic zones based on geographical texts, overlaid on a copy of the map of the waters of the earth in ff. 7v-8r (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
119 TheGeographicalSections The Map on f. 14v Theclimaticdiagramonf.14vincludesverylittlegeographicaldetail(Fig.4.17), andthusbarelyqualifiesasamap,butitdoesindicatethebodiesofwaterthat create aT-O mappamundi, andthus is a mappamundi.The mapincludes an extrabodyofwaterparalleltoandsouthoftheMediterranean.Thesurround- ing text explains that the extra body of water is the mare artum or western mouthoftheMediterranean:thisseparationoftheMediterraneanproperand theStraitofGibraltarintodifferentclimataispuzzling.Onthemapareindica- tionsofnineclimates(thelastofwhichisnotnumbered),andthereisatable spreadacrossthemapthatgivestheelevatio poli articiorelevationoftheNorth Starineachclimate,thedies prolixiororlongestdayofeachclimate,andthe widthinmilesofeachclimate. Thelatitudeofthebeginningofthefirstclimateisessentiallythesameasit isonthemapinf.14r:onthatmapitmarksthenorthernlimitofEtiopia;onf. 14vEtiopiaisnotindicated.Thetableonf.14vindicatesthewidthsofthecli- matainGermanmiles,withfractionsindicatedinstadia.Thesystemofclimata isbasedonthatofJohannesdeSacrobosco’sTractatus de sphaera,whichwas the mostpopular astronomicalworkoftheMiddleAges andRenaissance,167 whichfits withthe author’s claim that the climata on this maparebasedon astronomy. The latitudes of the first seven climata on f. 14v match perfectly thoseinSacrobosco(who onlyindicates seven climata).The author’s source forhis eighthand ninth climata, which are said tobe centered on 52°N and 56°Nrespectively,isnotclear:thefact thathedoesnotindicatethewidthin milesoftheselasttwoclimatasuggeststhathemayhaveaddedthosetwocli- matahimself. Moreover,thereareproblemswiththeindicatedwidthsinmilesofthecli- mata.Thewidthofclimatashoulddecreaseasonemovesnorth,astheydoin Sacrobosco,but there areirregularitiesin this regardin thelist onf. 14v.The followingtableindicatesthewidthoftheclimaticzonesinmiliaria(Sacrobosco) andGermanmiles(HM83): Sacrobosco HM 83, f. 14v 1. 440 175and2stadia 2. 400 153and4stadia 167 On the continued popularity of Sacrobosco’s Tractatus de sphaera see CorinnaLudwig, “Die Karriere eines Bestsellers. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Rezeption der SphaeradesJohannesdeSacrobosco,”Concilium medii aevi13(2010),pp.153–185.
120 Chapter4 Figure4.17 Huntington MS 83, f. 14v. A diagram of nine climatic zones based on astronomical texts, with a table supplying the elevation of the North Pole and the length of the longest day in each climate, and the width of each in German miles (courtes y oftheHuntingtonLibrary).
121 TheGeographicalSections 3. 350 132 4. 300 153 5. 255 63 6. 212 88 7. 185 76 8. [none] [notsupplied] 9. [none] [notsupplied] In addition to the errors of calculation or copying evident in the irregular sequence of climata widths on f. 14v, it is not clear what type of miliare the author of HM83thought Sacrobosco was using.The ratiobetween the mea- surementsofSacroboscoandthoseoff.14vforthefirstthreeclimata(where the sequence of widths on f. 14v seems regular) averages about 2.6, so the authorofHM83apparentlythoughtthatSacroboscowasusingamiliarethat was about 0.385 (= 1/2.6) the length of the German mile. The definitions of unitsofmeasureintheearlymodernperiodaredifficulttopindown—Andreas Walsperger on his mappamundi of 1448, in a passage transcribed and trans- latedabove,saysthataGermanmileis10,000feet,whileJohannSchönerinhis Opusculum geographicum([Nuremberg]:[JohannPetrejus],1533),Part1,chap- ter12,saysthataGermanmileis5,760feet—butevengiventhegreatvarietyof definitions, we do not know of a miliare that was approximately 0.385 the lengthofaGermanmile. The Map on f. 15r ThethirdmapoftheclimaticzonesinHM83is onf.15r(Fig.4.18).Thepres- enceofthreeclimaticmapswithclimatesystemsfromthreedifferentsources (geographers, astronomers, theologians)againindicates the author’sinclina- tiontousemapsastoolsforcomparison,likehisuseofthematicandhistorical maps. The map is puzzling, and seems to be a less detailed copy of a more detailedoriginal.Thetextsintheupperleftandrightcornersofthefolioread: Hecfigura7climatumsecundumtheologosquipartemterreclimaticam consideraveruntsecundumnaturalemetconvenientemmodumhabita- bilemhominibus. Vide in hac figura quomodo Apostolorum audita est vox in omni terra climatica.
122 Chapter4 Figure4.18 Huntington MS 83, f. 15r. A map showing seven climatic zones based on a theological text, and also the location in which each of the Apostles preached, which are listed on f. 5v (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
123 TheGeographicalSections Thisdiagramshowsthesevenclimatesaccordingtothetheologians,who consideredtheclimateofapartoftheworldaccordingtoitsnatureand thedegreetowhichitissuitableforhumanhabitation. Seein thisdiagramhow the voice oftheApostlesis heardin allofthe landdividedintoclimates. Theideaofthemap,then,istoshowthattheGospelhasreachedallpartsof theearth,andspecificallyalloftheclimatesoftheearth,reflectingtheauthor’s interestintheapproachoftheApocalypse,asMatthew24:14saysthattheend oftheworldwillcomeafter theGospelhasreachedtheends ofthe earth.168 However, the mapincludesindicationsofonlythreeoftheApostles, namely Matthew,Thomas,andJames.Moreover,thetextbelowthemapsaysthatsev- eralplacesarelocatedinaparticularclimatesecundum figuram,accordingto themap,butthoseplacesdonotappearonthemap.Inaddition,thesesame texts indicate that the author was consulting two climatic maps, one with seven climata, and another witheight. For example, the second entrybelow themapsays: Egiptusin2°climatesecundumfiguram8climatum.Secundumfiguram 7climatumscilicetsecundumtheologospartimin2°etpartimin3°. Egyptisin the secondclimate accordingto the seven-climate map,but accordingtotheeight-climatemap,thatis,accordingtothetheologians, itispartlyinthesecondclimate,andpartlyinthethird. Someoftheotherentriesinthelistbelowthemap,beginningwiththe sixth entrywhichisforCeuta,abbreviatethereferencestothetwomapsassecun- dum figuram uandsecundam figuram t;the‘t’probablystandsfortheologorum, butitisnotclearwhatthe‘u’standsfor.ItispuzzlingthattheentryforEgypt justquotedsaysthattheeight-climatemapisthatofthetheologians,whilethe text above and to theleft ofthe mapsays that the map shows the seven cli- mates according to the theologians. The map in fact has seven numbered climata,andthenaredparallelnorthofthenorthernlimitoftheseventhcli- mate, no doubt to be interpreted as indicating the eighth climate—which 168 Fordiscussionofandbibliographyregardingtheglobalscopeoftheevangelicalmission see Van Duzer and Dines, “The Only Mappamundi in a Bestiary Context” (see Ch. 4, n.149),pp.13–15.
124 Chapter4 despitethemap’stitle,theauthorofHM83seemstohavebeensomewhathesi- tantabout. Theearliestreferencethatweknowtoaneight-climatesystemisthatinthe De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii of MartianusCapella(fifth century),169 but Capella certainly was not a theologian, and none of his maps survives. The Wolfenbüttel manuscript of Lambert of Saint-Omer’s Liber Floridus (Herzog AugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.1Gud.Lat.)hasaninscriptionindicatingthatits mapsarebasedonthoseofMartianusCapella,170butLambertdoesnotusethe eight-climate system on his maps, nor does he describe such a system. The theologianthattheauthorofHM83isreferringtomustbeBedetheVenerable (672/673–735),whoinhisDe natura rerum,chapter47,adoptsaneight-climate model.171However,whilethereareclimaticdiagramsinsomemanuscriptsof Bede’sworks,theonesthatwehaveseenshowthefive-climatesystem,rather thananeight-climatesystem.172Theonlyothermapweknowbesidesthatin HM83,f.15r,thatshowseightclimatesisJohnofWallingford’smappamundiof 169 SeeMartianusCapella,The Marriage of Philology and Mercury,trans.WilliamHarrisStahl andRichardJohnson(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1977),8.876,p.340;andMar- tianusCapella,Le nozze di Filologia e Mercurio,ed.andtrans.IlariaRamelli(Milano:Bom- piani,2001),pp.616–619. 170 On the inscription in the Wolfenbüttel manuscript of the Liber Floridus see Richard Uhden,“DieWeltkartedesMartianusCapella,”MnemosyneSer.3,vol.3(1936),pp.97–124; for a list of the maps in the manuscripts of the Liber Floridus see Destombes, Mappe- mondes(seeCh.4,n.37),pp.111–116. 171 See Bede the Venerable, De natura rerum, chapt. 47 (“De circulis terrae”), in Patrologia Latina190:265–273;andBedetheVenerable,Bedae Venerabilis Opera(Turnhout:Brepols, 1955–1980),Pars1,OperaDidascalica(=CorpusChristianorum,SeriesLatina123A, 1975), pp. 189–234, at 229;and Bede theVenerable, On the Nature of Things, and On Times, ed. andtrans.CalvinB.KendallandFaithWallis(Liverpool:LiverpoolUniversityPress,2010), pp. 98 and 162.For discussion of Bede’s system of climates in relation tothose ofPliny, Ptolemy,MartianusCapella,IsidoreofSeville,andGerbertofAurillacseeMarioArnaldi, “Orologisolariazimutalimedievali:Analisideitestiepossibilicollazioni(secondaparte),” Gnomonica Italiana 15 (2008), pp. 31–40, at 36 and 39–40; this material is presented in EnglishinArnaldi’sbookDe cursu solis: Medieval Azimuthal Sundials, From the Primitive Idea to the First Structured Prototype(Somerton:BritishSundialSociety,2012),Appendix F,“TheClimates.” 172 ThemapsinmanuscriptsofBede’sworksarelistedbyDestombes,Mappemondes(seeCh. 4,n.37),pp.35–36,buthedoesnotincludezonaldiagramsthatlackgeographicaldetail. Munich,BSBClm.210,f.132r(ninthcentury)hasfiveclimaticrings;andParis,BnFMSlat. 7474,f.86v(eleventhcentury)showsthefive-climatesystem.
125 TheGeographicalSections c. 1250, but there is no basis to think there is any connection between the HuntingtonmapandJohnofWallingford’s.173 Theplacenamesandlegendsonthemapareasfollows,readingfromsouth to north: desertum propter nimium calorem (“Desert because of excessive heat”);Ethiopia Matheus(indicatingthattheApostleMatthewwenttoEthiopia to preach); in the third climate, from east to west, homines parvi, mediocres, magni; in the fourth climate, from east to west, Bestiae grandes, mediocres, parve, and back in the east of the fourth climate, Thomas (the Apostle);174 Jerusalem; Jacobus; in the circumfluent ocean in the east, X tribus Israel;175 Babel;Constantinopolis;Savianus unus de 7ta <climata?>(“Savinianoneofthe seventh climate”); Francia; desertum esset propter nimium frigus si non habunda<r>ent ligna quibus autem fit ut homines habitent usque ad occeanum mare in yslandia(“Thisareawouldbedesertedbecauseoftheexcessivecoldif treesdidnotabound,bywhosepresenceitoccursthatmencanlivealltheway totheoceaninIceland”);Anglia;hibernia;dacia. Someofthetextsonthemaprequirecomment.Theindicationthatinthe thirdclimatemenaresmallintheeast,medium-sizedinthecentralpartofthe world,andtallinthewest(homines parvi, mediocres, magni),isextraordinary. Wehavenotidentifieditssource,andtheindicationofdifferencebetweenthe east and west is unexpected on a climatic map, where we would anticipate descriptions ofdifferencesbetween northandsouth.176Thisquestionis ren- 173 TheJohnofWallingfordmapisinLondon,BritishLibrary,CottonMSJuliusD.V II ,f.46r, andisreproducedinP.D.A.Harvey,Medieval Maps(London:BritishLibrary,1991),p.20; see also Destombes, Mappemondes(see Ch. 4, n. 37), p. 168, #49.7; Anna-Dorothee von denBrincken,Fines terrae: die Enden der Erde und die vierte Kontinent auf mittelalterlichen Weltkarten(Hannover:HahnscheBuchh., 1992),pp. 109–112 andplate36;Chekin,North- ern Eurasia(seeCh.4,n.163),pp.202–203andplate15.1;andAlfredHiatt,Terra incognita: Mapping the Antipodes before 1600(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), pp. 121, 123–124, and142 note 128.Incidentallythe eighthclimateis mentioned byMartinWald- seemüllerinhisCosmographiae introductioof1507:seeThe ‘Cosmographiae introductio’ of Martin Waldseemüller in Facsimile, Followed by the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, ed. and trans. Joseph Fischer and Franz vonWieser(New York: The United States Catholic HistoricalSociety,1907),chapter7,pp.xxivand62. 174 TheApostleThomasislocatedinthefareastofthemap,intheareathatisdesignatedas IndiainothermapsinHM83,andofcourseThomaswasthoughttohavegonetoIndiato preach: see, W. R. Philipps “The Connection of St.Thomas the Apostle with India,” The Indian Antiquary32(1903),pp.1–15and145–160. 175 TheislandoftheTenTribesofIsraelappearsonothermapsinHM83,includingthoseon ff.3r,6v–7r,and10v(seeFig.4.9,4.14,and5.7,respectively). 176 About a century later, Jean Bodin suggested that the differences between the east and westgeneratedifferencesamongtheinhabitantsofthoseregions:seeJeanBodin,Les six
126 Chapter4 dered more complicated by the text in the fourth climate, which says that animalsarelargeintheeast,andsmallinthewest—theoppositeofthesitua- tionin the third climate.Thefact that the situations are the opposite in the thirdandfourthclimatesispuzzlingandmakesonewonderwhattheauthor ofHM83thoughtthecauseofthisdifferencewas(andcertainlymakesliving inthewest,wherethemenarelargeandthebeastssmall,soundmoreappeal- ingthanlivingintheeast).Perhapstheauthorthoughtthatthisdifferencewas whatexplainedalloftheaccountsofmonstersintheeast.177 Savianuscertainlyrefersnottotheearlyseventh-centuryPopeSabianusor Sabinian,whohadnothingtodowithFrance,178buttoSaintSavinianofSens (inFrench,SaviniendeSens),whointhethirdcenturywassentfromRometo Franceandwas martyredthere.179ButitisnotatallclearwhySavinianison themapratherthanoneoftheApostles.Perhapstheauthorhadaconnection withFrance. Thelegendaboutthefarnorth,indicatingthatitisthepresenceofwood,i.e . woodforfires,thatrendersthenorthernregionshabitableforhumans,comes fromneitherSacrobosconorBede,andwehavenotbeenabletodeterminethe livres de la République, ed. Christiane Frémont, Marie-Dominique Couzinet, and Henri Rochais (Paris: Fayard, 1986), Book 5, chapter 1, “Du reiglement qu’il faut tenir pour accommoderlaformedeRepubliqueàladiversitédeshomes:etlemoyendecognoistre lenatureldespeoples,”p.44.WethankLeonidChekinforthisreference. 177 ThereisanexcellentaccountofthemonstersoftheeastinRudolfWittkower,“Marvelsof theEast:AStudyintheHistoryofMonsters,”Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Insti- tutes5(1942),pp.159–197,reprintedinhisAllegory and Migration of Symbols(Boulder,CO: WestviewPress,1977),pp.45–74.AlsoseeJamesRomm,“BeliefandOtherWorlds:Ktesias andtheFoundingofthe ‘IndianWonders’,”inGeorgeE.Slusser andEricS.Rabkin, eds., Mindscapes: The Geography of Imagined Worlds(Carbondale:SouthernIllinoisUniversity Press,1989),pp.121–135;andAndreaRossi-Reder,“WondersoftheBeast:IndiainClassical andMedievalLiterature,”inTimothyS.JonesandDavidA.Sprunger,eds.,Marvels, Mon- sters, and Miracles: Studies in the Medieval and Early Modern Imaginations(Kalamazoo: MedievalInstitutePublications,2002),pp.53–66 . 178 Amedeo Crivellucci, “Il pontificato di Sabiniano primo successore di Gregorio Magno,” Studi storici8(1899),pp.203–211 . 179 OnSaintSavinianofSensseeAbbéCornat,“Durétablissementdel’anciennelégendede saintSavinien, martyr etfondateurdel’églisedeSens,”Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de l’Yonne5(1851),pp.435–446;“VitaS.Sabinianimartyris,Trecis in Gallia: Ex codiceReginae Sueciae80,”Analecta Bollandiana4(1885),pp. 139–157;and Augustin Fliche, Les vies de saint Savinien, premier evêque de Sens: étude critique suivie d’une édition de la plus ancienne vita(Paris:SociétéFrançaised’ImprimerieetdeLibrairie, 1912).
127 TheGeographicalSections author’ssourcehere.Itmaybetheauthor’sownreflectiononthepracticalities oflifeinthenorth. Theplaceofthismapinthemanuscriptraisesquestionsaboutthecompo- sition of HM 83, and in particular about whether its location reflects the author’s original intentions. As indicated above, the separation of the map (whichisonf.15r)fromthelistofthelocationswheretheApostlespreached (ff.5v–6r),ispuzzling.Giventhatthepurposeofthemapis toshowthatthe Gospel has reached all parts of the earth, which is a prerequisite of the Apocalypse,itwouldseemmorenaturalforthismaptoprecedethetreatiseon theApocalypseratherthanfollowit.Ontheotherhand,itistruethatthemap on15rgoeswellwiththeotherclimaticmapsonff.14rand14v.Oneothercuri- ousaspectofthemaponf.15risthatwhilethismapsuggests(asmentioned earlier),atleastthroughtheauthor’sstatementofitspurpose, thecomplete- ness of the Apostles’ evangelization, the map on ff. 6v–7r indicates that the evangelizationis not completeinalegendthat reads<Ethiopia>occidentalis hic evangelium non audivit, “In western <Ethiopia> they have not heard the Gospel.” But perfect consistency throughout the manuscript is too much to expect. Finally,afewwordsshouldbesaidaboutothermappaemundithatindicate thelocationswheretheApostlespreached.Thebest-knownmapsofthistype areofcoursethemappaemundiillustratingmanuscriptsofBeatusofLiébana’s Commentary on the Apocalypse. These maps appear in the manuscripts just followinga list of the Apostles and the regions theywent to evangelize, and Beatus’stextualreferencetothemap(subiectae formulae pictura demonstrat) makes it clear that he included a map in the autograph manuscript of his Commentary.180 Another map that indicates where the Apostles preached is Oxford,St.John’sCollege,MS17,f.6r,madeinabout1110,whichhasreferences tofouroftheApostlesinAsia(fromeasttowest):Achaia ubi sanctus andreas; Effesus sanctus iohanes predicavit; Cesaria hic Petrus predicavit; Athenas hic 180 Fordiscussion ofthe Beatus maps, andparticularlyoftheir illustration ofthe Apostles’ mission, see Manuel Adolfo Baloira Bertolo, “Doctrina de la dispersión apostólica en Beato,”Compostellanum30.3 –4(1985),pp.289–316;SerafínMoralejoÁlvarez,“Elmapade ladiásporaapostólicaenSanPedrodeRocas:notasparasuinterpretaciónyfiliaciónenla tradicióncartográficadelosBeatos,”Compostellanum31(1986),pp.315–340, reprintedin Patrimonio artístico de Galicia y otros estudios: Homenaje al Prof. Dr. Serafín Moralejo Álva- rez(SantiagodeCompostela:XuntadeGalicia,2004),vol.2,pp.65–74;andSandraSáenz- López Pérez, The Beatus Maps: The Revelation of the World in the Middle Ages (Burgos: Siloé,2014),pp.186–195.
128 Chapter4 Paulus predicavit.181Thereisanalmostidenticalmappamundi,withthesame legendsabout theApostles,in thePeterboroughComputus ofc. 1120(British Library, Harley MS 3667, f. 8v);182 and an unfinishedearlier version ofa very similar map—which includes the legends Achaia ubi sanctus andreas and Cesaria hic Petrus predicauit—in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS 265 (the‘CommonplaceBook’ofArchbishopWulfstanIIofWorcester,whichdates tothelastquarteroftheeleventhcentury),p.210.183 Itis temptingto thinkthat the author ofHM83wasinspired to make the maponf.15rbyanearliermapoftheplaceswheretheApostlespreached,but ifthatisthecase,thatearliermaphasnotsurvived. 181 OnthemapinOxford,St.John’sCollege,MS17,seeDestombes,Mappemondes(seeCh.4, n.37),p.48,no.25.8;FaithWallis,“M SOxfordSt.John’sCollege17,aMediaevalManuscript in its Context,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University ofToronto, 1985, pp. 219–223; Anna-Doro- theevondenBrincken,“MundusFiguraRotunda,”inAntonLegner,ed.,Ornamenta Eccle- siae: Kunst und Künstler der Romanik in Köln(Cologne:Schnütgen-Museum, 1985),vol.1, pp.99–106, at103–105;EvelynEdson, “WorldMaps andEasterTables:MedievalMapsin Context,”Imago Mundi48(1996),pp. 25–42, at35–37, withareproductionofthemapin Fig.4.7;EvelynEdson,Mapping Space and Time: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed their World(London:BritishLibrary, 1997),pp.86–95, withthe mapreproducedonp.88;and Chekin,Northern Eurasia(seeCh.4,n.163),pp.64–65,withanillustrationofthemapon p.365.UpdatedmaterialaboutthemapfromFaithWallis’sdissertationisavailableonher websitedevotedtothemanuscript,at<http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/ms–17/>. 182 ThemapinB LHarleyMS3667isnotlistedbyDestombesinhisMappemondes(seeCh.4, n.37);thebestdiscussionofthemapisthatbyMartinFoysinthearticlecitedinthefol- lowingnote. 183 MartinFoys,“AnUnfinishedMappamundifromLateEleventh-CenturyWorcester,”Anglo- Saxon England35(2006),pp.271–284.
129 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Chapter5 The Treatise on the Apocalypse We turn our attention now to the treatise on the Apocalypse in HM 83, ff. 8v–12v. As indicated above, the geographical material in ff. 1r–8v serves as a prefaceto theapocalypticsection,describingtheworld’sgeographybeforeit underwent dramatic changes in the Last Days, and reviewing the Four Kingdomsoftheworld(f.5v)andalsothemissionsoftheApostles(ff.5v–6r). AnditisabundantlyclearthatthetreatiseontheApocalypsewascomposed bythesameauthorasthegeographicalmaterialinff.1r–8vand13r–18r:inallof these sections we see the author’s strong propensity to illustrate things with maps,andthesummaryoftheLastDaysonf.16ragreesverywell(thoughnot ineverydetail)withtheaccountoftheApocalypsepresentedonff.8v–12v. The traditions of illustrating narratives of the Apocalypse are varied, and extendovermore thana thousandyears: wehave evidencefromtheseventh century of an illustrated manuscript of the Book of Revelation,1 and manu- scripts with illustrations of the Apocalypse survive from the early ninth century.2Yet HM 83 is almost unique in its cartographic program of illustra- tionoftheLastDays.Theauthor’sexperiencewiththematicmaps,evidentin 1 SoJamesSnyder,“TheReconstructionofanEarlyChristianCycleofIllustrationsfortheBook ofRevelation:TheTrierApocalypse,”Vigiliae Christianae18.3(1964),pp.146–162,at147,who notesthatBederecordsinhisVita sanctorum abbatum monasterii in Wiramutha et Girvum,in Patrologia Latina94:718,thatBenedictBiscopofWearmouthtraveledtoRomeinabout672 “to acquire illustratedm anuscripts, includingaBookof Revelation,to serve as m odels for churchdecorations.” 2 TheearliestistheTrierApocalypseofc.800,whichisinTrier,Stadtbibliothek,MS31,andhas been reproduced in facsimile as Trierer Apokalypse: Vollständige Faksimile-Ausg. im Originalformat des Codex 31 der Stadtbibliothek Trier, withcommentary by Richard Laufner andPeterK.Klein(Graz:AkademischeDruck-undVerlagsanstalt,1974–75).Foradetailedlist ofothermanuscriptsthatcontainillustrationsoftheApocalypseseeEmmersonandLewis, “Census andBibliography”(seeIntroduction, n. 1).For chaptersthat together form agood discussion ofartbasedonthe Apocalypse seeRichardK.Emmerson andBernardMcGinn, eds.,The Apocalypse in the Middle Ages(Ithaca, N Y: Cornell University Press, 1992), part 2, pp.103–289.ThechapterthataddressesthelaterMiddleAgesisMichaelCamille,“Visionary Perception andImages of theApocalypseinthe LaterMiddle Ages,” pp. 276–289.Also see JonathanAlexander,“TheLastThings:RepresentingtheUnrepresentable,”inFrancesCarey, ed., The Apocalypse and the Shap e of Things to Come(Toronto and Buffalo: University of TorontoPress,1999),pp.43–63,withacataloguebyMichaelMichael,JonathanAlexanderand MartinKauffmann,pp.64–98. © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_007
130 Chapter5 the geographical sections of the manuscript, makes it unsurprising that he wouldchoosetoillustratetheApocalypsewithmaps,butitisworthexploring another possible source of inspiration of this program, which is the use of map-like images of the world to illustrate the First Days, i.e . the Creation. It seems possible that programs illustrating the Creation with images of the world may have inspired the author’s choice to illustrate the events of the Apocalypsewithmaps. There are several surviving manuscripts that illustrate the Creation with mappamundi-likeimages,whichhowevercannotbecharacterizedasmapsas theydo not show any realistic geographical detail.3One such sequenceis in the Lothian Bible of c. 1220 in the Morgan Library(MS M. 791, f. 4v):4 in the illustrationsofthesecond,third,fourth,andfifthdaysofCreation,theworldis depictedasadiskoflandsurroundedbythecircumfluentocean,inthesame formatasamappamundi,butwithoutgeographicaldetails.Threeothermore elaborate examplesdate from the late fourteenth century. One oftheseis in the Padua Bible (Rovigo, Biblioteca dell’Accademia dei Concordi, MS 212, ff. 1r–1v).5 The paintings are unfortunately damaged, so that the details of the earth are not clearly visible, but it does not seem that they offer significant 3 Campbell,The Earliest Printed Maps(seeCh.4, n.96),p.17,saysthatinordertoqualifyasa map,animage“mustattempttoconvey,ingraphicform,informationabouttherealworldor somepartofit.Itmustbeconcerned—howeverinaccuratelyorschematically—withdirec- tionandtherelativedistanceofoneplaceorfeaturefromothers.” 4 JohannesZahlten,Creatio mundi: Darstellungen der sechs Schöpfungstage und naturwissen- schaftliches Weltbild im Mittelalter(Stuttgart:Klett-Cotta, 1979),pp.68, 108, 161, and fig. 116. MorganLibraryMSM.791,f.4vis also reproducedfor exampleinSuzanneLewis,The Art of Matthew Paris in the Chronica majora(Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1987),p.30;and MichaelLieb,EmmaMason,andJonathanRoberts,eds.,The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible(Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress,2010),fig.13.1 .Imagesofthefolioarealso availableviatheMorgan’sonlinecatalogat<http://corsair.morganlibrary.org/>.Foradiscus- sion of the manuscript seeJohnHenry Plumm er, “The Lothian MorganBible: AStudyin EnglishIlluminationoftheEarlyThirteenthCentury,”Ph.D.Dissertation,ColumbiaUniversity, 1953. 5 ThePaduaBiblehasbeen reproducedinfacsimile inGianfranco Folena andGian Lorenzo Mellini,eds.,Bibbia istoriata padovana della fine del Trecento: Pentateuco, Giosuè, Ruth(Venice: N.Pozza, 1962);andfor a complete studyofitseeSusanMacmillanArensberg, “ThePadua Bible an d the Late Medieval Biblical Pictu re Book,” Ph.D. Disse rtation, Johns Hopkins University,1986.ThereissomediscussionandillustrationoftheBible’sCreationsequencein Zahlten,Creatio mundi(seeCh.5,n.4),pp.70and111, andfigs.128–129.Colorimagesofthe CreationsequenceinthismanuscriptareavailableontheinternetsiteoftheIstitutoCentrale peril Restauro ela ConservazionedelPatrimonioArchivistico e Librario, at <http://www. icpal.beniculturali.it>.
131 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse geographicaldetail.However, theimages of the earth are surrounded bythe elemental and celestial spheres and the Zodiac, as some mappaemundi are, andinparticular,theimagesbearaverycloserelationshiptothemappamundi paintedbyGiustode’MenabuoiintheBattisterodelDuomoinPaduain1375– 13786—either Menabuoi’s map served as a model for the illustrations in the Bible,ortheysharedacommonmodel.ThustheconnectionoftheseCreation imageswithmappaemundiisparticularlyclose. Anotherlatefourteenth-centurymanuscriptthatcontainsaCreationcycle illustrated with images of the world is the Egerton Genesis Picture Book (London,BritishLibrary,EgertonMS1894).Theillustrationsofthesixdaysof Creation(ff.1r–1v)showGodseatedonarainbowaboveimagesoftheworldin thestyleofamappamundi,withthesphereoftheairindicatedbyacircleof clouds,withinthatthewaters,andinthemiddleofthewaters,anislandthat represents the dry land.7 And a late fourteenth-century Missal and Book of Hours,Paris,BnFMSLat.757,containsastrikingCreationcycle,witheachday representedonafull-pageimage,eachinamappamundiformat,withthecir- cleoftheearthsurroundedbythecircumfluentoceanandtheelementaland celestial spheres, with God either above or within the image, causing each stage to occur.8 As the images are full-page, the representations of the earth 6 Onthe mappamundipaintedbyMenabuoiintheBattisteroinPadua seeFrankLestrin- gant, Les méditations cosmographiques à la Renaissance (Paris: PU PS , 2009), pp. 67–68; and Patrick Gautier Dalché, La Géographie de Ptolémée en Occident (IVe–XV I e siècle) (Turnhout:Brepols,2009),p.145. 7 The Egerton Genesis Picture Book is reproduced in facsimile in Mary Coker Joslin and CarolynCokerJoslinWatson,The Egerton Genesis(London:BritishLibrary,2001),withthe Creation scenes reproduced on plates3 and4, and commentary onthem on pp. 30–36. There is some discussion and illustration of the manuscript’s Creation sequence in Zahlten, Creatio mundi(see Ch. 5, n. 4), p. 68, and figs. 114–115; and on the manuscript generally also seeJohn Lowden, “Concerning the Cotton Genesis and Other Illustrated Manuscripts ofGenesis,”Gesta31(1992),pp.40–53, at43–46withfig.6.Colorimages of thescenesfromtheCreationsequenceareavailableviatheBritishLibrary’sonlineCata- logue of Illuminated Manuscripts, at https://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanu- scripts/welcome.htm. 8 For discussion of BnF MS lat. 757 see Kay Sutton, “The Original Patron of the Lombard ManuscriptLatin757intheBibliothèqueNationale,Paris,”Burlington Magazine 124.947 (1982),pp.88–94;EdithW.Kirsch,Five Illuminated Manuscripts of Giangaleazzo Visconti (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania StateUniversity Press, 1991),pp. 13–17 andfigs. 13–18; and Giuseppa Z. Zanichelli, I conti e il minio: codici miniati dei Rossi 1325–1482 (Parma: UniversitàdiParma,Istitutodistoriadell’arte,1996),pp.53–64.Thereissomediscussion andillustrationofthemanuscript’sCreationsequenceinZahlten,Creatio mundi(seeCh. 5, n. 4), p. 76, and fig. 171; and a much more detailed account in Silvana Tassetto, “La
132 Chapter5 arelarge,andinadditiontothecreatedbeings—plants,animals,birds,Adam and Eve—theyincludegeographicaldetails such as islands andinlets ofthe circumfluent ocean. However, these details bear no relation to the world’s actualgeography,andseemintendedmerelytoindicatethattheearthisgeo- graphicallyvaried. Given that the author of HM 83 made use of text and illustrations from BartholomaeusAnglicus,itseemslikelythatifhewasinspiredtoillustratethe ApocalypsewithmapsbyaCreationcyclewithimagesoftheworld,itwould havebeenbysuchacycleinanillustratedmanuscriptofBartholomaeus—for someofthemanuscriptsoftheFrenchtranslationofBartholomaeusbyJean Corbechon do contain such sequences. These sequences are less elaborate thanthosejustdiscussed,andtheimagesoftheworldlessmap-like,butthey mighthave suggesteda series ofmaps to someonecartographicallyinclined. These manuscripts of Corbechon’s translation of Bartholomaeus include, in approximate chronological order: (1) a manuscript made c. 1390, which was soldatSotheby’s(London)onJune23,1998,andagain atChristie’s(London) onJuly7,2010;9(2)Paris,BnFMS fr.216,f. 13r,c. 1400,whoseillustrationsfol- low those of the preceding manuscript closely;10 (3) Madrid, Fundación LázaroGaldiano,MSI15554,f.16v,c.1400;11(4)Brussels,BibliothèqueRoyale, Creazionedelmondo.AspettiiconograficinelMessale-Librod’Orelat.757dellaBiblioteca Nazionaledi Parigi,”Arte lombarda: Rivista di storia dell’arte 117.2(1996),pp.36–44, with an additionalcolour plate onp.57, andEnglish abstract on p. 133.Images of the manu- script’s Creation scenes are available via <http://mandragore.bnf.fr>, and a P D F of the entiremanuscriptcanbedownloadedat<http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8470209d>. 9 On the manuscript sold at Sotheby’s and Christie’s see Donal Byrne, “Rex imago Dei: Charles V ofFranceandtheLivre des propriétés des choses,”Journal of Medieval History7 (1981),pp.97–113,at103–104and106;Western Manuscripts and Miniatures: To Be Sold with the Burdett Psalter (London: Sotheby’s, 1998), lot 52; Meyer, Die Enzyklopädie des Bar- tholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3),p.239;BaudouinvandenAbeele,“Etatdel’éditiondu ‘Deproprietatibusrerum’,”inBaudouinVandenAbeeleandHeinzMeyer,eds.,Bartholo- maeus Anglicus, ‘De proprietatibus rerum’: texte latin et réception vernaculaire = Latein- ischer Text und volkssprachige Rezeption: actes du colloque international = Akten des Internationalen Kolloquiums, Münster, 9. –11 .10.2003(Turnhout:Brepols, 2005),pp. 1–12, at 9–10; and The Arcana Collection: Exceptional Illuminated Manuscripts and Incunabula, Part I: London, King Street, Wednesday 7 July 2010(London:Christie’s,2010),lot31. 10 OnBnFMSfr.216seeMeyer,Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3), pp.346–347;imagesfromthemanuscriptareavailableon<http://mandragore.bnf.fr>. 11 On the Madrid manuscript see Léopold Delisle, Recherches sur la librairie de Charles V (Paris: H. Champion, 1907), vol. 1, p. 233, and vol. 2, p. 302; Jesús Domínguez Bordona, Manuscritos con pinturas: notas para un inventario de los conservados en colecciones públi- cas y particulares de España(Madrid:Centro de Estudios Históricos, 1933), vol. 1, p. 505,
133 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse MS9094,f.12r,c.1401;12(5)Paris,BnFMSfr.22534,f.9r,firstquarterofthefif- teenthcentury;13and(6)Amiens,BM,MS399,f.1r,1447.14 Madrid,FundaciónLázaroGaldiano,MSI15554,f.16v,illustratedinFig.5.1, istypicaloftheCreationfoliosinthesemanuscripts.Intheupperleftregister, Godcreatestheheavensandlight,measuringthemoutinacircularspacewith a compass;15in thesecondhe creates thefire,air, andsea, againin acircular space;andinthethirdhecreatesthelandwithplantsandanimals,oncemore no. 1202, with an illustration of the Creation scene on p. 504; Manuscrits à peintures: l’heritage de Bourgogne dans l’Art International: Casa de Cisneros del Ayuntamiento, Madrid, 14–24 mai, 1955(Madrid:Blass,1955),p.31,no25;andMeyer,Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3),pp.342–343. 12 OntheBrusselsmanuscriptseeCamilleGasparandFrédéricLyna,Les principaux manu- scrits à peintures de la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique(Paris:SociétéFrançaisedeRepro- ductions de Manuscrits à Peintures, 1937–47), vol. 1, pp. 359–361, no. 151; Patrick M. de Winter, La bibliothèque de Philippe le Hardi, duc de Bourgogne (1364–1404): étude sur les manuscrits à peintures d’une collection princière à l’époque du ‘style gothique international’ (Paris:EditionsduCentreNationaldelaRechercheScientifique,1985),pp.195–197,no.4, with figs. 179–184 (fig. 179 shows the Creation scene); and Meyer, Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3),pp.331–332.TheCreationscenefromthismanu- script is also reproduced in Michael Camille, Master of Death: The Lifeless Art of Pierre Remiet, Illuminator(NewHaven,CT :YaleUniversityPress,1996),p.19. 13 On BnF MS fr. 22534 see Meyer, Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(see Ch. 4, n. 3), pp. 355–356; images of the miniatures in the manuscript are available on <http:// mandragore.bnf.fr>. 14 The Creation folio from the Amiens manuscript is reproduced in Robert Bossuat, Le moyen âge(Paris:J.deGigord1931)(=JeanCalvet, ed.,Histoire de la littérature française, vol. 1),p. 272; onthe Amiens manuscript see M. A.Jantier, “Le Livre de la propriété des chosespar Barthélémy deGlanville,”Mémoires de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France51(1890),pp.373–392;FernanddeMély,Les primitifs et leurs signatures, vol. 1,Les miniaturistes(Paris:P.Geuthner,1913),pp.175–176;EberhardKönig,Les Heures de Margue- rite d’Orléans: reproduction intégrale du calendrier et des images du manuscrit latin 1156B de la Bibliothèque nationale, Paris(Paris:EditionsduCERFandBibliothèquenationale,1991), pp. 49–53; and Meyer, Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus (see Ch. 4, n. 3), pp.328–329.Imagesofallofthemanuscript’sminiaturesareavailableat<http://initiale. irht.cnrs.fr>. 15 OntheimageofGodusingacompassseeJohnB.Friedman,“TheArchitect’sCompassin CreationMiniatures of theLaterMiddleAges,”Traditio 30(1974),pp.419–429; Friedrich Ohly, “DeusGeometra—Skizzen zurGeschichte einerVorstellung vonGott,” in Norbert Kamp and Joachim Wollasch, eds., Tradition als historische Kraft: Interdisziplinäre For- schungen zur Geschichte des früheren Mittelalters(BerlinandNewYork:DeGruyter,1982), pp.1–42;andKatherineH.Tachau,“God’sCompassandVana Curiositas:ScientificStudy intheOldFrenchBible Moralisée,”Art Bulletin80.1(1998),pp.7–33 .
134 Chapter5 Figure5.1 The Creation sequence in a manuscript of Corbechon’s French translation of Bartholomaeus Anglicus’s Deproprietatibusrerum, made c. 1400 (M ad ri d, FundaciónLázaroGaldiano,MSI15554,f.16v,©FundaciónLázaro Galdiano).
135 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse inacircular space.Thelastoftheseimagesshowspart ofalandscaperather thananimageofthewholeworld,andnoneoftheimagesisparticularlysimi- lar to a mappamundi, but sucha series could easilyhave inspired an author interestedinmapstoportraytheApocalypseusingaseriesofmaps. ThenarrativeoftheLastDaysinHM83’streatiseontheApocalypseisbrief, choppy,andallusive,andsometimeshasthefeelofbeinganabbreviatedver- sion of a fuller account. There are elements that are unexplained, or are explainedonlylater:forexample,thenamesofEnochandElijahappearonthe maponf. 10v, but the accompanyingtext gives noindication oftheir rolein events,thoughthatroleisdescribedinthesummaryoftheeventsoftheLast Daysonf.16v.Thewaytheauthorhandlescitationsissomewhatsloppycom- paredwiththetechniquesofcontemporarychurchmen,forexamplethework ofJohannesvonPaltzdiscussedinthefollowingsection.Inthetexttheauthor frequentlyrefers to the accompanyingmaps, anditis clear that the text was designedtoaccompanythemaps. Late Fifteenth-Century German Apocalypticism TheuniquenessofHM83’streatmentoftheLastDayscanbestbebroughtout byconsideringotherworksontheApocalypseandrelatedsubjectsproduced inGermany,particularlyinthesecondhalfofthefifteenthcentury.TheTurks’ conquestofConstantinoplein1453, andtheir subsequentconquests ofterri- toryinEasternEurope,spreadfearthroughoutEurope,andgavenewimpetus andurgencytopredictions that theApocalypse wasimminentin the second halfofthecenturyandbeyond.16 TheApocalypsewastobringwithitvastchanges,includingpowerfulpun- ishmentsofthewicked;asaresult,predictionsofimminentApocalypse,with roles in the Apocalyptic drama assigned to specific historical persons, had been popular with reformers for centuries. This was particularly true in fif- 16 SeeWolframBrandes, “Der Fall Konstantinopels als apokalyptisches Ereignis,” inSebas- tianKolditzandRalfC.Müller,eds.,Geschehenes und Geschriebenes: Studien zu Ehren von Günther S. Henrich und Klaus-Peter Matschke(Leipzig:Eudora-Verlag,2005),pp.453–470; andKayaŞahin,“ConstantinopleandtheEndTime:TheOttomanConquestasaPortent oftheLastHour,”Journal of Early Modern History14.4(2010),pp.317–354.Foramoregen- eraldiscussionoflatefifteenth-centuryGermanpietyseeBerndMoeller,“Frömmigkeitin Deutschland um 1500,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 56(1965), pp. 6–30; translated intoEnglishas “PietyinGermanyaround 1500,”trans.JoyceIrwin,inSteven E.Ozment, ed.,The Reformation in Medieval Perspective(Chicago:QuadrangleBooks,1971),pp.50–75.
136 Chapter5 teenth-century Germany, on the eve of the Protestant Reformation,17 which beganin1517,andwhichgrewoutofdissatisfactionswiththeChurchandsoci- etythathadbeenpresentandincreasingforclosetotwohundredyears.18Gian LucaPotestà,inhisstudyofradicalapocalypticmovementsintheLateMiddle Ages,hasnotedthatasthesemovementsinGermanyweredeemedheretical, theywerequicklyquashed,andthe writingsofthefomentersdestroyed;as a result, our evidence regarding fifteenth-century German Apocalypticism is incomplete.19 But brief records, specifically two letters copied in Nürnberg in 1465–66, have survived of the apocalyptic thought of the brothersJanko and Livin of Wirsberg, whopredictedthat the world wouldendin the 1460s.20Theirpre- dictionshadastrongpoliticalcomponent:amessianicfigure,the‘Anointedof theSavior,’wouldsoonarrive,hisadventforetoldbyafiguresimilartoSt.John the Baptist—evidently this wasJanko himself.The messiah, born spiritually fromtheVirginandenlightenedbyGod,aloneunderstoodthetruemeaningof the Bible, and would bring the thirdand finalTestament, with a message of 17 SeeJ.Rohr,“DieProphetieimletztenJahrhundertvorderReformation,”Historisches Jah- rbuch19(1898),pp.29–56and447–466,esp.461,whoidentifiedthreecommonthemesin fifteenth-century prophecy: hostility to Rome, a desire to see Church property confis- cated,andapredictionthatjusticewouldbemetedouttocorruptelementsofsocietyby theTurksoranemperorfromthenorth. 18 See Alister E. McGrath, The Intellectual Origins of the European Reformation, 2nd edn. (Malden, M A: Blackwell Pub., 2004), p. 4: “There has been a growing recognition on the partof Reformation scholars that neither the events northeideas ofthe sixteenthcen- tury may be properly understood unless they are seen as the culmination of develop- ments in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.” For a very good discussion of late thirteenth-andfourteenth-centurypredictionsoftheEndofTimeinGermanyandtheir political dimensions see Frances Courtney Kneupper, “German Identity and Spiritual Reform at the End ofTime: Eschatological Prophecy in Late Medieval Germany,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Northwestern University, 2011; and for exampleJennifer Kolpacoff Deane, “ TheAuffahrtabendProphecyandHenryofLangenstein:GermanAdaptationandTrans- missionofthe‘VisioFratrisJohannis’,”Viator40.1(2009),pp.355–386. 19 GianLucaPotestà, “RadicalApocalypticMovementsintheLateMiddleAges,”inJohnJ. Collins,BernardMcGinn, and StephenJ.Stein, eds., The Encyclopedia of Apocalypticism (NewYork:Continuum,1998),vol.2,pp.110–142,at130–133;andGianLucaPotestà,“Radi- calApocalypticMovementsintheLateMiddleAges,”inBernardJ.McGinn,JohnJ.Col- lins, and Stephen J. Stein, eds., The Continuum History of Apocalypticism (New York: Continuum,2003),pp.299–322,at314–316. 20 The two letters are preserved in Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. I I .1 .2° 85, ff. 190r–214r; for discussion of the manuscript see Günter Hägele,Die Handschriften der Universitätsbibliothek Augsburg: Erste Reihe, Die lateinischen Handschriften(Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz,1996–2007),vol.1,pp.320–329.
137 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse salvation.HewouldcausethedeathofAntichrist,whowasidentifiedwiththe pope,andbringaboutanewsocialorderinwhichthenobleshadtomovefrom their countryestates to the city, the clergyweredeprived of their lands, and manyhighnoblesandclergywouldbekilled.WehavenorecordofJankoafter 1466,butLivinwascondemnedforheresyin1468andimprisonedinacastle belongingtotheBishopofRegensburg,andhediedtherein1468or1469.21 SapevanderWoudehasarguedthattheinterestininvolvingcontemporary political and religious leaders in predictions of Apocalypse is evident in the illustrations oftheBookofRevelationintheCologneTwinBiblesofc.1478– 79.22These twoBibles,oneinMiddleLowGerman andthe otherinWestern LowGerman,lackindicationofaprinter,butaregenerallyascribedtoHeinrich QuentellorBartholomäusvonUnckel.23IntheBibleinWesternLowGerman, the Book of Revelation is illustrated with eight woodcuts, several of which show bishops, cardinals, the pope, and kings falling into Hell,24 a strong criticismofcontemporaryreligiousandpoliticalleaders. 21 OntheWirsbergerbrothers seeOttoSchiff, “DieWirsberger.EinBeitragzur Geschichte der revolutionären Apokalyptik im 15. Jahrhundert,” Historische Vierteljahrschrift 26 (1931),pp.776–786, withanEnglishsummary in Social Science Abstracts4(1932), p.870; GordonLeff,Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: The Relation of Heterodoxy to Dissent, c. 1250- c. 1450(Manchester: Manchester UniversityPress;andNewYork:Barnes&Noble, 1967), vol. 2, pp. 471–474; Alexander Patschovsky, “Die Wirsberger: Zeugen der Geisteswelt JoachimsvonFioreinDeutschlandwährenddes15.Jahrhunderts?”inGianLucaPotestà, ed., Il Profetismo gioachimita tra Quattrocento e Cinquecento: atti del II I Congresso inter- nazionale di studi gioachimiti: S. Giovanni in Fiore, 17–21 settembre 1989(Genoa:Marietti, 1991),pp. 225–257;Günter Hägele, “Wirsberger-Prophezeiungen,” inWolfgang Stammler and Karl Langosch, eds., Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon (Berlin andNewYork:deGruyter,1978-),vol.11,cols.1672–1681;andPotestà’stwoarticleson“Rad- icalApocalypticMovements”(seeCh.5,n.19). 22 SapevanderWoude,“DeApocalypseindeKeulsetweelingsbijbelsvan1478/9,”inA.R.A. CroisetvanUchelen,ed.,Hellinga Festschrift / Feestbundel / Mélanges: Forty-Three Studies in Bibliography Presented to Prof. Dr. Wytze Hellinga on the Occasion of his Retirement from the Chair of Neophilology in the University of Amsterdam at the End of the Year 1978(Amster- dam:NicoIsrael,1980),pp.549–559,withanEnglishabstractonpp.559–560. 23 OntheCologneBiblesseeSeverinCorsten,“DieKölnerBilderbibelnvon1478,”Gutenberg- Jahrbuch1957,pp.72–93,andthesameauthor’s“TheIllustratedCologneBiblesofc.1478: CorrectionsandAdditions,”inMartinDavies,ed.,Incunabula: Studies in Fifteenth-Century Printed Books Presented to Lotte Hellinga(London: BritishLibrary, 1999),pp.79–88.Also seethefacsimileedition,Die Kölner Bibel, 1478/1479(Amsterdam:Buijten&Schipperheijn; andHamburg:FriedrichWittigVerlag,1979). 24 One such illustration may be seen in Wilhelm Worringer, Die Kölner Bibel (Munich: R.Piper,1923),plate26.
138 Chapter5 InHM83thereisabsolutelynothingoftheradicalpoliticalviewsimplicitin theWirsbergers’ predictions, and in other works on the Apocalypse in four- teenth-andfifteenth-centuryGermany;indeed,theaccountoftheApocalypse inHM83istotallydivorcedfromcontemporarypolitics. ThereisaworkontheApocalypsethatitisparticularlyinstructivetocom- pare with HM 83, asit wasprinted in Germany in 1486, i.e . exactlythe same time as the textsinourmanuscript were composed, andthatistheQuaestio determinata contra triplicem errorem of Johannes von Paltz, an Augustinian theologian who lived from 1445 to 1511.25 He was an exponent of what has recentlybeentermedFrömmigkeitstheologie,atheologythataimedtofoster thepietyofthelesseducatedamongthefaithful,26althoughhisQuaestio deter- minataiscertainlyaimedataneducatedreadership.27Thethreeerrorsagainst whichvonPaltz arguesin this workarefirst, attempts to calculate when the LastDaywillcome;second,claimsthatAntichristwillnotcomeinperson,and thatEnochandElijahwillnotcomeinperson,butthatMuhammadwasthe true Antichrist; and third, the conclusions of the book De cognitione verae 25 OnvonPaltzseeMarcusFerdigg, “De vita,operibus etdoctrinaJoannisdePaltzO.E .S .A . (†1511),”Analecta Augustiniana 30(1967),pp. 210–321, and 31(1968), pp. 155–318; Adolar Zumkeller,“Paltz,Johann(1445–1511),”inFriedrichWilhelmBautz,ed.,Biographisch-bibli- ographisches Kirchenlexikon (Hamm: Bautz, 1970–2012), vol. 6, cols. 1473–1476; Berndt Hamm, “Johann vonPaltz,”inWolfgangStammler andKarlLangosch, eds.,Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon(BerlinandNewYork:deGruyter,1978-),vol.4, cols.698–706;andBerndtHamm,“Paltz,Johannesvon,”inGerhardKrauseandGerhard Müller, eds., Theologische Realenzyklopädie(Berlin and NewYork:W. de Gruyter, 1976-), vol.25,pp.606–611. 26 See Berndt Hamm, Frömmigkeitstheologie am Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts: Studien zu Johannes von Paltz und seinem Umkreis(Tübingen:Mohr,1982);andBerndtHamm,“Was istFrömmigkeitstheologie?Überlegungenzum14.bis16.Jahrhundert,”inHans-JörgNie- denandMarcelNieden,eds.,Praxis Pietatis. Beiträge zu Theologie und Frömmigkeit in der Frühen Neuzeit. Wolfgang Sommer zum 60. Geburtstag (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1999), pp.9–45,esp.18. 27 TheQuaestio determinata... contra triplicem errorem was first published withoutindica- tionoftheauthorinMemmingenbyAlbrechtKunnein1486;thetexthasbeeneditedby Albert Czogalla in Johannes von Paltz, Werke, ed. Berndt Hamm et al.(Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 1983–89), vol. 3, pp.37–138.SeeFerdigg, “De vita, operibus etdoctrina JoannisdePaltz”(seeCh.5,n.25),pp.265–267ontheattributionoftheworktovonPaltz, and 267–268 for a summary of the work; also see Hamm, Frömmigkeitstheologie am Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts(seeCh.5,n.26),pp.97–99.Ontheintendedscholarlyaudi- enceofvonPaltz’sQuaestioseeChristophBurger,“DerAntichristimStraßburgerBilder- text(um1480)undbeiJohannesvonPaltz(1486),”inMarianoDelgadoandWolkerLepin, eds., Der Antichrist: Historische und systematische Zugänge (Fribourg: Academic Press, andStuttgart:W.KohlhammerVerlagGmbH,2011),pp.241–256.
139 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse vitae,28 whichargues thatHeaven consistsinbeholdingGod, andHellin the absenceofthatvision,andthusthatneitherisaphysicallocation,andspecifi- callythatHeavenisnotintheEmpyrean,andHellisnotinsidetheearth. ThisbookisverydifferentfromthetreatiseontheApocalypseinHM83.In bothworksHellisaphysicalplaceinthemiddleoftheearth(seeHM83,ff.11v and 12v, see Figs. 5.9 and 5.11), but while vonPaltz argues at length that one shouldnottrytocalculatewhentheSecondComingwilloccur,29thatispre- ciselywhattheauthorofHM83doesingreatdetail.VonPaltz’sworkismore scholarlyandthoroughthanthetreatiseinHM83,andtheunusualprogramof illustrationwithmapsinthetreatiseinHM83mayalsobeseenassuggesting thattheauthor’seducationandlifeexperiencewasdifferentfromthatofmost clerics.ThisdifferenceraisesquestionsabouttheintendedaudienceofHM83: itwascertainlynotintendedforanaudienceofclerics,andwhileitsemphasis onillustrationwithmapsmightbetakenasindicatinganaimatawideraudi- ence,thechoppyandallusivenatureofthetextwouldimpedeanattemptto reachabroadpublic.ItmaybethatwhatwehaveinHM83isacondensedver- sionofalongerandsmoother-flowingwork,buttheintendedaudienceofthe workinitscurrentformisnotclear. It is also instructive to compare HM 83 with another contemporary work that,thoughitdoesnotinvolvetheApocalypseassuch,doesinvolveapocalyp- tic themes, namely Johannes Lichtenberger’s Pronosticatio, which was first publishedinHeidelbergin1488—thesameyearthattheworksinHM83were 28 The De cognitione verae vitae was first printed by Peter Schoeffer, probably in Mainz around1475;andhas alsobeenpublishedinPatrologia Latina40:1005–1032.Itwas often ascribedtoAugustine,butis morelikelybyHonoriusAugustodunensis: seefor example WilliamM.Clark,“AThirteenthCenturyManuscriptofHonoriusofAutun’sDe cognitione verae vitae,”Manuscripta16(1972),pp.112–119. 29 SeeJohannesvonPaltz, Werke(seeCh.5,n.27),vol.3,pp.69–88 .Fortheopinionsofsome medieval authors on the question of whether it was appropriate to try to calculate the time of the Second Coming see Saint Thomas Aquinas, The ‘Summa Theologica’ of St. Thomas Aquinas(London: Burns, Oates &Washbourne, Ltd., 1913-),Third Part(Supple- ment),QQ.LXXXVI I . -XCI X.andAppendices,Question88,Article3,“WhethertheTimeof theFutureJudgmentisUnknown?”pp. 15–18;FranzPelster,“DieQuaestioHeinrichsvon Harclay über die zweite Ankunft Christi und die Erwartung des baldigenWeltendes zu AnfangdesXI V.Jahrhunderts,”Archivio italiano per la storia della pietà1(1951),pp.26–81, at12,31,44,45,56, 57, and78;thereis somediscussion of these criticisms of those who wantedto calculate thetime of Christ’sSecondComingin HeikoAugustinusOberman, “Fourteenth-Century Religious Thought: A Premature Profile,” Speculum 53 (1978), pp. 80–93, at 90–91; this article is reprinted in Oberman’s The Dawn of the Reformation: Essays in Late Medieval and Early Reformation Thought(Edinburgh:T. &T. Clark, 1986), pp.1–17.
140 Chapter5 beingfinished.ThePronosticatio,despiteitsinscrutablestructureandeclecti- cism, was extremely popular, and was printed fifty times, and excerpts of it sometwenty-ninetimes.Lichtenberger,influencedinpartbytheadvancesof theTurks, andalsobythe ‘greaterconjunction’ ofJupiter andSaturnin 1484, believed that he lived in a time when apocalyptic prophecies would be ful- filled,anddevotesconsiderableenergyinhisbooktoidentifyingcontemporary leaders (cardinals and popes, kings and princes) with figures mentioned in those prophecies. He believed that two false prophets would soon arise, the second of which he called the antichristus mixtus, and that there would be plaguesandsocialupheaval.Yethewasconvincedthatthesedifficultieswould befollowednotbytheendoftheworld,butratherbyatimeofpeace,which wouldarrivebetween1488and1499,perhapsinauguratedbyPhilipIofCastile (1478–1506).30 As we will see later, the works in HM 83 did circulate, but Lichtenberger’sworkwasvastlymorepopular,perhapsinpartbecauseofthe author’slively interest in contemporarypolitics, which(again)the author of HM83didnotshareatall.Lichtenberger’sunitingofprophecyandastrology was less successful than combinations of these same fields of knowledge by other fifteenth-century authors; we would argue that the combination of prophecyandcartographyinHM83isindeedsuccessful:mapsareaneffective toolforillustratingtheApocalypse. 30 On Lichtenberger and his Pronosticatio see Dietrich Kurze, “Johannes Lichtenberger – Leben undWerk eines spätmittelalterlichen Propheten und Astrologen,” Archiv für Kul- turgeschichte38(1956),pp.328–343;DietrichKurze,“ProphecyandHistory:Lichtenberger’s ForecastsofEventstoCome(fromtheFifteenthtotheTwentiethCentury),TheirRecep - tion and Diffusion,” Journal of the Warburg & Courtauld Institutes 21 (1958), pp. 63–85; DietrichKurze,Johannes Lichtenberger († 1503): Eine Studie zur Geschichte der Prophetie und Astrologie(Lübeck:Matthiesen,1960);DietrichKurze,“PopularAstrologyandProph- ecyintheFifteenthandSixteenthCenturies:JohannesLichtenberger,”inPaolaZambelli, ed., ‘Astrologi hallucinati’: Stars and the End of the World in Luther’s Time (Berlin: W. de Gruyter,1986),pp.177–193,esp.181–188;andLauraAckermanSmoller,“‘TesteAlbumasare cumSibylla’:AstrologyandtheSibylsinMedievalEurope,”Studies in History and Philoso- phy of Biological and BiomedicalSciences41C.2(2010),pp.76–89,at85.Afewparagraphs ofLichtenberger’sworkaretranslatedintoEnglishinBernardMcGinn,ed.,Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages(NewYork:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1979, 1998),pp.272–274.ThereisanEnglishtranslationofthesectionheadingsofthePronosti- catioinBarbaraBaert, “IconographicalNotestothePrognosticatiobyJohannesLichten- berger(1488):UsingaCopyPrintedbyPeterQuentel(Cologne,1526)andPreservedinthe LibraryoftheTheologyFaculty inLeuven,” inFransGistelinckandMauritsSabbe, eds., Early Sixteenth Century Printed Books, 1501–1540 in the Library of the Leuven Faculty of The- ology(Leuven:BibliotheekGodgeleerdheid and UitgeverijPeeters, 1994),pp. 139–168, at 167–168.
141 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse HM 83 also bears comparison with a mid-fifteenth-century German work that briefly considers the Apocalypse in terms of geography. This is the De malis huius saeculi per omnes aetates by Jacobus de Clusa, also known as Jacobus de Jüterbog, Jacobus Carthusianus, and Jacobus de Paradiso, and in PolishJakubazParadyża.JacobuswasborninJüterbogk,Germany,in1381,and enteredtheCistercianmonasteryofParadies,Poland,in1401,andstudiedand laterwasaProfessorofTheologyattheUniversityofKrakow.In1441heentered the Carthusian monastery in Erfurt, and taught at the university there, and diedinErfurtin1465.31HewrotetheDe malis huius saeculi per omnes aetates in1447,andtheworkwaspopular,asitsurvivesinforty-sevenmanuscripts.32 Theworkismotivatedbyadesireto reformtheChurch, andawishthat this could be accomplished through a moral renewal of all Christians. Jacobus presentsahistoryofevil,beginningwiththeBible, andshows that therehas been a continuous process of corruption throughout history—and he holds thatthesituationissobadthattheApocalypsemustbenear. An essential part of this history is a geographical survey of the state of Christianitythroughouttheworld,33whichhe offersat the endofchapter 14 31 OnJacobus de Clusa see Heinrich Kellner, “Jakobus von Jüterbogk,” Theologische Quar- talschrift48(1866),pp.315–348;LudgerMeier,Die Werke des Erfurter Kartäusers Jakob von Jüterbog in ihrer handschriftlichen Uberlieferung (Münster: Aschendorff, 1955), pp. 1–8; DieterMertens,“JakobvonParadies,”inWolfgangStammlerandKarlLangosch,eds.,Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 1978-),vol.4,cols.478–487;andRaphaelWitkowski,“SomeRemarksonJacobusdePara- disobeforehisCarthusianProfession,”inJamesHogg,ed.,‘Stand Up To Godwards’: Essays in Mystical and Monastic Theology in Honour of the Reverend John Clark on his Sixty-Fifth Birthday(Salzburg:InstitutfürAnglistik undAmerikanistik,Universität Salzburg, 2002) (= Analecta Cartusiana 204), pp. 301–318, with a very thorough bibliography of earlier worksonpp.301–303;andPaulWendellKnoll,“IacobusCarthusiensis(JamesofParadise) andEcclesiasticalReforminFifteenth-CenturyCracowandErfurt,”inNancyvanDeusen, ed., Procession, Performance, Liturgy, and Ritual: Essays in Honor of Bryan R. Gillingham (Ottawa:InstituteofMediaevalMusic,2007),pp.191–202. 32 ForachronologyofJacobus’sworksseeDieterMertens,Iacobus Carthusiensis: Unters. zur Rezeption d. Werke d. Kartäusers Jakob von Paradies: (1381–1465)(Göttingen:Vandenhoeck undRuprecht,1976),pp.26–46,esp.36–43.TheDe malis huius saeculi per omnes aetatesis publishedinJacobusdeClusa,Wybór tekstów dotyczących reformy kościoła,ed.Stanisław AndrzejPorębski(Warsaw:AkademiaTeologiiKatolickiej, 1978),pp. 103–273,fromPelp- lin, Biblioteka Seminarium Duchownego, MS 287, ff. 121r–223v. On manuscripts of the workseeMeier,Die Werke des Erfurter Kartäusers Jakob von Jüterbog (seeCh.5,n.31),pp. 50–51;andJacobusdeClusa,Wybór tekstów dotyczących reformy kościoła,pp.103–104. 33 OntheDe malis huius saeculi per omnes aetatesseeJanFijałek,Mistrz Jakób z Paradyża i uniwersytet krakowski w okresie soboru bazylejskiego (Kraków: Akademija umiejętności,
142 Chapter5 andinchapter15ofthe work,whichare titled“De apostolis”and“Descriptio partialis terrae fidelium et infidelium,” respectively. The results of his survey would be discouraging to Christian readers, for he notes that severalregions thathadoncebeenChristiannolongerare:34 Iam enim loca sanctissima passionis Christi a gentibus et Saracenis incolluntur, avaritiae suae consulentes per visitationem christianorum ad loca sancta peccatis exigentibus christianorum, ubi sunt Ephesii, Tessalonicenses,Salathae, Colosenses, Philippenses, Macedones, Corin- thiietceteri,quibusolimaureasepistolasPaulusdecarceribusRomanis et aliislocis mittebat,potiusprohisflendum estquam aliquidscriben- dum. Quod videlicet tam latitudo immensa et multitudo hominum a principe tenebrarum debet possideri. Et quid dicam de Africa, tertia mundiparte,ubibeatissimusCyprianusinCarthaginense,utputo,civi- tatemetropolietAugustinusposteuminHypponensicivitatepraefuerunt dignissimi praesules perspicuitate vitae et doctrinae suis temporibus refulgentes. For now, the most holy places ofChrist’s Passion are inhabited by hea- thens and Saracens, who, motivated by their avarice for the visits of ChristianstotheHolyPlacestoexpiatetheirsins,wherearetheEphesians, the Thessalonicians, the Salathi, the Colossians, the Philippians, the Macedonians,theCorinthians,andtherest,towhomPaulfromaRoman prisonandotherplaces once sentgoldenletters—it wouldbebetter to weepforthem,ratherthantowritesomething,becausesowidearegion andsomanymenarenowundertheswayofthePrinceofDarkness.And what shallI say of Africa, a third ofthe world, where the most blessed Cyprian in the metropolis (I suppose) of Carthage, and after him Augustine in the city of Hippo, both eminent prelates, presided, each illustriousinhistimefortheclarityofhislifeanddoctrine? 1900),vol.2,pp.99–101and232–235;onthegeographicalsectionoftheworkseeBronisław Geremek, “Geografia i apokalipsa. Pojęcie Europy u Jakuba z Paradyża,” in Helena Chłopocka, ed., Mente et litteris: O kulturze i społeczeństwie wieków średnich (Poznań: Wydawn. Nauk. Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 1984), pp. 253–261; thissamematerialwaspublishedinFrenchafewyearslaterinBronisławGeremek(trans. Lucjan Grobelak), “Géographie et apocalypse: la notion de l’Europe chez Jacques de Paradyż,” Acta Poloniae Historica 56(1988), pp. 5–17. Also see Adam Krawiec, Ciekawość świata w średniowiecznej Polsce: studium z dziejów geografii kreacyjnej(Poznań:Wydawn. NaukUAM ,2010),pp.378–383. 34 JacobusdeClusa,Wybór tekstów dotyczących reformy kościoła(seeCh.5,n.32),p.188.
143 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse In his survey of the world, Jacobus reaches similar conclusions about other regions,andinthefollowingpassage,thesentenceheusestodescribethedif- ferent parts of the world was probably inspired by Isidore, Etymologiae (14.2.2–3)orDe natura rerum(48),35 whereitis sometimesillustratedwitha mappamundi.ThistextfromIsidoretextappearswithamappamundionf.1rof HM83,whichismerelyacoincidence,butitseemspossiblethatJacobus’stext wasinformedbyconsultationofamappamundi:36 ... Asia mediam mundi partem continet, scilicet a meridionali parte per Orientem usque ad Occidentem; Africa a meridie usque ad aliam partem Occidentis; Europa partem occidentalem, in qua nostra fove- tur habitatio. Haec nobilissima pars terrae et amplissima, scilicet Asia, quaemediampartemterraecontinet,utcreditur,plenaestidolisetinfi- delibus populis, ubiprius sacra vestigia ApostolomunThomae, Ioannis Evangelistae,Bartholomaeiet ceterorum terramipsamsacrofetudivini verbiirradiaverunt. ... Asiacontainshalfoftheworld,fromthesouththroughtheeasttothe west;Africafrom the southto another part ofthe west, andEurope, in whichwelive,isinthewest.Thismostnobleandamplepartoftheearth, Asia, whichcontains thehalfofthe earth, as isbelieved,isfullof idols andunbelievers,whereinformertimesthesacredtracesoftheApostle Thomas,JohntheEvangelist,Bartholomew,andalltheothersirradiated theveryearthwiththesacredfruitofthedivineword. Jacobusconcludeshissurveythus:37 Videsnestudioselectorquamparvamimmominimamterraehabitabilis partem Christi fides complectitur et quam amplissimam terrae partem princepstenebraruminsuocontinetprincipatuetquomodoartatisunt verichristiani,etundiqueabinfidelibuscircumdati? 35 SeeThe Etymologies of Isidore of Seville,trans. StephenA. Barneyet al.(Cambridge,UK, andNewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,2006),p.285;andPatrologia Latina83:1017. 36 JacobusdeClusa,Wybór tekstów dotyczących reformy kościoła (seeCh.5,n.32),p.190.For discussion of the likelihood thatJacobus de Clusa was inspired by a map in writinghis global survey of Christianity see Geremek, “Géographie et apocalypse: la notion de l’EuropechezJacquesdeParadyż”(seeCh.5,n.33),p.15. 37 JacobusdeClusa,Wybór tekstów dotyczących reformy kościoła(seeCh.5,n.32),p.192.
144 Chapter5 Do you see, learned reader, how small a part, indeed minimal, of the inhabitable earth the Christian faith holds, and how ample a part the PrinceofDarknesshasinhispower,andhowcrowdedtogetherthetrue Christiansare,surroundedonallsidesbyunbelievers? Jacobusalsobelieves thattheGospelhas alreadybeenpreachedtoallofthe cornersoftheearth,andthusthattheApocalypseisimminent:38 Putoenimiamtempusilludcompletum,quodEvangeliumChristiinuni- verso orbe est praedicatum in testimonium omnibus gentibus (Mat XXIV), nec est natio, nec insula tam longe et occulte abscondita, quin nomenchristianorumibisitdivulgatum.Recensentesenimomneshisto- rias,nonreperimusterraepartemaliquam,inquafideschristiananonsit annuntiata. Iam enim dudum vox apostolica insonuit. Nos sumus, in quosfinessaeculorumdevenerunt. ForIthinkthatthattimeiscomplete,thattheGospelofChristhasbeen preachedinthewholeworldasatestimonytoallnations(Matthew24), noris there anynation, nor anyisland, sofar awayandsecretlyhidden thatthenameofChristianshasnotreachedthere.Forinexaminingallof thehistories,wedonotfindanypartoftheearthinwhichtheChristian faith has notbeen announced.For alongtime now the apostolic voice hasresounded.Wearethoseuponwhomtheendsoftheageshavecome. This geographical survey and conclusion that Christianity is confined to a small portion of the earth’s surface, together with the deduction that the Apocalypseisimminent,isquitereminiscentofthemaponHM83,f.9r,which coverstheyears639to 1514,andshowsIslam on theascendantinallpartsof theworldexceptEurope,andinEurope,accordingtothetextlocatedinthat partofthemap,thereismuchdissensionamongthesovereigns,andtheregion willfalltotheswordofMuhammadsoon.Themaponf.9v,whichdepictswhat issupposedtohappentotheworldbetween1514and1570,showsIslamincon- trolthroughouttheworld,andthenfollowsthebeginningoftheLastDays. ThisglobalsurveyofChristianitybyJacobusdeClusasharessomestriking similarities with the treatise on the Apocalypse in HM 83—and yet the two workscoincideonlyinonepart,anditseemsveryunlikelythattheauthorof HM83drewinspirationforthemaponf.9rfromJacobus’ssurvey.Thereareno verbalechoesoftheDe malis huius saeculi per omnes aetatesinHM83,andthe 38 JacobusdeClusa,Wybór tekstów dotyczących reformy kościoła(seeCh.5,n.32),p.192.
145 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse other parts of the two works are very different in conception, purpose, and intendedaudience. These comparisons of HM 83 with contemporary German works on the ApocalypsebringouttheuniquenessofthetreatiseontheApocalypseinHM 83:itsstyleisdifferentfromthatofothercontemporaryworks,thechronology oftheApocalypseitproposesisfoundnowhereelseinalloftheliteratureon theApocalypse,anditsprogramofillustrationusingmapsisallbutunparal- leled.Thisunstudiedtreatiseinthisunstudiedmanuscriptisanessentialpiece of evidence for the development of Apocalyptic thought in the fifteenth century. The Apocalyptic Maps and Texts ThebrieftreatiseontheApocalypseinHM83(ff.8v–12v)isawell-definedunit, illustratingthetransformationsthattheearthwillundergofromapointsome- timearoundtheyear1totheLastJudgmentin1661(orrather1651,ifwecorrect anerrorintheauthor’sarithmetic)inaseriesofninemaps,eachwithaccom- panyingtext.Themapsareasetofthematicmapsshowingtheworld’s(future) history, perhaps inspired by a Creation cycle illustrated with images of the earth,butheretheillustrationsaretruemaps,whereasinCreationcyclesthe imagesgenerallydonotqualifyasmaps.ThesemapsillustratingtheApocalypse formtheearliestsequenceofhistoric(thematic)mapsthatweknow. Two ofthe maps, those onf. 10r(whichcovers theyears 1570 to 1600)and f.10v(whichcoverstheyears1600to1606)containstrikingexamplesofwhat wemaytermsymbolicgeographyorallegoricalgeography:intheformer,the tenhornsofthebeastofDaniel7arerepresentedaswhatseemtobemountain ranges reachingto the edges ofthe earth, andin thelatter, thefourhorns of Antichrist,whichrepresentthefourmethodsbywhichhewilldeceivepeople, are represented by four huge peninsulas that jut out into the circumfluent ocean.PhysicalfeaturesofactorsintheApocalypsehavebeengivengeograph- ical interpretation and cartographic representation. Other examples of this type of allegorical geography include the Libellus de formatione arche, com- monlyreferredtoasDe arca Noe mystica,ofHughofSt-Victor,writtenc.1128, in which Hugh locates Noah’s ark, stretched to stupendous dimensions and symbolizingthechurch,acrossthewholeworld,withitsbowatParadiseinthe East,wherehistorybegan,anditssternintheWest,wheretheblessedandthe damnedwillbeseparatedattheendoftime.39Anotherexampleissuppliedby 39 ThetextofDe arca Noe mysticaissuppliedinPatrologia Latina176:682–704,andhasbeen editedbyPatriceSicardinDe archa Noe; Libellus de formatione arche(Turnhout:Brepols,
146 Chapter5 the maps of Opicinus de Canistris (1296–c. 1353). These maps are based on nauticalcharts,butusuallyrepresentEuropeandNorthAfricaaspeople,with theirheadscloseattheStraitofGibraltar.Thesepeoplehavedifferentidenti- tiesinhisdifferentmaps:thepersoninNorthAfricamayrepresentthespiritual world, andthatinEurope, the spiritualchurch; orEurope mayrepresent the traitorJudas,andNorthAfricatheChurchofthePeople,forexample.40 ThechronologyoftheApocalypseproposedinthisbrieftreatiseisunique, notonlyintheyearitproposesfortheEndofDays,butalsointhedurationsit assignsforthedifferentpartsoftheapocalypticdrama.Ontheonehand,this reveals something about the author, namely that he was comfortable inter- pretingvariousbiblicalpassagesaboutdaysasyearsandsoforth,andmaking the necessary calculations himself; on the other, there are almost as many timetablesoftheApocalypse41asthereareauthorswhowerewillingtodisre- gardthevariouswarningsagainst tryingtopredictwhentheSecondComing 2001) (= Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis 176–176A). Also see J. Ehlers, “Arcasignificatecclesiam.EintheologischesWeltmodellausdererstenHälftedes12.Jahr- hunderts,” Frühmittelalterliche Studien 6 (1972), pp. 171–187. A reconstruction of Hugh’s mapis suppliedbySicard,De archa Noe, vol.2,fig.11;DanielleLecoq,“La‘mappemonde’ duDe Arca Noe MysticadeHuguesdeSaint-Victor(1128–1129),”inMoniquePelletier, ed., Géographie du monde au Moyen Âge et à la Renaissance(Paris:CTHS ,1989),pp.9–31,figs.1 and2;ConradRudolph,First, I Find the Center Point: Reading the Text of Hugh of Saint Vic- tor’s ‘The Mystic Ark’(Philadelphia:AmericanPhilosophicalSociety,2005),figs.1,4,5,and 8;andRudolph’sThe Mystic Ark: Hugh of Saint Victor, Art, and Thought in the Twelfth Cen- tury(CambridgeandNewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,2014),chapter1,figs.1–32. 40 ThebibliographyonOpicinusissubstantial,butseeforexampleRichardG.Salomon,“A NewlyDiscoveredManuscriptofOpicinusdeCanistris:APreliminaryReport,”Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 16.1 –2 (1953), pp. 45–57; Michael Camille, “The ImageandtheSelf:UnwritingMedievalBodies,”inSarahKayandMiriRubin,eds.,Fram- ing Medieval Bodies (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), pp. 62–99, esp. 87–95;andKarlWhittington,Body-Worlds: Opicinus de Canistris and the Medieval Carto- graphic Imagination(Toronto:PontificalInstituteofMediaevalStudies,2014). 41 OnthedifferentpredictedchronologiesoftheApocalypseseeDavidBurr,“Olivi’sApoca- lyptic Timetable,” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 11.2 (1981), pp. 237–260; Walter Klaassen, Living at the End of the Ages: Apocalyptic Expectation in the Radical Reformation(Lanham, M D :UniversityPress ofAmerica;Waterloo, Ontario:Institutefor Anabaptist and Mennonite Studies, Conrad Grebel College, 1992), pp. 23–31; and Laura Smoller, “The Alfonsine Tables and the End of the World: Astrology and Apocalyptic Calculation in the Later Middle Ages,” in Alberto Ferreiro, ed., The Devil, Heresy and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey B. Russell(Leiden:E.J.Brill,1998), pp.211–239.
147 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse wouldtakeplace.42Soitis not surprisingthat the apocalyptic chronologyin HM83isunique. Withoutfurtherado,wepresentourtranscription,translation,andanalysis ofthemapsandtextinthetreatiseontheApocalypseinHM83,foliobyfolio. The Map and Text on f. 8v This folio marks the end of the first geographical section of the treatise (ff. 1r–8v)withadiscussionofthedifferentpurposesofmappaemundi,discussed above.Below that textisa simple mappamundi(seeFig.5.2)thatoffers even lessdetailthanthatonf.1r.IthasthemodifiedT-Ostructurewehaveseenin othermapsinthemanuscript,withtheleftbarofthe‘T ’veeringeast,whichas themaponff.7v–8r(seeFig.4.15)indicates,istobeidentifiedastheRhaRiver (i.e .theVolga),ratherthantheTanaisorDonthatformsthestraightleftbarof the‘T’onmostmappaemundi.Themaphasjusttwonamesonit,andtheyare namesofpeopleratherthanofplaces:Jesus Christus,locatedwhereweareto understandJerusalemtobe,andOctavianus(correctedfromOptavianus,just asonf.5v),locatedwherewearetounderstandRometobe.Fromthebegin- ningofthenameOctavianusalineextendstothesoutheasttotheeasternmost pointoftheinhabitedlands,andfromtheendofthe namealine extendsto the northeast, crossingthe otherline andreachingthe outer edge ofthe cir- cumfluent ocean. The purpose of these lines is not clear: nothing similar appearsonanyoftheothermapsinthemanuscript. Thetexttotheleftofthemapreads: Hecfiguraestmappamundidedominioterreanativitatejesuchristiad eiusannum639.Romanorumenimimp<er>atorquorumprimusveruset principalis fuit Optavianus(i.e . Octavianus)dominabatur tot annis per totumorbemetjesusrexjuredivinomundopraesidens. This figure is a mappamundi of the rule of the world from the birth of Jesus Christ to his year 639. Octavian, who was the first true and most important Roman emperor, ruled the whole earth for many years, and LordJesusrulestheworldaccordingtodivinelaw. ThenameOctavianushadbeenwrittenasOptavianusinthemapaswell,but thereitwascorrected.Thereisnoexplanationoftheyear639here,butaswe learnonf.16r,theauthortookthisastheyearinwhichMuhammadbeganto shaketheRomanEmpire. 42 For warnings against tryingto calculate whentheSecond Coming would take place see Acts1:7,Mark13:32,andMatthew24:36;alsoseeCh.5,n.29.
148 Chapter5 Figure5.2 Huntington HM 83, f. 8v. The geographical treatise ends with an account of the four different functions of a mappamundi, and the treatise on the Apocalypse begins with a simple map showing the world from the birth of Christ to the year 639 (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
149 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse The Map and Text on f. 9r Thetextintheupperleftcornerofthefolio,whichwetranscribeandtranslate below,indicatesthatthemapshowsthelordshipsoftheworldfromtheyear 639to1514,thatis,fromtheriseofMuhammadto26yearsafterthetextsinHM 83werecomposed(1488).Themessageofthemapandthesurroundingtextis veryclear:Islamistakingovertheworld,andwhileEuropeisstillChristian,it is weakandwillsoonfall.The map(see Fig.5.3)has the same modifiedT-O structureasthemaponf.8v,butismuchlargerandmoredetailed.Itisathe- maticmapintwosenses,firstinsofarasitisamapoftheworld’sreligions,and secondinsofarasitisahistoricalmap,thoughitsroleasthelatterisnotstrik- ing,asitcoversaperiodduringwhichthemanuscriptwasmade. Wefirst transcribe andtranslate the textin the map proper, working gen- erallyfrom east to west(top tobottom), andbeginningwiththe textsin the circumfluentocean. X tribus Israel hic degunt montibus caspas et Caucaso incluse et parte australi subsunt Imperatori tartarorum et ex parte Aquilonari regine Amasonum Theten tribes ofIsraelremainhereconfinedintheCaspianMountains and the Caucasus, and in the southern part they are subject to the Emperor of the Tartars, and in the northern part, to the queen of the Amazons. Inthemaponf.3r(seeFig.4.9),andalsothatonff.6v–7r(seeFig.4.14),theTen LostTribesofIsraelarelocatedon anislandin the circumfluent ocean;here thementionoftheCaspianMountainsandtheCaucasusmakesitsoundlike theyareratheronthemainland—butinthemaponff.6v–7rthereisanisland labeledCaucasus,sotheauthor’sintentionswithregardtothelocationofthe TenLostTribes are not clear.Proceeding westwardin the northern ocean in the map on f. 9r we have: Regnum Amasonum; Ungaria vaga (i.e . magna); RUSda(probably for Russia); Scotia;Hibernia; Anglia.The Amazons are here placedonanislandmuchasinthemaponff.6v–7r. Inthebodyofthemap,thelegendintheFarEast(atthetop)reads: IndiaHicregnatpresbiterJohanescumpatriarchathomasublegeChristi etdiscessitaromanoimperio India.HerereignsPresterJohnwiththePatriarchThomasinaccordance withthelawofChrist,andheseparatedhimselffromtheRomanEmpire.
150 Chapter5 Figure5.3 Huntington HM 83, f. 9r. A detailed map showing the world from 639 to 1514, particularly illustrating the spread of Islam, which is said to be in all parts of the world except Europe, and Europe is said to be very weak (courtes yoft he HuntingtonLibrary).
151 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse PresterJohn,amoreorlessmythicalChristianmonarchintheEast,wasoften regardedas apotentialallyandthus sourceofhopeintheChristianstruggle againstMongolsorMuslims,43buttheauthorofHM83paintsableakpicture ofthesituationinAsia,apparentlyrulingoutthepossibilityofacooperation betweenEuropean powers and PresterJohnby notingthatJohn has dissoci- atedhimselffromtheRomanEmpire. Thenextlegendtothewestreads: HaldarumHicestregia civitas ad6miliarede antiquaBabiloniainqua vigetuniversalelegemachometisubquahicpertotumgubernatimpera- tor tartarorum tam australiumquam septentrionaliumqui vaganturde locoadlocum. Chaldea:Hereistheroyalcity,sixmilesfromancientBabylonia,inwhich theuniversallawofMuhammadisinforce,andheretheemperorofthe Tartarsgovernseverywhereaccordingtothatlaw,bothinthesouthand inthenorth.TheTartarswanderfromplacetoplace. OdoricofPordenone,whowroteinthefourteenthcentury,makesnomention oftheTartarsinhisdescriptionofChaldea,44andneitherdoesFraMauroon hismappamundiofc.1450.ButMarinoSanudointhefourteenthcenturysaid thattheTartarscontrolledChaldea,45sotherearesourcesthatwouldsupport ourauthor’sclaimhere. Movingtothenorthwest,inthefarnorth,northwestoftheunnamedriver whichweknowfrom the maponff.7v–8rtobetheriverRha,arethenames Ru<sia>, li<vonia>, po<lonia>, and un<garia>, and the author discusses this ‘corner’inthetextbelowthemap.Tothesouthofthis‘corner’areTurchia,Lex machometi,andConstantinopoli:thephraseLex machometimakesitclearthat 43 OnPresterJohn seeCharlesF.Beckingham andBernardHamilton,eds.,Prester John, the Mongols, and the Ten Lost Tribes (Aldershot, Hampshire; and Brookfield, V T: Variorum, 1996); and Michael E. Brooks, “PresterJohn: A Reexamination and Compendium ofthe MythicalFigureWhoHelpedSparkEuropeanExpansion,”Ph.D.Dissertation,University ofToledo, 2009.The forged letter allegedlyfromPresterJohn that was circulated across EuropeinthetwelfthcenturyistranslatedintoEnglishinMichaelUebel,Ecstatic Trans- formation: On the Uses of Alterity in the Middle Ages(NewYork:PalgraveMacmillan,2005), pp.155–160. 44 SeeHenryYule,ed.andtrans.,Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China,revisedbyHenriCordier(London:TheHakluytSociety,1913–16), vol. 2, pp.110–111(English),282–283(Latin),and339–340(Italian). 45 MarinoSanudo,The Book of the Secrets of the Faithful of the Cross,trans.PeterLock(Farn- ham,England;Burlington,VT :Ashgate,2011),p.27.
152 Chapter5 theareaisMuslim,andinthetextbelowthemaptheauthoralludestothefall ofConstantinoplein1453. Furthersouthisthelegend: Hic gubernat novi babilonie Soldanus magnus princeps sarracenorum orientalium sub lege machometi per totum spatium ad mare magnum etiamterramsanctam. HerethegreatSultanofNewBabylonia(i.e .Cairo),theprinceoftheeast- ern Saracens, rules beneath the law of Muhammad all the land to the Mediterranean,includingtheHolyLand. OnthethreedifferentBabyloniasseethepassagesonff.1rand12v.Theauthor’s emphasisonIslam’scontrolofmuchoftheworldisclear.Justwestofthepre- ceding legend is the place name Alexandria, and the text to the right of the map,whichwetranscribebelow,indicatesthatin“Alexandria,whichisagreat cityofEgypt,livesaPatriarchoftheChristiansbeneathaMuslimoppressor,” sotheemphasisonthepervasivenessofIslamcontinues. ThetextinEuropereads: Cesar romanus et Papa vicarius christi gubernant hic hodie tantum nomine.Innullapartemundiesttantadominorumcontrariadiversitas sicutinhacquarta.Europautsicseipsamdebilitetetgladiomachometi citiussubdatursicutreliquaepartesiamsuntsubjectaeutcernis. TheRomanEmperorandthePope,VicarofChrist,nowgovernhereonly in name. In no <other>part of the world is there so much controversy among sovereigns as there is in this part. As Europe is thus weakening itself, it isquicklyfalling to the swordofMuhammad,just as the other parts<oftheworld>havealreadyfallen,asyousee. ThispredictionaboutthefallofEuropetoIslamisvividlyportrayedinthefol- lowingmap.Finally,thetextinAfricareads: Hicpertotumdominaturunusmagnusrexsarracenorumoccidentalium cuius nomen Miramamolon. rex fidelium habens sub se septem reges vicariusmachometisublegecuiushicregitprimuspariumregnumcepte quodtenentChristianihispaniabanodominiChristi1411inhuncannum 1486.
153 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse InthiswholeregionrulesonegreatkingofthewesternSaracens,whose nameisMiramamolin.Thekingofthefaithful,whohasunderhimseven kings,isthevicarofMuhammad,inaccordancewithwhoselawhereigns here, the first among equals. The kingdom of Ceuta, which Spanish Christianshaveheldfromtheyear1411untilthisyear1486. ‘Miramamolin’istheLatintranscriptionofAmīral-Mu‘minīn,i.e .‘Commander oftheBelievers,’a titlefirstusedbytheAlmohadking‘AbdalMu‘min(1133– 1163),whofoughtimportantbattlesinNorthAfricaandtheIberianPeninsula, andsubsequentlybyhissuccessors.46Ourauthorisalittleconfusedaboutthe detailsoftheconquestofCeuta,whichwaseffectedbythePortuguese,notthe Spanish,andin1415,ratherthan1411.47ThistextaboutMuslimsinAfricacom- pletesanimageofaworldinwhichChristianityisinperil.48 Thereareelementsofthematicmapsoftheworld’sreligionsinsomeofthe moreelaboratelydecoratedmappaemundiandnauticalcharts,whereChristian citiesareindicatedwithcrosses,andMuslimcitieswithcrescents,andAndreas Walspergeronhisworldmapof1448writesthatRubra puncta sunt christiano- rum ciuitates. Nigra uero infidelium in terra marique existentium,“Thereddots arecitiesoftheChristians,andtheblackonesarethecitiesoftheunbelievers wholiveonthelandandbythesea.”MartinWaldseemüllerusedsuchsymbols on his world map of 1507, and describes his use of them in chapter 9 the 46 OnthisderivationofMiramamolinseeAlexanderPatschovsky,“DerheiligeKaiserHein- rich der ‘Erste’ als Haupt des apokalyptischen Drachens: Über das Bild des römisch- deutschen Reiches in derTraditionJoachims von Fiore,” Florensia: Bollettino del Centro Internazionale di Studi Gioachimiti12(1998), pp. 19–52, at 30–31;also see MarcoRainini, Disegni dei tempi: il ‘Liber figurarum’ e la teologia figurativa di Gioacchino da Fiore(Roma: Viella,2006),pp.119–120. 47 OnthetakingofCeutabythePortuguesesee“TheConquestofCeuta,BeingtheChroni- cleoftheKingDomJoãoI,”inVirginiadeCastroeAlmeida,ed.,Conquests & Discoveries of Henry the Navigator; Being the Chronicles of Azurara,trans.BernardMiall(London:G. Allen&Unwin,Ltd., 1936),pp. 29–115;andH.V.Livermore, “OntheConquestofCeuta,” Luso-Brazilian Review2.1(1965),pp.3–13. 48 WarfarebetweenChristiansandMuslimsisalsoportrayedontheBorgiamappamundiat theVatican:themapisdescribedinDestombes,Mappemondes(seeCh.4,n.37),pp.239– 241 and plate 29; and see A. E. Nordenskiöld, “Om ett aftryck från XV:de seklet af den i metallgraveradevärldskarta,somförvaratsikardinalStephanBorgiasmuseumiVelletri, Med 1 facsimile,” Ymer 11 (1891), pp. 83–92, with the reproduction of the map between pp.130and131;foranaccountoftheconflictsdepictedonthemapseeFelicitasSchmieder, “Anspruch auf christliche Weltherrschaft. Die Velletri/Borgia-Karte (15. Jahrhundert) inihremideengeschichtlichenundpolitischenKontext,”inIngridBaumgärtnerandMar- tina Stercken, eds., Herrschaft verorten: Politische Kartographie des Mittelalters und der Frühen Neuzeit(Zurich:ChronosVerlag,2012),pp.253–271.
154 Chapter5 Cosmographiae introductio,printedtoaccompanythemap.49Butthemapin HM83is morepurelythematicthan theexamplesjustmentioned,andbears comparisonwithnineteenth-centurythematicmapsoftheworld’sreligions.50 WilliamC.WoodbridgeinhisMoral and Political Chart of the World, Exhibiting the Prevailing Religion, Government, Degree of Civilization, and Number of Inhabitants of Each Country,inhisModern Atlas on a New Plan, to Accompany the System of Universal Geography(London:Geo.B.Whittaker,1828),usessym- bolstodesignateregionsasProtestant,Catholic,Orthodox,Muslim,orpagan. Thedepictionismoredetailedandthedifferencesindicatedwithcolorinthe map titled Verschiedenes zur Anthropographie in Heinrich Berghaus, Dr. Heinrich Berghaus’ Physikalischer Atlas oder Sammlung von Karten (Gotha: JustusPerthes,1845–48)(seeFig.5.4). Thetextaroundsomeoftheothermapsinthissequenceisinonecolumn, sothatthelinescontinuefromtheleftofthemaptotheright,butinthiscase thetextisintwocolumns,exceptforsometextinonecolumnatthebottomof thepage.Thetextintheleftcolumnreads(stillf.9r): Haec figura est mappa mundi de dominiis terre ab ano christi 639 ad annum1514percapituliapocalipsis12131415161718etprimum19usque adpunctum“Etvoxdethrono <exclusiet?>.”Sicenimutfiguraostendit citusdiscessioabimperioromanopertotannosettottalasucessi<o>ne, ettandemilladiscessiocomplebiturineuropediscessuadquoddeveni- tur nunc anno christi 1486 per sectam machometicam, ut cernis hic in figuraquevarietatemostenditresastans(i.e .resistans)permundum Rucia verum regit dux muscavie sub lege christi hoc scismaticus ut papamutimperatoremadvertens 49 Onthe symbols thatWaldseemüller usesto indicate differentreligions onhis 1507map seeCh.5,n.59below. 50 Thereisapairofrareeighteenth-centurymapsthataresomewhatlimitedthematicmaps ofreligion:theyaremapsoftheChristiandiocesesinAfricaandAsiabyFrancescoMaria SassititledLimiti delle diocesi in terra ferma andpublishedaround1740inthebookAlla Santità di nostro Signore Benedetto Papa X IV. memoriale responsivo alle animadversioni di monsignor Segretario della S. Congregazione de Propaganda Fide sopra la nuova erezione de’ Vescovadi nell’Indie Orientali (Rome, c. 1740), a copy of which was listed for sale by Reiss&SohninthecatalogfortheirAuktion 166, 30.–31. Oktober 2013, Geographie, Reisen, Atlanten, Landkarten, Ansichten, Dekoratives(KönigsteinimTaunus:Reiss&Sohn,2013), pp.51–52,number 2557.There areexemplars ofthe mapsinLisbon,BibliotecaNacional dePortugal,in the mapcollection, shelfmark C.C.865V.;andin Paris, Archives Nation- ales,shelfmarksN N/181/10/1andNN/181/10/2.
155 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse F i g u r e  5 . 4 T h e m a t i c m a p o f t h e w o r l d ’ s r e l i g i o n s , a d e t a i l o f t h e m a p V e r s c h i e d e n e s  z u r  A n t h r o p o g r a p h i e , i n H e i n r i c h B e r g h a u s , D r .  H e i n r i c h  B e r g h a u s ’  p h y s i k a l i s c h e r  A t l a s  o d e r  S a m m l u n g  v o n  K a r t e n ( G o t h a : J u s t u s P e r t h e s , 1 8 4 5 – 4 8 ) ( b y  c o u r t e s y  o f  t h e  D a v i d  R u m s e y  M a p  C o l l e c t i o n ) .
156 Chapter5 Ungaria magna gentibus ruthenis tributaria livonia Polonia ungaria hic angulus tenet se ad huc ad Europam et papam et imperatorem aqualiter IselandiaNorwegiasueciadaciaadEuropam Turkia verum dominatur imperator tartarorum sub lege machometi <tenens?>hodieabannochristi1453totamgretiamcuiusmetropolisest Constantinopolis Thisdiagramisthemappamundiofthelordshipsoftheworldfromthe year639totheyear1514throughRevelationchapters12,13,14,15,16,17,18, andthefirstpartof19,tothepoint“Andavoicecameoutofthethrone” (Rev.19:5).ThemapshowstherapiddisintegrationoftheRomanEmpire acrossmanyyearsandbysuchasuccession,andthatdisintegrationwill finally be completed through the disintegration of Europe, which is approachingnowintheyear1486becauseoftheMuhammadanreligion, asyouseeinthismap,whichshowsthevarietypersistingthroughoutthe world. ThelordofMuscovyrulesRussiaaccordingtothelawofChrist,<and yet>thishereticrejectsboththePopeandthe<HolyRoman>Emperor. Greater Hungary pays tribute to the Ruthenian peoples. Livonia, Poland, Hungary: this area is loyal to Europe and the Pope also to the Emperor. Iceland,Norway,Sweden,Denmark<areloyal>toEurope. TurkeyhoweverisruledbytheemperoroftheTartarsaccordingtothe lawofMuhammad,<and>todayfromtheyear1453heholdsallofGreece, whosecapitalisConstantinople. The author says that this map covers the period during which the events of Revelation 12–19:5 will occur, but in fact there is no clear correspondence between the eventsin those chapters of Revelation and what we see on the map.TheremarksaboutthesituationofChristianityinRussiaandsooninthe latterhalfofthistextreadlikelegendsthatmighthavebeeninalargerversion ofthemap.Thetexttotherightofthemapreads: Nota Alexandrie que est magna civitas Egipti residet patriarcha chri- stianorum submachometione oppressorequi militisunt valdeboni.Et Soldanus residens in Alkaria que appelatur nova Babilonia veneratur eum muneribus sed non permitit eum communicare romano pontifci ut scripto ut ore eum confitendo. Corde et voluntate nequit prohibere <...>. Similiter et Indi tantum corde possunt romano Papae communi- care et subesse. Asiam quoque impedit multiduto machometorum qui intermediatutoculatimcernisinhacfigura.Sedagladioromevictiquos
157 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse cesar romanus tenet penitus penitus (sic) discesserunt corde sicut ore ymmoilligladiohodienichilsubestnisiEuropaetparvusanguluslivonia polonia ungaria, et quod et quam pauci in eadem parte hodie subsunt romanocesarenamignoraturhocanno1486. NotethatinAlexandria,whichisagreatcityofEgypt,livesaPatriarchof theChristiansbeneathaMuslimoppressor;theMuslimsareverygoodsol- diers. And the Sultan, who lives in Cairo, which is called New Babylon, honors thepatriarchwith ceremonies,but does notpermit him to com- municatewiththeRomanPope,nortoacknowledgehimeitherinwriting or verbally. <However> he cannot prohibit him in his heart and mind. SimilarlythepeopleofIndiacanonlycommunicatewithandbesubordi- nate to the Roman Pope in their hearts. The multitude of Muslims also troublesAsia,for theysurroundit, asyoucanclearlyseein themap.But thosedefeatedbytheswordofRomewhomtheRomanEmperorholdswill thoroughlyrebelbothinheartandinspeech<...>.Butinfacttoday,noth- ingissubjecttothatswordexceptforEuropeandasmallcorner<consisting in>Livonia,Poland,andHungary,andwhatandhowfewinthatareaare todaysubjecttotheRomanEmperorisunknowninthisyear1486. Most ofthis textissimilarincharacter to thelegends on themap.Therefer- encetoLivonia,Poland,andHungaryrepeatsthatintheleft-handcolumnof text—evidentlytheauthorofHM83wasveryinterestedinthatarea.Hisindi- cation that wedo notknowhow manypeoplein that area are subject to the Roman Emperor recalls his statement near the top of f. 2v that “not even Europecanbe<fully>exploredbyanyEuropean.” Thesingle-columntextatthebottomofthepagereads: MachometusinAlchoranodicitursibigladium adeodatumquo roma- num imperium successione sibi subiciat quod verum res per multos annosostendit.Ettandemromamcassateteuropamsibisubicietuthec sequensfiguraostenditettuncinplenapotestatedominabitur56annos sicutMethodiusdicitfinem(orsuum)magnem(ormagistrum)<in>his- toriesanctaec16genesisetapocalipsisconfirmat. IntheKoranitissaidthatMuhammad<had>aswordthatwasgivento himbyGod,bywhichhewouldgraduallybringtheRomanEmpireunder hiscontrol,whicheventsovermanyyearsshowtobetrue.Andatlasthe caused the fall of Rome and subjugated Europe as this following map shows,andthenhewillruleinfullpowerfor56yearsasMethodiussays <....>andGenesisandApocalypsisconfirms.
158 Chapter5 Thislastbitoftextreferstothemaponthenextfolio,andtheauthorsimilarly placestextonthebottomofonefoliothatintroducesthemaponthefollowing folioelsewhereinthe treatise ontheApocalypse.TheKoranhadbeentrans- latedintoLatinwellbeforethefifteenthcentury,51butitsaysnothingabouta swordofMuhammad—infactthewordforsword,saif,doesnotoccurinthe book. So the reference to the Koran is incorrect, and the author must have takenthereferencetotheswordofMuhammadfromanothersource.Insome accounts Muhammad was said to have acquired the famous sword named Dhu’l-Faqar or Zulfiqar in the Battle of Badr (624), and according to some accounts,itwastheArchangelGabrielwhogavetheswordtoMuhammadat Badr.52YetwedonotfindamedievalLatinaccountofMuhammadthatmen- tionsthissword.53 We do know of two earlier texts that speak of the gladius Machometi or ‘sword of Muhammad.’ Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada (1170–1247) in his Historia Arabum,followingalonglistofprovincesallovertheworldandtheircapitals, says Has omnes provincias subiugavit secta et gladius Mahometi, “All of these provincesthereligionandswordofMuhammadsubdued.”54WilliamofTripoli (ca.1220–1277)inhisDe statu Sarracenorum (TreatiseontheConditionofthe 51 On medieval translations of the Koran see Marie-Thérèse d’Alverny, “Deux traductions latinesduCoranauMoyenÂge,”Archives d’histoire littéraire et doctrinale du Moyen Âge16 (1947–1948),pp.69–132;reprintedinMarie-Thérèsed’Alverny,La connaissance de l’Islam dans l’occident médiéval, ed. Charles Burnett (Aldershot: Variorum, 1994); Hartmut Bobzin, “Latin Translations of the Koran: A Short Overview,” Der Islam: Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kultur des islamischen Orients70(1993),pp.193–206;ThomasE.Burman, “ TafsirandTranslation:TraditionalArabicQuranExegesisandtheLatinQuransofRobert ofKettonandMarkofToledo,”Speculum73(1998)pp.703–732;AfnanFatani,“Translation and the Qur’an,” in Oliver Leaman, ed., The Qur’an: An Encyclopedia (Oxon: Routledge, 2006), pp. 657–669; and Thomas E. Burman, Reading the Qur’an in Latin Christendom, 1140–1560(Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress,2007). 52 OnMuhammad’sswordseeG.Zawadowski,“Notesurl’originemagiquedeDhoū-l-Faqār,” En terre d’Islam,series3,vol.21(1943),pp.36–40;andFrancescaBellino,“Dhūl-Faqār,”in Kate Fleet,Gudrun Krämer,DenisMatringe,JohnNawas, andEverettRowson, eds.,The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Three (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2012), pp. 77–79. On the belief that Muhammadhadreceivedthe swordfromthe ArchangelGabrielseeJeanCalmard, “Ḏu’l-faqar,” in Ehsan Yarshater, ed., Encyclopaedia Iranica (London and Boston: Rout- ledge&KeganPaul,1982-2012),vol.7,Fasc.6,pp.566–568,at566. 53 ForasurveyofLatinaccountsofthelifeofMuhammadseeJohnVictorTolan,“European AccountsofMuhammad’sLife,”inJonathanE.Brockopp,ed.,The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad(NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,2010),pp.226–250. 54 RodrigoJiménezdeRada,Historia Arabvm,ed.JoséLozanoSánchez(Seville:Publicacio- nesdelaUniversidaddeSevilla,1974),p.23.
159 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Saracens), chapter 24, writes,Item unus de articulis credendorum apud eos sic dicit: Sarracenorum fides surrexit per gladium Machometi et carruet per gla- dium, qui erit Dei, quasi diceret: Per gladium incepit, per gladium desinet,“One ofthearticlesofbeliefamongthemgoesthisway:‘TheSaracenreligionarose throughtheswordofMuhammadandwillfallthroughtheswordwhichwillbe God’s,’ thatis to say, ‘it began throughthe swordandthroughthe swordwill end’.”55ItispossiblethattheauthorofHM83tookuphisprogrammaticinter- estin the swordofMuhammadfrom one ofthesepassages,buthe also may havebeeninspiredbyoneofthemanymedievalaccountsofIslamasareligion ofthesword.56 The vision of the threat to Christianity from Islam on this map, as men- tionedabove,isverysimilartothatinJacobusdeClusa’sDe malis huius saeculi per omnes aetates, which he wrote in 1447, though it seems unlikely that JacobusdeClusainfluencedourauthor.Thereisanothersimilarpassageina laterwork,namelyErasmusofRotterdam’scolloquy“OnEatingFish,”of1526. Inthecolloquyabutcherreportshisimpressionsuponseeingaworldmap:57 Recently I saw a painting, on a very large canvas, of the whole world. FromitIlearnedhow smallaportion ofthe worldwholeheartedlyand sincerelyprofessesChristianity:partofwesternEurope,ofcourse; then anotherparttowardsthenorth;athirdstretchingfarawaytothesouth; Polandseemedtobeasfarasthefourthpartwent,towardstheeast.The rest of the world contains either barbarians, not so very different from brutes,orschismaticsorheretics,orboth. 55 William of Tripoli, Notitia de Machometo; De statu Sarracenorum, ed. and trans. Peter Engels (Würzburg: Echter; and Altenberge: Oros, 1992), p. 330; the translation is from Bernard McGinn, ed., Visions of the End: Apocalyptic Traditions in the Middle Ages(New York:ColumbiaUniversityPress,1979),p.154. 56 FordiscussionofpassagesinmedievalauthorsinwhichIslamisdescribedasareligionof theswordseeSvetlanaLuchitskaja,“TheImageofMuhammadinLatinChronographyof theTwelfthandThirteenthCenturies,”Journal of Medieval History26.2(2000),pp.115–126. 57 ThepassageaboutthemapcomesfromErasmusofRotterdam,Colloquies,trans.CraigR. Thompson, in Collected Works of Erasmus(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974–), vol.40,p.686. For anothertranslation ofthetext seeDesideriusErasmus,The Essential Erasmus, trans. John P. Dolan (New York: New American Library, 1964), pp. 271–326, including a goodintroduction.The passagein Erasmus is cited and briefly discussedin UrsB.Leu,“TextbooksandtheirUses—AnInsightintotheTeachingofGeographyin16th CenturyZurich,”inEmidioCampi,SimoneDeAngelis,Anja-SilviaGoeing,andAnthony T.Grafton,eds.,Scholarly Knowledge: Textbooks in Early Modern Europe(Geneva:Librairie Droz,2008),pp.229–248,at240.
160 Chapter5 One wonders about the exact nature of the map Erasmus had in mind, and whetheritwasreal:didithavelegendsorsymbolsindictingwhichreligionwas predominantineachregion,58orwasthebutcherknowledgeableaboutthese matters,andsimplyimpressedwhenhesawthemapsandrealizedtherelative extents of the territories? The heightened concern about the Apocalypse in fifteenthcenturyEuropewenthandinhandwithaheightenedconcernabout Islam,buttheauthorofHM83wastheonlyauthorweknowoftodisplaythe basisforthelatterconcerncartographically. The Map and Text on f. 9v This map(Fig. 5.5)is a stunningexample ofsymbolic cartography: on afull- page mappamundiunencumbered by much geographical detail,five graphic representations of the sword of Muhammad reach out to the edges of the earth, indicating the spread of Islam over the whole surface of the orbis ter- rarum, as was predicted on the preceding folio. The focus on the spread of Islam resulted in the omission of indications of countries and cities, in con- trast to the situationin thepreceding map.Earlier cartographers used other signs to indicate the religious affiliation of cities: on some nautical charts, ChristiancitiesbearcrosseswhileMuslimcitiesflytheflagofthecrescent;and onAndreaWalsperger’smappamundiof1448,hewritesthat“Thereddotsare citiesoftheChristians,andtheblackonesarethecitiesoftheunbelieverswho liveonthelandandbythesea.”59Buttheuseoftheseswordsbytheauthorof HM83toindicatethespreadofIslamisdifferent:theyareuseddynamically,to indicate change,andofcourse thebladeshaveahostileandsinister symbol- 58 See the description of the symbols used by MartinWaldseemüller on his worldmap of 1507 to indicate the regions under the control of different religions, described in the followingnote. 59 MartinWaldseemüllerusedsuchsymbolsonhisworldmapof1507.Inchapter8theCos- mographiae introductio, printed to accompany the map, he and Matthias Ringmann explainthat:“ThegreaterpartofAfricaandapartofAsiawehavedistinguishedbycres- cents, whicharethe emblems oftheSultanofBabylonia,theLordofallEgypt, andofa part of Asia. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron- coloredcrossjoinedto a branding iron, which is the symbol ofthe Sultan of theTurks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia.AsiaticScythiawehavemarkedbyanchors,whicharethe emblemsofthegreat TartarKhan.Aredcross symbolizesPresterJohn(who rulesbotheastern andsouthern India and who resides in Biberith)....”The translation is fromJoseph Fischer and Franz von Wieser, The ‘Cosmographiae introductio’ of Martin Waldseemüller in Facsimile, Followed by the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, with their Translation into English(New York:The United States Catholic Historical Society, 1907), chapter 8, on the back of the diagrambetweenpages66and77.
161 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Figure5.5 Huntington HM 83, f. 9v. A prophecy map showing the world from 1514 to 1570, when Sword of Islam has conquered Europe and reached all the way to the edges of the earth (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
162 Chapter5 ism. The text above the map, which we will transcribe and translate below, indicatesthatthemapshowswhatwillhappentotheearthfrom1514to1570. Inthemap,thelongtextinthecircumfluentoceanreads: Inmareocceaniinsulamnullamexercebitmachometuspotestatemsed tantum in arida.Ergogladii non sunt tractiextra aridam et tamen visa cuiuspotestateinaridahabitatoresinsularumferebuntcummachome- tione treugas sicut hodie X tribus Israel et etiam Indi in arida hodie habent treugas cum tartare machometione sibi vicinis sicut claretur in figuraprecedente. Muhammadwillnothavepoweroveranyislandintheocean,onlyonthe mainland.Forthisreason,theswordsarenotextendedbeyondthemain- land.Nonetheless,theinhabitantsoftheislands,havingseenhispower onthe mainland,willmake treaties withtheMuslims,justastodaythe TenTribesofIsrael,andalsosomeinIndiainthemainland,maketreaties withtheMuslimTartarsnearthem,asisclearintheprecedingmap. Itisnot clearwhytheauthorofHM83thinks thattheMuslimswillnotcon- quertheislandsoftheocean,butonewondersifhethinksofthoseislandsas atleastatemporaryrefugefromtheapproachingtroubles. Thetextincenteroftheeastern(upper)partofthemapreadsGladius est lex machometi,“TheswordisthelawofMuhammad.”Andthetextinthelower leftpartofthemap,i.e .Europe,readsHuc in europam gladius extendetur sicut ante gladii alibi iam sunt extensi,“FromheretheswordisextendedintoEurope, just as the swords had already been extended elsewhere.” The swords are labeled Corrigit, Reformat, Cassat, and Romam, with the fifth sword in the southeast unlabeled,i.e . “Itcorrects,” “Itreforms,” “It crushes,” and“toRome,” thelastoftheselocatedinEurope.Areddotatthecenterofthemapindicates thelocationofJerusalem. Thetextabovethemapreads: Hec figura est mappa mundi de dominio terre ab anno christi 1514 ad annum1570.Inapocalipsisc19apunctoetvoxdethronoexivitusquead punctumetvidicelumapertumetecceequusalbus.Hecergofiguraest dedominio56annorum. Thisdiagramisaworldmapoftheruleoftheearthfromtheyear1514to theyear1570.InRevelationchapter19fromthepoint“Andavoicecame out of the throne”(Rev. 19:5)to thepoint “Isaw Heaven standing open
163 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse andtherebeforemewasawhitehorse”(Rev.19:11).Thismapthuscovers areignof56years. Unfortunately we see no connection whatsoever between the contents of Revelation19:5–11andthecontentofthemap,sothecitationisobscure.Below this textwereadFigura de machometo, “DiagramofMuhammad.”Inthetext belowthemapweread: NotaverbaquaedixitdeusAbrahegenesis1260Seminituodaboterram hancetgenesis1361levaoculostuosindirectum.Etvidealocoquonunc esadaquilonemetmeridiemadorientemetoccidentemomnemterram quamconspicistibidaboetseminituoinsempiternumprimumimple- tumestindavidetsalamoneSecunduminhiistribusfiliisAbrahe. IsmahelMachometus IsaacetGogantichristus Jacob Dan  Judas JhesusChristus  Sem Inquorumprimohodieoculereusqueettactimexplerividemussioculos aperireetcircumspicirevoluimusetabilloprimodominiumterredura- bitquodmachometus regnabitper orbem et tamenipse cum sua secta delebiturtunciamgogestnatusutprius,eteumJesusinterficietetreg- nabitposteumhicinterrainsempiternumetetiam45annisetindein eternum sine fine in cunctis orbibus sine contradictione quorumlibet hostium. NotethewordsthattheGodofAbrahamsaidinGenesis12: 62“Igivethis landtoyourdescendants”andGenesis13: 63“Liftupyoureyesfromwhere youareandlooknorthandsouth,eastandwest.Allthelandthatyousee Iwillgivetoyouandyourdescendantsforever.”Thefirstwasfulfilledin DavidandSolomon,andthesecondinthesethreesonsofAbraham: Ismahel Muhammad 60 ThepassageisGenesis12:7. 61 ThepassageisGenesis13:14–15. 62 ThepassageisGenesis12:7. 63 ThepassageisGenesis13:14–15.
164 Chapter5 IsaacandGogAntichrist Jacob Dan  Judas JesusChrist  Sem Inthefirstofthese,todayweseeitfulfilledbothbysightandbytouch,if we are willing to open our eyes and look around. And from thefirst of these the lordship of the world will last so that Muhammad will reign throughouttheworld,andyethewithhisreligionwillbedestroyed.Then Gogisbornasbefore,andJesuswillkillhimandwillreignafterhimboth hereontheearthforeverand45years,andfromthatpointforeverwith- outendineveryworldwithoutcontradictionfromanyenemy. The citation ofGenesis 12:7and13:14–15onGod’sgift ofthelandofIsraelto Abraham should be interpreted as indicating sensitiveness to the fact that accordingtothediagram,thatterritorywillsoonbepartofIslamicterritory. The Map and Text on f. 10r Thisstrikingimage(Fig.5.6)hardlyseemstobeamapatfirst,butitisanother remarkable instance of symbolic cartography. The central set of triangles, rangingfrom smalltolarge, shows anincreaseinsize, andspecificallyrepre- sents the increasing influence of Antichrist.The eleven-pointed star behind thetriangles representsthehornsofthebeastofDaniel7:64thesurrounding text speaks often horns, while there are elevenin the map, but this accords with Daniel 7:8, in which an eleventh horn representing Antichrist arises. Thesehornsseparatetenkingsintheouterringofthemap.Thetextabovethe mapsaysthatitshowswhatwillhappento theearthbetween1570and1600; the cartographic representation of the increasing importance of Antichrist andthebeastofDaniel7duringthisperiodbyaseriesofsharppromontories is extraordinary, andrecalls the swords ofMuhammadon theprevious map. Thefamiliargeographyoftheearth,thekingdomsofEurope,AfricaandAsia, arerelegatedtotheouterringofthemapasthecartographicrepresentationof theapocalypticdramadominatesthecenter. Thekingsin the outer circle ofthe map, beginningin the lower right and continuing counter-clockwise, are: Rex Egipti, Rex indie ad quem regnum abdic<at>,Rex calcedonie cum media et persida,Rex grecie Rusia,Rex gotie ad 64 Onthe beast in Daniel7 seeChrys C.Caragounis, “Greek Culture andJewish Piety:The ClashandtheFourthBeastofDaniel7,”Ephemerides theologicae Lovanienses65.4(1989), pp.280–308.
165 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse quem Scotia,Rex gallie,Rex ytalie et germanie,Rex hyspanie,Rex affrice,andRex Ethiopie, that is, the King of Egypt; the King of India, whom the kingdom rejects; the King of Calcedonia with Medea and Persia; the King of Greece; Russia;theKingoftheGothstowhomScotland;theKingofGaul;theKingof Italy and Germany; the King of Spain; the King of Africa; and the King of Ethiopia. Near the bottom of the triangles we read Antipater sic crescet a minimo in maximum, “ThusAntipater(perhapsanerrorforAntichrist)grows Figure5.6 Huntington HM 83, f. 10r. A symbolic prophecy map showing the world from 1570 to 1600. The series of small-to-large triangles in the center represent the increase of Antichrist, and the other spikes that radiate to the edges of the earth represent the horns of the beast of Daniel 7 (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
166 Chapter5 fromsmalltolarge.”Thetexthigheronthelargestofthetrianglereadstocius terre dominium,“theruleofalloftheland.” Thetext outsidethe mapisin one column, andso to readmuchofit one mustjumpfromlefttorightacrossthemap.Thistextruns: Haecfigura est mappa mundidedominiis terre ab anno christi 1570 ad annum1600.Inapocalypsis19apunctoetvidicelumapertumadfinem capituli et in capitulum 20 a principio usque ad punctum et cum consummatifuerunt.Haecfiguraestdedominioannorum30quibusfini- untur mille anni Apocalypsis 20. Hii X reges aliquamdiu in 30 annis tenebunt pacem tandem ante finem 30 annorumincipient litigarequis eorum sit dominus omnium et tunc apparebit antichristus et de manu omniumsumetdominumterre.HecfiguraostenditXcornuabestiaeter- ribilis danielis 7 de quorum medio parvulum hoc cornu oritur65 signus <antichristi?>etilliXregeseruntinfineromaniimperii<... . .>incuius <vivint?> doctores bene intellectum consonant Machomentus romam cassabit apocalipsis 18 et dominabitur per totum 56 annos ut in figura precedentepropterquodoppressisubmachometioneetinillorumanno- rumfineimperatorumromanorumultimuspertotannosabsconditusvel novus electus cumXdecem(sic)regibus sibiadhaerentibus exsurgit et sectammachometicamdelebitIndechristocoronamoffertinJerusalem IndeeruntXXXanniproregnoistorumXregumchristianorumutpatetin figura. Thisdiagramisamapofthelordshipsoftheworldfromtheyear1570to 1600.InRevelation19fromthepoint“IsawHeavenstandingopen”tothe end of the chapter, and in chapter 20 from the beginning to the point “Andtheywereconsumedbyfire.”Thisdiagramisofthelordshipofthe 30 years in which finish the 1000 years <mentioned in> Revelation 20. Sometimein<those>30yearsthesetenkingswillhavepeace,butbefore theendofthe30yearstheywillbegintoargueaboutwhichofthemwill belordofall,andthenAntichristwillappear,andfromthehandofallhe willtakethelordshipofthe earth.Thisdiagramshowsthe tenhornsof theterriblebeastofDaniel7,fromwhosemidstthissmallhornarises,the signofAntichrist,andthosetenkingswillappearattheendoftheRoman Empire <... . .> the learned agree. Muhammad will conquer Rome— Revelation 18—and will rule for all the 56 years as indicated in the 65 See Daniel 7:8, Considerabam cornua et ecce cornu aliud parvulum ortum est de medio eorum....
167 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse preceding map, and because of this, they will be oppressed by the Muslims.Andintheendofthoseyears,theLastRomanEmperor,hidden for so many years, or else newly elected, will arise with 10 kings by his side, and he will destroy the Muslim sect. Then he offers the crown to ChristinJerusalem.Thentherewillbethirtyyearsoftheruleofthoseten Christiankings,asisclearfromthediagram. Againthereislittle apparent connectionbetween theeventsdepictedin the mapornarratedonthisfolioandthebiblicalpassagestheauthorcites,namely Revelation19:22–21and20:1–9 .Thetenkingsmentionedhereanddepictedin themapappearinRevelation17:12,andnotthelaterchapterstheauthorcites. So perhaps he was citing these passages from memory. The role of the Last RomanEmperorin HM83wasdiscussedabove in the context of his appear- anceinthesummaryoftheLastDaysonf.16r. Thetextatthebottomofthepagereads: Sequentelaterefigura estmappa mundidedominio terreabanno 1600 usqueadannumchristum1606.Inapocalyptoapunctocapituli2:Etcum consummatifinerunt1000anniusquead.... Onthenextfolio,thediagramisamapofthelordshipoftheearthfrom the year 1600 to the year 1606. In Revelation chapter 2, from the point “ Whenthethousandyearscometoanend,until....” The citation ofRevelation 2is an errorforRevelation 20, specifically20:7,Et cum consummati fuerint mille anni solvetur Satanas de carcere suo,“Whenthe thousandyearscometoanend,Satanwillbeletoutofhisprison.”Asonf.9r, theauthorusesthebottomofonefoliotointroducethematerialonthenext. The Map and Text on f. 10v This map(Fig.5.7)is another remarkable workofsymbolic cartography.The huge peninsulas that jut out into the circumfluent ocean represent the four horns of Antichrist, which in turn represent the four methods by which he deceives people into following him, namely cruelty, deceit, craftiness, and imitationofthedeity.66Sothefourpeninsulasareinfactcartographicrepre- 66 Adso of Monier-en-Der in his Libellus de Antichristo, written in the tenth century, indi- cates that Antichrist will deceive people by three techniques rather than four, namely fear, gifts, and miracles. For an English translation of the Libellus see Bernard McGinn, Apocalyptic Spirituality: Treatises and Letters of Lactantius, Adso of Montier-en-Der,
168 Chapter5 Figure5.7 Huntington HM 83, f. 10v. A prophecy map of the world from 1600 to 1606. Antichrist is at the center of the earth, at Jerusalem, and the four peninsulas that jut into the ocean are symbolic, cartographic representations of the four horns of Antichrist (Deceit, Cunning, Cruelty, and Imitation of the Deity) by which he will persuade people to follow him (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
169 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse sentations of abstractions. These peninsulas go all the way across the circumfluentocean,incontrast tothe swordsofMuhammadon themapon f. 9v, indicating the greater power and reach of Antichrist. The prominent islandisthatoftheTenTribes ofIsrael,whichappearson other mapsinthe manuscript,forexamplethoseonff.3rand6v–7r(seeFigs.4.9and4.14).The orientationofthismapisdifferentthanthatoftheothersinthemanuscript, forithassouthatthetopratherthaneast,andthereasonforthischangeisnot clear.Thetextabovethemap,whichistranscribedandtranslatedjustbelow, indicatesthatthe mapshowswhatwillhappen to theearthduringtheyears 1600to1606. The map includes indications of the cardinal directions, Auster, Oriens, Occidens,andalquilo(sic),anditistothesedirectionsthatthefourlargepen- insulas are oriented. The peninsulas, which represent the four horns of Antichrist andthefour methodsbywhichhedeceivespeopleintofollowing him,arelabeledCrudelitas,Dolositas,Calliditas,andMentita deitas,i.e .cruelty, deceit, craftiness, andimitation ofthe deity.Theislandin thelowerleft and the peninsula that joins it to the orbis terrarum is labeled Et tribus Israhel venient in Jerusalem ad Gog,“AndthetribesofIsraelwillcometoJerusalemto Gog,”i.e .Antichrist.Ontheorbis terrarumarethenamesEnochandElias,that is, Enoch and Elijah, and the text at the center of the world says Jerusalem Antichristus,sothatAntichristisatJerusalem,fromwhichhisfourhornsradi- ate. Itisinterestingthat muchofthe text on the mapis orientedso as tobe readableifthemapwererotatedsothateastwereatthetop,anditistempting todeducethatthatwasthismap’soriginalorientation. Thetextsurroundingthemapreads: Gogantichristusestserpenscornutushabetenimquatuorcornuaidest quatuor modos superandi ut patet genisi 49 cum glosa magistrali.67 Et ipseinprincipiosueostensionisponetsedemsuaminJerusalemutpatet in figura cornu crudelitatis per tormentorum illationem superabit car- nalesseipsosamantesqualessuntgulosietluxuriosi...Cornudolositatis per munerum collationem quo superat avaros Cornu caliditatis per Joachim of Fiore, the Franciscan Spirituals, Savonarola (New York: Paulist Press, 1979), pp.89–96,esp.92.WethankLauraSmollerforthisreference. 67 Genesis49:17,fiat Dan coluber in via.TheGlossa ordinaria onthispassage,from vol. 1 of theBibleprintedinStrasbourgbyAdolfRuschnotafter1480,reads:Alii ad antichristum haec transferrunt, quem de tribu dan venturum asserunt.... Qui non solum coluber sed ceras- tes vocatur. Cerasta enim grecae cornnua dicuntur, et hic serpens cornutus esse perhibetur, per quem dignae adventus antichristi asseritur, qui contra sanctos morsu pestiferae praedi- cationis et cornu potestatis armabitur.
170 Chapter5 divine scripture falsam expositionem quo superat scientiae inflatos quales sunt capitosi sibi ipsis sapientes ad suum caput retorquentes Cornu mentite deitatis per miraculorum operationem quo superat ypocritas<...>seipsosiustificantesQualessuntquisibiipsisiustividen- turetgloriamhominumquaerunt. GogAntichristisahornedserpentwhohasfourhorns,thatis,fourmeth- odsofconquering,asisclearfromGenesis49withthemagisterialgloss. Andinthebeginningofhisappearance,heplaceshisseatinJerusalem, asisclearfromthediagram.Withhishornofcruelty,throughtheappli- cation of tortures, he will conquer carnal people who love themselves, such as those who are gluttonous and luxurious. By his horn of deceit, through the giving of gifts, he will conquer the greedy. By his horn of craftiness, through a false exposition of divine scripture, he conquers thoseproudoftheirknowledge,suchastheconceitedwhothinkthem- selveswise,lookingonlyatthemselves.Byhishornofimitatingthedeity, through the performance of miracles he conquers the hypocrites who justifythemselves,suchasthosewhoregardthemselvesasjust,andseek thegloryofmen. It was not clear where the author of HM 83 got the idea of the swords of Muhammadsweepingacrosstheorbis terrarum,butwehavedeterminedthe sourceofhisaccountofthefourhornsofAntichrist,whichistheCompendium theologiaeorCompendium theologicae veritatisofHughRipelinofStrasbourg (c. 1205 – c. 1270), a widely-read manual of practical theology.68 In Book 7, chapter 9 of the Compendium Hugh discusses the four means by which Antichristwilldeceivepeople,andweofferexcerptsfromthatchapter:69 68 FordiscussionoftheCompendiumseeLuzianPfleger,“DerDominikanerHugovonStras- sburgunddas‘Compendiumtheologicaeveritatis’,”Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie28 (1904),pp.429–440;MartinGrabmann,“EntscheidungderAutorfragedes‘Compendium theologicae veritatis’,” Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie 45 (1921), pp. 147–153; Georg Steer, Hugo Ripelin von Straßburg: Zur Rezeptions- und Wirkungsgeschichte des ‘Compen- dium theologicae veritatis’ im deutschen Spätmittelalter (Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1981), reviewed by Nigel F. Palmer in Modern Language Review 78.2 (1983), pp. 486–487; and Georg Steer, “Hugo Ripelin von Straßburg,” in Wolfgang Stammler and Karl Langosch, eds., Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon (Berlin and New York: de Gruyter,1978-),vol.4,cols.252–266. 69 InthepasttheCompendiumwassometimesattributedtoAlbertusMagnus,andthusitis printedinAlbertusMagnus,D. Alberti Magni Ratisbonensis episcopi ordinis Praedicatorum Opera omnia, ed. A. Borgnet(Paris: apud LudovicumVivès, 1890–95), vol. 34, pp. 1–306;
171 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Merito comparatur Antichristus cerasti qui est serpens cornutus: quia quatuor cornibus armabitur, scilicet callida persuasione, miraculorum operatione, donorum largitione, et tormentorum exhibitione. Primus ergomodussubvertendihomineseritcallidapersuasio.Praedicabitenim legem novam pravam esse, et legem Christi pro posse destruet. Prae- dicatores enim sui discurrent per universas partes mundi .... Secundus modus subvertendi erit per fallacia miracula: quia per artem magicam illafaciet....Item,perartemmagicamsimulabitsemortuum,etferetura daemonibusinaera,quasiascendatincoelum:etsicputabiturabhom- inibus resurrexisse, qui prius mortuus putabatur: et tunc mirabuntur populi,etadorabunteum,atquelaudabunt....Tertio,decipietpermunera. Ipse namque Antichristus inveniet thesauros absconditos, per quos ad sequendumseinclinabitplurimos:ditabitenimbonisdiviteshujussae- culi, et tunc eorum falsam felicitatem ad decipiendum alios ostendet. Quarto,compelletperminas,ettormenta,quosalitervincerenonpoterit. Tantavero,sicutaitDominus,tuncerittribulatio,utinerroreminducan- tur,sifieripotest, etiamelecti....Antichristus autem sicuteritcrudelior omnibus persecutoribus,ita sanctitunc temporisfortiores erunt omni- busretromartyribus. Antichristisrightlycomparedtoacerastes,whichisaserpentwithhorns, forheisarmedwithfourhorns,namelysubtlepersuasion,theworkingof miracles, gifts of presents, and the distribution of tortures. His first methodforoverthrowingmen,then,willbesubtlepersuasion.Forhewill proclaimthatthenewlawiswicked,andhewilldestroythelawofChrist asfaraspossible.Hispreacherswillrunthroughallpartsoftheworld.... His secondmethodofoverturningmenwillbebyfalse miracles,forhe will perform these by means of the magic art.... Likewise, by means of magichewillfeigndeath,andwillbecarriedintotheairbydemons,and asitwere,goupintoHeaven:andsohewillbethoughtbymentohave beenresurrected,whobeforewasthoughttobedead:andthepeoplewill be amazed, andwillbow downbefore him, andpraisehim....Third,he the Antichrist section of Book VII , “De ultimis temporibus,” is on pp. 241–245, and see especially pp. 242–243 on his four methods of deceiving people—the passage quoted comesfromthisedition.TheCompendiumwasalsosometimesattributedtoSt.Bonaven- tura,andthusthissamechapterisalsoprintedinSt.Bonaventura,Compendium theologi- cae veritatis, Book 7, chapter 9, in St. Bonaventura, S. R. E . Cardinalis S. Bonaventurae ... opera omnia Sixti V, pontificis maximi jussu diligentissime emendata (Paris: Ludovicus Vivès,1864–71),vol.8,pp.232–233.
172 Chapter5 willdeceive throughgifts.ForAntichristhimselfshallfindhidden trea- suresbywhichhe willpersuade manytofollowhim:he willenrichthe rich of his era, and then he will show their false happiness in order to deceive others. Fourth, he will compel with threats and tortures those whohewasnotabletoovercomeinanyotherway.Sogreat,infact,asthe Lord says, will the tribulation then be, that even the elect will be led astray,ifthatispossible ....ButasAntichristwillbe more cruelthan all persecutors,sothesaintsofthattimewillbestrongerthanallthemartyrs ofearliertimes. ItisdifficulttodoubtthatHughRipelinofStrasbourg’sCompendiumwasthe sourceoftheideasunderlyingthemaponf.10vofHM83(orthattheyshared a common source), though the cartographic interpretation of those ideas is original and unique. There is a similar passage in a sermon by the famous preacher Bertold of Regensburg (c. 1220–1272),70 who in his Rusticanus de Dominicis,Sermosextus,describeshowAntichristwilldeceivepeople.Partof thetextnearthebeginningofthisdiscourseruns:71 illisenimeritcerastes,quidiciturserpenscornutus,undecerastegrece, latinecornuadicuntur.perquemrecteAntichristusintelligitur,quicon- tra nos multis cornibus armabitur, de quibus omnibus nunc non sufficimus enarrare, sednunc adpresens tantumdequatuorprincipali- bus aliqua breviter dicam, scilicet de callida suasione et miraculorum operationeetbeneficiorumlargitioneetminarumterrore. 70 ThereisagoodbriefdiscussionofBertholdinFrankG.Banta,“BertholdvonRegensburg: InvestigationsPastandPresent,”Traditio25(1969),pp.472–479;foramoredetailedtreat- ment see Georg Steer, “Leben und Wirken des Berthold von Regensburg,” in 800 Jahre Franz von Assisi: Franziskanische Kunst und Kultur des Mittelalters: Niederösterreichische Landesausstellung, Krems-Stein, Minoritenkirche 15. Mai – 17. Oktober 1982 (Vienna: Amt derNÖLandesmuseums,AbtIII/2–Kulturabteilung,1982),pp.169–175;andArianeCzer- won,Predigt gegen Ketzer: Studien zu den lateinischen Sermones Bertholds von Regensburg (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011). On the manuscripts of Berthold’s Latin sermons see LaurentiusCasutt,Die Handschriften mit lateinischen Predigten Bertholds von Regensburg O. Min. ca. 1210–1272(Freiburg/Schweiz,Universitätsverlag,1961). 71 SeeAntonE.Schönback,“StudienzurGeschichtederaltdeutschePredigt:DieÜberliefer- ung der Werke Berthods von Gegensburg, I,” Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Histo- rischen Klasse der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 151 (1906), pp. 1–184, RusticanusdeDominicis,Sermo sextus,pp.5–21,esp.13–17,particularly13.
173 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Fortothemhewillbeacerastes,whichissaidtobeaserpentwithhorns, whencetheyarecalledacerastesinGreek,andcornuainLatin,bywhich Antichristisrightlyunderstood,whowillbearmedagainstuswithmany horns.Thereisnotimenowtodescribethemall,butforthepresentIwill justsaysomethingbriefaboutthefourprincipalones,namelyaboutsub- tlepersuasionandtheworkingofmiraclesandgiftsofpresentsandthe terrorofthreats. Bertoldexpatiatesonthesefourhornsatsomelength,andthegistofhisdis- courseissimilartoHugh’s.BertoldandHughwerecontemporaries,anditdoes notseempossibletoknowwhetherBertoldborrowedfromHugh,orviceversa, but itdoes seem clear that the author ofHM83 borrowedfromHughrather thanfromBertold, asHughandthe author ofHM83speakoftortures,while Bertoldspeaksofthreats.72 The text below the map on f. 10v, which looks ahead to the map on f. 11r, reads: Hec figura sequens est mappa mundi de dominio terre ab anno christi 1606adannumJhesumChristum1661danielisXIIinfineetesthecfigura dedominio 45annorum.GogoccisostabitregnumJesumChristumhic interraper45annoseterithoctemporeaureumplenumpacemansiva et omni bono, variis religionibus per machimetum et gog annullatis in figuris precedentibus. Hic vigebit coniugium pro completione numeri electorum.Itautsciamsimulplurespuerospar<i>untsicutolimquando exieruntdeegiptointerrampromissionisysayeetitautdicitur“Angustus 72 This material about Antichrist’s four methods, whether from Hugh or from Bertold, appears in one other source contemporary with them, namely the so-called ‘Passau Anonymous,’ who wrote in the 1260s. See Vom Antichrist: Eine mittelhochdeutsche Bear- beitung des Passauer Anonymus,ed.Paul-GerhardVölker(Munich:W.Fink,1970),chapter 12,“Qualiteranticristushominess(sic)decipiet,”pp.83–84,at83:Das ain sind sein valsch vnd böß rätt, das ander seine zaichen, die er tůt, das dritte, die grosß gaub vnd ere, die er git, daz vierd drawe vnd schricke vnd marter, wann gott wirt im verhengent, wen er mit kún- nender rede vnd raut oder mit zaichen oder mit gaub oder mit draw nit úberwinden mag, daz er die mit mäniger vnd grúlicher schlachte marter tötte,thatis, “Thefirst<thing> are hisfalseandevilcounsels,thesecondhis<miraculous>signsthatheworks,thethirdthe great gift<s> and honor<s> that he gives, the fourth threat<s> and terror and torture, sinceGodwillgivetohim<this>:<that>thosewhomwithskillfulspeechandcounselor withsigns or withgift<s> or withthreat<s>he willnotbe abletoovercome,thathekill thosewiththetortureofmanifoldandhorridbattles.”WethankRenateBurriforherhelp withthistranslation.
174 Chapter5 est mihi locus fac spatium ubi habitem.” Machometus et antichristus sicut religiones exfinxerunt sic et biblie libros et expositores conbusse- runt.Hic tamenbiblie reservareususest adfinemmundi.Tuncultra ut biblieususerit.NecmirerehocfieriinEuropacummachometushociam complevitpromaioriparteinAsiaetaffrica.Sicutnuncprincipalispars ecclesie est ex gentibus sic tunc principalior pars erunt X tribus Israel sicutmultipliciterscripturadivinaostendit.Sequiturfigura. Thefollowingdiagramisamapofthelordshipoftheworldfromtheyear 1606totheyear1661—<see>theendofDaniel12—andthisisadiagram of thelordshipofthose 45years.Followingthe deathofGog, theking- domofJesusChristwillstandhereintheworldfor45yearsandtherewill beinthisperiodplentyofgold,withlastingpeaceandallgood,following thedestructionofvariousreligionsofMuhammadandGogthatwesaw intheprecedingdiagrams.Heremarriagewillflourishtowardsthecom- pletion of the number of the elect. As I know, many will give birth to children at the same time, just as in the old days when they departed fromEgypttothepromisedlandofIsaiah,andasitissaid,“Thisplaceis toosmallforus;giveusmorespacetolivein”(Isaiah49:20).Muhammad and Antichrist,just as theyinvented religions, so theyburned boththe books of the Bible and their interpreters. Here <on earth> nonetheless theuseoftheBible,whichwaspreserved,willcontinuetilltheendofthe world, and even afterwards the use of the Bible will continue. Do not marvel that this should happen in Europe, as Muhammad has already done the same in the greater part of Asia and Africa. Just as now, the greatestpartofthechurchconsistsofnon-Jews,thenanevenlargerpart will be of the Ten Tribes of Israel, just as Holy Scripture shows many times.Herefollowsthediagram. Theapocalypticchronologyhereinvolvesanerrorofarithmetic:1606plus45 yearsis1651,ratherthan1661,thefigurethatthetextgives.73Thispassagerep- resents one case in which we can get an idea of how the author of HM 83 arrivedathischronologyoftheApocalypse.Atthebeginningofthispassage— which,justtorepeat,looksaheadtothemaponf.11r—theauthorreferstothe endofDaniel12andtoaperiodof45years.NeartheendofDaniel12weread (12:11–12):“Fromthetimethatthedailysacrificeisabolishedandtheabomina- 73 Thearithmeticis correctintherubricforthemapthatcorrespondstothatonf. 11rhere in Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf. 442 Helmst., Beilage f. 1r: see below.
175 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse tionthatcausesdesolationissetup,therewillbe1,290days.Blessedistheone whowaitsforandreachestheendofthe1,335days.”Ifwetake1335minus1290, weget45.ItwascertainlyfromthispassagethatauthorofHM83arrivedatthe spanof45yearscoveredbythemaponf.11r,buthisthoughtprocessindoing so is not at all clear. Setting aside the fact that Daniel is talking about days ratherthanyears—forthistypeofchangeinunitsoftimeiscommonininter- pretationsofapocalypticchronology—itisnotclearwhytheauthorattributed such significance to the numbers in this passage in Daniel, or even why he thought that one of the numbers should be subtracted from the other. It is worthmentioningthatJeromeinhiscommentaryonDanieldidnotinterpret thesedaysasyears.74 ThepassageabouttheBiblebeingusedaftertheendoftheworldisapara- phraseofMatthew24:35, orMark13:31, orLuke 21:33: “Heaven andearthwill passaway,butmywordswillneverpassaway.” The Map and Text on f. 11r Thisfoliohastwomaps(seeFig.5.8),onelargenearthetopofthepageason theotherfoliosinthissection,theothersmallerandtowardsthebottomofthe page.Thelargemap,whichisintroducedbyalongparagraphatthebottomof f.10v,representsacompletechangefromthesituationdepictedinthemapon f.10v.ThereAntichristwasatthecenteroftheworld,deceivingpeoplewithhis four horns while theTenTribes of Israelmarched towardsJerusalem to sup- porthim;hereonf.11rAntichrist,hishorns,andhisfollowershavedisappeared, andtheflagofChristisatthecenteroftheworld,andChristissaidtobewor- shipped everywhere. There are no geographical details of the earth in the image, but it should stillbe recognized as a map,for both the format of the imageandthetextsonitmakeitclearthatitrepresentstheearth.Thesmaller mapisremarkable,foritiscompletelyblank,representinganewearth,from whichallfamiliargeographicaldetailshavebeenwipedaway.Astheimageis explicitlyidentifiedasamapinthetext,itrepresentsaninterestingchallenge foranyone attemptingtodefinetheword‘map.’75Thetext outsidetheupper 74 SaintJerome,Jerome’s Commentary on Daniel,trans.GleasonL.Archer,Jr.(GrandRapids: BakerBookHouse,1958),pp.150–151.OntheinterpretationofBiblicaldays asyears also seeRobertE.Lerner,“RefreshmentoftheSaints:TheTimeafterAntichristasaStationfor Earthly Progress in Medieval Thought,” Traditio 32 (1976), pp. 97–144, esp. 130–133. We thankLauraSmollerforthislatterreference. 75 Thisimageoftheworlddoesfulfillthedefinitionofmapsas“graphicrepresentationsthat facilitate a spatialunderstandingofthings, concepts, conditions,processes, or eventsin thehumanworld,” whichis suppliedbyJ.B.HarleyandDavidWoodward, eds.,The His- tory of Cartography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987-), vol. 1, p. xvi. For
176 Chapter5 Figure5.8 Huntington HM 83, f. 11r. A prophecy map of the world from 1606 to 1661 (a mistake for 1651). The situation has changed completely from that in the preceding map: the center of the earth is now occupied by the flag and law of Christ, which we are told will be raised and worshipped throughout the world (courtesyoft he HuntingtonLibrary).
177 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse halfofthelargemapappliestothatmap,whilethetextoutsidethelowerhalf ofthelargemapappliestothesmallermapbelow,Thetextatthebottomoff. 10v,theprecedingfolio,saysthatthemapshowswhatwillhappentotheworld from1606to1661(anerrorfor1651). Thetextsonthelargemapareasfollows.Atthecenteroftheworldthereis alargeflagbearingthenameJesus,andintheupperborderoftheflag,thetext Vexillum et lex Jhesu Christi eterni regis, “TheflagandlawofJesusChrist,eter- nalking”— sothelawofChristhasnowreplacedthelawofMuhammad.The textatthetopofthemap,whichistheeast,readsAb ortu solis usque ad occa- sum magnum nomen meum Malachi,“Fromtherisingofthesuntoitssetting, my name is great (Malachi),” quoting from Malachi 1:11.76 In the upper left, Omnes gentes servient ei, “All nations shall serve him,” quoting Psalm 71:11,77 andintheupperright,Erit dominus rex super omnem terram,“TheLordwillbe thekingoveralltheland,”quotingZechariah14:9.78Thelongertextontheleft reads: Omnes scient eum a minimo usque ad maximum ita que nemo docet proximumsuumIhesumchristum.Cessabitergotuncevangelipraedica- tio Jerimiah 31 ad hebraeos 8 sed et uterque sexus prophetabit finem mundipriusfinemhorumannorum45,Iohani2et3. Everyonefromtheleasttothegreatestwillknowhim,andsonoonewill teach his neighbor about Jesus Christ. Therefore the foretelling of the evangelistwillcease:Jeremiah31,EpistletotheHebrews8.Butmenand womenwillpredicttheendoftheworldbeforetheendofthese45years. Joel2–3. additionaldiscussions ofthedefinitionof‘mappamundi’ andmap’seeAlessandroScafi, “DefiningMappaemundi,”inP.D.A.Harvey,ed.,The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and Their Context(London: BritishLibrary, 2006), pp.345–354;andJ.H.Andrews, “ WhatWasaMap?TheLexicographer’sReply,”Cartographica33.4(1996),pp.1–11 . 76 Malachi1:11,Ab ortu enim solis usque ad occasum magnum est nomen meum in gentibus et in omni loco sacrificatur et offertur nomini meo oblatio munda quia magnum nomen meum in gentibus dicit Dominus exercituum. 77 Psalm71:11,Et adorabunt eum omnes reges terrae, omnes gentes servient ei. 78 Zechariah14:9,Et erit Dominus rex super omnem terram in die illa erit Dominus unus et erit nomen eius unum.
178 Chapter5 Astheauthorindicates,thefirstphrasecomesfromJeremiah31:34,79thesec- ondfromHebrews8:11,80andthethirdfromJoel2:28,81thoughofcourseJoel doesnotmentiontheperiodof45years. Thetextintheright-handpartofthemap,whichreferstotheflagofChrist, reads Elevabitur et colitur per totum orbem terre, “It will be raised and wor- shipped throughout the world.” The text in the lower right reads Orietur habundacia pacis,“Therewillariseanabundanceofpeace,”andthetextatthe bottomofthemapreadsAb ortu soli usque ad occasum in omni loco sacrificatur Malachi 1,“Fromtherisingofthesuntoitssettingsacrificeismadeeverywhere (Malachi1),”citingMalachi1:11.82 TherubricaboveandtotherightofthemapreadsUnum ovile et unus pas- tor, “Oneflockandone shepherd,” aquotationfromJohn 10:16,83pointing to theunificationoftheworldunderChrist’sleadershipimpliedbythemap.The text outside the tophalfofthe mapis in one column, i.e . continuousleft to right,whilethetextoutsidethelowerhalfofthemapisintwocolumns.The textoutsidetheupperhalfofthemapreads: Finitis 45 annis precedentis sicut nemo ex divina scriptura scit horam qua incipiet actio prima ignis concremationis, Erit tamen certe ante finemseculiillorumetquiihesumchristumtriumpharecontraGogvide- runt quod ex clamatione totius scripture. illi homines sunt reliquie et illorum vita est seculum ultimum. Justi enim tunc stant parati ut igne moriantur,quibusomnibusmortuis,quartaparsterrehabitataeritcam- pusnudusutfigurasequensostenditetmanebitsiccampusnudususque ad horam resurrectionis generali<s> qua soli deo est notum certe erit antefinem7000annorumabinitiomundi. 79 Jeremiah31:34,Omnes enim cognoscent me, a minimo eorum usque ad maximum, ait Domi- nus. 80 Hebrews 8:11, Et non docebit unusquisque proximum suum et unusquisque fratrem suum dicens cognosce Dominum quoniam omnes scient me a minore usque ad maiorem eorum. 81 Joel 2.28, ...et prophetabunt filii vestri et filiae vestrae senes vestri somnia somniabunt et iuvenes vestri visiones videbunt. 82 Malachi1:11,Ab ortu enim solis usque ad occasum, magnum est nomen meum in gentibus, et in omni loco sacrificatur: et offertur nomini meo oblatio munda, quia magnum est nomen meum in gentibus, dicit Dominus exercituum. 83 John 10:16, Et alias oves habeo, quæ non sunt ex hoc ovili: et illas oportet me adducere, et vocem meam audient, et fiet unum ovile et unus pastor.Ontheimportanceofthispassage inapocalypticprophecyseeMarjorieReeves,The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages: A Study in Joachimism(Oxford:ClarendonPress,1969),pp.503–504.
179 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse After thepreceding45years, as nobodyknowsfrom theHoly Scripture thehourat whichthefirst action oftheconflagrationwillbegin,none- thelessit willcertainlybebefore the endofthe epochofthosepeople, and<of> those who willseeJesusChrist triumphover Gog, which<is> theproclamationofallthescripture.Thosemenremain,andtheirlifeis thefinalepoch.Forthejustmenstandreadytodieinthefire,andwhen theyarealldead,onequarteroftheinhabitedlandwillbeanemptyfield, as thefollowingdiagramshows.Anditwillremainanemptyfielduntil thehourofthegeneralresurrection,whichisknownforsureonlytoGod, <but>itwillcertainlycomebeforetheendof7000yearsfromthebegin- ningoftheworld. Thedoctrinethattheworldwouldlast7000yearsisadevelopmentoftheidea thattheworldwouldlast6000years,onanalogywiththesixdaysofcreation, whichgoesbacktotheapocryphalEpistleofBarnabas15:3–5,84derivingfrom 2 Peter 3:8, “...one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand yearsasoneday.”WhentheworlddidnotendinAnnoMundi6000,thechro- nologywasextendedanotherthousandyears.85 Thetextoutsidethelowerhalfofthemap,whichappliestothesmallmap below,reads: Hec figura sequens precedentem est mappa mundi prius mortem omnium hominum igne crematorum. A principio cremationis quarta parsterreextraocceanummacerestcampusinquotriticumcumpalea 84 See MichaelW. Holmes, The Apostolic Fathers in English(Grand Rapids, MI : Baker Aca- demic,2006),pp.172–198,at193–194:“HespeaksoftheSabbathatthebeginningofcrea- tion:‘AndGodmadetheworksofhishandsinsixdays,andfinishedontheseventhday, andrestedonit,andsanctifiedit.’Observe,children,what‘hefinishedinsixdays’means. Itmeansthis:thatinsixthousandyearstheLordwillbringeverythingtoanend,forwith himadaysignifiesathousandyears.Andhehimselfbearswitnesswhenhesays,‘Behold, thedayoftheLordwillbeasathousandyears.’Therefore,children,insixdays—thatis, in sixthousand years—everythingwillbebroughtto an end. ‘Andhe restedonthe sev- enthday.’Thismeans:whenhissoncomes,hewilldestroythetimeofthelawlessoneand willjudgetheungodlyandwillchangethesunandthemoonandthestars, andthenhe willtrulyrestontheseventhday.” 85 Fordiscussionofthis chronologyseeRichardLandes, “LesttheMillenniumBeFulfilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography, 100–800 C.E .,” in WernerVerbeke,DanielVerhelst,andAndriesWelkenhuysen, eds.,The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages(Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1988), pp. 137–211;and Smoller,“TheAlfonsineTablesandtheEndoftheWorld”(seeCh.5,n.41),p.214.
180 Chapter5 pii cum impiis restunt usque ad completum numerum electorum qui tunc est completum in messem mundi. priusquam tamen campus est mundatusquodomneshominessuccessiveablatisuntetaridatusquod flumina ex bonitate dei campum irrigantia extra naturam, aque post <principii?>tertiumdiemiamsuntcircumscripta(sic)<...>.Planatusut sit simpliciter rotundus sine montibus et vallibus et sine insulis maris occeaniquodexmontibusconstabant.Omniaenimistasuntincinerata igneetexhincterraextraocceanumnondiciturvelestcampusinfigura sequente.Namdecampoinmesseadarcamomniacongregantur,etinea triticum a palea separatur, et triticum infertur horreo palea in ignem, sicutinfigurasequentepiiabimpiisseparanturincelumetininfernum, utvidesinfigura. Thisdiagram,whichfollowsthepreceding,isamappamundibeforethe deathofallmenburnedupbyfire.Fromthebeginningofthefireaquar- ter ofthelandthatis above the oceanis abarefieldinwhichthegrain withthechaff—thepiouswiththeimpious—willremainuntilthecom- pletionofthenumberoftheelect,whichwillbecompleteintheharvest of the world.Firsthowever the field is cleaned,insofar as all menhave beensuccessivelycarriedaway,anddriedbecausetheriversthatthrough the goodness of God irrigated the field beyond nature, <because> the watersafterthethirddaywerealreadyconfined.<Theearth>isflattened sothatitisperfectlyroundwithoutmountainsorvalleysorislandsinthe ocean,whicharethetopsofmountains.Allthosethingshavebeenincin- erated by fire, and because of this, the land beyond the ocean is not mentioned,evenifitisafieldinthefollowingdiagram.Forintheharvest, everything isgatheredtogetherfrom thefieldin one place, andin that place,thewheatisseparatedfromthechaff,andthewheatiscarriedinto thebarn,andthechaffintothefire,justasinthefollowingdiagram,the piousareseparatedfromtheimpious toHeavenandHell, asyouseein thediagram. Thephrasequarta pars terre extra occeanum sounds verymuch like Isidore’s descriptionofahypotheticalsoutherncontinentinhabitedbytheantipodes,86 but rather means the fourth part of the earth that is above the level of the 86 Isidore,Etymologiae14.5.17,Extra tres autem partes orbis quarta pars trans Oceanum inte- rior est in meridie, quae solis ardore incognita nobis est; in cuius finibus Antipodes fabulose inhabitare produntur.Fordiscussion ofthispassageseeHiatt,Terra incognita (seeCh.4, n.173),pp.78–82.
181 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse ocean.Ofcoursetheimageryoftheharvest aspartoftheApocalypse comes frombiblicalpassagessuchasMatthew3:12,Luke3:17,Matthew14:24–43(the Parable of the Tares), and Revelation 14:14–16. As we would expect from an authorinterestedingeographyandcartography,theaccountwehavehereof thetransformationtheearthundergoesismoredetailedthanthebriefrefer- encesinRevelation6:14, “...everymountain andislandwas removedfromits place,” and 16:20, “And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.”87Ourauthorspecifiesthattheriversaredriedupandthatthemoun- tainsareflattenedsothattheearthbecomesaperfectsphere,anddepictsthis stateofaffairsinaremarkableblankmap.Totheleftofthemaparethewords Terra ista <...> sine insulis maris occeani, “Thisis the earthwithoutislandsin theocean.”Theabsenceofislandshereistobecontrastedwiththeemphasis onislandsinsomeofthemapsinthegeographicalsectionofHM83,particu- larlythoseonff.3rand3v(seeFigs.4.9and4.10). The Map and Text on f. 11v Thecompleximageonthisfolio(Fig.5.7)representswhatwillhappentothe earthduringtheLastJudgment.Thedateofthiseventisnotindicated,which is surprisinggiven the author’s stronginterestin apocalypticchronology,but wearelefttobelievethatitwouldfollowcloselytheendoftheperiodcovered bythe maponf. 11r, whichthe authorindicates as 1661,but whichshouldbe 1651 according to the figures he supplies. At the bottom of the image is the earth surrounded by the ocean, with the earth is eccentric to the sphere of water,just asin themaps onff.6v–7r(Fig. 4.14)and7v–8r(Fig. 4.15),andan imageoftheabyssintowhichthedamnedwillfall.TheabyssbelowtheMount ofOliveswasperhapsinspiredbyZechariah14:4,inwhichariftissaidtoopen beneaththeLord’sfeetwhenheisontheMountofOlives.Abovethisthereis aviewoftheMountofOlivesandsomeothermountains,verysimilartothe image of mountains on f. 5r, and functioning as a detail of the image of the earthbelow.ThedeviceofadetailofamapisunusualinthelateMiddleAges, butwesawacloselyrelatedideaintheprogressionofimagesonff.13r,13v,and 14r,whereeachimageisineffectadetailoftheprecedingasthecartographer ‘zoomsin’ontheearth,andwewilldiscussanotherexampleintheworldmap andmapoftheHolyLandonthefrontflyleafofWolfenbüttel,HerzogAugust Bibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,amanuscriptcloselyrelatedwithHM83. 87 For discussion of apocalyptic imagery of the flattening of the earth’s mountains in the Oracles of Hystaspes, fragments of which are preserved in Book 7 of Lactantius’s Divine Institutions,seeBruceLincoln,“‘TheEarthBecomesFlat’—AStudyofApocalypticImag- ery,”Comparative Studies in Society and History25.1(1983),pp.136–153,at143–145.
182 Chapter5 Figure5.9 Huntington HM 83, f. 11v. The Last Judgment. The gates of Paradise are at the top, the elect in a curved band just below, then Jesus and the Apostles in the sky; below on the earth is the Mount of Olives, then the damned in a curved band standing above the abyss that leads to Hell (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
183 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse ThepresenceoftheMountofOlivesinthediagraminHM83,f.11vispuzzling, giventhatalloftheworld’smountainsweresaidtohavebeenflattenedonthe precedingfolio,butcertainlytheauthorwasinspiredtoimplythatJesusrose toHeavenfromtheMountofOlivesafterhisSecondComingfromthefactthat hearosefromthesamemountainafterhisfirstsojournonearth:seeActs1:9– 12.AbovetheMountofOlives,JesusandtheApostlesareinthesky,andabove them,theelectareinarainbow-likebandacrossthesky,andaresaidtobelike thestars.Abovetheelectistheirdestination,thegatesofparadise,elaborately drawnandcontrastingwiththedestinationofthedamnedfarbelow. ThegridtotherightofthegatesofParadiseisintendedtorepresentthewall surroundingthe HeavenlyJerusalem: the walls receivegreat emphasisin the descriptionofthecityinRevelation21:11–20,88andnodoubttheauthorofHM 83didnotindicatethewallstotheleftofthegatessimplybecauseheneeded thisspaceforthetextwritten.OnanotherfolioinHM83thereisanotherdepic- tionofthiswall:onf.13rthereisadiagramoftheuniverse,withthe earthat thecenter,surroundedbytheelementalandthencelestialspheres,whichare labeledout to theEmpureum; outside oftheEmpyrean sphere there are two unlabeledspheres,andbeyondthese,attheverytopofthediagram,thereisa rectanglecontainingagridthatisclearlyintendedtorepresentthesameobject as the grid beside the gates of Paradise on f. 11v: the wall surrounding the HeavenlyJerusalem.Thelatterpartofthetextonf.13raddressesthecelestial spheres,butbreaksoffabruptlybeforeanythingissaidaboutParadise.89 Withregardtothetextonf.11v,abovetheGatesofParadisewereadporta paradisi,“GatesofParadise,”andjusttotheleftoftheGatesweread: hoc tempore judicii totum celum et infernus vacant. hic enim omnes sunt et mali, videntes bonos supra se, clamant illudsapientes “hii sunt quosaliquandohabimusinderisi” At this time of judgment, the whole of Heaven and Hell are empty. However, everyone is here, and the evil ones, seeing the good people 88 FordiscussionoftheiconographyoftheHeavenlyJerusalemseeStanislawKobielus,“La Jérusalemcélestedansl’artmédiéval,”inEvelyneBerriot-Salvadore,ed.,Le mythe de Jéru- salem du Moyen Âge à la Renaissance(Saint-Etienne:Publicationsdel’UniversitédeSaint- Etienne,1995),pp.101–121;onearliertraditionsseeBiancaKühnel,From the Earthly to the Heavenly Jerusalem: Representations of the Holy City in Christian Art of the First Millennium (FreiburgimBreisgau:Herder,1987). 89 The endof thetextonf. 13r reads:Regio celestis habet tres celos, firmamentum ut celium primum, Cristallinum ut 2m Empurreum et 3m....
184 Chapter5 abovethem,cryout,knowingthis:“Thesearetheoneswhomweheldfor sometimeinderision.” The quotation at the end is from the apocryphal Book of the Wisdom of Solomon 5:3: Hi sunt quos habuimus aliquando in derisum. The rainbow-like curved surface on which the Gates of Paradise rest has text that reads Sic in aere circumdant electi tamquam Stelle Jhesum judicem,“Thusintheair,thecho- sen surround Jesus Christ like stars,” drawing on Daniel 12:3.90 Below the rainbow we have Jhesus and the apostoli in the sky, and they are labeled Tribunal Judiciis, i.e . Tribunal Judicii, “Tribunal of Judgment,” and they are abovethemons oliveti,“MountofOlives.”JustbelowtheMountofOlives,and alongthetopedgeoftheimageoftheearth,wereadDampnati stabunt super hanc rupturam terre immobiles,“Thedamnedstandimmobileabovethisabyss in the earth.” Above the hole in the earth are the words Ruptura terre unde cadetur in infernum,“AbyssintheearthfromwhichonefallsintoHell,”andthe waterinwhichtheearthsitsislabeledmare occeanum,“Theocean.” The Map and Text on f. 12r The penultimate folio (Fig. 5.10) of the treatise on the Apocalypse supplies detaileddiscussionoftheLastJudgmentforwhichthemaponthepreceding folioleftinadequatespace;aswellasasmallmapthatisessentiallythesame astheblankmapoftheearthonf.11v,butwithwhatlookslikeagridoflatitude andlongitude—butperhapswearetounderstandthataftertheearthiscrys- tallized(asdescribedinthetext),itsappearanceislikethatofthewallofthe HeavenlyJerusalem,whichisdepictedasagridonff.11vand13r.Thetextruns: Ruptura terre data in judicio sententia ut impii incident figuratur et arguiturexrupturaterrenumerorum16inquamchorecumsuiscecidit nectamencorporaillorumrueruntintophet91tuncsedcircasuperficiem terre manserunt profundius tamen communi in sepulchro, sed prius 90 Daniel 12:3,Qui autem docti fuerint, fulgebunt quasi splendor firmamenti: et qui ad iusti- tiam erudiunt multos, quasi stellae in perpetuas aeternitates. 91 The reference is to the story of Korah in Numbers 16, who rebelled against Moses. See Numbers 16:31–33: “As soon as he finished saying all this, the ground under them split apartandtheearthopeneditsmouthandswallowedthemandtheirhouseholds,andall thoseassociatedwithKorah,together withtheirpossessions.Theywentdownaliveinto therealmofthedead,witheverythingtheyowned;theearthclosedoverthem,andthey perished and weregonefrom the community.”For agooddiscussion ofthe episode see John S.Vassar,Recalling a Story Once Told: An Intertextual Reading of the Psalter and the Pentateuch(Macon,GA:MercerUniversityPress,2007),pp.45–61.
185 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse F i gu re 5.1 0 Huntington HM 83, f. 12r. Description of the Last Judgment, Resurrection, and renewal of the earth, with a small map of a featureless earth which the text says represents the world after the Last Judgment (courtes yof t he Hun t i ngton Library).
186 Chapter5 resurectionem novissimam ruent simplum in infernum cum omnibus dampnatisquodtalioperetuncpronunciatumest. Omnes homines resurgent. Anime cum virtute e celodescendent ad sua corpora adsumenda,quibus resumptis, ascendentobviam christum in aera ad rubeum circulum in tessal(i.e .Thessalonians)4,92 etAnime dampnatorumdeinfernoascendent adresumenda corpora sua,quibus resumptis,stantfixiimmobilessuperterram,quamnimisinordinatefixe dilexerunt,quorum capuderitgogantichristus.iuxtailludJeremiah30. “Incapiteimpiorum.”93Etnemireretribunalchristietomnesbeatossic inaeretenereexfiguraduorumfiliorumchorequosdeustenuitinaere doneccorpuspatrischorecumomnibussuisinterraconclususest,sicut scripturadicit: “factumestgrandemiraculumquodchorepereunte,filii eius nonperirent.”94 Sic hic erit impii ruentin terram ruptam quodpii videntnonruentes.Etiamdeustenetgravissimaelementaaquamterram solem lunam et sidera et totam mundi machinam in nichilo et non cadunt,quoconsiderate,non miraberehancfiguram. “Replete terram” verbum dei ad Adam et Noe de generatione humana,95 qua terra habitabilis successive replenda erat, et nunc anno mundi 6684 repleta est, primo ad scripturam intelligi, et secundo pro- pheticevideturintelligi.dupliciter,primout toteruntdampnandiquod injudicioterrahabitabilisstetplenahominibusimpiis,secundoquodin primiseisreplebitur,etutsic“replete”imperatumprofuturoiudicatum, exponiturut“replebitis,”quodsepeinscripturisdivinissit.Ethocoritur penalissimumdampnatisquodsicinfernusreplebiturquodutverterese <non>possintdampnati. NecetiammirerevocemdominiJesumchristijudiceposseaudiritam remoteper terramhabitabilemex omniparteorientalioccidentaliaus- tralietaquilonariquasiper2000miliariateutonica.Veniaquiclamatsua mandata promulgando super montem synai circa medium temporis mundiutplaneindiciturpertriamiliariateutonica,etiampotestclamare 92 Boththegeneralideahere andthephrase obviam christum in aera comefromThessalo- nians 4:17: Deinde nos, qui vivimus, qui relinquimur, simul rapiemur cum illis in nubibus obviam Christo in aëra, et sic semper cum Domino erimus. 93 See Jeremiah 30:23: Ecce turbo Domini furor egrediens procella ruens in capite impiorum conquiescet. 94 Numbers 26:10–11: Et factum est grande miraculum, ut, Core pereunte, filii illius non peri- rent. 95 Genesis 1:28: Benedixitque illis Deus, et ait: Crescite et multiplicamini, et replete terram...; and Genesis 9:1: Benedixitque Deus Noë et filiis ejus. Et dixit ad eos: Crescite, et multipli- camini, et replete terram.
187 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse ut sua sententia contra transgressores suorum mandatorum audiatur clareabomnibusquantulumqueremotisquodeademestpotentiadivina inconsueta. BeatiadmodumhuiuscirculitribunalcumJudiceetassessoribusest tanteclaritatequodcelistellifericumsoleetplanetesplendoremsuperat Johel2et3.96Etsententiadatacummaioriclaritatecelumintrantquod splendoremignisassumpserunttuncquoddicitBasiliussuperpsalmum 28: “deus dividet tunc calorem ignis a splendore tantum calorem mit- tendo ad partem dampnatorum ut amplius crucientur et totum splendoremadpartembeatorumutampliusjucundentur.”97 Sententiadatadampnatisin terra clausis, eritinnovatio mundiutsit celumvisibilenovumetterranovasicnovautsequensfiguraostendit.98 Veniam<et>mundinovitatemimpiinonvidebuntbeatiautemvidebunt ettuminvisibilenunctuncautemvaldevisibileintrant.Etiamterrahab- 96 ThereferencestoJoelhereareabitsurprising.TheauthorseemstobecitingJoel2:10and 3:15, whichspeak ofthe sun andmoonbeingdarkenedandthe stars no longer shining, butthatimagerygoesastepfurtherthanthetribunalsimplybeingbrighterthanthestars, sun, and planets, to imply that the brightness of the tribunal will obscure the light of thosecelestialbodies. 97 There are differences in the various manuscripts and editions of St. Basil’s Homiliae in Psalmos, and the version of the work cited here does not match well with that in the Patrologia Graeca29:298, or withthatinSt.Basil,Opera omnia quae extant, vel quae ejus nomine circumferuntur, ad mss. codices gallicanos, vaticanos, florentinos & anglicos, nec- non ad antiquiores editiones castigata(Paris:J.B.Coignard,1721–30),vol. 1,p.361,though the version cited here is translated in Saint Basil, Exegetic Homilies, trans. Agnes Clare Way(Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1963), p. 206. However, it does matchwellthe version citedbyJacobusdeVoragine(c.1230–1298)inhisLegenda aurea: vulgo historia Lombardica dicta,ed.J.G.ThéodorGraesse(DresdenandLeipzig:Impensis LibrariaeArnoldianae, 1846), chapter 1, “De adventuDomini,”p.8:Nam secundum Basil- ium Deus facta mundi purgatione dividet calorem a splendore et totum calorem mittet ad regiones damnatorum, ut amplios crucientur, et totum splendorem ad regionem beatorum, ut amplius jucundentur;alsoseeJacobusdeVoragine,The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints, trans. William Granger Ryan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), p. 9: “AccordingtoSaintBasil,oncethepurgationoftheworldisaccomplished,Godwillsepa- rate the heat of the fire from its light and will send all of the heat to the region of the damnedtotorturethem,andallthelighttotheregionoftheblessedtotheirgreatenjoy- ment.”ThisversionisalsocitedbySt.ThomasAquinas:seeThe ‘Summa Theologica’ of St. Thomas Aquinas(London: Burns, Oates &Washbourne, Ltd., 1913-),Third Part(Supple- ment),QQ.L XXXVI I .-XC IX.andAppendices,Question97,Article4,“WhethertheDamned areinMaterialDarkness,”pp.172–173 98 SeeRevelation 21:1,Et vidi caelum novum et terram novam primum enim caelum et prima terra abiit et mare iam non est.
188 Chapter5 itabilisaprimousqueadtertiumdiemerataquiscooperta.Atertiadiead sextemeratcampusseminandus.Asextodieusqueaddiluviumcampus seminatus. In diluvio campus abluendus ut iterum seminaretur. Inde iterumcampusseminatusetcampusnudatus.Indeterracristallisabitur etcorporahumanaexeaformatafulgebuntutsidera. Sententiadataetmaliininfernoinclusiterre,reclusaestarcapenitus mundata pulcherrime cristallizata et splendore decorata, manet sic in <circulum?> aquis discooperta propter iustos qui super eam ab impiis suntvarietribulatieteambeatispedibuscalcaverunt,quorumsummus etexcelsusetmaximusestiesusnazarenus,verusdeusethomoquisuis divinis pedibus eam calcavit et suo pretioso sanguine de cruce rigavit. Sanctorumetiamcorporaineaetiamrequiescerunt.Similiteretdomini- cum corpus in ea fuit sepultum in tertium diem et corpus dominicum sacramentaleincampomansit. Hec figura esta mappa mundi post judicum novissimum mutabit manensproevum Arcamundataestspeculumdeiethomineperevum Inhancfiguramimpiiininfernoclaudentur.juxtaillud“Colligitepri- mumzizania,”etc.99 Thelastthreelinesoftheprecedingtextarebesidethesmallmapoftheblank earththathasagridonit.Wetranslate: Theabyssintheearth—thesentencehavingbeengiveninjudgmentthat theimpiousshouldfall—isdepicted,anditisbasedontheabyssinthe earthinNumbers16,intowhichKorahandhisfollowersfell.100However, theirbodieswillnotfallintoHellthen,butwillremainintheupperparts oftheearth,verydeepinacommongrave,butbeforetheLastResurrection 99 See Matthew 13:30, Sinite utraque crescere usque ad messem, et in tempore messis dicam messoribus: Colligite primum zizania, et alligate ea in fasciculos ad comburendum: triticum autem congregate in horreum meum. 100 The reference is to the story of Korah in Numbers 16, who rebelled against Moses. See Numbers 16:31–33: “As soon as he finished saying all this, the ground under them split apartandtheearthopeneditsmouthandswallowedthemandtheirhouseholds,andall thoseassociatedwithKorah,together withtheirpossessions.Theywentdownaliveinto therealmofthedead,witheverythingtheyowned;theearthclosedoverthem,andthey perished and weregonefrom the community.”For agooddiscussion ofthe episode see JohnS.Vassar, Recalling a Story Once Told: An Intertextual Reading of the Psalter and the Pentateuch(Macon,GA:MercerUniversityPress,2007),pp.45–61.
189 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse theywillfallstraightintoHellwithallofthedamned,asitwasdeclared inthatwork(i.e .Numbers). All men will rise again. The souls of the virtuous will descend from Heaventoassumetheirbodies,andwhentheyhaveassumedthem,they willascendto meetChristin the air at the redcircle(i.e . rainbow), see Thessalonians 4.101 The souls of the damned will ascend from Hell to assume their bodies, and when they have assumed them, they <will> standimmovablyfixedontheearth,whichtheylovedfartoomuchand intently; their chiefwillbeGogAntichrist.Regardingthis, seeJeremiah 30,“Ontheheadofthewicked.”102Anddonotmarvelthatthetribunalof Christandalltheblessedarethussuspendedintheair,accordingtothe example ofthe two sons ofKorah, whomGodheldin the air while the bodyoftheirfatherKorahwithallhispeoplewasswallowedbytheearth, as theBible says:“Agreatmiracle wasperformed:althoughKorahdied, his sons survived.”103Thus willit behere: the impious will fall into the ruptured earth, which the pious will see, but they will not fall. Indeed, God holds the heaviest elements, namely the water, earth, sun, moon, andstars, andthe whole structure ofthe world up in nothingness, and theydonotfall—takingthisintoconsideration,youshouldnotbeaston- ishedbythisdiagram. “Filltheearth”wasGod’swordtoAdamandNoahconcerningthegen- eration of men,104 by which the habitable land was to be successively filled.Andnow,intheyearoftheworld6684,itisfull.Thismaybeunder- stood first as Scripture, and second as a prophecy, in two senses, first, becausetherewillbesomanydamnedthatintheLastJudgmentthehab- itablelandwillbefilledwithimpiousmen,andsecond,becauseitwillbe filledwiththemfromthebeginning,andthusastheimperative“Fill<the earth>”canbeunderstoodasstandingforthefuturetense,meaning“You willfill,”asisoftenthecaseintheBible.Andhencearisesaverysevere 101 Boththegeneralideahereandthephrase obviam christum in aera comefromThessalo- nians 4:17: Deinde nos, qui vivimus, qui relinquimur, simul rapiemur cum illis in nubibus obviam Christo in aëra, et sic semper cum Domino erimus. 102 SeeJeremiah 30:23: Ecce turbo Domini furor egrediens procella ruens in capite impiorum conquiescet. 103 Numbers 26:10–11: Et factum est grande miraculum, ut, Core pereunte, filii illius non peri- rent. 104 Genesis 1:28: Benedixitque illis Deus, et ait: Crescite et multiplicamini, et replete terram...; and Genesis 9:1: Benedixitque Deus Noë et filiis ejus. Et dixit ad eos: Crescite, et multipli- camini, et replete terram.
190 Chapter5 punishmenttothedamned,thatHellwillbesofullthatthedamnedwill <noteven>beabletoturnaround. DonotmarvelthatthevoiceofJesusChrist,asjudge,canbeheardso farthroughthehabitableearth,inallpartstotheEast,West,South,and North,asifacrosstwothousandGermanmiles.Clemencywhoproclaims hisorders,promulgating<them>aboveMountSinaiaroundthemiddle of the earth’s history—as is plainly indicated—across three German miles,indeedhecanshoutsothathissentenceagainstthetransgressors ofhisorderscanbeclearlyheardbyeveryone,nomatterhowdistant,for soexceptionalisthedivinepower. Thetribunalofthisveryblessedcircle,withthejudgeandassessors,is ofsuchbrilliancethatitsurpassesthesplendorofthestar-bearingheav- enswiththesunandplanets:Joel2and3.105Andaftertheirsentencehas been given, withevengreaterbrilliance theyenterHeaven so that they canthentakeupthesplendoroffire,asBasilsaysonPsalm28:“Godwill thenseparatetheheatofthefirefromthelight,sendingsomuchheatto theregionofthedamnedthattheywillbetorturedevenmore,andallthe lighttotheregionoftheblessedsothattheywillhaveevenmorejoy.”106 105 ThereferencestoJoelhereareabitsurprising.TheauthorseemstobecitingJoel2:10and 3:15, whichspeakofthe sun and moon beingdarkenedandthe stars nolonger shining, butthatimagerygoesastepfurtherthanthetribunalsimplybeingbrighterthanthestars, sun, and planets, to imply that the brightness of the tribunal will obscure the light of thosecelestialbodies. 106 There are differences in the various manuscripts and editions of St. Basil’s Homiliae in Psalmos, and the version of the work cited here does not match well with that in the Patrologia Graeca29:298,or withthatinSt.Basil,Opera omnia quae extant, vel quae ejus nomine circumferuntur, ad mss. codices gallicanos, vaticanos, florentinos & anglicos, nec- non ad antiquiores editiones castigata(Paris:J.B.Coignard, 1721–30),vol. 1,p.361,though the version cited here is translated in Saint Basil, Exegetic Homilies, trans. Agnes Clare Way(Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1963), p. 206. However, it does matchwellthe versioncitedbyJacobusdeVoragine(c. 1230–1298)inhisLegenda aurea: vulgo historia Lombardica dicta,ed.J.G.ThéodorGraesse(DresdenandLeipzig:Impensis LibrariaeArnoldianae,1846),chapter 1, “De adventuDomini,”p.8:Nam secundum Basil- ium Deus facta mundi purgatione dividet calorem a splendore et totum calorem mittet ad regiones damnatorum, ut amplios crucientur, et totum splendorem ad regionem beatorum, ut amplius jucundentur;alsoseeJacobusdeVoragine,The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints, trans. William Granger Ryan (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993), p. 9: “AccordingtoSaintBasil,oncethepurgationoftheworldisaccomplished,Godwillsepa- rate the heat of the fire from its light and will send all of the heat to the region of the damnedtotorturethem,andallthelighttotheregionoftheblessedtotheirgreatenjoy- ment.”ThisversionisalsocitedbySt.ThomasAquinas:seeThe ‘Summa Theologica’ of St.
191 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Afterthesentencehasbeengivenandthedamnedareimprisonedin theearth,therewillbearenewaloftheearth,sothattherewillbeanew Heavenvisibleandanewearth—newasthefollowingdiagramshows.107 Theimpiouswillnotsee<God’s>clemencyandrenewaloftheworld,but theblessedwillseeit,andwhatisnowinvisiblewillthenbevisible,and theywillenterit.Similarlytheinhabitedlandsfrom thefirstdaytothe thirddaywerecoveredwithwater,fromthethirddaytothesixthitwasa fieldtobeseeded,andfromthesixthdayuntiltheflooditwasaseeded field.Atthetimeoftheflood,thefieldhadtobewashedsothatitcould beseededagain.Thenthefieldwasseededagain,and<again>denuded. Thentheearthwillbecrystallized,andhumanbodiesformedfromitwill shinelikestars. After the sentence hasbeengiven, and the evildoers are imprisoned insidetheearthinHell,therainbow(i.e .therenovatedearth)isrevealed, thoroughly cleaned, beautifully crystallized, and decorated with splen- dor.Itremainsthusinacircle,uncoveredfromthewatersforthesakeof thejust,whosufferedtribulationsonitatthehandsoftheimpious,and theyhadwalkedonitwiththeirblessedfeet.Ofthesejustmen,thehigh- est, most sublime, and greatest is Jesus of Nazareth, the true God and <true>manwhowalkedonitwithhisdivinefeet,andwatereditwithhis preciousbloodfromthecross.Forthebodiesofthesaintswillcertainly restinit.SimilarlytheLord’sbodywasburiedinitonthethirdday,and theLord’ssacramentalbodyremainedinthefield. This diagram is the map of the world after the Last Judgment; the worldwillchange,butremaininplaceforever. ThespotlessrainbowisamirrorofGodandmanforever. InthisdiagramtheimpiousareimprisonedinHell,inaccordancewith thephrase“Firstcollecttheweeds...,”etc.108 The prominence in this material of Korah, who is mentioned in connection bothwiththe abyssinto whichthedamnedwillfall, andin connection with thesuspensionofthetribunalintheair,issurprising.Itmaysimplyhavebeen Thomas Aquinas(London: Burns, Oates &Washbourne, Ltd., 1913-),Third Part(Supple- ment),QQ.L XXXVI I. -XCI X.andAppendices,Question97,Article4,“WhethertheDamned areinMaterialDarkness,”pp.172–173. 107 SeeRevelation 21:1,Et vidi caelum novum et terram novam primum enim caelum et prima terra abiit et mare iam non est. 108 See Matthew 13:30, Sinite utraque crescere usque ad messem, et in tempore messis dicam messoribus: Colligite primum zizania, et alligate ea in fasciculos ad comburendum: triticum autem congregate in horreum meum.
192 Chapter5 thatKorah’srebellionwasofparticularpersonalinterestto theauthorofHM 83,butitisworthmentioningthatKorah’srebellionreceivedmoreattentionin rabbinicalliteraturethaninmedievalEurope,andtheprominenceofKorahin HM83mayreflectthetimethattheauthorspentintheHolyLand.Theauthor indicatesthattheAnnoMundiwhenhewrotewas6684,andhesuppliescur- rentAnnoDominidatesof1486and1488, so wecandeterminewhichofthe severalsystemsofAnnoMundidatinghewasusing.6684–1486=5198,sohe was using a system in which Jesus was born in about Anno Mundi 5198. EusebiusofCaesareainhisChroniconsaidthattheCreationtookplacein5199 BC,andJeromeinhisChroniconorTemporum liberindicatedthesamedate,so theauthorofHM83wasusingachronologyinthistradition.Theauthor’ssug- gestionthattheearthwillbecrystallizedduringtheLastDaysisunusual,and wedonotknowitssource. The Map and Text on f. 12v ThedetaileddescriptionoftheLastJudgmentonf.12rseemslikeitmightbe theendoftheapocalypticsectionofthemanuscript,butinfactthesectionis broughttoacloseonf.12v,wheretheauthorgivesabriefaccountofthesizeof Hellandalsodescribesthecrystallizationofthesurfaceoftheearthfollowing theLastJudgment,whichwillinsurethattheblessedandthedamnedremain separated.Wehavenotfoundasourcefortheideathattheearthiscrystallized duringtheLastJudgment.Veryimportantly,theauthoralsoexplainsthepur- posehisapocalypticmaps:“Ibelievethereforethatafirmfaithinandfrequent contemplationofthesediagramswillmoreeffectivelyrestrainamanfromsins thanwouldmanygoodwords.”Thatis,thecycleofillustrationhasanexplicit moralfunction.ThetextendswithmaterialaboutthethreeBabyloniasthatis verysimilartothatonf.1r,whosepresencehereispuzzling. The text is illustrated with a simple diagram of the relative diameters of earthandofHellinsideit(seeFig.5.11); thelegendson thediagramindicate that the diameter of the earth is 2186 German miles, and its circumference 8000Germanmiles,whilethediameterofHellis2000Germanmiles,andits circumference 6100 German miles. These figures are curious, for while the authorsaysthathecalculatedthemaccordingtotherulesofgeometry,thetwo setsofdimensionsindicatetheuseoftwodifferentvaluesforπ.Inacircle,ifc isthecircumferenceanddthediameter,c=πd,soπ(=3.14159...)=c/d,butthe valuesofπindicatedbythesenumbers,8000/2186=3.66,and6100/2000=3.05, are not veryclose to the true value.So the author’s trainingingeometrywas notofahighcaliber.
193 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Figure5.11 Huntington HM 83, f. 12v. A diagram of the relative diameters of the earth and Hell. The text discusses their dimensions, the crystallization of the earth following the Last Judgment, and its role in separating the blessed and the damned (courtesyoftheHuntingtonLibrary).
194 Chapter5 Thetextrunsasfollows: Hancfiguramcalculavisecundumregulasgeometrieexsuppositaquan- titate ambitus terre 8000 miliarium teutonicorum et ex universale coniecturacionequodsicutterrahabitabiliscorporaliterestquartapars, ita<corrumdebeat?>dampnatorumhabitatioperpetuaextensaadquar- tam partem ut videsin figura. Et erit etiam comparatio debita sepulcri infernalisperpetuiadnostrasepulcratemporalia,quodsolentfoditerre, simaliter nonobliqueadmodumfossarum,sicuteritrupturaterre,sen- tentia data, et sicut nostra temporalia sepulcra claudimus cadaveribus impositis, sictuncunus(i.e .unis)hominibusintophetlapsisrecluditur terra, et eius superficies prius habitata cristallisatur. O quanta tunc lamenta lapsorum et labentium et gaudia in aere retentorum ut cum ihesucristoascendantincelumempirreum. Et manebunt tunc due cristalli fortissime perpetue inter beatos et dampnatos, scilicet superficies terre cristallisata tanquam lapis grandis lacuisuperpositus,etcelumcristallinumceloempirioproximumuttunc vereetperfectemaliabonissintetmanerintseparati,quiintuncaexor- diamundisemperfueruntconvicti.Arbitrorergoquodharumfigurarum firma fides et frequens consideratio efficacius hominem retraherent a peccatisquammultabonaverba. Nota a convalibus superficie terre ad inferni tophetinitium sunt700 miliaria teutonica vel circiter, et ita limbus primum supremus in quod christus descendit vixdistabat a cruce et sepulchro eius 200 miliaribus teutonicis. Notaquodtresfueruntbabilonie.Unasuperflumenchobarubiregn- abatNabuchodonossorinquafuittorrisbabelethecdeserta etdistata nova babilonia30 dierum,fuit alexandriain egypto super nilum sitain quaregnavitpharaodistansanova7dierumetetiamestdestructa.Tertia scilicet nova babilonia que dicitur gair vel kayr vel cana que distat ab Alexandriatribusdierumperterrametsexperaquas. Icalculatedthisdiagramaccordingtotherulesofgeometryfromthesup- posedcircumferenceoftheearth,i.e .8000Germanmiles,andfromthe universal conjecture that just as the inhabited land is physically one quarter<ofthe earth>, so the <...>perpetualhabitation ofthedamned extendstothefourthpart,asyouseeinthefigure.Andtherewillbethe obligatorycomparisonoftheperpetualinfernalsepulchertoourtempo- rary sepulchers, which are typically dug in the earth, very similarly to ditches,just as there willbe an abyssin the earthafter thejudgmentis
195 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse delivered. And just as we close our temporary sepulchers by putting cadaversontop,thusatthattimewhensomemenhavefallenintoHell, theearthisclosedup,anditssurface,whichhadbeeninhabited,iscrys- tallized.ThenOhow manylaments ofthefallen andfalling, andjoyof thesavedintheair,whenwithJesusChristtheyascendtotheEmpyrean Heaven. And then there will remain two crystals, eternal and very strong, betweentheblessedandthedamned,namelythecrystallizedsurfaceof theearth,likealargestoneplacedonalake,andthecrystallizedHeaven closetotheempyreanHeaven,andthenthegoodwillbeandwillremain trulyandcompletelyseparatedfromtheevil,whofromthebeginningof the earthuntilthat timehadalwaysbeen convicted.Ibelieve therefore that a firm faith in and frequent contemplation of these diagrams will moreeffectivelyrestrainamanfromsinsthanwouldmanygoodwords. Notethatfromthevalleysoftheearth’ssurfacetothehighestpartHell (tophet)it is700 German miles, or approximatelythat. And so thefirst and highest purgatory to which Christ descends is barely 200 German milesfromhiscrossandsepulcher. Note that there were three Babylonias, one on the river Chobar(i.e . Khabur) where Nebuchadnezzar reigned, in which was the Tower of Babel, and this is <now> deserted, and is a thirty-dayjourneyfrom the New Babylonia. <The second> was Alexandria inEgypt,located on the Nile,wherethePharaohreigned,whichisaseven-dayjourneyfromthe New Babylonia, and it is now destroyed. The third, that is, the New Babylonia, is called Gair or Cairo or Cana, and it is three days from Alexandriabyland,andsixbysea. The brief treatise on the Apocalypse in HM 83 is distinctive not only for its illustrationoftheLastDayswithmaps,butalsoforitsselectionofeventstobe described.Gonefromits account are theLambofGod, theWomanClothed with the Sun, the Four Horsemen, the SevenTrumpets, the Seven Seals, the markingofpeopleontheforehead,theWhoreofBabylon,andanymentionof anyangel—gone,indeed,aremostoftheelementsthatweresopopularwith theartistsofmostcyclesofApocalypseillustration.Thefocusisonthechro- nology,mechanics,geography,andcartographyoftheLastDays.
196 Chapter5 Proof of Circulation: Wolfenbüttel, HAB , Cod. Guelf. 442 Helmst. The apocalyptic material in HM 83 is very distinctive, previously unstudied, andalmost unknown,andwesee no evidenceofitsinfluenceonlaterworks abouttheApocalypse.Thequestionarises,then,astowhethertheworkcircu- lated,orwhetherperhapsitwasaprivateexercisebytheauthorthatremained onhisshelfafterhecomposedit.ThefactthatthetextsinHM83werewritten bythreescribesindicatesthatitisnottheauthor’sautographmanuscript,and theallusiveanddisjointedstyleofsomepartsofthetextcreatetheimpression thatitcouldbeanabbreviatedversionofalongerwork—allofwhichimplies atleastsomecopyingandreworkingofthetexts. ButinfactexcellentevidencethatboththetextsandmapspreservedinHM 83 circulated is provided by a manuscript in Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,whichcontainssomemapsthatarecruder andalsosomewhat modifiedversionsofthoseinHM83,andalsosometexts thatareverycloselyrelatedtosomeofthoseinHM83.Moreover,someofthese textsintheWolfenbüttelmanuscripthavemarksindicatingthelinebreaksin themanuscriptfromwhichtheywerecopied,andthoselinebreaksdonotcor- respond to those in the texts in HM 83, so the Wolfenbüttel manuscript demonstrates the existence ofat least one other manuscript ofthe worksin HM83(i.e .athird,besideHM83andtheWolfenbüttelmanuscript). Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf. 442 Helmst., is a fif- teenth-century miscellaneous manuscript written on paper, with works principallyon religious subjects.109Themanuscriptcontains severalsections thatrelatetotheApocalypseandsomegeographicalworks,includingexcerpts from Bartholomaeus Anglicus,110 so the subject matter of part of the manu- scriptissimilartothatinHM83: • ff.66v–68v,Signa tribulationis proxime, qua ecclesia reformabitur ante Gog • ff.86r–86v,Apocalypsis • ff.87r–89r,De Gog et Mahometo 109 Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.hasbeendigitizedand a P D F ofthe wholemanuscriptcanbedownloadedfrom <http://diglib.hab.de/mss/442- helmst/start.htm?image=00001>.ItisdescribedbyOttovonHeinemann,Die Helmstedter Handschriften (Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, 1963–65), vol. 1, pp. 343–345; and Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der Werke des heiligen Augustinus, vol. 5, Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Westberlin,ed.R.Kurz(Vienna:H.Böhlau,1969-),part2,pp.511–512(the latterrelyingontheformer). 110 OntheexcerptsfromBartholomaeusAnglicusin442Helmst.seeMeyer,Die Enzyklopädie des Bartholomäus Anglicus(seeCh.4,n.3),pp.132–133and272.
197 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse • ff.89r–89v,De terra santa • f.90r,Vastatio Constantinopolis • ff.92v–101,Chronica mundi usque ad hec tempora • ff.108r–108v,De variis regionibus terre • ff.118r–121r,Collecta ex libro de proprietatibus rerum Therearesomeloosefolioskeptwiththemanuscriptandwritteninthesame handasthemanuscript,andoneofthesecontainsthefollowinginscription:111 OrdinationescongregationisprovincialisinconventuCellensiperrever- endum patrem fratrem Hennygum Zelen quoad fratres de observantia ordinisminorumprovincieSaxonievicariumprovincialem,deconsilioet consensu venerabilium patrum diffinitorum anno Domini 1452 pro die virginisglorioseassumptioniscelebrate. RegulationsoftheprovincialcongregationintheconventofCelleforthe reverendfather,brotherHennygumZelen,provincialvicarofthebroth- ers of the order of Observant Friars Minor of the province of Saxony, publishedbytheadviceandconsentofthevenerablefatherassessorsin the year 1452, for the day of the Assumption of the BlessedVirgin(i.e . August15). Thisinscriptionindicatesadateof1452fortheloosefolios,butbelowwepres- entstrongevidence,intheformofanotherdateononeoftheloosefolios,that theywerewrittenmuchlaterinthecentury,in1492or1494—muchcloserin time to HM 83. Celle is northeast of Hanover, and about 180 km (112 miles) southwestofLübeck. Only three parts of the manuscript have received scholarly attention. AlfonsoMarganihasstudiedtwoofthesongsinthemanuscript,112andthere iscombinationofaworldmapandmapoftheHolyLandwhicharedrawnon parchment andpastedontheinsideofthe manuscript’sfront cover thathas 111 The inscription is transcribed by von Heinemann, Die Helmstedter Handschriften (see Ch.5,n.109),p.345;andbyAlfonsoMargani,“EinmittelniederdeutschesGlaubensbekennt- nisausdem15.Jahrhundert(HelmstedtHs.442derHerzogAugustBibliothekWolfenbüt- tel),”La Torre di Babele: Rivista di letteratura e linguistica1(2003),pp.221–238,at221. 112 Alfonso Margani, “Eine mittelniederdeutsche Fassung des Hohenliedes aus dem 15. Jahrhundert und ihre lateinische Vorlage: Hs. Helmstedt 442 der Herzog August Biblio- thek Wolfenbüttel,” Jahrbuch des Vereins für Niederdeutsche Sprachforschung 116 (1993), pp. 28–71; and Margani, “Ein mittelniederdeutsches Glaubensbekenntnis” (see Ch. 5, n.111).
198 Chapter5 attractednotice,113 thoughithasneverbeen carefullystudied, andisnotdis- cussedinanyofthestandardworksonmapsoftheHolyLand.114 The map on thepastedown inside thefront cover of the manuscriptis of considerableinteresthere,asitsdepictionoftheriversflowingfromParadise (seeFig.5.12)isstrikinglysimilartothaton the mapofthe world’sbodies of wateronff.7v–8rinMS83,andalsotothedepictioninthemaponf.14r(see Figs. 4.15 and 4.16). This map in the Wolfenbüttel manuscript thus merits a detaileddiscussion. Themapisintwoparts,amapoftheHolyLandatthetopofthepage,and amappamundibelowit.ThemapoftheHolyLandquiteremarkablyfunctions asadetailoftheworldmap:aminiatureversionoftheformercanbeseenat the center of the latter. One puzzling feature of the map of the Holy Land, whichisrepeatedinitsminiatureversionintheworldmap,wheretheorienta- tionisclear,is thattheRedSea(representedbya redrectangle)islocatedin the northern part ofthe Holy Land, rather than the south—and despite the factthattheTigris,whichflowsintotheMediterraneansouthoftheHolyLand, is labeledhic vocatur mare rubrum, “Here it is called the RedSea.”Even in a map with confused geography like this one, the error about the Red Sea is surprising. ThecentralpartofthemapoftheHolyLandislabeledterrasancta,andthe blackrectangleatthetopofthemapislabeled140stadiainitslongdimension, and40initsshortdimension:thesearethedimensionsascribedtotheSeaof GalileebyHegesippus,whowasthoughttobetheauthorofafourth-century Latin adaptation ofJosephus’s The Jewish War, which bears the titleDe bello Judaico et excidio urbis Hierosolymitanae, in book 3, chapter 26.115 As the 113 On the map on the inside cover of 442 Helmst. see Richard Uhden, “Zur Herkunft und Systematik der mittelalterlichen Weltkarten,” Geographische Zeitschrift 37.6 (1931), pp. 321–340, at 335 and 340, no. 39; Destombes, Mappemondes(see Ch. 4, n. 37), p. 189, no.51.39(wherethemanuscriptismis-datedtothefourteenthcentury);Arentzen,Imago mundi cartographica(seeCh.4,n.157),pp.128–129,212,276,andplate36;andHeitzmann, Europas Weltbild in alten Karten(seeCh.4,n.157),pp.36–37,whichincludesacolorillus- trationofthemap. 114 Nebenzahl,Maps of the Holy Lands(seeCh.4, n.60);Harvey,Medieval Maps of the Holy Land(seeCh.4,n.60). 115 SeePatrologia Latina15:2199,wheretheworkisattributedtoSt.Ambroseandcarriesthe titleDe excidio urbis Hierosolymitanae libri quinque,andthepassagereads:Namque lacus ipsius, velut quodam maris ambitu sinus amplissimus, in longitudinem centum quadraginta extenditur stadia, latitudine quadraginta diffunditur crispantibus aquis auram de seipso excitans. For discussion of the textual tradition of Hegisippus see Vincenzo Ussani, “ Un ignoto codice cassinese del così detto Egesippo e i suoi affini,” in Casinensia
199 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Figure5.12 A map of the Holy Land and of the world; the depiction of the world’s rivers is very similar to that in HM 83, ff. 7v-8r and 14r—compare Figs. 4.15 and 4.16 (Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst., Vorderseite,bypermissionoftheHerzogAugustBibliothek).
200 Chapter5 dimensionsidentifythebodyofwaterastheSeaofGalilee(andalsorevealone ofthesourcesthecartographerwasusing),wecandeducethattherivertothe rightofthisbodyofwateristheJordanRiver,andthebodyofwatertotheright oftheJordan is the DeadSea.Thedepiction ofislandsin the DeadSeais of interest,asisthebridgeindicatedovertheJordan,116aswedonotknowofany other depiction of a bridge over the Jordan in a medieval map. The city of Jerusalem is indicated with some abstract symbols near the Jordan, and the port of Acre seems to be indicatedbya redtrianglein thelower part ofthe map.ThetworiverstotheleftoftheSeaofGalileeprobablyrepresenttheJor and Dan,117 and then we have—very strangely—the Red Sea, with the black line across it indicating the path that the Tribes of Israel took while fleeing fromthePharaoh.Thispathisindicatedsimilarlyonmanynauticalchartsand somemappaemundi,suchastheHerefordmap.To theleftin the mapofthe HolyLandthereisalegendthatreads: secundo lapide a iericho est mons quarentana ubi christus ieiunavit et temptatusest.Etsubillomontefluitrivulusfontisquemsanavitheliseus. Secundomiliarioaquarentanastatmonsthabordistatdeierusalemiiii diebus. AtthesecondmilestonefromJerichoisMountQuarentanawhereChrist fasted and was tempted. And at the foot of that mountain flows the streamfromthespringthatElisharestored.Atthesecondmilestonefrom QuarentanaisMountTaborwhichisfourdaysdistantfromJerusalem. (Montecassino: ex Typographia Casinensii, 1929), vol. 2, pp. 601–614; reprinted in his Scritti di filologia e umanità(Naples: Ricciardi, 1942), pp. 250–265; for discussion of the workalsoseeAlbertA.Bell,“Josephusandpseudo-Hegesippus,”inLouisH.Feldmanand Gohei Hata, eds., Josephus, Judaism, and Christianity (Detroit: Wayne State University Press,1987),pp.349–361;andNeilWright,“Twelfth-CenturyReceptions ofaText:Anglo- NormanHistoriansandHegesippus,”Anglo-Norman Studies31(2009),pp.177–195. 116 There weretwobridges overtheJordanbetweentheSea ofGalilee andtheDeadSeain the Middle Ages, the Umm al-Qanāṭir and theJisr al-Mujamiyya: see Andrew Petersen, “Medieval Bridges of Palestine,” in Urbain Vermeulen and Kristof d’Hulster, eds., Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk Eras, 6: Proceedings of the 14th and 15th Inter- national Colloquium Organized at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in May 2005 and May 2006(Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 2010), pp. 291–306, at 300 and 302, but there does not seemtobeanywaytodeterminewhichisdepictedonthismap. 117 OnthesetworiversseeforexampleIsidore,Etymologiae13.21 .18.
201 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Similar material appears in an earlier text, namely pseudo-Eugesippus’s Tractatus de distantiis locorum Terrae Sanctae,118 but the source seems to be RorgoFretellus’sDescriptio de locis sanctis,composedinthetwelfthcentury.119 We see that the cartographer—or the creator of the map he was copying— devotedconsiderableresearchtohiswork. As mentionedabove, thedispositionofthe riversofParadise on the map- pamundiontheinsidecoverofHelmst.442isverysimilartothatonthemaps inHM83ff.7v–8rand14r(Figs.4.15and4.16),andgivenhowunusualthisdis- positionis,wecanbecertainthatthesemapssharedasource.Thedisposition ofthe rivers onf. 14ris more similar to thatin theWolfenbüttelmanuscript, particularlyinthewaytheNiledipssouthintoEthiopia,andthesharpnessof theturninthecourseoftheTigris;also,thesetwomapssharetheredlinethat runsacrossAsiaindicatingtheborderofIndia.Outsidethemaptothesouth eastisthefollowingtext: dorixflumeninarmeniaexeodemmontequoeufratesveltygrisorituret dicituralionominearaxesautarapssesarapacitatequaomniaprosternit et interpretatur dorix medicamentum generationis et est brachium vel eufratesveltygrisvelutrumqueisti<jereoi?>fluviiin<Armenia?><inci- piunt?><...>caldeam The Dorix River rises in Armenia from the same mountain as the Euphrates or Tigris, and is also called the Araxes or Arapsses from the ‘rapacity’withwhichitoverthrowsallthings,and‘dorix’meansarepro- 118 The work of pseudo-Eugesippus is printed in Patrologia Graeca 133:991–1004, with the relevantpassageoncol.1003. 119 SeeRorgoFretellus,Rorgo Fretellus de Nazareth et sa Description de la Terre Sainte: histoire et édition du texte, ed. P. C. Boeren(Amsterdam and NewYork:North-Holland Pub. Co., 1980),p.41,chapter73:Secundo lapide ab Ihericho ad sinistram locus in deserto, quod Quar- antena vocatur. In qua Ihesus quadraginta dierum totidemque noctium ieiunium complevit, eius ieiunio ieiunium nostrum consecrans et designans.... Secundo miliario a Quarantena contra Galyleam mons excelsus ille, diabolus in quo Ihesum iterum temptavit, ostendens ei omnia regna mundi et dicens: Si cadens adoraveris me, hec omnia tibi dabo. Sub Quaran- tena fontis illius rivulus, quem beatus Helyseus sanctificans sale conspersurn, eius sanata sterilitate de amaro potabilem reddidit. On Mount Quarantena see the chapter in Bern- hard von Breydenbach, Peregrinatio in Terram Sanctam(Mainz: Erhard Reuwich, 1486), f.[53v]; andBernardinoDinali,La ‘Jerosolomitana peregrinatione’ del mercante milanese Bernardino Dinali (1492): dal codice della Biblioteca statale di Lucca, ed. Ilaria Sabbatini (Lucca:MariaPaciniFazzi,2009),pp.132–133.
202 Chapter5 ductivemedicine,anditisabranchoftheEuphratesortheTigrisorof both.Thoserivers<...>Chaldea. Most of this is taken from Bartholomaeus Anglicus, De proprietatibus rerum 13.7,hischapterontheDorix,butitseemsthatthelastpartcomesfromadif- ferentsource,asBartholomaeusdoesnotmentionChaldeainthatchapter. Within the mappamundi, from east (top) to west (bottom), are: Eufrates, Tigris, Gyon, Phison; the name India along the red line that indicates that region’s western edge; Armenie just outside that line; and Babilon along the Euphrates. As mentioned above, the part of the Tigris closest to Jerusalem bearsthelegendhic vocatur mare rubrum,“HereitiscalledtheRedSea,”which complicatesmattersastheRedSeaisalsodepictedtothenorthofJerusalem. OnthenortheasternMediterraneanshoreisbisantium,120buttheplacename bytheminiatureversionofthemapoftheHolyLandinthemiddleofthemap- pamundi is illegible. The miniature version of the map of the Holy Land reproducesmanydetailsofthelargerone,includingthebridgeovertheJordan. ThemouthoftheGyonislabeledtheNilus,andtheidentityoftheriverisalso confirmedbythedepictionofitsdelta.Theregionthroughwhichasouthern bendoftheriverflowsislabeledEtiopia. The mappamundi includes the same branch of water cutting diagonally across southeastern Europe that is labeled Strata on HM 83, ff. 7v–8r, and appearswithoutlabelonothermapsinthatmanuscript.Inaddition,theleft- handpartofthe‘T ’oftheT-Ostructureofthemapiscompletedbyariverthat cuts off to the northeast rather than continuing directly north as theTanais does on most mappaemundi,anditistemptingtoidentifythis riverwiththe RhaorVolga,whichishowthecorrespondingriverisidentifiedonthemapin HM 83, ff. 7v–8r. The northern part of the Wolfenbüttel map contains some 120 TheuseoftheplacenamebisantiumratherthanConstantinopolisisveryunusual.Chekin, Northern Eurasia in Medieval Cartography(seeCh.4,n.163),listsafewmapsthatusethe place nameByzantium or variantsthereof, namely the mappaemundiin Naples, Biblio- tecaNazionale,MSIVF43,f.33v,eleventhcentury;Munich,BayerischeStaatsbibliothek, CLM14731,f.83v,madebetween1145and1152atthemonasteryofSt.EmmeraminRegens- burg;Paris,Bibliothèquenationale,MSlat.6813,f.2r,madeattheendofthetwelfthcen- tury,probablyinGermany;andDublin,TrinityCollege,MS367,f.85v,madeinEnglandin thefirsthalfofthethirteenthcentury:seeChekin’spp.46–51withtheplatesonpp.353– 356. Also see Chekin’s “Die ‘Warägischen Grenzpfähle’ und andere Rätsel einer Regens- burgischen Karte aus der Mitte des 12. Jahrhunderts,” in Hermann Beyer-Thoma, ed., Bayern und Osteuropa: aus der Geschichte der Beziehungen Bayerns, Frankens und Schwa- bens mit Russland, der Ukraine und Weissrussland (Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 2000), pp.95–116,esp.107–110.
203 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse puzzling and inscrutable designs, and from this region a large river system flowssouthwestintoEurope,makingtheNorthPoleasourceofwaterssimilar toParadiseintheEast.Noneofthesenortherndetailsappearonthemapsin HM83.Finally,AfricaontheWolfenbüttelmapis,likeEurope,devoidoftop- onyms,butitdoescontainthislegend: hec quarta Affrica communiter dicitur barbaria maior et in Ispania parum homini de ea imperio (sic) Augustinus fuit in ypon<e> praesul reorhancquartamforemaledictamcumsuoprimodominocham Thisquarter ofAfricais commonlycalled BarbariaMajor, and inSpain therearefewmenfromthiskingdom.AugustinewaspraesulinHippo.I believethatthisquarterwillbecursedalongwithitsfirstruler,Ham. Theplacenamebarbaria maiorisveryrare;121the‘CurseofHam,’ontheother hand,wasamedievalcommonplace.122 WhilethismapintheWolfenbüttelmanuscriptisdifferentinseveralsignifi- cantwaysfromthemapsinHM83,ff.7v–8rand14r,particularlywithregardto the long legends and the depiction of the far north, the similarities in their unusual river systems are so strong that we must conclude that the maps sharedacommonmodel.Even thoughthe mapontheinsideofthecoverof theWolfenbüttelmanuscriptwasevidentlypastedinfromelsewhere,itwould seemtohavecomefromthesamesourceasothermaterialsinthemanuscript, whicharealsoverycloselyconnectedwithHM83. Beilage f. 1r Oneoftheleavesassociatedwith442Helmst.,whichinthedigitizedversionof themanuscriptisdesignatedimage275,andhasnowbeenassignedthedesig- nation Beilage f. 1r, has four crude maps (see Fig. 5.13) that are intimately relatedtosomeoftheapocalypticmapsinHM83,thoughtherearedifferences betweenthem.Thelargestofthesefourmaps,whichistotheleftonthepage, islikeacombinationofthemaponHM83,f.9r,whichshowstheworldfrom 121 Onetextin whichtheplacenamebarbaria maiorappearsisinRamonLlull’sDe fine2.3: seeRamonLlull,Raimundi Lulli Opera Latina(Turnhout:Brepols,1975–1989),vol.9(120– 122: in Monte Pessulano anno 1305 composita) (= Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis35),p.277,Et sic Andalusia acquisita bellator rex cum suo exercitu ampliato ad Maiorem Barbariam poterit ultra ire, primo uidelicet ad regnum Cepte, quoniam de mari nisi per septem miliaria illud distat. 122 SeeBenjaminBraude, “Cham etNoé.Race etesclavage entrejudaïsme, christianisme et Islam,”Annales57.1(2002),pp.93–125.
204 Chapter5 F i g u r e  5 . 1 3 D i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f f o u r o f t h e a p o c a l y p t i c m a p p a e m u n d i i n H u n t i n g t o n H M 8 3 — c o m p a r e F i g s . 5 . 3 , 5 . 6 , 5 . 7 , a n d 5 . 8 ( W o l f e n - b ü t t e l ,  H e r z o g  A u g u s t  B i b l i o t h e k ,  C o d .  G u e l f .  4 4 2  H e l m s t . ,  B e i l a g e  f .  1 r ,  b y  p e r m i s s i o n  o f  t h e  H e r z o g  A u g u s t  B i b l i o t h e k ) .
205 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse 639–1514,andthatonf.9v,whichshowstheworldfrom1514–1570:ithasageo- graphical configuration similar to that of the earlier map, albeit with fewer details, but it uses the device of the swords of Muhammad to indicate the threattoChristendom.Andheretheswords,ratherthanpointingouttowards the edges oftheearthas theydoin HM83f.9v,point menacinglyatEurope, andfromthetipofeachofthemalineisdrawnacrossEurope,evidentlyindi- cating the path it will take. Within Europe, the dissention among Christian leadersthatonHM83f.9risdescribedverbally,ishererepresentedsymboli- cally,bypairsofChristianswords(withcrossesintheirpommels)setagainst eachother. Thetextoutsidethismapintheupperleftcornerofthefolioreadsab anno christi 600 ad eius annum 1570 <...> Machametus,“FromtheyearofChrist600 tohisyear1570 <...>Muhammad.”In HM83thefirst turning-pointyearindi- catedin the treatise on theApocalypse was639, whenMuhammad came to power, and the reference to the year 600 here would seem to indicate some sloppiness in copying information from the source manuscript. But 1570 is indeedone ofthe turning-pointyearsin HM83, the endpointofthe mapon f.9v,andthestartingpointofthemaponf.10r(seeFigs.5.5and5.6).Looking atthedetailsofthemapinBeilagef.1r,paradisusisindicatedbyaredrectan- gleatthetopofthemap,outsidethe‘O’ofthecircumfluentocean;Paradiseis discussedinHM83,andisalsorepresentedbyacastlefromwhichthefourriv- ersofParadiseflowinthemapsonff.7v–8rand14r(seeFigs.4.15and4.16).In thecircumfluentocean,readingfromeast(top)towest(bottom),wehave:X tribus Israel,Amazones,lucanania(Lapland),yslandia,norwegia,Suecia,dacia, Scotia,Anglia,britania.Theislandsindicatedareverysimilartothoseonthe mapsonHM83,ff.3rand6v–7r(seeFigs.4.9and4.14),andtoalesserextentto those on f. 9r(see Fig.5.3), theprophecymap for the years 639–1514, so this mapinWolfenbüttelrepresentsarecombinationofinformationaboutislands availableonthemapsinHM83.Withintheorbis terrarum,readingfromeastto west,wehave:India,Tartaria,Soldanus.OnthemapinHM83f.9r,thissame segment ofthemapis occupiedbytheChaldeans.TheSoldanusisthebabil- onie soldanusofthemapinHM83f.9r,i.e .theSultanofEgypt. InthecentralpartoftheWolfenbüttelmapwereadante annum christi 1514 sic 5 gladii intrant europam, “Before the year of Christ 1514 five swords thus enterEurope.”TherearealsofiveswordsonthemapinHM83,f.9v,butonthat maponlyoneofthementersEurope.Justtotheleftofthislegendthereisared verticallinewithnoevidentfunction,butthereisaverticallineinexactlythe samepositiononthemapinHM83,f.9v.Theredcapital‘T ’totheleftofthis lineintheWolfenbüttelmapstandsforTurkia,aswecangatherbothfromthe keytothemaptotheleftofParadise,whereTurkiaiswrittenwithared‘T ’and
206 Chapter5 therestofthewordinblackink,andbyanalogywiththemapinHM93,f.9v. Thesamekeyindicatesthatthesmallredrectangleat the center ofthemap stands for Jerusalem, and the same analogy indicates that the ‘C’ on the WolfenbüttelmaprepresentsConstantinopolis. Inthesouthern(right-hand)partofthemap,alinecutseastandwestacross Asia,Africa,andthecircumfluentocean,andjustnorthofthelineisthephrase i machamethii, “TheMuslims.”Theimplicationseems tobethat thereare no Muslimssouthofthatline,andthisisnotafeaturesharedbyanyofthemaps in HM 83. In Africa there is the name myramamolon, i.e .Miramamolin, who wasmentionedonthemapinHM83f.9v;123andtheplacenameAffrica. Thehiltsofthenon-Christianswordsarebesidesomeofthenamesonthe map,anditseemsthatwearetounderstandthatoneoftheswordsrepresents the Turks, another the Tartars, another the Sultan of Egypt, and another Miramamolin;thereisnonameassociatedwithoneoftheswordsinthenorth. ThelineemanatingfromtheswordoftheSultanofEgyptpassesrightthrough Jerusalem, with clear implications. The lines emanating from the swords of Miramamolin,theSultanofEgypt,andtheanonymousswordintersectinone point,anditistemptingtothinkthatthatpointissupposedtorepresentRome. TotherightofthelowerpartofthelargemaponBeilagef.1risamapthatis acruderenderingofthesituationillustratedinthe mapon HM83,f. 10r(see Fig.5.6),whichshowstheyearsfrom1570to1600,anddepictsthetenhornsof the Beast of Daniel 7, with Antichrist rising in the middle represented by a seriesofnestedtriangles.Therubrictotheleftofthemapreadsregnum Christi per 30 annos vel...,“ThekingdomofChristforthirtyyearsor....”Thereference tothirtyyearsindicates that the mapshows thesame timeperiodas that on HM83,f.10r(1570–1600),andalsorecallsaphraseonf.16rofthatmanuscript, Ab hora eadem erit regnum Christianorum per totum mundum per 30 annos per 10 reges qui majorem laborem fecerunt in delendo sectam machometicam. Et gog antichristus educatur et crescit, “From that same moment, the kingdom of Christians willexist throughout the whole worldfor thirtyyears throughten kings who performedalarge taskindestroying theMuhammadan sect.And GogAntichristisraisedandgrows.”InthemaponWolfenbüttelBeilagef.1r,it ispossibletoreadthewordrexwrittenbetweensomeofthehornsoftheBeast ofDaniel7,justasinHM83f.10r,butthenamesoftheircountriesarenotleg- ible,exceptforIndie(withoutrex)inthelowerleft. AbovethismaponBeilagef.1risamapverysimilartothatonHM83f.10v (seeFig.5.7),whichcoverstheyears1600to1606anddepictsthefourhornsof Antichrist,whicharedepictedashugepeninsulasin thecircumfluentocean, 123 ForbibliographyonMiramamolinseeCh.5,n.46.
207 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse andrepresentthefourwayshedeceivespeople.Therubrictotherightreads, Signum Gog Antichristi 6 annis ab anno chrsiti 1600 ad eius annum 1606, “The sign of Antichrist <will last> six years, from the year of Christ 1600 to 1606,” specifyingthesamespanofyearasthemapinHM83,f.10v.Atthecenterofthe map is Gog, much as Antichristus is at the center of HM 83 f. 10v; the upper peninsulaislabeledCalliditas,thattotheleftcornu dolositatis,thattotheright Cornu mentite deitatis, andthat at thebottomCrudelitatis: thehorns are the sameasinHM83f.10v.ButthismaponBeilagef.1raddssomethingnotpresent on HM 83 f. 10v: inverted horns that point inward in between the horns of Antichrist that seem intendedto counteract them.The ‘counterhorn’ on the upperrightlacksanidentifier,andtheidentifieroftheoneontheupperleftis illegible,buttheoneonthelowerrightreadsCornu vere deitatis,“Hornofthe True God,” andthat on thelower left reads constantie et victorie, “<Horn> of perseveranceandvictory.”Thereisnohintofthese‘counterhorns’anywherein HM83. Finally,thereisasmallmaponthefarrightofBeilagef.1rthatisacrudeand lessdetailedrenderingoftheinformationpresentedinthemaponHM83,f.11r, which covers the years 1606–1661 (an error for 1651), and shows the flag of Christtriumphantinthemiddleoftheworld.TherubricbelowtheWolfenbüttel mapreadsRegnum iesum christi 45 annis hic in terra et infra ubique sine fine ab anno christi 1606 ad eius annum 1651 finit <...> libri celestis, “The kingdom of Christ <will endure> 45 years here on the earth and below and everywhere without endfromtheyearofChrist1606to 1651;itends<...>oftheheavenly book.”ThereisacontradictionhereintheideathatthekingdomofChristwill endafter 45years, on the onehand, andthatitis sine fine, on the other,but perhapstheauthorjustgotcarriedawaybyenthusiasm.Itisnoteworthythat herethearithmeticof1606+45=1651iscorrect,whereasinHM83theauthor arrivedattheincorrectsumof1661. ThesimilaritiesbetweenthemapsonWolfenbüttel,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst., Beilagef.1r,andtheapocalypticmapsinHM83areoverwhelming,anditcan- notbedoubtedthattheyderivefromacommonmodel.Atthesametime,the differencesbetween the mapspointto aprocess ofrevision,thoughwithout otherversionsoftheworkwehavenowayofknowinghowextensiveorpro- tractedthoserevisionsmayhavebeen. Beilage f. 2r ThelargestmapontheleafonBeilagef.1r,aswesaw,isverysimilartothaton HM83,f.9r,andtheWolfenbüttelmanuscripthasasecondleaf,image277in thedigitizedversionofthemanuscript,nowdesignatedBeilagef.2r(seeFig. 5.14)with a map very similar to that on HM 83, f. 9r(see Fig. 5.3)—which is
208 Chapter5 betterexecutedthanthatonBeilagef.1r.Asthismapisverysimilartothaton Beilagef.1r,weneedonlybrieflypointoutthemoreimportantdifferencesand remarkonafewotherpoints.WherethelargemaponBeilagef.1rhasTartaria, the map on Beilage f. 2r has Imperator tartarorum vagorum et stabilium, “EmperoroftheTartars,boththenomadsandthosewholiveinoneplace,”and includesinthisregionBaldacum,i.e .Baghdad.OnBeilagef.1ritwasnotclear what group was associated with one of the swords that was going to attack Europe,buthereweseethattwooftheswordswillcomefromtheTartars,one Figure5.14 A mappaemundi very similar to Huntington HM 83, f. 9r, the prophecy map illustrating the spread of Islam—compare Fig. 5.3 (Wo lf en büt t e l, He rzog AugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Beilagef.2r,bypermis- sionoftheHerzogAugustBibliothek).
209 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse fromthenomadTartars,andonefromtheTartarswholiveinoneplace.This mapincludesLivoniainthefarnorth,andlike the maponBeilagef.1r,has a key, accordingto which‘C’standsforConstantinopolis,andthe redrectangle represents Jerusalem. On this map, the name Machametus, which indicates thatMuslimslivenorthofthelineinthesouth,iscrossedout. Beilage f. 2v Beilagef.1rhasamapverysimilartothatonHMf.10r,theprophecymapcover- ingtheyears1570–1600,andthereisanotherleafassociatedwiththemanuscript thathasasimilarmap,thatnumberedimage278inthedigitizedversionofthe manuscript,nowdesignatedBeilagef.2v(seeFig.5.15),whichagainisamore detailedversionofthemaponBeilagef.1r.Asthemapisfamiliar,wecanrun throughthedetailsquickly.Therubricoutsidethemapreads:Regnum iesum christi hic in terra per 45 annos, inde suum iudicium et regnum ubique sine fine, “ThekingdomofJesusChristherein theearth<willlast> 45years;fromthat time his judgment and kingdom <will be> everywhere without end.” Just beside this text we read Jerusalem metropolis mundi, but it is not clear that Jerusalemisrepresentedonthemap.Thekingdomslistedbetweenthehorns onthemap,readingfirsttheleftsidetoptobottom,areRex gallie,Rex ytalie, Rex hispanie,Rex Affrice,andRex ethiope;andontherightsidetoptobottom, Rex gotie et Suecie,Rex grecie et Ruizie,Rex caldee medie et perside,Rex Indie et Iuddie,andRex egipti.InthemiddleofthenestedcentraltriangleswereadGog anthichristus,andin theothertriangles,Sic crescit sub 14 regibus quos subiicit antequam 30 annum,“Thushegrowsbeneaththefourteenkingswhomhesub- jectedbeforethethirtiethyear.” Beilage f. 3r Thisfolio,crowdedwithtext,containstwonumberedgenealogiesfromAdam toJesuswithabundantannotation;theyrecallthoseonHM83,ff.16vand17r. Suchgenealogiesarenotatallrare,sotheirpresenceinthetwomanuscripts cannotbetakenasstrongevidenceconnectingthem,butitisminorcorrobo- ratingevidence.ItisworthremarkingthatbothontheleftonBeilagef.3rand in the genealogy on HM 83, f. 16v, the scribe had problems in assigning the numbersofthelisttothecorrectindividuals,andinbothcasesthesemistakes werecorrectedwithshortlinesjoiningthecorrectnumbertothecorrectindi- vidual. These problems do not occur at the same points in the list, but it is temptingtothinkthatthecorrespondencebetweennumbersandnameswas notveryclearinthemodelsfromwhichbothscribeswereworking.
210 Chapter5 Beilage f. 3v Thiselaboratelydesignedanddenselywrittenpage(seeFig.5.16)has several textsthatareverysimilartothoseinHM83.ThetextsintheWolfenbüttelman- uscript include indications of the line breaks in the manuscript from which F ig ure 5. 15 A mappaemundi very similar to Huntington HM 83, f. 10r, the prophecy map showing the increase of Antichrist and the horns of the beast of Daniel 7—com - pare Fig. 5.6 (Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf. 442Helmst.,Beilagef.2v,bypermissionoftheHerzogAugust Bibliothek).
211 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse theywerecopied,andastheselinebreaksdifferfromthoseinthecorrespond- ingtextsinHM83,theWolfenbüttelmanuscriptsuppliesclearevidenceofthe existence of a thirdmanuscript ofthe worksin HM 83, andthusfurther evi- denceoftheirdiffusion. ThepresenceofwhatseemstobearainbowatthetopoftheWolfenbüttel pageandtwolargeconcentriccirclesinthelowerpartofthepagesuggestthat itislaidoutasacombinationofelementsfromHM83,f.11v(seeFig.5.9),the imageoftheLastJudgmentwiththeelectonarainbowbetweentheearthand Paradise,andf.12v(seeFig.5.11),thediagramindicatingtherelativediameters oftheearthandHell—andseveralofthetextsonthefoliointheWolfenbüttel manuscriptcorrespondwithtextsonthefoliobetweenthesetwoinHM83,i.e . f. 12r, which describes the Last Judgment and the changes the earth will undergoattheendofhistory.Moreover,someofthetextsontheWolfenbüttel pageconfirmthecorrespondenceofthesefeatures.Thetextintherainbowon WolfenbüttelBeilagef.3vreads: Hic semicirculusymaginandus est admodum supporte(or sperre)<...> superquartampartemterrehabitatamabhominibusaprincipiomundi adfinem,quiinmediodividiturinduoscircuitus<sua?><suei?>25sub beatorum qui sicin <athere?> <...>quam stelle circumdantJesumjudi- cem, et dampnatorum qui fixi immobiles stant super quartam partem terre quam nimis inordinate dilexererunt (sic) quasi et replent scilicet hancusqueadvocemquaiudexeossententiat:‘itemaledicti.’124Adquam vocem hacquarta pars terre rumpetur et cadent in tophet etinfernum <...>. Thissemicircleistobeimaginedlikethesupport(orsphere)<...>above the quarter of the earth inhabited by men from the beginning of the worldtotheend,whichisdividedinthemiddleintotwoparts<....>the blessedwhothusintheheavensaregatheredlikestarsaroundJesusthe judge,andthedamnedstandimmovablyfixedonthequarteroftheearth that they loved far too much and intently, and they fill it, namely this <circle>,untilthatutterancebywhichthejudgewillsentencethem:“Go, evildoers.” At which utterance, this quarter of the earth will break and theywillfallintoTophetandHell.... 124 ThephraseIte maledicteisa rare variantinMatthew25:41, whichusuallyreadsDiscedite a me maledicti in ignem æternum.
212 Chapter5 Figure5.16 This page contains several elements familiar from HM 83: the rainbow of HM 83, f. 11v, the diagram of the diameters of earth and Hell similar to that in f. 12v, and texts that appear on f. 12r (Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek, Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.,Beilagef.3v,bypermissionoftheHerzog AugustBibliothek).
213 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse ThesimilaritytothetextintherainbowonHM83,f.11v(Sic in aere circumdant electi tamquam Stelle Jhesum judicem, “Thus in the air, the chosen surround JesusChristlikestars”)isclear,andthephrasedampnatorum qui fixi immobiles stant super quartam partem terre quam nimis inordinate dilexererunt (sic) is verysimilartooneon HM83,f.12r:dampnatorum...stant fixi immobiles super terram, quam nimis inordinate fixe dilexerunt. ThetextsalongtheconcentriccirclesinthelowerpartoftheWolfenbüttel pageindicate thatthediagramshowstherelativediametersofthe earthand Hell,justlikethediagramonHM83,f.12v.Thetextjustinsidetheright-hand partofthelargercircleontheWolfenbüttelpagereads: Hiccirculusest ambitusetcircuitusterre8000miliariumteutonicorum quarum2000miliariateutonicasuntquartaparsqueestterra.Notaturin hacfiguraperspatiuminterduaslineasrectasAetBintusspatiimedio JesumChristumestscriptum Thiscircleistheouterlimitandcircumferenceoftheearth,whichmea- sures 8000 German miles, of which 2000 German miles is one quarter, whichistheknownearth.Theknownearthisindicatedinthisdiagram bythespacebetweenthetwostraightlinesAandB,andinthemiddleof thatspace,‘JesusChrist’iswritten. ThelinesmarkedAandBareverticallinestangentialtotheinnercircle:itis interestingthattheauthorthusindicatesthattheextentoftheknownpartof the worldcoincides withthediameter of Hell.The textjust inside the right- handpartoftheinnercircleontheWolfenbüttelpagereads: Hiccirculusestambitusetcircuitusinferni6100miliariarumteutonico- rumut‘incircuituimpiiambulent’psalmo11. This circle is the outer limit and circumference of Hell, which is 6100 Germanmiles—asPsalm11says,“Thewickedwalkallaround.” ThequotationisfromPsalm11:9;thefiguresof8000and6100forthecircumfer- encesarethesameasthosegiveninthediagraminHM83,f.12v.Inthemiddle ofthe upperpart oftheinner circle on theWolfenbüttelpage thereis a text writtenverticallythatreads: Dyametertotiusterre2856miliariumteutonicorumdequibus2000mili- ariasuntdyameterhuiusinfernitophetperpetui.
214 Chapter5 The diameter of the whole earth is 2856 German miles, of which 2000 milesarethediameterofthisperpetualHell,Tophet. Thisfigureagreeswiththenumbersuppliedinexactlythecorrespondingposi- tioninthediagraminHM83,f.12r. The preceding texts show a close similarity in layout and content of WolfenbüttelBeilagef.3v, ontheonehand, andHM83,ff. 11v and12v onthe other.Inaddition,severalofthetextsontheWolfenbüttelpageareverysimilar to texts onHM83,ff.12r–12v.WorkingdownfromthetopofBeilagef.3v,the firsttextthatissimilartooneinHM83isinthelargish,irregularlyshapedtext box just to the left of center near the top of the page. The text in HM 83 to whichitissimilar,whichisonf.12r,reads: Nec etiam mirere vocem domini Jesum christijudice posse audiri tam remoteper terramhabitabilem ex omniparte orientalioccidentaliaus- tralietaquilonariquasiper2000miliariateutonica.Veniaquiclamatsua mandata promulgando super montem synai circa medium temporis mundiutplaneindiciturpertriamiliariateutonica,etiampotestclamare ut sua sententia contra transgressores suorum mandatorum audiatur clare ab omnibus quantulumque remotoris quod eadem est potentia divinainconsueta. ThetextnearthetopoftheWolfenbüttelpagereadsasfollows;itsclosesimi- larityto thepassage in HM 83, f. 12risimmediately obvious, andwe markin italicsthephrasesthatdiffersignificantlyfromthecorrespondingonesinf.12r: NecmirerevocemdominiJesumchristiposseaudiritamremoteperter- ramhabitabilemexomniparteorientalioccidentaliaustralietaquilonari quasi per 2000 miliaria teutonica. Venia qui clamat sua mandata pro- mulgandosupermontemsynaycircamediumtemporismundiutplane indiciturper tria miliaria teutonica, in <rerum?> sententia <...> eiusdem montis quod sic summatur ad 9 miliaria teutonica etiam potest clamareut suasententiacontratransgressoressuorummandatorumitem per eorum omnibus variationibus audiaturclarequantulumqueremotisab omnibus quia utrubiqueeademestdeipotentiainconsuetaque miraculum dicitur et est. Thetextjusttothe right ofcenteratthetopofBeilagef.3vis verysimilarto anotherpassageonHM83,f.12r.ThetextintheHuntingtonmanuscriptruns:
215 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Etnemireretribunalchristietomnesbeatossicinaeretenereexfigura duorum filiorum chore quos deus tenuit in aere donec corpus patris chorecumomnibussuisinterraconclususest,sicutscripturadicit:“fac- tumestgrandemiraculumquodchorepereunte,filiieiusnonperirent.” sic hic erit impii ruent in terram ruptam quod pii vident non ruentes. Etiam deus tenet gravissima elementa aquam terram solem lunam et sideraettotammundimachinaminnichiloetnoncadunt,quoconsider- ate,non miraberehancfiguram. Thetext to theright ofcenter atthetopofBeilagef.3v runs asfollows,with significantdifferencesindicatedinitalics: Ne mirere tribunal christi et omnes beatos sic in aere tenere ex figura duorum filiorum chore quos adhuc mortales deus tenuit in aere donec corpuspatrischorecumomnibussuisinterraconclususest,sicutscrip- tum est:“factumestgrandemiraculumquodchorecum suis pereuntibus duo eiusfiliinonperirent.”sichiceritimpiiruentinterramruptamquod piividentnonruentes.EtiamdeustenetgravissimaelementaAquamet terram solemlunam etSydera et totam mundimachinam in nichilo et noncadunt,quoconsiderate,non mirarehancfiguram. Also,inthelowerpartofBeilagef.3v,thetextbetweenthetwolargecirclesat about11o’clockisverysimilartotextinHM83,f.12r.ThetextintheHuntington manuscriptruns: “Replete terram” verbum dei ad Adam et Noe de generatione humana, quaterrahabitabilissuccessivereplendaerat,etnuncannomundi6684 repletaest,primoadscripturamintelligi,etsecundopropheticevidetur intelligi.dupliciter,primo ut tot eruntdampnandiquodinjudicio terra habitabilisstetplenahominibusimpiis,secundoquodinprimiseisreple- bitur, et ut sic “replete” imperatum pro futuro iudicatum, exponitur ut “replebitis,”quodsepeinscripturisdivinissit.ethocoriturpenalissimum dampnatis quod sic infernus replebitur quod ut vertere se possint dampnati. ThetextonBeilagef.3vbetweenthetwolargecirclesatabout11o’clockruns as follows, with significant differences of words indicated in italics, and in addition,theorderofthesecondandthirdthirdsofthetextisreversed:
216 Chapter5 “Replete terram” verbum dei ad Adam et Noe de generatione humana, quaterrahabitabilissuccessivereplendaerat,etnuncannomundi6690 repleta est,primo adscripturamintelligitur sic secundointelligiturpro- phetice exponiendo verbum imperatum moda pro futuro indicatum ut repleteidestreplebitisquodsepesitindivinisscripturis.Ait “Solvite tem- plum hoc,”125 id est solvetis repletum (i.e .templum) et sic capitur dupliciter, primo quod tot erunt homines dampnandi quod in judicio hoc extremo terra singulis hominibus. The difference in the anno mundi between the two texts is important. If we assume that the difference is not simply the result of scribal error, then the textsonthesefoliosassociatedwiththeWolfenbüttelmanuscriptwerewritten sixyearsafterthoseinHM83,i.e .in1492or1494. Also,inthelowerpartofBeilagef.3v,insidetheinnercircle,ontheleftside, beginningonline14fromthetop,thereisatextverysimilartotextinHM83, f.12r.ThetextintheHuntingtonmanuscriptruns: Omneshominesresurgent.Animecumvirtuteecelodescendentadsua corpora adsumenda, quibus resumptis, ascendent obviam christum in aeraadrubeumcirculumintessal4,etAnimedampnatorumdeinferno ascendentadresumendacorporasua,quibusresumptis,stantfixiimmo- bilessuperterram,quamnimisinordinatefixedilexerunt,quorumcapud eritgogantichristus. ThetextonBeilagef.3vontheleftsideoftheinnercircle,beginningatline14, runsasfollows,withthesignificantdifferencesindicatedinitalics: Nota omnes homines resurgent. Omnes enim anime virtute de celo descendent et resument sua corpora et ascendent obviam jesum chris- tuminaerainthessa4adcirculumrubeum.Animedampnatedeinferno ascendent adresumendasuacorpora,quibus stantfixeimmobiles<...> <rederi?> sursum levare nequeant super terram quam inordinate dilex- erunt,quorumcaputeritgogantichristus. Furtherdowninthesametextontheleft-handsideoftheinnercircle,thereis sometextthatbeginsjusttotheleftoftheword‘Tophet’inthecenterofthe diagramthatis verysimilartotextin HM83,f. 12r.Hereis thepassageinthe Huntingtonmanuscript: 125 John2:19.
217 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse Ruptura terre data in judicio sententia ut impii incident figuratur et arguiturexrupturaterrenumerorum16inquamchorecumsuiscecidit nectamencorporaillorumrueruntintophettuncsedcircasuperficiem terre manserunt profundius tamen communi in sepulchro, sed prius resurectionem novissimam ruent simplum in infernum cum omnibus dampnatisquodtalioperetuncpronunciatumest. AndhereisthetextonBeilagef.3vontheleftsideoftheinnercircle,begin- ningjusttotheleftoftheword‘Tophet’atthecenterofthediagram,withthe significantdifferencesindicatedinitalics.Thereissomedamagetothefolioin thisarea,andthelacunaehavebeensuppliedbycomparisonwithHM83,f.12r: Ruptura terre data injudicio sententia <ut> impii incident figuratur et arguiturexrupturaterre<numerorum16>Inquamchorecumsuisceci- ditNectamencor<poraillorum>ruerunttunc in hunc Infernumsedcirca superfi<ciem ter>re manserunt profundius tamen communi sepulchra <sedeant?> <hec?> sententia data. Ita ruit simplum in infernum hanc tophet cum omnibusdampnatisquodtalitunchorribile operapronun- ciatumest. And finally, a passage from lower in the left-hand side of the inner circle in Beilagef.3v,beginningeightlinesfromthebottom,isverysimilartoapassage onHM83,f.12v.HereisthepassageintheHuntingtonmanuscript: Etmanebunttuncduecristallifortissimeperpetueinterbeatosetdamp- natos, scilicet superficies terre cristallisata tanquam lapis grandis lacui superpositus,etcelumcristallinumceloempirioproximumuttuncvere etperfecte maliabonis sint et manerint separati,quiin tunc a exordia mundi semper fuerunt convicti. Arbitror ergo quod harum figurarum firma fides et frequens consideratio efficacius hominem retraherent a peccatisquammultabonaverba. ThetextonBeilagef.3vontheleftsideoftheinnercircle,beginningeightlines fromthebottom,runsasfollows,withthesignificantdifferencesindicatedin italics: Et erunttuncduecristallifortissimeperpetueinterbeatosetdampnatos, scilicet superficies terre cristallisata tanquam lapis grandis lacui super- positus,etcelumcristallinumceloempirioproximum.O <quanta?> <...>
218 Chapter5 lamenta lapsorum et labentium et gaudia in aeris retentorum ut cum <boni?> ascendent in celum empirium. Arbitror ergo quodharum figure firma fides et frequens aspectus plus retraherent hominem a peccatis quammultabonaverba. ThesepassagesshownotonlythattheworksinHM83circulated,butalsothat theycontinuedtoberedactedforsometime.Theverbaldifferencesinthepas- sagesjustciteddemonstraterevision,butitisimpossibletoknowtheprocess theauthor’stextsunderwentbeforereachingtheformsinwhichweseethem in HM 83 andWolfenbüttel442 Helmst. Are the textsin HM 83earlier, more concise drafts which the authorlater expanded into theform wefindin the Wolfenbüttel manuscript? The later date of the Wolfenbüttel pages (anno mundi6690fortheWolfenbüttelpages,versus6684fortheHuntingtonmanu- script)wouldseemtofavorthesuggestionthatthetextsunderwentexpansion, andtheimagesoftheswordsinthemappaemundionBeilageff.1rand2rseem tobetheresultofadevelopmentfromwhatweseeonHM83,f.9v,asdothe ‘counterhorns’onBeilagef.1rversuswhatweseeinHM83,f.10v.Butitisalso atleastpossiblethatwhatwehaveintheHuntingtonmanuscriptistheresult ofaparingdownofalonger,earlierversionoftheworks. ThelayoutofBeilageff.3rand3voftheWolfenbüttelmanuscriptismuch lesselegantthanthecorrespondingpagesintheHuntingtonmanuscript:the Wolfenbüttelpagesarecloserto anauthor’sworkingcopyofthework, while theHuntingtonmanuscriptseemsdesignedforpresentation. Another question presented by the loose folios associated with the Wolfenbüttel manuscript is the relationship between the smaller folios with themaps(Beilageff.1r,2r,2v)andthelargefoliosdominatedbytext(Beilageff. 3rand3v).ThediagraminthelowerhalfofBeilagef.3vindicatestherelative diametersofHellandtheearth,andissimilartothediagraminHM83,f.12v (withwhichitshares a text).Thelarge sizeofthediagramindicates that the scribewaswillingtodrawthemapslarge.YetthemapsonBeilageff.1r,2r,and 2v are small, and it is at least possible that the small maps come from one redactionofthework,andthelargerpages(Beilagef.3)fromanother. Other Attempts to Map the Apocalypse ThefocusongeographyandcartographyintheapocalypticmaterialinHM83 and Wolfenbüttel 442 Helmst. is unique among illustrated accounts of the Apocalypse, despite the great variety of programs illustrating the Last Days
219 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse thatwerecreatedoverthecenturies.126However,thereareothercasesinwhich mapsarepartoftheseprograms,andsomewordsaboutthesemapsareneces- sary as they shed light on the program in HM 83 and 442 Helmst. by way of contrast,anddemonstratemorecompletelytheindependenceandoriginality oftheprogramsinthesetwomanuscripts. TheRevelationofSt.Johndescribesmanytransformationsoftheearth:the islandsandmountainsaretwicesaidtomove,theseaturnstoblood,astarfalls to earth, and indeed the earth and Heaven are entirely remade (Revelation 21:1). It seems reasonable to expect that the global scale of some of these changeswouldhaveinspiredmedievalartiststousemultiplemappaemundior images ofthe world in cyclesillustrating theApocalypse,butinfact thereis onlyonepassagethatisoftenillustratedwithamappamundi.Thatpassageis Revelation 7:1, and the reference to thefour corners ofthe earthin that text naturallylendsitselftoillustrationwithamap: AfterthisIsawfourangelsstandingatthefourcornersoftheearth,hold- ingbackthefourwindsoftheearthtopreventanywindfromblowingon thelandorontheseaoronanytree. A number of the manuscripts of Beatus of Liébana’s Commentary on the Apocalypse, which was composed in the eighth century, are illustrated with detailed mappaemundi that illustrate the parts of the earth assigned to the Apostlestoevangelize.127Butseveralmanuscriptsarealsoillustratedwithsim- pler mappaemundi that specifically illustrate Revelation 7:1. The earliest surviving illustrated manuscript of the work, New York, Morgan Library, MS M.644, which dates from c. 940–945, has a well-known mappamundi on ff. 33v–35r, and a less detailed mappamundi illustrating Revelation 7:1–3 on 126 For a detailed list of other manuscripts that contain illustrations of theApocalypse see RichardEmmersonandLewis,“CensusandBibliography”(seeIntroduction,n.1). 127 TheliteratureonBeatusmappaemundiisverylarge;seeforexampleGonzaloMenéndez- Pidal, “Mozárabes y asturianos en la cultura de la Alta Edad Media en relación especial conlahistoriadelosconocimientosgeográficos,”Boletín de la Real Academia de la Histo- ria134(1954),pp.137–291;IngridBaumgärtner,“VisualisierteWeltenräume.Traditionund Innovation in denWeltkarten der Beatustraditiondes 10.bis 13.Jahrhunderts,” inHans- Joachim Schmidt, ed., Tradition, Innovation, Invention. Fortschrittsverweigerung und Fortschrittsbewußtsein im Mittelalter (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005), pp.231–276;andSandraSáenz-LópezPérez,The Beatus Maps: The Revelation of the World in the Middle Ages(Burgos:Siloé,2014).
220 Chapter5 f. 115r.128 In the four corners of a rectangular frame, four angels, rather than restraining the winds, blow at the earth, each labeled ventus. Another angel entersatthetopofthecomposition,itsfeetcoveredwiththesun,andholding asceptertoppedwithacrossinonehand;thisistheangelofRevelation7:2–3 whocomesfromtherisingofthesunbearingthesignofthelivingGodwith whichto marktheforeheads ofthe servants ofGod.Aroundthe edge ofthe image is the circumfluent ocean, here labeled mare, and in the middle the oblong disk of the earth. On the earth are the servants of God, and several trees,thosewhichthewindsaretobepreventedfromdamaging.Thismappa- mundi,ratherthansupplyinggeographicaldetailsoftheearth,presentsitasa stagefortheplayingoutofChristianhistory.129 There are corresponding illustrations in several other manuscripts of Beatus’s Commentary.130 For example, in the late eleventh-century St-Sever Beatus(Paris, Bibliothèque nationale deFrance, MSlat. 8878),in addition to its oft-reproduced mappamundi on ff. 45bisv–45terr, has an illustration of Revelation 7:1–3 on f. 119r (Fig. 5.17).131 Many of the elements are similar to thoseintheMorganillustrationjustdescribed,butheretheorbis terrarumis circular rather than oblong; the angels at the corners of the earth hold the headsofpersonifiedwinds,twoofwhichtheyrestrain,andoneofwhichisat 128 This mappamundiinMorganMSM.644,f.115r,is reproducedinJohnWilliams,The Illus- trated Beatus: A Corpus of the Illustrations of the Commentary on the Apocalypse(London: HarveyMiller,1994–2003),vol.2,fig.49.Therearereproductionsofallofthemanuscript’s miniaturesinBeatusofLiébana,El Beato de San Miguel de Escalada: manuscrito 644 de la Pierpont Morgan Library de Nueva York(Madrid:Casariego,1991);thereisalsoafacsimile of the manuscript, Beatus of Liébana, Apocalipsis de San Juan (Valencia: Scriptorium, 2000–2001). 129 Thisimageoftheworlddoesfulfillthedefinitionof‘map’suppliedbyHarleyandWood- ward in The History of Cartography(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987-), vol. 1, p.xvi(seeCh.5,n.75forthetextoftheirdefinition).Onmedievalmapsasstagesforthe playing out of Christian history see Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken, “Mappa mundi und Chronographia: Studien zur ‘Imago mundi’ des abendländischen Mittelalters,” Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 24 (1968), pp. 118–186; and Harley and WoodwardThe History of Cartography,vol.1,p.334. 130 TherearesomegeneralremarksontheseillustrationsinPeterK.Klein,“Latradiciónpic- tóricadelosBeatos,”inActas del Simposio para el estudio del los códices del ‘Comentario al Apocalipsis’ de Beato de Liébana(Madrid:JoyasBibliográficas, 1980), vol. 2,pp.83–106, at 92–93 . 131 The mappamundi in BnF MS lat. 8878, f. 119r, is reproduced in Williams, The Illustrated Beatus(seeCh.5,n.128),vol.3,fig.406;themanuscripthasbeenreproducedinfacsimile as Comentarios al Apocalipsis y al Libro de Daniel = Commentaires sur l’Apocalypse et le Livre de Daniel(Madrid:Edilán,1984).
221 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse least diverted; and there are more explanatory texts incorporated into the image.WhilesomeoftheBeatusmanuscriptsthususeamappamunditoillus- trateRevelation7:1–3,theydonotemploymappaemunditoillustrateanyother partoftheApocalypse. Figure5.17 A mappamundi illustrating Revelation 7:1–3, the restraining of the winds at the four corners of the earth, in a manuscript of Beatus of Liébana’s Commentaryon theApocalypse, late eleventh century (Paris , B nF, MSlat.8878, f. 119r , by permissionoftheBibliothèquenationaledeFrance).
222 Chapter5 Some English Apocalypse manuscripts use mappaemundi to illustrate Revelation7:1–3.132Onesuchimageinwhichthemappamundiismoreelabo- ratethaninothersisthatonDouceApocalypse,madec.1270(Oxford,Bodleian Library, MSDouce 180).133Here, asin correspondingimagesin otherEnglish manuscriptsoftheApocalypse,theservantsofGodarenotrepresented.Inthe lowerright,St.Johnlooksonwhileanangeldescendsfromtheheavenstowards earth; we expect this angel tobe carryingthe sign oftheLivingGod,buthis hands are empty.The image of the earth is on the left; the orbis terrarum is square,surroundedbythecircumfluentoceanwhichhasfishswimminginit, andonthefourcornersstandfourangels,eachlookingtowardthedescending angel, andholdinginhishands a wingedwind-head, with hishand over the wind-head’smouth.Ontheearththerearetrees,rivers,buildingsatleastsome of which are churches, a bull, and some sheep. There are similar images in other thirteenth-century English Apocalypse manuscripts, such as Lambeth Apocalypse,134 the Gulbenkian Apocalypse,135 and a closely related early 132 ForgeneraldiscussionofillustratedEnglishmanuscripts oftheApocalypseseeSuzanne Lewis,Reading Images: Narrative Discourse and Reception in the Thirteenth-Century Illumi- nated Apocalypse(Cambridge andNewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress, 1995).Fordis- cussion of the illustrations of Revelation 7:1 see Sammye Lee Justice, “The Illustrated Anglo-Norman Metrical Apocalypse in England,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton Univer- sity, 1993,pp. 231–233,andp.418for alistofthefolios on whichthis scene occursinthe manuscriptstheauthorconsiders. 133 The Douce Apocalypse has been reproduced in facsimile as Vollständige Faksimile-Aus- gabe im Originalformat der Handschrift Ms. Douce 180, Apokalypse, aus dem Besitz der Bodleian Library, Oxford (Graz: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt; Paris: Club du Livre, 1981), with a volume of commentary by Peter Klein. This material (facsimile and commentary)ispublishedinonevolumeinPeterKlein,Endzeiterwartung und Ritterideo- logie: die englischen Bilderapokalypsen der Frühgotik und MS Douce 180 (Graz: Akade- mischeDruck-u.Verlagsanstalt,1983),whichwasreviewedbyYvesChriste,“Apocalypses anglaises du XI I I e siècle,” Journal des savants 1984.1 –2 (1985), pp. 79–91. There is also a version of the 1981 facsimile published in Spain with commentary by Jean Grosjean, YvesChriste,andMontagueRhodesJamesasApocalipsis: manuscrito Douce 180(Madrid: EdicionesdeArteyBibliofilia, 1982).The manuscripthasbeenstudiedmorerecentlyby NigelJ.MorganinThe Douce Apocalypse: Picturing the End of the World in the Middle Ages (Oxford:BodleianLibrary,2006),butMorganoffersnodetaileddiscussionoftheillustra- tionofRevelation7:1–3. 134 The image is in London, Lambeth Palace Library, MS. Lat. 209, f. 7v; the manuscript is reproduced in facsimile as Nigel J. Morgan, The Lambeth Apocalypse: Manuscript 209 in Lambeth Palace Library(London:HarveyMiller,1990). 135 TheimageisinLisbon,MuseuCalousteGulbenkian, MSLA 139,f. 13v;the manuscriptis reproducedinfacsimileasApocalipsis Gulbenkian(Barcelona:M.Moleiro,2001),andthe imageisdiscussedonp.263oftheaccompanyingcommentaryvolume.
223 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse fourteenth-century manuscript, the Cloisters Apocalypse.136 But as with the manuscriptsofBeatus’sCommentary,noneoftheseEnglishmanuscriptsuses mapstoillustrateotherphasesoftheapocalypticdrama.Theartistswerecon- tenttoillustratewithamaptheonescenewherethetextsuggestedthis,and didnotexploreotherwaysinwhichmapsmightbeusedtoillustratethenar- rative. It is worth emphasizing that there is no map illustrating Revelation 7:1–3ineitherHM83orWolfenbüttel442Helmst.:thecartographicprogramof illustrationinthosemanuscriptsisbasedonacompletelyfreshconsideration ofhowtoillustratetheapocalypticnarrative. MappaemundiarealsousedtoillustrateRevelation7:1–3onsomelatemedi- eval Central and Eastern European icons of the Last Judgment,137 and for exampleinahand-coloredGermanblock-bookofc.1470,138butagaininthese cases,onlytheonesceneisillustratedwithamappamundi. There are also medievalmaps thatincorporate elements oftheLastDays, rather than being themselves part of a program illustrating the Apocalypse; these works show clearly how some medieval maps are as much about the 136 TheimageisinNewYork,TheCloistersCollection,1968(68.174),f.10v.Themanuscriptis reproduced and discussed in Florens Deuchler,Jeffrey Hoffeld, and Helmut Nickel, The Cloisters Apocalypse(NewYork:MetropolitanMuseumofArt,1971). 137 See John-Paul Himka, Last Judgement Iconography in the Carpathians (Toronto and Buffalo:University ofTorontoPress, 2009),pp. 57–58;Novgorod Icons, 12th–17th Century, trans.KathleenCook(Leningrad:AuroraArtPublishers,1980),plate72withpp.293–294, on a mid-fifteenth-centuryicon oftheLastJudgmentinMoscow,TretyakovGallery,Inv. No. 12874; Luidmila Miliayeva, The Ukrainian Icon (Bournemouth, England: Parkstone Publishers;andSt.Petersburg:AuroraArtPublishers,1996),p.120,fig.112,withp.233,icon ofthe LastJudgment,latefifteenth- or early sixteenth-century,Lvov,NationalMuseum, Inv.No.34505/i–1181,andp.29,fig.27withp.229,mid-sixteenth-centuryiconoftheLast Judgment,Lvov,NationalMuseum,Inv.No.36454/–2122;andL.V.NersesianandS.E.Bla- zhevskaia, Ikony I Aroslavlia XIII -serediny XV I II veka: shedevry drevnerusskoi zhivopisi v muzeiakh IA roslavlia = Yaroslavl Icons of 13- mid 17th Century: The Masterpieces of Ancient Russian Painting in the Museums of Yaroslavl(Moskow: Severnyi Palomnik, 2009), vol. 1, p.288text, andp. 289illustration ofamid-sixteenth-centuryicon oftheLastJudgment, YaroslavlMuseum ofArt,Inv.No.И–13,КП –53403/13.The authorshave notbeen ableto seeLiliyaBerezhnayaandJohn-PaulHimka’sbookThe World to Come: Ukrainian Images of the Last Judgment,forthcomingfromHarvardUniversityPress. 138 ThebookistitledApocalypsis Sancti Johannis,andthehand-coloredcopywhichisinthe Rosenwald Collection at the Library of Congress has been digitized and is available at <http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rosenwald.0023>, where the image illustrating Revelation 7:1–3isnumber21inthesequence.Fordiscussionofthesourcesoftheimageryinblock- books of the Apocalypse see Gertrud Bing, “The Apocalypse Block-Books and Their ManuscriptModels,”Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes5(1942),pp.143–158, esp.thechartfollowingp.146,no.4,andp.147note7.
224 Chapter5 playing out of Christian history as they are about geography. One map that placesaparticularemphasisontheLastDaysistheHerefordmappamundiof c. 1300.In thefar northeast ofthe map, on apeninsula thatjutsinto the cir- cumfluentocean,andwhichisseparatedfromtheorbis terrarumproperbya wall,thereisalonglegendthatrelatestoGogandMagog,evilpeopleswhoin medieval accounts were thought to have been confined by Alexander the Great,andwhowillburstforthintheLastDaystoravagetheearthbeforetheir finaldestruction(Ezekiel38:1–39:16;Revelation20:7–10).139Thelegendcontin- uesonthemainland.Thelegenddoesnotrefertotheconfinedpeoplesbythe names Gog and Magog, but we can be certain of their identity through the similarlocationanddescriptionofGogandMagogonothermaps.140Thatleg- endruns:141 Omnia horribilia plus quam credi potest. Frigus intollerabile, omni tempore ventus acerimus a montibus, quem incole ‘bizo’ vocant. Hic sont homines truculenti nimis, humanis carnibus vescentes, cruorem potantes, fili Caim maledicti. Hos inclusit Dominus per magnum Alexandrum,namterremotufactoinconspectuprincipismontessuper montesincircuitueorumceciderunt.Ubimontesdeerant,ipseeosmuro insolubilicinxit. Istiinclusiesse credunturquiaSolino ‘Antropophagi’dicuntur,inter quos et Essedones numerantur; nam tempore antichristi Erupturi, et omnimundopersecucionemillaturi. 139 OnGogandMagogseeAndrewRunniAnderson,Alexander’s Gate, Gog and Magog, and the Inclosed Nations(Cambridge, M A:Medieval Academy of America, 1932);RaoulMan- selli, “I popoli immaginari: Gog e Magog,” in Popoli e paesi nella cultura altomedievale: settimane di studio del Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, Spoleto, 23–29 aprile 1981 (Spoleto:CentroItalianodiStudisull’AltoMedioevo,1983),vol.2,pp.487–521;andDebra HiggsStrickland,Saracens, Demons, & Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art(Princeton, N J:PrincetonUniversityPress,2003),pp.228–239. 140 On the representation of Gog and Magog on maps see Danielle Lecoq, “L’image d’Alexandre à travers les mappemondes médiévales(XIIe-XII I e),” Geographia Antiqua 2 (1993),pp.63–103,at92–103;AndrewGow,“GogandMagogonMappaemundiandEarly PrintedWorldMaps:OrientalizingEthnographyintheApocalypticTradition,”Journal of Early Modern History2.1(1998),pp.61–88;Westrem,“AgainstGogandMagog”(seeCh.4, n.25);andMicheleCastelnovi,“GogeMagog:lemetamorfosidiunametaforageografica,” Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana13.2(2008),pp.421–448. 141 Westrem,The Hereford Map(seeCh.4,n.39),pp.69–71, nos.141 and142.Onthe sources ofthelegendsseeWestrem,pp.68and70,andNaomiReedKline,“AlexanderInterpreted ontheHerefordMappamundi,”inP.D.A.Harvey,ed.,The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and their Context(London:BritishLibrary,2006),pp.167–183,at176and179.
225 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse <Hereare> allkindsofhorrors, morethancanbeimagined:intolerable cold, a constant blasting wind from the mountains, which the inhabit- antscall‘bizo’.Hereareexceedinglysavagepeoplewhoeathumanflesh anddrinkblood,theaccursedsonsofCain.TheLordusedAlexanderthe Great to close them off, for within sight of the king an earthquake occurred, and mountains tumbled upon mountains all around them. Where there were no mountains, Alexander hemmed them in with an indestructiblewall. These enclosed <people> are believed to be the same <ones> who were named Anthropophagi by Solinus, among whom are to be num- bered the Essedones. Indeed, at the time of Antichrist they will be burstingforthandinflictingpersecutiononthewholeworld. At the top of the map is an image of the Last Judgment, with Christ in the cloudslookingonastheelect,tohisright,risefromtheirgravesandanangel leadsthemtoHeaven,whileademonholdsthedamnedtogetherwitharope and leads them to Hell.142The prominent position of the scene clearly indi- catesthatitwasimportanttothecreatorofthemap,andwearetounderstand aconnectionbetweenthatsceneandthelettersM-O -R-S(‘death’)thatencir- cletheearth.143Theartistwantstheviewertorememberthatthethingsofthis worldandtheworlditselfaretransient,andtothinkofhisorhersoulandthe fate that awaitsit.Thus the map’s intendedfunctionis not so different from thatoftheapocalypticmapsinHM83:onf.12v,theauthordeclared“Ibelieve therefore that a firm faith in and frequent contemplation of these diagrams willmoreeffectivelyrestrainamanfromsinsthanwouldmanygoodwords.” TheCatalanAtlasof1375,oneofthemostelaboratelydecoratedmedieval nauticalchartsthatsurvives,prominentlyfeatureselementsrelatedtotheLast Days: these elements, painted at a large scale, occupy much of northeastern Asia(see Fig. 5.18).144That whole part of the continent is cordoned off by a mountainchain,andmountainssurroundthisareaalongthecoastaswell,and 142 ThedepictionoftheLastJudgmentontheHerefordmapisdiscussedbyAlessandroScafi, “MappingtheEnd:TheApocalypseinMedievalCartography,”Literature & Theology26.4 (2012),pp.400–416.TheHerefordmaphasbeenreproducedinfacsimile asThe Hereford World Map: Mappa Mundi(London:TheFolioSociety,2010). 143 On the word MORS on the Hereford mappamundi see Westrem, The Hereford Map(see Ch.4,n.39),pp.4–5. 144 ForbibliographyontheCatalanAtlas seeCh.4, n. 14.Fordiscussion ofthe elements on the map that are related to the Last Days see Sandra Sáenz-López Pérez, “La represen- tacióndeGogyMagogylaimagendelAnticristoenlascartasnáuticasbajomedievales,” Archivo Español de Arte78(2005),pp.263–276.
226 Chapter5 alsodividetheareaintotwoparts.Justoutsidethemountainsthereisalong legendaboutthem,whichruns:145 MuntanyesdeCaspisdinslesqualsAllexandriviuarbrestenaltsqueles sainestochavenalesnuuseaquícuidàmorir,sinóqueSetanatl’engità perlasuaarteperlasuaartendoýaquílostartresGogeMagogeperéls féu les ·II · images de matall, los demunt scrits. Ítem encloy aquí molts 145 ThetranscriptioncomesfromMapamundi del año 1375(seeCh.4,n.14),p.81;thetransla- tionisours. F i g ure 5.1 8 Northeastern Asia (oriented with south at the top) on the Catalan Atlas of 1375, showing Antichrist, Gog and Magog, Alexander the Great directing a demon to enclose them, and the two metal trumpeters (Par is , B nF, MSEs pag no l30,by permissionoftheBibliothèquenationaledeFrance).
227 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse diverses generacions de gens qui no dupten a manjar tota carn crua, e aquesta és la generació abquè vendràAntichrist e la lurfi serà focqui avalar<à>delcelqui·lsconfondrà. TheCaspianMountainsinwhichAlexander<theGreat>sawtreessotall that their tops touched the clouds. He was close to death here, except that Satan got him out of there with his power, and by his power he enclosedheretheTartarsGogandMagogandforthemhadmadethetwo metal figures drawn above. He also enclosed here very diverse peoples who do not hesitate to eat all kinds of raw meat: for this is the people fromwhichAntichristwillcome,andtheirendwillbecausedbyfirethat willfallfromHeavenandconfoundthem. Thetwometalfiguresmentionedhereareapairoftrumpetersdepictedonthe map,just totheright ofthegapbetween the twopanelsinFig.5.18, andjust outsidethemountainsthatencloseGogandMagogandAntichrist.Theywere intendedtoplaytrumpetblastswhenthewindsblew,andthusconvinceGog and Magog that an armywas on the far side of the mountains, discouraging anyattempttobreakfree.146NearthetrumpetersisanimageofAlexanderthe Greatdirectingademontocompete the constructionofthebarrierthatwill enclosetheevilforcestothenorthoftheCaspianMountains. In the northern sectionofthearea surroundedbytheCaspianMountains thereisakingridingahorseandcloselysurroundedbyhisfollowers,whoare drawnonamuchsmallerscale.Thetextbesidehimreads,Lo gran senyor prin- cep de Gog e de Magog. Aquest exirà en temps d’Antechrist ab molta gent, “The greatlord,princeofGogandMagog.HewillappearinthetimeofAntichrist withmanypeople.”147Inthesouthernsectionoftheareacordonedoffbythe CaspianMountainsthereisalargeimageofAntichristdeceivingpeoplewith falsemiracles.148Theaccompanyinglegendreads:149 Antechrist. Aquest serà nudrit en Goraym de Galilea e con haura .XXX . anyscomençaràapreicarenJherusalemecontratotaveritatdiràqueell ésChristfilldeDéuviu.ediu-sequerehedifficaràloTemple. 146 SeeAnderson,Alexander’s Gate, Gog and Magog (seeCh.5,n.139),pp.82–85. 147 ThetranscriptioncomesfromMapamundi del año 1375(seeCh.4,n.14),p.87;thetransla- tionisours. 148 FordiscussionoftheimageofAntichristontheCatalanAtlasseeSáenz-LópezPérez,“La representacióndeGogyMagog”(seeCh.5,n.144). 149 ThetranscriptioncomesfromMapamundi del año 1375(seeCh.4,n.14),p.87;thetransla- tionisours.
228 Chapter5 Antichrist.HewillberaisedinChorazininGalilee,andwhenheisthirty yearsoldhewillbegintopreachinJerusalem,andcontrarytothetruth hewillproclaimthatheisChrist,SonoftheLivingGod,andhewillsay thathewillrebuildtheTemple. TheCatalanAtlasthusdevotes considerableattention toimportantactorsin theApocalypse,butthereisno explicit moralmessage associatedwiththese figures, no urging ofthe viewer to think upon the fleeting nature of worldly things, orthestateofhisorhersoul, andwedo notdetect anysuchimplicit messageeither,asthereisontheHerefordmappamundi.ThepresenceofGog, Magog, and Antichrist on the Catalan Atlas seems to be supplied purely for informationalpurposes. Gog and Magog appear on many medieval and Renaissance maps,150 and there is a legend about Antichrist on the so-called Genoese world map of 1457:151consciousnessoftheworld’sapocalypticfutureisindicatedonmanyof themoreelaboratemappaemundiandnauticalcharts.ButtheHerefordmap- pamundiandtheCatalanAtlashavethemostdetaileddepictionsoftheactors oftheLastDaysofanysurvivingmedievalmaps—asidefromthoseinHM83 andWolfenbüttel442Helmst. Wehaverecordofanothermedievalmap, unfortunatelynolonger extant, thatcontainedaparticularlydetailedimageoftheplayingoutofChristianhis- tory, namely a map made by Hugh of Saint-Victor, the mystical theologian activeinthetwelfthcentury.152Althoughthemapitselfhasnotcomedownto us, Hugh described it in his De Arca Noe Mystica or Libellus de formatione 150 ForbibliographyaboutGogandMagogonmapsseeCh.5,n.140. 151 The‘Genoese’ mapisinFlorence,BibliotecaNazionaleCentrale,Portolano 1;thelegend about Antichrist runs De hac gente, hoc est ex tribu Dan nasceturis est anticbristus qui magica arte montes istos apperiens ad christocolas subvertendos accedet, “Fromthis race, thatis,fromthetribeofDan,Antichrististobeborn, who, openingthesemountainsby magicart,willcometooverthrowtheworshipersofChrist.”Thelegendistranscribedand translatedintoEnglishbyStevenson,Genoese World Map, 1457(seeCh.4,n.16),p.38.For additionalbibliographyonthemapseeCh.4,n.16. 152 OnHughofSaint-VictorgenerallyseeF.Vernet,“HuguesdeSaint-Victor,”inAlfredVacant, Eugène Mangenot, and Emile Anriann, eds., Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: LibrairieLetouzeyetAné,1903–50),vol.7,no.1,cols.240–308;F.E.Croydon,“Notesonthe Life of Hugh of St. Victor,” The Journal of Theological Studies 40 (1939), pp. 232–253; MichaelJ.Gorman, “HughofSt.Victor,”inJorgeJ.E.Gracia andTimothyB.Noone, eds., A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages(Malden,M A:Blackwell,2003),pp.320–325; andGeorgeL.Scheper, “HughofSaintVictor(EndofEleventhCentury–1141),”inGeorge ThomasKurianetal., eds.,The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature(Lanham, M D :Scare- crowPress,2010),vol.2,pp.375–378.
229 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse arche.153Themapwasagrandlyconceivedandcomplexdiagrammatizationof history,structuredontherectangularframeworkofNoah’sArk,superimposed onamappamundi,withitssternintheeast,anditsprowinthewest(seeFig. 5.19).Inmanymedievalmappaemundi,theroleoftheimageoftheearthasa stagefortheplayingoutofChristianhistoryisalmostasimportantasthegeo- graphicalinformationtheyconvey,buttheelaborateimageHughcreatedwas certainly one of the fullest geographical interpretations of history ever pro- duced.154Hughenvisionedaprogressionofhistoryfromeasttowest:155Adam andEve were createdinEdenin the east, andthenfellthere.Thesix agesof humanhistoryaredepictedsuccessivelydownthemiddleoftheimage,with Christ, the Second Adam, at the very center, who effected the salvation of humankind.Atthefarwesternedgeoftheworld,theLastJudgmentwilltake place,bringinghistoryofaclose. AttheendoftheDe Arca Noe mysticaorLibellus de formatione arche,Hugh indicatestheeffectheintendstheimagehejustdescribedtohave:156 153 TheDe Arca Noe mysticaorLibellus de formatione archeispublishedinPatrologia Latina 176.681–702,andinHughofSaint-Victor,Hugonis de Sancto Victore De archa Noe; Libellus de formatione arche,ed.PatriceSicard(Turnhout:Brepols,2001)(=CorpusChristianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, 176, 176A), vol. 1, pp. 119–162. It is translated into English by JessicaWeissas“ALittleBookaboutConstructingNoah’sArk”inMaryCarruthersandJan M. Ziolkowski, eds., The Medieval Craft of Memory: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures (Philadelphia:UniversityofPennsylvaniaPress, 2002),pp.41–70.AnewEnglishtransla- tionissuppliedbyConradRudolph,The Mystic Ark: Hugh of Saint Victor, Art, and Thought in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp.393–502. 154 Fordiscussion ofHugh’simage oftheArksuperimposedon a mappamundiseeBarbara Obrist, “Image et prophétie au XI Ie siècle: Hugues de Saint-Victor et Joachim de Flore,” Mélanges de l’Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes98.1(1986),pp.35–63, esp. 35–49; Marcia Kupfer, “Medieval World Maps: Embedded Images, Interpretive Frames,”Word and Image10(1994),pp.262–288,esp.269–271;andPatrickGautierDalché, “‘Réalité’et‘symbole’danslagéographiedeHuguesdeSaint-Victor,”inUgo di San Vittore. Atti del XLVI I Convegno storico internazionale, Todi, 10–12 ottobre 2010(Spoleto:Fondazione Centroitalianodistudisull’altoMedioevo,2011),pp.359–382. 155 FordiscussionseeStephenMcKenzie,“TheWestwardProgressionofHistoryonMedieval Mappaemundi: an Investigation of the Evidence,” in P. D. A. Harvey, ed., The Hereford World Map: Medieval World Maps and their Context(London:The British Library, 2006), pp.335–344. 156 Patrologia Latina 176:702; thetranslation is our own, relying onthose ofWeiss, “A Little BookaboutConstructingNoah’sArk”(seeCh.5,n.153),p.70;andRudolph,The Mystic Ark (seeCh.5,n.153),pp.501–502.
230 Chapter5 Haecdearcaenostraefigurationedicimus,utsicuilibeatdecoramdomus Domini,etmirabiliaejus(quorumnonestnumerus)intueri,hocinterim exemplariaffectumsuumprovocet. WehavesaidthesethingsabouttherepresentationofourArk,sothatif anyonemightwishtocontemplatetheeleganceoftheLord’shouseand itswonders,whicharewithoutnumber,hemightrousehisemotionfora timewiththisexemplar. Theimageisintended,then,toprovidespiritualinspirationtothe viewer.In Hugh’sDe Arca Noe moralihe encourages the reader to create adwellingfor F i g ure 5. 19 A reconstruction by Conrad Rudolph of the image of the world described by Hugh of Saint-Victor in his DeArcaNoeMystica: an image of the Ark is superimposed on a mappamundi oriented with east at the top that shows history progressing from Eden at the top to the Last Judgment at the bottom (by p erm issio nof ConradRudolph).
231 TheTreatiseontheApocalypse GodwithinhimselfthatismodeledaftertheArk.157Thereisapassagenearthe beginning of that work in which Hugh indicates his purpose, and it seems plausible that Hugh intended some of this same effect for the image of the worldandArkhedescribesintheLibellus de formatione arche:158 HujusverospiritualisaedificiiexemplartibidaboarcamNoe,quamforis videbit oculus tuus, ut ad ejus similitudinem intus fabricetur animus tuus. Videbis ibi colores quosdam, formas et figuras, quae delectent visum.Sedsciredebes,ideohaecpositaesse,utineisdiscassapientiam, disciplinamatquevirtutem,quaeexornentanimumtuum. Now thefigure ofthis spiritualbuildingwhichIamgoingtopresent to youisNoah’sark.Thisyoureyeshallseeoutwardly,sothatyoursoulmay be fashioned to its likeness inwardly. You will see there certain colors, shapes,andfigureswhichwillbepleasanttobehold.Butyoumustunder- stand that these are put there, that from them you may learn wisdom, instruction,andvirtue,toadornyoursoul. The elaborate mappamundi in the Libellus is certainly intended to provide spiritualinspiration,andprobablyalsomoralinstruction.ThemapsinHM83, astheauthordeclaresonf.12v,wereintendedtodissuadetheviewerfromsin: inbothcasesthepurposeofthemapsismoral,buttheemphasisisdifferent: Hughseekstoinspire,whiletheauthorofHM83seekstorestrain. Hughdescribedhisimageoftheworldindetailsothatitcouldberecreated byothersasatoolforreligiousinstruction,andthoughmanymanuscriptsof Hugh’sworksurvive,noneofthemincludesevenareducedorsimplifiedimage ofhis map.However,fourdifferent scholars,JoachimEhlers,DanielleLecoq, PatriceSicard,andConradRudolph,havereconstructedHugh’smapfromhis writings.159 Both Hugh’s description of his image and these recreations of it 157 The text of the De Arca Noe morali is supplied in Patrologia Latina 176.617–680, and an English translation is available in Hugh of Saint-Victor: Selected Spiritual Writings (New York:Harper&Row,1962),pp.45–153. 158 Patrologia Latina176.617,andinHugh of Saint-Victor: Selected Spiritual Writings(seeCh.5, n.157),p.52.ThispassageiscitedinJ.A.H.Lewis,“HistoryandEverlastingnessinHughof StVictor ’sFiguresofNoah’sArk,”inGerhardJaritzandGersonMoreno-Riaño,eds.,Time and Eternity: The Medieval Discourse (Turnhout:Brepols,2003),pp.203–222,at206. 159 See Joachim Ehlers, “Arca significat ecclesiam. Ein theologisches Weltmodell aus der ersten Hälfte des 12. Jahrhunderts,” Frühmittelalterliche Studien 6 (1972), pp. 171–187; Lecoq,“La ‘mappemonde’duDe Arca Noe Mystica”(seeCh.5,n.39);PatriceSicard,Dia- grammes médiévaux et exégèse visuelle: le ‘Libellus de formatione arche’ de Hugues de
232 Chapter5 have many more details than we have space to explore here, but we would argue that the maps in the treatise on the Apocalypse in HM 83 are a more imaginatively cartographic interpretation of the drama of salvation than Hugh’s.Hughsuperimposestheprogressionofhistoryonastaticmappamundi, but the author ofHM83showshow thedrama oftheLastDays changes the configurationoftheworldinaseriesofmaps,eachshowingtheshapeofthe worldduringaprecisedaterange.ThemapsinHM83arecertainlyoneofthe mostelaborateandimportantfusionsofcartographyandreligioushistorythat survivesfromtheMiddleAges. Saint-Victor (Turnhout: Brepols, 1993), plates 7 and 8; Hugh of Saint-Victor, Hugonis de Sancto Victore De archa Noe; Libellus de formatione arche, ed. Patrice Sicard(Turnhout: Brepols, 2001), in volume 2; Conrad Rudolph, ‘First, I Find the Center Point’: Reading the Text of Hugh of Saint Victor’s ‘ The Mystic Ark,’ (Philadelphia:AmericanPhilosophicalSoci- ety, 2004)(=Transactions of the American Philosophical Society94.4);andRudolph’sThe Mystic Ark(seeCh.5,n.153).
233 Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions ThemapsillustratingthefoliosongeographyinHuntingtonLibraryMSHM83 areworksofstartlingoriginality.Whiletheanonymousauthorprobablydrew inspiration for his maps from those that illustrate the thematic books of BartholomaeusAnglicus’sDe proprietatibus rerum,histhematicmapsgivethe impression of having been created by someone who understood the genre, rather than by artists who happened to illustrate some manuscripts of Bartholomaeus usingmaps.The thematic mapsin HM83seem tohavebeen created withaprogrammatic intention, and while they had no influence on other cartographers, they are a fascinating case study in the cartographic developmentsthatwerepossibleinthelatefifteenthcenturyinthehandsofa brilliantmapmaker. WeseethesameoriginalityintheuseofmapstoillustratetheApocalypse. In other programs illustrating the Last Days, Revelation 7:1–2 is sometimes illustratedwithamappamundi,butinHM83thewholesequenceofchangesto theearthwroughtbytheendofhistoryisillustratedwithmaps,awonderfully creative solution to the artistic problem ofhow to portraythose cataclysmic events.The apocalyptic maps not onlyshow again the author’sfirmgraspof thevalueofthematicmaps,butalsorepresentanearlysystematicuseofhis- torical maps, and contain bold examples of symbolic cartography. What the anonymous author in fact created is the most cartographically pioneering fusionofcartographyandreligioushistorythatsurvivesfromtheMiddleAges. Theauthor’sdistinctcharacterisalsoondisplayinotheraspectsofhistrea- tise on the Apocalypse. While other works of fifteenth-century German Apocalypticism focus on political interpretations that identify the principal actorsofthedramaoftheLastDayswithcontemporaryleadersoftheChurch andnation-states,theauthorofHM83choosesnottoindulgeinpartisanfan- tasiesofthat nature.Weseeinhis treatise noneofthe anti-clericalfervorof severalothercontemporaryworksontheApocalypse;wefindinsteadamore dispassionateandanalyticapproachtotheApocalypse. Perhaps in part because of its very originality and its lack of engagement with contemporary politics, the treatise in the Apocalypse in HM 83 had no significantinfluenceonlaterGermandiscussionsontheApocalypse,butevi- dencefromWolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliothek,Cod.Guelf.442Helmst. demonstratesboththatthetreatisecontinuedtoundergorevision,andthatit didcirculate. Thebestcandidatewehavefoundfortheauthoroftheremarkableworksin HM83isBaptista, a manfromLübeckwho was appointedbyPopePius IIto © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_008
234 Conclusions care for pilgrims at the Franciscan monastery on Mount Zion between 1458 and1464(whenPiusIIwasPope),andapparentlyservedtherethroughatleast 1482,whenheattendedtothetravelerFelixFabri.Wehavepreciouslittleinfor- mationaboutBaptista,andmorewouldbeverywelcome,asitmightconfirm ordisprovethatBaptistawastheauthoroftheseworks,andifhewas,provide additional insights about one of the most original cartographers of the fif- teenthcentury.
235 Index Index Index Page numbers appearing in italic type refer to illustrations. Page numbers in parenthe- ses ( ) refer to the English translation when it appears several pages after the transcrip- tion of the original. Abibos(island) 101,102 Abraham163–164 Acre,portof23,85,200 ActsoftheApostles147n42,183 Adam10,186(189) Adriatic(sea)100 Aegean,islandsofthe87 Africa  andthegospel111,127  kingof164–165,209  mentioned142,143   onf.3r98,99   onf.3v100,101   inWolfenbüttelmanuscript203,206  provincesof6,29  separationof6,33,95,96  vastnessof42–43 AlbertusMagnus61 AlexandertheGreat7  discussedonf.5v7,44–45  mentioned35–36,224–225,226,227 Alexandria  beforeAlexandertheGreat36n13  distancetoCairo31  onf.9r 150,152,156–157  mentioned194–195 Alimania  108–109,110 Alkraria Antiqua babilonia.SeeCairo Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden (Goethe)102 Amazonia  onf.3r41,97,99,108  onff.6v-7r41,108–109,110  onf.9r149,150  mentioned41,44–45,65–66,118  Queenof149  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 AndrewofCaesarea:Commentary on the Apocalypse 18 Anglia  onf.3r97,98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r149,150  onf.15r 122,125  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 See alsoEngland animals,sizesof 122,125–126 Anthropophagi224–225 Antichrist  onCatalanAtlas 226,227–228  followersof,ascenttopowerandreign10, 68–76,186(189)  fourhornsof145,167,168,169–174,175  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,206–207, 209,210,212,216 See alsoGog Antilia(island)98 Antiochia  108–109,110 Apocalypse  chronology,sourceof2,146–147,174–175, 179  impactof,depictedinmaps1–2,140,175, 176  otherillustratednarrativesof129, 218–232,221,226,230  sectionofHM83(ff.8v-12v)   briefdescriptionsoffolios8–9,145   contextof14,29–30,135–145   influencesandsources130,138–145   purposeof21,57–58,192,225,231 Apocalypse(Pseudo-Methodius)2,68–76 Apostles,Twelve  andlandsofpreaching   onff.5v-6r6–7,46,106,127   onff.6v-7r 108–109,127   onf.15r9,67,122,125,126,127   mentioned14,29,219  andtheLastJudgment9,68,183–184 Arabia6,108–109,110 Araxes(river)115,201–202 Argyre(island)97n131 Aristotle60–61,117 Ark,Noah’s10,145,229–232,230 Armenia6,108–109,110,201,202 © koninklijkebrillnv,leiden,2016 | doi10.1163/9789004307278_009
236 Index  mentioned29 See alsoCairo(NewBabylonia) Baghdad(Baldacum) 208 Balearis(island)100,101 BalticSea 112,114 Baltictradenetwork15 Baptista(doctor)25–26 barbaria maior 203 Barnabas,Epistleof179 Bartholomaeus,Anglicus De proprietatibus rerum   Creationcycles132–133,134,135   divisionoftheworld33–34   mountainmaps89,90,91,93,102   similaritiestoHM83,78,79,89   theworld’srivers30,92,115,202  mentioned77,100,110 Bartholomew(apostle)143 BartolomeodalliSonetti:Isolario 87,88 BattleofBadr158 Batz,Simon16,19 BayofBiscay 112,114 beast,tenhornsofthe(Daniel7)8,145,164, 165 beasts,sizesof 122,125–126 Beatus,Saint,PresbyterofLiébana:Commen- tary on the Apocalypse 127,219–220, 221 Bede,theVenerable,Saint:De natura rerum  33,124 Belon,Pierre62–63 Berghaus,Heinrich Asia-Eüropa 115–116 Verschiedenes zur Anthropographie 154, 155 Berthold,vonRegensburg:Rusticanus de Dominicis 172–173 Bible10,173–174,175See alsospecificbook names Bible,Padua130 bisantium 202See alsoConstantinople Bonatti,Guido:De astronomia tractatus x 13 Bordone,Benedetto Isolario di Benedetto Bordone 89,100 Libro de tutte l’isole del mondo 89 Bornholm(island)65–66,118 Boysenborch,Johannes24 brackets,meaningoftriangular30 Asia  climatesof64–66,118  distancetoParadise36  distancetotheHolyLand38  Greater   islandsof6,100,101,102   mentioned98,99   provincesof6,42–43  mapofnortheastern 226  mentioned143  Minor 108–109,110  provincesandislandsof29,35  separationof6,33,95,96  vastnessof42–43 Asia-Eüropa(Berghaus)115–116 Ass< >edia persida  108–109,110 astronomicalmedicine,HM83sectionon(ff. 19r-25v)10–14 astronomyandgeography,HM83sectionon (ff.13r-18r)  briefdescriptionsoffolios9–10,29  andcontext29–30,68  diagramsonff.13rand13v116–117  influencesandsources67,76–79  maponf.14r117,118  maponf.14v119,120,121  maponf.15r121,122,123–128  transcriptionsof64–76 Augustine:De civitate Dei 33 Augustus(Octavian)7,44–46 authorofHM83  oncartography21–22  andinterests18–19,157  onislandmonsters22,49–51,60  andmathematicstraining21,192  andoriginality30,146–147  andpossibleidentity25–26  religiouspurposesof21,192  rhetoricof63  andtravels23,25,27–28 Babel31,48,122,125,194–195 Babilonia(city)105,106 Babylon10,78,195,202 Babylonias  climatesof65–66,118  discussionsof6,9,31–34,194–195  distancebetweenancientandnew65–66
237 Index CaspianMountains149,226,227 Castile65–66,118 Castrop,Hinrich15 CatalanAtlasof1375,37,53,225–228,226 CatalanEstensemapofc.1460,37 Catalonia,climateof65–66,118 Caucasus(island)110,149 Caucasus(mountain)66,149 Celle,conventof197 Cepta(Ceuta)65–66,108–109,111,118, 152–153 Ceylon40 Chaldea6,44–45,151,202 Cham33–35See alsoNoah,sonsof Chobar(river)32,194–195See alsoKhabur River Christ.SeeJesusChrist Christianity153n48,154n50 Chronicles,Bookof33 Chronicon(Temporum liber)(Eusebius)192 Chryse(island)97n131 cilicia(island)100,101,108–109,110 Ciprus(island)42,81,88,101,102 climaticzones  astronomical9,66–67,119,120,121  geographical9,64–66,117,118  mapsof,described29  theological9–10,121,122,123–128 CloistersApocalypse223 Colloquies(Erasmus)159–160 CologneTwinBiblesofc.1478-79,137 ‘ColumbusMap,’39–40 Commentary on the Apocalypse(Andrewof Caesarea)18 Commentary on the Apocalypse(Beatus) 127,219–220,221 Commentary on the Dream of Scipio(Macro- bius)82–83 ‘CommonplaceBook’(Wulfstan)128 Comparative View of Principal Waterfalls, Islands, [etc.], A(Rapkin)100 Comparative View of the Heights of Principal Mountains(Smith)102 Compendium(Paolino)52–53,59 Compendium theologiae(Hugh)2,170–173 Compostela65–66,118 constantie et victorie(horn)207 Constantin,Heinrich24 Brandis,Lucas(printer) Prologus Arminensis in mappam Terrae- sanctae 57,79 Rudimentum novitiorum 1,19,55–58,61, 76–79 Brasil(island)98 Brema  108–109,110 bridges200,202 Britain  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  climateof65–66,118  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 Britain,GoughMapofGreat86 Buondelmonti,Cristoforo:Liber insularum archipelagi 86–87,100 BurchardofMountSion:Descriptio Terrae Sanctae 76 Byzacena111 Byzantium111n148,202See alsoConstanti- nople(Constantinopolis) Caesar,Julius45–46 Cairo(NewBabylonia)  onf.1v35–36  onf.5v44  onf.6r105,106  onf.9r 150,152,156–157  distancetoAlexandria31  mentioned32,194–195 See alsoGair Calcedonia,kingof164–165 Caldea  108–109,110 Calliditas(horn)207 Cana.SeeCairo(NewBabylonia) Canaanites35 Canon primus de fleubotomia 10–11 Canon zus de farmacia id est medicina 10–11 Canterbury,England98n136 Capadocia  108–109,110 Capella,Martianus:De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii 124 Carra,distancetoAlexandria31 Carta itineraria Europae(Waldseemüller) 47–48,86 Carthago  108–109,111 Carthago antiqua 105,106 cartography,problemswith22–23,78,79
238 Index De arca Noe mystica(HughofSaint-Victor) 145,228–232,230 De astronomia tractatus x(Bonatti)13 De bello Judaico(Hegesippus)198,200 De civitate Dei(Augustine)33 De cognitione verae vitae 138–139 De impressionibus aeris seu de prognostica- tione(Grosseteste)12,13 De malis huius saeculi per omnes aetates (Jacobus)141–145,159 De mirabilibus mundi(Solinus)63,224–225 De natura rerum(Bede)33,124 De natura rerum(Isidore)33 De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii(Capella) 124 De proprietatibus rerum(Bartholomaeus)  Creationcycles132–133,134,135  divisionoftheworld33–34  mountainmaps89,90,91,93,102  similaritiestoHM83,78,79,89  theworld’srivers30,92,115,202 De spermate(Galen)61 De statu Sarracenorum(WilliamofTripoli) 158–159 De urina non visa(WilliamofMarseille)13 De virtute et proprietate planetarum 12 DeadSea200 Denmark.SeeDacia(Denmark) Descriptio de locis sanctis(Fretellus)201 Descriptio mappe mundi(HughofSaint- Victor)51–52 Descriptio Terrae Sanctae(BurchardofMount Sion)76 deserts  onf.1r31,96  onf.1v36  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.8v49–50,59,148  onf.15r 122,125  onf.16r72(75)  inotherworks30 desertum  108–109,110 distances  calculationsof121,213–214  distortionof49–50  betweenplanetaryorbs12  betweenvariousplaces9,36,46–48 See alsomeasure,unitsof;scale Constantinople(Constantinopolis)  onf.6r105,106  onf.9r 150,151–152,156  onf.15r 122,125  climateof65–66,118  mentioned87,135,202n120  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript206,209 Constin,Hinrich24 continents,separationof6,33,95,96 copyists58–59,62 Corbechon,Jean89–90,91,92,93,102,132 cornu dolositatis(horn)207 Cornu mentite deitatis(horn)207 Corsile Insule(island) 101,102 Cosmographiae introductio(Waldseemüller) 153–154 Cosmography(Ptolemy)54 Cosmos,The9,29,116,186(189) Creation,The,illustrationsof130–133,134, 135 Creta(island) 101,102 Crisse insule auree(islands)97,99 Crudelitatis(horn)207 Cueta 108–109,111 CurseofHam203 Cyclades(islands)42 Cyprus42,81,88,101,102 Cyrus(king)7,44–45 Dacia(Denmark)  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.15r 122,125  climateof65–66,118  mentioned156  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 Dan(descendantofAbraham)163–164 Dan(river)200 Daniel,Bookof  andApocalypticchronology174–175  citedonf.10v 168,173–175  andf.11v184  andtheFourKingdoms6–7,29,44,105  andthetenhornsofthebeast   onf.10r8,145,164,165,166   inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,206, 210 days,lengthof119,120
239 Index Etymologiae(Isidore)29,33,63,89,180–181 Etzlaub,Erhard:‘Romweg’Map47,86 Euphrates(river)  climateof65–66,117,118  onff.7v-8r112,112  mentioned32,201  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202 Europe  climatesof64–66,118  colonizationof34–35  islandsof6,29,100,101,102  mentioned98,143  provincesof6,29  separationof6,33,95,96  andspreadofIslam 150,152,156–157,161, 162 EusebiusofCaesarea:Chronicon(Temporum liber) 192 Evilath117n166 Fabri,Felix25–26,42 Finland(Vinlandia)79 flagandlawofJesusChrist  onf.11r8,68,175,176,177–178  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,207 Flood,The  divisionoflandsafter33–35  onf.12r 185,188(191)  onf.16r70(73)  historicperiodendingwith10 See alsoNoah’sArk f.1r  briefdescriptionof6  mapon94–95,96,97  mentioned9,89,100,105,114,143,147,192  transcriptionsof31–35 f.1v6,35–36 f.2r  briefdescriptionof6  distancesdescribedon26–27  mentioned100  transcriptionsof36–42 f.2v6,42–43,79 f.3r  briefdescriptionof6  mapon97–98,99,100  mentioned45,100,107,110,149,169,181, 205 Don(river)95,96 Dorix(river)115,201–202 Earth  dimensionsof9,12  historyof229  renewalof8,9,175,176,187–188(191) 192,193,194–195  sphereof107,116–117,212,213 Ebstorfmappamundi 46 Ebulus(island)100,101 Ecclesiastes111–113 EgertonGenesisPictureBook131 Egypt  onf.1r31,35,96  onf.1v6,35–36  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.10v 168,173–174  onf.14r117,118  mentionedinotherworks32,209  Sultanof164–165,206 Ehlers,Joachim231 Empyriansphere183,194–195 encyclopedias,medieval29–30 England  climateof65–66,118  distancetoHamburg65–66,118  anditinerarymaps85–86 See alsoAnglia EnochandElias(Elijah)  onf.10v68,168,169  onf.16r72(75)  preachagainstAntichrist10,68,135 Epistola Messahalae de rebus eclipsium (Messahallah)11 ErasmusofRotterdam:Colloquies 159–160 Essedones224–225 Esther,Bookof6,43 Ethiopia(Etiopia)  onff.1vand2r6  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110,111,127  onf.14r117,118,119,201  onf.15r 122,125  kingof164–165  provincesbetween,andIndia6,42–43  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202,209, 210
240 Index  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript203,204, 205–206,218 f.10r  briefdescriptionsof8,145  mapandtranscriptionsof164–167,165  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,206, 209,210 f.10v  briefdescriptionsof8,145  mapandtranscriptionsof167,168, 169–170,173–175  mentioned10,68,135,177  sourcesfor170–173  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204, 206–207,218 f.11r  briefdescriptionof8  mapsandtranscriptionsof175,176, 177–181  mentioned2,68,173,174  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,207 f.11v  briefdescriptionof9  mapandtranscriptionsof 182,183–184  mentioned68,116,184  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript211,212,213 f.12r  briefdescriptionof9  mapandtranscriptionsof184,185, 186–192  mentioned2  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript211,212, 213–217 f.12v  briefdescriptionof9  mapandtranscriptionsof192,193, 194–195  mentioned12,21,231  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript211,212,213, 217–218 f.13r  briefdescriptionsof9,64  diagramon116,183  mentioned181,184 f.13v9,64,181 f.14r  briefdescriptionof9  mapon117,118 f.3v  briefdescriptionof6  mapon100,101,102  mentioned95,114,181 f.4r6 f.4v6 f.5r  briefdescriptionof6  mapon102,103  mentioned93,181 f.5v  briefdescriptionof6–7  mentioned9,14,102,105,129  transcriptionsof44–46 f.6r  distancesdescribedon27  mapon105,106,107  mentioned14,114,129  transcriptionsof46–48 ff.6v-7r  briefdescriptionof7  mapandtranscriptionsof107,108–109,110  mentioned9,45,93,111,127,149,169,181 ff.7v-8r  briefdescriptionof7  mapandtranscriptionsof111,112,113–116  mentioned9,14,64,93,117,147,151  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript115,181,198, 199,201,202–203,204,205 f.8v  briefdescriptionof8  mapon147,148  andmappaemundi 21–22,59–60,62–64  mentioned149  transcriptionsof48–51,62,63–64,147 f.9r  briefdescriptionof8  mapandtranscriptionsof149,150, 151–154,156–160  mentioned144,167  Methodiuscitedon2,157  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript203,204, 205–206,207–208 f.9v  briefdescriptionof8  mapandtranscriptionsof160,161, 162–164  mentioned69,144,169
241 Index Galen:De spermate 61 Galicia65–66 Galilee,LowerandUpper35 Gallia  108–109,110 GatesofParadise9,116,182,183–184 Gaul,kingof164–165 genealogies10,29,209 Genesis,Bookof  mentionedonf.1r33,96  andff.7v-8r114  citedonf.9r 150,157  citedonf.9v 161,163,164  citedonf.10v 168,169–170  citedonf.12r 185,186(189)  andf.14r117n166 geneve(island)100,101,102 Genoesemapof1457,37,228 geography  HM83sectionon(ff.1r-8v)   briefdescriptionsoffolios6–8,29   context14,29–30,68   influencesandsources29–30,31–33, 38–42   transcriptionsof29–51  andPiusII26  symbolicandallegorical145–146 Geography(Ptolemy)58,63,105,117 Germany,kingof164–165 GervaseofTilbury:Otia imperialia 58–59 Getulia  108–109,111 Ghereken,Henrich24 Goethe,JohannWolfgangvon:Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 102 Gog  onf.9v 161,163–164  onf.10v 168,169–170,173–174  onf.11r 176,178–179  onf.15v10  onf.16r70–76,206  andMagog224,226,227–228  mentioned68  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript196 See alsoAntichrist Gor<gon>ides insule 98,99,108–109,110 Gothia  108–109,110 Goths,kingof164–165 Gotland(island)65–66,118 GoughMapofGreatBritain86  mentioned14,67,93,116,119,127  transcriptionsof64–66  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript181,198,199, 201–202,203,204,205 f.14v  briefdescriptionof9  mapon119,120,121  mentioned127  transcriptionsof66–67 f.15r  briefdescriptionof9–10,67  mapandtranscriptionsof121,122,123–128  mentioned7,14,111 f.15v10 f.16r  briefdescriptionof10  mentioned129,167  transcriptionsof67–76  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,206 f.16v10,135,209 f.17r10,209 ff.17v-18r10 f.18v10 f.19r10–11 f.19v11 ff.20r-21r11 ff.21r-21v12 f.22r13 ff.22v-24v13 f.25r13 f.25v13 Fortunate insule 98,99,108–109,110 FourHorsemen195 FourKingdoms(BookofDaniel)  onff.5v-6r105,106,129  landandcitiesof6–7  mentioned10,14,29  monarchsof44–46  inotherworks53 France(Francia)  climateof65–66,118  onf.15r 122,125  mentioned5n5,6,85,126 Fretellus,Rorgo:Descriptio de locis sanctis  201 Gabriel(archangel)158 Gair31See alsoCairo(NewBabylonia)
242 Index Hippo(yponis)  108–109,111,142,203 Hircania  108–109,110 Hispalensis,Joannes11 hispania(hispanie) 98,209See alsoSpain Historia,RothelinContinuationof(William ofTyre)32,78 Historia Arabum(JiménezdeRada)158 Historiarum adversum paganos(Orosius)63 HM 83  authorof18–19   andcartography21–22   andinterests18–19,157   onislandmonsters22,49–51,60   andmathematicstraining21,192   andoriginality30,146–147   andpossibleidentity25–26   andpurpose21,192   andrhetoric63   andtravels23,25,27–28  circulationof196,211,218  comparedto De malis huius saeculi per omnes aetates (Jacobus)141–145 Pronosticatio(Lichtenberger)139–140 Rudimentum novitiorum 1,77–79   Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliotheck, Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.    andapocalypticmapping223    andmaps181,199,200–203,204, 205–209,208,210    andsubjectmatter196–198    andtext209–211,212,213–218  descriptionsoffoliocontents   geographysection(ff.1r-8v)6–8,14,29, 31–64,93–117,129   Apocalypsesection(ff.8v-12v)8–9,14, 129–232   astronomyandgeographysection(ff. 13r-18r)9–10,14,29,64–76,117–128, 129   astronomicalmedicinesection(ff. 19r-25v)10–13,14  andfolioorder127  andhistoricalcontext15–20,135–145  influencesandsources   forff.7v-8r 104,115,198,199,200–203   forff.8v-12v130–133,134,135   forf.10v170–173 Grambeke(akaHenrichVicke)24 Grassmann,Antjekathrin17 GreatBritain.SeeBritain Greece,kingof164–165,209 Greenland(Gronlandia)  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.14r65–66,118 Grosseteste,Robert:De impressionibus aeris seu de prognosticatione 12,13 GulbenkianApocalypse222–223 Gyon(river)  onff.7v-8r112,112,113n151  onf.14r117,118  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202 Haïdra(city)81,82 Ham,Curseof203 Hamburg65–66,118 Heaven,ascentto  onf.10v 168,171  onf.11v 182,183–184  onf.12r 185,190  onf.16r68,72(75) HeavenandHell139,176,180,183–184 HeavenlyJerusalem105,116,182,183,184 Hebrews,Epistletothe177–178 Hegesippus:De bello Judaico 198,200 Heights of the Principal Mountains in the World(Humphreys)102,104,115 Hell  onf.11v139,181,182,183–184  onff.11vand12r9,68  onf.12r184,185,186–189  onf.12v139,192,193  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript211,212,213 See alsoHeavenandHell Heller,Joachim11 Herefordmappamundi 39–40,46,200, 224–225,228 Herzog Ernst(poem)60 Hesperide insule 98,99,108–109,110 Hibernia  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onff.7v-8r 112,114  onf.9r149,150  onf.15r 122,125
243 Index  Greater   onf.3r97,99   onff.6v-7r 108–109,110   onf.9r 150,156   onf.14r65–66,118 See alsoungaria Hyrcania6 Iberia65,112,114,153 Ibiza(island)100,101 Iceland  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.14r65–66,118  distancefromLübeck27,47–48  mentioned125,126,156,205 Idalium(city)81 Illustrated Atlas, The(Rapkin)100 illustrationscomparedtomappaemundi  130–133,134,135 illustrators,map58–59,62 India  onf.1r95,96  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r149,150,156–157  onf.14r117,118,201  andApostleThomas125n174  descriptionsof6  distanceacross36,38,47  distancetotheHolyLand27,36,37–38, 38n19,41,47  kingof164–165,209  provincesbetween,andEthiopia6  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript202,204,205, 209 IndianOcean,islandsof27,36,38,40–41, 47 Insulares  108–109,110 Insularium illustratum(Martellus)87,89 Ireland,climateof65–66,118 Isaac163–164 Isaiah,Bookof31,173–174 Ishmael163–164 IsidoreofSeville De natura rerum 33 Etymologiae 29,33,63,89,180–181  mentioned77,100,110,143   forf.14r198,199,200–203   forf.14v119   forf.21v12–13   forthematicmaps89–90,93,129–130  physicalappearanceof4–5  purposeof21,57–58,225,231  transcriptionsymbolskey30 HolyLand  Baptista(doctor)inthe25–26  distancetoCyprus42  distancetoeasternedgeofAsia38  distancetoIndia   calculatedonf.2r26–27,36,38,41   calculationsonff.2rand6rcompared 47   onWalsperger’smapof1448,37–38  distancetoLübeck27,46–48  distancetoRhodes42  distancetotheendoftheearth27  HM83author’sjourneytothe22–23  itinerarymapfromEngland86–87  mapsinotherworks77,105,197–198,199, 200–201  mentioned35,56–57,152  MountofOlives9  mountainsofthe6,29,102,103  Palestine35  pilgrimagestothe22–24 homines parvi, mediocres, magni  122,125–126 HonoriusAugustodunensis139n28 horns  oftheAntichrist145,167,168,169–174,207  ofthebeast(Daniel7)8,145,164,165,206, 210  inverted207 horoscopes13 Horsemen,Four195 HughofSaint-Victor De arca Noe mystica 145,228–232,230 Descriptio mappe mundi 51–52 HughRipelinofStrasbourg:Compendium theologiae 2,170–173 Humphreys,F.:Heights of the Principal Mountains in the World 102,104,115 Hungary98,99  Christian   climateof65–66,118   mentioned97n133
244 Index  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onff.7v-8r 112,114  onf.8v147,148  onf.9v 161,162  onf.10v8,168,169  onf.14r117,118  onf.15r 122,125  distancefromLübeck27,46–48  distancetotheendoftheearth27,46–47, 48  Heavenly116,182,183,184  inotherworks 199,200,204,206,209,226, 228 Jerusalemberg24 JesusChrist  andtheApostlesattheLastJudgment9, 68,182  flagandlawof8,68,175,176,177–178  mentioned147,148,163–164  reignof68–69,72–73(76)175,176,209, 210  voiceof 185,186(190) JiménezdeRada,Rodrigo:Historia Arabum  158 Joel,Bookof  onf.11r 176,177–178  onf.12r 185,187(190) Johannes,deHese:Itinerarius 40–41 John,Gospelof178 JohnofWallingford124–125 JohntheEvangelist143 Joppa42,47–48 Jor(river)200 JordanRiver200 Judas163–164 Judea35 Judgment,Last.SeeLastJudgment KhaburRiver31See alsoChobar(river) kings6,8,164–167,165,209See also lordships;monarchs Korah188,189,191–192 Koran157–158 lacunae,meaningof30 LambofGod195 LambertofSaint-Omer Liber Floridus 29–30,45–46,124 Islam  globalruleof10,69  “plagues”of34–35  spreadof   onf.10v 168,173–174   onff.9rand9v8,144,149,150,152–154, 156–157,161  andwarfare153n48,156–157,158–159  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,206 IslandofParadise.SeeParadise Islandia.SeeIceland islands  onf.3r6,97–98,99,100  onf.3v100,101,102  onff.6v-7r7,108–109,110–111  absenceof181  andclimaticzones10  ofEurope6,97–98,99  ofGreaterAsia6,97  andIslam162  oftheMediterranean6,42,82,100,101,102  andmonsters21,49–51,60–64,78  scaleof97  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript200,204,205 See alsospecificislands isolarii(genreofmaps)86–87,88,89 Isolario(Bartolomeo)87,88 Isolario di Benedetto Bordone(Bordone)89, 100 Israel,Tribesof.SeeTribesofIsrael Italy(ytalia)  108–109,110,164–165,209 Itinerarius(Johannes)40–41 itinerarymaps85–86 Jacob163–164 Jacobus  122,125 Jacobus,deClusa:De malis huius saeculi per omnes aetates 141–145,159 JacobusdeVoragine12 Japeth33–35See alsoNoah,sonsof Jeremiah,Bookof  citedonf.11r 176,177–178  citedonf.12r 185,186(189) Jericho200 Jerome,Saint175 Jerusalem  onf.3r98,99  onf.6r105,106
245 Index  historyof15  mentioned5,65,197,233  andpilgrims23–24  printingin19,76,77 lucanania(Lapland)andLucanani(Lapps)  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.14r65–66,118  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 Ludolf,vonSachsen95 Luke,Gospelaccordingto44–46,175,181 Macrobianmaps82–83,117 Macrobius:Commentary on the Dream of Scipio 82–83 MagnaGraecia6 magni  122,125 Magog.See underGog Maimonides,Moses12 Malachi,Bookof177–178 mapillustrators58–59,62 mapsymbols  onf.9v160,161,162  onf.10r164,165  onf.10v167,168,169  inotherworks153–154,160,204,205–206, 209 Mappa de Aquis terram irrigantibus 7 Mappa mundi localis 7 mappaemundi  comparedtoillustrations130–133,134,135  depictionsofAmazonia41  depictionsofHolyLand59–60  depictionsofParadiseasanisland39–40  depictionsoftheRevelationofSt.John 219–223  descriptionsof51–57  inHM83,1   onf.1r6,34,94–95,96   onf.3v6,100,101,102   onf.6r105,106,107   onff.6v-7r7,107,108–109,111   onff.7v-8r111–116,112   onf.8v147,148   onf.9r 150,154,156   onf.9v160,161,218   onf.11r 176,179–180   onf.14v66,119,120,121  mapsby39–40 LambethApocalypse222–223 Lapland.Seelucanania LastDays  onf.16r10,68–76  illustratedinHM83,232  illustratedinotherworks218–232,221, 226,230  mentioned105,135 See alsoLastJudgment LastEmperor2,68,167 LastJudgment  onf.11v9,68,181,182,183–184  onf.12r9,184,185,186–188(188–191)  onf.12v192,193  inotherworks223,225,230  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript211,212 See alsoLastDays Lazius,Wolfgang81 Lecoq,Danielle231 Leipzig65–66,118 Liber chronicarum(Schedel)17–18 Liber Floridus(LambertofSaint-Omer) 29–30,45–46,124 Liber insularum archipelagi(Buondelmonti) 86–87,100 libia cyrenensis  108–109,111 Libro de tutte l’isole del mondo(Bordone)89 Lichtenberger,Johannes:Pronosticatio  139–140 Limasol42 Lithuania65–66,118 Livonia  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r 150,151,156–157  climateof65–66,118  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 208,209 lordships155–156,166See alsokings; monarchs LothianBibleofc.1220,130 Lübeck  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  climateof65–66,118  descriptionsof16–20  distancefromRome65–66,118  distancetoGotland65–66,118  distancetoIceland46–47,105  distancetoJerusalem27,46–48,105
246 Index mare artum   onff.1rand3v 96,100,101,102,114   onff.7v-8r 112,114   onf.14v119,120 magnum  96,100,101,102 occidentale  112,114 oceanum  182,184 rubrum 198,199 Margani,Alfonso197 Mariensüss,Bartholomäus10–11 Marignolli,Giovannidei40–41 Mark,Gospelaccordingto147n42,175 marriage173–174 Martellus,Henricus:Insularium illustratum  87,89 matriarchy,Amazonian41 Matthew,Apostle 122,123,125 Matthew,Gospelaccordingto  andff.6v-7r111  onf.10v 168,175  onf.11r 176,181  onf.12r 185,188n99(191n108)  andf.15r123  onf.16r72n80(75n89)  andapocalypticchronology147n42  inotherworks144,211n124 Mauritania 98,99,108–109,111 Mauro,Fra:mappamundiofc.1450,41,151 Maurochia  108–109,111 McGinn,Bernard18–19 measure,unitsof121See alsodistances mediocres,onf.15r 122,125 MediterraneanSea  onf.1r6,33,35,95,96  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onff.7v-8r 112,114  onf.14v66–67,119,120  islandsof6,42,82,100,101,102  onmosaicfloormap81–82,82 Melchisideck.SeeSem Memphis32 men,sizesof 122,125–126 Menabuoi,Giustode’:BattisterodelDuomo (Padua)mappamundi 131 Mesopotamia6,32,108–109,110 Messahallah:Epistola Messahalae de rebus eclipsium 11 mappaemundi(cont.)  HM83author’sideason21–22,48–51, 59–60,63–64  inotherworks   ‘ColumbusMap,’39–40 Commentary on the Apocalypse(Beatus) 127,221   ‘CommonplaceBook’(Wulfstan)128 De proprietatibus rerum(Bartholomaeus) 93,94 Descriptio Terrae Sanctae(Burchardof MountSion)76–77   Herefordmappamundi 39–40,46,200, 224–225,228 Liber Floridus(LambertofSaint-Omer) 45–46 mappamundi(Menabuoi)131 mappamundiofc.1450(Mauro)41   Walsperger,Andreas:mapof1448,113n151, 121,160   Wolfenbüttelmanuscript198,199,204, 208,210  purposesandthemesof51–58   accountedforonf.8v8,57–58,148   describedonf.12v21,57–58,193,225   mentioned14,29  watersdepictedon95,96,101,108–109, 111–117,112  zonal82–83,124–125 mappamundi(Menabuoi)131 mappamundiofc.1450(Mauro)41,151 maps,definitionsof130n3,175,175n75 maps,thematic  onf.1r89,96  onf.3r98,99,100  onf.3v100,101,102  onf.5r93,102,103  onf.6r105,106,107  onff.7v-8r93,111–116,112  onf.8v8,48–51,148  onf.9r149,150,154  onff.10rand10v145,165,168  onf.14r93,117,118  onff.14r14v,and15r 120,121,122  asagenre1,29–30,80–93,129–130,145, 233  inotherworks154 MarcoPolo41
247 Index Nile(river)  onf.1r31,95,96  onf.3v100,101  onff.7v-8r 112,112–113,114  onf.12v 193,194–195  onf.14r65–66,117,118,201  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202 Niniue(city)105,106 Noah34–35,186(189) Noah,sonsof  onf.1r6,32–35,94–95,96  mentioned29,52–53 Noah’sArk  inDe arca Noe mystica(HughofSaint- Victor)145,229–232,230  mentioned10 NorthPole9,202–203 NorthStar66–67,119,120See alsostars Norway(Norwegia)  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.14r65–66,118  mentioned156  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 Numbers,BookofMosescalled184n91 (188n100)186n94(189n103) Numidia  108–109,111 oceans.Seewaters Octavian(Augustus)7  onf.5v44–45,147  onf.8v147,148  worldmapproject45–46 OdoricofPordenone151 OpicinusdeCanistris146 Opusculum geographicum(Schöner)18,121 Orcades(islands)98n136 Orosius,Paulus Historiarum adversum paganos 63  mentioned33,105 Otia imperialia(GervaseofTilbury)58–59 PaduaBible130 painters,map58–59,62 Palestine35See alsoHolyLand Paltz,Johannesvon  mentioned135 Quaestio determinata 138–139 Methodius2,157 Methoni(Greece)48 miles121 miracles,workingof.SeeAntichrist,four hornsof Miramamolin(king)152–153,206 Modern Atlas on a New Plan(Woodbridge) 154 Modona(Greece)48 monarchs44–46See alsokings;lordships monsters,island  HM83author’saccountof22,49–51,60  asmapdecorations49(51)62–64  mentioned78,126  otheraccountsof60–61 See alsoserpents montana  108–109,110 Moon,dimensionsof9,116 MosesbenMaimon12 MountEdom40–41 MountEtna65–66,90,118 MountofOlives  onf.11v9,68,116–117,181,182,183,184  onf.16r10,68,72(75–76) MountOlympus65–66,90,118 MountQuarentana200 mountains  climatesof65–66,118  onf.5r93,102,103  onf.11v181,182  oftheHolyLand6,90,102,103  inotherworks89–90,90,91,93,94,102, 104,225–227 See alsospecificmountains Muhammad  onf.8v8,147,148  onf.9r149,150,157–158  onf.9v 161,162,163–164  onf.10r 165,166–167  onf.10v 168,173–174  onf.16r10,69,70–76,147  swordsof158–160,161,162,204,205–206, 208,208–209 Muscovy(ruler)156 Naia(city)35–36 Nebuchadnezzar6,31,32,44,194–195 New Universal Atlas, A(Tanner)102,104,115
248 Index Polo,Marco41 Portugal65–66,118 portugalia(island)100,101,102 Potestá,GianLuca136 PresterJohn149,151 Prologus Arminensis in mappam Terraesanc- tae 57,79 Pronosticatio(Lichtenberger)139–140 Prussia65–66,118 Psalms,Bookof177,185,187(190)213 Pseudo-Methodius:Apocalypse 2,68–76 Ptolemy Cosmography 54 Geography 58,63,105,117 Quaestio determinata(Paltz)138–139 rainbows  onf.12r183–184,185,186(189)188(191)  inotherworks131,211,212,213 Rapkin,John A Comparative View of Principal Waterfalls, Islands...,100 The Illustrated Atlas 100 RedSea52,198,199,200,202 Resurrection9,69 RevelationofSt.John  andf.9r8,154,156  andf.9v8,162–163  onf.10r 165,166–167  andf.11r181  andf.11v183  andf.12r187n98(191n107)  andf.16r69,72n80(75n89)  inotherworks129,137,219–224,221 RhaRiver  onff.7v-8r 112,114,202  onf.8v147,148  onf.9r 150,151  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202 Rhacotis(city)36n13 Rhodes42 Ripelin,Hugh,ofStrasbourg:Compendium theologiae 2,170–173 rivers  andclimaticzones117,118  flowingfromParadise   onff.6v-7r7,108–109 Paolino,Veneto:Compendium 52–53,59 Paphians,islandofthe42 Paradise(edgeoftheearth)  distancebetweentheHolyLandand   onf.2r26–28,41   onf.6r46–47,106   onWalsperger’smap48  distancefromAsia36  distancefromLübeck27  distancetoRome38  EnochandEliasdepartandreturnto10  Gatesof9,116,182,183–184  interestintravelto27–28  mappedasanisland38–41  riversflowingfrom   onff.6v-7r7,108–109   onff.7v-8r7,93,111–116,112   mentioned93,110,117   inWolfenbüttelmanuscript198,199, 201–203,204,205  wallof41 Paralipomenon,Bookof33 parentheses,meaningof,intranscriptions 30 Paris,Matthew85 Parthia6,108–109,110 PatriarchThomas149 Pentapolis35,108–109,111 Peter,SecondEpistleof179 PeterboroughComputusofc.1120,128 PeutingerMap83,84,85,105 Philistina35 Phison(river)  onff.7v-8r112,112  onf.14r117,118  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202 phlebotomy10–11 Piccolomini,EneaSilvio25–26 pilgrimages22–24 PillarsofHercules6 PiusI I(pope)25–26 placenames,problemswith22–23,78,79 plagues18,34–35,140 Pliny33,60–61 Poland(Polonia)  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r 150,151,154,156–157  onf.14r65–66,118
249 Index Savianus(saint) 122,125,126 Sawleymap39–40 scale  distortedonmappaemundi 49–50  ofEarthandHell192,193,194–195  ItalianandGermanmiles47–48  onmedievalmaps36–38  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript198,199 See alsodistances Schedel,Hartmann:Liber chronicarum  17–18 Schöner,Johannes:Opusculum geographicum  18,121 Scotland(Scotia)  onf.3r98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r149,150  climateof65–66,118  kingof164–165  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 scripturalreferences.Seespecificbooknames Scythia6,97n133,107 SeaofGalilee198,199,200 Seals,Seven195 seas.Seewaters SecondComing139 Sem33–35,95,96,163–164See alsoNoah, sonsof <Semaria>,108–109,110 sepulchers194–195 serpents32See alsomonsters,island SevenSeals195 Shinar,fieldof32 Sicard,Patrice231 Sicily65–66,100,101,118 Siria 6,32,108–109,110 Smith,Charles:Comparative View of the Heights of Principal Mountains 102 Soldanus  204,205 Solinus,C.Julius:De mirabilibus mundi 63, 224–225 Solomon,Wisdomof184 Spain65–66,118,164–165See alsohispania (hispanie) spheres116See alsoEarth,sphereof Sporer,Hans77 stars9,116See alsoNorthStar Stenhop,Conrad19   onff.7v-8r7,93,111–116,112   mentioned93,110,117   inWolfenbüttelmanuscript198,199, 201–203,204,205  onmaps 92,93,94,115–116  onT-Omaps7n9,108–109,110–111 See alsowaters;specificrivers Robinson,Arthur80 Rodos(island) 101,102 RomanEmpire  onf.9r149,150,151,154,156  onf.16r69,70–71(73–74) Rome  onf.5v44–45  onf.6r105,106  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.8v147,148  onf.16r10,69–70,70–71(72)  climateof65–66,118  distancetoSantiagodeCompostela 65–66,118  mentioned85  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,206 ‘ Romweg’Map(Etzlaub)47,86 Rostock(city)65–66,118 RothelinContinuationofHistoria(Williamof Tyre)32,78 Rudimentum novitiorum  comparedtoHM83,1,77–79  contentsof76–77  andLübeck19,76  onmonsters61  onpurposeofmaps55–58 Rudolph,Conrad 230,231 Russia(Rucia)  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r149,150,151,154,156  kingof164–165,209  mentioned65–66 Rüst,Hans77 Rusticanus de Dominicis(Berthold)172–173 Sacrobosco,Johannesde:Tractatus de sphaera 119,121 Samaria35 SantiagodeCompostela65–66,118 Sanudo,Marino151 Sardus(island) 101,102
250 Index Tigris(river)  onff.7v-8r112,112  onf.14r117,118,201  mentioned48  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript198,199,202 Tile(Thule)98,99,108–109,110 Tilos Caucasus(island)97,99,108–109,110 time9 T-Omaps  onf.1r95,96  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110–111  onff.7v-8r7,112  onf.8v147,148  onf.9r149,150  onf.14v29,66,119,120,121  described7n9,95  mentioned29,46 Tors,Henrich24 tortures.SeeAntichrist,fourhornsof TowerofBabel31,32,194–195 Tractatus de sphaera(Sacrobosco)119,121 transcriptionsymbols,meaningsof30 Trave(river)15 TribesofIsrael  onf.9r149,150  onf.9v 161,162  onf.10v8,168,169,174  onf.11r175,176  onf.16r72(76)  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,200 See alsoX tribus Israel(island) Tripolis  108–109,111 trumpets195,226 Turkey(Turkia,Turchia) 150,151,156,204, 205–206 Tyrus(island) 101,102 ungaria  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r 150,151,156–157 See alsoHungary Ungaria magna(island)  onf.3r97,98,99  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r149,150 Venice  onf.2r42 StraitofGibraltar  onf.1r95,96,97  onf.14v66–67,119,120 Strata(branchofwater)100,114,202 Suecia(Sweden)  onf.3r98,99  onf.5v44–45  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.9r 150,156  onf.14r65–66,118  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205,209 SultanofEgypt164–165,206 Sun  andclimates67,120  mentioned29  orbitandsizeof9,116  WomanClothedwiththe195 Svatek,Petra81 Sweden.SeeSuecia(Sweden) swordsofMuhammad  andff.9rand9v 150,158–160,161,162,164  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205–206, 208,208–209 Sydon(island) 101,102 symbolism,biblical10 symbols,map.Seemapsymbols symbols,transcription,meaningsof30 Syria6,32,108–109,110 Tanais(river)95,96,202 Tanatos(Thanatos)98,99,108–109,110 Tanner,HenryS.:A New Universal Atlas 102, 104,115 Taprobana(island)97,99,108–109,110 Tartaria  204,205,208 Tartars  onf.9r149,150,151,156  onf.9v 161,162  inotherworks 204,206,208,208–209,226, 226–227 Temporum liber(Eusebius)192 TenTribesofIsrael.SeeTribesofIsrael Thabrona(island)97,99,108–109,110 Thessalonians,Epistlestothe 185,186(189) Thomas(apostle) 122,125,143 Thomas,Patriarch149 Thule(Asianisland)97n132 Thule(Tile) 98,99,108–109,110
251 Index WittedeHese,Johannes:Itinerarius 40–41 Wolfenbüttel,HerzogAugustBibliotheck, Cod.Guelf.442Helmst.  comparedtoHM83   ff.7v-8r115,181,198,199,201,202–203, 204,205   ff.9rand9v203,204,205–206,207,208, 218   f.10r 204,206,209,210   f.10v 204,206–207,218   f.11r 204,207   ff.11v-12v211,212,213–218   f.14r181,198,199,201–202,203,204,205   f.16r 204,206  mapsandtranscriptionsof196–198,199, 200–203   Beilagef.1r203,204,205–207   Beilagef.2r207–209,208   Beilagef.2v209,210   Beilagef.3r209   Beilagef.3v210–211,212,213–218  mentioned115,117,174n73 Wolfstan,Saint:‘CommonplaceBook,’128 WomanClothedwiththeSun195 Woodbridge,WilliamC.:Modern Atlas on a New Plan 154 Woude,Sapevander137 X tribus Israel(island)  onf.3r97,99  onf.5v44  onff.6v-7r 108–109,110  onf.10v 168,169  onf.15r 122,125  inWolfenbüttelmanuscript 204,205 See alsoTribesofIsrael Xerxes43 yponis.SeeHippo yslandia.SeeIceland ytalia.SeeItaly Zechariah,Bookof177,181 Zeleghe,Henrich24 Zelen,Hennygum197 Zodiac13,131 zonalmaps117,118,119,120,121,122,123–128  onf.3v100,101,102  mentioned47,87 Venus(goddess)82 Verschiedenes zur Anthropographie(Berg- haus)154,155 Vicke,Henrich(akaGrambeke)24 Vinlandia(Finland)79 visantia  108–109,111 Volga(river)  onff.7v-8r 112,114  onf.8v147,148  andWolfenbüttelmanuscript 199,202 Voragine,Jacobusde12 Waldseemüller,Martin Carta itineraria Europae of 1511,47–48,86 Cosmographiae introductio 153–154  worldmapof1507,153,160n59 wallofGogandMagog224–225 wallofParadise41 wallsurroundingHeavenlyJerusalem116, 182,183,184,185 Wallingford,Johnof124–125 Walsperger,Andreas:mapof1448  distances37–38,47–48,54–55,57–58,121  mentioned113n151  symbols153,160 Walther,Paul25–26 warfarebetweenChristiansandMuslims 153n48 waters  onf.1r95,96  onff.6v-7r93,107,108–109,110–111  onff.7v-8r93,111–116,112  onf.11v 182,184  onff.13rand13v116  onf.14r93,118  onf.14v119,120  inotherworks 92,93,198,199,200–203 See alsorivers WhoreofBabylon195 WilliamofMarseille:De urina non visa 13 WilliamofTripoli:De statu Sarracenorum  158–159 WilliamofTyre,Historia(RothelinContinua- tion)32,78 Wirsberg,JankoandLivinof136–137 Wismar(city)65–66,118