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                    DOJlOm06 D.B_
DOJlOm06a B.A.
DOJlOm06 MD_
OCHOBbI CTPOEHIIH BEIIJ:ECTBA
(<I>H3HKO- XHMWlECKAH TABJIHQA
H30CTEPOB 60JIOTOBLIX)
3AllOPO)KbE 1997


Y,1J;K 541.1 AemopCKaR peaaKl.{UR E. B. EOAomo6, H.A.EoAomo6a, M.E.EoAomo6. OCHOBbI CTpoeHIUI Beru;eCTBa ( <}>1I3IIKO- XIIMIIQeCKa51 Ta6JIuu;a 1I30CTepOB DOJIOTOBbIX) /3arropo)l(be: M3.n;aTeJIbCTBO 3arrOpO)l(CKOH rocy.n;apcTBeHHoH IIIDKeHepHoH aKa,n;eMIIII, 1996. - 110 C., C lfJI. ISBN 966-7101-01-0 B MOHorpa<}>1I1I rrpe.n;CTaBJIeHh <}>1I3IIKO-XIIMIIQeCKHe Ta6JIIIU:bI 1I30CTepOB, .n;aHO. HeTpa,n;IIU:IIOHHoe orrpe.n;eJIeHlIe 3JIeKTpOHOB II rr03IITpOHOB, C<}>OPMYJIlIpOBaHbI rrplIHU:lIrrbI CTpOeHII5I BeIl(eCTBa, rrpOXO)l(]:{eHII5I peaKU:IIH XOJIO.n;HOro 5I)lepHoro CIIHTe3a, <}>OpMlIpOBaHII5I e.n;IIHoro BOJIHOBOrO rroJUI BceJIeHHoH.  ISBN 966-7101-01-0 Y,1J;K 541.1 @ E.B.EoJlomoe, H.A.EoJlomoea, ME.EoJlomoe, 1996 
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MTeT )<PM - M3- 3JIe- CTBa [MM- Beca ro)].a POB- IX M [1, :lHee 3JIe- 31Ie- o 3a HbIe PSl- leH- aJIb- DlJ.ax E:pra JOT- coro >O1{ - {t.f e- qe- ;peX Ha- O.1a caMoe MaJIOe, TOJIbKO KMCJIOpO)]. COCTaBJIHeT MCKJIlOqeHMe. TIo OTHOllleHMIO K HeMY CpO)l,CTBO 6pOMa HaMMeHbllIee CMlIbHO OTpMlI.aTeJIbHO, MeHee OTpMlI.aTeJIbHO CpO)].- CTBO xnopa M, Ha060pOT, CpO)].CTBO M:o)].a CMlIbHO nOJIO)l(l1TeJIbHO" [2 .c.152]. 2. "CpO)l,CTBO CeJIeHa K KMCJIOpO,lJ,Y MeHblIle Cpo,lJ,cTBa K TOMY )l(e 31IeMeHTY; npOTMB O)l(l1,lJ,aHMSI TelIJIyp 06HapBaeT K KMCJIOpO)].Y 60JIblllee CpO)l,CTBO, 1..IeM ce- JIeH.3To OTHOllleHMe HanOMMHaeT TaKOBoe :>Ke )].JISI raJIOH)],OB, )].JIH KOTOpbIX CPO)l,CT- BO K KMCJIOpO)l,Y TO)l(e YMeHbliiaeTcH OT xnopa K 6pOMY, HO YBeJIM1..IMBaeTCH OT 6po- Ma K M:O)l,Y" [2, c.160]. 3. "MbI HaXO,lJ,MM B rpynne P, As M Sb Te )l(e COOTHOllIeHMSI, KaK B rpynnax CI, Br M J; S, Se M Te, nOCKOJIbKY CpO)l,CTBO K KMCJIOp01{Y MeHbllle Bcero Y Cpe)l,HerO 1..IJIeHa, T.e. Br,Se,As" [2, c.171]. TaKMe aHOMaJIMl1 T OMceH He aHaJIM3MpyeT M He )l,aeT HMKaKMX peKOMeHJJ.all.l1M B03)1,eM:CTBMH MX Ha CTpyKTYPY M CMCTeMaTMKY 3JIeMeHTOB. K MOMeHTY OTKpbITMSI )]..I1.MeHJJ.eJIeeBbIM nepMO)l,M1..IeCKOrO 3aKOHa e CY- lI(eCTBOBaJIa np06JIeMa pe)].KMX 3eMeJIb, KOTopaSl SlBJISlJIaCb no CYTM "OTcTynJIeHMeM OT nepMO)l,M1..IeCKOrO 3aKOHa" T01..IHO nO)l,Me1..IeHHaSl JI.A. qyraeBbIM. B 1915r. PYCCKMM <pM3MKO-XMMMK EBreHMM: BJIaJ],MClIaBOBM1..I EMpOH 06panm BHMMaHMe Ha CBOMCTBa raJIOreHOB M C rJIy60KMM nOHMMaHMeM npMlllelI K BblBO)l,Y 0 CYIIIeCTBOBaHMM )l,onOJIHMTeJIbHbIX BH)],OB nepMO)].M1..IHOCTM - B 1..IaCTHOCTM BTOpM1..IHOM nepMO)l,M1..IHOCTM. TaK, KHCJIOpO)l,CO,lJ,ep)l(alI(Me KMCJIOTbI raJIOreHOB He yKJIaJ],blBalOTCSI B MOHOTOHHbIM: pH,LJ; M 3aMeTHO OTKJIOHHIOTCH B TY MJIM MHYJO CTOPOHY. Y 3JIeMeHTOB nHTOH rpynnbI TaK)l(e Ha6JIIO)I,alOTCH CYIIIeCTBeHHbIe aHOMaJIMI1 npM nepexo)].e K pac- CMOTpeHMIO KMCJIOpO)l,HbIX COe)l,MHeHMM: 3TMX 31IeMeHTOB. I1cxo)].SI 113 )l,pyrnx aHOMa- lIMM: E.B.EMpoH onpe)l,eJISleT MeCTO pTYTM, CTaBH ee nOClIe KaJ],MMH, a BMCMYT nOClIe CypbMbI, T.e. BbI,[J.elIHeT pe)l,K03eMelIbHbIe 3JIeMeHTbI B MHTepnepMO)l,M1..IeCKyIO rpynny. I1MeHHo TaKoe pacnOJIO)l(eHMe 3TMX 3JIeMeHTOB n03BOJIHeT 3aMeTMTb SlBlIeHMe BTO- pM1..IHOM: nepMO)l,M1..IHOCTM M, no MHeHMIO aBTopa, SlBlIHeTCSI e)l,MHCTBeHHO npaBMlIb- HbIM. B KHMre A.M.EepKeHreM:Ma [3] B pa3)1,eJIe "<DaKTbI, He npe)l,YCMaTpMBaeMbIe CMCTeMOM MeHJJ.elIeeBa" aBTOp OTMe1..IaeT, 1..ITO "HeJIb3H npe)].CKa3aTb, KaKoe, Kor)].a M n01..IeMY COe)l,MHeHMe, 06pa3yeMoe aTOMaMM )].BYX 3JIeMeHTOB, 6Y,lJ,eT np01..IHbIM MJIJ1 Henp01..IHbIM MJIM MeHee MlIM 60JIee np01..IHbIM, 1..IeM ,lJ,pyroe Coe)l,MHeHMe, 06pa3ye- Moe O)].HMM M3 3TMX 3JIeMeHTOB C KaKMM-HM6Y)I,bTpe TbMM " {3, c.113-114]. TI u " ------- - OnblTKI1 HaJ1TM 3aBMCMMOCTb Me)I():J.Y aHOMaJIbHbIM M3MeHeHMeM CBOMCTB - coe)].MHeHMM" M 3HepreTM1..IeCKMMM xapaKTepMCTMKaMJ1 COCTaBJIHIOlI(MX MX 3JIeMeHTOB 7 
npO)J,OJI)I(aJIMCb M B 1950-e rO)J,bI. B 3TOT nepMO)]. nOHBMlICSI lI.lfKJI MHTepeCHbIX pa60J P.CaHJJ.epCOHa M3 YHMBepCMTeTa AMOBbI (ClllA). CaHJJ.epCOH nOnblTaJICH MCTOJIKO- BaTb H3MeHeHMSI CBOMCTB 3JIeMeHTOB B rpynnax nepMO)J,M1..IeCKOM CMCTeMbI, MCXO,l:Ul M3 npe)J,cTaBJIeHMM: 06 3JIeKTpooTpMlI.aTeJIbHOCTM, npe)].JIO)l(eHHOM elI(e B 1932r. M3- BeCTHbIM aMepMKaHCKMM yqeHbIM JI.IlolIMHroM. TIOJIMHr onpe)J,elISlJI 3JIeKTpooTpM- lI.aTeJIbHOCTb KaK "cnoc06HoCTb aTOMa B MOJIeKYJIe npMTSlrMBaTb 3JIeKTpOHbI", T.e , . . 06pa30BbIBaTb XMMM1..IecK}'JO CBSl3b.0,lJ,HaKo, BeCbMa nepcneKTMBHbIM B 60JIee n03)J,- HMX pa60Tax CaHJJ.epCoHa 6bIJIO 06'bSlCHeHMe 31IeMeHTOB III-VI rpynn nepMO)J,M1..Ie- CKOM: CMCTeMbI BBe)J,eHHbIM MM nOHSlTlieM "oTHollleHMH cTa6MJIbHOCTM" M nOKa3aHO, \.{TO M3MeHeHMe 3TOM: BeJIW:lMHbI no Mepe pOCTa 3apH.LJ;a SI)J,pa aTOMOB B I-VI rpynnax nepMOAH1..IeCKOM: CMCTeMbI MMeeT SlBHO nepHo)].M1..IeCKMM xapaKTep. lleM:CTBMTeJIbHO, eClIM 06paniTbcH K pMc.l, Ha KOTOpOM )].aHO M3MeHeHMe "oTHollleHMSI cTa6MJIbHO- CTH" B rpynnax nepMo)].M1..IeCKOM: CMCTeMbI no P.CaHJJ.epCOHY, TO MO)I(HO 3aMeTMTb ... SlBHyIO nepMO)J,M1..IHOCTb no KpaM:HeM Mepe )].JISI ceMM 3JIeMeHTOB no rpynnaM. [4,c. 272-274]. SR 1 At -j b 5 4 3 2 o 8 18 18 32 Pa3Hocmu Z 3JleMeHm06 -- - ------ --- Puc. 1. Jf3MeHeHue "omHoUleHWl cma6WlbHocmu" 6 zpynnax nepuoiJUlteCKOU cucmeMbl no P. CaHiJepcOHY 8 
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llIeHMe np06JIeMbI, KOTOpOe, O)J,HaKO, KaK yKa3bIBaJI )]..I1.MeHJJ.eJIeeB [10, c.332], OTHIO)J,b He MC1..IepnblBaeT 60JIee TOHKMX CTOpOH np06JIeMbI. EY,lJ,yqM nOCTpoeHa no npMHlI.Mny COnOCTaBJIeHMH BaJIeHTHbIX CBH3eM:, OHa n01..ITM HM1..IerO He rOBopMT 0 cpaBHMTelIbHOM: np01..IHOCTM 3TMX CBH3eM:. OHa )J,eJIMT 3JIeMeHTbI Ha rpynnbI M nepMO- )J,bI M, KOHCTaTMpySI CXO)].CTBO B rpynnax J1 nO,lJ,rpynnax, MrHopMpyeT B03MO)I(HOCTb u " nepMO)].M1..IeCKMX M3MeHeHJ1H B rpynnax M nO)J,rpynnax... . TaKMM 06pa30M 3aBepllIaeTCSI KpaTKMM 0630p ny61IMKall.MM:, KOTOpbIM: 601Iee 06CTOHTeJIbHO npMBe)].eH B [7]. B CBOeM: 3aSIBKe Ha OTKpbITMe aBTopbI OTKa3aJIMCb OT EOpOBCKOM: CMCTeMbI aTOMa M npMBeJIM HOByIO MO,lJ,eJIb, KOTopaSl n03BOJIMJIa C03)J,aTb 60JIee COBepllleHHyIO Ta61IMlI.Y 3JIeMeHTOB [8]. TIpe)I(,[J.e 1..IeM nepeM:TM K pacKpbITMIO CTpyKTypbI 3aKOHa pacnpe)J,eJIeHMSI 31Ie- MeHTOB, KpaTKO pacnMllleM aBTOpcKYIO MO)J,eJIb MMpa M CYIIIHOCTb CTpoeHMH BelI(e- CTBa. Ha1..IHeM CBOIO TeopMIO C nOCTYJIaTOB, KOTopbIe npMMeM 6e3 ,lJ,OKa3aTeJIbCTBa. ECJIM pe3YlIbTaTbI TeOpeTM1..IeCKMX McclIe)J,oBaHMM: OKaCH pe3YlIbTaTMBHbIMM, T.e. nJIO)J,OTBOpHbIMM M HaM60JIee npaBMlIbHO o6'bSlcHSlT peaJIMM MMpa BelI(eCTBa, TO, CJIe)].OBaTeJIbHO, nOCTYJIaTbI ClIe,lJ,yeT C1..IMTaTb npaBMJIbHbIMM MlIM )J,OCTOBepHbIMM. C06CTBeHHO BCHKaH cepbe3HaH TeOpl1S1 M Ha1..IMHaeTCH C <POPMYlIMPOBKM nocTYJIa- TOB.MbI nocTyrrMM TaK)l(e.HTaK... D H<J IIOCTYJIATbI H HAllIA MO,II;EJIb MHPA Bce 6eCKOHe1..IHOe npOCTpaHCTBO 3anOlIHeHO HCTMHHbIMM 3JIeMeHTaMM Ma- TepMM (113M), npe)].cTaBlIHIOlI(MMM c060M: If.[J.eaJIbHbIe lllapMKM.113M - He)J,elIMMbIe 3JIeMeHTbI MaTepMM.0l!1:I HeC:>KMMaeMbI, MMelOT 6eCKOHe1..IHyID TBep)J,ocTb M OTlIM1..Ia- IOTCH )J,pyr OT )J,pyra TOlIbKO )J,MaMeTpoM.O)J,HaKo )J,onYCKaeTCH MMHMMaJIbHbIM: )].Ma- MeTp 113M, Ha3BaHHbIM HaMM e)J,MHM1..IHbIM, 3aTeM onpe)J,elIHeTCH 113M C )J,MaMeT- pOM B )].Ba pa3a 60JIblllMM, nOTOM - B TpM pa3a, 3aTeM - B nSlTb pa3, nOClIe - B ceMb, O)J,MHHaJ],lI.aTb, TpMHaJ],lI.aTb, ceMHaJ],lI.aTb M TaK )J,aJIee.,lI,pyrMMM ClIOBaMM, MbI ,lJ,onYCKaeM, 1..ITO 113M MMeioT )J,MaMeTpbI, B T01..IHOCTM COBnaJ],alOlI(Me C npOCTbIMM 1..IMCJIaMM, a, CJIe)].OBaTeJIbHO, Bce 3aKOHbI nOBe)].eHMH B npocTpaHcTBe 113M B T01..I- HOCTM )J,OJI)l(HbI COBnaJ],aTb co BceMM 3aKOHaMM npOCTbIX 1..IMCeJI. TIOCKOJIbKY 113M SlBlISlIOTCH He)].eJIMMbIMM 3JIeMeHTaMM MaTepMM, TO He ClIY- 1..IaMHO )].eMOKpMT MX Ha3bIBaJI "aTOMaMM" (T.e. «He)J,eJIMMbIe»). EY)J,eM MHor)J,a nOJIb- .n m n 10 
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'MSlMI1, a lyIO. OHM fO, He- e ycno- HHOCTM. TO CM- e. LI:eM:- iKI..J.MeM: roe KO- CMHY- BJISleT- BaeTCSI rnapo- KOTO- ro MbI bIpSl M [ c<pe- npM- \1, HO [SlTbCSI none- ffMMM 1HeH- [)I(eH- 1HCT- )].BYX IbITe- 1I..J.MIO MSI B ' T " _ 11 , pac- pex- 'fepHO-BpeMeHHOM npOCTpaHCTBe. )].pyrMMI1 cnOBaMM, TIpMpO,lJ,Y HaJ],O nOHMMaTb KaK CI1CTeMY, COCTOSllI(YIO M3 ,lJ,BYX npOCTpaHCTB: - CMCTeMbI TpeXMepHoro lIMHeM:Horo, T.e. npOTSI)I(eHHOrO npOCTpaHCTBa C 3HeprOnpOll.eCCaMM, npOIICXO,lJ,SllI(MMM BO BpeMeHM; .. CMCTeMbI TpeXMepHoro BpeMeHHoro npOCTpaHCTBa C 3HeprOnpOll.eCCaMII, npOI1CXO,lJ,SllI(MMM no JIMHeMHbIM napaMeTpaM. '" 06a npOCTpaHCTBa, MaCIIITa6Hoe Ii BpeMeHHoe, HaXO)].SlTCSI B JIMCKpeTHbIX T01..IKaX, He HMelOlI(MX pa3MepHOCTM. B .n:eMCTBMTelIbHOCTM CTOSl1..Ia5I BOJIHa M3 113M B . ' 3TI1X npOCTpaHCTBax 6YJIeT MMeTb )].pyrylO <POPMY. Bellb C)I(aBIIIMecSI: B T01..IKY 113M He cnoc06HbI yrny6nSlTbcSI B T01..IKe ,lJ,0 Tex nop, 1..IT06bI C03,lJ,aJIaCb OTpMlI.aTelIbHa5I nOlIY- BOJIHa. II03TOMY nOJIyqaeTcSI KOlIe6aHMe, noxo)l(ee Ha 0)].HononynepI10)].Hoe KOJIe6a-. Hlie. lllapoBaSl c<pepa M3 T01..IKM 6Y,lJ,eT YBelIM1..IMBaTbCSI )].0 pa3Mepa MbIJIbHOrO ny- 3bIpbKa M 3aTeM BHOBb 6y)].eT C)I(I1MaTbCSI B T01..IKY. Ho CMHYCOMJJ.aJIbHOe KOJIe6aHIIe M\feeT ,lJ,Be nOlIYBOlIHbI, a B HallieM clIyqae nOJIyqaeTcSI TOlIbKO O,lJ,Ha nOlIYBOlIHa. B 1..IeM )l(e ,lJ,elIO ? IIo1..IeMY 113M C03,lJ,aeT TOlIbKO O,lJ,HOnOJIynepMo,lJ,Hoe KOlIe- 6aHMe, a He )].ByxnolIynepMO,lJ,HOe, KaK y CMHYCOMJJ.bI? ""IT06bI OTBeTMTb Ha 3TOT Bonpoc, HaJ],O pa306paTbCSI B <pM3M1..IeCKOM CYIIIHO- CTI1 npOCTpaHCTBa. IIoHSlTb, KaK OHO COOTHOCMTCSI C npMHlI.I1nOM napHOCTM IIpocTpaHCTBO corlIaCHO npe)].lIO)l(eHHOMY nOCTYlIaTy HMKaKMMM <pM3M1..IeCKM- !\om CBOMCTBaMM He 06JIaJ],aeT. IIpocTpaHCTBO - 3TO MJJ.eaJIbHaSl nYCTOTa.OHO B <1>11311- 1..IeCKOM nOHSlTMM OTCYTCTByeT, HO B TO )l(e BpeMSI CYIIIeCTByeT KaK BMeCTMlIMlI(e )].JISI , \faTepMaJIbHbIX Tell. IIpocTpaHCTBO MO)l(HO oxapaKTepM30BaTb TOJIbKO npOTSI)I(eHHO- CTblO B Tpex reOMeTpM1..IeCKMX Koop,lJ,MHaTax M M3MepMTb B YClIOBHbIX e,lJ,MHMlI.aX )].1111- Hbi. TIpOCTpaHCTBO, KaK <pM3111..IeCKaSl peaJIbHOCTb, OTCYTCTByeT, HO HaJIM1..IeCTByeT B TOM BMJJ.e, 1..ITO BMelI(aeT MaTepMaJIbHbIe 06'beKTbI M n03BOlISleT MM TpaHC<pOpMMpO- BaTb KOnM1..IeCTBO JIBM)I(eHMSl. D.pyrMMIi ClIOBaMM, DpocTpaHCTBO, He COCTaBlISISI CO- 60M HM1..IerO, n03BOlISleT MaTepMaJIbHbIM 06'beKTaM TpaHc<popMMpOBaTbCSI B MaCIIITa- 6ax .lUIMHbI OT apryMeHTa BpeMeHM. 06paTMTe BHI1MaHMe Ha CMbIClI BbIpa)l(eHMSI "'TPaHc<popMMpOBaTbCSI B MaCIIITa6ax .LI;JlMHbI OT apryMeHTa BpeMeHM". CMbIClI 3a- K.1101..IaeTCSI B TOM, 1..ITO MaTepMaJIbHbIe 06'beKTbI COBepliialOT CBOM ,lJ,eHCTBMSI B npo- CTPaHCTBe, KOTopoe <pM3M1..IeCKM HeJIb3S1 HMKaK onpe,lJ,enMTb, KpOMe KaK B e)].MHl1l1.aX npOTSDKeHHOCTM caMoro npOCTpaHCTBa, ,lJ,a elI(e B TpeXMepHbIX aprYMeHTax BpeMe- MH. Ero TaK)l(e He CYIIIeCTByeT, KaK <p113M1..IeCKOM peaJIbHOCTM, HO CYIIIeCTByeT KaK npoTSI)I(eHHOCTb BpeMeHHaSl. CJIe,lJ,OBaTeJIbHO, HaJ],O nOHIiMaTb, 1..ITO Dpl1po)].a )].eHCT- 3JUelIbHO 06JIaJ],aeT ,lJ,BYMSI npOCTpaHCTBaMM - O,lJ,HO M3 HMX TpeXMepHoe M npOTSI- 13 
)l(eHHOe, a ,lJ,pyroe - TpeXMepHoe H BpeMeHHoe.06a 3T11 npOCTpaHCTBa He 06nan:a1OT <pH3M1..IeCKOM CYIIIHOCTblO, HO OHM HaJIM1..IeCTByIOT.O)].HO npOCTpaWCTBO HanWleCTBY- eT B MaCIIITa6ax npOTSI)I(eHHOCTM, a ,lJ,pyroe - B MaCIIITa6ax BpeMeHHbIX. TIpwIeM 06a napaMeTpa Bblpa)l(alOTCSI B TpeXMepHbIX Koop)].MHaTax. B03BpalI(a5ICb K CTOSl1..IMM BonHaM 113M, MO)l(HO KOHCTaTl1pOBaTb, 1..ITO nOJlo- )I(I1TeJIbHaSl nOJIYBonHa OT HYJISI ,lJ,0 MaKCMM}'Ma 6Y,lJ,eT COBeplllaTbCSl B npOCTpaHc'tBe . npOTSI)I(eHHOM, a BTopaSl nOJIYBOlIHa - B npOCTpaHCTBe BpeMeHHOM.3TO 3Ha1..IMT, 1..ITO nOC-lIe C)I(aTMSI 113M B T01..IKe npoM30M)].eT HeKOTOpaSI BpeMeHHaSl 3aJ],ep){(Ka, 11 113M 6y,lJ,YT TpaHc<popMHpoBaTb CBOM KOJII11..IeCTBa )].BII)I(eHIUI, He BbIXO)].SI 113 c)I(a- j: 3 3. Toro COCTOSlHMSI. Onpe,lJ,enMB CYlI(HOCTb BOJIHOBbIX KOJIe6aHMM 113M B BMJJ.e nyqHocTeM CTOSl- 1..IMX BOlIH, B KOTOpbIX cryCTKM 3HeprMli nepI10,lJ,I11..IeCKM np06pa3YIOTcSI M3 O,lJ,HOro npOCTpaHCTBa B ,lJ,pyroe (JIMHeMHOe BO BpeMeHHoe M Ha060poT), MO)I(HO Tenepb nerKO onpe)].elIMTb pe3YJIbTl1pyIOlI(Me KOJIe6aHMSI Cpe,lJ,bI KaK cynepn03MlI.MIO Bcex aHaJIOrM1..IHbIX KOJIe6aHMM, HO C )].PyrMMM 1..IaCTOTaMM. HanoMHMM, 1..ITO KpOMe e)].M- HM1..IHbIX 113M, HaMM ,lJ,OnYIIIeHo CYIIIeCTBOBaHMe M PMa np01..IMX, OTnM1..IalOlI(MXCSI OT e,lJ,MHM1..IHbIX no 3aKOHY npOCTbIX 1..IMCelI. CKJIaJ],bIBaSl 1..IaCTOTbI, OTJIM1..IHble ,lJ,pyr OT ,lJ,pyra no 3aKoHY npOCTbIX 1..IMCeJI, MbI MO)l(eM nonyqMTb <PYHKlI.MIO, HanOMMHalO- lI(YIO npOll.eCC pacnpOCTpaHeHMSI BOJIH no nOBepXHOCTM )l(MJJ.KOCTM OT e)].MHM1..IHOrO B036Y:>K11eHMSI. BcnoMHMM, KaK OT 6pollleHHoro B BO)].Y KaMHSI Mbl 06HapI1M, 1..ITO BOJIHbl, pa36eraSlcb, y6bIBalOT He TOJIbKO no aMnlIMTY,lJ,e, HO M 1..IaCTOTe. EClIM )l(e nOBepx- HOCTb )I(I1)].KOCTM B036Y:>K11aTb nlIaBalOlI(MM KOJlbll.OM, TO BOlIHbI, Ha060pOT, 6y)].YT 6e)l(aTb K I..J.eHTpY, YBenM1..IMBaSlCb no aMnlIMTY,lJ,e M 1..IaCTOTe. B lI.eHTpe 06pyqa MbI 3a- MeTMM I1MnynbcHbIe BcnlIeCKM aHaJIOrM1..IHbIe TeM, KOTopble MbI Ha6nlO,lJ,aeM npM 6pocaHMM KaMHSI B BO,lJ,Y. ECJIM )l(e )I(I1)].KOCTb B036Y:>K11aeTCSI no c<pepe, TO 3HeprMSI nOBepXHOCTHoro B036Y:>K11eHI1S1 6Y,lJ,eT KOHlI.eHTpMpOBaTbCSI B T01..IKY, B KOTOpOM OHa 6Y,lJ,eT npe06pa30BbIBaTbCSI B 3HepreTM1..IecKYIO BOJIHY, HO y)l(e BO BpeMeHHOM npo- CTpaHCTBe. 3,lJ,eCb MbI MMeeM .n:elIO y)l(e C He CMHYCOMJJ.aJIbHbIM 3aKOHOM C)I(aTMSI M pa3pSl)l(eHMSI, a C BonHOM, MeHSlIOlI(eMCSI no 1..IaCTOTe, Ha1..IHHaSl OT ,lJ,eJIbTa-<PYHKlI.MM 110 nOCTOSlHHOM COCTaBJISlIOlI(eM. TaKMM 06pa30M, BOlIHOBoe TpeXMepHoe KOlIe6a- HHe, T.e.npe06pa30BaHMe 3HeprMM M3 O,lJ,HOrO TpeXMepHoro npOCTpaHCTBa B ,lJ,pyroe, COCTaBlISleT nepByIO 3JIeMeHTapHyIO <POPMY MaTepMM. Ha30BeM nepByIO nOJIYBORHY TaKOM <pOpMbI "3neKTpOHOM", a BTOpyIO (HO BO BpeMeHHOM npOCTpaHCTBe) nOJIY- BOJIHY, B KOTOpOM <pa3a KOlIe6aHMM C,lJ,BMHYTa Ha 180 rpaJ],YCOB, 6Y,lJ,eM Ha3bIBaTb .9.... -"II ..:..  14 
Ia.n.aIOT [eCTBY- M 06a nOJIO- IHCTBe ra1..IMT, :Ka, H c)I(a- CTOSl- :{Horo enepb Bcex elll1- [MXCSI yr OT lialO- Horo [HbI, epx- YllYT ,3a- npM )rl1S1 OHa pO- SI M 111M 6a- oe, my fIY- aTb n03MTpOHOM MJIM "nM-3JIeKTpOHOM". COKpalI(eHHO nepByIO nOJIYBOJIHY npe06pa30- HaHMSI ycnoBHo 6y)].eM 0603Ha1..IaTb 6yKBOM: ( e), a BTOpylO - (7l" e) MnM (Jl"). 3JIeK- TpOH M nW-31IeKTpOH npMTSlrl1BalOTCSI ,lJ,pyr K ,lJ,pyry B CBSl3M C TeM, 1..ITO OHM COCTaB- .1SlIOT O,lJ,HO KOlIe6aHMe M CYIIIeCTBYIOT B pa3HbIX npOCTpaHCTBax: O)].MH - B MHeH- HOM, a ,lJ,pyrOM - BO BpeMeHHOM.3neKTpOH npe,lJ,CTaBlISleTCSI B Bl1)I.e ,lJ,bIlllalI(erO ny- 3bIpbKa, a n03MTpOH - T01..IKM, B KOTOpOM C)I(aTbI Bce 113M C<pePbI 3neKTpOHa. 3JIeKTpoH B npOTSI)I(eHHOM npocTpaHcTBe cnoc06eH nepe,lJ,BMraTbCSI, HO KOr,lJ,a 31IeKTpOH C)I(aT B T01..IKY, TO ,lJ,Bl1)I(eHMSI HMKaKoro He 6Y,lJ,eT, TaK KaK n03MTpOHY npMCYIIII1 TOJIbKO BpeMeHHbIe M3MeHeHMSI, a He lIMHeMHbIe. )].BM)I(eHMe 3neKTpOHa B l1060M HanpaBlIeHI1M npOCTaHCTBa HanOMMHaeT )].BM)I(eHMe MSl1..II1Ka, npbIralOlI(erO BlI,OJIb nOBepXHOCTM (npbI)I(OK - OCTaHOBKa, npbI)I(OK M CHOBa OCTaHOBKa 11 TaK .JaJIee) . Tenepb paCCMOTpIiM MO,lJ,elIM CTpoeHMSI XMMM1..IeCKMX 31IeMeHTOB, OCHOBbIBaSlCb TOlIbKO Ha 31IeMeHTapHOM nape 31IeKTpOHa M nM3JIeKTpOHa, KOTopbIe, npl1TSlrMBaSlCb .1pyr K ,lJ,pyry, 06pa3yIOT KpliCTaJIlIbI, T.e. TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIe XMMM1..IeCKMe M <pM3M1..Ie- CKMe 3JIeMeHTbI, B TOM 1..IMCJIe M MepHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI. ECTeCTBeHHO, OT .EOpOBCKOM MO,lJ,elIM MbI OTKa3bIBaeMCSI, KaK OT He no,[J.- , TBep,lJ,MBllIeM:CSI BO MHorMX 3KcnepMMeHTax. HanpMMep, npM HarpeBaHl111 BelI(eCTBa .J.OJI)I(HbI npOI1CXO,lJ,MTb 3JIeKTpOHHbIe CTOlIKHOBeHI1S1 M M31IyqeHMSI peHTreHOBCKMX Kone6aHMH. B ,lJ,eM:CTBMTenbHOCTM )l(e HM1..IerO nO,[J.06Horo MbI He Ha61I1O)].aeM. MHoro .1pyrMX <paKTOB nOJIHOCTblO oTBepralOT EopOBCKyIO Mon.e.JJb aTOMa XMMM1..IeCKOrO 3JIeMeHTa, 1..ITO Heo)].HoKpaTHo nO)].TBep)I():J.eHO 3KcnepMMeHTaJIbHbIMM I1CCJIe)].oBa- HI1S1MM. CYIIIeCTBO MO,lJ,eJIIi aTOMOB 3aKJII01..IeHO B cJIe,lJ,YIOlI(eM. BCSlKMH aTOM nepMO)].M- qeCKOM CMCTeMbI COCTOMT M3 KOHrlIOMepaTa MepHbIX 1..IaCTMlI., CKpenJIeHHbIX Me)I():J.y C060M: MepHbIMM M 3JIeKTpOMarHMTHbIMM BOJIHOBbIMIi CMJIaMM. TIpM1..IeM H.LJ;epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI SlBJISlIOTCSI HM1..IeM MHbIM, KaK KpMCTaJIlIM1..IeCKMMM coopY)l(eHMSlMIi nJIOTHO ynaKoBaHHbIX 3JIeKTpOHOB M nM-3JIeKTpOHOB. OKpalOlI(ee npOCTpaHCTBO (BaKYYM) TaK)l(e HaMM npe,lJ,CTaBJISleTCSI B Bl1)I.e CBSl3KM M3 3JIeKTpOHOB M nM-3JIeKTpOHOB, KOTopbIe paBHO y,lJ,aJIeHHbI )].pyr OT )].pyra. 3TMM M 06'bSlCHSleTCSI CBOM:CTBO BaKYYMa npOBO,lJ,MTb 3JIeKTpOMarHMTHbIe BonHbI BO Bcex ,lJ,Mana30Hax, nOlISlpM30BaTbCSI M 06JIaJ],aTb nOCTOSlHHbIMM napaMeTpaMIi E, M,g. TI03TOMY, eClIH BaKYYM "OCTbIBaeT", T.e. B HeM }'MeHbliialOTCSI CKOpOCTIi .1BM)I(eHMSI 3JIeKTPOHOB M nM-3JIeKTpOHOB, TO MbI 6Y,lJ,eM Ha6JIIO,lJ,aTb caMoynJIOTHe- HMe BaKYYMa B BJ{)].e (Ha1..IaJIbHaSl CTa.D,MSI) 06pa30BaHMSI 3JIeKTpOHHO-nl1- 15 
31IeKTpOHHbIX pe30HaTOpOB (3TIP), a 3aTeM KpMCTaJIlIM3all.MIO, T.e. coe)].MHeHMe 3TIP B <pM3H1..IeCKM YCTOM1..IHBbIe 06pa30BaHMSI (<DYO). TaKMMH <DYO SlBlISlIOTCSI <pparMeHTbI Bcex HaM M3BeCTHbIX XMMH1..IeCKMX 3JIeMeHTOB (HeMTpOHOB, npOTOHOB" Me30HOB M ,lJ,p.). QT06bI nOHSlTb Mo)].enb aTOMa, HM)I(e 6y.B.YT npMBe)].eHbI KpMCTaJIlIM- 1..IeCKMe KOHCTpyKlI.MM Sl)];epHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1., 06pa3<:>BaHHbIe B BMJJ.e 3TIP. HaMnerqaM:- IIIMMM SIllepHbIMM 1..IaCTMlI.aMM, KaK e rOBOpMJIOCb, SlBJISlIOTCSI 3JIeKTpOH (e) 11 nM- 31IeKTpOH (JZ"e) (n03HTpOH). MaTepMaJIbHO 3TH ,lJ,Be 1..IaCTMlI.bI He OTlIM1..IaIOTCSI ,lJ,pyr , OT ,lJ,pyra, a xapaKTepMCTMKa MX 3apSl)].HocTM 06'bSlCHReTCSI MCKJII01..IMTenbHO BoiIHO- '..Bl>lMMCBOHCTBaMM.06a TMna 3neKTpOHa npe)].CTaBlISlIOTCSlB BM)!e 06'beMHOii nyqHo-' . . CTM, 91.'nM1..IalOlI(HXCSI ,lJ,pyr OT )].pyra TOlIbKO <pa30H, paBHOM ,JZ" , T.e.180°.., D.eHcTBMTelIbHO, eCJIH O)].HopO)].Hoe rnapOBoe TellO nOBeprHYTb y)].apHOMY B036Y:>K11eHMIO, TO no BceM Macce lllapOBoro TeJIa K 3KBaTOpMaJIbHOM ero 1..IaCTM 6y- )].eT pacnpOCTpaHSlTbCSI KOHlI.eHTpJ11!eCKa5I HOJIHa, BHelliHe nOXO.>KaSl Ha BOJIHY, 06- pa3yeMYlO naJ],alOlI(HM TelIOM Ha nOBepXHOCTb )I(I1,l1KOCTM. KaK M3BeCTHO, 3TI1 BOJlHbI, no Mepe y)].aJIeHMSI OT lI.eHTpa naJ],eHMSl npe)].Me- Ta, YMeHbliialOTCSI no aMnlIMTy)].e M YBeJIM1..II1BaeTCSI MX nepMO,lJ,. Ho,' Kor)].a BOJIHa ,lJ,OH,lJ,eT )10 3KBaTOpMaJIbHOM 1..IaCTM rnapOBoro TelIa, TO OHa BHOBb 6y)].eT YMeHblllaTb CBOH nepMO)]. CJIe,lJ,OBaHI1S1 M YBelIM1..IMBaTbCSI no aMnlIMTY,lJ,e. TaK 1..ITO Kor)].a BOJIHa nOD.OM)].eT K npOTMBonOlIO)I(HOMY nOJIlOcy, TO aMnJIMTY)].a 6YD.eT MMeTb MaKCIiMaJIb- Hoe, MlIM KaKoe-TO ,lJ,pyroe CBoe 3Ha1..IeHMe. Bee 3aBMCMT OT nJIOTHOCTM 11 pa3MepOB lllapOBoro TeJIa. TaK MO)l(eT OKa3aTbCSI, 1..ITO HanpaBJIeHMe y,lJ,apHOM CMlIbI 6Y,lJ,eT MMeTb M npOTMBOnOJlO)I(Hoe 3Ha1..IeHMe. B HallieM CJIyqae 3JIeKTpoH M nl13JIeKTpOH (n03MTpOH) COCTaBlISlIOT )1Be nOlIYBOJIHbI O)1HOrO KOJIe6aTeJIbHOrO npOllecca, B KO- TOpOM 113M JIM60 HaXO,lJ,SlTCSI Ha nOBepXHOCTM C<pePbI, nM60 C)I(aTbI B T01..IKe M MMelOT 60JIblllYlO nJIOTHOCTb. D.pyrMMIi CJIOBaMM, y llBYX lllapOBbIX TeJI, 60JIbliiOrO M MaJIOrO (T01..Ie1..IHOro), HenpepbIBHO coy)].apSlIOlI(MXCSI ,lJ,pyr C ,lJ,pyrOM, MOryT B03HM- KaTb CMlIbI JIM60 MX paCTaJIKMBalOllme, JII160 MX npM)I(MMalOlI(Me ,lJ,pyr K )].pyry, a 31IeKTpOH 11 nM-31IeKTpOH 6y,lJ,YT TOJIbKO npMTSlrMBaTbCSI M3-3a Hepa3,lJ,elIIiMOCTM npOll.eCCOB Me)I():J.y HMMM. B 3TOM CBSl311 n03HTpoH no Macce B npMHlI.Mne He MO)l(eT 6bITb paBeH Macce 31IeKTpOHa. 01..IeBM)].HO, Macca n03MTpOHa Bcer)].a 6y,lJ,eT HeMHoro MeHbllle MaCCbI 3neKTpOHa, M3-3a nOTepM 3HeprMM npM C)I(aTHM 3JIeKTpOHa B T01..IKY. HeCMOTpSl Ha TO, 1..ITO nM-3JIeKTpOH (n03MTpOH) I1MeeT T01..Ie1..IHbIM pa3Mep, MbI ero Bce paBHO 6y.n:eM 0603Ha1..IaTb Toro )l(e pa3Mepa, 1..ITO M 3JIeKTpOH. 16 .  ( lJ BH3"1 HOM 3- 3.. Ie HI'   1..-.... c Q;13.f .nI6c: 
HeHMe IOTCSI OHOB, aJIlIM - :rqaM- M nM- [ ,lJ,pyr ::)JIHO- yqHO- IHOMY M 6y- , 06... )].Me- mlIHa >lllaTb mJIHa l1aJIb- .fepOB 5y)].eT OH B KO- [Ke 11 DrO M )3HI1- ry, a [OCTM O)l(eT [HOrO '01..IKY. ,] ero R,1:J;EPHbIE 1{ACTHQbI DpOCTeMllieM KpMCTaJInM1..IeCKOM: 06'beMHOH KOHCTpyKlI.MeM SlBlISleTCSI coe)].M- HeHMe ,lJ,BYX 3TIP (pMC. 2,a,6). + a) 6) 6) Puc. 2. HawzeZltaUUlue RoepHble ltaCmUlI,bl: a,6 - HeUmpOJlbHble,COCmoJlU{ue U3 oeyx 3JIP; 6,Z,0 - 3apJl;JICeHHble,U3 KomopblX: Z - HaWZeZltaUUlUU Me30H; 0 - HaWZeZltaUUlUU npomOH ""IT06bI nOlIHee npe)].CTaBMTb 06pa30BaHMe KOHCTpyKlI.MM M3 3IIP, nOSlCHMM BHa1..IaJIe B03HMKHOBeHMe 3apMHOCTM B CJIO)I(HOM CMCTeMe.3TIP C npMHlI.l1nMaJIb- HOM T01..IKM 3peHMSI HeMTpaJIbHaSl CMCTeMa, TaK KaK COCTOMT Bcer)].a 113 3JIeKTpOHa M nM3JIeKTpOHa .CO B3aMMHO npOTIiBOnOJIO)l(HbIMM 3apMaMM. 3JIeKTpOH M nH- 31IeKTpOH B3aHMHO KOMneHCMpyIOT 3apSl)].HOCTb, HO, OKa3bIBaeTCSI, npOCTpaHCT- BeHHbIe KOlIe6aHMSI peaJIM3YIOT 3apH.LJ;HOCTb Ha OJl.HY e,lJ,MHMlI.Y lIM60 nOJlO)l(l1Tenb- HyID, lIM60 OTpMlI.aTelIbHYIO. TaK, B HaMlIerqaMllieM SI)].epHOM 1..IaCTMlI.e (pMC. 2, a) .]Ba 3TIP 06pa3yIOT HeMTpaJIbHyIO SI,lJ,epHYIO 1..IaCTMI..J.Y, a B KOHCTpyKlI.MM (pMc.2, e) Sl.Ll.epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a CTaHOBHTCSI e 3apSl)l(eHHOM, T.K. B HeM Ha O,lJ,MH 3neKTpoH 60JIbllle. KaK 3TO MO)I(HO ce6e npe,lJ,cTaBMTb, 1..IT06bI npM HaJIM1..IMM TOJIbKO 3TIP 6bIJIO Ha O)].HY 3apH.LJ;HYIO e)].MHl1l1.Y 60JIbllle ? )].eHCTBMTelIbHO, TaKoe SlBlIeHMe B03HMKaeT 113-3a Toro, 1..ITO 31IeKTpoHbI M nM-3neKTpoHbI B03HMKalOT nOO1..Iepe)].Ho. D03TOMY O,lJ,HOMY 3neKTpoHY MOryT COOT- BeTCTBOBaTb cpa3Y ,lJ,Ba nM-3JIeKTpOHa, MlIH Ha060pOT, O,lJ,HOMY nM-31IeKTpOHY )].Ba ::meKTpOHa, KaK 3TO 11306pa)l(eHO Ha pMc.2, e. B TaKOM KOHCTpyKlI.MM.MbI Ha6JIIO,lJ,a- eM CMe)l(HOe COe,lJ,MHeHMe KaK ,lJ,BYX pa3HopO,lJ,HO 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. (3JIeKTpOH- n03MTpOH), TaK M ,lJ,BYX C O,lJ,HOMMeHHbIMM 3apH.LJ;aMH. TIo cxeMe TaKoe coe)].MHeHMe OlIaronpMSlTcTByeT npMcoe)].MHeHMIO elI(e O,lJ,HOM 3apSl)l(eHHOM 1..IaCTMI..J.bI (pMc.2, e), 11160 OTpMlI.aTelIbHoM (pl1c.2, 0), JIM60 nOlIO)l(l1TenbHOM (pMc.2, z). B nepBoM cny- 1..Iae 06pa30BaHHoe coopeHMe MMeeT OTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIM 3apM (T.K. 3neKTpoHoB no 2. s 17 
qJfC.rry 60JIblIIe, qeM II03JflpOHOB), a BO BTOpOM CJIyqae OHO 6Y,lJ,eT MMeTb IIOnO)l(l1- . TenbHbIM 3apH,LJ;.01..IeBMJJ.HO, B nepBOM CJIyqae MbI MMeeM ,lJ,eno C HaMJIerqaHllIMM Me- 30HOM (c npMMepHOM: MaCCOM - 0,00275 a.e.M.), a BO BTOpOM cJIyqae - C caMbIM nefKMM npOTOHOM (c TOM .>Ke MaccOM). Me30H no OTHOIIIeHMIO K npoToHY SlBlISleTCSI JI,D;epHbIM MOHOM, cnoc06HbIM K 06pa30BaHMIO KOBaJIeHTHOM cBSl3M.Il03TOMY ,lJ,eH- TpOH (Dt) SlBnSleTCSI HaMnpocTeMrneM H,LJ;epHOM MOlIeKYJIOM (pMc.3). -t. BMJJ. C60KY a) 3i BMJJ. cBepxy 6) e) Puc. 3. HaUAe2auUluu oeumpoH (Dt), o6pa30eaHHblu coeouHeHueM HaUAe2auUlUX npomOHa u Me30Ha B 06lI(eM BMJJ.e 3neKTpoHbI M n03MTpOHbI COe,lJ,MHSlIOTCSI B <popMe 'KpMCTaJIJIOB C 3epKaJIbHOM CMMMeTpMeM M C 3epKaJIbHO-aHTMnO,lJ,HOM CMMMeTpMeM. Ey)].eM TaKyIO CMMMeTpMIO Ha3bIBaTb XMpaJIbHOM, KaK He 061IaJ],alOlI(yIO lI.eHTpOM 11 nnOCKOCTblO MHBepCl111 [11]. ECJIM 06paTMTb BHMMaHMe Ha TeTpa3,lJ,paJIbHyIO KOHCTpyKlI.l11O KpMCTaJIlIa H,LJ;epHOM 1..IaCTMlI.bI, TO MO)I(HO 3aMeTMTb, 1..ITO OHa MMeeT M 601Iee ClIO)I(HbIM BapM- aHT. B 1..IaCTHOM clIyqae TeTpa3,lJ,p (pMc.2, a) MO)l(eT COCTOSlTb M3 ,lJ,eCSlTM 3apSl)l(eH- HbIX 1..IaCTMQ (pMc.4, a), a)].JISl clIyqa5I pl1c.4, 6 1..IMCJIO 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTHlI. 6Y,lJ,eT 14. qeTHoe 1..IMCJIO 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. yKa3bIBaeT Ha TO, 1..ITO ,lJ,aHHbIe KpMCTaJInM- 1..IeCKMe KOHCTpyKlI.MM SlBJISlIOTCSI HeMTpaJIbHbIMM. EOlIee ClIO)I(HaSl KOHCTpyKlI.l1S1 TeTpa3,lJ,pa, KaK lIerKO 3aMeTMTb, 6Y,lJ,eT COCTO- SlTb M3 20 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1., a .rJ.BOMHOM TeTpa3,lJ,p COOTBeTCTBeHHO 113 30. TIoclIe- ,lJ,yIOlI(aSl 1..IaCTMQa TeTpa3.rJ.paJIbHOrO ra6MTyca, KaK lIerKO nO,lJ,C1..IMTaTb, COCTOMT 113 35 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTMlI.. ""IMclIO 35, KaK 3aMe1..IaeM, He1..IeTHoe. CJIe,lJ,OBaTeJIbHO, TaKaS!. 18 - ""!!'Oo 
[0)1(11- \.f Me- 1MbIM SleTCSI )].eM- '.Uux lJIJI OB 'aKyIO )CTblO raJIna BapM - [)I(e H - 5Y,lJ,eT lJIJI 11- OCTO- [OClIe- M335 TaKaSl qaCTMlI.a 6Y,lJ,eT MMeTb 3apH,LJ; lIM60 nOJIO)l(l1TeJIbHbIM, JIH60 OTpMlI.aTelIbHbIM OHa M B \farHMTHOM OTHOllIeHHH MO)l(eT 6bITb JIM60 napaMarnMTHOM, nM60 ,lJ,MaMarHMTHoM. Bce 3aBMCMT OT Toro, 1..Iero 60nbllle: 3JIeKTpoHoB MlIM n03MTpoHOB. a) Puc. 4. YCJlOJICHeHHble mempa30paJlbHble RoepHble "tacmUlJ,bl (mempoHbl) TIoCJIe,[J.yIOlI(lIe TpM 601Iee MaCCI1BHbIe H,LJ;epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI TeTpa3,lJ,paJIbHOrO ra611TYca TaK)l(e HeMTpaJIbHbI, T.KB HMX C061I1OD.eHO paBeHCTBO 1..IMCna 31IeKTpOHOB M n03MTpOHoB.3aTeM CHOBa ClIe)].yeT 3apSl)l(eHHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a, COCTOSllI(aSl M3 165 3ne- MeHTOB. BcSI nOClIe,lJ,OBaTelIbHOCTb 1..IMCeJI 3TMX 1..IaCTMlI., (6YlleM Ha3bIBaTb MX MarM- 1..IeCKMMM 1..IMClIaMM), 3anMcaHa B nepBoM CTpOKe Ta61IMlI.bI 1. ""ITO KacaeTCSI H,LJ;epHOM 1..IaCTMlI.bI (pMc.2, 6,2,0), TO ee aHaJIOrMSI 3anMcaHa BO BTOpOM CTpOKe 3TOM )l(e Ta6- nMlI.bI. 3)].ecb MbI TO)l(e 3aMe1..IaeM MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMClIa SI)].epHblx 1..IaCTMlI., COCTOSllI(Me 113 He1..IeTHOrO 1..IMClIa 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB, KOTopble OTHOCSlTCSI lIM60 K Me30- HaM, lIM60 K npOTOHaM. Me30HbI SlBJISlIOTCSI OCHOBOM aHTMH,LJ;ep, a npOTOHbI - 06bI1..IHbIX RlI,ep XMMM1..Ie- CKMX 3JIeMeHTOB. MarM1..IeCKOe 1..IMClIO 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 31IeMeHTOB )].lISI KpMCTaJIlIOB BMJJ.a (pl1c.2, 6) onpe)].elISleTCSI no <popMYlIe: K n + l = M n +(n+lf, (1) 3D.eCb K n + l - nOCJIe,lJ,YIOlI(ee MarM1..IeCKOe 1..IMCnO 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB; M n - npe- ilbl.lI,YIIIee 3Ha1..IeHMe MarM1..IeCKOrO 1..IMClIa; (n + 1) - nocne,lJ,yIOlI(MM HOMep MarM1..Ie- cKoro 1..IMCJIa'(*) , HanpMMep, HaM M3BeCTHO MarM1..IeCKOe 1..IMCJIO 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3neMeHTOB ,lJ,eBSI- (.) - Pa3MepHocTb MarH4eCKHX 4Hcen B. npocTpaHcTBe AOn>KHa COOTBeTCTBOBaTb nnOU4iiAH nonepe4HO- ro Ce4eHHJI, T.e. . Ho, nOCKonbKY MarH4eCKHe 4Hcna onpeAeneHbl Ha OCHOBe HanH4HJI ABYX TpeXMepHblX npoCTpaHCTB (npOTJI>KeHHOrO H BpeMeHHoro), TO pa3MepHOCTb 6YAeT onpeAenJlTbCJI eU4e H KBiiApaTOM CKOpO- CTH,  /c2. r 19 
TOM SlllepHOH 1..IaCTMlI. bI , KOTOpOM: M = 285. Tor,lJ,a )].JISI K 9 + 1 = 285 + (9 + 1)2 = 385. .H.rI.epHbIe 1..IaCTHlI.bI TeTpa3.rJ.paJIbHOrO ra6MTYCa MbI B ,lJ,aJIbHeMllieM 6Y,lJ,eM Ha- 3bIBaTb TeTpOHaMM, a H.LJ;epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI (pMc.2, B) - reKCOHaMIi. Cne,lJ,YIOlI(aSl no CJIO)I(HOcrn H.LJ;epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a 06pa30BaHa B BMJJ.e KY6a MlIM pOM6a (pMc.5). Ha3bIBaeM ee KY60HOM MlIM pOM60HOM. a) 6) A- [ , I , I ' I ' , + +p--,-- - I ' I ' I ' I ' R: B) 0) .01 E ..no- o , l) PUC. 5. Ky6uIlecKue a, 6, 0, pOM6uIlecKue B,l,e RoepHble llaCmUlI,bl (Ky6oHbl,POM6oHbl) Ky6, KaK npMHSlTO B KpIiCTaJIlIOrpa<pMM, 061IaJ],aeT 1..IeTbIpexKpaTHoM CMMMeT- pl1eM:. O,lJ,HaKO, eCJIIi nOCMOTpeTb Ha KY6 no OCM A - A, MO)I(HO 06HapTb, 1..ITO KY6 06naJ],aeT elI(e M xMpanbHoM (3epKaJIbHO-aHTMno,lJ,HoM) CMMMeTpl1eM, T.K. TpM ero BepXHHe rpaHM He 06JIaJ],a1OT MHBepCMeM K npOTMBOnOJIO)I(HbIM rpaHSlM. ElI(e 60JIee HafJIMHO XMpaJIbHa5I CMMMeTpMSI BbIpa)l(eHa B pOM603,lJ,pe (pMc.5, B,l,e). I Mam1..IeCKOe 1..IMClIO 3apIDKeHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB B KY6e M pOM603,lJ,pe (T.e.KY60He M pOM60He) onpen.elISleTCSI no <popMyne: M n = n 3 . (2) . MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCna 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB .rJ.JlSl KY60HOB M pOM60HOB npMBe- ,lJ,eHbI B TpeTbeM cTpoKe Ta6JIMlI.bI 1. 3apSl)l(eHHbIe M HeMTpaJIbHbIe H.LJ;epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI y KY60HOB M reKCOHOB no- BTOpSlIOTCSI 1..IalI(e, '1..IeM y TeTpoHoB. TI03TOMY KY6H1..IeCKaSl reHeTMKa HaM601Iee pac- 20 
T or.n;a M Ha- >a MJIM 1 ilMMeT- rb, 1..ITO f.K. TpM M. ElI(e ?). K)'60He (2) , npMBe- [OB no- ee pac- rrpOCTpaHeHa Cpe)].M MepHbIX 1..IaCTMlI.. He MCKJII01..IeHO, 1..ITO aToMHO-MOJIeK)'JISlpHaSl KPMCTaJIJIOrpa<pMSI 06S13aHa MMeHHO KY6M1..IeCKoMY ra6MTYcy MepHbIx 1..IaCTMlI.. K cJIe)].yIOlI(eM: 60JIee CJIO)I(HOM: <popMe MepHOM: 1..IaCTMlI.bI OTHOCMTCSI OKTa3)].- paJIbHbIM: ra6MTYC (pMc.6). a) 6) Puc. 6. OKma30pUiteCKUe floepHble ltaCmUlJ,bl (oKmoHbl) H.rI.epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI TaKOM <pOpMbI HaMM Ha3BaHbI OKTOHaMM, OHM, KaK M K)'- 60HbI, 06JIaJ],a1OT XMpaJIbHOM: CMMMeTpMeM: (HanpMMep, no OCM A - A). He cJIyqaM:- HO, OKa3bIBaeTCSI, XMpaJIbHOM CMMMeTpMeM: 06JIaJ],a1OT yrJIepOll, aMMHoKMClIOTbI, caxapa, T.K. Ha Bcex 1..IeTbIpex BaJIeHTHOCTSlX yrJIepo)]. npMcoe)].MHSleT 1..IeTbIpe pa31IM1..I- \ HbIe JIMraHJJ.bI. TaKMe )l(e CBOMCTBa MMelOT <poc<pop 11 a30T. KpMCTaJIJIbI y <poc<popa OKTa3)].paJIbHbI. 3TO )].aeT OCHOBaHMe C1..IMTaTb, 1..ITO SlJJ.pa 3TMX aTOMOB HecYT reHeTM- ICY oKTa3)].paJIbHbIX SI.n;epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. (OKTOHOB). ECJIM TaKoe npe)].nOJIO)l(eHMe BepHO, TO MCTOKM 6MOJIOrM1..IeCKOM )l(M3HI1 Ha1..IMHaIOTCSI OT SI)].epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. C XMPaJIbHOM: CMMMeTpMeM:. OKTOHbI OTJIM1..IaIOTCSI 1..IMCJIOM 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTMlI.. CaMbIM npOCTbIM OKTO- HOM SlBlISleTCSI llIeCTM3apMHaSl KOHCTpyKlI.MSI (pMC. 6). CJIe.n;yIOlI(MM MarM1..IeCKIiM 1..IMCJIOM ,lJ,JISI OKTOHOB SlBlISleTCSI 1..IMCJIO 19. ECTecTBeHHo, TaKOM OKTOH 061IaJ],aeT 3a- PSIJJ.HOCTblO.3TY oc06yIO 1..IaCTMlI.Y MbI Ha3BaJIM D.eMoHoM. Bce nOCJIe)].yIOlI(Me MarM- 1..IeCKlie 1..IMCJIa )].JISI SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. OKTOHOB npMBe.n;eHbI B 1..IeTBepTOM: CTpOKe Ta6- lMlI.bI 1. D.pyraSl pa3HoBM,lJ,HOCTb MepHbIx 1..IaCTHlI. MMeeT ,lJ,0,lJ,eKa3)].paJIbHbIM ra6MTYc (pMc.7), Ha3BaHHbIM HaMM )].o.n;eKOHOM. 3JIeMeHTapHbIM )].o.n;eKOH COCTOIiT M3 ceMM 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB, a CJIe.n;yIOlI(MM MarM1..IeCKMM 1..IMCJIOM B PSIJJ.Y )].o)].eKOHOB SlBJISleTCSI 1..IMCJIO 13. Bce nOCJIe.n;yIOlI(Me 1..IaCTMlI.bI TaK)l(e COCTOSIT M3 He1..IeTHOrO 1..IMCJIa 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3.'IeMeHTOB B CBSl3M C TeM, 1..ITO OllMH M3 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB 3a)l(aT B lleHTpe smpa )].o)].eKOHa. B npMHlI.Mne ,lJ,o)].eKOH MO)l(eT 6bITb nYCTOTeJIbIM. B 3TOM CJIyqae .Jo)].eKOHbI 6y)].YT MMeTb HeM:TpaJIbHbIM: 06lI(MM: 3apM, 1..ITO HeJIb3S1 CKa3aTb 0 MX rpa- HSlX, 21 
a) 6) 6) -- + 1'. ' \ :- - ,  + 0) Puc. Z ,OOOeKa30paJlbHaJl KOHCmpYKlI,UJl JlOepHblX "laCmulI, (OOOeKOHbl) KOTopbIe BCer)].a 6y,nST MMeTb HeHYJIeByIO 3apSl)l(eHHOCTb. D.olleKoH, COCTOSllI(MM: M3 13 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB (pMc.7, 6,Z), MbI Ha3BaJIM 1..IepTOHOM. Bce nOCJIe)].yIOlI(Me MarM1..IeCKlie 1..IMCJIa SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1. Tlina 1l01leKOHa npe)].CTaBJIeHbI B nSlTOH CTpOKe Ta6JIMlI.bI 1. MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa .npyrOM: ynaKoBKlI )]'OlleKOHOB BbI1..IMCJISlIOTCSI no <popMYJIe: 1 n = N(15N - 1) 2 (3) OHI1, B 1..IaCTHOCTM, npMBe)].eHbI B 17 -oM: CTpOKe. D.o)].eKoHbI 06JIaJ],a1OT XMpaJIbHOM: CMMMeTpMeM:, a n03ToMY cnoc06HbI C03.na- BaTb 6MOJIOrM1..IeCKyIO pa3HoBM,lJ,HOCTb )I(I13HM, OTJIM1..IHOM: OT 6MOJIOrM1..IeCKOM: )I(I13HM Ha yrJIepo.ne, <poc<pope, a30Te, T.K. OKTa3.npaJIbHaSl XMpaJIbHOCTb CYIIIeCTBeHHO OT- JIM1..IaeTCSI OT )].0.neKa3)].paJIbHOM: XMpaJIbHOCTM. CYIIIeCTBa C .n0.neKa3.npaJIbHOM: XM- paJIbHOCTblO CKopee Bcero 6y.nYT noxo)l(l1 Ha nayKOB, KaJIbMapOB, Kpa60B, MOpCKMX 3Be3.n, MMelOlI(MX 1..IMCJIO KOHe1..IHOCTeM: KpaTHoe nSlTM (HanpMMep, KaK Y HaceKOMbIX, TpM napbI Hor, )].Ba KpbIJIa M .nBe 3aXBaTbIBalOlI(Me KOHe1..IHOcTM). D.0.neKa3)].paJIbHbIe KPMCTaJIJIbI 06pa3yIOTCSI M cpe.nM OpraHM1..IeCKMX BelI(eCTB. HanpMMep, coe.nMHeHMe C 20 H 20 KpMCTaJIJIM3yeTcSI B BM,lJ,e .n0.neKa3.npa. JII060nbITHO 3aMeTMTb, 1..ITO C<pepM- 1..IeCKa.H nOBepXHOCTb )].0)].eKa3)].pa 60JIbllIe, 1..IeM nOBepXHOCTb TeTpa3)].pa B 12 pa3 M B 3,44 pa3a nOBepXHOCTM KY6a. '1'1 
f- llI.MM M3 l.yIOlI(Me CTpOKe ITCSI no (3) C03)].a - )I(I13HM IRO OT- oM: XM- [OpCKMX KOMbIX, aTlbHbIe vlHeHMe C<pePM - pa3 11 B feKca3)].p M TeTpa3)].p SlBlISlIOTCSI 3JIeMeHTaMM 60JIee CJIO)I(HbIX MepHbIX'1..IaC- TIm. TaK, HanpMMep, MKOCa3,lJ,p B npMHlI.Mne MO)l(eT 6bITb c06paH M3 10 reKca3)].- paJIbHbIX 1..IaCTMlI., XOTSI OH, KaK M )].0,lJ,eKa3)].p, pa3BMBaeTCSI OT reHeTM1..IeCKOrO 3apo- .J:bIllla, Ha3BaHHoro HaMM MKOCOHOM (pMc.8). O 2 + Puc. 8. HKOCa30paJlbHaJl KOHcmpYKlI,UJl JlOepHblx "lacmulI, (UKOCOH) I1KOCOH CBoe reOMeTpM1..IeCKOe Ha1..IaJIO 6epeT OT 1..IepTOHa. n03TOMY nepBoM Sl.Ll.epHOM: 1..IaCTMlI.eM MO)I(HO C1..IMTaTb 1..IaCTMlI.Y, COCTOSllI(yIO M3 55 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIe- MeHTOB (CM. Ta6JIMlI.Y 1, llIeCTaSl CTpoKa). MKOCOHbI, KaK M .no.neKOHbI, COCTOSIT TOJIbKO M3 He1..IeTHOrO 1..IMCJIa 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB. TI03TOMY OHM Bcer.na I1MelOT 3apM M Bcer.na, KaK M .npyrMe npOTOHbI M Me30HbI, 06JIaJ],a1OT cnMHOM, KOTOpbIM CKJIaJ],bIBaeTCSI He M3 cnMH KBapKOB, KaK 3TO C1..IMTaeTCSI B COBpeMeHHOM: <pM3MKe, a 113 cnMH 3JIeKTpOHOB M n03MTpOHOB [12]. KpoMe paCCMoTpeHHbIX nSlTM nJIaTOHOBbIX TeJI, H.LJ;epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI MOryT xa- paKTepM30BaTbcSI elI(e 1..IeTbIpbMSI <popMaMM. )].nSl nOJIHOTbI M rJIy6MHbI aHaJIM3a CBOM:CTB BelI(eCTB, xapaKTepM3yIOlI(MX MarHeTM3M, paccMoTpMM BKpaTlI.e M MX KOHCTpyKTMBHbIe oc06eHHocTIi. TaK, rlIaB- HOM M3 HMX, no HallieMY MHeHMIO, SlBJISleTCSI pOM60.n0.neKa3.npoH (pMc.9), Ha3BaH- HbIM HaMM pOHOM. TaKMe KOHCTpyKll.MM MepHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. B03HMKalOT B pe3YJIbTare CMlIbHbIX C)I(I1MalOlI(MX 3JIeKTpM1..IeCKMX M MepHbIX CM, a TaIOKe npM pacnaJ],e bO -Me30HOB, co.nep)l(alI(MX b -KBapK, Ha npOTOH, aHTMnpOTOH M nMOHbI, 1..ITO 06'bSlCHSleTcSI npSl- MbIM npeBpalI(eHMeM TSI)I(eJIOrO b -KBapKa B 06bNHbIe JIerKMe KBapKM. D.eMcTBM- TeJIbHO, KBapKM KBaHTOBOM: XpOMO)].MHaMMKM He M,lJ,eHTM1..IHbI KBapKaM TeopMM 3JIeK- TpOCJIa6bIX B3aMMo.neM:CTBMM:. )],aBHO 113BeCTHO, 1..ITO JIerKMM: d -KBapK 3JIeKTpOCJIa- 60ro B3aMMo)].ei1::.CTBMSI cO,lJ,ep)l(I1T npMMeCb S -KBapKa BToporo nOKOJIeHMSI. 06Ha- p}')KeHHbIe pacna,n,bI nOKa3bIBa1OT, 1..ITO OH CMelliMBaeTCSI He TOJIbKO C S -KBapKOM, 23 
HO M C b -KBapKOM TpeTberO nOKOJIeHMSI. DpM 3TOM KOHCTaHTa B3aMMO.n;eM:CTBMSI KBapKOB MO)l(e r OKa3aTbCSI KOMnJIeKCHOM 6e3 HapyuIeHMSI nOJIO)l(l1TeJIbHOCTM 3HeprnM, 1..ITO npMBO.n;MT K HapyuIeHMIO KOM6MHMpOBaHHOM 1..IeTHOCTM. BMll CBepxy G) BJf.n; c60KY . H Puc. 9. POM6oiJoiJeKG3iJpaJlbHGJl KOHcmpYKlJ,Wl JliJepHoii "lGCmUlJ,bl (pOH) '- C )].pyrOM: CTOpOHbI , B <pM3MKe He CYIIIeCTByeT OTBeTa Ha Bonpoc HM 0 npM- pO,lJ,e Macc 1..IaCTMlI. (TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIM XMITCOBCKlIM MexaHM3M nOSlBlIeHMSI Macc W 11 Z -6030HOB), HM 0 npMpo)].e nOKOJIeHMM:, HM 0 npMpo.n;e KOHCTaHT B3aMMo.n;eMCT- BMSI M SlBlIeHMSI CMelliMBaHMSI. He pellieH Bonpoc 0 Macce HeMTpMHo. TI03TOMY npe)].JIO)l(eHHaSl Mo.n;elIb M TeopMSI SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. MMeeT npSlMoe OTHOllleHMe KaK K lI.BeTOBbIM COCTOSlHMSlM rJIIOOHOB, TaK M K aTOMHOMY SlJJ.PY Bo06lI(e. MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa Ta6JIMlI.bI 1 - 3TO I1Cxo.n;HbIe KOHCTaHTbI Bcex H.LJ;epHbIX qaCTMlI.. TIpO)].OJDKMM MX KpaTKoe paccMoTpeHMe B TOM paKypce, KaK M npe)].blJJ.YIIIMe nSlTb TIJIaTOHOBbIX TeJI. MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa MKOCOHOB BbI1..IMCJIeHbI no <popMYlIe: I n = [lO(n _10)3 -15(n _1)2 + 11(n -1) - 3]. (4) A paC1..IeT MarM'leCKMX 1..IMCeJI )].JISI pOHOB HeCKOJIbKO YCJIO)I(HeH, T.K. Me)l(l];Y .n;BYMSI rpynnaMM M3 llIeCTM 3apIDKeHHbIx 3JIeMeHTOB pa3MelI(aeTCSI He )].Ba, a TpM 3a- pSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTa (+ - + MJIM - + -), KaK yKa3aHO Ha pMc.9, 6. B 3TOM CJIyqae reHeTM1..IeCKMM 3apO)].bIllieM SlBlISleTCSI, KaK Y KY6a, BOCbMM3JIeMeHTHbIM: KpMCTanJI (.n;Ba 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTa 06TSlHyTbI llleCTblO ,lJ,pyrMMM).3TOT 3JIeMeHT OqeBM,lJ,HO SlBJlSleTCSI e)].MHCTBeHHbIM HeM:TpaJIbHbIM BO BceM PSIJJ.Y pOHOB. TIOCKOJIbKY pOH M3 BOCbMM 3JIeMeHTOB SlBJISleTCSI reHeTM1..IeCKMM ,lJ,JISI KY50Ha M pOM60Ha, TO )].JISI Hero ')I(e B Ka1..IeCTBe reHeTM1..IeCKOrO 6y)].eM C1..IMTaTb pOH, COCTOSllI(MM M3 15 3JIeMeHTOB 24 " 
a.eHCTBMSI JIbHOCTH . 0 npM- acc W o.n;eMCT- [03TOMY eKaKK Jl,epHbIX »I,[J.YIIIMe lIe: (4) Me)I(,[J.Y rpM 3a- CJIyqae I1CTaJIlI B.I1,lI,HO )OH M3 SI Hero r1eHTOB (CM. Ta6JIMIJ;Y 1, ce)].bMaSl cTpOKa). POHbI 061IaJ],a1OT XMpaJIbHOM: cMMMeTpMeM (CM.OCb A - A), a n03TOMY SlBJISlIOTCSI HOCMTeJISlMM 6MOJIOrn1..IeCKOM: )l(M3HM. HecKoJIbKO 60JIee npOCTaSl SlJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a C XMpaJIbHOM cMMMeTpMeM M30- 6pa)l(eHa Ha pMC. 10. OHa COCTOMT M3 )].BYX rpynn 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. no 4 3JIeMeH- "fa, C)I(aTbIX 3JIeKTpM1..IeCKlIMM M SlJJ.epHbIMM CMlIaMM. HaJ],o npe.n;nOJIaraTb, 1..ITO )].eBSlTaSl 3apSl)l(eHHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a (M306pa)l(eHHaSl nyHKTMpHO' Ha pMC. 10, a) MaJIOrO pa3Mepa Haxo.n;MTCSI BHYTpM. B CMJIY 3TMX 06- CTOSlTeJIbCTB Bce SlJJ.epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI no)].06Horo ra6MTyca, Ha3BaHHbIe HaMM XMpO- HaMM, 6y.n;YT Bcer)].a 06JIaJ],aTb 3apSl)].HocTblO. MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa )].JISI 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 31eMeHTOB XMpOHOB npMBe)].eHbI B BOCbMOM cTpoKe Ta6JIMlI.bI 1. a) 6) Puc. 10. fIiJepnaJl "lacmuu,a xupon EOJIee CJIO)I(HaSl SlJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a C XMpaJIbHOM: cMMMeTpMeM npellCTaBJIeHa Ha pMC. 11. OHa MMeeT CBoe reHeTMQeCKOe Ha1..IaJIO OT .n;BYX nSlTM3JIeMeHTHbIX nMpa- M.I1,lI" C)].BMHYTbIX no OTHOllIeHMIO )].pyr K )].pyry Ha 45°. Me)I(,[J.y OCHOBaHMSlMM 3a)l(aTa O)].MHHaJ],lI.aTaSl 3apIDKeHHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a. Ha pMC. 11, 6 OHa M306pa)l(eHa nYHKTMpHOM lMHMeM HeMHoro MeHbllIero pa3Mepa. a) 6) Puc. 11. fIiJepnaJl "lacmuu,a 6uoKmon 25 
EJIaro)].apSl 3TOMY reHeTMKa BCeX SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. paCCMaTpMBaeMOrO ra6MTY- ca, 6Y,lJ,eT BCer,lJ,a MMeTb 3apSIJJ.HOCTb M 06JIaJ],aTb CnMHOM. TaKMe 1..IaCTMlI.bI Ha3BaHbI 6MOKTOHaMM, T.K. 1..IHClIO MX rpaHeM pOBHO B .nBa pa3a 60JIbllle 1..IMCJIa rpaHeM: OKTO- HOB. PaC1..IeT MarM1..IeCKMX QMCeJI 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB 6MOKTOHOB npMBe.neH B Ta6JIMlI.e 1, .neBSlTaSl cTpoKa. Cpe)].M nMpaMM.naJIbHbIX SlllepHbIx 1..IaCTMlI., KpoMe TeTpOHOB, I1MelOTCSI M .npyrMe BapMaHTbI. HeKoTopbIe M3 HMX M306pa)l(eHbI Ha pMc.12. Bce nMpaMM,UaJIbHbIe SlJJ.epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI Ha OCHOBaHMM 1..IMCJIa BepllIMH MbI Ha3BaJIM nMpaMMHaMM (pMC 12: 6 - nMpaMMH-4: B - nMpaMMH-5; 2 - nMpaMMH-6). -- "' 0) 6) Puc. 12. HiJepHble liaCmUlJ,bl nUpaMUHbl (a,6,B,2) U 6UnUpaMUHbi (iJ,e) + Marl11..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa 3apIDKeHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB y nMpaMMHOB npMBe.neHbI B Ta6- JIMlI.e 1 COOTBeTCTBeHHO B 10-oM, II-oM, 12-0M: cTpoKax.MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa.ilftH 6MnMpaMliHOB npMBe,lJ,eHbI COOTBeTCTBeHHO B 13-M M 14-M cTpoKax. .5I)].epHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI C ra6MTycoM TeTparoHTpMOKTa3)].p, Ha3BaHHbIe HaMM rpa- HaTOHaMIi (pMC. 13), SlBlISlIOTCSI 1..IaCTMlI.aMM, nOCJIe)].HI1MM no CJIO)I(HOCTM 11 OTHOCM- TeJIbHOM: npOCTOTe. MarM1..IeCKlie 1..IMClIa 3Ha1..IeHMM: 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB )].JISI rpa- HaTOHOB npMBe)].eHbI B Ta6JIMlI.e 1 COOTBeTCTBeHHO )].JISI rpaHaToHa-l (pMC. 13, a) B 15-M CTpOKe, a)].JISl rpaHaToHa-2 (pMc.13, 6) B 16-M CTpOKe. fpaHaToH (pl1c.14) SlBJISleTCSI npOllOJI)I(eHMeM B pa3BMTMe rpaHaTOHa (pl1c.13, 6).OH c06MpaeTcSI Ha OCHOBe nMpaMMHOB (pMc.12, 2). ECJIM B rpaHaToHe (pMc.13, 6) CO,lJ,ep)I(MTCSI 8 nMpaMMHoB, TO B rpaHaTOHe (pl1c. 14) I1X e COllep)l(MTCSI 20. Bep- IIIMHbI 3TI1X nMpaMIiHOB COCTaBJISlIOT )].0)].eKa3)].p. D03ToMY Ha1..IaJIOM B <pOpMMpoBa- HMM rpaHaTOHa (pMC. 14) eCTb H.LJ;epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a )].o)].eKOH, 3apollbIllieM KOToporo COOTBeTCTBeHHO SlBJISleTCSI 1..IepToH. 26 
ra6MTY- Ha3BaHbI -M: OKTO- Be)].eH B :IOTCSI M [J.aJIbHbIe MM (pMC. >1 B Ta6- CJI a )].JISI lMM rpa- OTHOCM- VISI rpa- 3, a) B (pMc.13, [C. 13, 6) 20. Bep- \fMpOBa - OToporo + a) 6) Puc. 13. fIoepHble "laCmUlJ,bl 2paHamOHbl: a - 2paHamoH-1; 6 - 2paHamoH-2 + + Puc. 14 FpaHamoH c 3apOOblUieM "lepmOHa EClIM 06paTI1Tb BHMMaHMe Ha pSl.D: reKCOHOB 11 PSI.LI. nMpaMMHa-4, TO MO)I(HO 06Hapy)l(l1Tb, 1..ITO OHM COCTrnlT 1{3 O,ll,HorO M Toro )l(e 1..IMCJIa 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 3JIeMeH- TOB. KaK 113BeCTHO, HaH60JIee BepOSlTHaSl <popMa KpMCTaJIJIa aTOMOB - KY6M1..IeCKaSI. DpMMepOM TOMY SlBJISlIOTCSI yrJIepo)]. (aJIMa3), )l(eJIe30, 30JIOTO, MpM,lJ,MM, CBMHell., cepe6po M ,lJ,p. 27 
TIpMMepaMM TeTparOHaJIbHbIX CMHrOHMM SlBlISlIOTCSI I1HllMH, OlIOBO, a reKca- rOHaJIbHOM: - rpa<pMT, yrJIepo,lJ" paJ],MM, pyreHMM:, lI.MHK. B 3aBMCMMOCTM OT CMHro- HMM KpMCTaJIJIM1..IeCKOM: CTpyKTYpbI aTOMa MO)I(HO onpe)].eJIMTb M OCHOBHbIe 3aKOHbI nepMO)].M1..IHOCTM XMMM1..IeCKMX 3JIeMeHTOB. AHaJIM3MPYSI Ta6JIMIJ.Y 1, MO)I(HO 06Hapy)l(l1Tb MHoro BeCbMa Ba)I(HbIX CBe)].e- HMM )].JISI SlJJ.epHOM: <pM3MKlI M <pM3MKM Bo06lI(e. )].eM:CTBMTeJIbHO, MarM1..IeCKOe 1..IMCJIO 14 )].JISI OKTOHOB 06urenpM3HaHHbIM HeMTpoH, T.K. COCTOMT M3 1834 3apSl)l(eHHbIX qaCTMlI.. HeMTpMbHoCTb ero nOHSlTHa, nOCKOJIbK)' COCTOMT M3 917 3JIeKTpOHOB M 917 n03MTpOHOB, a, C )].pyrOM: CTOpOHbI, no Macce OH 60JIbllle 3JIeKTpOHa B 1834 pa3a. 3TO )l(e 1..IMCJIO nOJIyqaeTcSI, eCJIM 3HeprnlO HeMTpoHa (oHa paBHa '939 M3B) no)].e- JIMTbHa 3HeprMIO 31IeKTpOHa (We = 0,512 M3B). Tor.n;a W no 939 W = 0512 = 1834. e , (5) To )l(e' nOJIyqaeTcSI, eCJIM cpaBHMBaTb MX MaCCbI: mno = 1,0086 _ 1834. me 0,00055 (6) )].lISI Me30HOB M npOTOHOB xapaKTepHbI He1..IeTHbIe MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa. TaK, B 1..IaCTHOCTM, )].JISI npOTOHOB xapaKTepHbI MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa 1469 M 2255.3TO 13-M M 15-M HOMep pSIJJ.a OKTOHOB. Cpe)].HMM 1..IMCJIOM OQeBI1JJ.HO 6y)].eT: . . N cp - (1469; 2255) = 1862 = 2.931 = 2C2. (7) 3TO 1..IMClIO M onpe,lJ,eJISleT KpaTHOCTb MaCCbI npOTOHa no OTHOllleHMIO K 3JIeK- TpOHY. C .n;pyrOM: CTOpOHbI 1..IMCJIO 931 SlBJISleTCSI HM1..IeM I1HbIM, KaK KBaJ],paTOM CKO- pOCTM CBeTa. CJIellOBaTeJIbHO, CBSl3b 3HeprMM 31IeKTpOHa C 3HeprMeM: SI.n;epHOM 1..Iac- TMlI.bI (Uj;It) onpe.n;eJISleTCSI KaK: w = WR'I = e 2 m R 'I = 931m»"t = e N cp N cp 2 . 931 elmR,'I 2 (8) 3,lJ,eCb m 1/1{ - Macca SIllepHoM 1..IaCTMlI.bI B a. e.M.; We - 3HeprMSI 3JIeKTpOHOB 3TOM SI.aepHOM 1..IaCTMlI.hI B M3B<*); C l 2 - CKOpOCTb, paBHaSl e.n;MHl1l1.e. B)].aJIbHeMllieM 3TOT napaMeTp onYCKaeTCSI. * nOCKOllbKY CKOpOCTl-t CBeTa B Bblpa>KeHHH (8) COKpaTHIIHCb, TO 3HeprHJI We 4HClleHHO paBHa Macce m 101, Hao6opOT, Macca m 4HClleHHO paBHa 3HeprHH 311eKTpoHa We . 3Aecb pa.3MepHOCTH onycKalOTCJI. 28 
a reKca- r CMHro- 3aKOHbI x CBe)].e- e 1..IMCJIO )I(eHHbIX >B M 917 34 pa3a. ) no)].e- (5) (6) TaK, B 13-M 11 (7)  3JIeK- M CKO- 1M 1..Iac- B 3TOM \1 3TOT cce m CJIe)].OBaTeJIbHO, T01..IHaSl Macca .n;aHHOM: SI.LJ:epHOM 1..IaCTMlI.bI 6y.n;eT paBHa : m JlIt = 2.0,512 - 1,024, a.e.M. npe)].nOJIO)I(MM, 1..ITO Maccy npOTOHOB 3KcnepMMeHTaJIbHO onpe)].elIliM KaK mp = 1,00752 a.e.M. (9) Tor.n;a 3HeprMSI 3JIeKTpOHOB (n03MTpoHOB) 6y.n;eT w = mp = 1,00752 = 050376 M3B e(n) 2 2 ' (10) COOTBeTCTBeHHO, Macca 3JIeKTpOHOB B TaKOM npOTOHe 6y)].eT: me = , = 0,50376 = 0,000541 a.e.M. C 931 (11) KaK 3aMeQaeM, Macca 3JIeKTpOHOB B npOTOHe MeHbllle MaCCbI 3JIeKTpOHOB B BaKYYMe. ECJIM )].JISI .n;eMTepMSI B3S1Tb MarM1..IeCKOe 1..IMClIO NQ22-3795 ()].JISI nMpaMI1Ha-4) 11 \faccy )].ei1::TepMSI B3S1Tb paBHOM: m d = 2,014 a.e.M., TO Macca 3JIeKTpOHOB (n03MTpOHOB) y)].eMTepl1S1 6y)].eT paBHa: m = m d = 2,014 = 00005307 e n 3795 ' a.e.M. (12) TaKoe )l(e MarM1..IeCKOe 1..IMCJIO MMeeTCSI M y reKCOHa NQ 22, HO Macca 3JIeK- TPOHOB MO)l(eT y Hero HeCKOJIbKO OTJIM1..IaTbCSI. Macca 31IeKTpOHOB .n;eMTepMSI )].JISI OKT9HOB NQ 18-3894 npM Macce )].eMTepMSI m d = 2,01474 a.e.M.6y.n;eT = m d = 2,01474 = 00005174 me 3894 3894' a.e.M. (13) B npOll.eCce pOCTa SI.LJ:epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI. 31IeKTpOHbI M n03MTpOHbI ynJIOTHSlIOTCSI M MbI Ha6JIIO,lJ,aeM M3JIyqeHMe <pOTOHOB. 3,lJ,eCb MbI MMeeM )].eJIO C <pOT03JIeKTpOHHbIM 06paTMMbIM npOll.eCCOM. EClIM CMCTeMa norJIOlI(aeT 3JIeKTpOHbI, TO OHa )].OJI)l(Ha M3JIyqaTb <pOTOHbI 3a C1..IeT MX caMoynJIOTHeHMSI B H.LJ;epHbIX 1..IaCTMlI.ax. If, Ha060pOT, eCJIM SlJJ.epHbIe 1..Iac- TMlI.bI 3MMCCMpyIOT 31IeKTpOHbI, TO MbI Ha6JIIO)].aeM nOrJIOlI(eHMe <pOTOHOB. B 3JIeKTpOHHO-<pOTOHHbIX B3aMMo)].eM:CTBMSlX yqacTByIOT 3HeprMM Ha ypOBHe 3JIeKTpOH-BOJIbT (3B»)J,JISI OTpbIBa )l(e npOTOHOB MJIM HeMTpOHOB Tpe6yIOTCSI 3Hep- ruM nOpSl.LJ:Ka KMll03JIeKTpOH-BOJIbT (K3B). 29 
VJ o MaZU'leCKUe 'IUCJla HaHMeHOB3HHe I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 TeTpOH I- 4 10 20 35 56 84 120 165 220 286 364 455 560 680 816 969 1140 1330 1540 1771 2024 2300 reKCOH I 5 14 30 55 91 /40 204 285 385 506 650 819 1015 1240 1496 1785 2109 2470 2870 3311 3795 4324 Ky60H. 1 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 1000 1331 1728 2197 2744 3375 4096 4913 5832 6859 8000 9261 10648 12167 13824 15625 17576 poM6oH OIITOH I 6 19 44 85 146 231 344 489 670 891 1156 1469 1834 2255 2736 3281 3894 4679 5540 6481 7506 8619 \6HOHllaMHH-4) .n;oAeKOH-I I 7 13 45 167 439 921 1673 2755 4227 6149 8581 11583 15215 19537 24609 30491 37243 44925 53597 63419 74451 86753 "KOCOH I 7 13 55 147 309 561 923 1415 2057 2869 3871 5083 6525 8217 10179 12431 14993 17885 21127 24739 28741 33153 37995 43287 POH I 8 15 65 175 369 671 1105 1695 2465 3439 4641 6095 7825 9855 12209 14911 17985 21455 23345 29679 34481 39775 XHpoH I 9 35 91 189 341 559 855 1241 /729 2331 3059 3925 4941 6129 7471 9009 10745 12691 14859 17261 19909 22815 25991 29449 33201 . J)HOKTOH 1 II 45 119 249 451 741 1175 1689 2339 3141 4111 5265 6619 8189 9991 12041 14355 16949 19839 23091 26621 30495 llHpaMHH-4 I 5 14 30 55 91 140 204 285 385 506 650 819 1015 1240 1496 1785 2109 2470 2870 3311 3795 4324 llHpaMHH-5 I 6 21 51 101 176 281 421 601 826 1101 1431 1821 2276 2801 3401 4081 4846 5701 6651 7701 8856 10121 llHpaMHH-6 I 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 1000 1331 1728 2197 2744 3375 4096 4913 5832 6859 8000 9261 10648 12167 13824 15625 17576 J)HDHpaMHH-5 I 7 27 72 152 277 457 702 1022 1427 1927 1532 3252 4097 5077 6202 7482 8927 10547 12352 14352 16557 18977 I>HOHpaMHH-6 1 9 35 91 189 341 559 855 1241 1729 2331 3059 3925 4941 6129 7471 9009 10745 12691 14861 17261 /9909 22815 25991 29449 33201 rpaHaTOH-1 1 7 34 116 302 640 1178 1964 3046 4472 6290 8548 11294 14576 18442 22940 28118 34024 40706 48212 56590 65888 76154 87436 99772 rpaHaTOH-2 1 6 38 160 432 914 1666 2748 4220 6136 8574 11576 15208 19530 24602 30484 37236 44918 53590 63312 74144 86146 99378 .n;oAeKoH-2 I 7 29 66 118 185 267 364 476 603 745 902 1074 1261 1463 1680 1912 2159 242/ 2698 2990 3297 3619 3956   $:: .J::: $::/ ...... 'I . 'I L I ' ' 1 " t\.' .... I ... 
PEAKU;IIB 60PA II A30TA "" \1'\ "" ..., PaCCMOTpMM npMMep npeBpalI(eHMSI 60pa30Ha B yrJIepo,lJ,. TIYCTb aTOM yrJIe- '"'O.Ja 06pa30BaH coe):J.MHeHMeM 113 rneCTM )].eflTeplieBbIX aTOMOB (Pl1c. 15, a). TorLl,a aTOM 60pa 6Y,lJ,eT OTJIM1..IaTbCSI OT aTOMa yrJIepOLl,a TonbKO OTCYTCTBMeM O,lJ,Horo aTOMa :el1TepMSI (pMc.15, 6), a aTOM a30Ta - HaJIM1..IMeM Ll,eMTepMSI (pMc.15, e). "" "" ..., ..... "" N ..., o    Puc. 15. CxeMa nceeooRoepno2o coeounenuR 60pa u a30ma: a - am OM Y2.llepooa; 6 - am OM 6opa; e - amOM a30ma; 2 - coeounenue 60pa u a30ma (6opa30n) 1 I I I if... I +---- ------ - - , \, 0 , \ , o "" "" N co "" "" N N ...,. N oj + "" \1'\ N N "" o co "" ..., "" ...,. XMMM1..IeCKOe Coe,lJ,MHeHMe 60pa M a30Ta 03Ha1..IaeT BXO)l()].eHMe BeplllMHoM Ll,eM- TepMeBoro aTOMa a30Ta B yrJIy6JIeHI1e HeLl,OCTalOlI(erO ,lJ,eMTeplieBOrO aTOMa 60pa. B pe3YJIbTaTe TaKoro Coe,lJ,MHeHMSI 06pa3yeTcSI CBSl3b KaK 6bI Ll,BYX aTOMOB yrJIepoLl,a (pl1c.15, 2). TaKoe coe)].I1HeHMe HaCTOJIbKO npo1..IHbe, 1..ITO OHO no CBOMM CBOHCTBaM CKopee npM6JIM)I(aeTCSI K aJIMa3Y, 1..IeM K yrnepoLl,Y. 5ILI,epHOe Coe,lJ,MHeHMe 60pa 11 a30Ta MO)I(HO TaK)l(e Oll.eHMTb CJIe,lJ,YIOlI(MM 06pa30M. 00- BM,lJ,I1MOMY, peaKlI.MSI 3Ta \fO)l(eT MJJ.TM B Ll,BYX HanpaBlIeHMSlX, a MMeHHO: "" N ...,. ..... o N o "" \1'\ ...,. ..... ..., o "" "" ..... ...,. ...,. .., .., rH.......... B 5 + N'7 = Be 4 + 0 8 + WI ... .., "" ,., XI H-"" B 5 + N 7 = C 6 + C 6 + W 2 XI c c B nepBOM CJIyqae BO)].OPQ)].HbIH aTOM nepe6paCbIBaeTCSI OT aTOMa 60pa K aTO- \1Y a30Ta, B pe3YJIbTaTe KOToporo 06pa3YlOTcSI )].Ba HOBbIX aTOMa. bOp npeBpalI(aeTCSI B 6epMJIJIMH, a a30T - B KMCJIOpO)].. Bo BTOpOM CJIyqae 06a aTOMa - 11 60p 11 a30T - npeBpalI(alOTCSI B yrJIepoLl,. 3HeprMli WI M W 2 nOLl,C1..IMTbIBaIOTCSI Ha OCHOBaHIiM ,lJ,e<popMall.MM Macc 3JIeKTpOHOB no <popMYJIaM (17) MJII1 (18). no <popMYJIe (18) 3HeprMIO aTOMa MO)l(- HO onpeLl,enl1Tb, B3S1B 1..IaCTOTY nOrJIOlI(eHI1S1 )].JISI 60pa 3179,35 A 0 , OKpyrJII1B 3TY " ...    . "  :( 31 
1..IaCTOTY)].O 3180, nOJIyql1M 3Heprl1lO)].JISI WE = 3,181 M3B I1JII1 )].JISI ,lJ,pyrl1x 6JII13KI1X 1..IaCTOT WE = 3,159 M3B. COOTBeTCTBeHHO comaCHO Ta6JII1l1.e 4 MO)l(HO y)l(e, He nOJIb3YSlCb <POPMYJIOM (18), BbITIIiCaTb 3HeprMM )].JISI 6epMllJIMSI Be = 2,564 M3B, yrJIepOLl,a C = 3,029 M3B, KMCJIopOLl,a 0 = 4,55 M3B, M a30Ta N = 4,167 M3B. 3HeprMM WI M W 2 6y,lJ,YT WI = WE + W N - WEe - W o = 3,181 + 4,167 - 2,504 - 4,55 = 0,294 M3B; W 2 = WE + W N - We - We = 3,181 + 4,167 - 3,029 - 3,020 = 1,29 M3B. -'- BTopaSl peaKlI.MSI MJJ.eT C 60JIbllll1M BbmeJIeHMeM 3HeprMIi. AHaJIOrM1..IHbIe nceBllOSlllepHbIe coellMHeHMSI B03HMKalOT 11 B Ll,pyrl1x aTOMax, c06paHHbIX 113 nepe- 1..IMCJIeHHbIX SIllepHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1. (CM. Ta6JIMlI.Y 1). = CBB3b CnEKTPAJIbHbIX JIHHHH I10CKOJIbKY MepHbIe 1..IaCTMlI.bI C06PHbI M3 3JIeKTpoHHo-n03I1TpoHHbIX pe30- HaTopOB, TO xapaKTepMCTMKOH Bcex MepHbIX 1..IaCTMIl MO)l(eT CJIY)l(MTb 1..IaCTOTHbIH cneKTp 113JlyqeHMH 11 nOrJIOlI(eHMH. TaK, HaMM YCTaHOBlIeHbI 3aBMCMMOCTli 1..IaCTOT \ nOmOIlleHI1S1 11 1131IyqeHI1S1 B 3JIeKTpOHHo-n03I1TpOHHbIX pe30HaTopax, C nOMOIllblO KOTOpbIX MO)I(HO Oll.eHMBaTb TO MJIM MHoe BelI(eCTBO MllI1 SlLI,epHyIO 1..IaCTMlI.y.OLl,Ha 113 TaKIiX 3aBI1CI1MOCTeM I1MeeT BMJJ.: it e ( m 2 + m 2 ) it _ e n n - (me 2 - m n 2 ) p (14) 3,lJ,eCb me - Macca 3JIeKTpOHoB B a.e.M.; m n - Macca n0311TpoHOB B a.e.M.; it n' it e - L{J1I1 H bI BOJIH n0311TpOHa M C 3JIeKTpOHa; it n = ( ) v e - v n MJIM C A n = ( ) ' v n - v e C A e = ( ) ; C - CKOpOCTb CBeTa. V e + V n D.JIMHa BOJIHbI An 11 A e onpeLl,eJISleTCSI B A 0. OTHOllleHl1e Macc me M m n 3a- BMCI1T KaK: me =  m n V V e (15) 3,lJ,eCb v n - c06CTBeHHaSl 1..IaCTOTa KOJIe6aHMM n03MTpOHa; V e - c06CTBeHHaSl 1..IaCTOTa KOJIe6aHliH 3JIeKTpOHa. 32 
DJII13KMX 'PMYJIOH 9 M3B, 1. , 'rM1..IHbIe 3 nepe- :x pe30- TOTHbIM 1..IaCTOT MOlI(blO )llHa 113 (14) n,A e - C I - V e ) , m n 3a- (15) laCTOTa \Iacca SIJJ.epHOH 1..IaCTl1l1.bI onpe)].eJISleTCSI KaK: m JlIl = A p 4,26.10- 4 . . 3.J,ecb m JlIl - acca H.LJ;epHOH 1..IaCTl1l1.bI B a.e.M.; A p - ,lJ,JIIiHa BOJIHbI 1..IaCTOTbI no- nOlI(eHMSI B AO; 4,26.10- 4 - 3Mnl1pl11..IeCKMM K03<P<PMlI.MeHT, BbI1..IMCJIeHHbIM BTOpaMM. )].JISI onpe,lJ,eJIeHMSI MaCCbI 3JIeKTpOHoB TOH 111111 I1HOH SIJJ.epHOH 1..IaCTMlI.bI MJIM enOMa B lI.eJIOM MO)I(HO nOJIb30BaTbCSI <POPMYJIOM: me = 2284,7 A p. (16) HanpMMep, Y yrJIepO,lJ,a MMelOTCSI ,lJ,Be 1..IaCTOTbI nOrJIOlI(eHMSI A p = 2478,57 AO HAp = 2524,12 AO Tor)].a Macca 3JIeKTPOHOB 6YLl.eT me) = 2284,7.2478,57.10- 10 = 0,0005663 a.e.M.. m e2 = 2284,7.2524,12.10- 10 = 0,0005767 a.e.M. 01..IeBMJJ.HO, nepBaSl Macca m el COOTBeTcTByeT rpa<pMTY, BTopaSl m e2 - yrJIepoLl.Y CCa)I(e). Mepy 3HeprMli 3I1P, 01.:leBI1JJ.HO MO)I(HO onpeLl.eJIMTb no BbIpa)l(eHl11O W=C 2 m 3 =C 2 /3A p ' (17) .1e W - 3HeprMSI B M3B;C - CKOpOCTb ceTa (C 2 = 931); m 3 - 3KBMBaJIeHTHaSl Mac- -a 3TIP B a.e.M.; /3- K?3<P<PMlI.MeHT (/3 = 228,47); A p - )].JIMHa BOJIHbI 1..IaCTOTbI no- flOlI(eHMSI, M. 3HeprMSI BCSlKoro aTOMa -onpeLl.eJISleTCSI 1..IMCJIOM 3JIeKTpOHoB 11 npoToHoB nOCKOJIbKY B 3I1P BCerLl.a O,lJ,MH SIJIeKTPoH 11 O,lJ,I1H n03MTpOH, TO BbIpa)l(eHMe (17) 'UI aTOMa MO)I(HO 3anMcaTb W a = 2nJA p .10- 4 . (18) .1e W a - 3Heprl1S1 aTOMa B M3B; n - HOMep aTOMa B Ta6JIMue M30CTepOB; J - KO- 3e:P<PMlI.MeHT I1JIlIapMOHa (J = 1,0635278); A p - 1..IaCTOTa nOrJIOlI(eHMSI,B AO. B Ta6JIMlI.e 4 K03<P<PMlI.MeHT I1JlJIapMoHa B3S1T paBHbIM e,lJ,MHMlI.e. B 3TOH Ta6- .IHlJ.e KpoMe 1..IMCeJI B03MO)I(HbIX H}'KJIOHOB npMBe,lJ,eHbI BbI1..IMCJIeHHbIe 3Ha1..IeHI1S1 JHeprMM aTOMOB. TIo 3TMM )].aHHbIM MO)I(HO np0l13BeCTM paC1..IeT 3Heprl1l1, BbI)].e- leHHoM B peaKI.J:MM MJIM nOfJIOlI(eHHOM: Me)I(,[J.Y napoM pearMpyIOlI(Mx 1130CTepOB. . 3. s 33 
nOTEH:QHAJ1bI HOHH3A:QHH I1oTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHM3all.MM M30CTepOB CYlI(eCTBeHHO OTJIM1..IaIOTCSI Ll.pyr OT Ll.PY- ra. TaK, HanpMMep" yrJIepoLl. (rpa<pI1T) MMeeT nOTeHlI.MaJI 110HI13all.MM 138 3B. A yrJIepo,lJ, (ca)l(a) MMeeT nOTeHlI.MaJI 110HM3all.MM Bcero 39 3B, Ll.a elI(e OTpl1l1.aTelIb- HbIH [14]. Y <poc<popa (1..IepHoro) TaK)l(e nOTeHlI.MaJI 110HM3all.MM 6JIM30K K yrJIepOll- ..- HOMY (cIDKe) 11 paBeH Bcero 32 3B (cM.Ll.l1arpaMMY pliC. 16). I1oTeHlI.MaJIbI 110H113a- lI.MM, 6JIM3KMe K ymepo,lJ,y (rpa<pMry) y xpOMa, MOlIM6L1.eHa, HI10)].I1Ma, nJIaTI1HbI )].nSl 3TMX 3JIeMeHTOB nOKa3aHa xapaKTepHaSl 3aBMCMMOCTb nOTeHlI.MaJIOB MOHI13all.I111 (KpMBaSl 1). Ha 3TOM )l(e KpMBOM HaMM yKa3aH <poc<pop, MbIlllbSlK, cypbMa, ryJII1M, <ppaHlI.I1M, HMJIbC60pMM, CaJ],MM (Sam - CaxapOB AHLl.peM D.MMTpl1eBI11..I). 3TI1 31Ie- MeHTbI C TaKMMIi nOTeHlll1aJIaMM 110HI13all.MM elI(e HeM3BeCTHbI, HO OHM HeCOMHeH- HO CYIIIeCTByIOT M CO BpeMeHeM 6y)].YT HaHLl.eHbI. Eop MMeeT nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MI1 OKOJIO 70 3B, KpeMHMH - 82 3B, BaHaLl.I1M - 92 3B, repMaHMH - 100 3B, HM06MM - 102 3B, OJIOBO - 102 3B, npa3eOLl.MM - 101 3B, 3p6MM - 100 3B, MPMJJ.MM - 98 3B, paLl.OH - 91 3B. KpMBaSI nOTeHlI.MaJIOB MOHM3all.MM )].JISI 3TI1X 3JIeMeHTOB, MX 11306ap 11 Ll.pyrl1x elI(e HeHai1JJ.eHHbIx (HanpMMep, TaKIiX KaK Ge) 0603Ha1..IeHa 1I.11<PPOH 2. EeplilIJIMM MMeeT nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MI1 40 3B, aJIlOMMHI1H - 50 3B, TIiTaH - 57 3B, raJIJIMH - 62 3B, lI.MpKOHMH (OLl.MH M3 ero 1130cTepoB) - 68 3B, MHJJ.I1H - 69 3B, lI.epMM - 69 3B, rOJIbMI1M - 68 3B, OCMI1M - 66 3B, aCTaT - 61 3B, nJIYToHIiH - 56 3B, noypeHcMM - 47 3B, (CM. KPI1ByIO 3). JIMTMM MMeeT nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MM 28 3B (JII1TMi1-6), MarHMM - 30 3B, CKaHJJ.MM - 35 3B, QMHK - 38 3B, I1TTpliM - 40 3B, KaJ],MMH - 41 3B, JIaHTaH - 41 3B, )].Mcnp03MH - 41 3B, peHMH - 39 3B, (CM. KPMBYIO 4). fenMH MOHM3MpyeTcSI npM 19 3B, HaTpMM - 20 3B, KaJIbll.MM - 21,5 3B, MeLl.b- 8 22 3B, CTPOHlI.MH - 22 3B, cepe6po - 22 3B, 6apMM - 22 3B, Tep6MH - 22 3B, Bonb<ppaM - 21 3B, BMCMYT - 20 3B, ypaH - 10 :JB, (CM. KpMByIO 5). BoLl.opoLl. 110HM3MpyeTcSI npl1 10 3B, HeO'H - 10,8 3B, KaJIMM - 11 3B, HMKeJIb 11,2 3B, py6MLl.I1M - 11,53B, nannaLl.I1M - 12 3B, lI.e3MM - 12 3B, raJ],OJIMHI1H - 12 3B, TaHTaJI - 12 3B, CBMHel.{ - 12 3B (CM. KPMB)'IO 6). HeKoTopbIe M30TonbI CBMHlI.a MMelOT nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MM OKOJIO CTa 3JIeKTpOH-BOJIbT.3TO KaK pa3 )].OKa3bIBaeT, ':lTO TaKOH CBI1Hell. CJIeLl.yeT OTHOCMTb He K 1130TonaM CBI1HlI.a, a K M306apaM I1pl1,lJ,MH II1JIM paJ],OHa (CM.KPIiBYIO 2, Pb). B PSIJJ.Y 14 .. .:; 5J -\.3 -.... Ii a 6 .... 3 1:- 1 
OT ,[J.PY-  3B. A lI.aTelIb- rJIepo,[J. - ffOHM3a- lJIaTI1Hbi. 1I13all.I1M TYJII1M, ITI1 3JIe- :OMHeH- :JaHaJ],I1M [M - 10 1 [ llPyrl1x I, TMTaH MH - 69 TOHMM - 30 3B, - 41 3B, , Me,[J.b- 223B, HMKenb 111M - 12 OJIO CTa )CMTb He I. B PSIJJ.Y IOpa (KpMBaSl 7) TonbKO <pTOp MMeeT oTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIM: nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MM 11 OOTBeTCTBeHHO B ero PH.LJ;Y pa3MelI(eHbI CJIe,lJ,yIOlI(Me 3JIeMeHTbI: lOP -5,11 3B, aprOH 2,2 3B, K06aJIbT 4,5 3B, KpMnTOH 5,1 3B, PO)].I1H 5,7 3B, Kce- OH 6,7 3B, eBponMM 6,7 3B, ra<pHMM 6,8 3B (ra<pHMH C nOTeHlI.MaJIOM MOHM3aU:MM 68 3B, OTHOCMTCSI K 11306apy OCMMSI, CM. KPMByIO 3, HI), TaJIJlMH 6,9 3B, TOPUM 6,9 JB. KMCJIOpO,lJ, (KpMBaSl 8) MMeeT TO)l(e oTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIM: nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MM. OH COOTBeTCTBeHHO paBeH: KMCJIOpO,[J. -15,76 3B, XJIOp -9,8 3B, )l(eJIe30 -4,8 3B neCb )l(eJIe30, KaK M KMCJIOpo,[J., 06JIaJ],aeT OTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIM nOTeHlI.MaJIOM MOHM3a- rnm), 6pOM -3,3 3B, PYTeHMH -3 3B, MO,lJ, -2,5 3B, caMapMH I1MeeT e nOJIO)l(l1- JlbHbIM nOTeHU:MaJI MOHM3all.MM M no CBOMCTBaM npM6nM)I(aeTCSI K lI(en01..IHbIM 3JIe- eHTaM. Benl11..IMHa nOTeHMaJIa MOHM3all.MM )].JISI caMapMSI 4,6 3B, JIIOTell.MSI 5,1 3B, pl)'TM 5,6 3B, aKTMHI1S1 6,1 3B, (CM.KpMByIO 8). A30T I1MeeT elI(e 60JIee oTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIH nOTeHlI.l1aJI 110HM3all.MM: DOT -28,53 3B, cepa -22,4 3B, MapraHell. -16,6 3B, CeJIeH -12,75 3B, TeXHell.l1M -10 JB (TeXHell.I1H no XMMM1..IeCKMM CBOHCTBaM MaJIO OTJIM1..IaeTCSI OT raJIOreHOB 6poMa 11 fO,lJ,a, He CJIyqaM:H< npM3HaKM TeXHeU:MSI cneKTporpa<pM1..IeCKM 06Hapy)l(l1BaJIMCb \teHHO B 3TI1X raJIOreHaX (oc06eHHO B HO,lJ,e). Y TeJIlIypa nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.I1M CJIe)].yIOlI(I1M: -9,01 3B, Y npOMeTMSI -4,3 3B ..HOT naHTaHOM,lJ, OKa3aJICSI raJIOreHoM), y MTTep6MSI 2,7 3B (MTTep6MM BbIllleJI B llleJI01..IHbIe MeTaJIJIbI), y 30nOTa 4,2 3B (,lJ,pyrMe aJIJlOTponHbIe MO,[J.M<pMKall.MM 30JIOTa HMelOT 60JIbliiOH nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHI13all.MM, KOTOpbIH paBeH +9,233B), PaJ],MH 5,43B :M. KPMByIO 9). 3,lJ,eCb MbI 3aMe1..IaeM, 1..ITO nOTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHM3all.MI1 Bcex ,lJ,pyrMX pSl,[J.OB, BKJIIO- '{aSl 12-M, nepeceKalOT HYJIeByIO oCb.3TM )].aHHbIe npe,lJ,CTaBlIeHbI Ha pMc.16.AHaJIl1- 3MPYSl ,lJ,MarpaMMY MaKCIiMaJIbHbIX noporOB nOTeHlI.MaJIOB MOHM3all.MM XI1MM1..IeCKMX 31IeMeHTOB, MO)I(HO 06Hapy)l(l1Tb M xapaKTepHbIe 3aKOHOMepHOCTM B MX npMpOJl.HOH cTpyKTYpe. TIOJImKMTenbHbIe M 60nbllIMe nOTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHM3all.MM MMelOT yrJIepo,[J. (rpa<pMT), <poc<pop (1..IepHbIH), XpOM, MbIllIbSlK (elI(e He onpe,lJ,eJIeH, T.K.OH SlBlISleT- CSI M306apOM xpOMa MlIM MonI16)].eHa), MOJIM6)].eH M ,lJ,p., cornaCHO KpMBOM 1 (pMC. 16). 3- 
"00.....- E,3B ISO Cz As "'0 S6 Nd J ( 100 2 _ 1 -ra (I fl D 13 ''I nc IS H -fOO B PUC. 16. HnmepnOflupo6annble nomenu,UG../lbl uonu3au,uu U36ecmnblX U eU{e neU36ecmnblX .. XUMUlJeCKUX 3JleMenm06 (AJ 01..IeBMJJ.HO 3TO 06'bSlCHSleTcSI CTpoeHl1eM 3TI1X aTOMOB. DOCKOlIbKY nOTeHlI.l1a- JIbI MOHM3all.MM aTOMOB l-ro pSlJl.a MaJIO OTJIM1..IaIOTCSI ,lJ,pyr OT Ll.pyra, TO Slllpa 3TI1X 3neMeHTOB SlBlISlIOTCSI yrJIepo)].OnO,lJ,06HbIMIi. B03MO)l(HO, comaCHO npliBelleHHbIM ra6MrycaM SlJJ.epHbIX KpMCTanJIOB B YKa3aHHOM PSl)].y 3JIeMeHTOB 1..IepHbIH <pOc<pop, KpOMe ,lJ,pyrMX BapMaHTOB MO)l(eT MMeTb KOHCTPYKlI.l11O Kap611,IJ,a JII1TI1S1, HanpMMep: , a P = LiC 2 = Li 3 C. (19) <1>paHlI.MH, pacnOJIO)l(eHHbIH B 3TOM PSIJJ.Y, nOKa He HaMlleH, T.K. OH npe)].- CTaBlISleT C060M M306ap nJIaTMHbI MJII1 Kap6MJJ. TYJII1S1 = IJ 36 
a - n. Nb ?CmHblX eHlll1a- >a 3TMX eHHbIM )C<POp, [Mep: (19) npe)].- Fr = PtF = PtLi 3 = PtCLi = Tm,C 3 = NdCo = SbC 6 = MoRh =. . . (23) -\HaJIOrM1..IHO CI1HTe3MpyeTcSI 11 MaKCI1MI1M (MXI14) 11 CaJ],I1M (SaI23) Mx = PtC 6 = PtCrC 2 = PtCrLi 4 = PtCrMg = PtKr =. . . (24) Bo BTOpOM PSIJJ.Y, KaK 11 B yrJIepOllHOM, 06'be,lJ,MHeHbI 3JIeMeHTbI C aHaJIOrl11..I- HbIMM <pM3MKO-XMMM1..IeCKMMM CBOHCTBaMM. D.eMcTBMTeJIbHO, CBOHCTBa 60pa He yK- -aubIBaJIMCb B paMKM Ta6JIMlI.bI )]..I1.MeHlleJIeeBa, T.K.OHI1 6bIJIM 6JIM3KMMM 60JIbllle K KpeMHI1IO, 1..IeM K aJIIOMMHMIO. B )].l1arpaMMe (pMC. 16) nOTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHM3all.MI1 npl16JII1)1(alOT 60p CKopee K KpeMHI1IO, 1..IeM K aJIIOMI1HI1IO. TIo BceH BI1JJ.I1MOCTM, sopo KpeMHI1S1 CO,[J.ep)l(l1T SlJJ.PO 60pa, 11 OH MO)l(eT 6bITb npe,[J.CTaBlIeH B Bl1JJ.e coe,[J.l1- HeHI1S1: Si = BF = B 2 Be = BLi3 = CO. (25) 11 ,[J.eMcTBMTeJIbHO, coe)].I1HeHI1S1 BLi3 I1MelOT nOTeHlI.MaJI 110HM3all.MI1 OKOJIO ... 2 3B, T.e. npMMepHO CTOJIbKO )l(e, CKOJIbKO y KpeMHI1S1. CooTBeTcTBeHHo BaHaJ],I1H npellCTaBJISleTCSI Coe,lJ,MHeHMSlMI1: V = SiLi 3 = BLi6 = B 2 AI = B 3 0 = B4Li = CaLi = BC 3 =... (26) TaK)l(e npellCTaBJISlIOTCSI 11 ,[J.pyrl1e 3JIeMeHTbi B 3TOM PSlllY. TIo Mepe pOCTa HOMepa 3JIeMeHTOB nOTeHlI.l1aJI 110HM3aQI1M OT npa3eO)].MMa =HI1)1(aeTCSI, nOCTeneHHO npl16JIM)I(aSlCb K HYJIeBOM OCI1. TIocJIe 113 3JIeMeHTa (Yas ) 01..IeBI1JJ.HO cYlI(eCTByeT elI(e 11 122, 131, 140, 149, 158 3JIeMeHTbI. B 6epl1JIJIlieBOM PSIJJ.Y 3JIeMeHTbI I1MelOT 6epliJIlIMeBOe Ha1..IaJIO 11 Ka)I()].bIM M3 HI1X MMeeT cTpoeHMe B BI1,[J.e coe,[J.MHeHMSI 6epMJIJIMSI C npe)].blJJ.YIIIMMM 3JIeMeHTaMIi. HanpliMep: Al = BeF = BeLi 3 = BBe2 = BO. (27) 06palI(aSl BHI1MaHlie Ha M30CTepbI (27), 3aMeTI1M, 1..ITO KMCJIOpO,[J. M <pTOp If\1elOT oTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIH nOTeHlI.l1aJI 110HM3all.11M. TI03TOMY BCSlKIiM OKMceJI 3JIeMeH- TOB nepMo,[J.M1..IeCKOH CMCTeMbI Bcer,[J.a 6y)].eT I1MeTb MeHblllMM nOTeHlI.MaJI I10HM3a- UI1I1, 1..IeM nOTeHlI.l1aJI 110HM3all.MI1 caMoro 3JIeMeHTa. HanpMMep, yrJIepo,[J. MMeeT 140 3B, a OKIiCb yrnepo,lJ,a (CO), T.e. M30cTep KpeMHMSI Bcero 82 3B. 3JIeMeHT KpeMHMSI I1MeeT TOT )l(e caMbIM nOTeHlI.MaJI MOHM3all.MM. T01..IHO TaK)l(e aJIIOMMHMM, npellcTaBlIeHHbIM B Bl1JJ.e M30CTepa, T.e.OKMCJIa 60pa (Bo), I1MeeT nOTeHlI.MaJI MO- HI13all.MI1 48 3B. CooTBeTcTBeHHo HaTpIiM npe)].CTaBlIeH B BM)].e OKMCJIa JIMTMSI Va = LiO, KaJIMM - B BI1,IJ,e OKMCJIa HaTpMSI K = NaO, py6M,lJ,I1M B Bl1JJ.e OKMCJIa \fe,[J.l1, a lI.e311H - OKMCJIa cepe6pa. 37 
3aKMCneHHbIM: BO,lJ,OpO,lJ, (HO) npeJl.CTaBJISleT C060M <PTOp, a 3aKMCneHHbIM <pTOp SlBnSleTCSI XJIOpOM. B CBOIO 01..Iepe,lJ,b 3aKMCJIeHHbIM: XJIOp 06pa3yeT MapraHell. Mn = ClO, a Jl.BYOKMCb XJIopa 06pa3yeT MbIllIbSlK M TaK )].aJIee. B )].MarpaMMe (pMC. 16) cpa3Y MO)I(HO onpe)].eJIMTb reHeaJIOrM1..IecKYIO CMCTeMY oqpa30BaHMSI 3JIeMeHTOB nocpeJl.CTBoM npMCOe,lJ,MHeHI1S1 KIiCnOpOLl,HbIX aTOMOB. 113 ,lJ,MarpaMMbI BMJJ.HO, 1..ITO yrJIepO)].HaSl BeTBb MMeeT 60JIblllyIO npOTSI)I(eHHOCTb, KaK = C no BeTBM npMcoe)].I1HeHMSI SIJJ.ep <pTopa (C,p,Cr,.is,Mo M T.,lJ,.), TaK 11 no BeTBI1 npI1Coe)].MHeHMSI KMcnopo,lJ,a (C,Si,Ti,Zn,Sr,Pd 11 T.,lJ,.). I1pM1..IeM BeTBM He nepece- KalOT HyneByIO OCb, HO no Mepe YBenM1..IeHI1S1 HOMepa OHM nOCTeneHHO C6JIM)I(aIOT- CSI. BeTBM 60pa, 6epMJIJIMSI, JIMTMSI, renMSI, BOllopo)].a, nepeceKalOT OCb, HO C YBe- JII11..IeHMeM HOMepa 3JIeMeHTa I1X nOTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHM3all.MI1 TaK)l(e npM6JI11)1(alOTCSI K HIO. t llEPHO.ll:HqHOCTL TABJIHnLI llOTEHnHAJIOB HOHH3AQHH )].MarpaMMa (pMc.16) <paKTM1..IeCKM SlBlISleTCSI nepMO,lJ,M1..IeCKMM 3aKOHOM XMMI1- 1..IeCKMX 3neMeHTOB, KOTOpbIH.lJ)ISI 06lI(eM HarJIMHOCTM M306pIDKeH B Ta6JIMlI.e 2. B HeM npMBe)].eHbI 6 PSIJJ.OB HYlIeBoM OCM (PSI.LI.bI H, He, Li, Be, B, C). HYJIeBOM pSl,ll ,lJ,eMTpoHa (3JIeMeHTa, 06pa30BaHHoro coe)].I1HeHl1eM npoToHa M Me30Ha, 3apH,LJ; KO- Toporo Bcer)].a paBeH HYJIIO, HO 06JIaJ],aeT nOJIO)l(l1TeJIbHbIM M oTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIM no- TeHlI.MaJIOM l1oHM3all.MI1). B HYJIeBOH pH,LJ; BOlliJIM Dt, Ne,Ar, Ni, Kr, Pd,Xe,Gd, HI, Pd, Th, Fm,Gn... TIo- BM,lJ,MMOMY, 3neMeHTbI 3Toro pH,LJ;a CO,lJ,ep)l(aT ,lJ,eM:TpoHbI 11 3a C1..IeT 3TOro OTJIM1..IaIOTCSI 60JIee BbICOKOM MHepTHOCTblO. fOpM30HTaJIbHbIM PM ,lJ,eHTpoHa BKJII01..IaeT raJIOreH <pTOp M 3JIeMeHTbI, pO)].- CTBeHHbIe <PTOPY: Ar = F 2 ; Co = F 3 ; Kr = F 4 ; Rh = F 5 ; Xe = F6 M T.,lJ,. M3BeCTHbIe no- Ka C nOJIO)l(l1TeJIbHbIMM nOTeHlI.I1aJIaMM MOHM3all.MM faJIOreHaMM MO)l(eT 6bITb BCSI 31iT3aro06pa3HaSl nOCne,lJ,OBaTeJIbHOCTb 3JIeMeHTOB H- 1 , F,Cl,Co, Br, Rh,J, Eu, Lu, Tl, Ac, Es, Sh, rJl.e Co, Rh, Eu, Lu, Tl, Ac, s, Sh H "1J D UIll  TO! J £JOTHO M30CTepbI. Co BpeMeHeM 3TOT pH,LJ; raJIOreHa 6Y,lJ,eT OTKPbIT nOJIHOCTblO. ECJIM MbI 06pa- TMM BHMMaHlie Ha CJIe,lJ,yIOlI(MH KMCJIOpO,lJ,HbIM pH,LJ;:  38 
JIeHHblM Hell. CMCTeMY MOB. 113 Tb, KaK o BeTBM nepece- M)I(aIOT- ) C YBe- llOTCSI K UJJIH  XMMM- fll.e 2. B 10H pSI)]. pH,LJ; KO- blM no- T 3TOrO >1, pOLl,- Ible no- :)ITb BCSI ISh , )6pa - O,CI, Fe,Br, Ru,J,Sm, LU,Hg,Ae,Cf,Sh, TO 3aMeTMM, 1..ITO TpM raJIOreHa (Cl, Br, J) I1MelOT Ha )].MarpaMMe (pl1c. 16) npMMep- HO Te )l(e nOTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHM3all.MM, 1..ITO 11 Y <pTopa.OllHaKo, nOCJIe MOLl,a KpliBaSl nOTeHlI.MaJIa MOHM3all.MM nepeceKaeT HYlIeByIO OCb M caMapMM OKa3bIBaeTCSI Y)I(e lI(e- 10IIHblM 3JIeMeHTOM, KaK M Bce 113BeCTHble JIaHTaHOMllbl. Ho 1130CTepbI Fe = CIF; Ru = BrF; Sm = IF M T.,lJ,.6y,lJ,YT SlBlISlTbCSI CMJIbHblMM OKMCJIIiTelISlMM. EcnM MbI 06paTMM BHMMaHMe Ha nepBbIH 11 BTOpOM pSlLl,bI ,lJ,MarpaMMbI (pl1c. 16), TO 3aMeTMM, 1..ITO B HMX COllep)l(aTCSI Bce rueJI01..IHbIe 3JIeMeHTbI (H, Na, K, Cu, Rb, Ag, Cs, Tb, Ta, Bi, Pa, Md, Ws) .llJ,eJI01..IHbIMM SlBJISlIOTCSI 11 31IeMeH- TbI BToporo pSlLl,a, TaKMe, KaK Ca, Sr, Ba, W, U , Bg, nOCKOJIbKY OHI1 I1MelOT TaKoe ACe CTpoeHMe SlJJ.ep, KaK Y HaTpMSI M MeLl,M. <DpaHlI.MH 11 30JIOTO BbITIaJIM M3 3TMX pSlJl.OB. Ho OHM He nepeCTaJIM 6bITb lI(e- 101..IHbIMM. )].eMCTBMTeJIbHO, eCJIM 06paTMTb BHMMaHMe Ha OKCI1L1,HbIM pSlll, Ha1..IMHaSl OT <poc<popa. (p, V, Ga, Ag, Cs, Eu, Lu, Au, Fr, Am, Lr, Bb), TO 301I0TO 11 <ppaHIlI1H onYCKalOTCSI Ll,0 ypOBHSI nOTeHlI.MaJIa MOHI13all.MM lI(eJI01..IHbIX 31IeMeHTOB, KOTOpbIM .1a)l(e HM)I(e lI.e3MSI, eBponMSI, JIIOTell.MSI. TaKMM 06pa30M, nepMOLl,M1..IeCKMH 3aKOH, npe,lJ,CTaBJIeHHbIM Ta6JII1l1.eM 2, HMeeT 60JIee <pM3M1..IeCKMH CMbICJI, 1..IeM Ta6JIMlI.a D..I1.MeHLI,eJIeeBa. TIocJIe KMCJIOpO)].Horo pSl.na MlleT pSlll a30THbIM: N, S, Mn, Se, Te, Te, Pm, Yb,Au, Ra, Bk, Ts. ECJIM 06paTMTb BHMMaHMe Ha CTpoeHMe SlLI,ep 3Toro pSIJJ.a, MO)l(HO 3aMeTMTb, 1..ITO Bce OHM pOLl,CTBeHHbI a30TY. HanpMMep, JII1HI1S1 113JIyqeHMSI a30Ta 337 HM SlBlISI- eTCSI JIMHl1eM nOrJIOlI(eHMSI )].JISI CeJIeHa, 30JIOTa, a MapraHell. MMeeT pOJl.CTBeHHbIe KpaCSllI(Me MOHbI C )l(eJIe30M, K06aJIbTOM, HMKeJIeM 11 Me,lJ,blO no BepTI1KaJIM, 11 C TeXHell.MeM, npOMeTMeM M 30JIOTOM no ropM30HTaJIM. OpM1..IeM npOMeTMM OLl,I1H 113 JIaHTaHOMLI,OB, I1MelOlI(MM nOCJIe MOLl,a HaM60JIee CI1JIbHbIe raJIOreHHble CBOHCTBa. I I103TOMY ero, KaK TeXHell.MH, TpY)].HO OT,lJ,eJIMTb OT ,lJ,pyrMX 3JIeMeHTOB. YLI,aJIOCb 06- HapY)I(I1Tb CneKTpaJIbHbIe nMHMM HepaJ],110aKTMBHOrO npoMenm Ha BOJIb<ppaMoBoM npoBO,lJ,e ,lJ,JIMTenbHO pa60TaBllIero Ha 01..IMCTKe Mo)].a. HepaJ],MoaKTMBHbIM TeXHell.MH TalOKe CJIeJl.yeT MCKaTb cpe.zjM 6poMa, MOLl,a, CeJIeHa, TeJIlIypa, 11 ,lJ,pyrMX 3JIeMeHTOB a30THoro pSlLl,a. TexHell.MH (MeTaJIJl) nOJIyqaeTcSI B peaKlI.MM CMHTe3a Jl.eHTepMSI npM pacriaJ],e TpMTMSI, KorJl.a B Ka1..IeCTBe paCTBOpMTeJISI MCnOJIb30BaH nopollioK MOJIM6,lJ,eHa. Tpl1TMM 39 
npM CBOeM pacnaJ],e 3aCTaBJISleT MOJIM6,lJ,eH nepe6paCbIBaTb BO)].OpO,lJ,HbIe aTOMbI H., ,lJ,pyrMe SI,lJ,pa no cxeMe: . AI 42HI_3 AI 42 1\T b 41 7' 43 W I => m096 -)- +lV1096 = lVl 93-99 + 1 C97-99 + (28) W = 2W Mo - W Nb - W Tc = 2.26,631- 25,94 - 27,325 = -0,003M3B = -3 K3B .. 3HeprMSI pacnaJ],a TpMTMSI MMeeT npMMepHO TOT )l(e ypOBeHb. TexHell.MH raJIO-- reH nOJIyqalOT nYTeM OTlI(enJIeHMSI OT HOLl,a SlJl.pa HeOHa B cpeLl,e ,lJ,eMTepl1S1 M TpMTI151. B 3JIeKTpOJl.yroBOM pe)l(l1Me C 06pa30BaHMeM MMKpOnMH1..IeBbIX 3JIeKTpI11..IeCKIiX pa3pSl- ... - Ll,OB TOKaMM ,lJ,0 200-800 KA. CJIe,lJ,yIOlI(MM nOCJIe a30Ta MeT yrJIepo,lJ,HbIH PM. 3JIeMeHTaM 3Toro PMa Mbl ,lJ,aJIli Te )l(e Ha3BaHMSI, 1..ITO 11 3JIeMeHTaM C nOJIO)l(MTeJIbHbIM nOTeHlI.MaJIOM MOHI13a- lI.MM. ECJIM <poc<pop, MbIlllbSlK M cypbMa 06JIaJ],a1OT oTpl1l1.aTeJIbHbIM nOTeHlI.MaJIOM MOHM3all.MM, TO TYJIMH C TaKMMM CBOMCTBaMM nOKa He HaM,lJ,eH. <DpaHlI.MM )l(e 11'" - HMlIbC60pMH nepeXO)].SlT Ha CTOPOHY 3JIeMeHTOB C nOnO)l(l1TeJIbHbIM nOTeHlI.l1aJIOM MOHM3all.MM (CM.)].MarpaMMY pMC. 16, KpMBaSl 10). OTpMlI.aTeJIbHbIMM nOTeHlI.I1aJIaMIi 110HM3all.I1M 06JIaJ],a1OT 3JIeMeHTbI M llPyrl1X - pSlllOB. KOHe1..IHO MHorMe M3 HMX HeI13BeCTHbI, HO B TOM M 3aKJII01..IaeTCSI lI.eHHOCTb npe)].JIO)l(eHHOH Ta6JIMlI.bI, KOTopaSl M,lJ,eT BMeCTe C Ll,MarpaMMOM (pMC. 16), LITO OHa nOKa3bIBaeT nYTM nOMCKa MHorMX HOBbIX 3JIeMeHTOB CO CBOMCTBaMM 1l0CeJIe He113- BeCTHbIMM. Ta6JIMlI.a )l(e D..I1.MeH)].eJIeeBa, )].aBliiaSl BHa1..IaJIe TOJI1..IOK K nOMCKy He113- BeCTHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB, CTaJIa nOTOM MOlIlHOH nperpanOM B M3yqeHI111 CTpoeHMSI BelI(e- CTBa B 3aKJII01..IeHMe elI(e 3aMeTMM, 1..ITO Bce raJIOreHbI KpoMe aCTaTa M <pTopa Haxo- - )].SlTCSI B KMCnopO)].HOM PMy.3TMM 06'bSlCHSlIOTCSI HeYCTOH1..IMBbIe Coe,lJ,MHeHMSI raJIore- - HOB C KMCJIOpOJl.OM. <DTOp C KMCJIOpOLl,OM - CMJIbHbIM OKMCJIMTeJIbHbIM <PTOPMll KI1- CJIopOLl,a DE 2 , Ha3bIBaeMbIM M30CTepOM )l(eJIe3a, M npMMeHSleMbIM llJISI OKMClIeHI1S1 - paKeTHoro TOnJIMBa. - _ ... Bce raJIOreHbI, KpOMe <pTopa, npOSlBlISlIOT B COe,lJ,MHeHMSlX C KMCJIOpOLl,OM no- - JIO)l(l1TeJIbHyIO CTeneHb OKMcneHHOCTM M OHa TeM CI1JIbHee, 1..IeM BbIllie HOMep 3JIe- MeHTa. 3TO KacaeTCSI M pTYTM, aKTMHMSI, KaJIM<pOpHMSI, wYJIbnMHMSI. ""ITo KacaeTCSI aCTaTa, TO pacnOJIO)l(eHMe ero B 6epl1JIJIMeBbIX pSlllax (KpMBbIe 3 11 12) YKa3bIBaeT ,lJ,JISI Hero COOTBeTCTBeHHO CiIe,lJ,yIOlI(Me nOTeHlI.MaJIbI MOHI13all.l1l1: +62 3B 11 -9,9 3B. B nepBOM CJIyqae aCTaT nO,lJ,XO,lJ,MT K 11306apy OCMI1S1, a BO BTOpOM CJIyqae OH raJIO- reH.06e cTa6MJIbHbIe MO,lJ,M<pMKall.MM aCTaTa nOKa He HaM,lJ,eHbI, XOTSI OHM Heco- MHeHHO B npMpOJl.e IfMeIOTCSI. 40 or -  z - - - - - - - -  == - - - - - - ,. - - - Z :: \ I '" ,. - - J.. - - -  '"   - , =  - 
.. -- -- .... )SI)]. a MbI ... .. - .. ... OHM3a- ... ... - .. lI.MaJIOM ... - .. ti )l(e -= 11 -- -- lI.MaJIOM .. '!" .. -- ... ... ... )].pyrMx -- ""- co HHOCTb .., M N @ M ... @ ITO OHa ... ... --  HeM3- .... C>  - .., '<t  co '" y HeM3- - M G) @ @ I BelI(e- - ... N :;; C> '<t '<t .c 'l ...  :;; .. - @ @) a Haxo- ... raJIore- ... N ;;; M ....  IMJJ. KM- M ..,. .... . - ...-.. :: - :s: CJIeHI1S1 - - - ;, ... .... - .. = '<t M N ...... ... N N N Q .... -  M ... - @ N .... .., - - (3) .... - ::r: . -= )M no- -, - 0 ....' - :s: p 3JIe- :::    - -  C>  :s: :: '( .., .., caeTCSI - @ G @ ;::! - ::r: (l) IbIBaeT - E- o .:: I:: .., '<t 9,93B. '-" -  - ("J raJIO- +  Heco- M '<t 0 Vi Vi 0 0 0 0 r r--- 01 M  'OMbI Ha (28) c3B - [M: raJIO- " TpMTMSI K pa3pSl- .... Ta6Auu.a 2 . 41 
Ta6lluu.a 3 . Ta6/luu,a ,pU3uKo-xilMuliecKux c6oiicm6 3/leMenm06 C P Cr As Mo Sb Nd Tm Pt Fr Cm (Ns) Mx 1 6 15 24 33 42 51 60 69 78 87 96 105 114 138 146 148.9 148 148 148 147 146 143 137 127 109 80 140 B Si V Ge Nb Sn Pr Er Ir Rn Am (Ku) Yas 2 5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 95 104 113 67 82 92 100 102 102 101 100 98 91 82 70 50 70 Be AI Ti Ga Zr In Ce Ho Os At Pu (Lr) Fd 3 4 13 22 31 40 49 58 67 76 85 94 103 112 40 50 57 62 68 69 69 68 66 61 55 47 35 40 Li Mg Sc Zn Y Cd La Dy Re Po Np (No) Bb 4 3 12 21 30 39 48 57 66 75 84 93 102 111 28 31 35 38 40 41 41 41 39 37 32 29 22 30 He Na Ca Cu Sr Ag Ba 10 W Bi U Md Bg 5 2 11 20 29 38 47 56 65 74 83 92 101 110 19 20 21.5 22 22 22 22 22 21 20 19 18 17 20 H Ne K Ni Rb Pd Cs Gd Ta Pb Pa Fm Ws 6 I 1 10 19 28 37 46 55 64 73 82 91 100 109 10 10.8 11 11.2 11.5 12 12 12 12 12 12 10 9 10 Dt F AT Co Kr Rh Xe Eu Hf 11 10 Es Gn 7 0 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 99 108 +-10 -5.11 2.2 4.5 5.1 5.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9 71 7.2 0 rH 0 CI Fe Br Ru I Sm Lu Hg As I Sf Sh '8 -1 8 17 26 35 44 53 62 71 80 89 98 107 -15.8 -9.8 -4.8 -3.3 -3 -2.5 4.6 5.1 5.6 6.1 6 5.9 -10 He N S Mn Se Ts I Te Pm IYb Au Ra Bk Ts 1 9 -2 7 16 25 34 43 52 61 70 79 88 97 106 -28.5 -22.4 -16.6 -12.8 -10 -9 -4.3 2.7 4.2 5.4 5.3 4.5 -20 - -. ,. .... ... Z - - - .;;. .;;;; .-. . : - ... c :I , I "" _x -or - - - ....=-- ... = Li I 1:5 I Cr As I Mo Sb I Nd Tm Pt Fr Cm (Ns) 10 - .... - -. -  -3 24 33 42 51 60 68 78 87 96 105 1- 17 I 2.8 - -39 -32 -28 -22 -18 -12 -7 1.8 2.7 3.5 -30 - - Be B Si V Ge Nb Sn Pr Er Ir Rn Am (Ku) 11 -4 I 50 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 95 104 -40.5 -37 -30.5 -28.8 -23 -20 -16 8 1.6 1.4 1.3 -40 - - 12 -- B Be AI Ti Ga Zn In Ce Ho Os At Pu (Lr) - -5 4 13 22 31 40 49 58 67 76 85 94 103 - - -59 -52 -41.5 -41 -36 -32 -29 -23 17 8 1.3 1.2 -70 42 I 
I - I - I - I \C I 00 = -.J -.J N  - tN = N - - <:rI N VI tN   tN -.J N - - = = = = = = = = = =  =  ;:: .J::   I II III IV V VI VII VIII 'IX -1 0 H 1 He 2 2-6 3 4 5 6 N 7 7-21 1 H 1-3 Dt 1-3 -0,48222 1-3 0,94588 Li 39 Be 4-12 B 5-15 C 6-18 4,167 -0,48222 0 A (0,3215) Heo (0,66) 1,94;1,64 2,504; 1 ,879 3,181;3,159 3,029;2,974 N° (2,777) 0 8 8-24 F 9 9-27 Ne 10 10-30 11 12 13 14 15 16 2 4,55 5,6597 5,1648 Na 11-33 Mg 12-36 AI 13-39 Si 14-42 P 15-45 S 16-48 0° (3,048) F' (4,458) Neo (4,956) 7,267;7,265 6,845;6,709 8,041;8,014 7,192;7,019 9,938;7,659 10,32 CI 17 17-51 Ar 18 18-54 19 19-57 20 21 22 23 24 25 3 11,779 11,799 K 12,552 Ca 20-60 Sc 21-63 Ti 22-66 V 23-69 Cr 24-72 Mn 25-75 Clo (7,859) Ar° (8,919) 12,717;12,635 13,27;10,734 14,32;14,265 14,65; 14,644 14,335; 13,648 ]6,21;14,008 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 4 Fe 26-78 Co 27-81 Ni 28-84 Cu 29-87 Zn 30-90 Ga 31-93 Ge 32.,96 As 33-99 Se 34- 1 02 15,707;] 3,517 18,649; 18,388 19,] 23; 17, 129 18,986; 18,836 20,07,19,216 19,724; 18,25 19,45;16,968 20,451;18,819 19,856; 17,369 35 Kr 36 36-108 37 38 39 Zr 40 40-120 41 42 43 5 Br 35-]05 23,758; 18, 176 Rb 37 -\II Sr 38-114 Y 39-\1 7 27,506;27,136 Nb 41-123 Mo 42-126 Tc 43-129 23,436 Kr° (18,176) 25,]82 26,33;25,308 27,21;25,957 zO (21,1097) 25,94;24,197 26,631 ;26,313 28,503;27,325 ",r 44 45 Pd 46 46-138 47 48 49 50 51 52 6 Ru 44-132 Rh 45-135 30,435;29,46 ] Ag 47-141 Cd 48-144 In 49-147 Sn 50-150 Sb 51-153 Te 52-]56 28,618 29,718 Pdo (27,38) - 31,799:30,838 33,2895;31,306 31,91;29,786 31,75;30,341 34,505;29,355 24,812;24,786 53 Xe 54 54-162 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 7 I 53-] 59 35,066 Cs 55-165 Ba 56-168 La 57-17] Ce 58-174 Pr 59-177 Nd 60-180 Pm 61-183 35,693 Xe o (32,767) 34,991 ;32,384 26,293;26,155 38,047;36,994 38,315;36,54 39,65 39,295 39,345 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 8 Sm 62-186 Eu 63-189 Gd 64-192 1b 65-195 Dy 66-198 Ho 67-201 Er 68-204 Tm 69-207 Yb 70-210 38,799 40,66 40,422;37,997 43,609 40,32 46,124 40,507 46,196 45,142 71 72 73 74 75 74 77 78 79 9 Lu 71-213 Hf 72-216 Ta 73-219 W 74-222 Re 75-225 Os 74-222 Ir 77-231 Pt 78-234 Au 79-237 48,493 43,386 39,634:39,203 43,615;42,861 51,967;49,95 47,5 43,578 47,809;41,487 42,28;38,361 80 TI 81 81-243 82 83 84 85 Ro 86 86-258 87 88 10 Hg 80-240 47,1778;44,839 Pb 82-246 Bi 83-249 Po 84- 25 2 At 85-255 56,008 Fr 87-261 Ra 88-264 38,858 T1 0 (38,78) 46,462;45,953 50,924;48,023 5] ,589;46,052 54,3218 Roo (42,216) 52,98;49,579 50,]85 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 11 Ac 89-267 Th 90-270 Pa 91-273 U 92-276 Np 93-279 Pu 94-282 Am 95-285 Cm 96-288 Bk 97-291 60,956 56,653 60,573 52,729;5] ,962 58,] 18 62,933 61,586 64,5 58,621 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 12 Cf 98-294 Es 99-297 Fm 100-300 Md 101-303 No ] 02-306 Lr 103- 309 Ku 104-312 Ns 105-315 Ts 106-318 63,627 63,33 65,102 63,969 63,154 69,568 71,133 70,388 71,718 107 ]08 109 ] ]0 111 \12 1]3 114 115 13 Sh 107-321 Gn 108-324 Ws 109-327 Bg ] 10-330 Bb 111-333 Fd 112-336 Yas 113-339 Mx 114-342 Wb 115-345   ;:: .J::   ..j:::.. w 
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]JOHaMI1 'aJIlII13a - )pa30Ba- BaKYYM3 pJ1JlOCb, C )].PY- JJlY4eH- e6aHliM {IO 1..IaC- bKY Be- bI H113- y npo- :TpOHa - ee, HO IOTCSI B SI Bce- 'CTpaH - la)I<:aIOT UlinaM H, 611- laHHbIX 06pa3, 306pa - rpMMe- lCTpOM lCTpO- e 4ac- M aM- eHI1M, \1Map- 1m 11306pa)l(eHMSI Ha Tex )l(e 1..IaCTOTax, TOJIbKO 60JIblllerO MaCIIITa6a. CJIe)].OBa- lbHO, BCSI BCeJIeHHaSl SlBlISleTCSI MHTerpaJIbHbIM 11306pa)l(eHI1eM BceM MaTepl1l1, .K.3JIeKTpOHbI M n03MTpOHbI SlBJ1S1IOT C060M 3JIeMeHTapHbIe BOJIHOBbIe npe)].CTaBlIe- . MaTepl1l1, 113 KOTOpbIX C0311aHO Bce BeweCTBO. 3Be311bI paCnOlIO)l(eHbI B Y3JlaX I1CTaJIJIM1..IeCKOM pellieTKI1 pa3JIM4HbIX Kpl1CTaJIJIOB 11 B 60JIblllMHCTBe CBoeM Haxo- CSI B npOCTpaHCTBe OTHOCI1TeJIbHO HenO)].BI1)i(HO. HecKoJIbKO CJIOB 0 B03MO)l(HOCTI1 Ha6JllOlleHI1S1 3Be31J. Ha He6e. Do npe)].no- --D.iKeHI1IO OllHoro 113 coaBTopOB, 3Be311bI Ha He6e HeJlb3S1 06HapY)I(I1Tb OnTI11..IeCKI1- H MeTo)].aMI1 HenocpellCTBeHHO. D.eMCTBI1TeJlbHO, CI1Jla CBeTa OT I1CT01..IHI1Ka y6bI- eT nponOpliMOHaJIbHO KBaLl,paTY paCCTOSlHI1S1. Hanpl1Mep, nJIaHeTa Mapc pac no- O.iKeHa OT COJIHlI.a Ha paccToSlHMM npl1MepHO B )].Ba pa3a )].aJIbllle, 1..IeM nlIaHeTa X\1JISI. CJIe)].oBaTeJIbHo. CIiJIa CBeTa Ha Mapce 6y)].eT B 4eTbIpe pa3a MeHbwe, 1..IeM Ha 3eMJIe. Ha6JIIOllaTeJIIO Ha Mapce COJlHlle 6YlleT Ka3aTbCSI KpaCHOBaTbIM, a C 1L1aHeTbI nJIYTOH COlIHIle Bo06lI(e He 6YlleT BI1)].HO, T.K. DJlYTOH YllaJIeH OT COJ1H- na B 20 pa3 )].aJIbllle, 1..IeM 3eMJISI 11 Cl1lIa COJIHe1..IHOrO CBeTa 6y)].eT n04TI1 B 400 pa3 , eHbwe, 1..IeM Ha 3eMJIe. l.JelIOBe1..IeCKI1M )l(e rJla3 cnoc06eH pa3JlI11..IaTb CBeTIiMOCTIi CO}IHlI.a 6e3 OnTI11..IeCKOM TeXHMKlI B )].l1ana30He npliMepHO 80-KpaTHoro YMeHbwe- .mSl. CBe1..IeHMe 3Be3)]. B npl1HlI.l1ne He npeBbIwaeT CBe1..IeHMSI COJIHIla, a YllaJIeHbI OHI1 HaMHoro llaJIbWe, 1..IeM nJIaHeTa DlIYTOH. n03TOMY Ha61I1O)].aTb 3Be311bI OnTI11..Ie- KM HeB03MO)I(H0, )].a)l(e B caMbIe MOlI(HbIe TeJIeCKOnbI.l.JTo )l(e MbI BI1)].I1M Ha He6e? J.....oHe1..IHO, He 3Be3)].bI. 3)].ecb Mbl I1MeeM )].eJIo C 06bI1..IHOM 11I1CnepCl1eM, n01l06HoM TOM, KOTOpyIO Ha6JIIO)].aeM npl1 npOCBe1..II1BaHIiM BelI(eCTBa peHTreHOBCKI1MI1 lIyqa- \111. TaKl1e peHTreHorpaMMbI 113BeCTHbl cneUl1aJIl1CTaM. npOcBe411BaeMoe BelI(eCTBO COCTOMT M3 MMlIJIMap)].a aToMoB, a Ha peHTreHorpaMMe <pI1KClipyeTcsr Bcero KaKI1X- TO HeCKOJIbKO COT SlpKI1X T01..IeK. T01..IHO TaK)l(e, 3Be3)]. B npOCTpaHCTBe 6eC411CJleHHOe \IHO)l(eCTBO, a )].l1cnepCI1S1 peJIMKTOBOro CBe1..IeHI1S1 6y)].eT npe)].CTaBlISlTbCSI I1MeHHO , T3KOM, KaKOM MbI Ha6JIIO)].aeM ee Ha He60CBo)].e. TIo peHTreHorpaMMe HeB03MO)l(HO OueHI1Tb CTpyKTyPY BelI(eCTBa. HeB03MO)l(- HO onpe)].eJIMTb 11 no M306pa)l(eHI11O 3Be3L1,HOrO He6a CTpYKTYPY raJIaKTI1K, XOTSI no- HSITHO, 1..ITO raJIaKTMKM COCTOSIT 113 KpI1CTaJIJII11..IeCKI1X 06pa30BaHI1M. O)].HaKO, eCJII1 BOCnOJIb30BaTbCSI BOJIHOBOM OnTI1KOM, TO 0 CTpYKType raJIaKTI1K MO)l(HO nOJlyql1Tb 3Ha4MTeJIbHO 60JIbllle CBe)].eHI1M. )].eMCTBMTeJIbHO, KaK y)l(e OTMe1..IaJIOCb, 11306pa)l(eHMe BCeJIeHHOM npe)].CTaB- lSleTCSI B BI1)].e MHTerpaJIbHOrO M306pa)l(eHI1S1, a BCSlKoe I1HTerpaJIbHOe 11306pa)l(eHI1e 45 
pa3JIaraeTCSI Ha paCTpOBbIe M306pa)l(eHI1S1. YClIOBHO 6y)].eM C1..II1TaTb no)]. paCTpOBbIM 11306pa)l(eHl1eM QaCTIi BceneHHOM aTOM BO,lJ,OpO,lJ,a. EClIl1 3TO npe,lJ,nOlImKeHl1e BepHO, TO n03HaTb HalllY faJIaKTI1KY 6y)].eT B03MO)l(HO nYTeM n03HaHI1S1 coopY)l(eHI1M BO)].O- P0)].HbIX aTOMOB. BO)].OpO)].HbIe aTOMbI pa3JII11..IHbI, pa31I111..IHbI 11 Ha3BaHHbIe coope- HI1S1, npe)].CTaBJ1S1IOlI(l1e C060M CJIO)l(HbIe aTOMbI 11 SlBJ1S1IOlI(l1eCSI npo06pa30M 6JII1- )l(aMllieM TeppMTOp1111 HallieM faJIaKTI1KM. BOT n01..IeMY M3yqeHMe aTOMOB TaK Ba)l(HO C T01..IKI1 3peHI1S1 n03HaHI1S1 BCeJleHHoM. D03TOMY npellJlO)l(eHHaSl Ta6JII1l1.a 1130cTepoB C O)].HOM CTOpOHbI pacKpblBaeT cTpoeHl1e BewecTBa, a C llpyroM - n03B0J1S1eT B3rJlSlHYTb B rJly611HbI BCeJIeHHoM. TIpe)].lIO)l(eHHaSl CI1CTeMa 3JleMeHTOB nOClIe ee 3alI(MTbI Ha yyeHOM COBeTe PYCCKOM aKalIeMl111 CTaJIa Ha3bIBaTbCSI "<p113I1KO-XI1Ml1yeCKOM Ta6JIMUeM EOJlOTOBbIX" (EoJIoToBa Eopl1ca BaCl1lIbeBI11..Ia, EOJIOTOBOH HeJIJII1 AH)].peeBHbI, EOJIOTOBa MaK- CI1Ma EoplicoBI11..Ia). DepBbIM 3K3eMnJlSlp Ta6Jll1UbI HaXOlll1TCSI Ha coXpaHeHl111 B MY3ee aKa.n:eMIiKa H.D..3eJ1MHCKOro B MocKBe Ha YJl. EeJlI1HcKoro. EClIl1 Ha Ta6JII1UY 2 06paTI1Tb BHI1- MaHlie C n0311Ul111 OCJIa6JIeHI1S1 I1HepTHOCTI1, Hanpl1Mep, Ha1..II1HaSl OT ymepo)].a, TO 06HapY)l(I1BaeM, 1..ITO caM no ce6e ymepoll (KaK 11 rpa<Pl!T, 11 aJIMa3) 06JlalIaeT Hau- BbICllleH I1HepTHOCTblO. D.eHCTBI1TeJlbHO, ymepoll He paCTBopSleTCSI HI1 B OllHOH 113 KIiClIOT, BKJII01..IaSl uapCKYIO BOllKY 11 nlIaBI1KOBYIO KI1CJlOTY. nOJIHblM nOTeHUl1aJI 110HI13aUl111 npl16JII1)1(aeTCSI K 138 3B. 3a ymepolloM no )].l1arOHaJIl1 B Ta6Jll1Ile Haxo- 11I1TCSI KpeMHI1M (noTeHIlI1aJI 110HI13aUl111 COCTaBJlSleT nopSlllKa 82 3B), 3aTeM l111eT TIiTaH (57 3B), nOTOM UI1HK (38 3B), CTpOHUI1M (22 3B), naJIJ1alll1M (12 3B), KceHOH (6,7 3B), CaMapliM (4,6 3B), I1TTep61111 (2,7 3B), nJ1aTI1Ha 0,8 3B), nJ1YToHuM (l,3 3B). B 3TOM PSlllY I1HepTHocTb KaK 6bl npOCTpeJ1l1J1a MHOrlie HaM 113BeCTHble I1HepT- HbIe BellleCTBa. Tenepb 0 pa3MelI(eHI1I1 B Ta61II1ue BceB03MO)l(HblX 1130CTepOB. ECJlI1 B3S1Tb yr- JlepOllHbIM pSlll, TO 3aMeTI1M, YTO OT yrJlepOlla 110 xpOMa 1l0J1)1(HO pa3MewaTbCSI ewe , 17 3JIeMeHTOB (l8-M SlBJlSleTCSI caM XpOM). D.eMCTBI1TeJlbHO, yrJlepOll no CTpOeHl11O HanOMIiHaeT Ky6, y KOToporo I1MeeTCSI 6 rpaHeM (pl1c. 15,a). ECJlI1 K Ky6y npl1coe- 11I1HI1Tb ewe Olll1H BOllOpO)].HbIM aTOM (KaK 3TO CllelIaHO Ha pl1c. 15,6), TO OKa3blBa- eTCSI, 4TO npl1 TaKOM coe)].I1HeHI1I1 06pa3yeTcSI He a30T, y KOToporo 6YlleT 14 HY- KJIOHOB, a TO)l(e yrJIepo)]., HO C l4 HYKJIOHaMI1 11 7 BO)].OpO)].HbIMI1 aTOMaMI1. TaKoM yrJIepo)]. HanOMIiHaeT MSlrKIiM rpa<pI1T. ECJII1 K yrJIepollY (pl1c. 15,6) npliCOelll1HI1Tb ewe Olll1H BOllOpOllHbIM aTOM H3 CB060)].HYIO rpaHb, TO CHOBa 06pa3yeTcSI ymepo)]., a He KI1CJIOpO)]., y KOToporo Ta- 46 $ .1. L!t - .. ] HOBI .- o Bee , e IJII I O. 3H 0] LV c 601{ H C. WIle .:IC.l. _10'1 , '-I SI I aJI 13.... mOl '1M TIt\. 3Ht It '13'(( 
TpOBbIM BepHO, H BO)].O- >opY)I(e- 1M 61IM- : Ba)l(HO :pbIBaeT oM:. COBeTe )TOBbIX" a MaK- aeMIiKa rb BHI1- ))].a, TO :T HaJ1- HOH 113 :HUl1aJl . Haxo- M l111eT (CeHOH 1ti (1,3 11HepT- Hb yr- :SI ewe OeHl11O Jl1coe- 13bIBa- 14 HY- TaKoM OM Ha ro Ta- _ )l(e 1..II1CJIO HYKJIOHOB. B lleMCTBI1TeJIbHOCTIi 06pa3yeTcSI CHOBa yrJ1epo)]., nOXO)l(l1M rpa<pJ1T, HO C elI(e 60Jlee MSlfKOM CTPYKTYPOM, np116JII1)1(alOlI(eMCSI K CMOJIaM. D.Pyrl1MI1 CJIOBaMI1, llaJIbHeMWee npl1Coe)].I1HeHl1e BO)].OpOllHbIX aTOMOB K rpa- \I Ky6a 6y)].eT 06pa30BbIBaTb rpa<pI1Tono)].06HbIe BellleCTBa, BKJII04aSl )l(111XKOCTHbIe .1a)l(e ra3006pa3HbIe. Bcero OKa3bIBaeTCSI MO)l(HO 06pa30BaTb OT yrJlepOlla 110 xpoMa HOBbIX 1130cTepoB, CBOMCTBa KOTOpbIX nOCTeneHHO nepexollSlT OT rpa<pI1Ta K )MY. OT xpoMa 11,0 MOJII16)].eHa TaK)l(e pa3MelI(aeTCSI 17 HOBbIX 1130CTepOB 11 TaK lla- e. Bcero Ha pSlll MO)l(eT 6bITb nOJlyy.eHO ewe 102 311eMeHTa. Bcero B 3TOM PSl)].y 3\felI(eHO 108 3JIeMeHTOB. PSlllOB, KaK BI111HO 113 Ta61II1UbI 2, llBeHalIuaTb. CJIellOBa-  lbHO, TOJlbKO B YKa3aHHbIx pSlllax pa3MelI(eHO 1296 3JIeMeHTOB. Tenepb 06paTliM JlMaHlie Ha 11l1arOHaJlb Ta6Jll1l1.bI 11 06HapY)l(I1M, 1..ITO Me:>K1lY yrJlepOllOM 11 KpeM- iteM npOMC)I(YTOK. COCTOSllI(I1M 113 BOCbMI1 3JleMeHTOB. nOlIY4aeTCSI, 1..ITO rOp1130H- -a.lbHbIX pSl)].OB )].OJI)I(HO 6bITb He 12, a 96. CJIellOBaTeJIbHO, 06wee KOJlI11..IeCTBO 1130CTepOB B YKa3aHHoM Ta6Jll1Ile 10368, -e.601Iee 10 TbICSl1..I, a B Ta6Jll1ue 3JIeMeHTOB LI.I1.MeHlleJIeeBa I1X Bcero 105.LIpy- nl\1I1 CJlOBaMI1, Ta6Jll1ua LI.H.MeHllelleeBa CKpbIJIa OT Y4eHoro Mlipa B CTO pa3 OO.lbwe 3JIeMeHTOB, 1..IeM OTKpbIJIa. KOHet:IHo, llJISI npellllaraeMoM Ta6JIliUbI 11 3TO He ppelleJI, T.K. B03MO)l(HOCTeM y 1130CTepOB Ky)].a 60Jlee, 1..IeM 3)].eCb npellCTaBlIeHO.' Ho 8 ueJIOM Ta6JII1ua )].aeT xopowl1e OCHOBaHMSI llJISI npaKTI14eCKOMlleSlTellbHOCTli B 06- aCTIi XOlIOlIHoro SlllepHoro CI1HTe3a 11 lleJleHI1S1. nPE,lJ;nOCbIJIKII K H,lJ;EPHbIM nPEBPAII(EHIIHM HA MAJIbIX 3HEPrlIHX 5111epHOM G->11311Ke B HaCTOSllllee BpeMSI YlleJISleTCSI MHoro BHI1MaHI1S1.0n:HaKo, SL'lepHaH 3HepreTI1Ka OrpaHI1411BaeTcSI HeMHOrl1MI1 3JleMeHTaMI1 11, KaK npaBI1JIO, OHa 3aKaHy.I1BaeTCSI Ha ypaHe 11 nJlYTOHI1I1. YpaH (235) pacruenJISleTCSI Ha 6apMM 11 Kpl1nTOH Ha ypOBHe 3Heprl111 OKOJIO 250 M3B. OCKOJIKI1 pacruenJIeHI1S1 ypaHa, B TOM 411Clle 11 HeMTpOHbI, TOpM03S1TCSI, 06pa3YSl TenJIOBbIe KOlIe6aHI1S1 MOJleKYJI. .Jpyrl1x cnoc060B nOJIyqeHI1S1 TenJlOBOM 3Heprl1M 6e3 BbI6poCOB HeMTpOHOB C BbICO- K011 3Heprl1eM He HaMlleHO. n03TOMY B SlllepHOM <p11311Ke HacTynl1Jl TSI)I(eJIbIM Kpl1- JJfC MlipOB033peHI1M. O)].HI1 C1..II1TaIOT, Y.TO SI)].epHbIe peaKlI.l111 Ha MaJIbIX 3Heprl1S1X HeB03MO)l(HbI Bo06lI(e, a )].pyrl1e CTOSIT Ha OWI1604HbIX nOHSlTI1S1X. Hanpl1Mep, CI1H- 47 
Te3 reJIMSI 113 )].eMTepMSI B npMHlI.Mne HeB03MO)l(eH B TOKOMaKe, HO Bce paBHO MJJ.yr OrpOMHble 3aTpaTbI <pMHaHCOBbIX M 1I1O)].CKIiX peCypCOB. ABTOpbI B CBOeM: pa60Te He yqacTBYIOT B cnopax <p113MKOB. OHM K SI)].epHOM <pM3I1Ke OTHOCSlTCSI KaK K 01..IeHb TOHKOM: HayKe. ""IT06bI cepbe3HO 3aHMMaTbCSI SI)].ep- HOM 3HepreTI1KOH Ha,rrO BHa1..IaJIe onpe)].elIMTbCSI B TepMMHax. by)].eM C1..II1TaTb peaK- lI.MIO H,LJ;epHOM, eCJIIi Ha61I1O)].aIOTCSI KaKMe-lIM60 nepeCTpOM:KI1 B SI.LI.pax.ABTopbI TaK- )l(e )].onYCKaIOT, 1..ITO Bce BelI(eCTBa He 06S13aTelIbHO HaxO)].SlTCSI B aTOMapHOM CO- CTOSlHI1I1. D.pyrMMM CJIOBaMM, cpe)].M aTOMOB MOryT HaXO)].MTbCSI B CB060,lJ,HOM CO- CTOSlHI1I1 11 HeMTpOHbI, 11 npOTOHbI, 11 110Hb], 11 3JIeKTpOHbI. DOJIaraSlCb Ha onpe)].e- JIeHl1e aBTopoB 06 SI,lJ,epHOM npeBpalI(eHI1I1, OHM 06Hap111I1i CYlI(eCTBOBaHl1e cpa3Y HeCKOJlbKO BML{OB SI)].epHbIX peaKlI.l1M. D.eMCTBI1TeJIbHO, O)].HI1M TaKIiM npMMepOM SlB- JISleTCSI SlBlIeHMe nOfJIOlI(eHI1S1. XOpOlliO nOfJIOlI(alOT HeMTpOHbI KaJ],MMM, 60p 11 )].pyrl1e 31IeMeHTbI. npl1 3TOM nOrlIOTI1MOCTb npOI1CXO)].I1T KaK Ha 6bICTpbIX HeMTpo- Hax, TaK 11 Ha Me)].lIeHHbIX, T.e. Ha MaJIbIX 3HeprMSlx.3TI1 3JIeMeHTbI TaK)l(e norJIO- lI(alOT 11 npOTOHbI. KaJ],MI1M M 60p npl1 nOfJIOlI(eHI1I1 HeMTpOHOB 11 npOTOHOB YBeJII1- 1..II1BaIOT B CBOMX H,LJ;pax l:IMClIO HYKJIOHOB )].0 nOlIHoro npeBpalI(eHMSI caMoro 3JIeMeH- Ta. 3- 5I)].epHbIe peaKIll111 npl1 nOrJlOllleH1111 HeMTpOHOB 11 npOTOHOB COBepliialOTCSI OT COTeH Mera3JIeKTpOH-BOJlbT 110 I1X )].OlIeM. DpOTOHbI OT Slllep OTTaJIKI1BalOTCSI 3a Cl:IeT KYJIOHOBCKI1X CI1Jl, HO eCJIIi npOTOHbI nona,rralOT B nJlOTHbIM aTOMHbIM Kpl1- CTaJIJl, TO B03MO)l(HO 3aJIMnaHI1e npOTOHa 11 C Me30HaMI1 SI)].pa. AHaJIOrl11..IHaSl Kap- TIiHa npOI1CXOlll1T 11 npM nOrJlOlI(eHI1I1 3JIeKTpOHOB. D.pyrl1M npliMepOM SI)].epHbIX peaKIlIiM SlBlISleTCSI :=meKTpOHHaSl 3MI1CCI1S1, BnepBble aBTOpaMI1 3aMe1..IeHHaSl B nOBelleHl111 3JleKTpOHHbIX JlaMn 11 nOJIynpoBoll- HI1KOB [15]. D.eMcTBMTelIbHo, aBTopbI 3aMeTI1JII1, 1..ITO 3JIeKTpOHHbIM KaHaJI XOTb 11 SlBJlSleTCSI npOBO)].HI1KOM 31IeKTpM1..IeCKOrO TOKa, HO COBepweHHO He nOll1..II1HSleTCSI 3aKOHY D.)I(oYJISI. )].pyrl1MM CJIOBaMI1, TOK no 3JleKTpOHHOMY KaHaJIY npOTeKaeT, 3JIeKTpOHHbIM KaHaJI MMeeT COnpOTI1BlIeHMe, HO ll)l(oYJleBOrO TenlIa 3JIeKTpOHHbIM KaHaJI He BbIlleJlSleT. 3aTo Bbl)].eJlSleTCSI TenJIO OT aHO)].Horo 3JleKTpoj],a npl1 60M6ap- )].MpoBKe 3JleKTpOHaMI1. Dpl1 3TOM YCTaHoBlIeHo, 1..ITO eCJlI1 aHollHbIM 31IeKTpoll Ha- CbIlI(eH )].eMTepl1eM, TO 60M6ap)].l1pOBKa aHo)].a 3JleKTpOHaMI1 npMBOlll1T K ellie 60JIbllleMy ero pa30rpeBY. B 3KCnepl1MeHTaX 6blJl0 nOJlYl:leHO n01..ITI1 lleCSlTI1KpaTHOe BbI)].eJIeHl1e TenJIOBOM 3Heprl1M no cpaBHeHl110 C nOTpe6JIeHl1eM.Oc06eHHO 3aMeTHO Bbl)].elIeHMe TenJIOBOM 3Heprl111 B JIY1..IeBbIX TeTpo)].ax npl1 11I1HaTpOHHOM 3<p<peKTe. -0 I 01 JC: IL  c: Ocr . np q H3 48 
H 0 1111:yr l1I.epHOH SI Slllep- b peaK- JbI TaK- [OM CO- OM CO- mpe)].e- e cpa3Y 10M SlB- 60p 11 leMTpo- nOfJIO- YBeJI 11- TIeMeH- lalOTCSI )TCSI 3a 1: Kpl1- SI Kap- tlCCI1S1, JOBOll- XOTb 11 -{SleTCSI eKaeT, >HHbIM 'M6ap- >11 Ha-  elI(e laTHoe MeTHO 'e. 5IllepHble npe06pa30BaHI1S1 Ha6JllOllalOTCSI Ha MHOrliX npl1Mepax. 0 HI1X MbI O)l(eM CY)].I1Tb no TenJIOOT)].a1..Ie. HeKOTopbIe peaKUl111 I1)].YT C Bbl)].eJIeHl1eM TenJlOBOM Heprl1l1, a HeKOTopble - C nOTpe6JleHl1eM. B03bMeM TepMonapy 113 )l(eJle3a 11 HI1- e_1Sl. ECJlI1 nponYCTI1Tb 1..Iepe3 )l(eJle30HI1KeJIeBbIM cnaM nOCTOSlHHbIM TOK, TO cnaM .JeT JII160 pa30rpeBaTbcSI, 111160 OXJIa:>K1laTbCSI. 06paTliM BHI1MaHlie Ha pa30rpeB naSi. TenJIOBbIJJ.elIeHl1e cnaSl 3Ha1..II1TeJIbHO npeBbIwaeT TenlIOBYIO 3Heprl11O D.)I(0YJIe- )ro TenJIa.3ToT 1I,aBHO M3BecTHbIM <paKT 06'bSlCHSlJIM npl1HlI.l1nOM lleMCTBI1S1 TenJIO- Jro Hacoca. TenJIOBOM Hacoc, pa60TaSl Ha C)I(aTMI1 11 pa3pSl)l(eHI111 ra30B, npl1Me- UlIOT B XOJIOllMlIbHMKax. Ho TenJlOBOM Hacoc B 3JIeKTpI11..IeCKIiX uenSlx OTCYTCTByeT, K. TenlIO He nepe)].aeTCSI 3JIeKTpl11..IeCKI1M TOKOM. TenJlOBbIlleJIeHl1e Ha rOpSl1..IeM cnae npell,eJlSleTCSI I1CKJII01..IMTeJIbHO ynJIOTHeHl1eM aTOMOB COelll1HeHHbIX MeTaJIJlOB. B aweM npl1Mepe )l(eJIe30HI1KeJleBOrO cnaSl MbI 06HapY)l(I1BaeM 06pa30BaHlie 1130CTe- K06aJIbTa no cxeMe: rH;--;--" .28 1-3 26 27 27 N1 S8 + FeS6  CO S7 - 55 + C0 57 - 59 + W 3Ta peaKUI1S1 l1)].eT Ha CBepXMaJIOM BOJlbTOBOM )].yre (B KOHTaKTe )l(eJIe30HI1- eleBoro cnaSl )].eMCTBYIOlI(ee HanpSl)l(eHl1e He npeBbIwaeT HeCKOJlbKI1X 1l0JIeM BOJlb- "3), B KOTOpOM OT KaTO)].Horo 31IeKTpo)].a K aHOllHOMY l111eT nOTOK 3JleKTpOHOB, a .1BCTpe1..IY - nOJIO)l(l1TeJIbHO 3apSl)l(eHHbIe npOTOHbI BOllOpO)].HbIX aTOMOB. 06pa3YIO- liMCSI K06aJIbT 601Iee nJlOTeH, 1..IeM HI1KeJlb 11 )l(elIe30. 003TOMY npl1 MI1HYCOBOM O.lSlpHOCTI1 Ha )l(eJle3e MbI 6y)].eM Ha6JIIOllaTb TenJIOBbI1l,elIeHl1e, a npl1 nlllOCOBOM O.'lSIpHOCTI1 - OXJIa:>K1leHMe, T.K. npOTOHbI 6YllYT nepeMewaTbCSI OT )l(eJIe3a K HI1Ke- DO no cxeMe: H Np8 + Fe 26  Cu 29 + Mn 25 - W l)opa3YIOlI(l1eCSI Mellb 11 MapraHell. 60JIee pbIXJIbIe, 1..IeM HI1KeJIb 11 )l(eJIe30 [16]. OnycKaSl paccMOTpeHl1e )].pyrl1x cxeM SlllepHblX peaKUI1M 3a C1..IeT nepeMelI(e- ItSl npOTOHOB BOllopOlla, 06paTliM BHI1MaHlie Ha TO, 1..ITO 3TI1 SlllepHbIe peaKlI.l111 HeMTpOHHoro )].eMCTBI1S1, a 3JleKTpOHHO-npOTOHHoro. 3TO )].aeT CYlI(eCTBeHHoe peIiMYlI(eCTBO B C0311aHI1I1 ynpaBJISleMbIX SlllepHbIX peaKTopOB. OCTaHOBI1MCSI Ha KpaTKOM 0630pe nOCJIellYIOlI(I1X warOB K OTKpbITl11O 3JleK- -pDHHo-npOTOHHbIX SI)].epHbIX peaKTOpOB. BnepBble aBTOpb] pa3pa60TaJIli cnoc06bI _KOpeHI1S1 3apSl)l(eHHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1. 11 B 1961 ro)].y 6bIJIa o<popMlIeHa COOTBeTCTBYlOlliaSl BKa Ha 11306peTeHI1e [17]. Ha OCHOBe )l(elIe30HMKeJIeBbIX CnJIaBOB 6bIJI c)].elIaH >U OTKpbITI1M. TaK, B Ha4aJIe 6bIJI C<POPMYJIl1pOBaH 3aKOH MarHI1THOM lI.enl1 [18] s 49 
3aTeM 6bIJIli OTKpbITbI 3<p<peKTbI M31IyqeHMSI [19] M lI.enHbIe peaKlI.MM B Sl.Ll.epHbIX npoll.eccax [20]. B pa60Tax [21,22] 060cHoBbIBalOTcSI nOlIO)l(eHMSI <peppoMarHeTM3Ma onSlTb TaKM Ha 3<p<peKTax TIeJIbTbe M 3ee6eKa, T.e. Ha aToMapHbIx TepM03JIeMeHTax TIOJIO)l(eHMSI BbICKa3aHHbIX 3aKOHOB pa3BI1BalOTCSI B CTaTbSlX [23,24,25] M 3aSlBKe Ha OTKpbIrne [26]. EOJIblllMe 3KcnepMMeHTaJIbHbIe pa60TbI 6bIJIM onMcaHbI B [27]. Pe- 3YJIbTaTbI nOCJIe,lJ,yIOlI(MX MCCJIe)].oBaHMM: 6bIJIM 113JI0)l(eHbI B 3aSlBKax Ha M306peTeHMe [28,29,30,31]. 3aTeM nOSlBMlIMCb C006lI(eHMSI C1>JIeMlliMaHa M nOHca [32], n03)1(e [33,34,35]. TIpM COCTaBlIeHMM Ta6JIMlI.bI M30cTepoB I1CnOJIb30BaJII1Cb CnpaB01..IHbIe Ma- TepMaJIbI [36,37]. . 3KcnEPHMEHTAJIbHbIE HCCJIE,IJ;OBAHH}I 3KcnepMMeHTaJIbHbIe MCCJIe)].OBaHMSI npOBO)].MlIMCb Ha )].eMcTByIOlI(eM YCTa- HOBKe (pMC. 17). OHa npe.ll.CTaBlISleT C060M MHJJ.YKlI.MOHHyIO ne1..Ib, pa60TalOlI(yIO C .lI.OnOlIHMTelIbHbIMM 6e3bIHJJ.YKlI.MOHHbIMM KaTYIIIKaMM  M W 2 , paBHoMepHo Ha- MOTaHHbIX no Topo06pa3HoMY KapKacy C OKHaMM )].JISI BBOlla BHyTpb nOJIOCTM Topa McnbITyeMbIx 06pa311.0B (HO), pa3MelI(eHHbIX B TyronlIaBKMx lI.MpKOHHbIX MlIM rpa- <pMTOBbIX TMrlISlX (I(T). 2 2 1 0 1 u PUC. 1Z 3KcnepUMeHmaJlbHaR ycmaHo6Ka OflR npoeeoeHUR RoepHblX uCCfleooeaHuu KaTYIIIKI1  M W 2 MMelOT O.ll.MHaKOBoe 1..IMCJIO BMTKOB, HO 06JIaJ],a1OT pa3- JII11..IHbIM Ce1..IeHMeM npOBO,lJ,a. TIoCKOJIbKY 3TM KaTYIIIKI1 BKJIlOl:IeHbI BCTpe1..IHO, TO 06lI(aSl MX MHJJ.yKTMBHOCTb paBHa HYJIIO, XOTSI npOTeKalOlI(l1M: 1..Iepe3 HMX TOK 6y)].eT 50 
Sl.II.epHbn LHeTM3M IeMeHTa\ aSlBKe Ha [27]. Pe- >peTeHl1e , n03)1(e HbIe Ma- 'M YCTa- OlI(YIO C pHO Ha- TM TOpa [JIM rpa- 1HUU )T pa3- HO, TO : 6y)].eT 31IM1..IHbIM. EClIM Ce1..IeHl1e npOBO)].a O)].HOM M3 KaTYIIIeK B3S1Tb paBHbIM 0,1 Ce1..IeHI1S1 pyrOM, TO pe3YlIbTMpyIOlI(l1e aMnep-BMTKI1 YMeHblllaTCSI BCerO lIMllib Ha 1O%.3aTo e06XO)].MMbIe MHJJ.YKlI.I10HHbIe BMXpeBbIe TOKM 1..Iepe3 I1CnbITyeMbIe 06pa311.bI (no) 'IOryr ObITb nOlIyqeHbI Ha 1..IaCTOTax)].o 300 MFlI,. TIpM I1cnbITaHMM MH.lI.yKlI.MOHHOrO YCTpoMcTBa (pMC. 17) 6bIJIa 06HapeHa .:neKTporpaMMa pe30HaHCOB 31IeMeHTOB aTOMOB BelI(eCTB (no). TIapaMeTpbI cneK- TporpaMM CHMMaJIMCb I1H.lI.MKaTOpOM ( n), BKJII01..IeHHbIM K 06MOTKe W 3 , 'iaHeCeHHOM Ha CTep)l(eHb (CT), KOTOpbIM Mor 6bITb BbITIOlIHeH M3 Toro )l(e BelI(e- :TBa, 1..ITO 11 no. B 06lI(eM clIyqae MaTepl1aJIOM CT SlBJISleTCSI KepH TPaHc<popMa- TOpHoro )l(elIe3a, I1H.lI.YlI.MpyeMoro B no npo)].olIbHbIM TOK no KOlIbll.Y, KOTOpbIM B ,)TllelIbHbIX clIyqaSlx npM I1MnYlIbcHbIX TOKax 3a C1..IeT 06MOTOK KaTYIIIeK W. M W 2 JOBO)].MlICSI )].0 10 6 A/.MM 2 . nOCKOlIbKy npM TaKMX nlIOTHOCTSlX TOKOB MO)l(eT np0l130MTI1 MCnapeHl1e pacnlIaBa 3a C1..IeT aHOMaJIbHOrO BbI.lI.elIeHI1S1 TenlIoBoM 3HeprMM, TO 3TI1 nlIOTHOCTIi TOKOB 3a.lI.aIOTCSI B BMJJ.e KOpOTKMX MMnYlIbCOB ()].O 0,1 MKC). XapaKTep cneKTporpaMM M3MeHSleTCSI npl1 BKJII01..IeHI1M nOCTOSlHHoro no)].- \tarHI11..IMBaHIiSI no lI.enli 2 - 2 . LI.lISI nOCTOSlHHoro nO)].MarHI11..IMBaHI1S1 06MOTKI1 W. II W 2 OKa3bIBalOTCSI BKJII01..IeHHbIMM corlIaCHO (noclIelloBaTelIbHo). nOCTOSlHHoe 11 nepeMeHHoe nO,UMarHI11..IMBaHMe no Ha BbICOKMX 1..IaCTOTax (oc06eHHO Ha 1..IaCTOTax pe30HaHca), KaK 6bIJIO HaMM 3aMe1..IeHO, c0311aIOT, C O)].HOH CTOpOHbI, MOlI(HbIe 31IeKTpOHHbIe npell.eCCl111 JIapMopa 11 cnMHOBbIe BOlIHbI, a, C JpyrOM CTOpOHbI, TaKMe' 3HeprM1..IHbIe KOlIe6aHMSI BO)].OpO)].HbIX aTOMOB M aJIb<pa- 'laCTMlI. npI-1:BO)].SlT MX K nepe6pocy B Te 3HepreTM1..IeCKMe npOCTpaHCTBa, B KOTOpbIX OHI1 pa3MellialOTcSI 601Iee nlIOTHO. TaKIiM 06pa30M, C nOMOlI(blO onMCbIBaeMoH 3KcnepMMeHTaJIbHOH YCTaHOBKM Y)].aJIOCb 06HapI1Tb SI)].epHbIM nepeCTpOM BelI(eCTB, 061IaJ],alOlI(MX MarHMTHbIMIi 11 CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(I1MM CBOMCTBaMM. 113yqaSl xapaKTep 3KCnepl1MeHTOB 6bIJIO )].OKa3aHO, 1..ITO <peppOMarHeTM3M 11 cBepxnpOBO)].MMOCTb MMelOT MHoro 06lI(ero. B HMX OCHOBOM SlBlISleTCSI CBepxnpOBO- Ll.I1MOCTb. )].pyrMMM ClIOBaMI1, <peppOMarHeTMK - 3TO cnlIaB CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(MX Be- w.eCTB C 06bI1..IHOM: npOBO)].I1MOCTblO. )].eMCTBMTelIbHO, eClIM 06paTMTbCSI Ha HYlIeBOM pSI)]. Ta6JI.2, TO 3aMeTMM, 1..ITO B 3TOM PSI.II.Y pa3MelI(eHbI 31IeMeHTbI, KpaTHbIe 1..IMClIY 9 (T.e. <PTOPY, Cpe,lJ,M KOTOpbIX F, Ar, Kr, Xe - ra3006pa3HbI, a TaK)l(e K06aJIbT M OCTaJIbHbIe MeTaJIlIbI) OCTaHoBMMcSI nOKa Ha K06aJIbTe. C O)].HOM CTOpOHbI, ero 4. 51 
Sl.II.PO COCTOMT lIM60 M3 TpeX aTOMOB <pTOpa, lIM60 M3 O)].HOrO aTOMa <pTOpa M O)].HOrO - aprOHa, a, C )].pyrOM CTOpOHbI, K06aJIbT, HaXO)].SlCb B rpynne MapraHlI.a, )l(elIe3a, HMKelISI, Me)].M M )].pyrMX, 061Ial1:aeT CMlIbHbIMM MeTaJIlIM1..IeCKMMM CBOM:CTBaMM )].pyrMMM ClIOBaMM, K06aJIbT C01..IeTaeT O)].HOBpeMeHHO CBOMCTBa )].BYX COCTOSlHMM: BelI(eCTB: MeTaJIlII13MpOBaHHbIX ra30B M MeTaJIlIOB. I1HePTHbIe ra3bI Ar, Kr, Xe, I1MeSl MaJIbIe nOTeHlI.MaJIbI 110HM3all.I111 (MeHbllle, 1..IeM He M Ne, a TaK)l(e pSl)].a lI(elI01..IHbIX 31IeMeHToB), )].elIaeT MX CMlIb- HbIMI1 OKMClIMTelISlMM, HanpMMep XeFg,Xe0 4 ,XeOF 6 . AHaJIOrM1..IHbIMM CBOM:CT- BaMM 061IaJ],aeT M K06aJIbT, KOTOpbIM MMeeT Te )l(e coe)].MHeHMSI, 1..ITO M 61Iaropo)].HbIe ra3bI KrF 2 , XeF 2 , KrF4' XeF 4 , RnF4' CoF 2 , CoF 4 , Co, Co 0 4 , CoFg, Co OF 6 . Ho rlIaBHoe 3)].eCb 3aKJII01..IeHO B TOM, 1..ITO K06aJIbT BO B3aMMOlleMCTBI111 C )].pyrMMI1 31IeMeHTaMM 06pa3yeT CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(Me )].OMeHbI. XOTSI M caM K06aJIbT B paCCMaTpMBaeMOM YCTpOMCTBe npeTepneBaeT SI)].epHbIe npeBpalI(eHMSI. L1.eM:CTBI1TelIb- HO, npl1 ITlIOTHOCTSlX MMnYlIbCHbIX TOKOB 1..Iepe3 K06aJIbTOBbIM pacnlIaB (OKOlIO 10 7 A/.MMl) 11 )].JIMTelIbHOCTM MH,lJ,yKIl110HHbIX MMnYlIbcoB ()].o 0,1 MKC) OH npeBpalI(aeT- CSI B )l(elIe30 11 HMKelIb no)]. )].eMCTBl1eM clIa60ro <poHa HeM:TpoHoB. ""IacToTa ClIe)].OBa- HMSI MMnYlIbCOB orpaHM1..IMBaJIaCb cpellHeM TeMnepaTypoM BaHHbI, KOTopaSl nOMep- )I(I1BaJIaCb Ha ypOBHe 2500 0 C . ""Iepe3 )].eCSlTb 1..IaCOB pa60TbI peaKTopa 6bIJIM CHSlTbI HOBbIe cneKTporpaMMbI M cpaBHeHbI C I1CXO)].HbIMIi. Y K06aJIbTa )].0 no)].a1..I11 TOKOB 6bIJIM 06HapeHbI cneKTporpa<pOM I1CTI-22/281IMHMM o 0 0 0 0 0 2407,3 A, 2411,6A, 2424,9 A, 2589,7 A, 3044,OA, 3405,lA, 000 0 3412,3A, 3449,4 A, 3453,5A, 2414,5A. o TIoclIe no)].a1..IM TOKa 1..IaCTOTa 2589,7 A CMeCTMlIaCb Ha yqacToK lIMHMI1 000 2599,39 A. l.{acToTa 3044,0 A CMeCTMlIaCb Ha yqacToK 3020,64 A. Bce OHM npl1- o 0 HaJ],JIe)l(aT )l(elIe3Y, a OKOlIO 1..IaCTOTbI 3044,0 A nOSlBMlIaCb 1..IaCTOTa 3050,8 A, o 0 OKOlIO )l(e 1..IaCTOTbI 3412,3 A nOSlBMlIaCb 1..IaCTOTa 3414,77 A 11 HOBaR 1..IaCTOTa o 2943,9 A. Bce OHM npMHaJ],JIe)l(aT HMKelIlO. 3TM )].aHHbIe CBM)].eTelIbCTBYIOT 0 TOM, 1..ITO cnapOBaHHbIe aTOMbI K06aJIbTa npe06pa3YIOTCSI nYTeM nepe6pOCOB SI)].ep Bo)].opo)].a OT O)].Horo aTOMa K06aJIbTa K 52 \TO\I: - c\.e\ ]ecb }t p lOHa\f1f B3HM '4.BIJ HTpOI- aHlfJ '10. 'IllII1H Pc TIlTh Bbl( c). TO HHO pem e.lbl\. .Ja 3 He "TLIO .:IO Kf lblH Y I ec )llIYIQ llU TIo -IITIDI 6 B31 o aTO\ T o61 KlIIf If I 
O)].HOro KelIe3a, CTBaMI1 roSlHI1M 113all.I111 I{ CMlIb- :BOMCT- )O)].HbIe >F 6 - rBliM C )aJIbT B :I1TelIb- '110 10 7 :llI(aeT - e)].OBa- OlI.LI.ep- CHSlTbI TOKOB lIMHMI1 i npl1- o ),8A, aCTOTa )aJIb Ta IbTa K .JpyroMY: B pe3YJIbTaTe yKa3aHHOM peaKlI.MI1 06pa3YlOTCSI aTOMbI )l(elIe3a M HI1KeJISI no cxeMe: i C 27-+HI-3-+ C 27 Fe 26 1\T,.28 nO  0 59 + 0 59 = e 56 - 58 + 1 v'60-62 + W. (29) 3-1eCb W = 2W Co - W Fe - W Ni = 2 -18,649 -15,707 -19,123  2,5M3B. PeaKlI.MSI XOpOlliO I-flIeT npM He601IbliiOM 061IyqeHMM HeM:TpOHaMM 111111 npo- TOHaMI1. OHM cnOC06CTBYlOT B03HMKHOBeHI11O MOlI(HbIX lI.enHbIX npOll.eCCOB 11 06pa- JOBaHMIO )].OnOlIHMTelIbHbIX HeM:TpOHOB. HeCMOTpSl Ha MaJIYIO 3HeprMIO yqacTByIO- ml1x B peaKlI.l111 HeMTpOHOB, He06xo.n:MMO, C O)].HOM CTOpOHbI, CTaBI1Tb OTpa)l(aTelIM Hei1:TpOHoB (HanpMM:ep, 1I.I1pKOHMeBble), a C )].pyrOM - He06xo)].MMO OT HMX npOCTO 3KpaHMpOBaTbCSI. B OTIbITHOM: YCTaHOBKe HaMM I1CnOJIb30BaJIMCb 6pOH30BbIe KOJIbll.a TOJIllI.MHOM )].0 100 .MM. PeaKlI.l1S1 (29) 06paTI1Ma, M, eClIM 1..Iepe3 pacnlIaB )l(elIe3a 11 HIiKelISI nponyc- HUb BbICOKonlIOTHbIe I1MnYlIbCbI TOKa ()].O 10 4 ... 7 A/.MM2, J],.,TfI1TelIbHOCTblO OKOlIO 0,1 KC), TO B cneKTporpaMMe )l(elIe3a M HIiKelISI nOSlBlISlIOTCSI 1..IaCTOTbI K06aJIbTa. ECTe- TBeHHO, 06paTHaSl peaKlI.MSI l111eT C nOmOIlleHl1eM 3HeprMM AHaJIOrM1..IHaSl SlJJ.ep- HaSl peaKlI.MSI I-flIeT M B 60pa30He B 2 N 2' )].eMCTBI1Te][bHO, eClIM 60pa30H HaCbITI1Tb IDKelIbIMM aTOMaMM Bo)].opo)].a ()].eMTeplieM 111IM TpMTl1eM) 11 KpOMe nOCTOSlHHoro roKa «3arOHSlIOlI(l1e» BOllOpO)].HbIe MOHbI B KpMCTaJIlIl11..IecKYIO pellieTKY a3M)I.a 60pa Qepe3 Hero Ha.n:o nponYCKaTb KopOTKMe I1MnYJIbCbI TOKa ()].O 0,1 MKC) C nJIOTHO- :TblO )].0 10 6 A/MM 2 . KpOMe Toro, lllISI pa3)1(l1raHI1S1 SIllepHOM peaKlI.l1M He06xo)].I1MO nO)].BO)].MTb aJIbIM: ypOBeHb nOCTopOHHMX HeMTpOHOB. ECTeCTBeHHO, 60PaJOH )].olI)I(eH I1MeTb KpMTM1..IecKYIO Maccy, 6bITb OKpeHHbIM 11l1pKOHlieBbIMM OTpa)l(aTelISlMM 11 I1MeTb OpOlllyIO 3alI(I1TY 06ClIBalOlI(erO nepCOHaJIa OT 061IyqeHI1S1 HeMTpOHaMM, B03- IIKalOIllMMM B eCTeCTBeHHOM SlllepHOM npOll.ecce. no)]. )].eMCTBMeM I1MnYlIbCHbIX TOKOB M B036y)1(11.eHHbIX --pMTMSI 6y,lJ,YT )].elIMTbCSI Ha <pparMeHTbI (2 HeMTpoHa, 1 npoToH, i=r => 2n o + P + e. nO HeMTpOHOB aTOMbI 1 31IeKTpoH). (30) B3pbIBHOM npOll.eCC TpMTI1S1 MO)l(eT npMBeCTIi K nepe60py O)].HOro BO)].OpO)].- oro aTOMa MlIM ero npOTOHa 111160 OT Sl.II.pa 60pa, 111160 OT SI)].pa a30Ta. npl1 3TOM \toryT 06pa30BbIBaTbcSI KaK aTOMbI ymepo)].a, TaK 11 aTOMbI 6epl1JllIMSI 11 KI1CJlOpo)].a. eaKlI.MM M,lJ,YT, 01..IeBM,1I.HO, no cxeMaM: i 5HI-3 7 4 8 nO: Bll + N l5 = Be 8 _ lO + 016-18 + WI; (31) 53 
i T-+H'1-3-+ S 6 o N IS + Ell = 2C 12 _ 14 + W 2 . n (32) 3)].eCb WI = W B + W N - WBe - W o = 3,181 + 4,167 - 2,504 - 4,55 = 0,294 M3B; W 2 = W N + W B - 2W C = 3,181 + 4,167 - (2 . 3,029) = 1,29 M3B. 06e pCaKlI.l111 l1)].yT C BbIllelIeHl1eM 3Heprl1l1. EClIM )l(e rpa<pMT HaCbITI1Tb )].eH- TepMeM 11 TpMTMeM 11 LJ:epe3 Hero nponYCKaTb ynoMSlHyTble BbIllie I1MnYlIbCHbIe TOKI1 TO SlllepHaSl peaKlI.l1S1 (30) 1..IaCTM1..IHO MO)l(eT I1)].TI1 B 06paTHoM HanpaBJleHI1I1. B [9 YKa3bIBaJIOCb, 1..ITO )l(elIe30HMKelIeBbIe repM031IeMeHTbI I1MCJO'f Hal1lIY1..Illll1e TepMO- 31IeKTpI11..IeCKlie CBOMCTBa.3TO 11 nOHSlTHO, T.K.OHI1 06'bSlCHSlJOTCSI nceB)].OSl)].epHbIMl npOll.eCCaMM npe06pa30BaHMSI )l(eJle3a M HIiKelISI B K06aJIbT. )].pyrMMIi CJlOBaMI1, Mb I1MeeM )].elIO C SlllepHbIM TepMo-3L1.C-3<p<peKToM, xapaKTepl13yIOmliM B3aI1MOCBSI: 31IeMeHTOB SI)].ep 11 TOKOB. cDepPoMarHeTI13M B03HI1KaeT Ha OCHOBe SI)].epHbIX nepeCTpoeK, npl1 KOTOpbI B03HMKalOT CBepxnpOBo.n:SllI(Me )].OMeHHbIe CTpyKTypbI. DOCKOlIbKY K06aJIbT SlBlISleTC npliMepOM npe06pa30BaHMM 11 I1MeeT )].OBOlIbHO npOCTYJO SIJJ.epHyIO KOHCTPYKIlI1IO. TO onpc.n:elIl1M B03MO)l(Hble rpaHl1l1.b] TaKIiX SIJJ.epHbIX npe06pa30BaHliM 11 YCTaHOBl1ho MOlIeKYlISlpHbIM 111111 SI)].epHbIM KOMnOHeHT CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(erO BemeCTBa.3aMe1..IeHO 1..Iro K06aJIbT B cnlIaBax C nlIaTMHOM 111111 CaMaplieM CosSm 061Ia.n:aeT 601Iblll11MJ. MarHI1THbIMIi 3Heprl1S1MI1 (np0l13BelleHl1e Bll). Cl1lIbHble MarHI1THble CBoMcTBa 06- HapeHbI 11 B )].pyrl1x cnlIaBax, KOTopbIe nOClIe cnlIaBlIeHI1S1 I1Hrpe)].l1eHToB OXJIa)l(- )].aJIMCb B Cl1lIbHbIX MarHI1THbIX nOlISlX. B CBSl3M C TeM, 1..ITO npl1 <pOpMMpOBaHIiH <peppoMarHI1THOrO BelI(eCTBa npoMcxo)].SlT Sl,IJ,epHble npe06pa30BaHMSI, npMBe)].eM He- KOTopble 3KCnepl1MeHTaJIbHbIe llaHHbIe. EbIJI 113rOTOBJIeH cnlIaB BI1KaJIlIOSl 113 XOpOlliO 01..II1lI(eHHbIX OT npl1MeCeM: 51  Co, 1] % V, 37% Fe. TIoCJIe CnlIaBJleHI1S1 C OnbITHOrO 06pa311.a 6bIJIa CHSlTa cneK- TporpaMMa. KpoMe lIMHMM K06aJIbTa, BaHa.n:MSI 11 )l(elIe3a 6bIJIM 06HapeHbI lIMHMH 000 xpOMa 2986,47 A, 2905,5 A (pSI,lJ,OM C lIMHMeM K06aJIbTa 3044,0 A). JII1HMSI Ba- o 0 0 HaJ],MSI 2682,9 A 11 2683,1 A CMeCTlilIaCb Ha yqacToK 2663, A, xapaKTepHbIM )].JISI o xpOMa. Dpl11..IeM 1II1HMSI xpOMa 2686,57 A 06pa30BaJIaCb M3 lIM1-I1111 )Ke.TIe" o 2990,4 A. DOSlBMJIMCb HOBbIe 1..IaCTOTbI xpOMa, TaKMe KaK: o 000 2843,25 A, 2860,9 A, 2849,8 A, 2835,6 A. EbIJIIi 06HapeHbI TaK)l(e 1..IaCTOTbI 54 \ffiIDI ""} He 6b1. lIpamC3 101). , I CO C xpo\ . -repa Ho Ta F, COOT 3.:1 el IJT(J 3HepJ KO HhIX B BO."Il 0, IllHt 1M C 
(32) 4 M3B :JR. [TiUb lle I-fbIe TOKJI HMI1.B( Ie TepM ()].epHbIM :JaMI1, M LI1MOCBSI KOTOpDr SlBJlSleR lJYKlI.111O TaHOBJ1 lMe1..IeHO. )lIbllll1M rCTBa 06- B OXJIa)l(- pOBaHMJ ,lJ,eM He- ceM 51% fa cneK- >1 1II1HI1H !HMSI Ba- -IbIM .lL1lF )Ke.TIe3 KaK qaCToTbi qJeMHMSI 11 MarHMSI.O)].HaKO XpOM B 1..IMCTOM BMJ],e, KaK KpeMHMM 11 MarHMM, OT)].e- HMIO He nOMaBaJICSI. DbIJIO 3aMe1..IeHO, 1..Iro K06aJIbT npM OTlI(enlIeHI1I1 OT Hero BO)].opO)].Horo aroMa BpalI(aJICSI He B 1..IMCTOe )l(elIe30, a B KJIaCTep (coe)].I1HeHl1e KpeMHI1S1 11 110Ha MSI). MbI ero Ha3BaJIM 1130CTepOM )l(elIe3a, T.K. CneKTpaJIbHbIe ero JIMHMM COB- 111 co cneKTpaJIbHbIMIi 1II1HMSlMM )l(elIe3a, MarHMSI M KpeMHMSI. DpM HaJIM1..IMM MO- t8 xpOMa KJIaCTepbI )l(elIe3a JIerKO npe06pa3)'IOTCSI B KJIaCTepbI KpMnroHa (111111 . Tepa KpMnTOHa) no cxeMe: Js 36 = Cr 24 + Mg l2 + w. (33) Ho, nOCKOlIbKY caM 06pa30BaHHbIM XpOM SlBJISleTCSI KJIaCTepOM 110Ha 11 aTOMa maSl, KJIaCTep )].BoMHoro KpMnToHa 06pa3yeTcSI M3 3-x KJIaCTepOB xpoMa. . (Js 36 )2 = (Cr 24 )3. (34) TaKMM 06pa30M, cBepXnpoBo,lJ,SlIl.{MM 31IeMeHTOM SlBlISleTCSI He 1..ITO MHoe, KaK 1aCTep KpMnTOHa, y KOToporo ra30BaSl KOMnOHeHTa MeTaJIlIM3MpOBaHa 0, F, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn). B, 3TQM CBSl3M cnlIaB BMKaJIlIOSl MO)l(HO BbIpa3MTb <pop- 'lbHbIM COOTBeTCTBMeM: CO S I +  I + Fe 3 7 = Kr7 2 + w, , , , J (35) IfTO COOTBeTcTByeT: 51ColJ + I1V s 1 3 + 37 Fel2 = 36(Js1)2 + 26n o + w. (36) 3)].ecb 26 HeM:TpoHoB pa3MeCTSlTCSI cpe,lJ,11 KJIaCTepOB KpMnTOHa TaK, 1..ITO npl1 TIJIaBlIeHMM BMKaJIlIOSl BbI)],elIeHMe HeMTpoHoB 6y)].eT HI11..ITO)l(HO MaJIbIM. B CBSl311 C -e\f, 1..ITO KJIaCTepbI KpMnTOHa Jsig 601Iee nJIOTHbI, 1..IeM B OT)].elIbHOCTIi Co, V, Fe, ro 3HeprMSI w 6y)].eT nOlIO)l(l1TelIbHOM:. CBepxnpOBOlll1MOCTb KJIaCTepOB Kpl1nroHa 11 KOMHaTHOM: TeMnepaTYpe onpe)].elISleTCSI no rMraHTCKOMY )].l1aMarHeTM3MY OT- e.1bHbIX )].OMeHOB, 3aMelllaHHbIX C napaMarHI1THbIMIi 1l0MeHaMI1 )l(elIe3a 11 K06aJIb- BBolIb<ppaMoBoM MarHMTe (He = 5200 A / M, B = 1,05 Tiz) K06aJIbTa COllep)l(I1T- 0,4%, BOJIb<ppaMa 6%, )l(elIe3a 93,6%. TIOCKOlIbKY 11 B TaKOM MarHI1Te CBepxnpo- J.1SIlI(Me )],OMeHbI 06pa30BaHbI KpMnTOHOBbIMM KJIaCTepaMM, TO I1X paC1..IeT B COelll1- HI1M 6y)].eT: CO O ,4 + W 6 + Fe 93 ,6 = Kr 79 ,8 + w (37) _111. 55 
4(Col) + 60Wi: + 936Fel = 399(Jsjn2 + 1112no + w. (3. 3)].ecb HeMTpOHbI pa3MeCTSlTCSI cpe)].M KJIaCTepOB Kpl1nTOHa. TIolIyqaeM. CnJIaB MMeeT reKCarOHaJIbHYIO CTpYKTYPY (KpMCTaJIJIM1..IecKYIQ). CJIe)].o BaTeJI bH( CTpOMTelIbCTBO reKca3)].pa M,1I.eT OT 3apO)].bIllia K06aJIbTa, OKpeHHoro nSlTb BOlIb<ppaMoBbIMI1 aTOMaMM no nepBOMY ClIOIO 11 1..IeTbIpHMlI.aTblO BOlIb<ppaMoBbn. aTOMaMM no BTOPOMY (CM. MarM1..IeCKMe 1..IMCJIa Ta6JI.1). 01..IeBM,1I.Ho, Ha )].eBSlTOM ClIoe M3 KOTOpbIX ceMb 3aHMMalOT aTOMbl )l(eJIe3a, pOCT 31IeMeHTapHoro KpMCTaJIJI KJIaCTepa - 3aKaH1..II1BaeTCSI. Tor)].a 113 Ta61IMlI.bI 1 MbI 3aMe1..IaeM, 1..ITO Ha )].eBSlTO ClIoe Bcero 3aJ],eMcTBoBaHo: O)].MH aTOM K06aJIbTa, 19 BOlIb<ppaMa 11 265 aTOMOB )l(e lIe3a. ClIe)].oBaTelIbHo, <popMYlIa (38) npaBMlIbHO )].OlI)l(Ha 6bITb 3anMcaHa TaK: 4(CoJ) + 76W.1 + I060Fegg = 458(Jsg)2 + 300n O + w (3 MJIM CoJ + 19W11 + 265Fegg = 229Jsg + 75n o + w. (4 1 ClIe)].oBaTelIbHo, npOll.eHTHbIM COCTaB cnlIaBa BI1KaJIlIOSl 1l01I)I(eH 6bITb: Co - 0,35%, W - 6,66%, Fe - 92,99%.11 )].eMCTBI1TeJlbHO, 3Ta MaJIaSl no npaBKa YCMlIMBaeT 3Heprl11O MarHI1THOrO nOlISI n01..ITM B llBa pa3a. Tenepb HeCKOlIbKO ClIOB 0 CBepxnpOBOllMMOCTIi KJIaCTepOB. fa3bI, KaK 113- BeCTHO, He 31IeKTponpOBO)].HbI, HO npl1 np060e OHI1 CTaHOBSlTCSI 31IeKTponpOBO,J- HbIMI1. TIpl11..IeM 1..IeM BbIllie CTeneHb C)I(aTI1S1 ra3a, TeM 31IeKTponpOBOllHOCTb KaHaJI np060Sl BbIllie. EClIM ra3 HaXO.[J.l1lICSI B )l(I1JJ.KOM COCTOSlHI1I1, TO 31IeKTponpOBOllHOCT, KaHaJIa np060Sl YBeJIM1..II1BaeTCSI B COTHI1 TbICSl1..I paJ. ECTeCTBeHHO, MeTaJIJIM3all.MSI ra- 3a )].elIaeT ero Bo06lI(e cBepxnpoBo)].HbIM. Tenepb, eClIli 06paTI1TbCSI K nlIaTI1He, T OHa B Sl,IJ,epHbIX peaKlI.MSlX C K06aJIbTOM 6YlleT TaK)l(e 06pa30BbIBaTb KpIiCTaJIlIM1..Ie- CKMe KJIaCTepbI (coe.[J.MHeHI1S1 xpOMa 11 ra3a KceHOHa). pt 78 = Cr 24 + Xe S4 . (41 KnacTepHbIMIi CBOMCTBaMIi 061IaJ],a1OT n01..ITIi Bce lIaHTOI1)].bI, BKJII01..IaSl 11 ca lIaHTaH.L1.eMcTBMTelIbHo, HanpMMep, )].JISI lIaHTaHa MbI I1MeeM KJIaCTep = La S7 == Js S7 = Li 3 + Xe S4 . (42" EClIli 06paTI1Tb BHI1MaHMe Ha cnlIaB Sm CO s , TO OH npe06pa3yeTcSI BHa1..Iane B KJIaCTepHoe coe)].I1HeHl1e LaNis, a 3aTeM B KJIaCTepHoe coe)].I1HeHl1e NisXeLi no cxeMe: SmCo S => Sm 62 + 5C0 27 = La S7 + 5Ni + w => LiXeNis. (43) 56 
(38 yqaeMbIH nelIbHO, I nSlTbJO MOBbIMH 1M ClIoe, iCTaJIlIa- QeBSlTOM \10B )l(e- (39) TIOCKOJIbKy M caM HMKelIb npe)].CTaBJISleTCSI coe)].MHeHMeM HeOHa M aprOHa Vi = NeAr, TO B KOHe1..IHOM C1..IeTe CnJIaB Sm CO s npe)].CTaBI1TCSI KJIaCTepOM LiXeNesArs. Ho Xe = 3Ar 18 , Tor)].a Sm CO s = LiNe 5 Ar 8 . CaMapMM: - K06aJIbTOBbIM cnlIaB - MMeeT reKCarOHaJIbHyIO KpMCTaJIlIl11..IecKyIO lpyKTYPy.3apo)].bIllieM CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(erO KJIaCTepa, KaK nOKa3bIBaeT npe)].bI)].YIIIee 1pe06paJoBaHMe, SlBlISleTCSI 1II1TMM.OH B reKca3)].pe 3a)l(aT nSITblO aTOMaMIi HeOHa 11 ceMblO aprOHa (Marl11..IeCKOe 1..II1CJIO 14, cooTBeTcTBYIOlI(ee 1..IMCJIY aTOMOB B Kpl1- -raJlJIe KJIaCTepa nOllXOlll1T TOlIbKO reKca3)].paJIbHbIMIi M nlipaMMlIaJIbHbIMIi nl1paMMH-4) KpMCTaJIlIaMI1).DoCKOJIbKy KJIaCTep pa3BMBaeTCSI OT SI)].pa MeTaJIJIa JIM- -USI, TO, 01..IeBMlIHO, KpIiCTaJIJII11..IeCKaSl CTpYKTypa CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(erO KJIaCTepa SmCo 5 MMeeT lIM60 reKCarOHaJIbHbIM, 111160 nl1paMI1)].aJIbHbIM ra6MTYc. TIpoSlBlIeHMe <peppoMarHeTl13Ma MbI Bcer)].a 06HapY)l(MBaeM C 06pa30BaHlieM laCTepOB MeTaJIlIOB M I1HepTHbIX ra30B. TOJIbKO ra3bI 3)].eCb )].aIOTCSI B BM)].e SI)].epHblx (40) 'oelll1HeHMM SIJJ.ep )].Pyrl1x nJIOTHbIX 31IeMeHTOB, HanpMMep, xpoMa, KOTOpbIM npe)].- aSl no- aK 113- pOBO)].- KaHaJIa ')].HOCTb 11S1 ra- He, TO TllIl11..Ie- (41) 11 caM (42) la1..Iane Li no (43) -TaBlISleTCSI B BM)].e: Cr 24 = 6Be 4 = 30 8 = Ar 18 C 6 . , (44) (45) (Cr 24 )3 = (Kr 36 )2. npOaHaJIM3MpyeM 3TO yTBep){():J.eHl1e Ha npl1Mepe cnlIaBa CdSe: i='> C ',/48 S 34 Ag 47 B 35 R ,,/46 v, 36 o ul12 + e 76 = 109-111 + r 77 - 79 + WI = u108-114 + .l\.r 72 _ 84 + w 2 . n =.> (46) 3.1eCb WI = WCd + W Se - W Pd - W Kr = 33,29 + 19,856 - 31,799 - 23,436 = 2,1 M3B; W 2 = WCd + W Se - W pd - W Kr = 33,29 + 19,856 - 30,435 - 18,176 = 4,5 M3B. B peaKlI.l1M (46) 06pa3yeMbIM KplinTOH He BbIJJ.elISleTCSI B BI1)].e ra3a, a npellCTaBlISleT C060M MeTaJIlIl11..IecKyIO MO)].M<pI1Kall.MIO KpMnToHa. TIaJIJIa1IMM TaK)l(e npe)].CTaBJISleTCSI 8 BI1)].e cOelll1HeHI1S1 J1HepTHbIX raJOB (Pd = NeKr = NeAr 2 = NiAr = CrTi). n03TOMY M celIeH 11 Ka1IMIiH MoryT ClII1Tb OCHOBOM )].JISI C03)].aHI1S1 <peppOMarHI1T- HbIX CnJIaBOB. HanpliMep, B 113BeCTHOM <peppOMarHeTMKe HgCrSe 4 peaKll.MSI 06Me- Ha aJIb<pa-1..IaCTl1l1.aMIi l1)].eT Me){():J.y pTyTblO 11 celIeHOM no cxeMe: i=.> IT. 80 4 c' 34 cfI'72 4 v 36 o ng202 + iJe 78 = flJI86 + .l\.r 82 + w. n =.> (47) Ho ra<pHIiH )].p06I1TCSI Ha Hf72 = Xe S4 + Ar l8 = Kr 36 + 2Ar l8 = 4Ar l8 (48) 57 
CJIe)].OBaTeJIbHO, B cpe)].e XpOMa 6y)].YT 06pa30BbIBaTbCSI KJIaCTepbI Ha OCHOB XpOMa, KOTOpbIM CaM SlBJISleTCSI Kap6MJJ.OM aprOHa (44). 3aMeTMM, 1..ITO np061IeMa KJIaCTepHbIx coe)].MHeHMM nOCBSllI(eHO MHoro McclIe)].oBaHIiM (CM., HanpMMep, [38] O,UHaKo, 113yqeHI1e KJIaCrepOB B pacnlIaBax Ha nceB,UOSl)].epHOM ypOBHe erne He no lIY 111110 CBoero pa3pellleHI1S1. KaKoM 6bI He 6bIJI nOJIyqeH HOBbIM <pepPOMarHeTMK, nYCTb )].a)l(e M 6e3 npl1 MeHeHMSI )f(elIe3a, HI1KelISI, K06aJIbTa 11 ra,UOlII1HMSI, Bce paBHO MbI 06HapI1Bae KJIaCTepbI I1HepTHbIx ra30B 11 MOHOB 31IeMeHTOB nepMO,UI11..IeCKOM CIiCTeMbI (KaK npa BMlIO, MeTaJIlIOB M B pacnlIaBax). )J,lISI npMMepa paCCMOTpMM <t>eppOMarHeTMKM, no lIyqeHHbIe B CnJlaBax: EuS, PbMn 6 0 lO , Cr 2 0 3 . DepBoe coe)].MHeHl1e EuS Mll EU 2 S 2 lIerKO npe06pa3yeTcSI B CYlIb<PMJJ.bI caMapMSI M ra,UOlIMHI1S1 no cxeMe: i Eu S => Eu 63 --+ H 'I-3--+ + Eu 63 + S16 - Sm 62 + Gd 64 + S16 + w ( 49 nO  2 2 2 - 2. fa,UOJIMHI1M <pepPOMarHMTeH, T.K. COCTaBJlSleT KJI3CTepHOe COe)].MHeHMe 11 HepTHbI ra30B: Gd = NeXe = NeArKr = NeAr3 (50 BTopoe COelll1HeHMe 06pa3yeT I1HepTHbIe ra3bI 3a C'-IeT ncpe6pOCOB BOllOpOn HbIX aTOMOBIi aJIb<pa-1..IaCTMlI. OT H,LJ;pa CBMHlI.a.DpMMepHaSl peaKlI.MSI M)].eT no cxeMe: i Pb 82 --+ 6H 1-3--+ + 6Mn 25 + 100 8 = Ba 56 + 6Fe 26 + ION e lO + w  lOa - - - -  (51) nO Eapl1M, KaK 11 lI(elI01..IHble 31IeMeHTbI CTpOHlI.MM 111111 KaJIbll.MM, )].e.TIMTCSI He COe)].MHeHI1S1: Ba = SrAr = CaKr = HeXe. (52 TpeTbe COe)].I1HeHMe Cr 2 0 3 = 2Kr e caMO SlBlISleTCSI KJIaCTepOM caMon Kpl1nTOHa. DO-BMJJ.I1MOMY, aHTI1<pepPOMarHeTI13M COC)].I1HeHI1S1 Cr 2 0 3 3TI1M M xa- paKTepM3yeTCSI. AHaJII13MPYSl peaKlI.MM, B KOTOpbIX 06pa30BaHbI Kpl1CTaJIlIl11..IeCKlie KJIaCTepb Ha MHepTHbIX MeTaJIlIM3MpOBaHHbIX ra3ax, MO)l(HO 3aMeTI1Tb, 1..ITO HeCMOTpSl Ha 06 pa30BaHlie ra30Boro (nycTb MeTaJIJII11..IeCKoro) KOMnOHeHTa, BelI(eCTBa npl106pCTa- JOT CBepxnpOBO)].MMOCTb - CBOMCTBO Bpo)].e 6bI OTCYTCTBYIOlI(ee npl1 06bI1..IHbIX TeMne- paTYpax. CBepxnpOBO)].MMOCTb He SlBlISleTCSI <peHOMeHOM TOJIbKO HM3KMX TeMnepaTYP CBepXnpOBO,lJ,MMOCTb CYIIIeCTByeT npM BCSlKOM TeMnepaType. TOlIbKO 3TO SlBlIeHl1e 3a- MacKMpoBaHo SlBlIeHl1eM 06bI1..IHOM 31IeKTponpoBo)].I1MOCTIi. BelI(eCTBa (HanpMMep. I1HcpTHble ra3bI) 06JIa,Ua1OT )].BYMSI 3aKOHaMI1 31IeKTponpoBo)].I1MOCTI1: )].onp060MHaSl 3JIeKTponpoBo)].I1MOCTb ()].D3); , 58 
a OCHOBe 1061IeMa' ep, [38} I e He no- 5e3 npl1- y)KMBaet. KaK npa- IKI1, no- 'uS 111111 v. (49) iepTHbIX (50) :)llOpOll- cxeMe:  (51) ITCSI Ha (52) caMoro [ 11 xa - aCTepbl Ha 06- 16peTa - reMne- paTYP, me 3a- mMep, noclIenp060MHaSl 31IeKTponpoBo)].MMOCTb (003). KaK M3BeCTHO, 3TM npoBo)].I1MOCTM pa3HSlTcSI Ha 6-10 nopSl)].KOB. Dpl11..IeM C n61II1)1(eHI1eM K MeTaJIlII13all.I1M BelI(eCTBa 003 npl106peTalOT cBepxnpoBo)].I1MOCTb 3TO He SlBlISleTCSI 1..IeM-TO HOBbIM, a Be)].b xapaKTepMCTI1KI1 L1.n311 nn3 MMelOTCSI TOlIbKO Y ra30B. OHM B 1..IaCTHOCTI1 I1MelOTCSI Y Bcex )l(1111KOCTeM (BO)].bI, KepOCI1Ha, -JIHpTa M T.)]..), Y Bcex 1130JISlTOpOB (CMOlIbI, <pap<popa, CTeKJIa, KepaMI1KI1), Y no- vnpOBO)].HI1KOB (Si, Ge, GaSb, JnAS, JnSb 11 T.)]..), Y OKMCJIOB, CYJIb<PMJJ.OB, ra- I1JJ.HbIX coe)].I1HeHMM:, COlIeM M T.n. CaMoe MHTepeCHoe, 1..ITO DD306HapY)I(eH 11 y eTaJIlIOB (HaIJPI1Mep, Y OlIOBa, pTYTI1, CBI1Hlla, 11I1HKa, naJIJlalll1S1, raqml1S1). KnacTepHbIe coe.[J.I1HeHI1S1 MeTaJIlIOB 11 I1HepTHbIX MeTaJIJll1311pOBaHHblx ra30B, O)].HOn: CTOpOHbI, Be)].YT ce6S1 KaK ra30BbIe 3JleMeHTbI, a, C )].PyroM, - KaK CBCpX- pOBO)].HI1KI1. MeTaJIlIM3MpOBaHHbIM ra30BbIM cBepxnpOBOllHI1K Kpl1nTOHa Mbl Ha3Ba- I KaMepoHoM (coKpalI(eHHOe OT <paMI1JlI1I1 rOlIJlalICKOrO Y1..IeHOrO KaMeplIl1Hra o 36 OHecca) M 0603Ha1..IaeTCSI TaKOM: 31IeMeHT Kr (ManeHbKI1H KpY)I(O'-leK Ha)]. 3HaKOM Kr 0603Ha1..IaeT I1MSI OHecc).Dpe)].noJIaraeM, 1..ITO KaMepOH I1MeeT OKTa3)].paJIbHb1M a611TYC M npe)].CTaBlISleTCSI 1..IeTbIpbMSI aTOMaMI1 <pTopa 11 )].BYMSI aTOMaMI1 )].eMTpOHa. KaMepOH XMMI11..IeCKI1 I1HepTeH, O)].HaKO, nOTeHlI.l1aJIbl 110HI13all.I111 KaMepOHa COB- a.LJ:aIOT C nOTeHlI.I1aJIaMIi MOHI13all.I1M )].eMTpOHa (OKOlIO ::t 12 3B). EClIli KaMepOH HaXO)].MTCSI B CnJIaBe C aHaJIOrl11..IHbIMI1 OKca3)].paJIbHbIMI1 KJIaCTepaMIi 113 w.elI01..IHbIX \feTaJIJIOB (Dt2Li4,Dt2Na4,Dt2K4,Dt2CU4,Dt2Rb4,Dt2Ag4 11 T.ll.), TO 6y)].YT .x5pa30BbIBaTbCSI Ky6111..IeCKlie CBepxnpOBO)].SllI(l1e KJIaCTepbI TaKI1M 06pa30M 06Ha- py)I(MBaeM, 1..ITO OKTa3)].paJIbHbIe KJIaCTepbI 113 KaMepOHOB 11 MeTaJIlIl11..IeCKIiX OKTa311- panbHbIX KJIaCTepOB lI(elI01..IHbIX 31IeMeHTOB 06eCne1..II1BaJOT nlIOTHoe COelll1HeHl1e I1X ..1pyr C )].pyrOM, 06pa3YSI KaKoe yrO)].HO npOTSI)I(eHHOe coe)].MHeHMe. 3,lJ,eCb TaK)l(e YMeCTHO 3aMeTMTb, LITO KJIaCTepbI MenUm-ra3 He TOJlbKO xapaK- TepM3yIOT <peppOMarHeTI13M, CBepxnpOBO)].I1MOCTb, HO 11 Bo06lI(e BCSlKlie BI1)].bI no- lynpOBO)].MMOCTM 11 ynpaBlISleMbIe npOBO)].MMOCTI1. L1.eMCTBIiTelIbHO, eClIl1, Hanpl1- Mep, Me)].b HaCbITMTb )].eMTeplieM 11 1..IaCTl11..IHO TpMTl1eM 11 nponYCTMTb 1..Iepe3 Hee TOK (nJIOTHOCTblO ,lJ,0 2.10 6 A/.MM2 11 )].JIl1TeJIbHOCTblO OKOlIO 0,1-1 MKC), TO Tpl1TMM 11 QaCTI11..IHO )].eMTepHH Ha1..IHYT )].p06I1TbCSI Ha <pparMeHTbI, eClIl1 MMeeTCSI He60JIbliiOM nOJJ)KMraIOUmM HeMTpOHHblM <pOH. B pe3YlIbTaTe 3TI1X peaKlI.MM OT SI)].ep Me)].M 6y)].YT 0TPbIBaTbCSI BO,lJ,OpO,lJ,HbIe aTOMbI, KOTopbIe, 3aJIlinaSl Ha )].pyrMx SI)].pax, 6y)].YT 06pa- 30BbIBaTb HMKeJIb M lI.MHK no cxeMe: 59 
i 29-+ H 'I-3-+ 29 1\T.28 '7. 30 nO  CU 63 + CU 63 = 1Y ' 60 - 62 + L.Jn 64 - 66 + w. (53 3)].eCb w = 2W Cu - W Ni - W Zn = 2.18,986 - 17,129 - 20,07 = 0,733 M3B. EClIl1 )l(e Me)].b npe)].CTaBlIeHa B Bl1JJ.e OKMClIa CU 2 o., TO MO)l(eT 06pa30BaTbCSI KJIa- CTep Ni 2 Ne no cxeMe: . 29-+ H 'I-3-+ 0 8 2 .28 10 1 => 2CU 63 + 16 = N1 60 - 62 + Ne 18 - 22 + w. (54 B )].aHHOM clIyqae KJIaCTep HIiKelIb-HeOH 06JlaJ],aeT pa31IwIHoM np0611BHOl npOBo.n:MMOCTblO, 3aBMCSllI(eM: OT HanpaBlIeHMSI 3)].C. 3.n:ecb nOlIHaSl aHaJIOrl1S1  pa3pSl,IJ,HOM cxeMOM C MrOlIb1..IaTO-nlIOCKI1MI1 31IeKTpo)].aMM. D03ToMY, eClIM aTOM}.. KMClIOp011a opMeHTMpOBaHbI no OTHOllleHl11O K 31IeKTpo)].aM Mel1l1 11 I1HepTHOMY KMClIOpO.ll.Y BelI(eCTBY, TO 6y)].eT peaJII130BaH 31IeMeHTapHbIM BbITIpSlMMTelIb MlIl1 611- nOlISlpHbIM: cBepxnpoBo)].HMK. KynpyKCHbIe BbITIpSlMMTeJIM - 3TO nepBbIe 6MnolISlpHbIe CBepxnpOBO)].HI1KI1. CTaBIIIMe OCHOBOM cOBpeMeHHoM BbIcoKoTeMnepaTYPHOH CBepxnpOBO)].I1MOCTIi. no- HSIB <pM3M1..IeCKMM CMbIClI 611nolISlpHoro KJIaCTepa MeTaJIlI-ra3 B pOlIM CBepxnpOBOll- HMKa, MO)KHO npe)].nOlIaraTb, 1..ITO aHaJIOrl11..IHaSl 611nolISlpHaSl cBepxnpoBo11MMOCl npMCYIIIa BceM OKCM)I.aM, 06pa30BaHHbIM B opMeHTall.MM CBepxnpOBO)].HMKa MeTaJIlI- OKCI1JJ.. T01..IHO TaK )l(e 6y)].eT CnpaBe)].JIMBO M B KJIaCTepax MeTaJIlI-Cepa, MeTaJIlI- celIeH, MeTaJIll-TeJIJIYP, MeTaJIll-IiTTep6MM M T.)].. Ho, eCJIM 06paTI1TbCSI K OKI1ClII1Te- lISlM pH,LJ;a KMClIopo)].a, TO KpOMe KMClIopo)].a, cepbI, CeJIeHa 11 TeJIlIypa, K HI1M 01- HOCSlTCSI comaCHO Ta61I1111.e 2 elI(e M )l(elIe30 (HanpI1Mep, coe)].I1HeHW! Fe 3 C, Fe 3 Zn xapaKTepM3yIOT )l(elIe30 B Ka1..IeCTBe OKMClIIiTelISI), pyTeHMM, CaMapl111 MTTep6MM:, pTyTb, pa.n:MM:, KaJIM<pOpHI1M:. 3.n:ecb MbI erne pa3 3aMe1..IaeM pOlIb )l(eJIe3a B 06pa30BaHMM 6MnolISlpHbI\ cBepxnpoBo)].HMKOB, KaK pOlIb CaMapl1S1 BbIllie onMcaHHoro. ""ITO )l(e KacaeTCSI KpeM- HMSI M repMaHMSI, TO OHM Be)].yT ce6S1 no)].06Ho KJIaCTepaM MeTaJIlI-ra3 11 TaK)l(e 06- JIaJ],aIOT 6MnOlISlpHOM: np06MBHOM: npoBo)].MMOCTblO. BbIcoKoTeMnepaTypHaSl cBepXnpOBO,lJ,HMOCTb npM TeMnepaType )I(J1,lJ,Koro a30Ta B repMaHMeBbIx nOlIynpoBo)].HMKax aBTopaMM nOlIyqeHa elI(e B 1960 ro,lJ,y [15] CYIIIHOCTb nOlIynpoBO)].HMKOBOH CBepxnpOBO)].MMOCTM OCHOBaHa Ha npOCTpaHCTBeH- HOM pa3.n:elIeHI1M aTOMapHbIX 31IeKTpO)].OB (HanpMMep, MH)].I1S1 11 <poc<popa). I1Hlll111 npocTo BnaMBaeTCSI B repMaHMM:, a <poc<pop BBO)].SlT B Ka1..IeCTBe npMMecM.DocKOlIb- KY caM repMaHMM: SlB1I5IeTCSI KJIaCTepOM Ge = SiAr = BFAr = CoB = H 2 Ne 3 , TO :Ja 4  0 -nib O.IH _ c 60 
(53) B. CSI KJIa- (54) 6MBHOH 10rliSI C aTOMbI HOMY K [JIll 6M- lI,HI1KM, fl1. 00- [PO B011- ,I1MOCTb II eTaJIlI - II eTaJIlI - [CJII1Te- MM OT- IIHeHI1S1 Mapl1H, ISIpHbIX KpeM- >Ke 06- ) a30Ta ,y [15]. CTBeH- VlHJJ.I1M CKOlIb- e 3 , TO p06MBHaSl npOBO,lJ,MMOCTb 6Y,lJ,eT 06pa30BaHa Me)I(,IJ.Y 06lI(MM TeJIOM repMaHMSI M MH- -IfeM, KaK Me)I(,IJ.Y 06JIaKOM M rpOMOOTB0110M, eCTeCTBeHHO, B nOJIynpoBO,lJ,HMKaX nOlISIpHOCTb npOBO,lJ,MMOCTM 6Y,lJ,eT MMeTb OrpOMHOe 3Ha1..IeHMe. TIpM 3TOM H,LJ;epHbIll: paKTep nepe6pOCOB BO,lJ,OpO,n:HbIX aTOMOB 01..IeBMJJ.HO npOI1CXO,lJ,I1T no cxeMe: . rHl I  { 49 '\ rr 32 " C'd 48 '\ ("I 34 C'd 48 nO n[ [5 h + uen = \: 112-114 h + ..,e74-78 = 108-114 + D..146 v. 36 + ru I08-110 + .l\.r 78 - 82 + w. (55) QacTI11..IHO BO,n:OpO,lJ,HbIe aTOMbI OT H,LJ;ep MHJJ.I1SI nepe6paCbIBalOTCSI Ha aTOMbI Jc<popa, KOTOpbIM 06bI1..IHO BBOMT B repMaHIiM. Tor,lJ,a J],JISI O,lJ,HOM nOJISlpHOCTM TO- peaKll.MH noi1JJ.eT no cxeMe: ic::::> 49,-+H'1-3 15 C '..148a S l6 D..146 A 18 o In 115 + P31 = U112-114 + 32-34 + WI = rU108-11O + r36-38 + W2; nc::::> (56) i 15H'1-3 49 C'.14 C' 50 o P31 + Jn 1l5 = u128-30 + un 1l6 - 118 + W3' n (57) 3TI1 ,lJ,Be peaKlI.l111 nOKa3bIBa1OT, 1..ITO TpaHCJISllI.l1S1 BO,n:OpO,lJ,HbIX aTOMOB aCI1M- eTpI11..IHa. TaK)l(e aCIiMMeTpl11..IHa 11 31IeKTponpOBOJ],HOCTb CMCTeMbI (in - P) B cpe,n:e -opMaHI1SI.DocKoJIbKY repMaHI1M, KaK 11 KpeMHI1M, I1MeeT OKCa3,lJ,paJIbHbIe KpIiCTaJI- , TO CBepXnpOBO)lSIIIIl1e KJIaCTepbI B HI1X TaK)l(e MOryT I1MeTb MeCTO. AHaJIOrM1..IHaSl HMMeTpl1S1 B 31IeKTponpOB011HOCTIi Ha61I1O,n:aeTCSI 11 B celIeHOBbIX BbITIpSlMIiTelISIX, Of..'Ia '3a C1..IeT TpaHClISIlI.1111 B0110pOJ],HbIX aTOMOBl1lIli aJIb<pa - 1..IaCTl1l1. 06pa3YlOTCSI 101ISlpHbIe KJIaCTepbI. BeHTl1lIbHbIe CBOHCTBa KJIaCTepOB MeTaJIlI-ra3 I1JII1 MeTaJIlI-HeMeTaJIJl anpliMep, CYlIb<PMJJ. CBI1HlI.a) npI1BO,lJ,I1T K <pOpMl1pOBaHI1IO KJIaCTepHbIX ClIoeB l1'CTBIiTelIbHO, B TOM)I(e celIeHOBOM BbITIpSIMIiTelIe <pOpMl1pOBaHlie BeHTl1lIbHbIX MCTB npOI1CXO,lJ,I1T no,n: ,n:eMCTBlieM TOKOB 11 He 6bICT})0, a nOCTeneHHO, KaK npl1 KTPOJII13e, nOKa Bce B0110p011HbIe aTOMbI 11 aJIh<l>a-1..IaCTl1l1.bI He 3aMMyr CBOM -lOM HaJ], nOBepXHOCTblO celIeHa. TaKoe )l(e <pOpMl1pOBaHlie MO)l(eT npOI1Cxo,n:I1Tb 11 HlI.epHOM ypOBHe, Kor,n:a C 3JIeKTpl11..IeCKI1MI1 TOKaMIi Ha SlJ],pa 11eMCTB}'IOT HM3KO- OpOCTHbIe HeMTpOHbI (HanpIiMep, <pparMeHTbI pacnaJ],a J],eMTepliSI 11 TpI1TI1SI).5IB- Hlie TOKOBoro <pOpMl1pOBaHMSI KJIaCTepOB MeTaJIlI - ra3 B CJIOI1CTbIX MeTaJIlIaX SlBJlSI- SI OJ],HI1M 113 Ba)l(HeHllll1X SIBlIeHI1M B nceBJ],OSlJ],epHOM 3HepreTMKe. O,n:HaKO, eClIli yqecTb 3HepreTI11..IeCKMH xapaKTep BeHTl1lIbHOrO CBOMCTBa, TO I1MMeTpl11..IHOe BblJJ.eJIeHl1e 3Heprl111 MO)l(eT I1C1..IepnaTb H,LJ;epHbIH pecypc 11 BeH- lbHbIe CBOMCTBa nOCTeneHHO MOryT OCJIa6Hyrb. HanpliMep, CYJIb<PH.LI. CBI1HlI.a 61 
no,lJ, ,lJ,eMCTBlieM TOKOB 11 HeMTpOHOB npe06pa3yeTcSI B KJIaCTepHOe COe,n:I1HeHl1e PTY- TI1 M aprOHa no cxeMe: i=> Pb82--+2Ht-3--+ + Sl6 = Hg 80 + Ar l8 + W. nO=> (58) 3)].eCb 3Heprl1SI W BbI,lJ,elISIeTCSI B BI1,lJ,e <pOTOHOB. EClIM I1CnOJIb3}'1OTCSI BeHTMJIbHbIe 31IeMeHTbI M3 apCeHl1,LI,a raJIlIliSI 1111M I1H}].MSI, a TaK)l(e CypbMSlHMJJ.a raJIJII1S1 111111 I1H}].MSI, TO OKa3bIBaeTCSI BO)].opO.LI.HOe ynoPM01..II1- BaHlie B HI1X npl1Bo,n:I1T K 1131IyqeHI11O <pOTOHOB B BI1)].I1MOH 061IacTli cneKTpa. PeaK- 1..1.1111 COOTBeTCTBeHHO 3)].ecb MJJ.YT no cxeMaM: i=> As 33 --+H'1-3--+ rr 31 2 rr 32 ° + va = ve + WI n=> (59) i=> Jn 49 --+H'1-3--+ + As 33 = Cd 48 + Se 34 + w nO => 2 (60) i=> Sb 5I --+H'1-3--+ + Ga 31 = Sn 50 + Ge 32 + W nO=> 3 (61) i=> Sb 5I --+H'1-3--+ + Jn 49 = 2Sn 50 + W nO=> 4 (62) ECTeCTBeHHO, B0110p011HbIe aTOMbI MO)l(HO HanpaBlISITb 11 B 06paTHOM nOpSlll- Ke, nOTOMY KaK OHI1 B 60JIbliiOM CTeneHM 3aBliCSIT OT HanpaBJleHI1SI TOKa, a He I1H- TeHCI1BHOCTIi HeMTpOHHOrO B036Y:>K11eHI1SI. 3,lJ,eCb YMeCTHO BCnOMHI1Tb, 1..ITO aHaJIO- rl11..IHbIe npOll.eCCbI COBepliialOTCSI npl1 HaMarHI11..II1BaHI1I1 MarHI1THO- )l(eCTKI1X <l>ep- pOMarHeTIiKOB no l111eaJIbHOM KpIiBOM. KaK 113BeCTHO, Ha l111eaJIbHyIO KPI1B}'IO Ha- MarHI11..II1BaHIiSI MO)I(HO nepeMTI1, eClIli Ha 601Ibllll1e BCnlIeCKIi nepeMeHHoro nOlISI 6y)].eT HaJIO)l(eHO XOTb 11 Ha HeCKOJIbKO nOpH,LJ;KOB MeHblllee nOCTOSIHHoe nOlle. Co- BpeMeHHbIe cnoc06bI MarHMTHOM 3anl1CI1 I1CnOlIb3}'1OT M)].eaJIbH}'IO KPI1ByIO HaMar- HI11..II1BaHIiSI. DceB110Sl)].epHbIe peaKlI.l111 OCHOBaHbI Ha COBMeCTHOM )].eMCTBI1I1 OTHOCIiTelIb- HO 3HepreTI11..IeCKIi clIa6bIX nOCTOSIHHbIX TOKOB ()].O 106-7 A/MMl), )].eMCTB}'IOIIII1X 0)].- HOBpeMeHHo C y)].apHbIMIi SlBlIeHI1S1MI1 HeMTpOHOB, 3Heprl1S1 KOTOpbIX Ha HeCKOlIbKO nopH,LJ;KoB 60JIbllle. B 3TOM M 3aJIO)l(eH CMbICJI HanpaBlIeHHoro )].BI1)1(eHI1SI BO)].OpO)].- HbIX aTOMOB no MJJ.eaJIbHbIM KpIiBbIM. Dpl1 <pOpMMpOBaHMI1 MarHMTOB 11 cBepxnpoBo)].HMKOB npe,lJ,n01..II1TaIOT KJIaCTe- pbI MeTaJIlI-ra3, HanpliMep, OKIiCb 6apl1S1 (BaO), 113 Hero cneKalOT CI111bHbIe Mar- HIiTbI, B KOTOpbIX KJIaCTepHoe coe)].MHeHl1e BaO npe06pa3yeTcSI B XeNe no cxe- Me: I=> B 56 0 8 v 54 AT 10 ° a 136 + 16 = Ae 132 + He 20 + W . n=> (63) 62 3.1' o BB , a.JalOl e <pm TII e B rHaJ KID} acrep Fe...G L <pep HbllIVJi = 0,0 B ocn . 12St 11 = 48( B OCoe O..JI1T( Ee pliH  pxnp( OB, TaK BHa 77 B CI1JII UKelISI , maeTCSI I ,5% SJ [HIM). K 
HMe PTY- (58) [ MHJJ.I1SI, 'PH,LJ;01..II1- >a. PeaK- (59) (60) (61) (62) nopH,LJ;- He I1H- aHaJIO- -IX <pep- JyIO Ha. O nOlISI lIe. Co- HaMar- CI1TeJIb- UMX OJJ.- :KOJIbKO )JJ.OpOJJ. - KJIaCTe- ,Ie Mar- 10 cxe- (63) 3,lJ,eCb' M KceHOH M HeOH SIBJlSlIOTCSI MeTaJIJIaMI1. TI03TOMY, eClIM B paCnJIaB BaO BBeCTM KaKOM-JII160 MeTaJIJI, TO MO)I(HO 06HapTb KJIaCTepbI MeTaJIJI-ra3, . 11aJ],alOlI(l1e CBepXnpOBO,lJ,SllI(MMIi CBOMCTBaMI1. 3Heprl1S1 W 3.I1.eCb BbI.Il.elISleTCSI B e <pOTOHOB 11 3JIeKTpOHOB, T.K. TIJIOTHOCTb 06pa3yeMbIx KJIaCTepOB BeCbMa BelIM- TIpM 113rOTOBlIeHI1M MarHI1TOTBep11bIX <peppliTOB 06bI1..IHO I1CnOlIb3yJOT coeJJ.l1- eHl1e Ba( N0 3 ) Fe 2 03 11 CMelliMBalOT no <popMYlIe BaOFe 2 0 3 . TIpM 3TOM K03p- I I1BHaSl CMlIa (He) nOJIyqaeTcSI OKOJIO 960 A/CM, I1HJJ.YKlI.MSI B - 1,023 Tfl, T01..I- KIOpli 0" °c ::::J 405 - 450°C. <DaKTI11..IeCKIi CBepxnpOBOMlI(I1C ,n:OMeHbI 1aCTepbI) MOryT CYIIIeCTBOBaTb,lJ,O 450°C. ,I::(pyrMe <peppMTbI Ha OCHOBe <POPMYlIbI \/eFe204 (HanpIiMep, MnFe 2 0 4 - MapraHlI.eBbIH <peppI1T, NiFe 2 0 4 - HIiKelIe- if <peppI1T, FeFe 2 0 4 111111 Fe 3 0 4 - MarHeTI1T) I1MelOT MeHblllyJO T01..IKY KIOpli 11 eHbllIyJO K03Pll.I1TI1BHyJO CMJIY (He = 0,32 - 4,8 A / CM, Bs = 0,04 - 0,5 Tfl, Br = 0,02 - 0,3 Tfl), eClIM B Ka1..IeCTBe Me 6epYT 1I.I1HK, MapraHell. 111IM lIMTI1M. B MeTaJIJII11..IeCKMX CnJIaBaX (HanpMMep, aJIbHI1CM 33% Ni, 13-14% AI, 1% Si, OCTaJIbHOe - Fe, He = 517,5 A / CM, Br = 0,4 Tfl; aJIbHMKO 17-18% Ni, 10% l, 12% Co, 6% Cu, OCTaJIbHOe - Fe, He = 400 A / CM, Br = 0,74 Tfl, MarHI1- o 11-15% Ni, 8-10% AI, 20-25% Co, OCTaJIbHOe Fe, He = 480 - 560 A / CM, Br = 1,2 -1,35 Tfl). CTOMKOCTb CBepXnpOBO,lJ,SllI(I1X KJIaCTe- ;K)B oc06eHHO BelIMKa M3-3a npliMeHeHMSI B Ka1..IeCTBe OKIiClIliTelISI )l(eJIe3a, T.K.OHO axO.lII1TCSI B TOM )l(e pH,LJ;Y, me 11 KlIClIOp011 (CM. Ta61I. 2). ECTecTBeHHo, ,lJ,pyrl1e 31IeMeHTbI 3Toro pSllla, a I1MeHHO PYTeHI1H RU 44 , ca- apliM Sm 62 , pTYTb Hg 80 , KaJIl1<pOpHIiM Cf98 elI(e CI1JIbHee n03BOJISIIOT nOlIyqaTb :BepxnpOBo,n:SIlI(Me KJIaCTepbI KaK JJ.JISI C03,n:aHIiSI CBepXCMlIbHbIX nOCTOSIHHbIX MarHI1- B, TaK M JJ.JISI C03,lJ,aHMSI cBepxcToMKMX cBepXnpOBO,lJ,HMKOB. T01..IKa KIOpli )l(elIe3a -'aBHa 770°C, K06aJIbTa 1120 o C, HMKelISI 358 o C.0,n:HaKo CMeCM 3TMX 11 ,lJ,pyrMx cnlIa- . B Cl1lIbHO MOryT M3MeHI1Tb T01..IKY KIOpl1. HanpMMep, eCJIIi B )l(elIe30 BBeCTIi 30% iHKelISI, TO TeMnepaTypa KIOpli C 770°C naJ],aeT,n:o 100°C. BMecTe C 3TI1M YMeHb- ..!IaeTCSI 11 TeMneparypa nJIaBlIeHI1SI CnJIaBa n01..ITIi B JJ.Ba pa3a. BBeJJ.eHl1e B )l(eJIe30 .lI0 ,5% Si YBeJII11..IMBaeT MarHMTHyJO npOHl1l1.aeMOCTb B 1..IeTbIpe pa3a (c 5,5 110 28 H M). KpeMHI1M TaK)l(e CHl1)1(aeT TeMnepaTYPY pacnlIaBa Fe + Si 11 CYIIIeCTBeHHO 63 
ere CMSIf1..IaeT, T.K. Ha6JIIO,n:aeTCSI nepe6poc BOn;OpOn;Horo aTOMa OT Sln;ep )l(elIe3a . KpeMHMIO no cxeMe: i 26-+ H '1-3-+ .14 25 15 o Fe 56 + 81 28 = Mn 53 - 55 + P29-31 + W . n (64 Tf MapraHell. caM no ce6e, KaK M a30T, lIerKO nO,lJ,JJ.aeTCSI H.LJ;epHbIM npe06paJo- BaHI1S1M. TaK, HanpMMep, no,lJ, ,lJ,eMCTBlieM oClIa6neHHbIX HeMTpOHOB Ii TOKOB Mapra- Hell. MO)l(eT ,n:elII1TbCSI Ha XpOM M )l(elIe30 no cxeMe: i Mn25-+ H '1-3-+ + Mn 25 = Cr 24 + Fe 26 + w. nO H (65 () 3,lJ,eCb W = 2W Mn - W Cr - W Pe = 2.16,21-14,335 -15,707 = 2,378 M3B. (66'. HMKelIb C XpOMOM TaK)l(e 06MeHMBaeTCSI BO,n:OpO,n:HbIMIi aTOMaMI1, KaK aJIb<pa-1..IaCTMlI.aMI1, HanpliMep: I=> .28-+ a '-+ 24 26 o Nl 58 + Cr52 = 2Fe54-56 + w . n=> (I :. (67 ,, 3,lJ,eCb 1fT w = W Ni + W Cr - 2W Pe = 19,123 + 14,335 - 2.15,707 = 2,044 M3B .(68) 3KCnepl1MeHTaJIbHO ,n:OKa3aHO, 1..ITO HIiXpOMOBaSl npOBOJIOKa npl1 TOM )l(e 3aTpaTHOlI 3JIeKTpl11..IeCKOM MOlI(HOCTM B aHOMaJIbHOM pe)l(l1Me ee pa30rpeBa BblJJ.eJISleT TenJIO- BOM 3Heprl111 60JIbllle, 1..IeM 1..II1CTOe )l(eJIe30.0c06eHHo 31IeKTpOTOKOBbIM nepeCTpott xapaKTepeH B OKI1CM lI.MpKOHI1S1. HanpliMep, OKMCb Ul1pKOHIiSI npli KOMHaTHoH TeMnepaType I1MeeT MOHOKJII1HHyIO CTpYKTYPY, BbIllie 1250 0 C 113MeHSleT ee Ha TeT- parOHaJIbHyJO. TIpli TeMnepaType OKOlIO 1900 0 C OHa npeBpalI(aeTCSI B reKCarOHaJIb- HyJO, a npl1 2300 0 c - B KY6111..IecKYIO. 3TO 11 nOHSlTHO: 3JJ.eCb MbI MMeeM JJ.eJIO C 06bI1..IHbIM nepe<popMl1pOBaHlieM KJIaCTepOB 3a C1..IeT nepe6pocoB BO,n:OpOJJ.HbIX aTO- MOB no cxeMe: j Zr 40 -+ 2a -+ + 20 8 = Kr 36 -+ 2a -+ + 2N e lO + WI = Ge 32 + 2Mg l2 + W 2 = n = Ni 28 + 28i l4 + W3 (69) 06pa3yeMbIe HMKelIb M KpeMHI1M JJ.eMCTBI1TeJIbHO MMelOT KY6111..IecKYIO CTPyK- TYPY 11 nOSlBJlSlIOTCSI npl1 TeMnepaType BbIllie 2300 o C. OKMCb lI.MpKOHMSI 06pa3yeT l/, 36 1I.T 10 TaK)l(e MeTaJIlIl13l1pOBaHHbIe.l\.r Ii 1 ve , KOTopbIe C MeTaJIJIaMIi (HanpIiMep, C MeJJ.blO, cepe6pOM, 30JIOTOM) MOryT 06paJOBaTb CBepxnpOBOJJ.SllI(l1e KJIaCTepbI. AHa- 1I0rl11..IHbIe peaKlI.l111 Ha6JIIO,n:aeM 11 B OKMCI1 aJIIOMI1HI1S1 A/ 2 0 3 . TaK, 1..IaCTHOCTI1, HeJJ.aBHO 6bIJIa 06Hapy)l(eHa CBepXnpOBO,lJ,SllI(aSl <pap<popOBaSl KepaMMKa. 3TO ,lJ,aeT 64 
elIe3a K (64) )6pa30- Mapra - (65) 1. (66) KaK 11 (67) B . (68) aTHOM TenJIO- eCTpOH faTHOM fa TeT- OHaJIb- eJIO C X aTO- = (69) TpyK- pa3yeT lep, C AHa- [OCTM, » AaeT . OCHOBaHMe K nOHMMaHMIO pOJIM aJIlOMMHMSI npM <pOpMl1pOBaHIiM CMJIbHbIX MarHI1- OB (HanpMMep, aJIbHMKO). TeopeTI11..IecKM npeACKa3aHHoe M 3KcnepMMeHTaJIbHO YCTaHOBlIeHHoe SlBlIeHl1e nCeB.D.OSIJJ.epHOrO npe06pa30BaHliSi <peppoMarHI1THbIX BemeCTB BHeCJIO KopeHHble H3MeHeHI1S1 B CYIIIeCTByJOlI(ee npeACTaBlIeHMe 0 npMpOAe 11 CBOMCTBax TBepAbIX Tell npl1 npOXO)I(,IJ.eHMM 1..Iepe3 HMX 60JIblllMX MH,lJ,yKlI.MOHHbIX TOKOB. OTKpbITMe CMe npeJJ.- -raBJlSleT C060M KpynHbIM: BKJIa)]. B COBpeMeHHyJO <pM3MKY TBepJJ.oro TeJIa. OHO no- "I}')KM1I0 Ha1..IaJIOM MHTeHCMBHbIX MCCJIeAOBaHMM HOBoro HanpaBlIeHI1S1 B <p11311Ke -B :p113MKe SlJJ.epHbIX peaKll.I1M xonOAHoro CMHTe3a. )].aJIbHeMrnee HccneAOBaHMe SlBlIeHMM: M nOMCK peaKlI.MM XOlIOAHoro CI1HTe3a cornaCHO npeACKa3aHMSlM TeopMM, M 3TO B03MO)I(H0, HanpMMep, JJ.nSl JIerKl1X npl1- \ieCeM (BO.D.OpOJJ.a, JIMTMSI, '60pa, a30Ta, KI1CJIopO,lIa, <pTopa, HaTpl1S1, aJIIOMI1HI1S1, 4><>c<popa 11 np.) OTKpbIBaeT IIIMpOKYIO nepcneKTMBY pe3YJIbTaTOB I1CClIeJJ.onaHIiM ':'lSl pellIeHMSI 3a,na1..I npaKTM1..IeCKOrO xapaKTepa. TIpMKJIalIHOe 3Ha1..IeHMe OTKpbITMSI B TOM, 1..ITO Ha ero OCHOBe B03MO)I(H0 C03AaHMe npMHlI.MnMaJIbHO HOBbIX cnoc060B nonyqeHI1SI <peppOMarHI1THbIX BelI(eCTB, CBepxnpOBOllHI1KOB, MCT01..IHI1KOB H.LJ;epHOM 3HeprMli M BelI(eCTB. s 
KnacTep - )].eMTpOH - fa611TYC - Marl11..IeCKOe 1..II1ClIO - TeTpoH - feKCOH - Ky60H (poM60H) - OKTOH - )].eMOH - )].OAeKOH - qepToH - I1KOCOH - POH - XMpOH - EI10KTOH - fpaHaTOH - 1130cTep - 3JIeKTpOH - TII1-3JIeKTpOH - 66 . TJloccapuii .5IJJ.epHoe KpMCTaJIJIM1..IeCKOe 06pa30BaHlie 113 31IeMeHTapHbIX SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1. (npOTOHOB, HeMTpOHOB, Me30HOB M T.n .). HaMnpOCTeMlliaSl H.LJ;epHaSl MOJIeKYJIa, 06pa30BaHHaSl COeJJ.I1HeHl1eM ,n:pyr C ApyrOM npOTOHa M Me30Ha, 111IM Hei1:TpOHa C HeMTpOHOM. cDOpMa SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1., 06pa30BaHHbIX B BI1JJ.e KpMCTaJIJIOB. ql1CJIO H.LJ;epHbIX 31IeMeHTOB (nOlIO)l(l1TeJIbHbIX M OTpl1l1.aTeJIbHbIX 31IeKTpOHOB), CO,lIep)l(alI(eeCSI B SlJJ.epHbIX 1..IaCTl1l1.aX. 5I,n:epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a TeTpa3APaJIbHOrO ra6l1Tyca. 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a reKCa3JJ.paJIb6HOro ra6l1Tyca. 5IAepHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a Ky6111..IeCKOrO (poM6111..IeCKOrO) ra6l1Tyca. 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a OKTa3JJ.paJIbHOrO ra6l1Tyca. .5IJJ.epHaSi 1..IaCTl1l1.a OKTa3JJ.paJIbHOrO ra6l1Tyca, cOJJ.ep)l(alI(aSi 19 31IeKTpOHOB 11 n03I1TpoHOB. 5I,n:epHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a JJ.o,n:eKa3JJ.paJIbHOrO ra6l1TYca. 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTMlI.a ,lIOJJ.eKa3,n:paJIbHOrO ra6l1Tyca, COAep)l(alI(aSl 13 3JIeKTpOHOB 11 n03I1TpOHOB. 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a I1Koca3,lJ,paJIbHOrO ra6l1Tyca. 5IJJ.epHaSi 1..IaCTMlI.a pOM6oJJ.o,n:eKa3,n:paJIbHOrO ra6MTyca. 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a 113 JJ.BeHaJJ.lI.aTIi TpeyrolIbHbIX rpaHeM 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a, cOJJ.ep)l(alI(aSi B ,n:Ba pa3a 601Ibllle rpaHeM, 1..IeM OKTa3,n:p. 5IJJ.epHaSl 1..IaCTl1l1.a rpaHaTOI1JJ.aJIbHprO ra6l1Tyca. ATOM, 06pa30BaHHbIM nYTeM SlJJ.epHOrO npe06pa30BaHI1S1 XI1MI1- 1..IeCKOrO I1JII1 KOBaJIeHTHOro COeAI1HeHI1S1 JJ.pyrl1x, 60JIee npOCTbIX aTOMOB, CXOAHoro no HeKOTopbIM napaMeTpaM C I1CTI1HHbIMI1 aTOMaMM. CTOSl1..IaSl BOJIHOBaSl nyqHocTb, 06pa30BaHHaSl 3a C1..IeT I1HTep<pepeHlI.l1l1 TpexMepHbIX KOlIe6aHliM 3<pl1pa. TI03I1TpOH, I1MelOlI(I1M CTOSl1..IYIO nyqHocTb B npOCTpaHCTBe Bpe- MeHI1, OTJIM1..IalOlI(I1MCSI Ha 180°. I oc noc 1..0 3 '- '3 e \13.1 I fpa -[<UI -\ro \1 \f \tal k.r ..lOp 601 TO . no are I , .no Qee I J\..o BO I n( ICll - .n( H 1\1. _1 \1 11> :'1 \ :\1 TO ., \1 Tp 3 .H.: J 
bIX .). lOB. :l. f.I aSl 13 XMMM- pOCTbIX HHbIMI1 Bpe- Ng HOUMeH06aJwe 0603Ho'-teHue Ea. U3M. 3Ho'-teHue I 1 I1ocToSlHHa51 I1JIaHKa h j(JIC'C 6,62618.10- 34 I 2 I1ocToSlHHa51 I1JIaHKa h j(JIC.c 1,05459.10- 34 11= - 2lr 3 CKOPOCTb CBeTa B BaKYYMe C M/c 2,99792.10 8 I 4 3JIeMeHTapHbIM. 3JIeKTpI1- e J(;z 1,60219.10- 19 1..IeCKI1M. 3apM 5 3JIeKTpl11..IeCKa51 rrOCTOSlH.,. &0 (/J/M 8,85419.10- 12 HaS! I 6 MarHI1THa51 rrOCTOSlHHa51 1 FH/M 1,25664.10- 6 f..1o= & c 2 , 0 I 7 fpaBI1Ta1l110HHa51 rrOCTOSlH- G HM IK22 6 672,10- 11 , Ha51 8 ATOMHa51 e.n.I1HI1I.J.a MaCCb] mil K2 1,66057.10- 27 9 Macca nOKOSl 3JIeKTJ)OHa me I1JII1 m K2 9,109953.10- 31 10 Macca nOKOSl npOTOHa m n K2 1 67265.10- 27 , 11 Macca rrOK051 HeM.TJ)OHa m n K2 1,67492.10- 27 12 KJIaCCl1yeCKI1M. paal1YC BO- e 2 M 2,81794.10- 15 .n.opo.n.a 1i - o - 4Jr£. me 2 0 13 EOpOBCKI1M. paal1Yc llJI5I 4 Jr&oh 2 M 5,29177.10-1] aTOMa BOllopo.n.a 00 = me 2 14 I1ocT05lHHa51 Pl1.Ll.6epra J],JI5I 4 M- 1 1,09678.10 7 R 2 e m aTOMa Bo.n.opo.n.a -z h - 32Jr2&Jh 3 c- 1 3,2880587.10 15 15 I1ocT05lHHa51 PI1.LI.6epra llJI5I a 6eCKOHeYHOM. MaCCbI Mpa Roo = 4 Jr0 0 M- 1 1,09737.10 7 16 KOMnToHoBcKa51 J],JII1 H a h BOJIHbI BOllopolla A =- M 2,42631'10- 12 C me 17 I1ocToSlHHa51 TOHKOM. e 2 1/137,036 = CTPYKrypbI (J],JI5I n. 15) a= 7,29735.10- 3 4 Jr&ohe 18 I1ocT05lHHa51 DOJIbI.J.MaHa k j(JIC/K 1 38066.10- 23 , 19 MarHeTOH Dopa eh j(JIC/T:tl 9,27408.10- 24 f.1b = 2m 20 MarHI1THb]M. MOMeHT 3JIeK- f.1b j(JIC/Tfl 9,28483.10- 24 TpOHa 21 MarHI1THbIM. MOMeHT npo- f.1p j(JIC/Tfl 1,41062.10- 26 TOHa . ") u u -26 - - (/)U3UlfeCKue 6eJlUlfUHbi ....2 MarHI1THbll1 MOMeHT Hel1 TpOHa 23 .sI.n.ePHbIM. MarHeTOH f.1n eh f.1n = 2m p j(JIC/Tfl 0,96630 10 j(JIC/Tfl 0,505082.10- 27 67 
CneKmp 6oiJopoiJa M ,lI;zuHa eOAml, HpKocmb, eV 0 B AA 1 190569,00 13,38 2 123684,00 13,31 3 113057,00 13,42 4 75004,50 13,38 5 1 74577,60 20 13,21 t+t= 40511,40 120 13,5 26251,30 40 13,21 18751,10 700 12,74 9 12818,10 140 13,05 10 10938,10 28 13,21 11 10049,38 6 13,21 12 9545,97 13,38 131 9229,02 13,42 14. 9014,91 13,45 15 8862,78 13 ,48 16 6562,85 2000 12,09 17 6562,73 1000 12,09 CepUfl o TI 'H)J;Ta E 3KeTa ,-  -9 50 1 ';;' S3 :;; f OCH. TIallieHa  .;;, 59 bO 61 2 3 f OCH. EaJIbMeDa 65 f OCH. -" - 66 ..£L 18 4861,33 500 12,74 f OCH.-"- 19 4340,47 200 13,05 f OCH. -"- 20 4101,74 100 13,21 " 21 3970,07 80 13,31 " 22 3889,05 60 13,38 -"- 23 3835,39 40 13,42 -"- 24 3797,90 20 13,45 -"- 25 3770,63 15 13,48 -"- I 26 3750,15 10 13,50 1 , 27 3734,37 8 13,51 , 28 3721,94 6 13,52 29 3711,97 5 13,53 30 3703,86 4 13,54 31 3697,15 3 13,54 32 3691,56 2 13,55 33 3686,83 - 13,55 34 3682,81 - 13,56 35 3679,36 - 13,56 36 3676,36 - 13,56 37 3673,76 - 13,56 38 3671,48 - 13,57 39 3669,47 - 13,57 40 3667,68 - 13,57 41 3666,10 - 13,57 42 3664,68 - 13,57 43 3663,41 - 13,57 44 3662,26 - 13,57 45 3661,22 - 13,58 68 epMI1: = 1 l =2 =3 =4 =5 4., e R = 
6 3660,28 13,58 47 3659,42 13,58 UR 48 3657,93 13,58 9 3657,27 13,59 50 3656,67 13,59 51 1215,67 3500 10,20 JIaMMaHa Jua eTa llIeHa ,  -  IbMepa -"- , " . -"- 52 I 1025,72 I 1000 12,09 " 53 1 972,53 400 12,74 -"- 54 949,74 I 220 13,05 " 55 937,80 125 13,21 -"- 56 930,75 80 13,31 -"- 57 926,23 50 13,38 " )8 923,15 40 13,42 " 59 920,96 30 13,45 -"- 60 919,35 20 13,48 " 61 918,13 16 13,50 -":- 62 917,18 12 13,51 -"- 63 916,43 10 13,52 -"- 64 915,82 8 13,53 " 65 915,33 7 13,54 " 66 914,92 6 13,54 -"- 67 914,58 5 13,55 " epl1l1: = 1 OJ = R (  - \" n = 2, 3, 4.. JIaMMaHa (YlIbTpa<p1101IeTOBaSl o61IacTb) n. 1 n ) = 2 E.''I R ( - - - ) n = 3, 4, 5.. EaJIbMepa '(4 1II1HMI1 - B BI1JJ.I1MOM, LV' n 2 = ;2 2 OCTaJIbHbIe B YlIbTpa<p1101IeTOBOM 061IaCTI1) = 3 E.''I R ( - ) n = 2, 3, 4.. DallieHa (MH<ppaKpacHaSl 06JIaCTb ) LV' n 3 = ;2 2 = 4 E.''I R ( - ) n 5 6 7 Ep3KeTa (MH<ppaKpacHaSl 1..IaCTb cneK Tp a ) LV'n4 = :2 2 =".. = 5 E.''I R ( - ) n 6 7 8 TI<pYHllTa (I1H<ppaKpacHaSl 1..IaCTb CneK Tp a ) LV' ns = ;2 2 =".. t.J.aCTOTa M3JIyqaeMoro CBeTa OJ = R C - 2 -)' 2 e 4 m e R = Z 2 2 3 Z = 1, 2, ... 321r GO h 69 
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ECJII1 BHelliHee 3JIeKTpM1..IeCKOe nOJIe JJ.OCTaT01..IHO BeJIMKO (nOJIeBaSl 3MMCCMSI), TO 3JIeKTpOHbI MMelOT TY )l(e 3HeprMIO, 1..ITO M BHyrpM TeJIa, a 3JIeKTpM1..IeCKOe nOJIe COBepllIaeT pa60TY TOJIbKO Ha YCKopeHMe 3JIeKTpOHOB B BaKYYMe B Me)l(3JIeKTpoAHOM npOMe.>KYTKe Me)I(JJ.Y 3MI1TTepOM 11 aHOJJ.OM M Ha HarpeBaHlie 3MI1TTepa npOXOllSlIIIMM no HeMY 3MMCCMOHHbIM TOKOM. TIpH T  20°c nJIOTHOCTb TOKa j = 1,54 .10- 6 2 e [ - 6,79 .10 7 (elp) . j 3,62.10- 4 -Ie J] , elp & ell elp } fAe elp - M3MepSleTCSI 3JIeKTpOH-BOJIbTaMM, & - B/CM, j - A/CM 2 , e - <PYHKlI.MSI H opJJ.reMMa: y e(y) y e(y) 0 1 ,0000 0,5 0,6900 0,05 0,9948 0,55 0,6351 0,1 0,9817 0,6 0,5768 0,15 0,9622 0,65 0,5152 0,2 0,9370 0,7 0,4504 0,25 0,9068 0,75 0,3825 0,3 0,8718 0,8 0,3117 0,35 0,8322 0,85 0,2379 0,4 07888 0,9 0,1613 0,45 0,7413 0,95 0,0820 1 0 -Ht (B C Jap Ko Oe Cp Te 3."11 Tel nl (z;' coc I.HC Hal' 
:;CMSI),  nOJIe >Ie B BaHlie iKll.MSI J(uazptlMMa 3JleMenma XapaKTep CBOHCTB OKHClIOB COOTBeTCTBYIOIUIIX CTeneHeH OICHCJIeHHSI I - OCHOBHOIt o - IOiCJIOTHblii  - aM<!>orepm.rn CTeneHI1 OKHCJleHI1S1 (Hal16oJlee xapaKTepHble Bbl.n.eneHbl HYJleM) . ATOMHbIR HOMep I 42 ***CHMBOJ] 3Jle'\feHTa I Mo 95.94(1) 1.30 II 148  eO .,;0 ,; ..i. N. 2015.11 { 0'059( +6) 2020.30 0.129 2038.44 7.0994 2816.2 0.746 21148.5 2617 2871.! I [KrJ4d'5s' 2891.0 13 4612 2909.1 { 8 18.12 ::i(AA)  2 3864.11 r 3902.96 r MOJIUElIEH I Ha3BaHHe 3JTeMeHTa Pacnpe.n.eJIeHl1e 3JleMeHTOB no ypOBHSlM *HOHHbIR Pa.II:MYc, HM (B cKo6Kax YKa3aH 3apSlJ], MORa) KOBaJIeHTHbIH pa,lIl1Yc, HM llepBblM nOTeHlJ.l1aJl 110H113aUI1H, 38 CpO.llCTBO K 3J]eKTPoHY, 3B TCMnepaTypa nnaBJICHillI, (IC 31IeKTpOHHasI cTpYKTYpa TeMTIepa-rypa Kl1neHMSI, °C, lllIOTH, OCTb 2/CM (Z/Il .lI:JISI ra30B) TpeTHH nOTeHIIHaJI 110H113aUlU1, 38 31IeKTpOOTpl111aTelIbHOCTb ** ATOMHasI Macca I - OCHOBHbIe JlI1HMI1 B aTOMHOM cneKTpe (HM); II - Han60JIee l1HTeHCl1BHblC JIl1Hl1l1 * HOHHble pap,HYCbl npHBeAeHbl AIIJI KOOPAHHa4HOHHoro 411CJla 6; 3Ha4eHHJI paAI1YCOB co 3Be3Ao4KoH (*) COOTBeTCTBYIOT KOOPAI1Ha4HOHHOMY 4HCJlY 4; ** AToMHble MaCCbl npHBeAeHbl no Me>KAYHapoAHoH Ta6JlHlIe 1979 r.,T04HOCTb nOCJleAHeH 3Ha4auteH lIl1cppbl 1 HJlH 3,eCJlH nOCJle Hee CTOHT 3Be3A04Ka (*). B KBaApaTHbix cKo6Kax npHBeAeHbl MaCCOBble 4HCJla HaH60Jlee YCTOH4HBbiX H30TonOB. *** Ha3BaHHJI H CHMBOJlbl 3JleMeHTOB npHBeAeHHblx B KpyrJlblX cKo6Kax He JlBJlJlIOTCJI 06utenpHHJlTbIMH. 73 
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EeB (/JU3UKO-XUMUlfeCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep06 o N 1 2 3 2 He 11 Na 20 Ca 4.002602(2) 22.989768(6) 40.078(4) 1.01 1.04 19 20 21.5 - 3888.65 I 0.102(+1) 3135.48 II EI 0.10l(+2) 2398.56 I 0.093 4685.8 0,154 3302.4 0,174 3158.9 2.4.5869 5875.62 I 5.1385 3303.0 6.1117 3179.33 II 5 0.0 10830.25 I 0.548 5682.6 -1.927 3736,90 II 2 -272.2 10830.34 I 1 97.81 5688.2 2 839 3933.66 II @. Is' 18685.34 I 8 [NeJ3s' 5889.95IAA) I 8 [ArJ4s' 3938,47 II -268.934 10581.30 1 2 882.95 5895.92 1 8 1484 4226.7(AA) I 0.1785'/JI 0,971 8183.26 I 2 1,55 4425.4 8194.82 I .35.0 4454.8 rEJIH" HATPH" KAJlbQH" 1 H 10 Ne 19 K 1.00794(7) 20.1797(6) 39.0983(1) 2.2 0.91 10 10.8 11 0.136(-1) 4340.47 I e: - 5400.6 0. 138 1+1) 4044.14 1 0.030 4861.33 1 0.093 5852.5 0.203 4047.2 6 13.5978 6562.72 I - 21.5137 6402.2 4,3405 5911.08 1 8. 0.7545 6562.85 1 . -0.3 8377.61 I 0,501 6938,77 1 1 -259.14 18751.0 1 8 -2.48.67 8654.38 I 1 63.65 7664.91 I Is' 2 [He]2s'2p' 8780.62 I 8 [ArJ4s' 7698.96 I - 252.87 -2.46.05 8783.75 1 8 774 0.089988'/JI 0.89994'/JI 8853.87 I 2 0,862 BO)J:OPO,[( HEOH KAJIH" 0 Dt 9 F 18 Ar 2.01473(3) 18.9984032(9) 39.948(1) 4.10 :tl0 -5.11 2.2 0. 133 1- 1 ) 5291.0 CV - 6965.431 1 0.058 6856.03 1 0.098 7067.218 I 7 17.4222 6902.48 1 15.7577 7503.869 I 3.399 7037.47 1 -0,362 8014.786 I 7 -219.62 7127.87 1 8 -189.37 8115.311 I 2 [He]2s'2p' 7754.70 1 8 [Ne]3s'3p' 9122.967 I -188.14 2 -185.86 9657,786 1 1.696./JI 1.784'/JI )J:E"TPOH <l>TOP APron -1 . H 8 0 17 CI 1.00794(7) 15.9994(3) 35.4527(9) 3.50 2.83 -15.8 -9.8 Is' o. o. 140(-2) 7771.94 I  0.181(-1) 4794.55 II O 0.066 7774.17 I 0.099 4810.1 13.6175 7775.4 12.9666 4819.5 .,;-0 8 1.4613 8446,25 1 3.617 4896.77 II 1 6 -218.35 8446.36 I 7 -100.98 5423.23 II 2 [He]2s'2p' 8446.76 I 8 [NeJ3s'3p' 8375.74 1 .;0 -182.96 2 -33.97 8585.97 I 1.429'/JI 3.214'/JI .;0  BO)J:OPO)J: KHCJIOPO)J: XJIOP . o - o o - I 85 
EeB (/JU3UKO-XUMUlfeCKaR ma6Jlul(a U30Cmep06 2413.3 F 2483.27(AA) I e 2488.14 I 2522.85 I 2599.4 2749.3 2755.7 3020.6 3440.61 I 3581.2 0.065(+3)3717.13 I 0.117 3719.94 I 2 7 8697 3734.9 14 0.1627 3737 1 4325.8 . 3745 . 56 I 4383.5 8 1535 . 44048 2 [Ar)3d'4s.3745.9 8359:91 I 2750 :: 2382.1 7,874 4063.6 2395.6 4271.8 2404.9 4307.9 2410.5 29 o N 0.073( +2) 0.117 7.7254 1.228 1 1083.45 18 [Ar]3d"4s' 8 2567 2 8.96 28- o  0.069(+2) 0.115 7.6353 1.6168 2 1453 16 [Ar)3d'4s' 8 2732 2 8.902 27 o 0,065(+2) 0.116 7.8767 0.66 2 1495 15 [Ar]3d'4s' 8 2870 2 8,90 26 o - I 4 Cu 63.546(3) 1.75 22 lEt 1 ...;1 2136.0 2165.09 2178.94 2192.3 2247.0 3247 .54(AA) 1 3273.96 1 5105.5 5153.2 5218.20 1 ME)J;b Ni 58.69(1) 1.75 11.2  81 2253.9 2264.5 2270.2 2287.1 2320.03(AA) I 3002.5 3050.8 3414.76 3461,6 3492.96 3515.05 3524.54 13619.39 1 HHKEJIh Co 2286.2 2307.9 2363.8 ::: 58.93320(1) 2407.25(AA) I 1.70 2424.93 I 4 5 2519.8 . 3405.12 I 0 3412.3  . 3443,64 1 . 0 3453.50 1 8 3465,8 3502.28 3529.8 3569.38 3995.3 4118.8 4121.3 K06AJIhT )KEJIE30 55.847(3) 1.64 -4.8 \cd e .-;1 38 O. 118(+2) 0.192 5.6951 -1.513 2 769 8 [Kr)5s' 18 1384 8 2.54 2 37 0.152(+1) 0.216 4.1767 0.486 I 39.05 8 [Kr)5s' 18688 8 1.532 2 36 0.189 13.9989 -0.4042 8 -156.55 18 [Ar]3d"4s'4p' 8 -142.3 2 3.7493r/" 35 0.196(-1) 0.114 11.8141 3.365 7 -7.25 18 [Ar]3d"4s'4p' 8 58.78 2 3.1226 5 Sr 87.62(1) 0.99 22 Et 3380.7 3464,5 3474.9 4077.71 4215.52 4305.4 4607.33(AA) 1 4832.1 4872.5 4962.26 1 5480.84 1 6408.47 1 e;POHQH" Rb 85.4678(3) 0.89 11.5 :: 81 2143.83 2472,20 4201.8 4215,6 4244.40 II 4775,95 II 7800,27(AA) I 7947.60 I PY6H)J,H" Kr 83.80(1) 4739.00 1 5570.9 5870.91 1 8104.36 I 8112.90 I 8298.11 1 8776.75 1 KPHllTOH Dr 79.904(1) 2.74 -3.3 O .,;0 ..,0 .-:0 e 4704.8 4785.5 4816.7 6148.60 6350.73 6559.80 6631,62 7512,96 8272.44 8446.55 9265.42 6POM II II 47 0. 115 1+1) 0.134 7.5762 1.3027 I 961.63 18 [Kr]4d"5s' 18 2212 8 10.50 2 46 0.086(+2)' 0.128 8.3431 0.556 o 1552 18 [Kr)4d" 183140 8 12.02 2 45 5.1 0.067(+3) 0,125 7.4622 1.129 I 1966 16 [Kr]4d'5s' 18 3727 8 12.41 2 44 0.062( +4) 0.124 7,3689 1.046 1 2310 15 [Kr]4d'5s' 18 3900 8 12.37 2 6 Ag 107.8682(2) 1.42 22 2246.4 2437.8  3280.68(AA) 1 I 5 3382,89 I 8 5209.08 I 5465.50 I 8273.52 I CEPE6PO Pd 106.42(1) 1.35 12 2476.42IAA) 1 2498.8 2505.7 2658,7 2854.6 3242.7 3404.58 3421.24 3516,94 3553,08 3609,55 3634.70 '" 6 81 llAJIJIA.IJ.H" Rh 102.90550(3) 1.45 5.7 3323.1 3396.8 3434.89(AA) I 3502,52 I 3528.02 1 3657.99 I 3692.36 I 3700.91 I 4374,9 \C 7 ..; 51 ";1 PO,Z:(H" Ru 101.07(2) 1.42 -3 oeD ,.;0 1 ..;0 ..,1 .-;1 PYTEHH" 2678.8 2692.1 2712.4 2945.7 2965.6 2976.6 3436,7 3498.94 3596.2 3726.93 I 3728.03(AA) I 3798.90 I 3799.35 I 4199,90 1 8 87 
EeB (/JU3UKO-XUMUlfeCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep06 o N 7 8 9 56 Ba 65 Tb 74 W 137.327(7) 158.92534(3) 183.85(3) 2335.3 0.97 1.10 1.40 3071.6 22 22 2029,98 II 21 3501,11 I 3324.40 II 2079.11 II 0.135(+2) 3891.8 81 0.092( +3) 3509.17 II Sl 0.0601+6) 2397.1 @O 0,198 4130.7 0,159 3561.7 0,130 2551.35IAA) I 5.4722 4554.03 II 5.8516 3568.52 II ,;,. 7.9804 2589.2 orJO 5 -0.476 4934.09 II <;0.518 3676,35 II 0.814 2844.4 2 729 5424.6 2 1356 3702.86 II 2 3407 20 2947,0 8 [Xe)6s' 5519,0 8 IXe)4r6s' 3848,73 II 13 IXe )4r'5d'6s' 3215.6 ..; 18 1637 5535.48(AA) II 27 3123 3874.17 II 32 5657 3613.8 18 3.594 5777.6 18 8.229 4326,43(AA) I 18 19.30 4008.75 I ,;, 8 6141.72 II 8 8 4074.36 I 2 6496.90 II 2 2 4294.61 I .... 7059.94 I 4302.1 6APHU TEP6HU BOJIL<I>PAM* 55 Cs 64 Gd 73 Ta 132.90543(5) 157.25(3) 180.9479(1) 0.86 1.11 1.33 4555.28 1 12 12 12 4593.2 2400,63 II 0.167(+1) 4603.76 II 81 0.094(+3) 3442.47 II 81 0.064(+5) 2635.9 eO 0.235 5227.114 II 0,161 3646.19 II 0.134 2647,47 1 6 3,8938 5925.63 II 6.1407 3683.05 I 7.8871 2653.27 I 0,47 8521.13(AA) I <;0.518 3684 13 I 0,145 2675,9 I 28.4 8943.5 2 1313 3768.39 II 2 2996 2685.1 8 [Xe)6s' 8953.47 I 9 [Xe)4r5d'6s' 4078.70(AA) I II IXe)4r'5d'6s' 2714.67(AA) I 18 678,45 25 3266 32 5425  100 2850.98 I 181.873 18 7.9004 18 16.654 3012,54 II 8 8 8 3311.2 2 2 2 3318.8 3406.7 QE3HH fA,IJ,OJIHHHH* TAHTAJI* 54 Xe 63 Eu 72 Hf 131.29(2) 151.965(9) 2012.78 I 2028,18 II 178.49(2) 1.01 2513.0 1.23 2516.9 6.7 6.7 2641.4 6.8 - 0,095(+3) 3189.67 II 6)1 0,071(+4) 2773.4 @) 4501.1 2820,2 0.209 4624.3 0.185 4129.74 II 0.144 2866,37 I 7 12.1302 4671,2 5.6661 4205.05 II ";1 6.6538 2898,26 I -0.42 8231,64 I <;0,518 4594.02IAA) I - 2904.4 2 -111.85 8280.12 1 2 822 4627,22 I 2 2230 18 IKr)4d"5s'5p' 8819.41 I 8 [Xe)4r6s' 4661.87 I 10 [Xe)4r'5d'6s' 2916,5 18 IU7.05 31069.23 I 25 1597 325197 2940,8 8 5,897r/n 35070.25 I 18 5.243 1813,31 3072,88(AA) 1 2 8 8 3134,7 II 2 2 3299,8U 3682,24 I 4093,2 KCEHOH EBPOnHH fA<I>HHH.* 53 I 62 8m 71 Lu 126.90447(3) 150.36(3) 174.967(1) 2.21 1.07 1.14 -2.5 4.6 5.1 0.220( - 1) 2062.4 r-O O,096( +3) 3568.27 II 81 0.086( + 3) 2615.42 II GI 0.133 5119,29 I 0.166 3592,60 II 0.156 2894.8 7 10.4512 5161.2 orJO 5.6308 3634,29 II ...1 5.4256 2911.39 II 8 182.68 5338,22 II <; 0,518 3739,12 II <;0.518 3281,74 1 18 11 3.55 5464,6 2 1077 3885,29 II 2 1663 3312,11 1 8 IKr)4d"5s'5p' 5625.69 II ..;-0 8 IXe)4r6s' 4296.74(AA)1 9 IXe)4r'5d'6s' 3359. 56(AA) 1 2 184.35 8043.74 I 241791 4390,9 32 3395 3397.0 4.930 9058.33 I ..;0 187.52 4424.4 189.84 3472.5 9113.91 I 8 4434.3 8 3507.39 I 2 2 3554.4 e 4518.6 - UO,[( CAMAPHH JIIOTEQHH* o  o o  I 89 
EeB (/JU3UKO-XUMUlfeCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep08 o N 10 11 12 83 Bi 92 U 101 Md 208.98037(3) 238.0289(1) 258.10 1.67 1.22 1.3 2021.21 I 20 19 18 0,1031+3) 2061.70 I U1D 0, 073 1+ 6 ) 3552,2 @ - e 0.152 2110,26 I 0,142 3566,59(AA) I - 7.2881 2230.6 I lAA)I 8. 6.0526 3584,88 I .,; 6,5812 5 0.946 2276.6 - 3670.07 II . ... 5 271.35 2780,6 2 1132.35 3672.6 2 - 18 [Xe)4r'5d"6s'6p' 2809.6 9 [Rn)5r6d'7s' 3859,58 II ..;. 8 [Rn\5r'7s' 32 1,56015 2897,98 I 21 3745 3890,36 II 31 - 18 9,747 2938,3 32 18,95 4090,13 II .;. 32 - 8 2989.0 18 4241,7 18 2 3067,76 I 8 8 4722,6 2 2 BHCMYT YPAH MEH,I(EJIEBH" 82 Pb 91 Pa 100 Fm 207 .2( I) 231.03588(2) 257.0951 1.55 1.14 1.3 12 12 10 O,1I9( +2) 2170,OO(AA) I  0,0981 +5) 3053.5 @ - e 0.154 2203.5 - 3054.6 . 6 7,4155 2614,18 I 8 5,8868 3636,52 I ..; 6,4983 0,363 2802.0 - 3957,8 - ... 4 327,5 2833.05 I 2 1840 3982,2] I 2 - 18 [Xe)4r'5d"6s'6p' 3572.73 I 9 [Rn\5r6d'7s' 6945.72 I .;. 8 [Rn)5r'7s' 32 1740 3639,57 I 20 4027 7114,89 I 30 - 18 11,350 3683,5 32 15.37 7368.25 I 32 - 8 3684,36 I 18 7493,15 I 18 2 4057,81 I 8 7608,20 I 8 5608,8 2 2 CBHHEU npOAKTHHH" cI>EPMH" 81 Tl 90 Th 99 Es 204.3833(2) 232.0381(1) 252,083 1.44 1.11 1.3 6.9 6.9 7.1 0,150(+1) 2767,871AA) I . 0,100(+4) 2837,3 @). - 2708,66 II 6J 0,155 0,165 3290.6 - 3428,48 I 2918.32 I 7 6,1076 3229,8 6,0837 3392,04 II .;. 6.4154 3498,11 I e. M 0,207 3519.24 I - 3469,92 II <0.518 3514,33 I 3 303,55 3529,43 I 2 1750 3538.8 2 - 3521.38 I 18 [Xe)4r'5d"6s'6p' 3775,72 I 10 [Rn\6d'7s' 3601.0 8 [Rn)5r'7s' 3523.49 I 32 1457 5350.46 I 18 4787 3741.18 II 29 - 3547,75 II \8 11.85 3211,72 4019,\4 II 32 - 3602,4 8 \8 438\.86 II \8 2 8 4391.1 8 2 2 TAJIJIH" TOPH" 3"HIDTE"HH" 80 Hg 89 Ac 98 Cf 200.59(3) 227.0278 242.0587 1.44 1.0 1.3 5.6 6.1 6 0.\ 02 1+ 2 ) 2536,52(AA) I 8. 0,118(+3) 2626,4 8. - 3392.22 I e 0,144 3650.15 I - 3863.12 II - 3531.49 I 2 10.4367 1654,8 5.1717 4088,44 II 6.3014 3540,98 I ... 8 \8 -0,186 3663,3  - 4\68,40 1.1 - 3598,77 I 32 -38,87 4046.56 I 2 1047 i 50 4\80,0 2 - 3605,32 I \8 [Xe)4r'5d"6s' 4358.33 I 9 [Rn\5d'7s' 4183.1 8 [Rn)5r'7s' 3612.11 II 8 356.58 5460.7 18 3\97 i 300 4386,41 II 28 - 3626.76 II 2 13,546 10139.75 I 32 10.06 4507.20 II 32 - 3785.6 18 5910.85 II 18 3789.1 8 8 3893.1 2 2 PTYTb* AKTHHH" KAJIHcI>OPHH" o - o o - I 91 
(/JU3UKO-XUMUlleCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep08 EeB 13 110 (l9) 17 fRo ]5r'6d'7s' 0 N 2 16 32 32 18 8 2 (60fATCKH") 109 (3) 9 [Ro]Sr'6d'7s' 0 2  IS 32 32 18 8 2 (BACIIJIH") 108 ( 2) 7.2 [Rn]5r'6d'7s' 0 2 14 32 32 18 8 2 (fOPgQYKOBII") 107 (Shl12 5.9 0 [Rn]5r'6d'7s'  I 2 13 32 32 18 8 2 (IDYJIbllIIHII") 6 .a B 6 a B a 5 6 7 8 93 
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EeB 7. 5 c])U3UKO-XUMUlfeCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep08 o N I 4 5 6 25 Mn 34 Se 43 Tc 54.93805(1) 78.96(3) 97.9072 1.60 2.48 1.36 -16.6 -12.8 2543.2 -10 0.083(+2) 2576.10 I roD 0.198(-2) 1960.26(AA) I O 0.064(+ ) 1610.0 eO 0.117 2593.7 0.117 2039.8 0.127 2647.0 7.4352 2605.7 .cD 9.7516 2062.8 @O 7.2756 3212.0 .cD 9 -0.97 2794.82(AA) I 2.0210 2413.50 I 0.9949 3237.0 2 1244 2798.27 I ..; 6 217 4730.8 2 2172 3636.1 ..; 13 [Ar)3d'4s' 2801.1 18 [Ar]3d"4s'4p' 4739.0 .... 13 [Kr]4d'5s' 4031.63 1 8 1963 4030.76 1 8 684.95 4742.2 18 4877 4895.67 I 2 7.44 4833.07 1 ..;1 2 4.79 10327.16 1  8 11.49 4238.2 NI 4834.49 1 10386.36 I 2 4262.27 I @I 21442.56 1 4297.06 1 4853.59 I MAPfAHEIJ: CEJIEH TEXHEIJ:H" 24 Cr 33 As 42 Mo 51.9961(6) 74.92159(2) 95.94(1) -28 -22 -18 [Ar)3d'4s' [Ar)3d"4s'4p' [Kr)4d'Ss' 10 1 5 1 13 18 13 8 8 18 2 2 8 2 XPOM MbIIDMIK MOJIH6,I(EH 23 V 32 Ge 41 Nb 50.9415(1) 72.61(2) 92.90638(2) -37 -30.5 -28.8 [Ar]3d'4s' [Ar]3d"4s'4p' [Kr]4d'5s' 11 2 4 1 11 18 12 8 8 18 2 2 8 2 BAHA,l{H" fEPMAHII" HH06H" 22 Ti 31 Ga 40 Zr 47.88(3) 69.723(4) 91.224(2) -41.5 -41 -36 [Ar]3d'4s' (Ar)3d"4s'4p' (Kr)4d'5s' 12 2 3 2 10 18 10 8 8 18 2 2 8 2 THTAH fAJIJIH" IJ:HPKOHH" o M I o ..;:t I o f'. I 97 
EeB 7. (/JUJUKO-XUMUlfeCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep08 o N I 7 8 9 52 Te 61 Pm 70 Yb 127.60(3) 144.9127 173.04(3) 2.01 1.07 1.06 -9 -4.3 2.7 0.221(-2) 2002.02 I \CD 0.097(+3) 3892.15 II 0.087(+3) 2891.38 II 0.137 2142.8(AA) I 0.163 3910.26 II 0.170 3289.37 II 9.0085 2383.2 D 5.5541 3919.10 II 6.2537 3464.37 I 61 9 1.97 2385.8 S 0.518 3957.74 II SO.518 3694.20 II 6 449.55 2530.7 2 1168 3998,96 II 81 2 1124 3987.99(AA) I NI 18 [Kr]4d"5s'5p' 2769.7 .... 8 [Xe]41'6s' 4417.96 II 8 [Xe ]4r'6s' 5556,47 I 111990 9722.74 I 23 2727 32 11 93 8 6.24 10051,41 I .... 18 7.22 186,965 , 2 11089.56 I 8 8 11487.23 I 2 2 TEJIJIYP npOMETM" IITTEP6M"* 51 Sb 60 Nd 69 Tm 121.75(3) 144.24(3) 168.93421(3) 17 -12 -7 [Kr]4d"5s'5p' [Xe]4r6s' [Xe]4r'6s' 10 5 2 2 18 8 8 18 22 32 8 18 18 2 8 8 2 2 CYPbMA HEO,I(MM TYJIM" 50 S.n 59 Pr 68 Er 118.710(7) 140.90765(3) 167.26(3) -23 -20 -16 [Kr]4d"5s'5p' [Xe]4i'6s' [Xe]4r'6s' 11 4 2 2 18 8 8 18 21 30 8 18 18 2 8 8 2 2 OJIOBO nPA3EO,I(MM 3P6M" 49 In 58 Ce 67 Ho 114.82(1) 140.115(4) 164.93032(3) -32 -29 . -23 [Kr]4d"5s'5p' [Xe]41'6s' [Xe]4r'6s' 12 3 2 2 18 9 8 18 19 29 8 18 18 2 8 8 2 2 HH,l(H" QEPM" rOJILMII" o M I o ..;:t I o f'. I 99 
EeB (/JU3UKO-XUMUlleCKaR ma6Jluqa U30Cmep06 o N I 10 11 12 79 Au 88 Ra 97 Bk 196.96654(3) 226.0254 247.0703 1.42 0.97 1.3 4.2 5.4 5.3 0.085(+3) 2012.00 I 0.143(+2) 3649.5 II - 322. 19 I 0.134 2021.38 I - 3814.42 II - 3288. 7 I 9.221 2427.95(AA) I .2784 4340.64 II 6.2288 3299.35 I 9 .3091 267.' I - 4682.28 II - 3299.72 I ..., I 1064.43 2748.2 I 8 2 700 4825.91 I 81 2 - 3335.26 I 6) 18 [Xe)4r'5d"6s' 2802.1 8 [Rn]7s' 9 [Rn)5r7s' 3408.28 I 32 2807 3122.78 I 18 1140 26 - 3426.95 I 1819.32 325.0 3214.79 3681.2 8 ..: 18 18 3711,2 2 8 8 2 2 30JIOTO PA,II,II" 6EPKJIH" 78 Pt 87 Fr 96 Cm 195.08(3) 223.0197 247.0703 1.8 2.7 3.5 (Xe]4r'd'6s' (Rn)7s' [Rn)Sr6d'7s' 10 I I 2 17 8 9 32 18 25 18 32 32 8 18 18 2 8 8 2 2 nJIATIIHA <l>PAHIJ:II" KIOPII" 77 Ir 86 Rn 95 Am 192.22(3) 222.0176 243.0614 8 1.6 1.4 [Xe]4s"5d'6s' (Xe)4r'Sd"6s'6p' [Rn]5r7s' 11 2 8 2 IS 18 8 32 32 2S 18 18 32 8 8 18 2 2 8 2 IIPIf)JII" PA,Il,O" AMEPIIUII" 76 Os 85 At 94 Pu 190.2(1) 209.9871 244.0642 ..;;. 17 8 . 1.3 [Xe)4r'Sd'6s' [Xe)4r'5d"6s'6p' [Rn]5r7s' 12 2 7 2 14 18 8 32 32 24 18 18 32 8 8 '18 2 2 8 2 OCMII" ACT AT nJIYTO""" o M I o ..;:t I o f'. I 101 
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Eu6JluOlpafjJUR 1. AxMeTOB H.C. 06lI(aSl 11 HeOpraHI11..IeCKaSl XI1MI1S1: Y1..Ie6H. J],JISI BY30B. - M: BbIClll.llIK., 1981. 2. lllyKaeB C.A. COBpeMeHHoe 3Ha1..IeHl1e nepI10J],I11..IeCKOrO 3aKOHa D. H. MeHJ],eJlee- Ba M nepCneKTI1BbI ero pa3BI1TI1S1. - M: HaYKa, 1971. 3. EepKeHreMM A.H. OCHOBbI TeOpeTI11..IeCKOM XI1MI1I1.- M.-JI.: f113, 1926. 4. Sanderson R.T.An Interpretations of bond lengtins in alkalicnalide gas molecules, Amer, Chen.Soc.1952, no177, p.272.- 274. 5. EaJIapeB )].., AHJJ.peeB C. TIo - 111l1pOKa npaBI1JIbHOCT B nepI10J],I11..IHaTa CI1CTeMa, fOJ],I1111, CO<pI1MCK YH-T. TIPl1p0J],o-MaT. <paK., 1950. T.46. KH.2.XI1MI1S1. 6. KanycTI1HCKI1M A.<D. <DopMYJIa, BbIpa)l(alOlI(aSl 1..II1CJIO 3JIeMeHTOB B nepl1oJ],ax 11 Ha1..IaJIO CMCTeMbI )]..I1.MeHJJ.eJIeeBa.)].AH CCCP, 1951, T.80. 7. MeJIbHI1KOB B.D., )].MI1Tpl1eB I1.C. DOnOJIHI1TeJIbHbIe BI111bI nepI1011I11..IHOCTI1 B nepl1oJ],l11..IeCKOM CI1CTeMe D.I1. MeHJJ.elIeeBa. - M.: HaYKa, 1988. 8. EOlIOTOB E.B., fOpSl1..IYK H.A., EOlIOTOB M.b.5IBlIeHl1e nceBlloSlJ],epHoro npeo6- pa30BaHI1S1 B <peppoMarHI1THbIX BelI(eCTBax,.3aSIBKa Ha OTKpbITl1e OT-En-211, OT 9.06.89r. 9. KanycTI1HCKI1M A.<D. HYlIeBoM nepl1oJ], 11 BTOpl11..IHaSl nepI1011I11..IHOCTb. LI,AH CCCP, 1951, T.80, c.755-758. 10. MeHJ],eJIeeB )]..11. TIepl1oJ],l11..IeCKI1M 3aKoH.OcHoBHbIe CTaTbl1. - M.: 113J],aTelIbcTo AH CCCP, 1958, c.332. 11. fOJIbAaHCKI1M B.I1., KY3bMI1H B.B. CnoHTaHHbIe HapYllleHI1S1 3epKaJIbHOM CI1M- MeTpl111 B npl1pOlle 11 npOI1CXO:>K1leHl1e )l(113HI1. - Y<DH, T. 157, BbITI.l, SlHBapb 1989, c.3-46. 12.3111Ib6epMaH I1.E., TIOJI311KOBa 11.11., PaeBCKI1M A.O. "Z" 06MeHHbIM pe311- CTI1BHbIM MeXaHI13M YCl1lIeHI1S1 Cnl1HOBbIX BOlIH B <peppoMarHI1THbIX nOlIynpo- BOAHI1KaX B BbICOK01..IaCTOTHOM 3JIeKTpI11..IeCKOM nOlle. - nl1CbMa B )l(3T<D, T.50, BbITI.6, c.284-286. 13. EOJIOTOB M.E., fopSl1..IyK H.A., EOJIOTOB E.B., llJ,eJIKaHOB C.C. Cnoc06 npe06- pa30BaHI1S1 60pa 11 YCTpOMC'f,J30 JJ.JISI ero OCYIIIeCTBlIeHI1S1.3aSlBKa NQ4734708/ 25 (79840) OT 09.06.1989. 14.JIa3apeB A.I1., XapJIaMoBI1.J1.AHaJII13 MeTaJIJIOB. CnpaB01..IHI1K. M: MeTaJIlIyp- - rMSI, 1987, c.332. 105 
15. EOJIOTOB E.B. 3<p<peKT He06paTI1MOM B3al1MOCBSl311 MarHMTHoro nOJISI B cJIa60- 28. EI CBSl3aHHbIX cBepxnpoBoJJ.HI1Kax.3aSlBKa NQ 32-0T-5011 OT 28 <peBPaJISI 1966, ne- 11: pe3aSlBJIeHO no 3aSlBKe NQ 32-0T-9380 OT 8 OKTSl6pSl 1970 11 npMMeHeHO B 3a- 01 SlBKe NQ 668811/31 OT 2 MIOHSI 1960 - MeToJJ. nOCTpoeHI1S1 annapaTa JJ.JISI BI13Y- 29. bl MbHoro MCCJIeAOBaHMSI )I(I1BbIX OpraHI13MOB B I1H<ppaKpacHbIx JIyqax. He 16. EOJIOTOB M.E., fopSl1..IyK H.A., EonoToB E.B., llJ,eJIKaHOB C.C. Cnoc06 SlAep- 30. EI HOt!: nepepa60TKM MeTaJIJIoB.3aSlBKa NQ 4705519/25 (54888) OT 1 anpeJISI 1988. Sll 17. EOJIOTOB E.B. Cnoc06 YCKopeHI1S1 1..IaCTl1l1. 11 nepeAa1..I11 I1H<popMall.l1l1. 3aSlBKa NQ 115 754747/26 OT 7 AeKa6pSl 1961. 31. b' 18. EOJIOTOB E.B.3aKoH MarHI1THOM lI.enl1.3aSlBKa NQ 32-0T-23430T 17 I1IOHSI 1962. A< 19. EOJIOTOB E.B., fopSl1..IyK H.A., EOJIOTOB M.E.)].onoJIHeHI1S1 K 3aSlBKe NQ 32-0T- 2' 23730T 27-.08.1962 Ha 3aKoH 113yqeHI1S1 <peppoMarHeTI1Ka. 32. F 20. EOJIOTOB E.B., KaJIlO)l(HbIM B.<D.3<p<peKT lI.enHOM peaKlll111 B <peppoMarHI1THOM 1 ( BelI(eCTBe.3aSlBKa NQ 32-0T-3322 11 NQ 32-0T-45530T 27 ceHTSl6pSl 1963. 33.1J 21. 21. EOJIOTOB E.B. 060cHoBaHI1e SlBJIeHI1S1 <peppoMarHeTI13Ma.3aSlBKa NQ 32-0T- c. 3500 OT 14 SlHBapSl 1964. 34. B 22. EOJIOTOB M.E., fopSl1..IyK H.A., EOJIOTOB E.B.)].onoJIHeHI1S1 K 3aSlBKe NQ 32-0T- 3: 3500 OT 14.01.1964 Ha 060CHOBaHMe SlBJIeHMSI <peppoMarHeTI13Ma. 35. fl 23. EOJIOTOB E.B., MBaXHeHKo M.A. MarHI1THbIe YMHO)l(l1TeJII1. ABTOMaTI1Ka NQ 1, n KlieB, 1968, c.70-73. Be 24. bOJIOTOB E.B.06 onpeJJ.eJIeHI1I1 HeKOTopbIX COOTHOllleHI1M B MarHI1THbIX aHaJIO- 36.3 rOBbIX peryJIMpyIOlI(MX M 3anOMI1HalOlI(MX YCTpoMcTBax. B C60pHI1Ke "TIp06JIeMbI 37. T 3JIeKTpoTeXHI11..IeCKOH 3JIeKTpoJJ.I1HaMI1KI1", NQ 19, 1969, c.109-116. B 25. EOJIOTOB E.B., TeJISlTHMK A.A. <DeppoMarHeTl13M - OJJ.Ha 113 B03MO)I(HOCTeM no- M BbIllleHI1S1 T01..IHOCTI1 re0JJ.e3111..IeCKI1X Ha6JIIOJJ.eHI1M npl1 Opl1eHTl1pOBaHI1I1/C6. 38. E MH)I(eHepHbIe 113bICKaHI1S1 B CTpOI1TeJIbCTBe. feoJIOrl11..IeCKl1e, rI1ApOJIOrl11..IeCKl1e 11 1 e reo<p113111..IeCKMe MeTOAbI.- K.: EYJJ.iBeJIbHI1K, 1967, c.22. 39. E 26. EOJIOTOB E. B., fopSl1..IyK H.A., EOJIOTOB M. E. 3<p<peKT He3aBI1CI1MOCTeM B03Aet!: - 13 CTBI1S1 MarHI1THbIX AMnOJIeM:. )].onOJIHeHl1e K 3aSlBKe NQ 32-0T -5777 OT 28 MapTa 1967. 27. EOJIOTOB E.B. Cnoc06 3JIeKTpOJIM3a nepeMeHl-!bIM TOKOM aCCI1MeTpl11..IHOM: <pop- MbI 6e3 nOCTOSlHHOM: COCTaBJISlIOlI(eM.3aSlBKa NQ 1630790/02 (02312 Kc ) OT 9 MapTa 1971. 106 
na60- - ), ne- B 3a- BlBY - H.LJ;ep- 188. Ka NQ 1962. -OT - THOM ,-OT- -OT- \4"Q 1 , HlJIO- JIeMbI i no- I1/C6. l1e H Ul.ei1:- mpTa Op- OT 9 28. EonoToB M.E., fOPSPIYK H.A., EonoToB E.B., llJ,enKaHoB C.C. TIpOJBBoJJ.HbIe 1130CTepOB Monl16JJ.eHa 11 cnoc06 I1X nonyqeHI1S1. 3aSlBKa NQ 474687/25 (106470) OT 2 aBrycTa 1989. 29. EonoToB M.E., fOPSl1..IYK H.A., EonoToB E.B., llJ,enKaHoB C.C. Cnoc06 xonoJJ.- Horo SlJJ.epHoro CI1HTe3a.3aSlBKa NQ 4739016/25 (97438) OT 14 I1lOnSl 1989. 30. EonoToB M.E., fOpSl1..IYK H.A., EonoToB E.B., llJ,enKaHoB C.C. Cnoc06 TepMO- SlJJ.epHoro npe06pa30BaHI1S1 BelI(eCTBa.3aSlBKa NQ4719432/25 (099628) OT 7 1110- nSl 1989. 31. EonoToB M.E., fOpSl1..IYK H.A., EonoToB E.B., llJ,enKaHoB C.C.5IBJIeHl1e nceB- JJ.OH.LJ;epHOrO npe06pa30BaHI1S1 B <peppoMarHI1THOM BelI(eCTBe.3aSlBKa NQ OT - EB- 211 OT 10 MapTa 1989. 32. Fleischman M Pong S Submitted to " I Elect roandl Chern ". March 11 NQ 20, 1989. 33. UapeB B. XonoJJ.HbIH SlJJ.epHbIH CI1HTe3 roJJ. cnYCTSI. HaYKa 11 )l(113Hb, NQ 3, 1990, c.19-24. 34. BOpOHOB f. C. KOHell. xonOJJ.Horo TepMOH.LJ;a. XI1MI1S1 11 )l(113Hb, NQ 6, 1989, c. 15- " 32. 35. fop6YHOB A.A., fYJII1H M.A., )].OJIrOB A.I1.; HI1KOJIaeB O.B., CaBeJIOB A.C. npSlMaSl perl1CTpall.l1S1 nOTOKa HaJ],TenJIOBbIX aneKTpOHOB nna3MbI MI1KpOnI1H1..Ie- Boro pa3pSlJJ.a. TII1CbMa B )l(3T<D. T. 50, BbItl. 7, c.320-322, 10 OKTSl6pSl 1989. 36.3MCJII1 )].)I(.3neMeHTbI: nep. C aHrn. - M., Ml1p, 1993. 37. Ta6JIMlI.bI CneKTpaJIbHbIX JII1HI1H.A. H. 3ai1JJ.enb, .B. K. npOKo<pbeB, C. M. PaHCKI1H, B.A.CJIaBHbIH, E.5I. lllpeHJJ.ep. CnpaB01..IHI1K. M.: fJIaBHaSl peJJ.aKlI.l1S1 <p113I1KO- MaTeMaTJ1l:leCKOH nl1TepaTypbI 113JJ.aTenbcTBa" HaYKa", 1977. 38. EJIell.KI1H A.B., CMl1pHOB E.M. CBoi1:CTBo KJIaCTepHbIX 110HOB. Y<DH, ceHTSl6pb 1989, T.159,. BbITI.l, c.45-78. /' 39. EOJIOTOB E.B., EOJIoToBa H.A., EOJIOTOB M.E. <Di3I1Ko-xiMi1..IHa Ta6JII1l1.SI iJocTepiB.- K.: YKpa"iHcbKa AKaJ],eMiSl Opl1riHaJIbHI1X HaYK: beSl, NQ4, 1994. 
OfJIABJIEHUE TIPE)].11 CJI OBI1E ............... .............................. .......................................................3 BCTynJIEH I1E ....................................................................................................... 4 <D113I1KO-XI1MI1t.J.ECKA5I T AEJII1U,A 1130CTEPOB........... .................... .........6 nOCTYJIATbI 11 HAlllA MO)].EJIb MI1PA.........................................................10 MEPHbIE t.J.ACTI1U,bI .......................................................... ..... ......................... 17 PEAKU,I15I EOP A H A30T A ...................................................... .......................... 31 CB5I3b CnEKTP AJJbHbIX JII1 HI1I1: ................................................................... 32 n OTEH U, I1AJJ bI 110 H 113AU,11 11.......................................... ............................... 34 TIEPI10)].I1t.J.HOCTb TAEJII1U,bI nOTEHI1U,AJIOB 110HI13AU,I1I1............... 38 E)].I1H OE BOJIH OBO E TI OJIE... ................................................................... .......44 TIPE)].TIOCbIJIKI1 K 5I)].EPHbIM TIPEBPAllJ,EHI15IM HA MAJJbIX 3HEPfH5IX .................................................47 3KCnEPI1MEHT AJJbHbIE I1CCJIE)].OBAHI15I ............................................... 50 FJloccapuu ............................................................................................................. 66 (/>u3ulfecKue eeJlUlfUHbl........................................................................................ 67 CneKmp eoaopoaa ............................................ .................................................. 68 3JleKmpOHHaR U UOHHaR 3MUCCUR .....................................................................71 jI,ua2paMMa 3JleMeHma................................................................... ..................... 73 (/>U3UKO-xuMulfecKaR ma6Jlul.{a u30cmepoe ..................................................... 75 Eu6Jlu02pacjJuR.................................................................................................... 105