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H C03JJ:a Tb He06xoJJ:HMbIe npCJJ:IIpH5ITHSI, OCHaru:eHHble OTe'leCTBCHllblM 060pY,!!.OBaHHeM H MaTepHaJIaMH. B JJ.eKa6pe 1946 r., CIIYCT5I Bcero 4 rOJJ.a nOCJIe QHKarCKoro 3KCIIe- pHMeHTa, J1. B. KypqaToBY Hero COTpYJJ.HHKaM y.n:aJIOCb YCileWHO IIY- CTHTb IIepBblH na KOHTHueHTe EBpOIIbl H A3HH 3KCIIepHMeHTaJIbHbIH ypau-rpa<pHTOBblH peaKTOp H ocyru:eCTBHTb l)eIIHYlO H,!!.epHYIO peaKl)HIO. 3TO 6bIJIa 60JIbIllaSI II06eJJ:a cOBeTcKoH HaYKH H TexHHKH, COBeTCKHX yqeHblx-<pH3HKOB BO rJIaBe c aKa.n:eMHKoM 11. B. KyptIaTOBblM. BMecTe c TeM 3TO 6bIJIa BeJIHKaSI II06eJJ:a Bcero COBeTCKoro Hapo.n:a. B OCBoeUHH SIJJ:epHoH 3HeprHH HapSIJJ:Y C <pH3HKaMH orpoMuylO pOJIb CbIrpaJiH XHMHKH. 3HaqeHHe XHMHH, oc06eHIIO paJJ:HoxHMHH, B pcwe- HilH aToMIIoH IIp06.1eMbI TPYJJ:HO IIepeoll.eHHTb. Ha1JaJIo OTe1JeCTBeHHNX pa60T no pa,nHoxHMHH OTHOCHTCH K ,nOpCBOIOUHOHHOMY nepHo,ny. B TO npCM5I 3a,na1Ja CBo,nHJIaCb K aHaJlH3Y H H3Y'leHHIO npHpo,nHbIX pa,!!HO- aKTHBHblX 3.leMeHTOB. Bo.lbllIaH 3ac.1yra B pa3BHTHH 3THX pa60T npHHa,nJlClKHT aKa- ,neMHKY B 11. BepHa,nCKOMY, KOTOpNH eme B 1910 r. rOBOpHJI a 3Ha1JeHHH pa,'J.HoaK- THBIIblX 3.ijeMeHTOB: <0: ..6.'Iaro.aapjJ OTKpblTHIO pa,nHoaKTHBHoCTH MN Y3Ha.'IH HOBblH: Hera,!!aHHblH: HCT01JHHK 3HCpfHH. 3THM HCT01JHHKOM HBH.1HCb XHMH1JeCKHC 3.'Ie\lCHTN. TIepe,n HaMH OTKpblTbi HCT01JHHKH 3HepfHH, nepeJ( KOTOpblMH no CHJle H 3Ha1JCIIHIO 6.'Ie,nHcIOT CHJIN napa, CHJIbi 3.1eKTpH1JeCTBa, CHJIbi B3pblB1JaTNX XHMH1JeCKHX npo- lI,CCCOB. B nepBble rO,!!bI nOCJIe Be.'IHKOH OKT5I6pbCKOIi COUHa.'IHCTH1JeCKOH PCBOJIlOlI,HH B. 11. Be pH a,!!CKHil, A. E. <1>epcMaH, 1(. A. HeHa,nKeBH'I H ,npYfHe pa3BepHYJIH CHC- TeMaTH1JeCKHe HCCJIe,nOBaHH5I MeCTOp01K,neHHH pa,nHoaKTHBHoro CblpMI Ha TeppHTO- pHH HallieH CTpaHN. BOJIbllIOe BHHMaHHe npH 310M Y,!!C.1HJIOCb pa,nHIO - 3JIeMeHTY, C KOTOpNM 6NJIO CBH3aHO OTKpNTHe HBJleHHH pa,nHoaKTHBlIoCTH. 3HaMeHaTeJIbHO, 'ITO rrpOH3Bo,nCTBO nepBoro pa,nHoaKTHBHoro 9.'1eMeHT8 - pa,nH5I B Hallieit CTpaHe 6b1JIO opraHH30BaHo B nepBble ro,nN COBeTCKOH BJIaCTH npH Hcnocpe,nCTBeHHoii: no.n.n.ep1KKe 13. 11. JIeHHHa. Ha np06HOM pa,nHeBoM 3aBo.lle, pa3MemCHHOM Ha CTapblX BOH,nI01K- CKHX XHMH1JeCKHX 3aBo,nax, nOJI}"IHJIH COe.llHHeHHH BaHa,nH5I, Me,nH, ypaHa, a TaJOKe KOHIeHTpaT pa,nH5I, H3 KOToporo B 1921 r. no,n PYKOBO,nCTBOM aKa,neMHKa B. r. Xno-- nHHa H ,!!pyroro BN,nalOmerOC5I COBeTCKoro }"IeHoro 11. 5I. BallIH.'IOBa 6b1JIH BbI.lleJIeHbI ncpBble npenapaTbi n01JTH 1JHCTOrO 6poMH,na pa,nHH. n03,!!Hce (1928 r.) B MOCK Be Ha 3aBo,ne pe,nKHX 3JIeMeHTOB 6b1JIO opraHH30BaHO npOH3BO,lJ.CTBO pa,nHoaKTHBHblX 3JIeMeHTOB: p8.llH5I, ypaHa, :\Ie30TOpH5I H ,np. 3TO nep- !Joe B HaIUCH: cTpaHc KpynHoe pa,nHoXHMH'leCKOe npoH3Bo,nCTBO CTaJIO npOMbillIJIeHHOa llIKO;lOH COBeTCKHX pa,nHoxHMHKOB. KpynHOJi 3ac.lyroH COBeTCKHX yqeHbIX-pa,nHoxHMHKOB 51BH.laCb pa3pa60TKa oc- HOBIIIX BonpocoB TeOpeTH1JCCKOH II npHKJIa,nHoH pa,nHoxHMHH. Eme B 1922 r. pellIe- IIHe\l COBerCKoro npaBHTeJIbCTBa I1eCKOJIbKO opraHH3aQHii, 3aHHMalOmHXC5I HayqHblMH HCC.IC,!!OI!aHIIHMH B 06JIaCTH pa.llHOXHMHH H pa,nHoaKTHBHoCTH, 6b1JIH 06"be,ll,HHeHbI B Pa;l.Hl'UblH HIICTHTYT B 3TOM HHCTHTYTe B. f. XJIOnHH Hero 6.lH1KaHllIHe Y1JeHHKIi D. A. HHKHTHH, An. PaTHcp, 11. E. CTapHK, B. M. B,noBeHKo H ,nPYfHe 3aHHJIHCb H3Y41'IIHCM npHIIQHnHa.lbHo Ba1KHblX np06JIeM pa,nHOXHMHH, B nepBYIO 01Jepe,nb IiCCJIe. ,nOl3allHeM COCTOHHH5I BemeCTB B Ma.lb1X KOHlI,eHTpaQHHx B pa3.lH1JHblX cpe,!{ax Ii pac. npl'.'1.c.1CIIHC\f pa,nH03JICMCIITOB Me)f{,ny ,l{BYMH q,a3aMH B. f. X,lonHH Hero llIKO.la y,neJI5IJIH 6oJlbllIOe BHHMaHHe XHMHH oT,neJIbHbIX pa,Q1I03J1CMCHTOB. lfcc,le,noBaHHH Pa,nHeBoro HHcTHTYTa no ypau)" H cro coe,nHHeHH5IM, 7 
HanpHMep, rry6JIHKOBaJIHCb Yi!{e B 1936 r. Oc060ro BHHMaHHH 3ac,lYi!{HBaIOT paHHHe Hcc.le,nOBaHHH, CB5I3aHHble C BbIH('I!CHHeM nplipo,!!bt rrpo.'tYKTOB Jle.1CHHH !lllCp ypaHa H TOpHH no,n ,neHCTBHeM HdiTpOHOB. 3TH pa60TbI 6b1.1H lIa1JaTbi B 1938-1939 rr, cpa3Y i!{e noc.ijC OnbtTOB 3. <1>CPMH, <1>. )K0.1HO-J(IOPH, O. XaHa, <1>. llhpaccMalIa, O. <1>pHIlla H JI. MeHTHep I1CC.1C.i!.OBaHHH ,nC,leHH5I ypaHa nOJ!. XI:eHCTBHeM HeiiTpoHoB C 3Toro BpeMeHH 6h1,lH pa3BcpHYTbt B .'!a60paTopHH I1. B. J(YP1JaTOBa, a n PaJlHeBOM HHcTHTyre HeMCJlJIeHHO 6b1JIH opraHH30naHbI pa,nHoxHMH'IeCKHe HCCJIC;(OnaHHH rrpo- AYKTOB ,!!e.1eHHH BCKope (1939 r.) B AKa,!!cMHH HaYK CCCP 6bt.la C0311aHa KOMIiC- CH5I no ypaHoBoH np06JICMe BO r.laBe C aKa,neMHKOM B. r. X.l0nHHblM. Ll..1H pelllcHHH HaY1JHbtX H TCXHOJIOrH1JeCKHX BonpocoB nOJIY1JeHH5I aTOMHblX MaTepHa.10B (ypaHa, TIJIYTOHHII. I paq,HTa) 6b1JIH I1,)llB.1CqeHbI B nepBYIo 01Jepc.i!.b HIICTHT)'Thi AKaJlc:,tIlH HaYK CCCP. HapSIJJ:Y C pa3pa60TKOH TeXHOJIOrHH IIOJIY4CHHSI MeTa.'1JIHl/eCI\oro ypana SlJJ:epIlOH: 4HCTOTbI Hero coeJJ:HueHHH Ba:>KIICHIIICH 3aJI.atICH, BCTaBWCH: IIepeJJ: COBeTCKHMH paJJ:HOXHMHKaMH H TeXHo.l0ra\1:H, SIBHJlOCb H3YtIeilHe XHMHH H TeXIIOJlOrHH HOBoro 3.leMeHTa - IIJIYTOHHH, OJI.HOrO H3 BeCbMa 3cpcpeKTHBIIbIX ,J.eJ1SIru:HXCSI MaTepHaJlOB, 3aTep5IHHOrO IIOIITH B HeBeCOMbIX KOJlHIIeCTBax B Macce MaTepHHCKoro Beru:CCTBa - 06.1Y- 1.IeIlHOrO ypalla. I1CTOpHH no.'1Y'IeHH5I OTC1JCCTBeHHorO nJIYToHH5I npe,nCTaBJIHer 60JIblllOH HaY'IlIblrl H HCTOpH1JeCKHir HIiTepcc. Pa60Tbi no 110JIyqeHHIO nepBoro COBerCKoro rr.1YToHHH B03- r.'1aB.1HJIHCb aKaJl:CMHKaMH 11. B. Kyp1JaTOBbtM H B. r. X.ijOnHHbIM. I1CCJICJl:OBaIlHH 6b1JIH Ha1JaTbI co BTOpOH nO.'10BHHbI 1943 r. H npoBo,nH.1HCb o,nHoBpeMeHHo B MocKBe II JIeHHHrpa,ne. OrpoMHoH 3aCJIyroH aKa,nCMHKa B. r. XJIOnHHa HB.'!HerC5I era HaCTOH1JHBOe CTpeMJIeHHe He OrpaHH1JHBaTb HCC.le,nOBaHHe XHMHH n.1YTOHHH paMKaMH JIa60paTOp- Horo MaCllITa6a, a pelllaTb 3aJl:a1JH pa3pa60TKH npOMbillIJIeHHOH TexHo.l0mqeCKOH CXCMbI KpynHoMacllITa6Horo npoH3Bo,nCTBa nJIYTOHH5I Ha 60,lblllOM pa,nHoxHMH'ICCKOM 3aBo,ne. TIepBOHa1JaJIbHble HCCJIe'!!OBaHHH no XHMHH n.ijYTOHH5I 6b1.1H BblIIO.1HCHbi Ha XIi- MH1JecKHX aHaJIOraX nJIYTOHHH rro,n pyKOBO,nCTBOM B. r. X.lonHHa era Y'lcIIIIKaMH B. A. HHKHTHHblM H A. TI. PaTHepOM. B Ka1JCCTBe HMHTaTopoB HCrrOJIb30Ba.'1H JIaHTaH, TOpHH H nOJIY1JeHHblH Ha UHK.loTpoHe HenrYHHH-239 C nepHo,noM nOiIypacIIa,!!a 2, 3 ,nHH. Pa60Ta BeJIaCb, KaK Tor,na 6b1JIO npHHHTO rOBopHTb, C «HMnY!IbCIIUMH KOJIH1JeCTBaMH BCllIeCTBa, T. c. C HeBCCOMblMH KOJIH1JeCTUaMH, onpc,ne,lHcMblMII TO.lbKO no c1Jery HMnYJIbCOB, C03,naBaeMbiX HOHH3HPYlOllIHM H3.'!Y'lCHHCM B C1Jer1JHKe. Pa3Ho06pa3He XHMH1JeCKOrO COCTaBa H CBOHCTB npo,nYKTOB ,!!eJleHH5I HJl:ep ypaHa BeCb:l!:a OCJIOi!{HHJIO pa60TY, TaK KaK MHorHe npo'!!YKTbI ,nc.1eHH5I HMCJIH nCpHOJl: nO,lY- pacna,na, 6JIH3KHH K nepHO,!!y no.'1ypacna,na HenrYHH5I-239. He06xo,!!HMO 6b1.10 He TOJIbKO onpe,neJIHTb XHMH1JeCKHe CBOHCTBa HenTYHH5I H OT;(CJIHTb era OT JlpyrHx npo- AYKTOB ,neneHH5I, HO H Ha OCHOBaHHH nOY1JeHHblX PC3YJIbTaTOB pa3pa60TaTb TeXHO- JIOrH1JeCKYIO cxeMY H pcr,laMeHT npOH3Bo,nCTBeHHhlX onepaUHH ,n,151 H3n.le'lCIIHH n.'!y- TOHHH. TIpH 3TOM CYlllCCTBeHHblM HBH.'10Cb TO, 'ITa ,!!OCTaTO'lHO H3Y1JeHHble paHec CO- BeTCKHMH pa,nHOXHMHKaMH 3aKOHbI pacnpe,ne.1eHH5I BelllecTBa Mei!{,ny pa3JIH1JHhIMH q,a3aMH OKa3aJIHCb nOJIHOCTblO npHMCIIHMbt K npoQcccaM oT,nCJIeI;lHH nJIYTOHHH aT ypaHa H npO'!!YKTOB ,neJIeHHH. 3TO rr03BOHJIO BblACJIHTb MHKpOKOJIH1JCCTBa HcnTYHH5I, a 3aTeM H n.lyroHH5I Ha HOCHTl'.lHX, KaK 3TO paHee ,ne.la.'11! npH BbI21CJIeHHH pa,nHH COBMeCTHO C 6apHCM. 8 
COlJeTaliliCM OCa,iJ.IiTC.lbIlLIX II :JKCTpaKQHOllllbIX npOI,eCCOB 6bl.1H nO.'IY'ICllbl ncp- BbiC KOIIUeliTpaTbi n.1YTOHHH - Clla'la.la B MHKporpaMMOBblX, a 3aTeM B MH.1JIHrpaM- MOBbiX KO.1HlJCCTBax. TIcplJble nopUHH n.'I)'TOHH5I B 6 H 17 MKf 6b1.111 BbI;(eJIellbi B B KyplJaTORblM Ii r. H.5IKoB.leBbiM B Ha'la,le 1947 r. H3 06pa3QOB ypalla, 06.1Y- 'I('lIlIoro B peaKTope <1>-1. O,nHoBpeMeHHo MHKporpaMMoabie Ko.1H'IeCTBa n.ijYToHH5I Ga.m nO;IY'IeHbI KO,l;lCKTHBOM JIeHHHrpall.CKHX Y'IeHblx. Bce 3TO n031J0JlHJIO 6o,lee no.ap06HO H3Y'IHTb BaJKHeHlllHe XHMHlJCCKHe cBoHCTBa HOBoro 3JIeMeHTa H npe,n,10JKHTb TCXIIO,lOflIIO, 06cCIIClJIIBaIOIILYIO 60Jlee nomlOe cro BbI,nCJICHHC. MCTO,n, pa3pa60TaHllblH B Pa;J.HcBoM HHcTHTYTe B. A. HHKHTHHblM H A. TI. PaTHcpoM no,n PYKOBO,nCTBOM a"a.n.e:\lIlKa B. r. X.lonHHa, 6b1;1 nO,10JKea B OCHoay npoMbillweHHoro H3B.1C'ICHHa lLlyTOHHH H3 06,lY'ICHHOrO ypaHa. TIpoeKTHpouaHHe ncpBblx pa,iJ.UOXHMH'ICCKHX npoH3Bo,nCTB B CCCP BCTpeTH.lo cncQHq,HqeCKHC TPY;(HOCTH. HaJIH'IHC B 06J1Y'IeIlHOM ypaHe npo,nYKTOB ,neJleHH5I- l' 113.1Y'IaTc.lcii C 3HeprlieH ,no 3 M3B H liHTellCHBIlOCTblO H3JIYlJCIIHH, COOTBCTCTBYIO- I1lcii n IlCKUTUPb:X c.1Y'IaHX pa.llHOaKTHBlioCTH JJ:CC5ITKOB TblCa'i KlOpH Ha 1 T ypaHa, Tpe60IJa.10 ;J..1H 06CcnC'ICHH5I 6e30naCIIOCTH paGoTl" nepCOHaJIa cnCIJ:HaJIbIlOH 3aw.HTbI H ;(IICTaIlQIlOIlIlOCTH ynpaB.1eIlH5I TCXHO.l0rH'ICCKHM npoueccoM H cro KOHTpOJIeM. . ocTaTO'III() YKa3aTh, 'I TO ypOIJCHb )'-H3,lY'leHH5I B MH.1JIHOH pa3 npCBbllllaJI YPOllClib ,\,-1i3.IYlJCHHH lIa 3allO.rJ:ax 110 nepcpa60TKC ypalioBbiX Py,n Ii no.1YlJCHHIO pa,nHH. IJpaKTlilJCCKOfO onbiTa pa60TbI C H3.1Y'lCIIHCM TaKOH HHTCHCHBHOCTH B COBer- CKO\I COI03C cIu,e HC 6bl,i,0. Ll.pyroro pO.ll.a TPYJJ:1I0CTH 6b1,lH CBH3allbi C CHJIbHOH copGILl:cil n.1YTOIIHH lIa CTCIIKax allnapaTypbl H oca.n.Kax, a TaK KaK MaCCOlJaa KOII- UCIlTpall,lIH n.1YTOHIiH H IlpO;I:YKTOll ,neJIeHHH Gbl.la OlJCHb Ma.1a, 3TO npHBo,nH.l0 K TOMY, 'ITO HlIorJJ:a n.lyToHHH Ha KOHe'lHblX onCpaQH5IX lie 06HapYJKHBaJiH. HecMoTp51 na 60JIbWHe Tpy.n:HOCTH, IIpOMbIWJIeHHOe IIpOH3BO.n:CTBO IIJIYTOlIH5I 6bI.l0 OCBOeHO y:>Ke B Ha1J:aJIe 1949 r. B TOM :>Ke 1949 r. B COBCTCKOM COlO3e 6bIJIO IIpOH3Be.n:eHO HCIIbITaHHe IIepBOH aTOMHOH 60M6bI. MOHOIIOJIH5I CIlIA Ha aTOM Hoe opY:>KHe IIpO,iI.ep:>KaJIaCb Bcero 4eTblpe rOJJ:a. OOJIHTHKa coxpaHeHH5I MHpa Me:>K.n:y HapOJJ:aMH, IIOCJle,J.OBaTeJIbHO H peWHTeJIbHO IIpOBOJJ:HMa51 KOCC H COBeTCKHM IIpaBHreJIbCTBOM, Ha- PSI).(y C Bl>IIIOJIHeHHeM HeOTJIO:>KHbIX 060pOHHbIX 3a.n:a1J: IIO 06eCIIeQeHHIO 6e30IIaCIJOCTH CCCP H CTpaH COII.HaJIHCTH1J:eCKoro cOJJ:pY:>KeCTBa 06y- CJIOBHJla WHpOKoe pa3BepTbIBaIlHe B HaweH CTpalle pa60T IIO MHpIIO- My HCIIOJIb30BaHHIO aTOMHOH .:wcprHH. HecMoTp51 IIa TO 'ITO Me:>KJJ:YHapOJJ:Ha5I IIOJIHTHtJeCKa5I 06cTaHoBKa 1945-1950 rr. Tpe60BaJIa 6bIcTpeHwero C03JJ:aHH5I COBeTCKoro aTOM- HOro 0PY:>KH5I H JIHKBHJJ:all.HH MOHOIIOJIHH CIlIA B 3TOM 06JIaCTH, co- BeTCKHe Y'leHbIe H HH:>KeHepl>l Y:>Ke pa60TaJIH Ba.II. IIpoeKTaMH HCIIOJIb- 30BaHmi aToMHoft: 3HeprHH B MHpHbIX ll.eJISIX. «3TO TOJIbKO He06xo.II.H- MOCTb 3aCTaBHJIa Hac pa60TaTb Ha.II. C03.n:aIIHeM aTOMHoro 0PY:>KH5I,- rOBOpHJI B O,iI.HOM li3 CBOHX Bl>ICTYIIJIeHHM 11. B. Kyp1J:aTOB, - r.UBHoe IJailpaBJICIIHe HCIlOJlb30BaIIH5I aTOMHoil 3IIeprHH - MHpHoe». B 1954 r. B COBeTcKoM C0103e BCTYIIHJIa B CTpOft: .n:eHcTBYlOru:HX 5mepreTH1J:eCKHX npe.n:npH5ITHH ITepBa51 B MHpe aTOMHa5I 3JIeKTpOCTaH- II.H5I (A3C) MOru:HOCTblO 5000 KBT. 3TO cpaBHHTeJIbHO He6oJIbWa5I MOru:HOCTb, HO 3TO 6l>1JIH nepBl>Ie B MHpe «aTOMIIbIe KHJIOBaTTbI». BIIep- BbIC .:JHeprHSJ .n:eJIeHH5I 51.n:ep ypana TOJIKHYJIa BaJI Typ6liHbI H .n:aJIa 3JIeKTpHtIecKYlO 3HeprHlO B IIpOMbIWJIeHIIYlO ceTb. 9 
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311eprJiH HCrrpepbIBIIO YBeJIHlJHBaJIOCb, IIpHIICM MHOro 6bICTpee, tJC IIHCJIellHOCTb caMoro HaCeJIeTlH5I. OpH 3TOM Kpyr IIcrro,1b3yeMbIx rrep- BJ1IlIIblX 3HcprOHCTOtJIIHKOB Bce BpC51 paCTlIHp5lJICSI H BHJJ:OH3MeI15IJlCH. OepHO,iI. C cepe,J.HllbI XX B. xapaK1 epH3YCTC5! CY1ll.CCTBCHllhlMH H3MCHe- HH5IMH TCII,1:ell:.J.HH pa3BHTH5I 3HcpreTHKH. KaK B CBoe BpCM5I yro,lh Bbl- TeCHH.l ftpeBCCHIIY. a 3aTCM YCTynHJI MeCTO HcqnH, KOTopaH B CBOIO OtIepC,J.b 6hI.la 1I0TeCHella IIpHpO,LJHbIM ra30M, TaK HbIlle C KaJKJJ.bIM ro- JJ:OM BCC YBC.1HtJHBaCTCSI )1:0JI5I 51,iI.CpHOro TOIIJlHBa. HeYKJIOHIlOC Hapa- ru:HBaHHC 51,J,CpIiOH 311cprCTHKH ft.151 60JIbWHTlCTBa CTpaH B HaCT05lru:ce H 0603pHMOC 6Y,J.YIIec BpeM5I 51BJl5ICTC5I IICH36eJKIIbiM rrpOll.CCCOM, IIC- CMOTp5I lIa CB5I3aHllbiC C TlH\1 TPY,1.JHOCTH H ftaJKe OilaCIiOCTH. 113 BCCX HCnOJIb3yeVl blX IICJIOBetIeCTBOM BH,1.JOB 3HcprHH 3JICKTpH- tICCKa5I 311CprH5I B IfCTOpHIICCKH KOpOTKHH CpOK IIpOtIHO BOWJIa DO Bce C<pePbl ;r,e5ITC:lbIlOCTI! If JKII311H IICJlODCKa KaK HaH60JIcc JJ:HlIaMHIIlla51 II YIIHepca.'Jblla51 <popMa, )I10T5I H lie C,1.JHIICTBCIIHa5l. B JJ:eKa6pe 1920 r., T. e. 60JIce 60 JICT Ha3aJJ., B. 11. JIeHHu orrpeJJ:eJlHJI 3J1eKTpH<pHKaILHlO KaK MaTCpHaJIbHYIO OCHOBY CTpOHTCJIbCTBa 1I0Boro 06ru:eCTBClIlIoro CTp05l- KOIMYIIH3Ma. Pa3pa60TaHUbIH ITO cro YKa3aHHlO IIJIaH f03JIPO 6hIJI lIa3Ball HM «BTOpOH rrporpaMMoii rrapTHH». B Cme 60JIbl1!CH CTcrrCHH 3HaIIeUHe pa3BHTHSI 3JICKTp0311cprCTHKH HaWJIO CBoe OTpaJKellHe I3 KpbI.1aTOH JIellHHCKOH <ppa3C: «KOMMYHH3M -3TO eCTb COBCTCKaH 1I;laCTb rrmoc 3JIeKTpH<pHKal.JH5I BCCH CTpallbI». BMCCTC C TeM B HaCT05lUee BpeM5I 311CpreTHLJCCKHe IIp06JIeMbI IIPH- 06peJIH lIe06bJIlaHllYlO OCTPOTY. 3TO 06'b5lCJl5ICTCH TCM, tJTO HC06XO,iI.H- MOCTb ,iI.a.'1bHeHWCro pOCTa 3T1cprOBoopY:>KeIlIlOCTH Tpc6yeT YBeJIJ1IIe- HH5I JJ:06bIIIH H TpaHCIIopTHpOBKH TpaJJ:Hll.HOHHbIX 3HcprOHCTOtIHHKOB BO Bce B03paCTalomHX MaCWTa6ax IIPH O.n:HOBpCMCHHOM B03HHKIIOBCHHH orpalIHtJellHH PCcypCHoro, perHOUaJIbHOrO H 3KOJIOrHtIeCKOrO xapaKTe- pa. K 3TOMY c.1CJJ:yeT JJ.06aBHTb, tJTO He<pTb H ra3 (a B lIeKOTopbIX CJIY- tJa5lx H yrOJIb) 51BJI5IlOTC5I CbIpbeM JJ:JI5I XHMHlJCCKOH, MCTaJIJIypmtICCKOH H lieKOTopbIX JJ:pyrHx OTpac;'Ici\: IIpOMbIWJICHHOCTH. Bce 3TH 06CT05lTeJIb- CTBa BCTYilalOT B OCTpoe rrpOTHBOpCtIHe C IIOTpe6HOCT5IMH pa3BHTH5I IIpOH3BO,iI.CTBa 3JIeKTp03HeprHH. Pa3pewellHe 3TOro IIpOTHBopetJH5I B liaCT05lmCe npeM5I peaJIbHO B03MO:>K1i0 TOJIbKO C IIOMOmblO 51JJ:epHOH 3HcprHH. BOT IIOqeMY HJJ:epHa51 3HepreTHKa pa3BHBaeTcSI B OCHOBHO JJ:JI5I IIpOH3BoJJ:cTBa 3JIeKTp03IICprHH, JJ:OJI5I KOTOpOH B TOIIJIHBIIO-3Hep- reTHtIeCKOM 6aJIalice pa3BHTbIX CTpaH COCTaBJI5IeT 20-25 %. HCCMOTp51 Ha CBOIO MOJIOJJ:OCTb, 51JJ:cpHa51 3HcpreTHKa KaK B CCCP. TaK H 3a py6e:>KOM JJ:06HJIaCb 3liaIIHTeJIbHbIX YCIICXOB. Y:>KC YKa3bIBa- JIOCb, tJ:TO COBeTcKHH C0103 51BJI5IeTC5I IIHoHepoM B 06JIaCTH 51ftepHOH 3HeprcTHKH. OilbIT IIycKa H 3KCrrJIyaTall.HH IICpBOH B MHpe A3C no- Ka3aJI peaJIblIYlO B03MO:>KHOCTb HCIIOJIb30BaHHSI aToMHoH 3HeprHH JJ:.TJ5I IIpOMhlIUJICHHorO IIpOH3BoJJ:cTBa 3JIeKTp031IeprHH, tITO IIOCJIYJKHJIO IIPH- MepOM ).)JlSI IIOCJIcJJ:ylOru:ero npocKTHpOBaHH5I H CTpOHTCJIbCTBa A3C pa3JIH 1 IHbIX THIIOB B p5lJJ:c 3apy6eJKHbIX cTpaH. POCT MOru:HOCTH A3C rrOKa3aII lIa pHC. 2.1. . B lIaCTOHmee BpeM5I BO BceM MHpe HMeCTC5I 60JIee 235 A3C. YCTa- HOBJIelIliaSI MOru:IIOCTb A3C K KOHll.Y 1979 r. JJ:OCTHrJIa 120 fBT, a BbI- pa60TKa 3.1eKTp03HeprHH - 8 % 06ru:ero MHpoBoro 06'beMa IIpOH3BOJJ:- 16 
CTBa. rIpc,J.I10.1araeTC5!, IITO K 1985 r. cYMMapHa5I YCTaIlOB.1CHHa5I MOm- 1I0cn A3C COCTaBHT 290-350 rBT, a CCpC;J.IIIIC 90-x ro;r:OB- 245 rBT. )].OJIH IIpOH3BoJJ:cTBa 3J1eKTp03l1cprHH lIa A3C K 1985 r. B03- pacTeT JJ:O 16 % (<<AToMHaH TeXHHKa 3a py6eJKOM», 1981, N!! 2, c. 43). npOrIl03bI Jr:aJJbIlCHWCro pa3BHTH5I HJJ:eplioH 3HeprcTHKH, eCTeCT- BelIllO lIaXOJi5!ru:HCCH B liCIITpC BIIHMallHSI MilOrOlJ.HC.1CIIHhIX HCCJICJJ:OBa- IlHH, lie npHBoJJ:5!T K 0.L)1I03I1alJ.JlbIM PC3YJlbTaTaM BC.1C;J.CTBHe Heorrpe- .n:e.leHHOCTH p5lJJ:a cpaKTopoB, OT KOTOpbIX 3aBllCHT 3TO pa3BllTHc. TeM :;, oo 1 - ::0 so J ..-, "'" E 40 I  '"  20  .1 1q:;4 '951 19/{I [' PHC. 2 1. POCT cYM\lap- HOH MOru.1I0CTII A3C MHpa  - .... 00 :::t  ID J .."  <> " >: ::;  10 2 19/0 /990 2010 2030 rr PilC. 2.2 TIporHo3HpyeMbIH pOCT 51,nep- HO-311CpreTH'ICCKHX MOIUHOCTCii npH Bbl- COKHX (A) 11 HH3KHX (E) TCMnax pa3- BHTH!!" 1-- nOJlH3H MOII\IfOCTb, 2 - peaKTopLI Ha 6blCTpblX HeiiTpCJla> IIC ellee, JJ:aJKe eCJIH IIpllH5!Tb CKpOMHbIC (HHJKHHe) OIlCHKH, H B 3TOM CJIYlJ.aC pOCT IIpOH3BO.L)CTBa 3JIeKTp03I1eprHH C IIOMOUr:bIO 5IJJ:CpHOH 3HCp- rCTHKH BeCbMa BHYIUHTeJICJI. Ha pHC. 2.2 IIpllBeJJ:ellbI JJ:aIlHbIC rrpOrH03Hpycoro pa3BHTHH 51Jr:ep- IIOH 3HcprcTHKH Ha OCHOBaJlllH MaTepHaJIOB MCJK,'lYlIapO,iI.110ro arCIIT- CTBa IIO aTOMHOH 3HeprHH (MArAT3) H MCJK,iI.YIIapoJJ:IIOH KOHcpepclI- ll.HH rro 51JJ:epHoH 3HepreTHKc H ee TOnJIHBlloy ll.HKJIY (3aJJbll.6ypr, 1977). LITO KacaeTCH pa3BHTH5I 51JJ:epHOH 3HcprCTHKH CCCP, TO MCllee tIeM 30 JIeT CYmCCTBoBaIlHH COBeTCKOH 51JJ:eplloH 3HcprcTHKH 03HaMeHOBaHlJl: 3HatIHTCJJbHbIMH JJ:OCTHJKeHH5IMH H 51pKOH JJ:CMollcTpaIlHcH ee 3KOHOMH- lJ.eCKOH IlcJIeco06pa3HocTH, KOIIKypcIITocrroc06HoCTli II HaJJ:eJKHOCTH, a TaKJKe BeCbMa cymccTBeHHbIMH 3KOJIOrHIIeCKHMH IIpeHMYmCCTBaMH rro. cpaBlleHHlO C TpaJJ.Hll.HOllIIOH 3HcprcTHKoH. B OTJIHlJ.He OT MHOrHX IIpO- MbIWJIell110 pa3BHTbIX 3apy6e:>KHhIX cTpaH COBCTCKHH C0103 pacrroJIa- raCT orpoMlIblMH 3aIIacaMH HCKonaeMoro opralIHIIccKoro TOIIJIHBa pa3- JJHtJ:HbIX BHJJ:OB, a TaK:>Ke 60JIbWHMH IIOTeHliHaJlbHbIMH 3aIIacaMH rHk p03HepropccypCOB, tITO CHHMaeT yrp03Y 311eprCTHQCCKOrO KpH3Hca Ha 0603pHMoe 6YJJ:ymcc. OpH 3TOM COBeTcKHH C0103 51B.TJHCTC5I eJJ.HHCT- BeHllbIM B MHpe KPYIIHbIM BbIcoKopa3BlfTbIM HIIJI.YCTpHaJIbHbIM rocy- JJ:apCTBOM, KOTopoe 6a3HpyeT CBoe 3KOHOMHIIeCKoe pa3BHTHe Ha C06CT- BelillbIX TOIIJIHBHO-3HepreTHIIecKHx pecypcax. 17 
PClUCIIH5IMH XXV C'bC3JJ:a KITCC 6bIJra OIIpe;!:e.'1CHa opnCIITaIlHSI ;aJIblieHIIlero pa3BHTHH 3IICpreTHIICCKHX MOmHOCTeii npcHMyru:eCTBenHO Ha TBepJJ:oe oprallH4CCKOC Torr.1HBO C rrOCTCIICJllIblM 3aMeru:CHHeM cro BO Bce B03paCTalOIIiHX Macwn6ax 51JJ:CpHbIM TOrrJIHBOM B IIepBYlO O'lC- peJJ:b B EBpOIICHCKOH '1aCTH COBeTCKoro C0103a, rJJ:e IIpO:>KHBaeT IIOtITH 76 % HaCeJIeHH5I, IIOTpe6JI5IeTC5I OKOJIO 80 % 3HeprHH H BbIrrycKacTcSI OCHOBHa51 Macca IIpOMbIllIJICHHOH rrpo:.r.YKll.HH. )].ecpHll.HT 3Hepropecyp- COB npHXOJJ:HTC5I YJKe CeHqaC IIOKpbIBaTb 3a CqeT JJ:oporOCT05lru:eH IICpC- B03KH 60JIbWHX KOJIHqeCTB TOrrJIHBa H 3JICKTp03HcprHH H3 BOCTOqHbIX paH:OHOB CTpaHbI. 3aTpaTbi II a pa3BHTHe TOIIJIHBHOH 6a3bI (waXTbI, pa3- pe3bI) H TpallcrropTa (rrO..'!:BHJKHOH COCTaB, BTopbIe IIYTH H T. II.) IIPH pa3BHTHH 3HepreTHKH Ha opraHHIIeCKOM TOIIJIHBe COilOCTaBHMbI, a IIPH AaJIbJlCH TpallcrropTHpOBKC JJ:aJKe IIpCBbIwalOT 3aTpaTbI Ha CTpOHTC.TJb- CTBO c06cTBeilII0 Tcrr.l0BbIX 3JleKTpOCTalIll.HH (T3C). BbIcoKa51 Ka.lO- pHHIIOCTb 51J)cpHoro TOrrJIHBa JJ:eJIaeT 3KOHOMHqIIbI IIpOH3BO.nCTBO 311eprHH Ha A3C rro cpanlIclIHlO C IIpOH3BO,iI.CTBOM cc lIa T3C JJ:a:>Ke IIPH YJJ:CJIblibIX KaIIHTaJIOBJlO:>KeIIH5iX B A3C B 1,5 pa3a 60JIbWHX, tIeM B T3C. TaKHM 06pa30M, Borrpoc 0 MacwTa6ax, TeMilax pOCTa MOru:- HOCTeH H pOJIH 5JJJ:CpliOH 3HcpreTHKH B 3ueprOClIa6:>KeHHH HaweR CTpa- JlbI 51BJI5IeTC5I rrpCJKJJ:e Bcero 3KOHOMHIICCKHM BorrpOCOM, H OH pcwacT- CH B IIepBYlO OIICpC;b IIpHMeIIHTeJIbliO K cBponeHcKoH qaCTH CCCP. B «OCHOBlIbIX lIarrpaB.1CHHHX 3KOHOMHIIeCKoro H COll.HaJIbHOrO pa3- BHTH5I CCCP Ha 1981-1985 rOJI.bI H Ha IICpHOJJ: JJ:O 1990 rOJJ:a», YTBCPJK- JJ:CHHbIX XXVI C'bC3JJ:OM KOCC, rrpeJJ:ycMOTpeJlO JJ:aJIblleHWee pa3BH- THe aTOMHOH 3HepreTHKH B HaWCH CTpaHe, paCWHpCHHC CYIll.CCTBYlO- ru:HX H CTpOHTeJIbCTBO HOBbIX A3C C peaKTopaMH eJJ:HHH'IHOH MOlliIlO- CTH 1-1,5 MBT. 06ru:a51 MOru:HOCTb IIpeJJ:ycMoTPCHHbIX K BBO;!:Y I3 Acii- CTBHC A3C eBpoIIeHcKoii qaCTH CCCP B O,iI.Hlllla,iI.ll.aTOH II5ITH.1CTKe COCTaBHT 24-25 MBT. ITpH 3TOM TeMilbI pa3BHTH5I aToMHoH 3Hepre- THKH 6YJJ.YT cymccTBcHHO OIICpCJKaTb TCMrrbI pa3BHTH5I Tpa.nHll.HOHHOH 3HepreTHKH. )].0.'151 A3C B BbIpa60TKe 3JIeKTp03HeprHH B CCCP B 1985 r. COCTaBHT 60JIce 14 % (K HatIaJIY 1981 r. OKOJIO 5 %), 'ITO Ha- rJI5IJJ:HO CBHJJ:CTeJIbCTByeT 0 pacTymeM 3HaqeHHH 5111.epHOH 3HepreTHKH B IIpOH3Bo.nCTBe 3JIeKTp03HcprHH H HapOJJ:HOM X0351HCTBe B ll.eJIOM. )].0- JI5I yqaCTH5I A3C B Haparu:HBaHHH 3HepreTH'IeCKHX MOmHOcTeH B 3TOH tIaCTH cTpaHbI 6YJJ:eT Bce Bpe\1:51 YBCJIHtIHBaTbC5I. B pe3YJIbTaTe MOru:- HOCTb A3C eBpoIIeHcKoH qaCTH CCCP B HCCKO.1bKO pa3 IIpCBblCHT cYMMapHYlO MOru:HOCTb Bcex rHJJ:p03JIeKTpOCTaHll.HH JJ:aHHoro perHOHa. 2.2. Pa3BHTHe paAHOXHMH'IecKHx npoH3BoACTB Pa3BHTHe 51JJ:epnoH 3HepreTHKH neH36e:>KHO cOnpOBOJKJJ:aeTcSI B03- pacTaHHeM pOJIH XHMHtIeCKHX H paJJ:HoxHMHtIeCKHX IIpOll.eCCOB, oe3 KO- TOpbIX I1eMbICJlHMO HH IIpHrOTOBJIeHHC SIJJ:epHoro TOIIJIHBa H3 IIpHpOJJ:- Horo CbIpbSI, HH percHepali.H5I oTpa60TaBwHx TB3JIOB, IIH IIOJIyqeHHC HO- BbIX BHJJ:OB JJ:eJISIru:HXC5I MaTepHaJIOB, HH oOe3BpeJKHBaHHe paJJ:HoaKTHB- HbIX OTXOJJ:OB 51JJ:epHoH 3HepreTHKH, HH MHorHe JJ:pyrHe rrpoH3BoJJ:cTBa 51JJ:epHo-3HepreTHtIeCKOrO TOIIJIHBHOrO ll.HKJIa. 003TOMY npH HCrrOJIb30- 18 
BaHHI1 aTO'vllIOH 3I1CprHH BaJKHbI He TOJIbKO A3C, HO H I3CCb 5IJJ:CpHO- 3HCprCTHtICCKHH KOIIJIeKC, rrpCJJ:CTaB.TJ5IlOIllHH cOBoKyrrllocTb CBSI3alIHbIX MC)K,1.JY C060H IIpOH3BO;J.CTB. TaK, B 51..'!:epHO-3J!cpreTHIICCKOM TOIIJIHBIIOM ll.HK.1C 60JIbWa51 tIaCTb 3aTpaT TpY,iI.a, CpCJJ:CTB H MaTCpHaJIOB IIa,a:aeT Ha XJJMH'IE'CKHe, pa,iI.HOXHMHIIeCKHC Ii MCTaJl.1ypnltICCKHe IIpOlJCCCbI H npOH3BOJICTBa, a MeHbWa5l- Ha 5lJJ:CplibIC peaKTopbl H HX 3KCIIJIya- Tall.HlO. PcreHepall.H5I oTpa60TaBwero 5JJJ:eplIoro TOrrJIHBa, OCYIUCCTB.151eMa51 I1a IIpc.n:rrpHHTH5JX pa;l:HOXIiM HIICCKoro IIpO<pHJI5I, o,a:Ha H3 caMbIX CJIO:>K- I1bIX, BaJKHbIX H TPY;J.HbIX TCXHHtIeCKHX 3a,iI.a4, OCTaCTCH caMbIM Y3KHM MCCTOM B TOnJlHBIiOM l)HKJle C TOtJKH 3pelIHSI 06eCilCtIeH!lOCTIf IIpOH3- 130JICTBCII IIhIM H MOmlIOCT5I M If, He06xoJIH bIM H JJ:JI5I Y JJ:OBJICTBOpeHHH rro- Tpc6110CTeii B MaCCOBOH perelIepall.HH TOIIJIHBa A3C. B 3TOM CBSI311 xapaKTcplIO, lITO He3a.ll.OJlro JJ:O MCJK.lI.YlIapO..'!:IIOH KOH<pepCIIUHH rro aTOMIIOH 3HeprCTHKe H ce TOIIJlHBIIOMY ll.HKJIY (3aJIbll.6ypr, 1977) B CiliA 6bIJIO 06'b5lBJIeIi0 06 OTKa3e Ha 6JIHJKaHWeC 6YJJ:yru:ce OT nepe- pa60TKH oTpa60TaBlUero Torr.'mBa BCJICJJ:CTBHe JJ:oporORH3!1bI IIpOlJeCCa, TOKCHIIHOCTH IIJIYTOIIUH H p5l,T{a COIIpHJKeHHblX C TaKOIf: rrepepa6oTKoH OrraCCHH11 3KOHOMHtIeCKoro, 3KOJIOrH'ICCKOro H COll.HaJlb!lOrO xapaKTepa II opHeliTarUIH CillA Ha ,1JIHTeJIhHOe xpalielIHe oTpa6oTaBwero TonJIIf- na 6e3 cro rrepepa60TKH. AHa. r lOrH4l1ble TCHJT.eHll.HH IIpOHBJl5IIOTC5I TaKJKC If B 605J3HH KPYIIHbIX ,KaIlHT3JIHCTHtIeCKHX <pHpM HHl3eCTHpOBaTb C;WH KalIlITa"lbI B pa3BHTHe paJJ:HoxHMHlIecKHx IIpOH3BO.'l.CTB H3-3a HX CJIOJK- IIOCTH H CBH3aHHoro C !lHM!! pHCKa. OJJ:IIaKo TaKa5J KOIIIIcmlHH He pa3- .iI,eJISIeTC5l 60JIbWHHCTBOM CBpOIIeHCKHX CTpaII, He rOBOp51 Y:>Ke 0 Co- BCTCKOM C0103e, r,iI.e COOTBeTCTBYlOmHe pa60TbI npOBOJJ:5ITC5I B CBH3H C HaMetIeHHOH IIporpaMMOM pa3BHTHH H.lI.epHOH 3HeprCTHKH. Opom03 pa3BHTH5l pa.n:HOXHMHtIeCKHX IIpOH3BO..'!:CTB IIO ncpepa60T- KC oTpa60TaBwero 51JJ:epHoro TOIIJIHBa rrpe.ll.CTaBJIeH Ha pHC. 2.3. 3TH ,1.JaHHbIC YCJIOBHbI, OHH IIpHBe)l.eHbI JIHWb JJ:JIH HJIJIlOCTpall.HH 6bICTporo B03paCTaHH5I IIOTpe6HOCTeH B IIepepa60TKe HJJ:epHoro TOIIJIHBa. BeCb- Ma Bep05lTHO, 1JTO MacwTa6 TaKOH IIepcpa60TKH 6YJJ:eT CYmeCTBeHHO !BMeH5ITbC5I. no CTpaHaM H perHOHaM B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT H3MeHeHH5I KOHKpeTHbIx YCJIOBHM. il03TOMY JJ:aJKe KpaTKOBpeMeHIIbIH IIporH03 pa3- I3IITHH OT.!I.eJIbHbIX CTa.n:HH TOIIJIHBHOrO I)HKJIa 5IJJ:CpHOH 3HeprenlKH CTaJI- KHBaeTC5I C 60JIbWHM IIHCJIOM <paKTOpOB HeollpeJJ:eJIeHHocTH. Ewe 60.lee YCJIOBelI JJ:OJIrOBpeMeHHbIH IIOOrH03, IIpHBe- ;J.eHHbIH B Ta6JI. 2.1. TeM HC Mellee 06pa- ru.aeT Ha ce65l BHHMaHHe rropSIJJ:oK nporHo- 3HpyeMbIx ,iI.allHbiX 0 HaKOIIJIeHHH oTpa60- TaBwero TonJ1HBa, OTHOCHlIIHXCSI K 2050 r., 300 TbIC. T JJ:JISI BapHall'1 a 6e3 HCIIOJIb30Ba- HH5I IIJIYTOHHH H 19:) TbIC. T JJ:JISI BapHalITa PHC. 2.3. TIporHo3 nepepa60TKH 06J1YQeHIlOrO Ton- .'lHBa (3apy6ciI<Hble ,naHllble): J - cYMMapHall; 2 - r0J10RaR. 3 H 4 - BhlCOKlle II HH3KHe TeMUhI pa3BHTHfi COOTBe1'CTBeHRO - - nOTpel5HocTb B nepepal5oTKe; - - - - B03 "OJKHali lIepepal50TKa '" 200- '"  100 ... " 60 .:s >! o - R 20 E: - : 10 "'<:  % 6  E:  '" :3 2 "" I 400 ---=-> J : 1975 /985 1995 rr 19: 
T a (j ,1 H 11 a 2.1. .lI.OJIrocpo'lHblH npom03 HaKOnneHHR orpa60TaBwero R)l.epHOro TonnHBa npH pa3Hb1X TeMnax H BapHaHTax pa3BHTHR R)l.epllOH 9HeprerHlm, TLiC. T no ypaHY (cYMMapHblH 1l0J.C'IeT C 1976 r.; 3apy6eJKHLle )l.aHHble) 2025 r 2050 r BapHaliT rOAOBOe ICYMMaPHoe rO,lJ;OBOe I C)'MMapHoe BOJ{O-BOHl1ble pC'aKTOp'" BBP (c perC'llc- palI.HeH ypaHa); TC\!nbI: 68 2500 MHIIHManbllbie 46 1100 MaKCHMa.lbHbIe 135 2400 300 7600 BSP H peaKTophl Ha 6b1CTpblX HeiiTpolIax c HCnOJIb30BalIHCM nnYTOIIH5I; TeMnbI: 26 1900 MHHHManbHbIC 36 1100 MaKCHMaJiblIbIe 110 2200 193 5900 C HCnOJlb30BaHHCM IIJlYTOHHH. JJ.a)Kc MHIIHMaJIbllbIH npom03 npeJJ:Y- cMaTpHBaeT lIaKOnJIellHC oTpa60TaBwcro TOnJlHBa B KOJIH4eCTBe 68 II 26 TbIC. T B ro..'!: COOTBCTCTBCHIIO. Cor.TJaclIO 60JIee JJ:oJIrOCpOtIHbIM IIpOfH03aM CYMMapHoe KOJIHqeCTBO oTpa60TaBlilero 51JJ:cplloro TOIIJIHBa, KOTopoe IIaKOIIHTC5I C 1976 IIO 2025 r., eCJlH lie 6YJJ:eT ero rrepepa60TKH, BCCbMa BlIywHTeJIbHO H HC- tIHCJI5IeTCH MHJIJIHOHaMH TOIIII (no ypaHY). 2.3. nepepa60TKa TonnHBa peaKTOpOB Ha TennOBIoIX HeHTpoHax OepBbIe 51}J,eplibIe peaKTopbl, KaK H3BeCTII0, 6bI.l:H IIocTpoeHbI JJ:JISI Y!l.OBJleTBopeHHH Tpe60BaHHH nporpaMMbI no npoH3BoJJ:CTBY SIJJ:epHoro 0pY)/{H5I. 3TH Tpe60BaHHH CllaqaJIa 51BJI5IJIHCb JJ:OMHHHPYlOru:HMH B KOH- CTpYHpOBaHHH pcaKTopOB. PcaKTopbI ,iI.JI5I BoellllbIX ll.eJIeH HCIIOJIb30- BaJIHCb IIO CYmCCTBY TOJIbKO JJ:.'151 IIpOH3BO,iI.CTBa IIJIYTOHH5I, H OCHOBHOH IleJIblO IIPH lIepepa60n;:c 06JIyqCIIHbIX MaTCpHaJIOB ObIJIO OT.n:eJIeHHe IIJIYTOIIHH OT npHpOJJ:I10ro ypaHa H IIpOJJ:YKTOB JJ:eJIeHHSI. BCKope C03- JJ:aHHe peaKTopOB JJ:JI5I Hcc.'1eJJ:OBaIlHH, rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M B ll.CJISIX IIO- JIYQCHH5I HeH:TpOHHbIX IIOTOKOB BbICOKOH HIITeHCHBHOCTH Ha ypaHc BbI- COKHX CTeIIeHeH 060raru:eHH5I (JJ:0 93-95 % 235U), HaIIpHMep peaKTo- pOB .MTP (CiliA), paCWHpHJIO Tpe60BaHH5I K IIpOll.eCCaM IIepepa60TKIi 51,!1.epHOro TOIIJIHBa. 3aBoJJ:bI IIO IIOJIYtIeHHlO IIJIYTOHH5I H3 6JIOQKOB MeTaJIJIHQeCKoro ypaHa, 06JIYQeHIIOrO B peaKTopax BoeHHoro Ha3HatIelIH5I B CiliA, Be- JIHK06pHTaHHH H <l>paHll.HH, H IIepepa60TKe BbICoKo060raru:eHIlOro OT- pa60TaBwero TOII.'1HBa 51BHJIHCb HeIIocpeJJ:cTBeHHbIMH IIpeJJ:WCCTBCH- HHKaMH paJJ:HOXHMHtIeCKHX IIpC,!I.IIpH5ITHH, IIpeJJ:Ha3HaQeUHbIX JJ:JI5I PC- reHepall.HH TB3JIOB 3HepreTHtIeCKHX peaKTopoB. K HHM OTHOC5ITC5I IIep- Bble 3apy6eJKlIbIe 3aBOJJ:bI B XaHlJ>opJJ:e, OK-PHJJ::>Ke, .CanaHHa-PHl3epC, AHJJ:axo-<I>oJIC, YHHJJ:cKeHJIe, MapKYJIe. Xopowo HaJIaJKeHHbIH Ha 3THX 3aBOJJ:ax IIpOll.eCC 3KCTpaKll.HOHIIOH: IIepepa60TKH BbICOKoaKTHBHbIX MaTepHaJIOB H3 peaKTopoB IIOCJIY:>KHJI 20 
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r JlABA 3 XHMH'IECKHE H Cl)H3HKO-XHMH'IECKHE CBOACTBA AKTHHOHAOB 3.1. nonoHCeHNe BKTNHONAOB B nepNoANllecKo CNCTeMe XNMNllecKNX aneMeHTOB B XHMHtJeCKOH TeXHOJIOrHH 06J1YtJeIlIIoro SIJJ:epnoro TOIIJIHBa BaJK- HylO pOJlb HrpalOT TaK HaSbIBaeMble aKTHHOHJJ:bI - 3JIeMeIlTbI, 06JIa- JJ:aroru:ne cilell.HClmtJecKHMH cpHSHqeCKHMH, XHMHtJeCKHMH H 5IJJ:epHbIMH CBoHcTBaMH, saBHCSImHMH OT HX nO.l0:>KeHH5I B IIepHoJJ:HIIecKoH CHCTeMe XHMHtJeCKHX 3JIeMCHTOB, rJJ:e OIlH 3aHHMalOT tJaCTh CeJI.hMoro IIepHoJJ:a. Oc060e SHatJeIlHe ceJJ:bMoro IICpHOlI.a H rpynnbI aKTHIIOH1LOB B HeM JJ:JlSI aTOMIIOH HaYKH H TeXHHKH BIIJJ:HO HS Toro, tJTO K HHM OTHOC5ITC5I 3.1e- MeHTbI ypaH, TOpHH, IIpOTaKTHHHH, a TaKJKe HCKYCCTRClilibie TpallC- ypaHoBbIe 3JIeMCHTbI JlCIITYllHH, IIJIYTOHHH, aMepHIil1H, I(!()PHH, 6epK.1HH, KaJIHcpopIlHH, 3HHIrITeHHHH, cpepMHH:, MeIIJJ:eJICBHII, H06CJIHH, JIOypCH- CHH. K Ce,iI.bMoy IIepHOJJ:Y OTHOC5ITCSI H Hep:aBHO CHHTC3HpOBaliH bIe B COBeTCKOM COlOse HCKYCCTBeIlHbIe TpanCaKTHIJOH..'I:lIbIC 3JleMCIITbI KYP- tIaTOBHH [104-H 3JIeMeHT], l05-ii, l06-H H l07-H 3JIeMeHThI. KaK IiSBeCTIIO, MeCTO, saHHMaeMoe 3J1eMeIITOM B nepHOJJ:HtJCCKOH CHCTCMe H OIIpeJJ:eJISIeMOe CTpoeHHeM 3JIeKTpOHIIbIX 060JIOtJeK ero aTO- MOB, xapaKTepHsyeT BCIO COBOKYilHOCTb CBOHCTB 3Toro 3JICMeIiTa. CTpOeJlHe CCJJ:bMoro IIepHOJJ:a CHCTeMbI 3JIeMCIITOB O:>KHBJleIIIIO 06CYJK- JJ:aJIH ytJcHbIe sa.n:OJIro .n:o OCBoeHHSI aToMIIoH 3I1eprHH. bOJIbIIIHHCTBO ytJeHbIx CKJIOH5IJIOCb K BblBOJJ:Y, tITO ceJJ:bMoH IIepHoJJ: JJ:OJIJKeli 6bITb- IIocTpocn nOJJ:06Ho IllecToMY H COJJ:ep:>KaTb TaKJKe 32 3JICMellTa. fpYII- nc peJJ:KoseMCJlbHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB (P33) JIaHTaHOHJJ:OB B weCTOM nepl1o- JJ:e .lI.o.TJJKlla COOTBeTCTBOBaTb aHaJIOmtJHa51 rpYiliia aKTHHoH)J.OB B ceJJ:bMOM IIepHoJJ:e. B CBoe RpCMH P33 ,nJlH XHMHKOB npe,nCTaBJIHJIH 3araAKY HO\fep O,nHH. CaM .Q. H. Mell,n:e.1eeB HeMaJlO COKpYlIIa.'JCH, BH,nH «HeYCTpoeHHOCTb» pH,na 3,leMeIiTOB- rpynnbl P33. r Jly60Koe II npaBHJlbHOe nOHHMaHHe cymCCTBa Bonpoca 0 mecrOM nepHo,ne cra"10 B03M02KHblM TOJIbKO B CBere cOBpeMeHHoH TeopHH crpoeHHH aTOMa H 3.1CKTPOHHblX KOJ!q,Hryp3IHH MOJ{C.'JeH aTOMOB 3.1CMCHTOB. PCllIalOmylO PO,1b B ::!TOM HrpaeT nopSI,nOK 3anO.TJHeHHSI HapY2KllbiX 060.10'leK, onpc,neJIHeMblH 06eCne'lCHHeM HaH60.1ee npO'lHOH CBH3H 3.1eKTpOHOB B aTOMe. B WCCTOM IIepHOJJ:e CHCTeMbI 3JICMeHTOB JJ.. H. MeHJJ:eJIeeBa HMe- CTCSI ] 4 c.1eJJ:yI01II,HX sa JIaHTaHOM 3J1eMeHTOB, y KOTOpbIX pas.'1HtJmr B CTpOeHI1H 3J1CKTpOHlIbIX 060J10tJCK npOSIBJISIlOTC5I He B KpaHlleH, a .'1HIlib B TpeTbCH CllapY:>KH 3JIeKTpOIIIIOH 060JIOtIKe. 3aIIOJIHellHe f-MCCT B tIeTBepTOH 060JIOtJKe natJHHaeTCSI cpa3Y sa JIaHTaHOM H npoJJ:OJIJKa- eTCH JJ:O JlIOTell.H5I IIPH HaJIHtJHH H HCHSMeH5IeMOCTH SailOJIHeHHbIX MeCT B IIHTOH H UIeCTOH 060JIOtJKax. TI03TOMY XHMHtJeCKHe CBOHCTBa 3THX 3JIeMeHTOB He CHJIbHO MeHSIlOTCSI IIO Mepe TOro, KaK IIOCJIeJJ:OBa- TeJIbliO B03paCTaeT tIHCJIO f-3JIeKTpOllOB. TaKHM 06paSOM, Bce CJIeJJ:YlO- ru:He JJ:pyT 3a ,iI.pyroM 3JIeMenTbl 06JIaJJ:a1OT IIOtITH o.n:HHaKoBbIMH XHMH- 29 
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!.a Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb ny Ho Sr ';"m Yb II! .1Y 0 0 0 III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II . 0 0 Ac T'J p !j Np Pu Am CT:1 BI<: Cf Es F:r. Md JDZ Lr Jl1I 0 0 JlI . 0 0 0 y . 0 . 0 0 1Y . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 1lI . 0 . 0 0 . . . . . . . . r c c 0 0 0 La Ht 1 W Re as ;r pt Au Hg YlJ[ 0 Y/i . ? JlI . 0 0 D D Y . 0 0 0 JY . c 0 0 . 0 . JII . 0 0 0 0 0 . ? . .if 0 D  . 0 0 0 . .I . D 0 0 'PHC 32 BaJICHTlIbIC COCTOHIIHH, np05tB,UleMbIe 3.1eMeIITaMH nCpCXOJIHhIX CCpHH: . - YCTOHqHBOC. C - HCYCTOiiqIlBOC. . - pa3JIaraCTC>! BOAOii. o - CYW.CCTUYCT TQ.'lbKO B TBCP.J.OM COCTO>!HHH BHTe.1H rpYIIIIbI aKTHHoHJJ:OB OKHCJI5IlOTCH SlIatIHTCJIbHO JIertIe, tIeY! Co- oTBeTcTBY10mHe HM 3JICMCHTbI rpYIIIIbI JIaHTalloHJJ:OB. I1HTepecHO, 'ITa 6cpKJIHH n nO,lJ.Hblx paCTuopax KpOMC Tpexua.lcnTHoro COCT05llIHH MO)KeT HMeTb OTHOCHTeJIbHO YCToil'lHBOe 'IeTblpeXBaJICHTIIOe COCTOHHHe. 3TO c.le,nCT- nRC Toro, qTO 6CPK,lHH HMeeT BOceMb 5f-3,lCKTPOHOB, Ha O,iJ,HII 60.1bllle, '{CM B YCToil- .llHBOil CTpYKType, COOTBeTCTBYIOW:CH Hano.l0BHHY 3anOJIHeHIIOH 060JlO'lKe. BnOJIHe B03MO)l(HO, 'ITO Y CJIe,lJ.YIow:ero 3JIe\leHTa (Cf) YCTOH'IHBOCTb HanOJIOBHHY 3anOJIHeH- HOH 5f-060JIO'lKH MO)l(eT npOHBHTbCH B TOM, '1TO ,nJlH Hero, nO-BH,lJ.HMOMY, MO)KHO no.1Y'IHTb H nHTHBaJIeHTIlOe COCTOHHHe. OJJ:IIOH HS oc06eHHOCTeH aKTHHOHJJ:OB HBJI5IeTC5I saKOHOMepHOCTb, Ha6JIIo.n:aeMa51 Y paSJIHtIHbIX THIIOB HOIIOB. B KHCJIbIX B0JJ:HbIX paCTBO- pax aKTHHOHJJ:bI 06paSYlOT tIeTbIpe THIIa KaTHOHOB: Me3+, Me H , Me02+ H Me02 2 +. .lI.JI5I JI106bIX aKTHHOHJJ:HbIX 3JIeMeHTOB CBOHCTBa HOHOB OII- peJJ:e:IeHIioro THIIa BeCbMa CXOJKH, XOT5I OKHCJlHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIb- Hble CBOHCTBa, a CJICJJ:OBaTeJIbIiO, H YCTOHtIHBOCTb saMeTHO HSMeH5IlOT- C5I npH IIepeXO,iI.e OT 3JIeMeHTa K 3JIeMCHTY. fPYIIIIbI THIIa Me02+ H Me022+ 06JIaJJ:alOT BeCbMa npOtIHOH CB5ISblO Me - 0 H 51BJl5IlOTC5I IIOtITH eJJ:HHCTBeHHbIMH IIpe;.r.cTaBHTeJISIMH TaKora THIIa HOIIOB cpeJJ:H npOtIHX 3JIeMeIiTOB. 3TH rpYIIIIbI IIpOJJ:OJIJKalOT CY- IlI.eCTBOBaTb IIPH pasIio06paSHbIX xHMHtIeCKHX HSMeHeHH5IX H BeJJ:YT .ce651 KaK OTJJ:e.'lbHI>Ie paSHOBH.n:HOCTH HOHOB. HaJIHtIHe y aKTHHOHJJ:OB TaKora 60JIbWOrO KOJIHtIecTBa paSJIHQUbIX KaTHOIiOB BIIOCHT 60JIbWOe pasHo06paSHe H p5lJJ: oc06eHHOCTeH B XH- 'MHIO HX B0JJ:HbIX paCTBopOB. B tIaCTHOCTH, WHpOKoe H 60raToe paSHO- -o6paSHe OKpaCKH HOHOB, CBOHCTBeHHoe 60JIbWHHCTBY IIepexOJJ:HbIX 2* 35 
T 3 6 JI H II 3 3 .2. THnbl HOHOB aKTHHOHAOB H HX oKpacKa B BO)l.HblX cpeAax AKTH' Mc 3 ;. Me 4 + McOt Mc0 2 + MeO- - IIOHII 2 " Ac DeCQBCTllblH Th DeCQBCTHbIH Pa DCCUBCTHblH U KpaCllhlH 3CJleHblH )!(eJlTblH Np CHUHH )10 II yp- )Kemo-3e.leHblH 3e .1CllblH P030BblH 210 51pKO-:'ICJICHblfr nypIloro KpnCHOro TeMIIO CHHHa Pu CHUHH ,no q,HO- KpaCHO-KOpH'iIlC - Kp3CHOBaTO- nyp- )!(e.1ThlH, pO- JIeTOBOro BbIH nypllblH 30BaTO-Opall- )KCBblH Am P030BblH )KeJIThIH Cm DCCQBCTllblH n pH lot e q a II H C OTTCHKH HOIIOB B paCTBOpc ,aBHCHT oT npHCYTCTBH>I H KOIII\CIITpal.\HH !\PY- rHX HOMOS. 3JIeMeHTOB, K KOTOpbl llpHIIaJJ:JICJKaT aKTHIIOIIJJ:bI, BeCbMa xapaKTcplIO' If JJ:Jl5I HHX. B Ta6JI. 3.2 nOKasaHa oKpacKa HOIlOB a KTHIIOH.n:OB B BOk HbIX cpcJJ:ax. DOJlblUOH lIaYIIllbIH HIlTepec llpeJJ:cTaBJlHeT C}!.e.1aIlIIoe COBCTCKHMH HCCJlCJI.OBaTCJI5!H OTKpbITHe ceMHBa.leliTiloro p5IJJ:a TpaHcypaHoBblx 3JIeMCIITOB. B 1968 r. COCT05III H5I TaK, n.1YToHHH (VII) 06pa3ycTcH npH npoIlyt'KaliHIl 030Ha QepC3 LQe.l0qHOH: (1-2 M NaOH) paCTBOp nJlY'fOHHH (VI), npH'ieM UBCT paCTBopa MeHHCTCH aT OT CBeTJlO-KOpH'IlIeBOrO .lI0 CHHero HJ1H 'iepHOrO B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KOHQeHTpaQHIf nnYTOIlHH. TIpH onpeJ1eJIeHllbiX YCJIOBHHX OKHCJICHHC nJIYTOIIHH (VI) B nJlYTOHHii (VII) B03MO)KHO He TOJIbKO 0301l0M, HO H llepcyJThq,3T-, nepKceHOHaT-, rHnOXJIopHT- H rHn06pOMHT-HOHaMH. CCMHBaJIeHTHOe COCTOHHHe alIaJIOmqHblM nYTeM MO)KIIO no- JlY'IHTb H }l;JIH HenrYHHH (paCTBopbl HpKO-3eJIeHOrO UBeT3) H ,na)Ke ,nJlH aMepHQHH. B03MO)KHOCTb no.1Y'IeHHH aMCpHQHH (VII) nOKa3aHa Hc.aaBliO c npHMeHeHHeM 06,lY- 'IeHHH H.1H 030llHpOBaHHH OX,la)KJJ:CllllbIX paCTBopOB aMcpHQHH (VI) B 3-4 M r\aOH. OKHCJIHIOLQHM peareHToM IIPH pa.aHaQHOHHO-XHMH'IeCKo'ot OKHCJICHHH CJlY)KHJI HOH-pa- .aHKaJl 0-. KaK H HenTYIIHH (VII), aMepHQHH (VII) MO)KCT ()blTb nOJIyqeH B KOH- UeHTpHpoBaHIIblx paCTBopax NaOH npH ,nHcnpOnOPQHOIIHpOBaHHH aMepHQHH (VI} Ha 3MepHQHH (VJI) H aMepHQHH (V). CeMHBaJIeHTHbie nJlYToHHH, llellTYHHH H oco6eHHo aMepHIIHH HBJIHIOTCH oqelIb. CHJIbHblMH OKHCJIHTCJlHMH, JIerKO BOCCTaHaBJlHBaIOLQHmCH nepeKHcblo Bo.aopo.aa, rHk pa3HHoM, rH.D.poKCHJIaMHHOM, q,eppOQH3HH.aaMH H ,npyrHMH BOCCTaHOBHTeJIHMH. n pH' OCTOpO)KHOM THTpOBaHHH CeMHB3JIeHTHbiX TpaHC)qJaHOBbiX 3.1eMCHTOB, HanpHMep n.1Y- TOHHH (VIJ), BOCCTaIlOBHTe.1HMH MO)KHO 3aq,HKCHpOBaTb HX 0.aH03.1eKTpOIlHblH ncpe- XOA B IUeCTHBaJIeHTHOe COCTOHHHe. CeMHBaJIeHTH('}e COCTOS/IiHe YK33aHHblX 3.1eMeIITOB KpaHlie IlCYCTOHQHBO, B 'IaCTHOCTH, npH H3MCHeHHH pH H TeMnepaTypbl. Y.aaJlOCh BbI,neJIHTb HeKOTopble TBep.able c('}e,nHHeHHH CCMHBaJleIlTllblX llenTYIIHSII H nJIYTOHHH, B 'IaCTHOCTH rH.apOKCH.a :-Jp02(OH)3, ,naBIUHH B KHCJIOM pacTBope HOHbI' NpOg+, OTJlH'iaIOLQHeCH OT HOHOB NpO+ 6o.rree BbiCOKOH CKJlOIiHOCTblO K rH,J,pO- JIH3Y. 36 
n PHqHIIY CYU(CCTBOBaHHH CeHBaJICIITHbiX rpanrypalloBblX 3JIeMCHTOB CJIe.ayeT HCKaTb B oc06eHIIOCTH1C XHVlHH 3THX 3,lCMCHTOB C 3ano.1I1HIOl.QeHCH 5f-060JIO'lKOH. O,n- IIOH H3 cBoe06pa311blX OTJIH'IHTe.lbllblX 'IepT Tp211cypaHoBbiX ::JJleMCIlTOB HBJIHeTCH HX CK.l0HIIl'Tb K 06pa30RaHHIO ueChMa npO'lllOH CBH3H MC'fa.l,la C ,aUYMH aTOMaMH KHC- JIopoJJ:a BO Bcex Ba.lellTnblX COCTOHHH!!X BblllJe Tpex. B 3TOH CBH3H KaTHOII :\IpO;>+ c.'fe.ayeT paCCMaTpHBaTb KaK 3aBCpllJalOl.QHH 'I.1eH rOMO.10rH'ICCKOrO pH)l.a NpO;+, r)l.t' n-H3CHHeTCH OT 0 ,no 3 npH YBe.1HqellHlI Ba- JICIITllOrO COCTOHIIHH HcnrYEHH OT Tpex .ao re\lH: Np02 - NpOt - NpO+ - NpO+. TIO-BH,nHMO\lY, H ,n.1H nJlYTOHHH CYl.QeCTByeT alTaJIOmQllblH rOMOJIOmQeCKHii pH.a Pu0 2 - PuO;/" - PuO- - PuO+. Bcc 3TO n03BOJIHeT YTBCp)K)l.aTb, '1TO HOHbl TH11a McO+, lIanpH\lep j\'pO+, IUleJOT JlHlleiiHYIO CTPYKTYp\', KaK H MC02. MeO+ H M c0 2 2 + . 2. I Ie HCK,llO'ICHO, 'ITa MorYT 6b!Tb IIO,lYlJCHbi coe,nHlleHHH BOCbMHua.1ellTiIOrO IT:!Y- TOIIHH H Te", CaMbI\I rO\lo:JOmQCCKHfI pH,n 6Y.J.CT npOJJ:o.1)KeH ,no PuO+, lJTO COOT- BeTCTByeT PuO- B l.QCJIOQllOii cpc.n:e H rH)l.pOOKHCII Pu02(OH).. OnpbITHe H H3Y4eHHe CCMHBa"lCIITllbIX COCT05lllHH TpalicypaHoBbIX 3JIeMCIlTOB nOKaSa.'IO, liTO llpHpO)J.a CC.iI.bMOrO lIepHOJJ:a llCpHO,iI.HtIe- CKOH CIlCTCMbI 60Jlce C.l0JKlla, IICM 3TO llpe,il.llOJlaraCT aKTHIIOH,J.IIa5I TCO- pH5I CH60pra. 3.4. OCmfTen"HO-BOCCTiHlOB"Ten"Hwe CBOMCTBa " nOTett","anW OKHCJIHTeJlbIlO-BOCCTaHOBHTe.lbllble CBOHCTBa nOHOB aKTHHOHJJ:llbIX 3J1eMeliTOB, oc06ellil0 ypall a, llJIYTOHHSI, HellTYHH5I H aMepHlLH5I, OtIeHb C.10JKllbI H cBoc06pasHbI, a HX pOJIb B TeXHOJIOrHH 06JIYIIeHHoro 5IJJ:ep- Horo TOnJIHBa orpoMHa. Bce cOBpeMeHHbIe rrpOMbIWJIeHHbIe MeTOJJ:bI HSBJICIIeHHSI llJlYTOIIH5I, HeilTYIlH5I H aMepHUH5I H pereHCpall.HH ypaIIa, MeTOJJ:W HX pa3JJ:CJICHH5I H 04HCTKH OT paJJ:HoaKTHBHbIX llpOJJ:YKTOB JJ:C- JleHHSI H JIPYrHX rrpHMeceH OCIiOBaHbI Ha pa3JIH4HIl OKHCJlHTeJIbHO-BOC- CTaHOBHTCJIbHbIX cBoikTB 3THX 3JIeMeHTOB. PasHo06pasHe BaJIeIITIIbIX COCT05lIlHH, paSJIH 1 !H5I OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbIIbIX IIOTeHll.HaJlOB 3THX 3JICMeIITOB CymecTBcHHO o6JIertIalOT pewcIIHe TCXHOJIOrHtIeCKHX saJJ:atI pereHepall.HH 06JIytIeHHOrO 51JJ:epHoro TOnJlHBa H HSBJIe4eHHSI HS Hero uellilbIX KOMllOHCIITOB. OpaKTH4CCKH JII06aSI TeXHOJIOrH5I llCpC- pa60TKH 06JIYtIeHHOrO SI.n:epHoro TOllJIHBa CTpOHTCH IIa TaK HaSbIBae- MbIX OKHCJIHTCJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIX UHKJIaX, B XOJIe KOTOphIX llJIY- TOIlHH cTa6HJIHSHPYCTCH B lIIeCTH-, tICTbIpeX- HJlH TpeXBaJIeIITHOM, a I1cnTYIlHH B weCTH-, II5ITH- HJIH tIeTbIpeXBa.'1eHTHOM COCT05lHH5IX, B TO BpeM5I KaK ypaH COXpaH5IeT 06bIIIHO BO Bcex TeXHOJIOrHtIeCKHX Olle- palH5IX CBOIO HaH60JIee YCTOHtIHBYlO CTCllCHb OKHCJIeIIH5I + 6, a aMe- pHll.HH + 3. B ll.eJlOM llpaBHJIbHOe IIOHHMaHHe TeXHOJIOrHQeCKOrO llO- BCJJ:CHH5I 3THX 3JIeMeHTOB HeBOSMOJKHO 6es tIeTKOrO llpeJJ:cTaBJIeHH5I oc06eHHoCTeH HX OKHCJIHTeJlbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIX paBHoBecHH, KH- 37 
HeTHKH H MeXaHHSMOB OKHCJIHTCJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTCJIbHbIX peaKIlHH B BO,J.HbIX cpeJJ:ax C YtIaCTHeM HX HOIIOB. OKHCJlHTCJlbHbIC nOTemmaJIbI pSIJJ:a lla p BaJICHTllbIX COCT05lHHif III-IV H IV-VI B BO.ll:llbIX pacTBopax YKasbIBalOT Ha 6bIcTpoe YBe- JIHIIellHe YCTOHIIHBOCTH TpCXBaJICHTHOro COCT05lllHSI llO Mepe nepexoJI.a K 60JIce T5IJKeJIbIM 3JIeMeHTaM rpYllnbI aKTHIIOII.n:OB. B Ta6.1. 3.3 llO- T a 6 JI H 11 a 3.3. HOHbI aKTHIIOHjJ.OB B BOjJ.HblJI; pacTBopax H !IX YCTOH'IHBOCTb AKTIIHOHJ]; Me 3 + Me 4 - Mea+ 2 Me0 2 + 2 Mea-  V V3+ V1+ vot U0 2 ;- - 2 Np N p 3+ N p 4+ NpOt NpO+ NpO- Pu Pu 3 + Pu 4 + Puot PuO+ PuO- Am Am3T Arn 4 + ArnOt Arn0 2 + AmO- 2 Cm Cm 3 + - - - - Bk Bk 3 + Bk 4 + - - - Cf Cf 3 + - - - - KasaHbI 110HbI, KOTopble 06pasYIOTC5I aKTIIHOl1ilHbIMII 3JICMCHTa\lIH B B0JJ:HbIX paCTBOpax; HaH60.TJcc YCTOHtIHBblC COCTOSIHH5I BbIJJ:CJlellbI no- JIYJKHpllblM Wpl1<lnOM. 3J1a t leIlIl5I <popMa.lbHbIX OKHCJIHTeJIhHO-130CCTa- HOBHTCJIbllbIX llOTeHIIHaJlOI3 aKTHIIOH,lJ.OB B 1 M pacTI30pc HCI0 4 llPH 25°C llpHBeJJ:cHbl B Ta6.'I. 3.4. T a 6 JI H H a 3.4 . OKHCJlHTeJlbHO-BOCCTaIlOBHTeJIbHble IIOTeHQHaJlbl aKTHIIOHjJ.OB "PH H3MeHeHHH BaJleHTHbiX COCTORHHH, B naleHTHoe COCTOHIIHC AKTHHOHJ]; o 3+ 4+ 5+ 6+ Ac +2,6 I - - - Th +1.9 Pa -,-0,9 -I 0.1 - V +1,80 +0,63 -0,58 -0,06 Np +1,83 -0.15 -0,74 -1,14 Pu +2,02 -0,98 -1.16 -0,92 Am +2,32 --2,34 -1.04 -1,60 Cm +2,7 -3,25 - - Bk +2,4 -1,62 - - DpHBeJJ:CHllbIe <popMaJIbHbIe llOTeHll.HaJIbI HMCIOT 60JIbWOe SHaqeHHe B npeJJ:cKasallHH OKHCJIHTeJlbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHOrO llOBeJJ:eIlH5I 3KTH- UOH.n:OB B BOJJ:llbIX cpeJJ:ax, xapaKTepHbIx JJ:JI5I TeXIIOJIOmtIeCKHX llpO- 38 
ueCCOB llcpepa60TKH 06JIYIIeHHOrO SIJJ:CpIIOrO TOI1JIHBa. I1s CpaBHeHH5I JJ:aIlHbIX Ta6J1. 3.3 H 3.4 B H,iI.1I 0, IITO BospaCTalOmaSI YCTOHtJHBOCTb Tpex- na.1CIITIlOro COCT05lHH5I C pOCTOM aTOMHoro IIOMcpa 3aypaHoBbIx aKTH- HOHJI.OB 06"b5lCII5ICTC5I YBeJlH'lHBalOmeHc5I TPYJJ:HOCTbTO OKHCJIeHH5I HX B 60.1CC BhlCOKOC OKHCJIHTCJIbJlOe COCTOHIIHC, tIeM TpeXBaJleHTlloe. (Bo- .1CC I10n.P06HO BonpocbI OKHCJIHTeJIbJlO-BOCCTaHOBHTe.1bllbIX COCTOSIHHK 3KTHHOH,il.OB 6YJJ:YT pas06paHbI HHJKe JJ:JI5I KaJKJJ:oro KOHKpeTHoro 3JIe- MeHTa. ) B 60JlbWHHCTBe CJIY'laeB TCXHOJIOrHI!eCKOH llpaKTHKH XHMHtIeCKHC pCaKll.v.H C YIIaCTHCM aKTHHOHJJ:HbTX 3.'1eMeHTOR (I1JIYTOJlH5I, HcrrTYHH5I, aMepHUH5I) I1pOTCKalOT Jla <pOHC ypaHa, IIPHCYTCTBYlOru:crO B paCTBope IIaCTO B 60JlblUHX KOJlHtJeCTBax. B JlaCT05lru:ee BpeM5I CBOHCTBa ypalla B paCT130paX XopOWO HSYtIelibI H 51B.l5IlOTC5I OJJ:HHM HS CaMI>IX CJIOJKllbIX If HHTCpCCHbIX paS,iI.eJIOB XHMHH 3Toro 3JIeMCHTa. KaK HSl3eCTHO, ypaH cyru:eCTByeT B tIeTbIpex OKHCJIHTe.'lhHO-BOC- CTaHOI3HTeJlbHbIX COCTOHJlHSIX, OJJ:lIaKO B BOJJ:HbIX paCTBopax YCTOHIIH- BbI TO.lbl<O HOHbI tICTbIpex- H weCTHBaJleHTHOro ypaHa, XOT5I B cneUH- a.lbllhIX yC.10BHHX YJJ:aeTC5I nOJIYIIaTb II paCTBopbI, cOJJ:epJKaIll.He U3+. I IHTHB3.1cIITJloe COCT05lHHe ypaHa HaHMeHee YCTOH4HBO, tI3ru:e BCCro 3TO JIJlWb llpOMCJKYToIIlloe COCT05lJlHe B HCKOTOpbIX OKHCJIHTC.1bHO- BOCCTaHOBIiTCJIbHbIX peaKll.HSlX C YtIaCTHeM ypalla (IV) H ypaHa (VI). YcraHOI3J1eIIO, 'ITO HOH U0 2 + cpaBHHTeJIbllO YCTOHtIHB TOJlbKO B YSKOH 06J1aCTH KHCJIOTHOCTH llPH pH, 6JIHSKOM K 2, rn.e J)HcllponopnHoHHpo- BaHHe ero Ha Uh H U0 2 2+ llpOHCXOJJ:HT OTIIOCHTC.lbIlO Me,iI.JICHHO. B 60- JICC KHCJlbIX pacTBopax U0 2 , OtIeJlb 6blCTpO ,lJ.HCrrpOnOpll.HOJlHpyeT llO peaKll.HH 2UO;l- -I- 4H+  UO+ + U 4 + + 2H 2 0. PacTBopbI ypaHa (IV) OTHOCHTCJIbJlO YCTOHtIHBbI Ha BosJJ:yxe B KHC- ."bIX pacTBopax, oc06ellllo npH HHSKHX SHatICJlHSIX pH cpeJJ:bI. OJJ:Ha- KO B rrpHcYTcTBHH aSOTHOH KHCJIOTbI HOH ypaHa (IV) OKHCJlSIeTC5I, xo- T5I H He TaK 6bICTpo. YpaH (IV) - 3HeprHtIHbIH BOCCTaIIOBHTeJIb. TaKHe HOlfbI, KaK Pu H , Fe 3 +, Ce H , BOCCTanaBJIHBaIOTC5I JIM sa HeCKOJlbKO ceKYHJJ:. OepeKHCb BO..'I:OpOJJ:a H MHOrHe KHCJIOpOJJ:coJJ:epJKaru:HC KHC.10TbI TaKJKe JIerKO OKHCJI5IlOT ypaH (IV) JJ:O ypaHHJIa. CaMbIM YC.TOHtIHBbIM SIB.'151eTC5I weCTHBaJIeHTHOC COCT05lHHe ypaHa, rrpHIIcM cTa6HJIHSall.HSI BbICOKoro llOJIOJKHTeJIbHoro sap5lJJ:a ypaHa llpO- HCXOJJ:HT B peaYJIbTaTe 06pasoBaHH5I HOHa ypaHHJIa U0 2 2+. <1>opM3JIbHbIe llOTeJlll.HaJIbI paSJlHIIllbIX cTeneHeH OKHCJIeJlH5I ypaHa (B XJIOpHOKHCJIOH cpeJJ:e, 1 M HCI0 4 ) llPH 25°C CJICJJ:ylOru:He: UO+ +0,063B uot +O,58B U 4 + -0,6318 U 3 + -1,80R U. I1SBCCTHO HeMHoro BOCCTaHOBHTeJIei'i, KOTopbIe Clloc06HbI BOCCTa- HaBJIHBaTb HOH ypaJlHJla. CpeJJ:H IIHX OJIOBO (II), JKeJIe30 (II), POH- ra.'1HT, rHJJ:pOCYJIb<PHT, ueKOTopbIe MeTaJIJIbI H aMaJIbraMbI. HeKOTopbIe HS peaKll.HH BOCCTaHOB.leHH5I ypaHHJla C npHMCHeliHeM 3THX peareH- TOB Tpe6YlOT Cnell.HaJIbHI>IX YCJIOBHH. 39 
CJleJJ:YIOIll.HH sa ypaHoM B nepHOJJ:HtIeCT<OH CHCTCM:e HCKYCCTBeIJIIblJ'f 3JIeMeIlT HeIITYHHH B CBOHX coeJJ:HHCHH5IX MOJKCT HMeTb BaJleHTHOCTb 3+, 4+, 5+, 6+ H 7 +, npHIIeM n OTJlIIIJHe OT ypaHa MaKcHMYM yc- TOHtIHBOCTH ero C.lJ.BHIIYT B CTOPOHY I1HSKHX cTcneHeH OKHCJIeHH5I. Hen- TYHHH - eJJ:HllcTBellllbIH (eCJIH He CtIHTaTb llpOTaKTHHHH) aKTHHOHk IibIH 3.1eMeIlT, ;J:Jl5I KOToporo ll5ITHBa.1CHTlloe COCTOHHHe 51BJISIeTC5I HaH- 60Jlec YCTOHIIHBblM B BO)l.HOM paCTBope. OJJ:HaKO .lJ.JISI HellTYHH5I xapaK- Tcplla OTHOCHTeJIbllaH YCTOHIIHROCTb H BCCX .n:PyrHx cro BaJlCIITHbIX COCT05lHHH, a HMeIlHO 3+, 4+, 6+ H 7 +. 3THM SHatIeHHHM Ba.'1eIlT- HbIX COCTOHHHH B BOJJ:HOH cpeJJ:e cooTBeTcTBYlOT KaTHOHbI NpH, p4+, Np02+, Np022+, Np023+. <!>0pMa.lbHbIe nOTellUHaJIbI paSJIHIIHbIX cTeneIlcH OKHCJleIlH5I lIellTY- IiH5I (B cpeJJ:e 1 M HCI0 4 ) llPH 25°C llOKasallbI HHJKe: I z+ +1,1i17 B NpOz +O,9i18 & I +- +0,71198 .... 0,!551J NpOz Np + 0, *.I7 8 3+- -1,81 B Np lfp +O,577B 4CTbIpeXnaJICHTHOe COCT05IIIHe HenTYHIIH YCTOHIIIIBee, lJ:CM ypalla, a weCTHRaJIeUTIIOe - YCTOHIJHBCe, IIeM nJIYTOIIHSI. 3TO CBOHCTno HC- llO.'IbSYlOT n npoueccc llcpepa60TKH 06JIYIICHHoro 51)1.epliOrO TOI1J1Hna JJ:JlSI OTJJ:eJleHHSI 06paSYIoru:erOCH B peaKTopax IICIITYIIHSI OT ypaHa H llJIyTOHH5I. CoeJJ:JfHeIIH5I HellTYIIH5I (III) JJ:OBOJIbHO JICrKO OKHCJISIIOTCH lIa BOS- AYxC, a JJ:.151 pacTBopoB lIenTYIIH5I (V), HecMoTpSI lIa HX OTHOCHTCJlb- BYlO YCTOHtIHBOCTb, xapaKTepHa peaKll.HSI JJ:HcnpollopuHOIlHpoBaIlHSI, B KOTOpOH lIeIITYHHH (V) KaK 6bI caMOOKHCJI5IeTCSI H caMOBOCCTaHaB- JIHBaeTCSI, o6pasySI HOllbI lJ:eTblpex- H WCCTHBaJleHTHOro HellTYIHlSI. C YMCHbWCIIHCM KHCJIOTIIOCTH YCTOHIIHBOCTb HellTYHH5I (V) B BOJIHbIX pacTBopax pe3Ko BospacTcT, 1JTO C6J1HJKaeT IICllTYHHH C llpoTaKTHHHeM, H, Ha060poT, OT.'1HIJaeT ero OT ypalla H llJlYTOIlH5I. DOJIbWYlO pOJIb B XHMHH BOJJ:llbIX paCTBOpOI3 I1eIITYIIHH HrpaeT pe- aK1iH5I, 06paTHaH JJ:HCllpOIlOPll.HOHHpOBaHHlO HcnTYHHSI (V): NpO-r + N p 4+ + 2H 2 0  2NpOt + 4H+. 3Ta pCaKll.HH npOTeKaeT 6blCTpO n c.TJa60KHCJIbIX pacTBopax; CYJIb<PaT- HOHbI KaTaJIHSHpYlOT ee. Eme 6bIcTpee HJJ:eT peaKUH5I MeJKJJ:Y IICIITY- HHeM (V) H lIeIITYHHeM (II I), T. e. o6paTHa51 JJ:HCllpOllOPll.HOHHpOBa- HHIO lIeIITYIIHSI (IV): Np+ + N p 3+ + 4H f-  2Np4+ + 2H 2 0. CKOpOCTb 3TOM peaKll.HH YBCJIHtIHBaCTCH C llOBbIWCHHeM KHCJIOTHOCTH. HemYHHH (V) 6bICTpO OKHCJI5IeTCSI B Np022+ MHorHMH OKHCJIH- TeJIHMH. OpaKTHtIeCKOe SHaIIeHHe HMeeT peaKll.HSI OKHCJIeHH5I Hemy- HHH (V) aSOTllOH KHCJIOTOH, KaTaJIHSHpyeMaH HN0 2 . CKOpOCTb ee 40 
CHJIbHO SaBHCHT OT KHCJIOTHOCTH H YBeJlHtIHBaCTC5! IIpOnOpUHOlla.fJbHO tICTBepTOH CTCneHH KOlIueHTpaUHH. BOCCTaHOBJIellHe HenrYIIH5I (V) .n:0 HemYHH5I (IV) MOJKIIO ocyru:e- CTBHTb npH llOMOru:H JKCJIeSa (II), BallaJJ:HSI (III), H 2 0 2 , KI, ypaHa (IV), rHJJ:poKCHJIaMHlla, OKca.laT-HOHa H JJ:PyrHx BoccTaHOBHTCJIeit HemYIIHH (VI) ,iI.OCTaTOIIHO YCTOHIIHB B pacTBopax HCl H HCIO a , BOSMOJKIIO J1HWb Me;I,JIeIlIlOe OKHCo'ICHHe HOHOM Np022," HOHa Cl-; pe- aKll.H5I CTaHOBHTC5I 60JIee HHTeHCHBIIOH npH nOBbIweHHH Te:.mepaTypbI. B aSOTHOKHCJIOH cpcJJ:e na6JIlOJJ:aeTC5! MeJJ:JICHHOC BOCCT3110BJIeliHe JJ:O HCIITYHH5I (V) 06pasYlOIIJ.eHC5I HN0 2 . JJ.pYI'He BOCCTaHOBHTe.'IH (rHJJ:- pa3HH, rHJJ:poKCHJIaMHH H T. II.) TaK:>KC nepeBoJJ:5IT HemYIIHH (VI) B TISITHBaJ1CHTIIOC COCT05!HHC. J].aJIbHeHlIIec BOCCTallOBJIeliHe JJ:O IIcnTYIIH5! (IV) npOHCXOJJ:HT KpaHHc MCJJ:JIeHIIO, sa HCKJllOIIeHHeM BoccTaHoB.1ellll51 JKCJlC30Yf (II), cpaBH HTeJIbHO 6hICTpO BOCCTaHaB"IHBalOUHM HCllTYIl HH (VI) JJ:O HcmYHHSI (IV). BsaHMoJJ:eHcTBHe C ypaHoM (IV) npoTcKaeT B COOTBeTCTBHH C ypaBllcHHcM 2Np (VI) + U (IV) = 2Np (V) + U (VI). IlpH 60JlbIIIOM H36bITKC ypaHa (IV) CllatIaJIa BeCb HcmYHHH (VI) 6blCTpO BOCCTallaB.'IHBaCTCSI JJ:O HenTYHH5I (V), a saTCM qaCTb IIeIITY- IIH5! (V) MCJT.JleIiHO BOCCTaHaBJIHRaeTCSI JJ:O qeTblpexBa.lcHTHoro co- CTOHIIHH. HenTYHHH (VI) :VleJI,JIeIlJlO BOCCTaHaBJIHRaCTC5! nOJJ: )I.eHCT- BHeM c06cTBelliloro a-H3';IYIICIIH5I. HemYIIHJ1 (IV) OTHOCHTeJIbliO YCTOllIIHB. OJJ:HaKo KHC.'IOpOJJ: BOS- .'I.yxa H IIHTpaT-HoIlbl Me;I,JIeIlIIO ero OKHCJI5!lOT. J].PYrHe OKHCJIHTeJIH cnoc06HbT 60J1CC 3HeprHqHO OKHCJI5ITb HcnTYIIHH (IV), npHtIeM nepBa51 CTa;'.l.H5! pcaKUHH I1emYHHH (IV) - lIemYHHH (V) npOTeKaCT MeJJ:JIeH- 110, a RTOpa5! IICIITYHHJ1 (V) - HenTYHHH (VI) - SliatIHTeJIbllO 6bI- cTpee. IloJJ:cIIHTallo, qTO CKOpOCTb peaKIIHH ,iI.HCllpOIlOpll.HOHHpOBaHH5I HeII- TYHH5I (IV) OlJeHb MaJIa H npHMepllo B 10 10 pas MeHbwe CKOpOCTH 06paTHoH peaKuHH. PeaKUHH C HOHOM Np3+ H3YQellbI MCHbwe, tIeM peaKUHH JJ:JISI ..'I.PY- rHX BaJIeHTllbIX COCTOSIHHH HCllTYHH5I. OOJJ: JJ:eHcTBHeM KHC.lopoJJ:a BOS- .n:yxa NpJ+ ;I.OBOJIbHO 6bICTpO OKHCJI5IeTC5I. CJIe;I.YlOru:HH sa HenTYIlHeM 3JIeMeliT TIJIYTOHHH 3allHMaeT oc060e TIOJIOJKeHHe CpCJJ:H XHMHtIeCKHX 3JIeMeHTOB. KaK H HenTYHHH, nJIYTo- HHH 51B.'I5IeTC5I HCKyccTBeHHbIM CHHTeTHtIeCKHYf 3JIeMeHTOM H, KaK OT- MetIaeT CH60pr, «nepBoH pCaJIHSOBaIllIOH MeQTOH aJIXHMHKOB 0 npc- Bparu:eHHH 3JIeMeHTOB .n:pyr B JJ:Pyra B 60JIbWOM MacwTa6e. OJIYTO- HHH 6bIJI nepBbrM HCKyccTBeHHblM 3JICMeHTOM, KOTOpbIH YBHJJ:eJIH JIlO- .n:H». OJIYTOHHH 06JIaJJ:aeT MHorHMH HCKJIIOIIHTe.fJblIbIMH CBOJ1CTBaMH, )I.CJIalOru:HMH ero YHHKaJIbHbIM XHMHtICCKHYf 3JICMCHT0'v1. B HaCT05lmee BpeM5I XHMHSI nJIYToHH5I HsYtICHa HaH60JIec rJIy60Ko H lloJJ:p06HO llO cpaBlleIIHlO C XHMHeH BCCX JJ:PYfHX aKTHIIOHJJ:OB. OJIY- TOHHH OTHOCHTC5I K 3JIeMeliTaM XHMHtJeCKH OQeHb aKTHBHbIM. 5IBJI5I5ICb CHJIbHO 3JIeKTpOllOJIO:>KHTeJIblibIM MeTaJIJIOM, 011 JIerKO pearHpyeT co BceMH HeMeTaJIJIaMH, a co MHorHMH HS HHX 06pasyeT coeJJ:HHeHH5I- 41 
HHTepMeTaJIJIH.n:bI. MeTaJlJlHqeCKHH nJIYTOHHH paSJlaraeT BOJJ:Y Y:>Ke IIPH KOMHaTHOH TCMnepaTYpC. B COCJJ:HHeHHHX IIJ1YTOHUH MO:>KCT HMeTb Ba- JIeHTIIbIe COCT05lHH5I + 2, + 3, + 4, + 5, + 6 H + 7. J].OMHIIHPYlOru:HMH BaJIeHTHbIMH COCTOHHHSIMH SIBJI5IlOTC5I +4 H +6. nJIYTOHHH (V) cY- ru:ecTByeT TOJIbKO B BOJJ:JlbIX pacTBopax, a IIJIYTOHHll (II) - TOJIbKO B TBepJJ:bIx coeJJ:HHCHHHX. 00JJ:06HO I1CnrYliHIO nJIYTolIHH B BO,1.HbIX pacTBopax 06pasyeT Ka- THOHbI Pu3+, Pu H , PU02+, PU022+ H aHHOH PUOs3-, 60JIbWHIlCTBO HS KOTOpblX OKpaweuo (CM. Ta6J1. 3.2). XHMHqCCKOe nOBeJJ:eHHC PU022+ B BOJJ:HbIX pacTBopax OIIelib CXOJJ:I10 C nOBeJJ:elIHeM U0 2 2-'-. C nOMoru:bIO HHQ>paKpacHoH cneKTpocKonHH 6bI.10 llOKa3aHO, tITO HOHbI weCTHBa- JIeHTHbIX llJlYTOIIH5I, lIenTYHH5I HaM CpHll.HSI Cyru:eCTBYlOT B paCTBope B Q>opMe CHMMeTpHIIHbIX JIHIICHllblX HJIH nOIITH JIHHCHHblX rpYIIll Me022+, nOJJ:06HblX U0 2 2+. Ba:>KHOe SlIaIICHHe )I.JI5I XHMHH llJIYTOIIHSI HMeeT 3HaHHe llOTeHll.Ha- .'IOB paSJIHIIHbIX OKHCJIHTCJlbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTCJIbHbIX CHCTeM C ero YtIa- CTHCM. OHH nOSBOJISIlOT OIIpe;I:eJI5ITb rpallHUhI YCTOHtIHBOCTH HOHOB II.1YTOHHSI paSJIHtIHOH CTelleHH OKHCJIeHHSI, paCCtJHTI>IBaTb HX pa I3HO- neCHble KOIIll.eHTpaIlHH H OUCIIHBaTb HX nOBCJJ:CHHe no OTHOWCHHIO K pa3JIHQHbIM OKHCJIHTeJlH M H BOCCTaIIOBHTCJISIM. PesYJIbTaTbI onpeJJ:eJICHHSI Q>opMaJlblibIX OKHCJIHTCJIbHO-BOCCTaHO- BHTeJIbHbIX nOTeHIIHaJlOB nJIYToHH5I B 1 M pacTBope HC10 4 nOKasaHbI Ha CJIe.n:YIOru:eH cxeMC: 2+ +0,910:;'8 Pu O 2 "':78 .,' J,9g-Q 9 ? -2,023 Fu J ' l'lJ ruo z +l.OlJJB II + 7. ° Z 2 8 3HatIeHHSI OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaIIOBHTeJIbHbIX IIOTCIIll.HaJIOB pas- JIHtIHbIX n.1YTOHHeBbIX llap YKaSbIBalOT Ha TO, tITO B KHCJlbIX paCTl30pax B saMCTHblX KOHll.eIiTpall.H5IX MorYT cymCCTBoBaTb B paBIIOBCCHH HOlibi llJIYTOHH5I Bcex tIeTblpCX CTeneHeH OKHCJleHHSI. HeKOTopbIe HS HHX, Ha- IIpHMep llJIYTOHHH (IV) H (V), nOJJ:BepralOTC5I pCaKll.HHM JJ:Hcnpo- IIOpll.HOHHpOBaHHSI, tITO 06YCJlOBJIeHO 6JIHSOCTbIO nOTelIll.H3J10B pas- JIHIIHblX OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTanOBHTeJIbHblX CHCTeM nJIYToIIHH. OJIYTOHHH (V) HeycToi'iIIHB B KHCJIblX pacTBopax, n03TOMY nJIY- TOHHH (IV) B CJIa60KHCJIbIX pacTBopax JJ:HcIIpOnOpll.HOIIHpyeT B oc- HOBHOM no peaKUHH 3Pu(IV)2Pu(lII) +Pu(VI) JJ:O Tex nop, nOKa llOTeHll.HaJIbI IIap llJIYTOHHH (III) - llJIYTOHHH (IV) H nJIYToIIHH (IV) - llJIYTOHHH (VI) lie BbIpaBH5IlOTC5I. KOHcTaIITa paBHOBeCH5I 3TOH peaKll.HH saBHCHT OT COCTaBa pacTBopa, pH cpe.n:bI, HOHHOH CHJIbI H TeMllcpaTypbI. 3TY peaKll.HIO B HOHHOM BHJJ:e MO:>KHO SallHCaTb CJIe- .n:YIOru:HM 06pa30M: 3Pu4.+ + 2H 2 0  2Pu 3 + + PuO+ + 4H+. OHa IIpOTeKaeT B SHatIHTeJIbHOH CTCIIeHH B COJI5IUOKHCJIblX, XJIOpHO- KHCJIblX H aSOTHOKHCJIbIX paCTBopax. O.n:HaKO B cepHOKHCJIbIX pacTBo- 42 
pax BBH.n:y 06pa30BaHH5I IIpOtIHbIX CYJIb$aTHblX KOMrreKCOB llJIYTO- HH5I (IV) Ha6JIIOJJ:aeTC5I cTa6HJIHSaUH5I HOHa Pu4+, H JI.HcllpOnOpll.HO- HHpoBaHHe nJIYToHH5I (IV) B 3THX cpeJJ:ax nOtITH OTCYTcTByeT. KaK BHJJ:1I0 HS ypaBllellH5I, YMeHbwclIHe KOHll.eHTpall.HH BOJJ:OpOJJ:HbIX HOHOB H KOMnJICKC006pasYJOmHx allHOHOB B pacTBope npHBoJJ:HT K cJJ:BHry paBIIOBeCH5I B CTOPOHY 06pasoBaHH5I HOHOB nJIYToHH5I (III) H (IV), M JIHWb rHJJ:pOJIHS rrJIYTOHH5I (IV), lIaIIHllalOru:HHC5I rrpH pH = 1-7-1,5 H BbIWC, CJJ:BHraeT paBHoBecHe B 06paTHYlO CTOPOHY. B pesYJIbTaTe 3Toro nJIYTolIHH (IV) CTaHOBHTCSI YCTOHtIHBbIM. OpH HSytICHHH Mcxa- JlHSMa H CKOpOCTH JJ:HcnpOrrOpll.HOHHpOBaIlH5I nJIYToIIH5I (IV) 6bIJIO YCTaHOBJIeHO, tJ:TO CKOpOCTb peaKll.HH JJ:HcnpOnOpll.HOHHpOBaHH5I rrJlYTO- HH5I (IV) B pacTBope HeOpraHHqeCKHX KHCJIOT npOllOpll.HOllaJIbHa BTOpOH CTeneHH KOHUCHTpall.HH HOUOI3 PU4+ H 06paTHo llpOnOpll.HO- lIaJIblia TpeTbeH CTeneHH KOilueliTpauHH BOJJ:OpOJI.llbIX HOHOB. JJ.Pyroc BaJKHOe paBlloBecHe, I1a6JIlOJJ:acMoc B pacTlwpax, BbIpa- :>KaeTCSI ypaBHcHHcM Puot + Pu 4 +  PuO+ + pu 3 +. KOIlCTaHTa pal3HOBCCHSI 3TOH peaKll.HH lIe 3aBHCHT OT KOHll.CHTpall.HH 130JLOpO,'illbIX HOIIOB, O;J:HaKO paBlloBecHe C,iI.I3HraeTC5I BJleBO npH HS- MCIICIIHH HOHHOH CHJIbI pacTBopa H B cJIyqae SHaIIHTCJIbllOrO KOMnJIeK- co06pasoBaHHSI HOIIOB Pu H . T epMo;'J.HH a M HIIeCKaH KOHCTallTa paBHOBeCH5I JJ:HcllpOrrOpll.HOHHpO- BaHH5I nJlYToHH5I (V) B pacTBopax HCOpraHHqeCKHX KHCJIOT y6bIBaeT B TOM JKC rrOp5llI.Ke, KaK H llPH peaKIWH ).JHcnponopHHOHHpOBaHH5I rrJ1Y- TOHH5I (IV). B OTJIHtIHe OT rr.'1YToJlH5I (IV) YCTOHtIHBOCTb nJIYToHH5I (V) YBeJIHtIHBaeTC5I C YMeHbweHHeM KOHueHTpall.HH BO,iI.OpOJJ:HbIX MOHOB. 06JIaCTb YCTOHtIHBOCTH JIeJKHT B HHTepRaJIe pH OT 1 JJ:O 6, rJJ:e DJIYTOHHH (V) IIpaKTHqCCKH YJKe IIC JJ:HcnponopUHoHHPYCT. Bo Bcex CJIYIIaSIx CJIeJJ:yeT HMeTb B BHJJ:Y, tITO KOHCTaHTbI paBIIOBeCH5I peaKll.HH .n:HcnpollopUHoHHpOBaHH5I IIJIYTOJlH5I paSJIHIIHbIX BaJIeHTHOCTCH saMeT- HO HSMeH5IlOTC5I B rrpHcYTcTBHH TaKHX KOMnJIeKC006paSOBaTeJIeH, KaK cYJIb$aT-, all.eTaT-, OKCaJIaT-, $oc$aT-HolibI H T. II. 3HaHHe McxaHHS- Ma H KHHeTHKH pCaKll.HH JJ:HcnpOnOpll.HOHHpOBaIlH5I nJIYTolIH5I (IV) H (V) rrpH HsyqellHH ero BsaHMoJJ:eHcTBH5I C pas.'1HIIHbIMH OKHCJIHTCJI5I- MH H BOCCTaHOBHTeJI5IMH OtICHb BaJKHO JJ:JI5I npaKTHKH. o pOll.eCCbI OKHCJIeHH5I rrJIYTOHH5I (II I) H BOCCTaHOBJIelIH5I IIJIYTOHH5I (IV), TaK :>Ke KaK H aHaJIOrHqHbIe peaKll.HH JJ:JI5I JJ:PYrHX aKTHIIOHJJ:OB, COilpOBO:>KJJ:alOTC5I IIepeJJ:atIeH OJJ:Horo 3J1eKTpoHa, n03ToMY OHH rrpoTe- KalOT OtICHb JIerKO IIOJJ: BJIH5IHHeM 0JI.H03JIeKTpOHHbIX OKHCJIHTeJIeH HJIH COOTBeTCTBeHHO BOCCTaHOBHTeJIeH. JJ.eHcTBHe JJ:BY3JIeKTpOHilbIX pea- reHTOB MO:>KeT 6b1Tb caMbIM paSJIHIIllbIM B saBHCHMOCTH OT rrpHpOJJ:bI pcarCHTa. 3TO JKe OTHOCHTCSI H K OKHCJICIIHIO nJIYToIIHSI (V) HJlH K BOCCTaHOB.aeIlHlO llJIYTOHH5I (IV). 3HatIHTeJIbHO TpY)I.Hee IIpOTCKaeT npOll.eCC OKHCJIeIIH5I IIJIYTOHH5I (IV) HJIH BOCCTaIIOBJICHHe IIJIYTOHH5I (V), TaK KaK IIPH 3TOM npOHCXOJJ:HT paspywellHe CB5ISH Me - 0, tITO 06YCJIOBJIHBaeT 60.'1ee MCJJ:.'IeHHOC npOTeKaHHe npouccca. B KatIeCTBe npOMC:>KYTOtIHbIX cTaJJ:HH 06b1tIHO BKJIIOIIalOTC5I pCaKll.HH .n:Hcllponop- 43 
I.J.HOHHpOBaIlH5I, sa KOTOpbIMH CJIe..'I:yeT 6b!CTpOe BsaHMOJJ:eHCTBHC C peareHTaMH. TaKHM 06pasOM, CI\OpOCTb OKHCJIHTCJIbIl0-130CCT3HOBHTCJIbHbIX pc- aKll.HH IIJlYTOHH5I B UCJlOM OllpCJI.eJIHCTCSI CKOpOCTblO OKHC.1HTCJIbHO- BOCCTaHOBHTCJlbllbIX pC3KHHH cro HOHOB C pearellTaMH, C OiiHOH CTO- pOHbI, H CKOpOCTblO JJ:HcrrpOnOpll.HOIIHpOBaHH5I - C JI.PyrOH. COOTHowe- IIHe Me:>K,il.Y 3THMH CKOpOCT5IMH 3aBHCHT OT YCJIOBHH, B KOTOpblX 3TH peaKll.HH npOTCKaIOT, H OC06CHIIO OT OTilOCHTeJIbHOH KOHll.eHTpaUHH pearHpYlOUiHX BemeCTB. HarrpHMcp, OKIICJIeHHC n.1YToHHSI (IV) .n:o IIJIYTOHH5I (V) MOJKeT rrpOTCKaTb JJ:BYM5I rrYT5IMII: 1) I1crrOcpeJJ:cTBeHllbIM OKHCJICHHCM nJlyrollHSI (IV) .n:o rr5lTHBa- JIeHTHOro COCT05lIlHSI; 2) JJ:HcnporropuHolIHpoBaHHeM 1I.1YTOIIH5I (IV) I1a llJIYTOHHH (III) II (V) C llOCJICJJ:ylOmHM OKHCJIeIlHCM rrJIYTOHH5I (III) JJ:O rrJlYToIlHSI (IV). OpH 60JIbWHX KOHUCliTpall.HHX OKHCJIHTC.l5I BepOSITcn rrepBbIH npo- ll.ccc. OpH OTHOCHTeJIbiiO OOJIbWHX KOHll.eIlTpall.H5IX llJIYTOIIH5I (IV) JI.OJIJKeli npC06JIa,il.3Tb TnopoH npouecc. 00JJ:p06I10 HsyyeIlhl peaKUHH BOCCTaIlOB.;JCIIII5I n.1YTOIlH5I (IV) JJ:O TpeXBaJIeHTJlOrO COCTOHHH5I C yqaCTHeM JKeJIesa (II), ypaHa (IV), THTaHa (III), BaHaJ]:H5I (III), o.lOBa (II), rHJJ:pa3IfHa H peaKHHH BOC- CTailOBJIeIlH5I n.1YToHH5I (VI) ,il.0 rrHTHBaJIeilTIlOro COCTOSIHHSI TCMH :>Ke peareHTaMH. PcaKuHH OKHCJICIIHH nJIYTOHH5I (II I) JDyqellhI I1a npH- Mepax ero B3a HMOJJ:CHCTBH5I C KHCJIOpOJJ:OM, a30THCTOH KHCJIOTOH H XJIOpOM. OpHBeJJ:eM xapaKTepHcTHKY I1aH60JIee yaCTO npHMCH5IeMbIX OKHC- JIHTeJIeH H BOCCT3HOBHTCJIeH rrJIyroHH5I. A30THaSi KHCJIOTa. MOH :-JO a - B KHCJIbIX cpc;r.ax OKHCJI5ICT rr.TJyTo- HHH (III) JJ:O rrJIYToIlHH (IV), a npH IlCKOTOpbIX YCJIORH5IX (TcMnepa- Typa OKOJIO 100 DC) H JJ:O ll.'1YTOHH5I (VI). 06pa60TKa pacTBopoB nJIY- TOHHSI (III) HJIH ocaJJ:KOB rHJJ:poKcHJJ:a Pu (OHh KOIIll.eHTpHpoRaliHoH HNO a npH HarpeBaHHH llpHBO,ZI.HT K nOtJ:TH MrlloReHiloMY OKHCJJCHHIO IIJIYTOHHSI (II I) B tIeTbIpeXBaJIeHTHOe COCT05lIlHC. OJIYTOII HH (IV) xo- powo COXpaH5IeTC5I B 1-2 M HNO a rrpH KOMHaTHoH TeMilepaType B TeIIeHHe HeCKOJIbKHX MeCSIIiCB. HarpeBaHHe TaKHX pacTBopoB BbISbIBa- eT OKHCJIeHHe nJIYToHH5I (IV). C YBeJIH4eHHeM KOHll.eHTpall.HH HNO a CKOpOCTb peaKIr.HH CHJIbHO lla,ZI.aeT. OpH KHCJIOTHOCTH 7,7 M Sa1l,1CTH0- ro OKHCJIeHH5I rrJIYToHH5I (IV) He Ua6JIlOJJ:aeTCSI. A30THCTaSl KHCJIOTa. Do OTHomeHlilO K I1.1yrOHHIO (VI) HHTPHT-HOH BeACT ce651 KaK BOCCTaHOBHTeJIb. 06pa60TKa HHTpHTOM 3S0THOKHCJJbIX paCTBopoB, cOJJ:ep:>Karu:Hx CMeCb paSHOBaJIeHTHOro nJlYToHH5I, npHBoJJ:HT K llpeBparu:cHHlO Bcero II.'IYTOIIH5I B tIeTbIpeXBaJIellTilOC COCT05lIlHe. HN0 2 6bICTpO IIepeBo.n:HT llJIYTOHHH (VI) B llSITHBaJIeHTHOe COCT05l- HHC C nOCJJe.n:YlOru:HM .n:HcrrpOIIOpll.HOIlHpOBaHHeM llJIYTOHH5I (V). Bpe- M5I 50 % -HOro BOCCTaHOBJIeHHSI Mellec 25 c. nepMaHraHaT H 6HxpoMaT Ka.1HSI. B KHCJIOH cpe,J.c Mn04- H Cr2072- 6bICTpO llepeBoJJ:51T IIJIYTOHHH (III) B llJIYTOHHH (IV). PeaK- ll.Hll OKHCJJeHH5I IIJIYTOHHSI .n:o BbIClUHX BaJIeHTHbIX COCT05lHHH npoTe- KalOT ropas.n:o Me.n:JIeHHee. HarpeBaHHe yCHJIHBaeT CKOpOCTb OKHCJIe- 44 
.!IHSI. B 1 M pacTBope HN0 3 CKOpOCTb OKHCJIeHH5I llJIYTOHH5I 6HXpOMa- TOM YReJIHIIHBaeTC5I IIpHMCpHO B 3 pasa C llOBbIweHHeM TeMilepaTypbl lIa 10°C. B bICOKa51 KOHll.eHTpall.H5I IIJIYTOHH5I YBeJIHqHBaeT CKOpOCTb OKHCJICHH5I, a BblCOKa51 1WHll.eHTpall.HSI HHTpaT-HoHoB CHH:>KaeT. Bpe- M5I 50 % -Hora OKHCJIeHHSI IIJIYTOIIH5I (IV) .n:o llJIYTOlIH5I (VI) B 1 M ]JacTBope HN0 3 npH 25°C H KOHll.eHTpall.HH KMn04, paBHoH 0,001 M, {:OCTaBJISIeT npHMeplio 50 MHH. l\nnapaTypa HS HCpJKaBelOru:eH CTaJIH cIIoc06cTByeT npoBe.n:eHHlO 3TOH peaKll.HH. nepeKHcb BO)J.opo)J.a. H 2 0 2 C HSMepHMoH CKOpOCTblO BOCCTaHaB- .1HBaeT llJIYTOIIHH (VI) JJ:O nJIYTOIlH5I (V) B 0,5 M HCI. B aSOTlIO- KHC.10M pacTBope npH pH=3-4 H 2 0 2 BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeT nJIYToHHH .(VI) .n:o llJIYTOHH5I (V) IIa 95-97 %. OpH BOCCTaHOBJIeHHH IIJIyrOHH5I (VI) H 2 0 2 CKOpOCTb npouccca saBHCHT OT KOIIll.eIITpaliHH IIJIYTOHHSI, nepeKHcH BO,iI.OpOJI.a H npHpOJJ:bI KHCJIOThI. COtIeTaHHe HN0 3 [KaK OKHCJlHTeJI5I JJ:JI5I IIJIYTOHHSI (III)] H H 2 0 2 [KaK BOCCTaIlOBHTeJI5I JJ:JI51 IIJIYTOIIH5I (VI)] nOSBOJISIeT llOJIYIIHTb 4HCTbIC paCTBopbI nJIYToHH5I (IV). PeaKll.HlO npOBOJI.SIT B KOHll.eHTpH- pOBaHlIbIX pacTBopax HN0 3 (1 0 M) B6JIHSH TCMIIcpaTypbl KHne- HHSI. TaKa51 cTa6HJIHSall.HSI IIJIYTOHH5I B IICTblpCXBaJIeHTHOM COCT05l- JlHH 4peSBhltIaHHO BaJKlIa IIPH ero 3KCTpaKll.HOJlIIOM HSBJIC4CIIHH He- KOTOpbIMH 3KcTpareHTaMH B TeXIIOJIOrHtICCKOH llpaKTHKe. 030H. OKHCJIHTeJIb, C nOMOIII.blO IKoToporo MOIKHO nOJIY4HTb pac- iBOpbI nJIYToHH5I (VI) 6cs BBe.n:eHH5I llOCTOpOHHHX HOHOB. CKOpOCTb peaKuHH B ceplIOKHCJIbIX paCTBopax saMeTHO naJJ:aeT C YBeJIHqeHHeM KOHneIlTpall.HH H 2 S0 4 . CKOpOCTb pCaKll.HH SlIaIIHTeJIbHO YBeJIHtIHBa- CTCH B npHCYTCTBHH KaTa.TJHSaTOpOB - ll.eSH5I (III) HJIH cepe6pa (I). fH.II.pOKCHJIaMHH. BOCCTaHOBHTeJIh llJIYTOllH5I (IV) JJ:O TpeXBa- JIellTHOro COCTOSIIIH5I. 1..Jepcs HeCKOJIbKO MHIIYT llPH KOMHaTHOH: TM- nepaType oKpacKa pacTBopa IIJIYTOHH5I npH06peTaeT KpaCHBblH: rOJIY- 60H OTTeHOK, a eIII.e 4epes HeCKOJIbKO MHHYT CTaHOBHTCSI HHTeHCHBHO rOJIy60H. OOBbIweHHe TeMilepaTypbl YCKOp5leT peaKll.HlO. fH)J.pa3HH. 3TOT peareHT .n:OBOJIbHO 6bICTpO BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeT IIJIYTOHHH (IV) B KHCJIbIX pacTBopax. fH.n:poKCHJIaMHH H rH.n:pasHH BOCCTaliaBJIHBalOT IIJlYTOHHH (VI) JJ:O llJIYTOHH5I (V) B YMepeHHo KHCJIbIX pacTBopax (OKOJIO 0,5 M H+). B IIpOll.eCCe .n:HCllpOllOPll.HOHH- pOBaHH5I nJIYTOHH5I (V) n05lBJI5IeTC5I llJIYTOHHH (III). IJeTblpeXBaJleHTHblH ypaH. TIpH ,n:OCTaTOQHO 60JIbllIOM H36b1TKe ypaHa (IV) B 1 M HNO nJIYToHHH (VI) BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH ,no nJlyroHHH (III) 3a 5-10 MHH. B pacTBope 3 M HN0 3 , co,nep*ameM 10- 6 -10- 7 M nJIYTOHHH (IV), B npHcYT- CTBHH cyJlb<paMHHOB0H: KHCJIOTbi nJlYToHHH: (IV) BOCCTaHaB.1HBaeTCH HanOJIOBHHY H3- 6b1TKO a30THOKHCJIOrO ypaHa (IV) 3a 1-5 MllH. JJ.ByxBaJIeHTHOe )KeJIe30. )I(eJIeao (II) TaKlKe 51BJISIeTCSI BOCCTa- HOBHTCJIe\l JJ:JI5I IIJIYTOlIH5I (IV) H JJ:OBOJIbilO tIaCT(} HCllO.TJb3YCTCSI B TeXHOJIOrHIICCKoH IIpaKTHKe. He60JIbWOe KOJIHqeCTBO (9. 10- 4 M) H 2 S0 4 B paCTBope YBCJIHtIHBaeT CKOpOCTb IIpOll.eCCa llOqTH B 5 pa3. HOHbI Cl- BbISbIBalOT saMeTHoe YCKopeHHe peaKll.HH BOCCTaHOBJIeHHSI IIJIYTOHH5I. B aSOTHOKHCJIblX cpeJJ:ax JKeJIeso (II) 6b1CTpO pearHpyeT C 45 
IIJIYTOHHeM (IV). 3TOT pearCHT tIaru:e npHMeH5IIOT B C\1eCH C CYJlbCP- aMHHOBOH KHCJIOTOH HNH 2 S0 3 . 110HbI Fe2+ H CYJIbcpaMHHOBOH KHC- JIOTbI JJ:eHCTBYIOT I1eSaBHCHMO .n:Pyr OT ,iI.pyra. Fe 2 + BOCCTaHaB.1HBa- eT Pu4+, a CYJIbcpaHHOBa5I KHCJIOTa pa3pywaeT IIHTPHT-HOHbI H OKHCJIbI aSOTa, KOTopbIe MOrJIH 6bI OKHCJlHTb Fc2+ H McmaTb 06pa- SOBaHHlO Pu H , JJ.BYKpaTHbIH Hs6bITOK :>KeJICsa (II) B IIPHCYTCTBHH lIe60JIbworo KOJlHtIeCTBa CYJIbcpaMHHOBOH KHC.10TbI npH cOJJ:epJKaHHH nJIYTOHHH B MaKpOKOHll.eHTpall.H5IX H n5ITHKpaTHbIH Hs6bITOK IIPH HH- .n:HKaTopIlbIX KOJIHtIeCTBax ,iI.OCTaTOIIUbI JJ:JISI llOJlIIOrO BOCCTaHOB.1eHHSI IIJIYTOIIH5I (VI) JJ:O llJlYTOHHSI (III). POHraJlHT (q,0pMaJlb,nCrH21cy.lbq,oKcH.laT HaTpH5I  aHS0 2 ; CH 2 0. 2H 2 0). Boc- CTaHaB,lHBaeT KaK HH,nHKaTOpHl>le, TaK H MaKpOKo.m'leCTBa n,l}TOHHH (VI) ,no n.IY- TOHHH (III) B a30TIlOKHC,10H cpe21e 33 HeCKO.lbKO MHHYT. XHMH5I BOJJ:lIbIX paCTBopOB aMepHll.H5I HSYIIelia cpaBIIHTe.'IbliO Ma- JIO. DOJIbWHIICTBO Hcc.1eJJ:OBaIIHH, KacalOmHXCSI aMepHll.HSI, ony6JIH- KOBaHO JIHWb B nOCJICJJ:HHe rOJJ:bI B CB5I3H C peSKO BOSpOCWHM I1aYtI- HblM H IIpaKTH4CCKHM HllTepCCOM K Tpa IlCllJIYTOHHeBbIM 3JIeMeHTaM. 113BeCTHbI COCJJ:HlleIlHSI aMepHll.H5I B CTeneH5IX 0, +2, +3, +4, +5, + 6 H + 7. OJJ:I1aKO THnHtIHbIM ,iI.JISI aMepHUH5I 51BJISIeTCH TpCXBa.TJCHT- HOC COCTOHIIHC. AMepmmH 4peSBbItIaHHO TPY';UIO OKHCJIHTb .n:o 1£eTbI- peXBaJIeHTIIOro COCTOSII!H5I. TpeXBaJICHTilOC COCTOHIiHe aMepHHH5I HB- JI5IeTC5I 06bIIIHbTM B BOJI.lIbIX paCTBopax. B tIaCTIiOCTH, aMepHll.HH (III) JIerKO 1I0JIYIIHTb IIPH pacTBopcllHH MeTaJIJlHtIeCKOrO aMCpHll.H5I B pas- 6aBJIeHIlbIX KHCJIOTax. B 3TOM COCT05lHHH aMcpHuHH OIIeilb CXOJK C JIaHTaHOM H JIaHTaHOHJJ:aMH. PacTBopbI aMepHuHH (V) I1CYCTOH4HRbI H JlerKO JJ:HCllpOIlOpUHO- HHPYIOT JJ:O Tpex- H weCTHBaJIellTJlOrO COCT05lHHSI. 06paTIIa51 peaKHHSI peIIpOIIOpll.HOHHpOnaIlH5I npellc6pe)/{HMO MaJIa B IUHpOKOM ,iI.HanaSO- He KHCJIOTHOCTH. OTCYTCTBHe pcnponOpUHOJlHpOBaHHSI aMepHll.HSI (V) 06YCJIOBJIeHO, nO-BHJJ:HMOMY, HeYCTOHtJHBOCTblO HOIlOB aMepHUHSI (VI). B tIaCTHOCTH, aMepHll.HH (VI) HHTeHCHBliO BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTCSI no BJIH5IHHeM c06cTBeHHoro a-HSJIYtJeHH5I H B KOHll.e KOHll.OB IIOJIHO- CTblO IIepexoJJ:HT B TpeXBaJIeHTHOe COCTOSIHHe. 110H Am02 2 + - CHJIb- HbIH OKHCJIHTeJIb H JICrKO BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTC5I p5lJJ:OM BOCCTaHOBHTe- JIeH .n:o TpeXBaJIeHTHOro COCT05lHH5I. LloJIroe BpCM5I He y.n:aBaJIOCb JJ:OKasaTb cyru.eCTBOBaHH5I aMepHll.HH (II), XOT5I B COOTBeTCTBHH C aKTHHOHJJ:HOH TcopHeii: no aHaJIOrHH C' eBpOilHeM - JIaHTaHOHJJ:HblM aHaJIOrOM aMepHll.H5I - coeJJ:HHCHH5I aMe- p H ll.H5I (II) .n:OJ1:>KHbI cyru:eCTBOBaTb, tITO H 6b1.10 IIOJJ:TBep:>KJJ:CHO B 1966 r. sapy6e:>KHbIMH, a saTeM COBeTCKHMH HCCJIe..'I:OBaTeJI5IMH. OpMaJIbHbIe OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIe nOTeHll.HaJIbI aMepHll.H5I B 1 M HCI0 4 llPH 25°C IIpHBe.n:eHbI Ha cJIeJJ:YlOru:eH cxeMe: + +T,TlfB 4++2,JlfB AmOz Am -!, tlf B I I J+ -2,306 Am - 2,05 B. I 2.+ 7 ,506 .AmOz fl,MB Z. -2,06 Am Am 46 
B BOJJ:HbIX paCTBOpaX aMepHll.HH HaX0JJ:HTC5I B BHJJ:e HOHOB Am3+, Am 4 -, Am02+, Am02 2 +, AmOs 3 -. Ce1HBaJleHTHOe COCT05lHHe aMepH- IlH5I, YCTaHOBJIeliHOe COBCTCKHMH HCCJIe.n:OBaTeJISIMH, cyru:eCTByeT B lllCJI04HOH cpeJJ:e. Bo06ru:e B ru:eJIOtIHbIX paCTBopax SHa4HTeJIbHO 06- JIerIIaeTCSI nOJIytIeHHe' BbICWHX BaJIeHTHbIX <pOpM aMCpHll.H5I H nOBbI- waeTCSI HX YCTOHtIHBOCTh, B 4aCTilOCTH cTa6HJIHSHPYCTC5I HeycToH- tfHBOe B KHCJIbIX pacTBopax BaJleHTHOe COCT05lIlHe a MepHll.H5I (IV). OKHCJlHTeJIbHO-BOccTaHOBHTeJIbHble peaKll.HH B ru:eJIotJ:HoH cpe;I.e Ha- XOJJ:SIT IIpaKTHIIecKoe npHMeHeliHe B TCXIIOJIOrHH 06JIYIIeHilbIx SIJJ:ep- 'HbIX MaTeplfaJIOB npH OT.n:eJIeHHH aMepmW51 OT KlOpHSI H TpaHcKlO- pHeBbIX 3JICMeIlTOB. B KHCJIbIX pacTBopax HCllOJIbSOBaHHe OKHCJIH- TeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJlblibIX peaKll.HH WHpOKO HCnOJIb3yeTC5I .n:JISI OT- .n:eJICHH5I aMCpHll.H5I OT ypalla, nJIYToHH5I, nellTYHH5I, KIOpH5I H pe,iI.KO- SeMeJIbHbIX 3.1CMeHTOB. XHMllH BO,nHblX paCTUopon KlOpHH BeCoMa CXO:J,Ha C XHMHCii BO,nHblX paCTBopOB aMepHQHH B TpeXBaJICHTIlOM COCTOHHHH, npH'IeM B OT,lH'lHe OT a'.lepHUHH KIOpHl1 n 1!O,nHOM paCTBope HC y,naCTCH OKHCJIHTb ,no 60,lee BbiCOKHX BaJICHTHbiX COCTOHHHH AaJKe B caMbiX JKeCTKHX YCJIOBHHX. AII03JIbHaH YCTOHqHBOCTb KlOpHH R BHJJ:C HOHa Cm H CBH3aHa C oc06eHHOCTHMH cro 3,leKTpOHHoro CTpOCHHH, a HMeHIlO C HaJIHqHeM Hano.l0BHHY 3anOJIHeHHOii 060JIO'lKH H3 ceMH 5f-3,leKTpoHoR. B 3TOM OTHOllIeHHH XlOpHH nO.1HOCTblO nOBTopHeT CBoikTB8 CBoero JIaHT3HOH,nIlOro aHaJIOra raAOJIHHHH, 1<OTOpbrH TaKJKe HSBeCTeH HCK.11O'IHTeJlbHO B TpexBaJIeHTHOM COCTOHHHH. MHOrO'lHC- JIeHHbre nonblTKH OKHCJIHTb Cm H CHJIbHeHllIHMH OKHCJIHTCJIHMH OKa3aJIHCb 6e3ycnclII- IIblMH TIoTCHQHaJI napbl KlOpHH (IIl)/KlOpHii (VI), no HeKoTopblM AaHllblM, paBeH OKO- .o 3,25 B. OJJ:llaKo coeJl,HflellHH KIOpHH (VI) B TBepJl,OM COCTOHIIHH nec JKe nOJIY'lCllbI, lIPH BbiCOKOii TeMnepaType H OTCYTCTBHH BO,nbl, HanpHMep, y,naJIOCb nOJIY'lHTb Cm02 H CmF. y!:3 ,npyrHx THJKeJIbiX aKTHHOH,nHblX 3JIeMeHTOB B BO,nHblX pacTBopax JIHllIb AJIH 6epKJIHH KpOMC TpeXBaJIeTHOrO COCTOHHHH nOJlY'leHo TaKJKe BblCllIee BaJIeHTHOe COCTOHHHC 4. XOTH 6epKJIHH, KaK H ,npYrHe TpaHCnJIYToHHeBbie 3JIeMeHTbl, HaH60JIee yCTOH'IHB B TpeXBaJIeHTHOM COCTOHHHH, HO Y aTOMa 6epKJIHH HMeeTCH BoceMb 5f- 3JIeKTpOHOB, H norepH OJl,HOrO li3 HHK npHBOAHT K H3nOJlOBHHY 3anOJIHeHHOH 060o'l- Ke, n03TOMY 6epKJIHH (111) cpaBHHTeJIbHO JIerKO OKHCJIHerCH AO 6epKJIHH (IV). no- TeHUHaJi napbl 6epK.1Hii (11I)/6epKJIHH (IV) paBeli 1,43 B. XHMH'IeCKHM aHaJIoroM KaJIHq,opHHH cpe,nH JIaHTaHOH,nOB HIIJIHeTCH ,nHcnp03HH, cyru:ecTBYlOlII.HH TOJIbKO B TpCXBaJIeHTHOM COCTOHHHH. B OTJIH'IHe OT ,nHcnp03HH H3BeCTHbi COeJl,HHeHHH He TO.bKO Ka.1H<popHHH (111), 110 H KaJIHq,opHHH (11). MHOrO'lHCJIeHHble nonblTKH OKHCJIHTb Ka- JIHq,OpHHH (I II) H .lI.pyrHe TpaHcKlOpHeBble 3JIeMeUTbi ,no 60JIec BbiCOKHX creneHeH OKHC.leHHH He HMeJIH ycnexa, no KpaHHeH Mepe ,nJIH BO,nHblX cpe,n, nOCKOJIbKy HMe- IDTCH CBe,neHHH npe,nBapHTeJIbHOrO xapaKTepa, YKa3blBalOlII.He Ha B03MOJKHOCTb nOJIyqCHHH TBep,nblX COeJl,HHeliHii KaJIHq,opHH5I C BaJIeHTHbiM COCTOHHHeM 60JIbllIC 3+. I1MelOlII.HecH HeMHOrO'lUCJIeHllbie 3KcnepllMeHTaJIbHblC ,naHHble n03BO.HIOT CYJJ:HTo. 'ITO B BO,nHOM paCTBope coe,nHHeHHH 3iiHllITeHHHH H q,epMHH C BaJIeHTHblMH COCTOHHHH- MH 60JlbllIe 3+ He CYlll.eCTBYIOT. 31-0 JKe OTHOCHTCH K MeH,neJIeBHIO. .1J:JIH KaJIHq,op' HHH, 3HHllITeiiHHH, q,epMHH H MeH:J,CJIeBHH 'IeTKO YCTaHOBJIeHa cnoc06HOCTb BOCCTa- HaBJIHBaTbCH ,no ,nBYXBaJIerHOrO COCTOHHH5I, a ,nJIH MeH,neJIeBHH ,naJKe ,no o,nHOBa- JIeHTIiOro, 'ITO, 6eccnopHO, MOJKHO HCnOJIb30BaTb )J.JIH reXHOJIOrH'IeCKHX LleJleH npH pa3- ,AeJIeHHIi 3THX 3JIeMeHTOB. 41 
OCHOBHOi! OC06eHHOCTbIO 1I06e.1HH SlB.1HeTCH TO, qTO B BO,:{UblX rpeJJ:ax OH lIallt).J- JIee YCTOi!'IHB B J{UYXIJa.leTIlOM COCT05lHHH. TIoTeHQHa.1 napbl 1I06eJIHi! (Il)/H06c.I!IH (III) JIeil<HT OKO,10 1,4-1,5 B HeKoTopble JJ:aHHble no nOBe,neHHIO .10YPCHCHH CBH21CTC.lbCTBYIOT 0 TOM, 'ITO UI-O He OTm1'1aeTCH OT nOBC21eHH5I TpeXBaJIeHTHbiX KlOpHH, Ka.1Hq,opHHH H q,ep\lHH. nO-BII- ;(HMOMY, .10YPCHCHii lIaH60.1ce YCTOi!'IHIJ U TpCXB3.leUTHOM COCTOHHHH, XOTII He !ltK.llO- 1JeHa B03MOJKHOCTb CYIlJ,CCTBOBaHH5I npH BblCOKHX TCMDcpaTypax B TBep..10M rOCTOH- HHH JIoypellcHH (II). TIOCKO,1bKY TSJJKe,lb1e aKTHHOH,nbJ no.l)''IeHbI nOKa B BeCbMa He60.1hlllOM KO.1H- 'IecTBe, XHMHqCCKIlC CIJOHCTBa HX H3yqCIlbl ,nOBO.1hHO c.1a60, XOT5I 'JHC.10 pa60T ;; :nuii: HHTepeCHOH 06,1aCTH YBeJlH'IHBaCTCH C KaJKJJ:blM rO,l!OM. 3.5. CpaBHeHHe CKOpOCTH H MeXatfH3MOB OKHCIIHTenbHO- BOCCTaHOBHTenloHblX peaKL\HH ypaHa, HenTyHHJI, nnYTOHHJI H aMepHL\HJI CKOpOCTb OKHc.'lHTeJIbIlO-BOCCTaHOBHH'JIbHOll peaKUHH, KaK HSBe- CTHO, saBHCHT OT YCJIOBHH ce IIpOBe,!J.eHHSI H HII)J.HBH}lyaJIbHbIX CBOHCTB OKHCJIHTCJleH H BOCCTaIlORHTeJIeH. OpH caMOM 06meM paccMOTpellHH SaKOJIOMCpHOCTeH nOJ10611blX IIpOlieCCOB MOJKHO OTMCTHTb, 'ITO CCJIH llPH peaKll.HH cyIIJ.ecTRelillblx CTPYKTYPHbIX HSMf'HCHHH pCarHpYlOmHX HOHOB H MOJICKYJI He npOHCXOJJ:HT, TO peaKll.HH npOTeKaCT 6bICTpO. ECJIH peaKll.HSI cOnpOBOJK.n:aeTcSI MOJIeKYJISIpHbIMH lIepcrpynllHpoBKa- MH HJIH HHOH nepecTpoHKOH CTPYKTypbI, npoll.ecc H)J.CT OqeHb MCJJ:JICII- HO. n03TOMY IJaH60Jlee 06ru:eH KHHeTH'IeCKOH saKoliOMepHocTblO, xa- paKTepHsYIoweH OKHCJlHTeJIbJIO-BOCCTaIIOBHTCJIbHbIe cBoHCTBa HOHOB ypaHa, HenTYHH5I, nJIYToHH5I H aMepHll.H5I, SIBJl5IeTCSI cyru:ecTBeHHoe pa3JIHtIHe MeJKJJ:Y CKOpOCTblO pea Kll.HH, npH KOTOpOH npoHcxoJJ:HT pas- pbIB HJIH 06paSOBaHHC CB5tSeH Me - 0, H CKOpOCTblO peaKll.HH, rJJ:e lloJJ:06HbIX HSMeHeHHll He Ha6JIIOJJ:aeTCSI. C 3TOH TOtIKH 3peHH5I peaK- ll.HH BOCCTaHOBJIeHHSI tIeTbIpex- H n5lTHBaJICHTHbIX HOHOB ypaHa, Hell- TYHHSI, llJIYTOHHH H aMepHll.H5I COOTBeTCTBeHHO JJ:O Tpex- H II5ITHBa- JIeHTHbIX COCTOHHHH H 06paTHbIe peaKll.HH OKHCJIeHH5I, KaK He conpo- BO>KJJ:alOru:HeC5I 06paSOBaHHeM HJIH paspbIBOM CBSISH Me - 0, JJ:OJIJK- Hbi 6bITb OTHOCHTeJIbHO 6bICTpbIMH. 3TO Ha6JIlOJJ:acTC5I B eHcTBH- TeJIbHOCTH, HallpHMep, IIPH BOCCTaHOBJIeHHH llJlYTOHH5I (IV) JJ:O IIJIY- TOHH5I (III), IIJIYTOHH5I (VI) .n:o IIJIYTOHH5I (V). OJJ:HaKo OKHCJIeHHC' llJIYTOHHSI (IV) .n:o TIJIYTOHHSI (VI) npoHcxo;r:HT .n:OBOJlbHO Me.n:JIeIIHO. TaKoe paSJIHtIHe C TeOpeTH'IeCKO TOtIKH SpCHH5I BIIOJIHe 0651c- HHMO TeM, qTO cyru:ecTBeHHaH nepecTpoHKa CTp)'KTYPbI HOHOB B pe- aKUH5IX, xapaKTepHsylOru:HXC5I paspbIBoM HJIH 06pa30BaHHcM CB5ISJ{ Me - 0, COlIpOBO:>K.n:aeTC5I cooTBeTcTBylOru:HM HSMCHeHHeM HX rJf,J,- paTHbIX 060JIOtIeK, Tor.n:a KaK B peaKIlH5tX, IIPH KOTOpbIX paspbIB H.1H o6pa30BaHHe CB5ISH OTCYTCTByeT, rH.n:paTHble 060.10qKH npH llepcxo;r:e 3JIeKTpOHa H3MeH5IlOTCSl He3Ha'IHTCJIbHO. BJlH5IJIHe npHpo.n:bI OKHCJIHTeJIeil: HJIH BOCCTaHOBHTCJICH Ha CKO- pOCTb OKHCJIHTeollbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHblX llpoueCCOB tIaCTO 06YCJlOB- "lCHO TeM, tITO 3TH peareHTbI MorYT caMH IIpCTepileBaTb cyru:ecTBel!- 48 
HlJle CTPYKTypHbIC H3MeHeIIH5I. HanpHMcp, npH OKHCJICH HI{ nepM alI- raHaTOM HJIH XpOMaTOM OKCHaHHOHbI Mn04- H Cr2072- IIpCBpaWaIOT- C5I B IIpOCTbIC HOHbI Mn 2 + H Cr 3 1-. IlpH BOCCTaJlOBJICIIHH fHJJ:pa3HHOM HOH N2Hs+ nepeXOJJ:HT B a30T, aMMHaK HJIH HOH I-C"b-. f1pc.CTbIC HOHLT V3+ H Tj3-'- IIPH O.KHCJICHHH IIpCBpaWalOTCSI B OKCHaJlHOJlbT V02+ H Ti0 2 +. ECTCCTBCHHO, tHO 3TH IIpOll.CCCbI OrpaHHtlHBalOT CKOpOCTb CYM- MaplIOH OKHCJIHTeJIbIIO-ROCCTaIIOBHTeJIbIIOH peaKUHH. BCJICJI.CTBHe sa- MC.n:JIeHHSI peaKll.HH, 06YCJIOBJICHIIOrO CTPYKTyplIbIMII HSMCHeHHSIMH, MO:>KeT OKaSaTbCSI 60JIce BbIrOJJ:HbIM llpOll.eCC JJ:HClIpOnOpll.HOJlHpOBa- HH5I tICTbTpeX- H nSITHBa.TJCHTHOrO HOlla, qeM npOILeCC IICnOCpC,iI.CTBCH- HOrO BSaHMOJJ:eiicTBH5I 3THX HOHOB C JJ:allHblM peareHTOM. B KatICCTBe npHMepa MOJKHO YKa3aTb, tITO BoccrallOBJIeJlHC HOHa PU02 2 + nepe- KHCblO BO;XOpO.n:a, aSOTHCTOH KHCJIOTOH, rHJJ:paSHIIOM H T. II. IIpOHCXO- .n:IIT TOJIbKO JJ:O PU02+. J].aJIbHeHlUee BOCCTaHOB.leIlHC onpeJJ:eJI5ICTCSI .n:HCllpOIlOpIlHOHHpOl3aIIHeM 2Pu (V) Pu (IV) + Pu (VI). 06pasoBaBwHHc5I llJIYTOHHH (VI) BHORh BOCCTaHaBJIliBaeTCSI ,iI.0 PU02+ peareHToM-BoccTaHOBHTeJICM. Ilpe06JIaJJ:aHHe Toro HJIH HHoro MexaHHSMa peaKll.HH (lIenOcpe.n:cTBelIllOe BsaHMoJJ:eHcTBHe C pcarell- TOM HJIH peaKll.H5I tIcpes .n:HcnponopUHOllHpOBaIlHC) saBIfCIiT OT YC- JIOBHH ocyweCTBJIeHHSI peaKll.HH: TCMllcpaTypbI (npH cymecTBelIliOH paSHHll.e 311epfHH aKTHRaUHH), COOTHOWCHHH KOHlle£lTpall.HH pcafH- PylOwHX BcmeCTB, pH cpeJJ:bI. OpH OTIiOCHTe.'IbJlO 60.1hWOH KOHll.eHT- paWiH HOIIOB ypaHa, HenTYIIH5I, IIJlYTOHHH JVIH aMcpHlimT 60JIee Re- pOHTeli npoll.ecc JJ:HcnpOnOpll.HOHHpOBaHH5I; npH MaJIOH KOlIueliTpa- rum 3THX HOHOB, HO 60JIbWOH KOlIueHTpamm pearcHTa - npoll.ecc Henocpe,J.cTBeHHoro BsaHMo.n:cl1cTBH5I. OpHCYTCTBYlOWHe BO,J.opoJJ:Hble HOHbI OKaSbIBalOT Oqellb 60JIbWOe BJIH5IHHe, YCKOp5l51 OJJ:HH peaKll.HH H saMe..'I:JI5I5I JJ:pyrHe. 0 paB.n:a, B He- KOTOpbIX CJIYtIaSIX CKOpOCTb peaKll.HH He saBHClfT OT pH cpeJJ:bI- 3TO pCaKll.H5I MeJKJJ:Y IIJIYToHHeM (IV) H nJIYTOIiHeM (V), npoHcxo- .n:51wa51 IIYTCM IIpOCToro 3JIeKTpOHHoro IIepexoJJ:a, peaKll.HSI BOCCTa- HOB.leIIH5I nJIYTOHH5I (IV), (VI) H (V) JJ:BYXBaJIeHTHblM OJIOBOM. CHJIbHO KaTaJIHSHpyeMa5I XJIOpH.lI:-HOHaMH, peaKll.H5I MeJK,iI.Y nJIYTOHH- eM (VI) H Fe 2 + H JJ:p. B 06weM cJIyqae, eCJIH npH peaKll.HH CB5ISb Me - 0 paspblBaeTCSI, TO BO.n:OpOJJ:HbIe HOUbI yCKOp5l1OT IIpOll.CCC. ECJIH TaKa51 CBSISb 06pa- syeTC5I, TO BOJJ:OpOJJ:HbIe HOHbI saMe.n:JI5IlOT ero XOJJ:. TaK, .n:HCIIponop- ll.HOHHpOBaHHC II5ITHBaJIeIITHbIX HeIITYHHSI H IIJIYTOIIHSI, peaKll.HIl Me:>K.n:y HemYHHeM (V) H HemYHlleM (III), Me:>K.n:y IIJIYTOHlieM (V) H IIJIYTOHHCM (III), BOCCTaHOB.1eHHe HemYHHSI (V) IIPH IIOMOIl(H Fe 2 + YCKOp5l1OTCSI B KHCJIOH cpe.n:e. PeaKll.H5I JJ:HcnpOnOpll.HOHHpOBa- BHSI IIJIYTOHH5I (IV), OKHCJICHHe ypaHa (IV) ll.CpHeM (IV), OKHCJle- HHe IICmYHH'H (IV) JKeJIeSOM (III), pCaKll.HH MCJKJJ:Y tIeTbIpex- H wc- CTHBaJIeHTHbIMH HOHaMH ypaHa, HenTYHH5I H nJIYToHH5I 51BJI5IlOTC5I npHMepaMH sa Me,iI.JIeli H5I npoll.ecca 1I0JJ: .n:cHcTBHeM BO.n:OpOJJ:HbIX HOIIOB. KHHeTHKa OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHblX peaKll.HH HOHOB aMepH- IiH5I HsyqeHa MeHee nOJIHO, tIeM peaKll.HH ypaHa, HeIITYHH5I H nJIYToHHSI. OTMetIaeTC5I, tITO OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIe IIOTeHll.Ha..1b1 nap. 49-
3MepHUHM (III)jaMepHII.HH (IV), aMepHl1,HH (III)jaMepHII.HH (V), aMepHLl.HH (III)jaMepHII.HH: (VI) HaCTOJIbKO BCJIHKH, IlTO ,lI,JIH nepc- BO.il.a aMepHUHH B 60JICC BbICOKHe CTeneliH OKHCJIeHHH Tpe6YIOTcH CHJlbHble OKHCJ1HTeJIH, TaKl1e KaK HOHbI S208 2 -, Xe064-, 10 4 -, CIO-, 030H, l\g20 H ,lI,p., npHIlCM pCaKUHH B pH,iJ,C CJIYIlaeB HC ,lI,OXO,lI,HT ..'1:0 nOJIIiOrO 3aBCpWCIIHH. O,lI,HaKO OKHCJIeHHC aMepHII.HH (III) ncpKceHa- "TOM HaTpHH IJpHMepHO B 12 M pacTBope CsF ,lI,OCTHraeT 85-95 % 3a 0,5-1 MHH. DOJICe nO..'l:p06HO H3Y'lClia KHlleTHKa peaKII.HH OKHCJIe- IIHH aMcpHUHH (II I) ncpcYJIbcpaT-HoHaMH. OKHCJICIiHe aMepHII.IIH (III) )1.0 aMcpHUIIH (IV) 3aMeTil0 YCKopHeTcH IJpH HarpeBaHHH H B lUeJloq- OH cpe,lI,e. .il.HcnpOIJOpUHOHHpOBaIlHe aMepHUHH (IV) B KHCJIOH: cpe.lI.c npoTeKaeT IlpC3BblIlaH:HO 6bICTpO. 110lIbl H+ YCKOPHIOT ,lI,HCnpOIJOpUHO- HHpoBallHe. I1IITCpeCllo, 'ITO Ila aHaJlOrHLJHYIO pcaKUHIO ,lI,l1cnpoIJop- IIHoHHpoBaHHH nJIYTOHHH (IV) HOHbl H+ OKa3blBalOT 3aMe,lI,JIHlOlUee ..lI.eHCTBHc. I10HbI aMepHII.HH (V) cnoc06HbI K peaKUHH ,lI,HCnponopII.HoHHpoBa- 1fHH C 06pa30BallHeM aMcpHuHH (VI) H aMcpHuHH (III), npHIlcM CKO- pOCTb aTOH: peaKUHH 3aHHMaeT Cpe,lI,Hee IJOJIOJKCIlHC MeJK,lI,Y CKOpOCTblO peaKII.HH: ,lI,HCIJpOIJOpUHOHHpOBaHI1H IJJIYTOHHH (V) H HeIJTYHHH (V). AMC- PHUHH: (V) ..'I.OBOJIbllO 6bICTpO BOCCTaHaBJ1HBaeTCH ncpeKHcblO BO,lI,O- pO,lI,a, KOTopaH MOJKeT llaKaIIJIHBaTbCH B TCXIIOJIOrHIleCKHX paCTBOpa}l BCJIe..'l.CTBHe pa.il.HOJIH3a BO,lI,bl, OC06CIlHO B TOM CJIYIlae, eCJIH HMelO1 .u.eJIO C CIIJIbHblM a-H3J1YIlaTCJIeM - H30TonOM 241 Am. 113 pCaKUHH: aMC- pHII.HH (VI) H3yqCHbI TOJIbKO ,lI,Be: BOCCTallOBJICIlHe S2082--HO!laMH H .u.eH:CTBHeM a-II3JIYIlCHHH. ITpHMe'laTeJIbHO, IlTO C nOBbIWCIlHCM TeM- ncpaTYPbl paCTBopa KOHCTaHTa CKOpOCTH, xapaKTepH3YIOlUaH peaKuHIO BOCCTaHOBJIeHHH aMepHII.HH (VI) IJepcYJIbcpaT-HOlIa'YIH, paCTeT Me,lI,JlCH- HCC, IleM KOIlCTaliTa CKOpOCTH 06paTHoro IJpouccca OKHCJIellHH HOHOB Am02+' B pe3YJIbTaTe npH onpe,lI,eJICHHOH: TeMIJCpaType, 3aBHcHw.eH OT KOHueHTpaII.HH HN0 3 , HaIJpaBJIeHHe peaKUHH H3MeHHeTCH. B pa3- 6aBJIeHHblX KHCJIOTaX no.il. ,lI,CHCTBHeM a-H3JIYIleHHH aMepHUHH: (VI) BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH ,lI,0 aMepHII.HH (V) no peaKII.HH AmO+ + e- = ArnOt. B MeXaHH3Me BOCCTaHOBJIeHHH aMepHII.HH (V) no,lI, ,lI,eH:CTBHeM a-H3- .1yqeHHH CYlUecTBeHHYIO pOJIb HrpaeT H 2 0 2 , 06pa3YIOlUaHcH B pe3YJIb- TaTe pa,lf.HOJIH3a BO.lI.bl. B paCTBope HN0 3 CKOpOCTb peaKIlHH BOC- CTaHOBJIeHHH aMepHUHH (VI) B 1,5-2 pa3a BblWC, tICM B HCI0 4 . C pOCTOM KOHucHTpaUHH HN0 3 npHMepHo ,lI,0 9 M KOHCTaHTa CKOpO- CTH YBeJIHIlHBaeTcH. B cpC,lI,e H 2 S0 4 KOIiCTallTa CKOpOCTH YMelIblllaeT- CH C nOBblweHHeM KOHII.eHTpaII.HH cepHOH KHCJIOTbI. 3TO HBJICHHe IJO- pa3HOMY HHTepIJpeTHpYCTCH pa3JIHIlHbIMH HCCJIe,lI,OBaTeJIHMH. Ha KHHeTHKY OKHCJIHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaIIOBHTe.1bHbIX peKII.HH ypaHa, HeIJTYHHH, IJJIYTOHHH H aMepHUHH BJIHHeT KOMnJICKC006pa30BaHHe C aHHOHaMH pH,lI,a KHCJIOT. CKOpOCTb peaKUHH CYlUeCTBeHHO 3aBHCHT OT npHCYTCTBHH TaKHX HOHOB, KaK C\-, Br-, N0 3 -, S04 2 -, P0 4 3- H ,lI,p. BbIwe TaKoe BJIHHHHe 6blJIO nOKa3aHO Ha npHMepe C aMepHUHeM (VI). B 06lUeM CJIyqae CBH3blBaHHe lIeKOTOpOH: ,lI,OJIH pearHpYlOlUHX HOHOB ypaHa, HeIJTYHHH H nJIYToHHH B 60JIee HJIH MeHee IJpOqHble KOMnJIeKCbI 50 
,lI,OJIJKHO Bbl3bIBaTb YMCHbWelIHC CKOpOCTH peaKUHH. 3TO 06bllili0 npo- HCXOJJ:HT B CJIY'lae KOMnJICKC006pa30BaHHH C HHTpaT-HOllaMH. O,lI,HaKO, B lIeKOTOpbIX CJIYIla5lX CYJIbcpaTHbIC H XJIOpH,lI,lIble KOMn.;JeKCbI OKa3bI- BalOTCH 60JIce peaKUHOHIlOCnoc06HbIMH, IleM IIpOCTble rII,lI,paTHpOBaH- Hble HOHbl ypaHa, HenTYIIHH H nJIYTOIIHH. IT03TOMY HCKOTOpbIe peaK- UHH, HanpHMep BOCCTaHOBJIeliHe nJIYToHHH (IV) JKCJIe30M (II) HJlH ypalioM (IV), OKHCJICHHe ypalla (IV) TaJIJIHCM (I II) HJI H lIemYHHcM (IV), 3I1a'lHTe.'lbHO YCKOPHIOTCH B npHcYTcTBHH cYJIbcpaT-HolioB. X.'IO- pH,lI,HbIC KOMnJIeKCbI nJ1YTOHHH (IV), nJIYToHHH' (VI) H OJIOBa (II) pearIIpylOT TaKJKe 3I1a I !HTCJIbHO 6blcTpec, IleM npocTblc HOHbl 3THX Me- TaJIJIOB. B HeKoTopbIX peaKUHHx H HHTpaTHble KOMnJIeKCbl OKa3blBalOT- CH 60JIee cnOC06IIblMH K OKHC.'lHTeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIM peaKuH- HM, IlC\f npocTblC HOHbI, lIanpHMep CKOpOCTb ,lI,HCnpOnOpII.HOHHpOBaHHH. ypaHa (V) npHMo npOnOpII.HOHaJIblia KOHII.eHTpaUHH IIHTpaT-HoHoB. 3.6. rHAPonH3 aKTHHOHAOB B BOAHblX cpeAax Bce nO.'lOJKHTCJIbHO 3apHJKCHHbIe HOllbI B BOJJ:HbIX pacTBopax B TOJ! HJIH HHOH: CTeneliH 06JIa,lI,a1OT cnoc06HoCTbIO K B3aHMO,lI,eH:CTBHIO H ac- COII.HaII.HH C BO.lI.OH: (rII,lI,POJIH3Y), 60JIbWaH IlaCTb 3THX HOIIOB 06JIa,lI,aeT cnoco6HocTbIO K aCCOllHauHH C .lI.PyrHMH JIHraH.lI.aMH (KoMnJIeKC006- pa30BaHHIO). CTeneHb TaKOH: aCCOUHaUHH onpeJJ:eJI5IeTCH rJIaBHblM 06- pa30M 3JIeKTpOilliOH CTPYKTypOH: (HJIH 06W.HMH XHMHIJeCKHMH CBOH:CT- BaMH) KaTHOlla. 3TOT cpaKTop OCTaeTCH nOIlTH lIeH3MCHHblM JJ:J1H Bcex aKTHIIOHJJ:HbIX 3JIeMeHTOB. Pa3JlH 1 !HH MCJKJJ:Y OT,lI,C.'lbHbIMH aKTHHOH.lI.a- MH onpe,lI,c.1HIOTCH B OCIIOBHOM 3apH.lI.OM H pa3MepaMH HOHa, T. e. 3a- BHCHT rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M OT THna HOlla. fH.il.pOOKCOKOMnJIeKCbl HOHOB aKTHHOH.lI.OB 06pa3)'IOTc5I, KaK H B ,lI,pyrHx CJIYIlaHx B3aHMo.il.cHCTBHH C BOOH:, B pe3YJIbTaTe ,lI,HCCOUHa- IIHH aKBaHOHOB aKTHHOH,lI,OB C OTlUenJIeHHeM npoToHoB. HaH60JIbWa51 CTenCHb rH.lI.paTaII.HH, rH,lI,pOJIH3a H KOMnJIeKC006pa30BaIIHH, IlaCTHbIM CJIYIlaeM KOToporo HBJIHeTCH rHpOJJH3, Ha6JJIO,lI,aeTCH Y OTIIOCHTCJIbHO IIC60JIblllHX no pa3Mcpy H BbIcoK03apHJKeHHbIX HOHOB THna Me4+. HanpHMep, Pu H rII,lI,pOJIH3yeTcH ,lI,aJKe npH KHC.'IOTIIOCTH 0,1 M C 06- pa30BaHHeM nOJIHMepH30BaHHblx HJIH KOJIJIOH,lI,UblX npO,lI,yKTOB. B ueJIOM ,lI,JI5I pa3JIHIlHblX HOHOB aKTHHOH,lI,OB Ha6JIIO,lI,aCTCH CJIC,lI,YIO- lUHH: nOpH.llOK YMeHbllIeUHH CTeneHH rII.lI.pOJIH3a HJI H KOMnJIeKC006pa- 30BaHHH: Me H >Me02 2 ->Me3+>Me02+. OTHOCHTCJIbHO CHJIbUaH TeH- JI.eHII.H5I K rH.lI.pOJIH3Y H K0'\1n..leKC006pa30BaHHIO HOHa M022+. HCCMOTpH Ha TO, qTO ero 3apH,lI, paBeH ,lI,BYM, T. e. MeHbwe, qCM Y Me 3 +, nO-BH- ,lI,HMOMY, 06'bHCHHeTCH BbICOKOH: KOHII.eHTpaUHeH nOJIOJKHTeJIbHOrO 3a- pH.il.a Y aTOMa MeTaJIJIa. MOJKHO nOKa3aTb, IlTO TeH,lI,eHII.HH K rH,lI,pOJIH3Y Y aKTHHOH,lI,HbIX 3JIeMeliTOB ,lI,JIH KaJK,lI,OrO THna HOHOB Mc 3 +, Me 4 t-, Me02+ H Me022+ ,lI,o.lJKHa nOBbllllaTbCH C YBCJIH'leHHCM aTOMHoro HOMepa 3JICMeIlTa, 1'. C. C YMcHbweHHeM pa3MepoB HOHOB, B CJIC.lI.ylOw.eM nop5I.lI.Ke: Ac<Th< <Pa<U<Np<Pu<Am. I1cCJIe,lI,OBaHHH nOKa3bIBa1OT, IlTO ,lI,aHHaH 3aKOHOMepHOCTb C06JIIO,lI,aeTCH ,lI,OBOJIbHO TO'l80. O,lI,HaKO BBH,lI,Y He3Ha- IlHTCJIbHOH pa3HHUbI B pa3Mepax HOliOB rH,lI,po.'lHTHIleCKHe CBoHcTBa 51 
.aKTHHOH}J:QR, oC06emfO HaIlHHaH C ypaHa, nOIlTH anaJIOrH'lHbl. C YBC- JlHIlCHHCM aToMHoro H01.1epa rn,lI,pOJIH3 YCHJIHBaeTCH JIHilib He3HaqH- Te.lbIlO. ITOJI,06110 MIIOr03apH,lI,HblM HOHaM ,lI,pymx MCTaJIJIOB HOlIbl ypaHa B BO,lI,HOM paCTBOpe nO.lI.BCpJKelibI rH.llpOJIH3Y. YBC.fJHIlCHHe CTenCHH J'H.u:pO.1H3a npOHCXO,lI,HT ,lI,OCTaTOIlHO OTIleTJIHBO B pH,lI,y U3+<U0 2 2+< <U4-, HeYCTOH:IIHBOCTh paCTBOpOB U3+ 3aTpyil.HHCT nx H3Y'leIlHe. O.ll- 'HaKO 6blJIO yCTaIlOBJIeHO, 1.J:TO rH.lI.pOJIHTHIlCCKOe nOBe,lI,ellHe U3+ MaJIO OTJIH'laeTCH OT rH,lI,pOJIH3a pC,lI,K03eMCJIbHbIX 3JICMenTOB. ITo oueHKe IIepRaH KOHCTallTa rH,lI,pOJIH3a (;3+ paBHa 9,2 (8 pKd. LI.aHllblx no rH,lI,- pOJIH3y U5 t- O'lCHb MaJIO, TaK KaK HCCJIC,lI,OBaIlHC rH.lI.pOJIHTH'leCKoro 1J0Be.llCIIHH 3aTpYJJ,lIcHO Y30CTblO 06JlacTH pH (OT 2 ,lI,0 4), B KOTOpOH HOR U0 2 + 60JIec HJIH MCHee YCTOH:IlHR. ITpe.il-noJlaraeTcH, IlTO KOHCTaH- Ta rHJ.pOJlH3a U0 2 + ,lI,OJIJKHa 6blTb 3HaIlHTCJIbHO MCHbwe 1.10- 3 . 113- BeCTIIO COC,lI,HHCHHe ypaHa (V) COCTaBa [U0 2 0H .xH 2 0], r,lI,C x= = 2+3. ITpe,lI,nOJIaraeTCH, IlTO :no COe.lI.HHeIlHe -n,HMep, B KOTOpOM 06a aTOMa ypaHa 3KBHBaJICIITllbl, I1ccJle!l.oBaIlHc IIpouecca r!l.u:po.'IH3a Hona UH nOKa3aJIO, IlTO Ha nCpBOH: CTa,l,HH npoIlccca 06pa3YlOTcH MOHoMep- Hble <pOpMbI no pcaKuHH U4++H20U(OH)3++H+. KOHcTaHTa paBHoBecHH .lI.JIH 3TOH: peaKUHH IIPH HOHHOH CHJIC 0,5 COCTaBJIHeT 2,9.10- 2 . TepMO.lI.HlIaMHIlecKHe .llallIlble rOHopHT 0 ropa3,lI,0 MeHbllleH: CTeneHH rH,lI,paTaUHH HOlla U (OH) 3 t- no cpaBIICIIHIO C rEk paTaUHeH HOHa U4 i-. Ha I10CJIC,lI,ylOlUHX CTa.lI.JUIX rHllpOJIH3a npH YBe- JIHllenHH pH pacTBopa nOHBJIHIOTCH BHa'laJIe Hc60JIhWHC nOJIHH,lI,ep- HbiC 06pa30Ba1lHH, naXO.il-HIlI.HCCH B paBHoBccHH C MOlloMepaMH H HOlla- MH UH, 3aTeM, nO-BH,lI,HMOMY, npOHCxO..'l:HT ,lI,aJIbHCHWaH nOJIHMepH3a- IlHH C 06pa30BaHHeM YJKe lIepaBHoBccHblX KpynHblx nOJIHMepOB, Ha- npHMcp COCTaBa U (UOOH)nn-4, r,lI,e n MO.>KCT 6blTb paBHblM 1-6. ITO,lI,p06Hee Bccro H3YIlaJIH rH,lI,pOJIH3 ypaHHJI-HOna, IlTO nOHSITHO, eCJIH YlleCTb npaKTH1JeCKOe 311aIlCHHe 3TOH: lIa H60.'1ee xapaKTepHOH: ,lI,JIH ypaHa <pOpMbI cYlll.eCTBOBallHH cro HOHOB. PacTBopbl COJIeH: ypa- HHJIa HMCIOT KHCJIYIO peaKuHIO. fH,lI,PO.1H3 B YMepeHHO KonIleHTpHpo- BaHHblX pacTBopax HallHHaeTCH YJKe C pH= 1,5. ilpH pH>4 npOHCXO- ,lI,HT Bblna,lI,eHHe B OCa,lI,OK nepacTBopHMblX IIpO,lI,YKTOB rH,lI,pOJIH3a. I1cCJIe,lI,oBaHHH IIOKa3blBaIOT, IlTO na nepBolI CTa,lI,HH rH,lI,pOJIH3a o6pa3yeTcH U0 2 0H+, a 3aTeM - nOJIHMepbl U 2 0 5 2+ H U 3 0 8 2+ no pe- aKUHHM 2UO+ + H 2 0 Z Up+ + 2H+, k = 1,1.10- 6 ; U20+ + UO+ + H 2 0  U30+ + 2H+, k = 5. 10- 9 . B npOIlccce ,lI,aJIbHeHIIlCro rH,lI,pOJIH3a no Mepc R03paCTaHH pH cpe- .lI.bI 06pa3YlOTcH U 3 0 8 0H', U 3 0 8 (OHh, U 3 0 8 (OHh, U 3 0 8 (OH)4 2 - H T. .LJ.. C KOIiCTaHTaMH, COOTBeTCTBeHHO paBHblMH 2,8.10-4; 3.10- 7 ; 4.10- 8 ; 1. 10- 11 . B pacTBopax YCTaHOBJIeHO 06pa30BaHHe JJ,BYX'bH.llep- IIblX KOMIIJIeKCOB [U0 2 (OHhUOP+ H [U0 2 (OHhUO] OH+. LI.JIH MHOrOH,lI,epllblX rH,lI,POJIH30BaHHbIX <pOpM B paCTBopax npC,lI,JIOJKCHbl <pop- MyJIbl U0 2 [ (OHhU0 2 ]n 2 + H UOdOU02)n2+. 52 
no rfl,lI,pOJIHTHIleCKOMY nOBCJJ:eIlHIO HeIITYHHH HMCCTCH 3HaIlHTCJIb- 110 MCHblUe CBeJ.CHHH. flo OUCHKC IIepBa5I KOIlCTaHTa rH,lI,pOJIlBa HOHa NpJ- pKI =7,43 (f..l=0,3, 25 DC). 3Ha4CIIHe KOHCTaHTbl rH,lI,po.TlH3a HOlfa Np4+ rrpHMcpIlO paBHO 5.10- 3 (f..l=2). ITpH KOH[eInpaUHH BO- J1.0pOJJ:HhIX HOIlOH Mellce 0,3 M B BO.u:HbIX pacTBopax rrpoTeKalOT pcaK- Ium rH.'J:pOJIH3a Np4+, conpoBoJK.u:alOIlIHccH 06pa301JaHHeM HapH.u:y C HOHlIbIMfi cpOpM3MH TaKJKe rH.il-pOJIH30BalllIblx H no.'IHMepH30BaHllbIx <:oeJ.HllcIIHH pa3JJH'lHOrO COCTaRa. 110llbI Np02+ rHJJ:pOJIH3YIOTCH npH pH> 7 C 06pa30BallHcM Ma.rlOpaCTBOpHMOH: rH!l.pOOKHCH Np020H. Ha- 4aJJO ee OCaJKJJ:eIlHH, CCTeCTBCHIIO, 3aBHCHT OT KHucIITpauHH MCTaJIJIa B pacTBope. KOHcTaliTa rH;J:pOJIH3a HOHa HCIITYIIHH Np022+ COCTaBJIHCT 2,09X X 10- 7 , rrpHIleM rrpo.u:YKTOM nCpBOlla'IaJIhllOH peaKIlHH HBJIHeTCH COCJJ:H- HeIlHe NpO (OHhNpOl+. B ,lI,aJIbIfCHIIICM nOMHMO cTyrreHIlaToro rHJJ:- po.'IH3a HOIIOH Np022+ rrpOTCKalOT rrpouccchI B3aHMO.'J:CH:CTBHH Me)KJJ:Y MOIlOMepHblMH rrpoJJ:YKTaMH rHJJ:pOJIH3a C 06pa30BalilieM JJ:HMepOB. B XHMHH nJIYTOIlHH CYIlIcCTBeIlHbl HBJICIIHH rH,lI,pOJIH3a C 06pa30- BaHHCM CJIOJKHhfX HOIIOH. ITpH 3HaQeHHHX pH<7 nJI)'TOHHH (III) 3a- MCTlloro rH}J.pOJIH3a IIC npcTepneBaeT. KOIlcTaHTa rH,lI,pOJIH3a rrpH J..L = 0,069 B XJIOpHOKHCJIOH: cpe,lI,e ,lI,JIH Pu 3 + COCTaBJIHeT 7,22 (B pKd. B CHJIbHO Il(CJIOlJHbIX pacTBopax OCaJK,lI,aeTCH rHJJ:pooKHCb Pu (OHh, npOH3Be,lI,eIlHC pacTBopHMOCTH KOTOpOH paBIIO 2.10- 20 . rH.u:pOJIH3 nJIY- TOHHH (III) orrHCblBaCTCH ypaBHcHHeM Pu3++H20Pu(OH)2++H+. Ha ncpBoH CTaJJ:HH fllJJ:pOJIH3a Pu H npoTeKacT pcaKUHH Pu'+ + H 2 0  Pu (OH)3+ + H-. HOHbT IIJIYTOHHH (IV) rH,lI,pOJIH3YIOTCH YJKe B clla60KHc.fJblX pacTBo- pax «0,3 M). 3HaIlcHHc I1epBOH: KOilCTaHTbl rH,lI,pOJIH3a, no .lI.aHHbIM pa3JIHIlI!blX aBTopoB, KOJIe6JIeTCH B npe,lI,cJIax 0,018-0,054. B YCJIOBH- HX 60JICC rJIy60Koro rH,lI,pOJIH3a rrpOHCxO,lI,HT rrOJIHMepH3aUHR IIJIYTO- IlHH (IV), IlTO COnpOBOJKJJ:aCTCH, B qaCTHOCTH, n05IB:IeIlHeM HpKO-3e- JIeHOH: OKpaCKH pacTBopa. B npocTeHweM BH,lI,e IIpouecc nOJIHMepH3a- IIHH, HMCIOIlI.HH He06paTHMblH H HepaBHoMcpHblH xapaKTcp, npC.lI.CTaB- JIHCTCH KaK nOJIHpH3aUHH ,lI,BYMH HOHaMH rrJIYTOIlHH 0,lI,I10H: MOJIeKYJIbI BOJJ:bl. 06pa30BaHHc 3BeHbeB nOJIHMepHOll uenH noCpe,lI,CTBoM KHCJIO- pO,lI,HblX MOCTHKOB 06YCJIOBJIHBaeT BblCOKYIO npO'lHOCTb IIOJIHMepHblx coe;J:HHeHHH: nJIYToHHH (IV). HatJaJIo IIOJIHMCpH3aI(HH OTMCqaeTCH npH pH = 1-;.-2, npHIlcM 06pa3YIOlUHecH nOJIHMepbI HMCIOT CJIa6bTH: nOJIO- JKIiTeJIbHbIH 3apH,lI,. O'leHh cYIuecTBeHHo, OC06CHHO B TCXHOJIOrHH 3KC- TpaKII.HOHIlbTX H cOp6UHOHHbIX IIpoueccoB, Ilro XHMHIleCKHe CBOH:CTBa IIJIYTOHHH (IV) B nOJIHMepH30BaHHoM COCTOHIlHH pC3KO OT JIHIlalOTCH OT cro CBOHCTB B HOHHOH: cpopMe. ITpH pH>8 OCHOBHOH cpOpMOH: cY- lUeCTBOBaHHH nJIYTOHHH (IV) B pacTBopax HBJIHeTCH cro rH,lI,pOKCH,lI" npOH3Be,lI,cIIHC pacTBopHMOCTH KOToporo [Pu]. [OH]4 paBHo 7.10- 56 . HOll nHTHBaJIeHTHOro IIJIYTOHHH PU02+ MaJIO CKJIOHeH K rH,lI,pOJIH- 3y. TaK, npH pH<5 npoueccOM rH,lI,pOJIH3a nJIYToHHH (V) B a30THO- KHCJIbIX cpe,lI,ax MOJKHO npeHe6petJb. ITpH pH>5 IIpoTeKaeT nepBaH -cTa,lJ.HH rH,lI,pOJIH3a C 06pa30BaHHeM PU02 (OH). DpH KOHueHTpauHH 53 
nJIYTOHHH (V) B paCTBOpe OKOJIO 2 r;JI 3Ha'leHHC pH HalIaJIa OcaJKtl.C- HHH rH,lI,pOKCH,'I.a nJIYTolIHH (V) npHMepHo paBHo 6,8. rH,lI,pOJIH3 n.'IYToHH.il-HOlla [nJI)'ToHHH (VI)] H,i.leT cTyneH'laro: PuO+ +- HzO +!= PuO z (OH)+ + H+, k = 5,10- 6 ; PuO z (OH) !- + HzO  PuO (OHh + H+, k = 2, 10-6; PuO z (OH)z + HzO  PuO (OH)t + H+, k =- 2.10- 10 . I1MelOTcH ,lI,aHllblC 0 TOM, IlTO npouecc rH,lI,pOJIH3a OC.'lOJKHHCTC5f 06pa30BaEIHeM nOJIHMepOB. BCJIH4HHa pH Bbma.a.CHHH OCa,lI,KOB rH.lI.pO- OKHCllblX COCj).HIICIIHH nJIYToHHJIa H3 a30THOKHC.lbIX pacTBopoB OTBC- 4aeT 3Ha'iemiHM 2,74 .il-JIH 0,01 M PU02(NOah H 3,5 ,lI,JIH 0,0001 M. PU02 (NOah I1Cc.1C,II,OBalll1e I H;I.po.1H3a HOHon Am 3 1-, Cm'-, Bk 3 -r H CI'- YCTa 1I03HJIO 31134('- Hlle ncpBOH KOHeTaHTbI rH.D.pO,lH3a (n pK) npH 23°C H 11=0,1 COOTBeTCTBeHIlO 5,92; 5,92; 5,62 H 5,66. .LJ.ml Fm 3 + Bbl4He,1Clla KOHCTaHTa rH.D.po.1H3a: 19 KI =-3,8 .lH ltCTblpcx3a;>H.D.Hblx HOHOB Am 4 -L, Cm 4 i, Bk 4 -, Fm 4 1- H CI41- nC,le.n.eTBI1C ,IX HeyeTOH1JHBOCTH B paeTBopax KaKHe-.H(jo eBe.D.eHHH 06 HX fH.D.PO.1HTH4eeKoM nOBe.il.C- HHH oTeYTeTBYIOT, TaK )KC KaK H A.1H nHTH- H meCTHnaJICIiTHblX HOHOB 3THX 3,lC'vIeIiTOB 3.7. KOMnneKcoo6pa30BaHHe aKTHHOHAOB rH.lI.pOJIH3 H KOMnJlCKC006pa30BallHe TCCHO CBH3allbI MeJK.lI.Y c060H:. KaK Ii npH HI3JlellHHX rH.il-pOJIH3a, OTHOCHTCJIbHaH cnoc06HoCTb K KOMn- JIeKco06pa30BaHHl0 B 3Ha4HTc.'Ih/lOH CTeneHH onpC,lI,eJIHeTCH pa3Mepa- MH H 3ap5l.lI.OM HOHOB. M/lOr03apHJI.HbIC HOHbI 06pa3YlOT B 06lUCM 60- JIee npolIHhlC KOMnJIeKCh!, 4eM 0.u:1I03apH.lI.Hble. B 3aBHCHMOCTH 01' TH- IIa KaTHOHa cnoc06HOCTb K KOMnJICKC006pa30BaHHIO C ,lI,aHHbIM aHIID- HOM }J.JIH aKTHIlOH.u:013 YMellhwacTc5I B pH.u:y Me4,>Me022 >Mc3+> >Me02 . HecMoTpH IIa I1eKOTOpbIC OTKJIOIleHHH no CIiJIe KOMnJIeKC006pa30- BaHHH C HOHaMH aKTHIIOH.il-OB, pa3JIH'l1lbIe allHOHbI MOJKIIO pacnoJIo- JKHTb B nopH}J.Kc: 0.lI.H03apH,lI,lIble CPTOPH,lI,>HHTpaT>XJIOpH,lI,>nepXJlO- paT, ,lI,BYX3apH.u:/lbIe Kap60HaT>OKCaJIaT>CYJIbcpaT. KOMIIJICKC006pa30BaHHe aKTH/lOIi,lI,OB B BOJI.HbIX CpC,lI,ax, OC06CHIIOt 06pa30BallHC OTpHUaTeJIbilO 3apHJKeHHbIX KOMn.leKCOB, HrpaeT HCKJIIO- 1.J:HTeJIbIIO BaJKIIYIO pOJIb BO MHorHX TeXHOJ10rHIlCCKHX npoucccax lIe- pepa60TKH H,lI.CpIlOrO TOTIJIHBa. Oc06eHHO 31'0 naJKHO ,lI,JIH npOUCCCOB HOIlHoro 06MCIIa H 3KCTpaKUHH opralIHIlCCKHMH paCTBOpHTeJIHMH, KO- Topble 4pe3BblIlaHII0 WHpOKO H 3cpcpeKTHBHO HCnOJIb3yIOT IIPH nepe- pa60TKe 06JIY4eHIIoro H.il-epllOrO Ton.1HBa .lI.JIH pa3,lI,eJIeHHH ypal!a, nJIYTOIIHH, HCTITYHHH H ,lI,PYrHX TpaHcypaHoBblX 3JICMeHTOB, a TaKJKe npO,lI,YKTOB 1.(CJIeHHH paClI).cnJIHIOIlIHXCH M aTcpHa.'IOB. AKTHHOHJI.Hble 3JICMeHTbl 06JIa.lI.a1OT 60JIbWOH CKJIOHHOCTblO K KOMnJIeKC006pa30BaHHIO. MHOr04HCJIeHHbIe HCCJIe.J:OBaIlHH KOMnJICK- co06pa30BaIlHH aKTHHOH.llOB B pa3JIHIlHOH: CTenCHIi OKHCJICHHH, OCO- 6eHHO nO,lI,p06110 H3YIlCli/lOrO COBCTCKHMH YIlCHblMIi, nOKa3bIBaIOT, 'ITO' 54 
BCC MOHbI 3THX 3eMeHTOB B BOHblX paCTBOpaX 06JIa,lI,a1OT crroc06- HOCTblO 06pa30BblBaTh KOMrrJICKCbl C pa3JIHIlHhlMH lIeOprallHIlCCKHMH H -opraHH4eCKHMH JIHraHaMH. TaK, HOllbl ypaHa HBJIHIOTCH ,lI,OBOJIbHO CHJIhllbIMH KOMIIJlCKC006pa30BaTCJIHMH H MOrYT }J.aBaTb KOMrrJICKCHble OC}J.HHCHHH KaK C HCOpraIiHIleCKHMM, TaK H co 1l0rHMH OpraHHQCCKH- MH JIHralln:aMH. ILJI5I ypaHa OC06ellHO XapaKTepHa KOOpHHaUHH KHC- JlOpoJJ:coepJKalUHX HOIIOB H MOJICKYJI. KoopHHauHoHHoe lJHCJIO ypa- lIa (IV) H C MellblUeA JJ:OCTOBCpHOCTbIO ypaHa (III) 06bIIlHO paBHo 8. YpaH (VI) B KOMrrJICKCllblX COCiI.HHeHH5IX BbiCTyrracT nOtJTH HCKJIIO- 4HTCJIbHO B BH,lI,e ypallHJI-HOlla U0 2 2+. KoopHHauHollHoe IlHCJIO ypa- Ha (VI) B 60JIbWHHCTBe COe,lI,HHeIlHH: TaKJKC paBHo 8, npHIle'\i ,lI,Ba MeCTa B KOOpiI.HHaUHOHHOH: cepcpe ypaHa rrp01.JIIO 3allHMalOT ,lI,Ba ypa- ,HHJIbHbIX aTOMa KHCJIOpoa. CBH3b MCJK,lI,y ypaHoM H aTOMaMH KHC- JIopO,lI,a B HOlle ypaHHJIa HBJIHeTCH npCHMYlUeCTBeHHO KOBaJIeHTHOH. CBH3b MCJK,lI,Y ypaHoM H JIHraH,lI,aMH, rrO-BH,lI,HMOMY, TaKJKe HOCHT KO- BaJIeHTHblH xapaKTep BCJIC,lI,CTBHe 0606lUCHHH C ypaHoM CB060,lI,HblX "3.'lCKTpOHHbIX nap JIHrallOB. IToKa3aHO, HanpHMep, 4TO MOJKeT 6bITb -o6pa30BaHO BoceMb 01.JeHb npOIlHblx BblTHHYTblX rH6pH,J.HblX Op6HT C Y4aCTHeM f-op6HT ypaHa. lllecTb TaKHX Op6HT pacrrOJIaralOTCH B O}J.- HOH: IIJIOCKOCTH, a ,J.Be -B rrepneH,lI,HKYJIHpHOH:. B lIaCT05llUee BpeMH H3BeCTHO orpOMHOC IlHCJlO KOMnJIeKCHbIX MOHOB ypaHa, KaK KaTHOHOB, TaK H aHHOHOB, MllorHe H3 KOTOpblX Hr- palOT BaJKHYIO pOJIb B XHMHH H TeXHO.'10rHH HcpHoro TOnJIHBa. ITpH KOOp,lI,HllaUHH aHHOHa K KaTHOIIY H3 KOOp,lI,HHaUHOIlHOH: cepe- pbl nOCJIc,lI,lIero BblTeCIIHeTCH lJaCTb MOJIeKYJI fH,lI,paTIlOH BO,lI,bI HJIH .n.PYfHX rpynn, T. e. IIpOHCXOn:iT peaKUHH 3aMelUeHHH. I1lI0r,lI,a B ac- COUHaTe KaTHOH H aHHOII MorYT 6blTb pa3,lI,eJICHbl O..'l:HHM H ,lI,aJKe ,lI,BY- MH CJIOHMH MOJIeKYJI BO,lI,bI. ITpOIlHOCTb CBH3H KaTHOlla C allHOHOM xapaKTepH3yeTcH BeJIH'lHHOH: KOHCTaHTbI KOMrrJIeKC006pa30BaHHH (KOB- CTaHTa YCTOH:lJHBOCTH KOMnJIeKca) H 3aBHCHT OT HeCKOJlbKHX epaKTopOB, cpeJJ:H KOTOpblX OCHOBHYIO pOJIb HrpalOT pa3Mepbl H 3apH.II KaTHOHa, onpe,lI,eJIHlOlUHe ero KHCJIOTHOCTb H ,lI,OHOpHblC CBOHCTBa aHHOHa. Oc- HOBHOCTb aHHOHOB MOJKHO conOCTaBHTb HCXO,lI,H H3 npOTOHoaKueIITOp- HblX CBOH:CTB. OKCaJIaT-, aueTaT-, Kap60HaT-, epocepaT-HOllbl, KOTOpblM COOTBeTCTBYIOT cpaBHHTeJIbHO nJIOXO ,lI,HCCOUHHPYlOlUHe KHCJlOTbI, HB- JIHIOTCH 60JIee CHJIbHblMH OCHOBaHHHMH H 06pa3YIOT 3HaIlHTeJIbHO 60- Jlee npoIlHble KOMnJIeKCbI C KaTHOHOM, IlCM, HarrpHMep, XJIOPH,lI,-, HHT- paT- H oc06euHo rrepXJIOpaT-HoHbI. Ll.JIH TeXHOJIOfHH 06JIYIleHHblx MaTepHaJIOB, r,lI,C npHXO,lI,HTCH HMeTb ,lI,eJIO rJIaBHblM 06pa30M C a30THOKHCJIblMH Cpe,lI,aMH, B npHcYTcTBHH «epOHOBOH:» IIpHMecH ypalla BeCbMa CYlUecTBeHHo KOMnJIeKC006pa30- BaHHe no pcaKUHH UO+ + N03":o:% U0 2 NOt. KOHCTaHTa 3TOH peaKUHH B 2 M pacTBope HOHOB BO,lI,opO,lI,a paBHa {),21. CYlUeCTBYIOT YKa3aHHH Ra ,lI,aJIbHeHWYIO aCCOUHaUHIO nOJIYlJae- MbIX HOHOB U0 2 N0 3 + B 60JIee KOHueHTpHpOBaHHblX paCTBopax, r,lI,e OKOJIO 20 % ROHOB accouHHpoBaHo B HeH:TpaJIbHble KOMnJIeKCbl 55 
U0 2 (N0 3 h B KOIlUCIlTpHpOBallHbIX paCTBOpaX HI\03 Moryr B03HIl- KaTb 11 allHOIIHble TpHIIHTpaTllble KOMnJICKChl [U0 2 (N0 3 h]-. 113Y'lcHO TaKJKC KOMnJIeKC006pa30BailHe ypaHa (IV) C pa3.'IHIl- HblMH aIlHOllaMH, O.il.llaKO HaH60JlhlUeC 4HC.'I0 HMCIOUJ.HXC5I CBC.il-CllHII OTHOCHTCH K ypaHY (VI), nocKo.'IhI\Y HMeHHO ero COe.il-HIICIIH5I HaH60- .'1ee xapaKTcpllbI ;1,.151 npOUCCCOB, I1CnOJIb3ye\1b1X 13 TCXHOJIOrHH H,J,ep- IIbIX MaTepllaJIOB, oc06eHHO Ta, r.lI.e rrpHMCII5ICTCH 3KCTpaKUHH. ITo ypallY (Ill) H ypaHY (V) nO.il-p06HbIe Hcc.'Ie,lI,OBaHHH cpaKTHIle- CKH OTCYTcnYIOT. I1ccJlcol3aHH5IMH Ka4eCTBCHHoro xapaKTcpa YCTaIiOBJIeHO, tITO lIen- TYIlIfH: (IV) 06pa3YCT YCTOH:tIHBbIC KOMn.1CKCbI C cpTOpH,J,OM, CYJIbcpa- TOM, cpoccpaTO, OKCaJIaTOM, a!.l,eTaTOM H T. n. XOTH OCHOBllaH Macca HenTYHH5I B BO,lI,IIb1X paCTBopax HaXO.il.HTCH B BH,lI,C NpH, B03MOJKHO. CYllCCT130RaIlHe, HanpHCp B CCpIlOKHC.l0H CpC;J.C, ;J,BYX KOMnJICKCOB [NpS04P+ H [Np (S04h]0. B cnCKTpax nOrJIOlUCllHH a30TIIOKHCJIbiX paCTBopOB HemYIIHH (IV) npH nOBblweHHH KOHIeIlTpauHli HN0 3 OT 1 .il-O 10 M lIa6JIIO,lI,aIOTC5I xapaKTepHble H3MeHCIIHH, CBH.lI.eTeJIbCTBYIOIIlHC 0 HB.'1CIlHHX KOMIIJleKCO- 06pa30Ba1lHH. DblJlH onpC,lI,CJlellbl KOHCTallThI KOMnJIeKC006pa30BaHHH IlHTpaTHbIx KOM nJICI\COB lIellTYIl HH (IV), H3MeIlHlOllHeCH B 3aBHCHMO- CTH 01' HOIIHOH CH.lbl pacTBopoB 01' 8 .il-O 0,5 (H3MellcliHe /l C00T13eTC1- BeHHO OT 0,03 .il-O 2,8). ITo aHaJlOrHH C XOpOJIlO H3Y'ICIIHblMH Kon.1CK- caMH nJIYToHHSI (IV) npcJJ.nOJIaraCTcH, IlTO B 1 M HN03 xapaKTep cnCKTpa nor.'101lIeHH5I 06YCJlOBJ1CH rJIaBllhlM 06pa30M HOllaMH NpN0 3 ;+ II Np (N0 3 h 2 +, B 5 M HN0 3 - HCHTpaJIbllbIM KOMnJIeKCO\t lNp()\03)4J" H B 10 M HN03- KOMIIJIeKCOM H 2 [Np(N0 3 h]. ITo CKJIOIIIIOCTH K KOMnJICKC006pa30BaHHI0 C HemYIlHeM (IV) HOHbI 0.lI.1I00CIIOBHbIX IIcoprallH'lccKHX KHCJ10T MOJKHO paCnOJIOJKHTb B pH,lI, 03->CI->CI04-' B lUaBCJIeBOKHCJIbIX paCTBopax HemYIIHH: (IV) 06pa3yeT KOMn- JIeKCHlJie HOHbI [NpC 2 0 4 P+, [Np (C 2 0 4 h] 0, [Np (C 2 0 4 hP- H [Np (C 2 0 4 ) 4)4-. HemYHHH (IV) 06pa3ycT KOMn.fJeKCbI C COl--HoHaMH B BO..'l:HblX pacTBopax, '11'0 nOCJIYJKH.10 npe,!J:MeToM nO.il-p06HOro HCCJIe.a.OBaHHH co- BeTCKHMH Y4CHbIMH. B IlaCTHOCTH, 6bIJIH onpCjI.eJlellbl KOIlCTaHTbl .lI.IIC- COUHa!.l,HH KOMIIJIeKCOB H H3MepcHbl cncKTpbl nOrJIOlUeHHH nOJIY4cH- HbIX Kap60HaTHblx pacTBopoB HemYHHH (IV). .lI.Byx3apH,lI,Hble aIlHO- IIbl no CKJIOIIIIOCTH K KOMITJICKC006pa30BaHHIO C IlCITTYHHeM (IV) MOJK- HO paCnOJIOJKIfTb B ITOCJ1e.lI.OBaTe.'IbHOCTH C0 3 2->C 2 0 4 2-> S04 2 -. 11011 ITHTHBaJIeHTHOro HcnTYIIH5I N0 2 +- 60JIblllOH HOII C O,lI,HHM 3a- pH,lI,OM, IT03TOMY OJKH,lI,aJIOCb, '1TO 011 6Y,lI,eT 06JIa,lI,aTb cpaBHHTeJIbHo. MaJIOH: CIJOC06HOCTbIO K KOMII.leKco06pa30BaHHIO C .'1106b1MH aHHOHa- MH. O.lI.llaKO 60JIee TOIIKHMH MCTO..'l:aMH HCCJIe,lI,OBaIlHH, BbInOJIHellllbI- MH B COBCTCKOM COI03e, ITOKa33110 CYIlIccTBoBaIlHe, IJpaB,lI,a, ,lI,OBOJIb- HO J1CCTOHKHX, OKCaJIaTllhlX H TapTpaTHbIX KOMIIJICKCOB HeIJTYIIH5I (V), a TaKJKC p5l,J,a KOMnJIeKCOB HCIJTYHIfH (V) C aHHOllaMH MHorOOCHOB- HblX opraHu4ecKHx KHCJIOT. .lI.JIH TeXIIOJIOrHH 06JIY4eHHbIx MaTepHaJIOB cYlUecTBeHHo HBJIeHHe KOMIJJIeKC006pa30BaHHH HelITYHHH (VI) C HHTpaT-HoHaMH B a30THO- 56 
KHCJIblX paCTBOpaX, KOTOpOe II a6JIIO.lI.aeTCH IIPH KOIlII.CHTpaII.HH HN0 3 3,5 M H BbIwe. HaH.lI.CHhI KOMIJ.TIeKCbl IICIJTYHHH (V I) C XJIOpH,lI,- H auc- TaT-HOHaMH. ITO.'IYIlCHl!hlC ,lI,alllIbIe 0 KOMIJ.'IeKC006pa30BaIIIiH Np02 2 + C aUCTaT-HOlIaMH HaXO,lI,HTCH B xopollleM COrJIaCHH C pe3YJIhTaTaMH HCCJIC;J:OBaIlHH KOMIJJICKC006pa30BaHHH HOHa ypaHa C aueTaT-HOHaMH. T aKJKe OTMC'lCli0 HeKoTopoe KOMIJ.fJeKC006pa30BaHHe HOHa Np022+ B CCpHOKHCJIblX pacTBopax H OTCYTCTBHC ero B IIepx.lopaTHbIx cpe,lI,ax. ElUe 60JIec BaJKHbI Bonpocbl KOMn.fJeKC006pa30BaHHH B XHMHH H TeXl!OJIOrHH IJJIYTOHHH, oc06ellHO B CBH3H C IIIHpOKHM HCIJO.fJb30BaHH- eM HOH006MeHl!bIX H 3KCTpaKuHOHHblX IJpOII.eCCOB. 3TO IIOCJIYJKHJIO OC- HOBaHHCM .il-JIH BCCbMa IJO.lI.P06HbIX HCCJIe.lI.OBaIlHH:. Y CTOH:IlHBOCTb KOMIIJIeKCOB, 06pa3YIOlUHxCH C ,lI,aHHblM aHHoHoM, ,!I.,lH HOHOB IJJIYTOHHH nO,lI,lfHHHeTcH 06lUCH: ,lI,JIH aKTHIIOH,lI,OB 3aKOHO- MCpllOCTH, B03pacTaH B CJIC,lI,YlOlUeM nOpH,lI,Ke: PU02+<PU3+< < PU0 2 2 +<PU4+. CIJOC06HOCTb aHHOHon K KOMnJIeKC006pa30BaHHIO C HOHaMH nJIY- TOHHH y6blBaeT B pH,lI,Y 0.lI.H03apH,lI,HbIX aHHOHOB F->N0 3 ->CI-> > CI0 4 - H ,lI,syx3apH,lI,HbIX C0 3 2->C 2 0 4 2-> S04 2 -. 4eTblpeXBaJIeHT- HblH HOH IJJIYTOHHH no cpaBHeliHIO C .u:PYfHMH HOHaMH nJIYToHHH 60- Jlee CKJIOHeH K KOMIIJICKC006pa30BaHHIO 6JIarO,lI,apH 60JIbWeMY 3apH,lI,Y Ii MClIhWCMY Pa,lI,HYCY. TaK, nJIYToHHH (IV) 06pa3yeT YCTOH:IlHBble cpTO- pllJlHble KO:\1nJIeKCbl, ILJIH pcaKUHH Pu4-!.+HFPuP++H+ onpc,lI,eJIeHa KOHCTaHTa aCCOUHaII.HH 4,25.10 3 B WHpOKOM ,lI,HaIIa30HC oTHOWeHHH: KOllucliTpauHH HF H IJJIYTOHHH (IV). IToJI:p06110 H3YIleHbI HHTpaTllble KOMIIJIeKCbl [PuN0 3 ] 3+, [Pu (N0 3 ) J2 t-, [Pu (N0 3 h]+, 06pa3YIOiliHecH B a30THOKHCJIOM pacTBo- pc IIJIYTOIIHH (IV). ITo Mepe YBCJIHIleHHH KOlIucHTpaUHH HN0 3 CTY- JICHIlaTO 06pa3YIOTcH pa3JIH'lHble KOMIJJIeKCHble COC,lI,HHeHHH OT [Pu (N0 3 ))3+ ,lI,0 [Pu (N0 3 hP-. YCTaHOBJIeHO, t!TO B aueTaTHblX pac- TBopax nJIYToHHH (IV) CYlUecTByeT B BH,lI,C aueTaTHoro al!HOHHoro KOMIIJIeKca. 110HbI IIJIYTOHHH (IV) 06pa3YIOT npoIlHbIe KOMIIJIeKCbl C cYJIbcpaT-HoHaMH, npH 3TOM Ha6JIIO,lI,aCTCH nOCJIe,lI,OBaTCJIbIlOe 06pa- 30BailHe KOMIIJIeKCOB [PuSOp+, [Pu(S04h]0 H [Pu(S04hP-. 113- BCCTHbl TaKJKe npOIlHble CYJIbcpHTHblC KOMIJJIeKChl Pu (IV). KOHcTaIlTbl YCTOH:qHBOCTH HHTpaTHbIx KOMIIJIeKCOB nJIYToHHH (IV) B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT HOHHOH: CHJIbl (= 1-8) H3MeHHIOTCH B npe,lI,eJIax ,OT 2,4 ,lI,0 10, XOTH ,lI,aHHble pa3JIHIlHbiX HCCJIe..'l:OBaTCJIeH ,lI,OBOJIbHO CHJJbHO pa3JIHIlaIOTCH, qTO, nO-BH,lI,HMoMy, 06YCJIOBJIeHO IIorpeiliHocTH- MH 3KcncpHMeHTa H pacIlcToB. B 1-4 M pacTBopax HN0 3 ,lI,OMHHH- PyeT KOMIIJICKC Pu (N0 3 ) 4, a npH 60JIbWHX KOHueHTpauHHx - aHHOH- Ilble KOMnJIeKCbl. ITpH pacTBopCHHH OKCaJIaTa nJIYToHHH B OKCaJIaTC KaJIHH 06pa- 3YIOTCH KOMIJJICKCbl C O,lI,HHM, ,lI,BYMH H TpCMH OKCaJIaT-HOHaMH: [PUC 2 0 4 P+, [PU(C 2 0 4 h]0 H [PU(C 2 0 4 hP- COOTBCTCTBeHIlO C KOH- TaHTaMH 06pa30BaHHH 8.10 3 , 965 H 25,1. CHHTc3HpoBaH H HCCJIe,lI,O- BaH pH,lI, OKCaJIaTHblX COe,lI,HHeHHH: nJIYTolIHH (IV), HaIJpHMep Na4[PU (C 2 0 4 )4<5H 2 0, (NH4h[Pu (C 2 0 4 )s. nH 2 0 H ,lI,p. PacTBopH- MOCTb t!HCToro OKCaJIaTa IIJIYTOHHH (IV) B BO.il-e OKOJIO 20 Mr!JI. 0,lI,- .HaKO npK H36bITKe OCa)IHTeJIH - OKCaJIaTa aMMOHHH, KaJIHH HJIH HaT- 57 
pHS! B pe3YJIbTaTe KOMTIJIeKC006pa30BalIHH npOHCXO,lI,IIT nOCTeTICIIHOe paCTBopeHHC oca,'!:Ka, H paCTBopIIMOCTb ero ,J.OCTHraeT YJKe lIeCKOJIb- KHX ,lI,eCHTKOB rpaMMOBlIa JIHTp. Bbl.u:eJIeliO HeCKOJlbKO Kap60llaTHblX KOMTIJIeKCHblX COe.lI.HI!eHHH: nJIYToHHH (IV), CMcwaHHhlX Kap60IlaTHO-OKCaJIaTllhlX, aMMoHHHIIO- Kap60llaTHbIx, nCpOKCHJl.llbIX H cpoccpaTllblX KOM!I.'ICKCllbIX coe.u:HHC- UHH TIJIYTOIIHH (IV). 11 HTepcc K H3YliCHHIO KOMTIJIeKCllhIX COC.llIIIIC- I!HH: TIJIYTOIIHH (IV), TIpOHBJIelillblH Y4CHhlMH pa311bIx CTpall, Bbl313aH TCM, IlTO B IIpOH3BO,lI,CTRClillblX pacTBopax TIPH nepepa60TKe 06.1Y- tICHHOrO 51.lI.CpIiOrO TOTIJIHBa ,lI,OMHHHPYlOlUHM BaJIellTllblM COCTOHHHCM TIJIYTOHHH HBJIHeTCH KaK pa3 lIeTblpeXBaJICIITlioe. II.JIH TIJIYTOI!HH (VI) CHJIbHOe KOMnJICKC006pa30BallHe Ha6.11O.u:aeT- CH B a30THoKHC.'IOH:, lUaBCJICBOKHCJIOH: H oc06ellll0 Kap60HaTiIOH cpe- ,lI,ax. B IlaCTHOCTH, BbI,lI,C.'ICIiO H H,lI,eHTHcpHII.HpOBalio COe.il-HHCHHe- HpKO-3eJIeHoro UBeTa (NH 4 h [PU02 (C0 3 )a], aHaJIOrHIlHoe- (NH 4 )4[U0 2 (C0 3 )a] - KpHCTaJIJIaM JIHMOIIIIO-JKeJITOrO UBCTa. B a30TIIOKHCJIbIX pacTBopax H,lI,CHTHcpHIlHpoBaHbl KOMTIJIeKCbI THTIa Pu02(N0 3 )n 2 -n, r.il-e n= 1 +3. 06pa30BaHHe KOMIIJIeKCa Pu02(N0 3 h- Ha6JIIO,lI,aeTCH TIpCHMYlUCCTRCI!HO n KOHuCHTpHpOBal!blX a30THOKHC.1bIX pacTBopax (14,6M). BbI411CJIeHa KOHCTalITa YCTOHIlHBOCTH HHTpaTHOro- KOMTIJICKCa, 06pa3YIOllierocH TIO peaKUHH Pu02(N03h+HN03 HPU02(N03h, OKa3aBwaHCH paBiIOH: 4::!:: 1. HaH,lI,CHO, tITO TIPH cop6- UHH Ha aHHOHHTax H IIPH 3KcTpaKuHH B HCKOTOpbIC opraHHl!CCKHC pac- TBOpHTeJIH PU022+ 3KcTparHpyeTcH IIO aHHoHo06MCIIIIOMY McxallH3MY B BH.llC ,lI,HlIHTpaTlloro H TpHiHlTpaTIiOro KOMTIJICKCOB. B IlaCTHOCTH. KOMTIJICKC PU02 (N 03)a- HBJIHeTCH cpOpMOH, 3KcTpa mpycMOH: B l/CT- BepTH411hIe aMOIIHCBhlC OCHOBaHHH. ITpH HCCJIeJl.OBaHHH KOMTIJICKC006pa30saHHH PU02 2 + I10Ka3aIl0, 41'0'- TIPH KOlIueliTpaUHHx HN0 3 .il-O 4 M 06pa3YIOTc5I KOMTIJICKCbI C 01l.HOH H ,lI,ByMH !lHTpaTlIblMH rpYIITIaMH, a TaKJKC Pu020HN0 3 . ITpH 60JIee' BblCOKHX KOHucHTpauHHx HN0 3 06pa3yeTcH KOMnJIeKC Pu02(N0 3 h-, TIO-BH.lI.HMOMY IIO peaKuHH [PuOdN0 3 )2' (H 2 0)4] +N03- [Pu02(N03)a. (H 2 0):J]-+H 2 0. KOMTIJIeKC006pa30Bail HC TpaHCnJIYToHHCBbIX 3JIeMeHTOB B BO;l.HbIX, pacTBopax C alIHOHaMH KHCJ10T, B TOM tIHCJIe TaKHX, KaK JIHMOHHaH.. COJIHHaH, MOJIOIlHaH, pO,lI,aII HCTOBO,lI,OpO,lI,HaH, a TaKJKe a30TlIaH, cepliaH. XJIOpllaH, HrpaeT BeCbMa BaJKHYIO pOJIb .lI.JIH BbI60pa HaHJIYIllllHX YC- JIOBHH: IIOHo06MeHHoro pa3,lI,CJIeIlHH H Bbl.llCJICIIHH 3THX 3JIeMeIITOB. YCTaHORJIeHa B03MOJKHOCTh 06pa30BaHHH p5Ijla KOMTIJICKCOB aMe- PHUHH C CepHOH:, a30THOH, COJIHIIOH: H XJIOpliOH KHCJIOTaMH. AHHOHbI HeoprallH4eCKHX KHCJIOT IIO HX CTIOC06HOCTH K KOMTIJICKC006pa30Ba- HIIIO C aMepHuHcM (III) MOJKIIO paCTIOJIOJKHTb B pH,lI, S04 2 ->N0 3 -> >CI->CI0 3 -. B IJaCTHOCTH, B a30THOKHCJIOH cpc,lI,e aMepHUHH: (III), 6Y,lI,YIlH allaJIoroM TIJIYTOHHH (III), TaKJKe 06pa3ycT, TIO-BH,lI,HMOMY, KOMTIJIeKCbI C COOTHOWCIiHeM aMcpHuHH: JIHrall,lI" paBH'bIM 1: 1, 1: 2. 1 : 3. Hc HCKJIIOIlClla BCpOHTIiOCTh 06pa30BaHHH oTpHuaTc.rlbliO 3ap5l- JKeHHbIX KOMTIJICKCOB a MepHUIIH (II I) B KOlinellTpHpoBaHHoH H [\;0 3 . PO,lI,aHH,lI,Hble, cpTOpH,lI,l!blC H XJIOPH.u:HbIC KOMTIJIeKCbI aMCpHlIH5I (III) 60JIee TIpOtIHbI, IleM aHa.'10rHIlHble KOMIIJICKCbI eRpOTIHH, HBJIHlOlIiCrOCR 58 
JIaHTaIlOH,lI,HbIM allaJIOrOM aMepHUHH, HC.YCTaIlOBJICIIbI Kap60HaTilbIe J! aUCTaTHbIe KOMnJICKCbI aMcpHUHH (III), 110 lIaH.J:eHO. 41'0 IIPH 3Ha- 4eHH5IX pH>3 aMepHUHH: (III) nOIlTH nOJIHOCTblO I1aXO.lI.HTCH B cpOpMe KOMnJIeKCllhlX HOHOB B CJIYIlae IlIaBCJIeBOKHCJIbIX paCTBOpOB. B 3THX YC.'IOBHHX 06pa3YIOTCH KOMII.1CKChl [Am(C 2 0 4 h]-, [Am(HC 2 0 4 h]0 H [Am (HC 2 0 4 h]-, .lI.aHHblc 0 KOMn.'1CKC006pa30BaHHH aMepHuHH (V) C aHHOHaMH KaKHX-JIH60 KHC.10T B BO,lI,HblX pacTBopax nOIlTH nOJIHOCTblO OTCYTCT- nYIOT. I1MelOTcH JIHlllb YKa3allHH KaIleCTBeHHoro xapaKTepa 0 CHJIb- 110M KOMnJICKC006pa30BaHHH aMcpHUHH (V) B COJIHIIOKHCJIOH: cpe,lI,e. I1MelOTcH CBC.a:CHHH H 0 KOMIIJIeKC006pa30BallHH aMepHuHH (IV) c cy.HbcpaTllhIMH, HHTpaTHblMH H cpTOpH,lI,IIb1MH HOHaMH, IlTO, B IlaCTHO- CTH, npOHRJIHCTCH B oKpacKc paCTBopoB, OTJIHIlllblX OT CBeTJIO-JKeJITOH oKpacKH pacTBopa aMepHlHH (VI) B HCI0 4 , r,lI,e KOMnJIeKC006pa30- BaHHC OTCYTcTByeT. OTMeIlcHo KOMIIJIeKCOo6pa30BaHHe aMepHUHH (VI) B Kap60HaTHbIx paCTBopax, a TaKJKe H,lI,eHTHcpHILHpoBaHo COe,lI,HlIeHHe aMCpHlHJITpHaueTaT HaTpIIH NaAm02(CH3COOh, aHaJIOrHIlHOe co- 'OTBCTCTBYlOlUIIM COe.il-HlleHHHM ypalla, lIenTYHHH H IIJIYTOIIHH. I1MelOTeH .D.aHHDle 0 KO\1:l.ICKco06pa30BaHHH KIOpH!I B COJI!lHOKHeJILIX H 3TH.1eH- ;Wa\IHHTeTpaal.{CTaTHbiX paemopax. 113BJIC4CHHC HHTpaTHbIX Kon.'1eKeOB KlOpHH (III) Jle)KHT B oeHOBC MeTO.D.a 3KeTpaKItHOIIHoro H3B.'1e4eHHH ero e JlOMOlL(blO TpH6y- TH,lcpoecpaTa (TB<1» H3 10-16 M pacTBopa HI\03. KlOpHH o6pa3yeT up04Hble KOMU- .1eKCbI e aTIHOllaH BHIIHOH, MO,10'lHOH H .D.P)TIIX nO.D.06HblX KHeJIOT. B KOHneHTpHpO' uaHlIDlX Kap60HaTHbiX paeTBopax KIOpHH 1l0J!06110 aepHlJ,HIO oupa3yeT XOpOllIO paclBopwvrbIH KapOOl!aTHblH KOMII.'reKe. '1TO MO)KHO HeUO,lb30BaTb )1JI!I BbI)1eJIeHHH KlOpHH B 4HeTO" Blllle Do eKJlOHHOeTH K KO"IIJICKCOOUpa30BaHHlo e KlOpHeM (III) 11 aICpHl.{HCM (III) aHHOHLI KHe.10T paello.1aralOTeH B TO )Ke 1I0pH,llKe, KaK H .D.JIH 1I.1YTOHHH (III). B OTHOllIeHHH 6CpKJIHH yeTaliOBJIeIIO 06pa30BalIHe H" UOJICC np04HblX XJIOpH.!!- HbiX KOMnJICKeOB no cpaBHeHHIO e pC)1K03eMe.'1bHblMH 3.10lellTaMH. KOMn,1eKeooupa- 30BaHHe 6epK,1HH (III) e l.{HpaT-, a-oKcHH306YTHpaT-, P0.llaHH.D.- H TeHoH.1TpHcpTOp- al.{CTOHaT-HOHa1II I!CnOJIb3YlOT .D.JlH ero H3BJIe'lCIIHH. I<aJIH<j>opHHH no eBOHM KOnJIeKe006pa3YK)ll.{H" cBoHeTBaM, nO-B1I)1HMOMY, aHa- JlOrH4eH OeTaJIbHblM TpaHeypalioBbiM 3JIeMeHTaM 3TO )Ke MO)KIIO eKa3aTb H OTHoeH- TeJIblIO 3HHllITCHIIHH, cpepMHH H Mell.D.eJTeBHH. OCHoBllbie CBC;J:eIIHH 0 HBJIeHHHX KOMII- JlcKco06pa30BaHHH 3THX H HCKOTOpblX )1PYrHX TpallcypaHoBDlx 3J1eMeHTOB nOJIY4eHbI npH HeeJIen:OBaIlHI! npOl.{eeeOB HOHo06MeliHoH COPUl.{HH H 3JIIOHpOBaHHH 3TH X 3JIeMeH- TOB B HH)1HKaToplIbiX KO.1H4eeTBax e nOMOlL(blO pa3JIH4HblX paeTBopOB, r JlABA 4 XAPAKTEPHCTHKA SlAEPHOrO TOnnHBA 4.1. OCHOBbi npOH3BOACTBa J1IAepHOH 3HeprHH B OCIlOBe npOH3BO,lI,CTBa H.lI.CpHOi1 3HcprHH JIeJKHT pcaKuHH ,lI,eJIe- IIHH H.LI.ep TaK lIa3blBaCMblX ,lI,CJIHlUHXCH HJIH paCilienJIHlOlUHXCH Ma- TepHaJIOB (H;J.epHoc TOnJIHBo) no,lI, ,lI,eHCTBHeM IICHTpOHOB A + n - X + y + (2 - 3) n + Q, 59 
r,lI,C A - aTOM ,lI,eJIHlUCrOCH MaTCpHaJIa, HaIIpHMep 235U HJIH 239PU; X H: !J - rrpO.il-yKTbI ,lI,eJIeIlHH; n - HellTpOIl; Q - Bbl,lI,CJIHlOluaHCH 311CprHH. K ,'J.eJI5rIllHMCH MaTepHaJIaM OTHOCHT H30TorrbI ypaHa (235U, 233U), a TaKJKe rrJIYTOHHH (2'\!!Pu, 241 Pu), ..'I:CJIHlUHeCH rrpH 3aXBaTC TCrrJIOBbIX HeH:TpOIiOB. }f3 3THX 'lCTbIpex H30TonOB TO.lbKO 215U BC rpCllaCTCH B rrpHpO}le. TpH JlpyrHx nOJIY'lalOT HCKYCCTBCHllhI\1 nYTC B H,lI,CpllbIX peaKTopax 06JIY4ClIHCM rrpHpOJworo ypaHa HJIH TOpHH IICHTpOlla \1 fI, 06pa3YIOWH\1HCH B H36bITKe IIO IIpIlBC.lleIlIlOH BhlWC H.u:epHOH pcaKIUIIf B IIpOI!eCCe ,lI,C.1CHHH H,lI,ep 235U. OpH 3TOM cO,J,cpJKaIUHHCH B npHpoJ.- 110M ypaHe THJKCJIbIH H30Ton 238U 'laCTH'lHO rrCpeXO,lI,HT B 239pU rre} pcaKlIHH 2R8 U L I 39 U -= 2'9 Np -= 239 pV 92 -, on -+ 91 93 94. AllaJIOrH'lIlO JlJIH TOpHH -II -II 232 Th 1 1 211 Th _..... n3 p _..... 233 U 90 -, on -+ 90 91 a 92 . IT03TOMY H30Ton 2J5U Ha3hlUalOT rrcpBH4HblM H.lI.epllbI TOII.1HnOM, a 239PU, 241PU H 238U - BTOpH'lHbIM. B OTJIH'lIiC 01 .u:CJI5IIIlHXCH IIYKJIHJI.OB 215C, 239pU H 233U pa,lI,HOIl)'K- JIH,lI,bJ 235U H 232Th CJlyJKaT JIHWb MaTcpHlICKHM BcmeCTBOM ,lI,JIH no- JIy'leIlHH 1I0BbIX ,lI,eJI5IIUHXC5I MaTCpHaJIOB (3TO TaK Ha3blBaCMbIe <pcp- THJIbHble BCIII.CCTBa, OT CJIOBa fertilis - TTJ10.u:OPO.u:HblH). 06e npllBClI.eHllhIe BhIwe HJI.CpllblC pcaKuHH OCYlllCCTBJIHIOTCH B KpyrrHoM rrpOMbIWJIeIlIlO MaCWTa6e B H,lI,CpllbIX pcaKTopax - yCT- pOHcTBax, B KOTOphiX npH orrpc..'1.c.leHllblx K01ITpOJIHpyeVlbIx YCJIOBHHX IIpOBO.u:HTCH CaMOrrO,lI,,lI,CpJKHBaIOIUaHcH peaKUH5I ,lI,eJIeHHH. B IIaCTOHlUec BpeMH IIpaKTH'lCCKH BO Bcex cTpaHax MHpa, IIpO- H3BO,lI,HlUHX H,lI,epllYIO 3HeprHIO, ,lI,JIH ee IIOJIY'lCIIHH Hcrro.lb3YIOT H,lCp- 1I0e TOrrJIHBO Ha OCHOBC ypaHa. ITpHMcHellHC TOpHH ,lI,JIH OCYlUeCTB- JICHHH H,lI,CpIiOH peaKllHH nOJIY'lellHH 233U BeCbMa OrpaHH'lCHO. O,lI,HaKO B 6Y,lI,YlUCM rrOCJIe HC'leprraHHH OTHOCHTeJIbHO ,lI,eWCBbIX npHpO,lI,HblX pecypcoB ypalIa HCIIOJIb30BaJIHC TOpHH, nO-BH,lI,HMOMy, CTa- HeT IlepcnCKTHBHbIM. KaK YJKe YKa3bIBaJIOCb, HeHTpOHbI, lIe06XO,lI,HMbJe ,lI,JIH HallaJIa uen- IIOH CaMOrrO,ll,,lI,epJKHBaIOWeHCH peaKUHH .il-CJICIIHH, 06pa3YlOTCH caMO- npOH3BOJIbHO (crrOIiTaIlHO) IIPH :'jeJIeHHH ypall a, IIOC1UCHHoro B IIC- 06XO.lI.HMOM KOJIH'leCTBe B pa604YlO 30llY 5I:'jcplloro peaKTopa. }f30TOII 235U ,lI,CJIHTCH rrpH 3a XBaTe KaK TcnJ10BhIX, TaK H 6bICTpblX IICH:TpOHOB. 238U ,lI,eJIHTCH TOJIhKO rro.u: B03,lI,dfcTBHeM 6b1CTpblX HeHT- pOHOB C 3HepmCH lie MCHec 1,1 M3B. OAllaKo, B3aHMO,lI,eilcTBYH C Ten- JIOBblMH IIcHTpoHaMH H IIor.lowaH HX, 238U npeBpalUacTcH B 239PU, KO- TOpblH IIO cnOHM H,lI,CpHblM CBoHcTBaM nO,lI,06ell 235U H MOJKeT ,'jC.rIllTh- CH KaK Ha TenJIOBblX, TaR H Ha 6b1CTpblX HdiTpollax. 3TH cnOHcTB3 H,lI,epHOrO TOnJIHBa 06YCJIOBHJIH npHMeHeHHe B H,J,CpIlOII TeXHHKC J.BYX OCIIOBHblX THIIOB H,lI,epHblX peaKTopOB: Ha TenJIOBblX II 6DfCTpblX HeHT- pOHax. 60 
ITOCKOJIhKY BepOHTHOCTb ,lI,eJIeHHH 235U Ha ObICTpbIX Ht'HTpOHaX B COTHH pa3 CHbWC BepOHTlIOCTH .lI.CJICHIHI cro lIa TCnJIOBbIX, B 60.1b- IlIHIICTBe paCnpOCTpaHClIllblX B lIaCTOHIlIee BpCMH npOMbIW:ICEilbIX H,lI,CpHbIX peaKTOpOR HCnOJIb3YlOTCH Ten.'IOBbIe I1CHTpOHbl, 'ITO ..'I:OCTH- raCTCH ,lI,06aBJICIlHCM B aKTHBHYIO 30HY pCaKTOpa OnpC,lI,CJICHHbIX BC- lUCCTB-3aMe.'l.JIHTeJICH, 06JIaJl.alOlIiHX MaJIbIMH aTOMHOH MaCCO" H ce- 'leHHCM 3aXBaTa IICH:TpOIiOB. B Ka'lCCTBe TaKHX 33\le,lI,JIHTeJIeH: IfC- nOJIh3YJOT, HanpHMep, rpacpHT, THJKCJIYIO BO.lI.Y, OKHCh 6epHJIJIHH, a TaKJKC 06bI'lIlYIO BO,1y, KOTopaH B COBpCMellllblX peaKTopax 0,lI,1l0BpC- MCHHO BbllJOJIHHeT pOJIb If TCIl.'lOHOClfTeJIH, OTBO,lI,HWCro Ten.rIO 1f3 aK- THBIIO" 30HbI peaKTopa. Ha npHpO,lI,HOM ypalle, a TaKJKC 113 ypaHe C HeBblCOKOH: CTcnCHblO 060rallielIHH JICrKHM H30TonOM 235U pcaKTOp 6C3 3aMe,lI,JIHTeJIH Bo06- IlIe He MOJKCT pa60TaTb, TaK KaK OCIIOBllaH Macca Bbl..'l:eJIHIOUlHXCH lIeihpOIiOB TpaTHJlaCb 6b1 na nOrJIOlUCHHe JJX 2380. PcaKTopbl na Tcn- JIOBblX HeHTpOlIax C 3aMC,lI,.1JHTeJICM - 3TO O,lI,HH THn COBpeMe/!lIbIX HlI.ep/!bIX pcaKTopOB. .II.PyrHM IIcpcneKTHRHbIM nmo HBJIHIOTCH pe- aKTopbI Ha 6bICTpblX HCH:TpOHax. I1MelIllo OHH 6JIarO,lI,apH CBOHM or- pOMHbIM nOTellUHaJIbllbIM npcHMYlUecTBaM npCII.CTaBJIHIOT reHCpaJIh- nylO JIHHHIO pa3BHTHH 60JIbllIOH: H,lI,CpIlOH: 3HcprcTHKH COBeTcKoro COIO- 3a. B peaKTopax Ha 6bICTpbIX HeHTpOliax 3aMC.il-JIHTeJIb OTCYTcTByeT If H.u:epHbIc pcaKUHH OCYlUeCTBJIHIOTCH no,lI, B03l1.eHCTBHcM IIcnocpe;rCT- BCHliO 6blCTpblX HciiTpOHOB. Ho C nOBblweHHeM CKOpOCTH HeH:TpOHOB, CCTccTBe/!Ho, paCTcT H HX nOTcpH BCJIe,lI,CTBHe YTe'lKH B oKpYJKalOlUee npoCTpallcTBo. l.J:TOObl KOMneliCHpOBaTb 3TH nOTcpH /!CiiTpOHOB, B pe- aKTopax lIa 6bICTpblX lIe"TpOH3X npHXO.lI.HTCH npHMCIIHTb BhICOKo060- ralUeHHoe H,lI,epliOe TOnJIHBO: 239pU HJIH ypall C BbICOil.OH CTeneHblO 060ralUeHHH no JIerKoMy H30Tony - 235U. 4.2. Aeptlble peaKTopbl B npOMbJWJIeHHO pa3BHTblx cTpaHax (CCCP, ClIlA, Be.'IHK06pHTa- HHH, <PpaHUHH, <PPf, KaHa,lI,e, 51noHHH H ,lI,p.) pa3pa6aTbiBalOTcK H,lI,epHble pcaKTopbl, pa3JIHIlalOWHecH no lIeJIeBoMy lIa3I1a'lCHHIO, BH- ,lI,3M npHMeHHeMoro H,lI,CpHOrO TOnJIHBa, 3aMC,lI,JIHTeJlCH: H TeIIJIOHOCH- TeJICH, no THny H KOHCTPYKUHH TB3JIOB, xapaKTepy pacI10JIOJKeIlH5I TOnJIHBa, 3aMe,lI,JlHTe.leH H T. n. P accMoTpHM OCHOBHbIe H HaH60JIee nepcneKTHBllbIC THIIbJ 51,lI,epHbIX pcaKTopoB, y,lI,eJlHB rJIaBHOe BIIHMaHHe OTe'leCTBeHHbJM H,lI,epHO-3I1Cp- reTH'lCCKHM YCTaHoBKaM (5I3Y), nOCKOJIbKy Hawa cTpaiia IIaXO,lI,HTCH B aBaHrap,lI,e HaY'lHO-TeXHH'leCKOrO IIporpecca B 06JIaCTH aTOMIlOH 3HeprcTHKH. CnpoeKTHpoBaB, nocTpoHB H nycTHB B 3KCnJIyaTaUHIO B pCKOp,lI,HO KOpOTKHH: CpOK ITepBYIO B MHpe aTOMHYIO,3J1eKTpocTanUHIO B r. 06mmcKe, COBeTcKHH COlO3 OTKpblJI 3noxy CTaHOBJIelIHH H,lI,epHOH 311epreTHKH B MacwTa6ax HaweH nJIaHeTbf. K nacTOHllI.eMy BpeMeHH B CCCP nocTpoeHbI H ycnewHo 3KCIIJIyaTHpYlOTCH KpynHbJe aTOMIIble 3JIeKTpOCTaHUHH (A3C), n03BOJIHIOlUHC y,lI,OBJleTBopHTb pacTYIUHe.- 3HepreTH'leCKHe nOTpe6110cTH BaJKHCHWHX npOMbllIIJIeHHbIX paHolloB; cTpaHbI. 6L 
5bcpliaH 3HCprCTHKa CCCP pa3RHBaeTC5I OrrCpeJKalOlUHMH TCrra- M!I rro cpaBlleHlilO C 311epreTHKOH B ueJIOM. CTpOHTCJIbCTBO A3C OCY- lUCCTBJIHeTCH B OCHO.BIIO\1 B cBporrcifcKoH 'laCT![ CCCP, OTIIOCHTCJJbIIO 6c.u:1I0H: OpraHH'lCCKH TOIIJIHBOM H nO'lTH rrOJIIIOCTblO HCrrOJIb3YIOWCH PCCypCbI rH,lI,p03HcprHH. B rrcpcrrCKTHBe rr.laHHpyeTcH ,lI,aJIbHeH:IlIeC lIapaWHBaHHe TeMilOB CTpOHTCJIhCTBa A3C B 3TOM perHOilC. B HaCTOH- lUee BpeMH 5I.lI.epHaH 311epreTHKa CCCP 6a3!IpycTC5I IIa ,lI,BYX T!max IIaH60JIce oTpa60TaHHbIX H npOBepeIlllbIX Ha IIpaKTHKe peaKTopOB Ha 1'enJIOBbIX lieH:TpOHax: BO.lI.O-BO,lI,HHbIX KoprrYCHblX H ypaH-rpaqmToBblX KaHaJIbHbIX. XapaKTepHOH: 'lCpTOH: pa3BHTHH peaKTopOB TOro H JI.pyro- ro THrra HB.'lHCTCH HeYKJIOHHOe rrOBhIWCIIHe C.il.HIIHLfIlOH MOWHOCTH 3IIepr06JIOKOB. BMeCTe C TeM OCYlUeCTBJI5IeTCH rrporpaMMa CTpOHTCJIb- CTBa H OCBoellHH pcaKTopOR Ha 6bICTpbIX HCHTpOHax. BO.lI.O-BO,lI,HHblC 3HepreTHtIeCKHe pcaKTopbl (BB3P) JI.eH:CTUYIOT Ha HOBOBOpOHeJKCKOM, KOJIbCKOH, ApMHHCKOH: A3C H coopYJKalOTCH Ha BHOBb CTPOHWHXCH KaJIHIIHlICKOH, IOJKllo-YKpaHHCKOH:, POBCIICKOH, 3ana,lI,Ho-YKpaHllcKOH A3C. K llaCTOHlUCMY npCMCHH BB3P HBJIHIOT- CH OCBOCHIIbIMH peaKTopaMH, OTJIH'lalOlUHMHC5I KonaKTIIOCTblO, ,lI,OCTa- T04110 BbICOKOH 31leprOnarrpHJKCIIIIOCTblO, He60.1hWHM KOJIH'lCCTBOM KOHCTPYKHHOllIrbIX MaTepHa.l0B B aKTHBIIOH: 30HC, IIa.u:eJKIIOCTblO H -6c30rracHOCTblO B 3KCnJIyaTamm. .II.PYrHM THIJOM pcaKTopOB, WHpOKO fJpHMeIlHCMbl\f B CCCP, HU.1HIOTCH ypaH-rpaqmToBhIe KaHaJIbHblC pC- 2KTOpbl (PK), HCrrOJIb3YCMbTe !fa pH.lI.C COBeTCKHX A3C: !fa ITCpBOH: B MHpe l\3C, CH6HpCKOH H DCJIOHpCKOii A3C HM. 11. B. KYP4aTOBa. 3KCnJIyaTHPYIOTCH 'lCThipC 6JIOKa TaKHX peaKTopOB Ha £HJIH6HHCKOH: A3C. ITpe.lI.CTaBHTc.leM ypaII-rpacpHTOBblX KanaJIbHblX peaKTopOB HB- JIHeTCH peaKTOp 60JIbWOH MOIlHOCTH PBMK-IOOO. 4eThIpe 3Hepr06JIo- Ka C PBMK-IOOO 3KCIIJIyaTHpYlOTCH Ha JIeIlHlIrpa.il.CKOH A3C HM. B. 11. JIeHHHa. ITYWellbI nepBbIe 3Hepr06JIOKH C peaKTopaMH PBMK- 1000 Ha KypCKOH H 4Cpll06hIJIbCKOH l\3C. Ha 3THX A3C CTpOHTCH JIe,lI,YlOlUHC 3HCpro6JIOKH C peaKTopaMH PBMK C TaKHM paC'leTOM, IlT06b1 06waH 3JICKTpH4CCKaH MOlUHOCTb 3THX A3C ,lI,OCTHrJIa 4000 MBT KaJK,lI,aH, B03BO,J.HTCH TaKJKe .lI.Ra 3Hepr06JIOKa C PBMK-IOOO Ha Co- .:lCHCKOH: A3C. CTpOHTCH I1rHaJIHHCKaH A3C (JIHToBcKaH CCP) C .1RYMH 6JIOKaMH nepBoH OIlCpC.'l.H C peaKTOpaMH PBMK-1500. lJ.aJIb- lIeHwee pa3BHTHe ypaH-rpacpHToBbIX peaKTopoB KaIIa.'IbHOrO THrra npe- :IycMaTpHBaeT C03,lI,aHHe arperaToB ewe 60,TlhTlleH 3JIeKTpH'leCKOH: MOIlI.- HOCTH (2000-2400 MBT). KOHe'lIlOH: neJIblO npOrpa\1MbI pa60T rro pcaKTopaM lia 6blCTpbIX HCHTpoHax (PBH) B CCCP HB.'IHeTCH C03,lI,aIlHe lIa,lI,eJKHbIX H KOHKy- pCHTocnoc0611bIX 3HcprcTHIleCKI1X pcaKTopoB, KOTopbIe cMorYT B 6y- .il-yweM nMeCTe C peaKTopaMH Ila TCrrJIOBbIX HeiiTponax 06CCrrC'lHTb HaH60JIcc paUHOHaJIbllOC HCrrOJIb30BailHe PCCypCOB H,lI,epilOrO CbIpbH, a TaKJKe II yJK,lI, bI pa3BHBalOlUeIlcH H,lI,epHOH: 3IlcpreTHKH CTpallbI. O,lI,HOBpeMeliHo paCWHp5IeTC5I KoonCpaUH5I co CTpallaMH COIlHaJIH- CTH'leCKoro cO,lI,pY2KeCTBa, BXO.il-HIUHMH B C3B, a niKJKe ,lI,PYrHMH cTp.aHaMH (HanpHMep, C <PHHJIHH,lI,HCH:), KOTOpbIM COBCTCKHH: COlO3 nOMoraCT B cTpOHTeJIbCTBe H OCBOCHHH A3C, rrOCTaBJIHH .lI.JIH HHX, B qaCTlIOCTH, CepHH:llbIe peaKTopbI CpC,lI,HeH: MOlUHOCTH (BB3P-440). 62 
4epe3 2 ro,lI,a nOCJIC nycKa ITCpBOH B MHpC l\3C Ha'IaJIOCb CTPOH- TeJIbCTBO ncpBoro B MHpC aTOMlloro JIC.il-OKOJIa «JICHHH» - cpJIarMalla' COBeTCKoro apKTH'IeCKOrO cpJIOTa. B HaCTOHwee UpCMH 3KCIIJIyaTHpy- IOTCH MOIUllblC aTOOXO,lI,bI «ApKTHKa» (<<JI. BpeJKHeB») H «CH6Hpb». B ro.il- 60-JICTHH BCJIHKOrO OKTH6pH «l\pKTHKa» COBepruHJIa rcpOH4C- CKHH nepexo.lJ, npCO.lI.OJIeB JIh,lI,bI OKcaHa, ,lI,OCTHrJIa RnepBbIc H HCTOpHH MOpCnJIaBallHH lIa;I.BO,lI,HbIX Kopa6JICH CCBcplloro nOJIlOca. fCllepaJIbHOH: JIHIIHCH 6Y,lI,YWeH aTOMHOH 3HcprCTHKH CCCP HB- mICTCH C03)I.aHHe MOIUllblX A3C C 311eprcTH4ccKHMH peaKTopaMH 1I<l' 6bICTpbIX lIeHTpoHax, Ha KaKOM-TO 3Tanc pa3BHTHH no Mepe lIaKon- .'1CIIHH IIJIYTOHHH B )I.OCTaTO'IHbIX KOJIHIleCTBax peaKTopbl lIa 6hlCTpblX HcflTpOllaX 3aMCHHT peaKTopbl lIa TenJIOBblX Hci'lTpOllax. OC06CHHOCTb H BCCbMa 60JIbIlIOC npeHMywccTBO peaKTopoB Ira 6bICTpbIX HCHTpollax COCTOHT B TO, 'ITO B IIHX H;J.CpIIOC TOnJIHBO 130- cnpOH3RO..'l:HTCH B 60Jlbllle\1 KOJlH'IeCTBC, 'Ie\! cropaeT. ITpH nOna.lI.aHHIf 6bICTpbIX lIeH:TpOHOB B H,lI,pO 238U oCYlUeCTBJIHeTCH HCCKOJIbKO H.u:CPHbIX pCaKUHH:, R pe3y.lJbTaTe KOTOpblX 06pa3yeTcH HOBoe ..'I:CJIHlUeeCH Be- IlICCTBO - IIJIYTOIIHH:, KOTOpbIH BHOBb MOJKHO HCIIOJIb30BaTb R peaK- Topax lIa 6hICTpbIX Hei'l.TpOHaX B Ka'ICCTBC H,lI,CpHOrO TOIIJIHBa. 31'0 UaJKHOC 06CTOHTCJIbCTBO ;I,CJIaeT peaKTophI lIa 6hlCTpbIX lIeihpOllax 'lpc3Bbl4aHHo nepcneKTHBHblMH, nOCKOJIbKy OIlH B OT.'IH'lHC OT peaK- TOpOB Ha TenJIOBbIX HeHTpoHax n03BOJIHIOT HCnOJIb30BaTb nOJIHOCThm. HC TOJIbKO n5U, HO H RCCb npHpO..'l:IIb1H ypaH. 06pa3YlOlUHHCH nJIYTO- HHM. - caMOC BbIrO,lI,IIOe ,lI,CJIHlUeeCH BClUeCTBO ,lI,JIH peaKTopa lIa 6hICT- pbIX HeHTpoHax: npH KaJK,lI,OiM aKTe ,lI,CJHHHH OH .lI.aeT OKOJIO 2,9 HCHT- pOHa, TOr,lI,a KaK npH ,lI,eJIeHHH 235U BbI,lI,eJlHeTCH JIHIlIb 2,3 HeHTpoHa. HaH60JIce paII.HOHaJIbliOe HCIIOJIb30BaIIHe HeHTpoHoB - O,J.IJa H3 oc- 1I0BHbiX 3a,lI,al! npHMeHeHHH H,J.epHoro Ton.'1HBa. IT03TOMY cYluecTBcH- 110, 'ITO ,lI,OJIH ,lI,OnOJIHHTeJIbllbIX HeHTpolloB, BblCB06oJK.lI.alOlUHxCH npH .il-CJJCHHH ypaHa 6blCTpbIMH HCM.TpOHaMH, BeCbMa 3I1a'IHTC.JlbIJa Ii B pC- aKTopax Ha 6blCTpblX HCH:TpOliaX MOJKeT .il-OCTHraTh 15-20 %. 00- rJlOIUeHHe 6b1CTpblX HeHTpoHoB B KOHCTPYKUHOHHblX MaTepHaJIaX H np0,lI,yKTax H,J.epHbIx peaKUHH: B peaKTopax Ha 6bICTpblX HeHTpoHax cpaBIIHTe.'IbHo MaJlO. K03cpcpHUHeHT BocnpOH3BO,lI,CTBa MOJKeT ,lI,OCTH- raTb IIpHMCpliO 1,4 (B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT THna pcaKTopa). 3TO 03Ha'la- cr, 'ITO «CJKHraH» 1 Kr nJIYToHHH, TaKO" pcaKTop lIe TOJIbKO B03Bpa- lUaeT cro, HO H ,lI,aCT ,lI,OnOJIHHTeJIbHO 0,4 Kr nJIYTOHHH, KOTOpbIH: MO- JKCT CJIyJKHTb HOBblM H,lI,CpllbiM TOnJIHBOM. OTCIO,lI,a CJIC,lI,yeT, '-ITO TOII- JIHBHaH COCTaBJIHlOlUaH CTOHMOCTH 3JICKTp03I1CpfHH, nOJIYIlaeMOH: OT 6b1CTpblX peaKTopoB, 6Y,lI,eT BCer,lI,3 MeHbiliC CTOHMOCTH TOnJIHBHOH: co- CTaBJIHlOlUeH JII060ro peaKTopa Ha TenJIOBbIX HeihpoHax. l-I3yqeHHe nepcneKTHB npOMblIIIJleHHOrO HCnOJlh30BaHHH pcaKTopOB Ha 6b1CTpbIX IIcHTpoliax B COBeTCKOM COlO3e HaQaJlOeb eIIIe 3a)l.o.lro )1.0 nYCKa B 3KenJlyaTal.{HIO TIepBoH B MHpC A3C, nOCKOJlbKY BblrO)l.bI HMeHIlO TaKora nYTH HcnO.'Ib30BaIlH5I H)l.epl!Ora TOnJlHBa 6b1J1H OQCBH)l.HbI no TCOpCTH'IeCKHM co06pa)KeHHHM. CJlO)KIIOCTb np06J1eMbI C03)1.aHHSI 3HepreTHQeCKOro peaKTopa lIa 6b1eTpblX HciiTpoliax nO\lHMO TeOpCTH'ICCKHX, 3KcnepHMeHTaJlbllblX H npoeKTHbiX pa60T lIoTpe60BaJia e03)1.al!HSI ee- pHH OTIblTllblX peaKTopOB epaBHHTeJlbHO Hc60.1bIIIOii MOIIIIIOCTH. TaK, B 1955 r. 6b1J1 63 
noerpoeH II IIYll.(eH peaKTOp BP-l TeIlJIOBOii MOIl.(HOCTblO HeCKOJIbKO ,neCHTKOI5 BaTT, B 1959 r. - peaKTop BP-5 MOIl.(HOCTblO 5000 KBT na )l.HOKCH.ne IIJIYTOIIHH C 1KH)l.KO- MeTaJIJIHIJecKHM (HaTpHeBblM) TCIIJIOHOCHTeJIeM. YCIIeuIHaH 3KCIIJIyaTal.{HS! OIlbiTHoro peaKTopa BP-5 Ha 6b1CTpblX lIeiiTpoHax C narpHCBblM TenJIOHOCHTc.1eM CBH)l.eTeJIbCT- 1I0naJla 0 npaBHJlbHOeTH Hbl6paHHoro HailpaBJleIlHS!, n IJaCTIIOCTH IIO)l.TAep)l.H.'1a B03- M01KIIOCTb pa60Tbi C pa)l.KOaKTHBllbiM lIaTpHeBbiM KOlITYPOM npH r.ly60KoM Bblropa- HHH TOIlJIHBa H TCMnepaType naTpHH )1.0 500°C BOJIblllOe 311aIJenHC ,nJ!!1 pa3BHTHS! peaKTopoB Ha 6b1CTpblX HeiiTpoHax H\leJIO eo- opY1KeHHe OIlbiTHOrO ::mepreTHIJeCKOrO peaKTopa lIa 6b1eTpblX HeHTpoHax BOP-60, BcrynllBllIero B cTpoii B .lJ.HMH'l'pOBrpa.ne. Ero TCnJIOBaH MOIl.(HOCTb 60 MBT, a 3JIeK- TpHIJeCKaH 12 MBT. Ha 3TOM pcaKTope IIpOBe)l.eHa ecpllH 3KcIIepHMeHTon, KOTopble YKa3b1BaIOT na B03M01KHOCTb 3KOHOMHIJeCKOii KOHKypeHTocnoc06HocTH A3C C peaK- TopaMH na 6b1eTplJlX neiiTpoHax 60JrblllOH MOIl.(HOeTH, 3TH HCCJIe)l.OBaHHS! II03BO.1HJIH C YBepeIIIIOCTblO BeCTH pa60Tli IIO coopY1KeHHIO 311aIJHTeJIbHO 60Jlee KPyilHoa OIlblT- no-npOMbillIJIeHHOii A3C C peaKTopOM Ha 6b1CTpblX HCHTpOHax BH-350, paCIIO.lO- 1KeHHOii Ha BOCTOIJHOM n06epe1KbC l(aenHiicKoro MOpS! B r. llleB'IeHKo. BOJIblllaH IJaCTb MOIl.(HOCTH 3TOii A3C IIpe)l.Ha3Ha'leHa )l.JIS! orrpCCHeHHH co.'1eHoii MOpCKOH BO)l.bI, a MCHblllaH - )l.JIH Bblpa6oTK!f 3JIeKTp03l1eprHH. Ha A3C B r. llleB<reHKo YCTaHOBJIeH peaKTop BH-350 KopnYClloro THila. AKTHB- naH 30Ha peaKTopa COCTOHT H3 llIeCTHrpaHHblX TOIlJIHBHblX C60POK (TBC) C TB3JIaMH CTep1KHeBorO THna. B Ka'leCTBC fl.nepHOro TOIlJlHBa HCIIO.'lb3YIOT Ta6JICTKH H3 235U0 2 B 060JIOIJKe H3 nCp1KaBelOll.(eii CTaJlH. AKTHBHaS! 30Ha OKpY1KeHa co Beex CTOpOH TaK Ha3WBacMOH 30HOH BocnpOH3AO)l.CTBa, KOTopaH npeACTaBS!eT e060ii TOnJlHBHble e60p- KH C 3JICMellTaMH H3 .aBYOKHCH ypana, 06e)l.HeHHOii H30TonOM 235U. HeiiTpOllbi H3 aKTHBlloii 30HbI nOrJIOll.(alOTCH B 30He BOCIIpoH3Bo.neTBa IIpeHMY- lUeeTBellHo Hn:paMH H30Tona 238U, B pe3YJIbTaTe 'Iero eYll.(eCTBellllo napaCTaeT na- KOIlJleHHe IIJIYTOHHH B peaKTope. TenJIOlloCHTeJIeM CJIy1KHT p11CIIJIaBJIeHHblii naTpHii, KOTOpblH, CHHB TeIlJIO aKTHB- noii 30HbI H 30HbI BOCIIpOH3BO)l.CTBa, IIocTynaeT B IIpOMC1KYTO'lHblii TeIIJI006MellHHK, r,J.e IIepC)l.aeT TeIlJlO BTOPOMY KOHTYPY. TeIlJIoHoeHTeJleM BO BTOpOM KOHTYPC CJly1KHT TaK1Ke HaTlmii, KOTOpblH ne TIOnBCpraeTCS! Hei't:TpOlIHOMY 06J1YIJCHHIO H II03TOMY Hepa- ,Z1HoaKTHBeH. HaTpHH BTOpOro KOHT)'pa IIepe)l.aeT TeIlJlO B IIaporeHepaTopax IIapy TpeTbero KOHTypa, H 3TOT IIap HaIlpaSJI!leTCH B Typ6HHbI. B naCTOHll.(ee BpeMH e)l.aH B 3KcIInyaTallHIO Ha YpaJle TpeTHH 3Hepr06J10K BeJlo- HpCKOii A3C HM. H. B. l(ypIJaTOBa C 60Jlee MOIl.(HbiM H cOBepillelIllbiM peaKTopoM Ha 6b1CTpblX HeiiTpoHax BH-600. HaqaThl pa3pa60TKH ell.(e 60Jlee MOIUHoro peaKTopa Ha OblCTPblX HeHTpOHaX BH-16oo, KOTOpblii B 6Y)l.YUleM )l.OJI1KeH eTaTb oeHoBoii ecpHiiHblX 3Hepro6JIOKOB A3C. PeaKTopbI H3 6b1CTpbIX HeHTpoH3x BOP-50, BH-350, BH-600 pa- 60TalOT H3 060ralUCHHOH: ,lI,ByOKHCH ypaHa. O,lI,HaKO HCnOJIb30BaHHe B peaKTopax !fa 6b1CTpblX HcihpoHax 236U no cyuecTBY 6ecnepcneKTHB- HO BCJIe,lI,CTBHe HH3Koro TeMna BOCIIpOH3BO,lI,CTBa B IIHX H,lI,epHOrO Ton- JIHBa, IIC y,lI,OBJICTBOpHlOlUero Tpe60B3HHHM C03J1:aIlHH 60JIhIlIOH: H,lI,ep- HOH: 3IIcpreTHKH ,CCCP. B ,lI,aJIbHeHIlIeM HaMeIleli nCpCBO,lI, 3THX pc- aKTopoB Ha CMCIlIaHHoe ypan-nJIYToHflCBOC TOnJIHBO Ha nCpHO,lI, O,lI,HO- rO-.il-BYx nOKOJIeHHH pcaKTopoB. HaH60JIee 3cpcpeKTHBIla H BbIro,lI,Ha pa60Ta pcaKTopoB H3 6bICTpblX HeH:TpOHaX B peJKHMe 6pH,lI,CpOB, HC- nOJIb3YlOWHX B KaqeCTBe TOnJIHBa II.'1YTonHH:, BocnpOH3BO,lI,HMblH B 60.'IbilieM KOJIHIleCTBe.H3 238U, qeM ero 3aTpa'lHBaeTCH. '64 
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KHC TeMIIepaTypbl, npHBO,lI,HlUHC K pa3pYIlIeliHIO TlB.'10B. HC,lI,OCTaTKa- MH KCpaMHKH II3 U0 2 , TaK )!{C KaK II JJI060H ,lI,pyrOH: KepaMHKH, HBJlH- IOTC5I CC xpynKocTb H CKJIOllllOCTb K pa,lI,HaJIbHOMY paCTpCCKHBaHli10 B yCJIOBHHX pa60TbI peaKTOpa. ITOCKOJIbKY rOpH1J.aS! HCHTpa.lblla 5{ 06- .1aCTb U0 2 B npoQccce pa60TbI pacIlIHpHeTcH, B031lHKalOlUliC TpClUH- HbI B lIaII60JIee XOJIO,lI,1l0H: nepHlpepHH:IIOH IlaCTH U0 2 CTpeMHTcH TaK- )!{e paCIlIHpHTbCH. Bce 3TII lle.il-OCTaTKII IlaCTHIlHO YCTpaHS!IOTcH B TB3- JIax Ha OCHOBe ,lI,HCnCpCHbIx CMCCeH: U0 2 C A1 2 0 3 , BeO HJIH MgO H B TaK Ha3b1BaeMbIX KcpMeTax H3 BbICoKo060ralUcHHoro U0 2 , pacnpe;!,c- JICHIlOrO B MaTpHUC H3 KOHCTPYKUHOlllibIX MaTepHaJIOB. B Ta6JI. 4.1 IIprmC,lI,CHbI cpaBHHTeJIbllble ,lI,aHHble 0 CBoHcTBax U0 2 II ,lI,pyrnx co- e,lI,HIlCHIIH: ypaHa, nJIYTonHS! H TOpHS!, KOTOpblC HnOJIb3YIOT B Ka1J.C- CTBe H,lI,epllOrO TOnJIHBa HJlH nOrJIOTHTeJIeii: (<I>epTHJIbHblX MaTcpHa- JIOB) . 113 MaTepnaJIOB, nepeIlIICJICHHblX B Ta6JI. 4.1, KpOMC ,lI,HOKCH,lI,a ypaHa BeCbMa ncpcneKTHBHbl B KaIlCCTBe H,lI,epHOrO TOnJIHBa Kap6HbI ypaHa (MOIlO- H .il-IIKap61I,lI, ypaHa). CYlUCCTBCHHO, IlTO 06.'1YIlcliHoe 51,lI,CpHOe TOnJIHBO Ila OCHOBe Kap6H,LT,a ypaHa ,lI,.1JS! pcrenepaQHH UCH- HbIX KOMnOHCIITOB MOJKIIO OKHCJIHTb lIarpcBaHHeM Ha B03,lI,yxe npH 100-200°C H TCM caMbIM Y.il-aJIHTb yrJIcpo,lI" a OCTaTOK ypalla JICrKO pacTBopHTb B HN0 3 . He,lI,OCTaTOK Kap6H,lI,a ypaHa - cpaBHHTeJIbHO MaJIa5I KOpp03IIOH- HaH CTOHKOCTb cro no OTIlOIlIeHHIO K TCnJIOIIOCHTeJIHM II Bo06lUC K pa3- T a 6 JJ H I a 4 .1. CBoiicTBa coeJl.HHeHHii ypaHa, nJlYToHHJI H TOpHJI, HcnoJlb3yeMblx B KaqeCTBe JlJl.epHOro TOnJlHBa Coe,tl,HHeHBe I1.nOTIIO CTb I1.nOTHOCTb, rfcM" no J\eJI"eMYC" BeeC!BY, rfcyl TeMnpparypa 1Ul8BJIeHHH. °C Ce'leHHe norJ70e- HB" HeiITpoHOB Bl'OpblM SJlCMeHTOB. 6 U 19,05 19,05 1130 - Pu 19,8 19,8 640 - Th 11,71 - 1700 - DO 10,97 9,67 2800 0,0002 pu6a 11,46 10,1 2360 0,0002 thO! 10,00 - 3300 0,0002 UC 13,63 12,97 2400 0,0045 UCa 11,68 - 2470 0,0045 PUC 14,00 13,1 1650 0,0045 Pu 2 C S 12,70 11.8 2050 0,0045 ThC 10,67 - 2625 0,0045 ThC a 12,6 - 2650 0,0045 UN 14,32 13,6 2880 1,78 PuN 14,25 13,47 2627 1,78 ThN .- - 2630 1,78 U 3 Si s 12,20 - 1665 0,13 USi 10,40 - 1575 0,13 PuSi 10,15 9,08 1577 0,13 Th 3 Si a 9,75 - 1850 0,13 ThSi 8,92 - 1900 0,13 PuA1a 8,06 6,57 1540 - 73 
JIHIlHblM XHMlIIleCKIIM pearCHTaM H nOBbIIlIeHllaH xpynKocTb npH 06- pa60TKe. CJIC,lI,yeT TaKJKe OTMeTHTb lIHpO<l>OpHOCTh H caMOBOCllJIaMe- HHeMOCTb TOHKHX nopolllKoB Kap6H,lI,a ypaHa. KOpp03HOHHYlO CTOH- KOCTb Kap6H,lI,a ypaHa no OTHOIlIeHHIO K BO,lI,C H ra3011hIM Tcn"lOHOCH- TeJIHM nOBblIlIalOT MeTaJIJIH3aUHeii ero IIOBCpXHOCTH. B noc.'Ie,lI,lIce BpeMH HCCJIC,lI,OBaHHlO Kap6H,lI,IIOrO TOnJIHBa )".il-eJIH- eTCH 60JIbIlIOe BIIHMaHHe B CB5I3H C ero ncpcneKTHBHOCTblO ,'J.JISI HC- nOJIb30BaliliH B peaKTopax Ha 6bICTpbIX IIeii:TpoHax. B 1J.aCTIiOCTH, Ha peaKTopc BOP-60 6blJIH HcnblTaHbI npC,lI,Ha31la'leHHbIe ,lI,JISI 6Y,lI,YlUHX IIpoMblIlI.'IeIlIIbIX peaKTopoB Ha 6bICTpbIX HeihpoHax TB3JIbI 1I3 Kap- 6H,lI,a ypaHa, Ha 90 % 060rarucHHoro 235U. COOTHOllleIIHC (C +0+ N)j U npH 3TOM COCTaBJIH.lO 0,98-1,08 IIPH cO.lI.epJKaIIHH yrJIepo,lI,a 4,7- 5,1 % (no Macce). ITpO,lI,YKT 6bIJJ IIOJIY1J.CH ropH41IM npcccoBalllieM H cneKaliHeM HCXO,lI,HblX nopolllKoB Ka p6HJI:a, B CBOIO OIlCpe,lI,b 1I0JIYIlell- HbIX MeTO,'J.OM ra30BOH: Kap6H,lI,H3aIlHH nopoIlIKa ypaHa H Kap60Tep- MH'leCKHM BOCCTaHOBJIellHCM JWOKCH,lI,a ypaHa. HCKoTopbIe lICnblTaH- HbIe KOMn03HUHH cO,lI,epJKaJIli ,lI,0 15 % (no M acce) PU02. ITepcneKTHBHblM BH,lI,OM ypaHoBoro H,lI,epHOrO TOII"lHBa HBJI5IIOTCH HHTpH,lI,bI ypaHa, 06JIa,lI,aIOIUHC XOpOIlICM TCnJIOnpOBO.'I.HOCTblO, BbICOKOii: IIJIOTHOCTblO no ypaHY H HCKOTOpbIMH npcHMyruecTBaMH no cpaBHeHHIO C Kap6H,lI,aMH ypaHa. B CHcreMe U - N H3neCTHbi UN, U 2 N 3 H UN 2 . TeMnepaTypa nJIaBJIeliliH UN npH ,lI,aB.'IelllIH a30Ta 60JIee 0,25 MITa COCTaBJIHeT 2850°C. HlITpH,lI, ypaHa UN 60JIce YCTOHIlHB XHMH'leCKH, IleM Kap6H,lI, UC, H 06JIa,lI,aCT npIfMepliO TaKOH: JKC pa,lI,HaUHOHHOH: CTOii:KOCTblO. CJIC,lI,yeT ynoMHIlYTb H CHJIHUH,lI,bl ypana U 3 Si, U 3 Si 2 , USi, U 2 Si 3 H USb, nOTOMY IlTO KpeMHHH: TaKJKC npHllaJI:JIe)KHT K 3JIeMeHTaM, HMelOlUHM OTHOCHTeJIbHO MaJIOe CCIleIIHC 3aXBaTa HeH:TpOHoM. COC,lI,H- Helme C HaIfBbIClUHM CO.lI.CpJKaHHeM ypaHa U 3 Si HMeCT nJIOTHOCTb 15,58 rfcM 3 H ,lI,OBOJIbliO BhICOKYIO KOpp03HOHHYlO CTOHKOCTb, XOTH Tep- MH'IeCKH OHO He OIlelih YCTOHIlliBO. BOJIee JKapOCTOeK CHJIHUH,lI, U 3 Si 2 (BnJIOTb .il-O TeMnepaTypbI lIJIaBJIeHHH 1665 °C). ITo <l>H3H'leCKHM CBOH- CTBaM U 3 Si 2 npH6JIHJKaCTCH K MOHOKap6H,lI,y ypaHa, 110 MeHee xpynoK H JIcr'le o6pa6aTbIBacTc5I. ITOpOIlIOK CHJIHU,li.lI.OB ypaHa BCCbMa nHpo- <l>opeli. B CliCTeMC Pu - 0 H3BCCTHO TPH COe,lI,HHeIlHH: PuO, PU203 H PU02 B a- H -MO,lI,H<I>HKaUHHx. PU02 - BbICIlIHH: H HaH60JIec YCTOHIlliBblii: OKCH,lI, nJIYTOHHH (B OKlICJIHTeJIbHoii: aTMoc<I>epe). O,L.J.HaKO BbIIlIe 1200 °C OH JIerKO BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH B pe3YJIbTaTe B3aHMO,lI,cii:cTBHSI C KOHTaKTHpYlOlUHMH MeTaJIJIaMH 060JIOIlKH. CMelllaulioe H,lI,epHOe TOnJIHBO U0 2 + PU02 MOJKeT 6b1Tb IIOJIYIleHo IIYTeM JIH60 MeXaHH'leCKOrO CMeIlIHBaHHH IIOpOlllKOB .lI.HOKCHJI:Oll ypaHa II nJlYToHHH, JIH60 COBMeCTHoro OCaJK,lI,eHHH HX 1I3 paCTBopoB. 06a Me- TO,lI,a HMelOT CBOH He,lI,OCTaTKH H npeHMYlUcCTBa. Cpe,lI,H HllTepMeTaJIJIlIIlCCKHX COe,lI,HHCHHH nJIYTOIIHH HaH60JIee Ba- JKeH PuAh, KOTOpblH 6JIarO,lI,apH Ky6HIlecKOH CTpYKType pelllel1KH 06- JIa,lI,aeT HaH60JlbilieH pa,lI,HaUHOHHOH: CTOHKOCTblO. PuAl 2 HMeeT xopo- lllYIO TenJIOnpOBO,lI,HOCTb, BblCOKYIO TeMnepaTypy nJIaBJIeH HSI (1540 °C) . O,lI,HaKO y PuAh ,lI,OBOJlbHO HH3KaH II.lIOTHOCTb 1I0 nJIYToHHIO U 
(6,57 rfcM 3 ), IlTO 06YCJIOBJICHO ,lI,OBOJIbIlO HH3KOH nJIOTHOCTblO caMoro COC.lI.IIHCHHH. BHHMaHHC ncc.TJC..'I.OBaTCJIeH npIIBJIeKalOT raKJKC CHCTeMbl Pu - P, Pu - Si, Pu - S H T. n. I1CCJIC,lI,YIOTCH H ,lI,pyrHe CHCTeMbI, lIanpliMep ryrOnJIaBKHe TBep,lI,bIe pacTBopbI UN - ZrN, UN - UC, PuN - ZrN, UN - PuN, a TaKJKe KCpMCTbl UN - Mo, UN - W, PuN - W II naCTbT UN - Na, UN-3BTeKTHKa Bi - Pb. 4.5. MaTepHanbi AllJI o60nolieK TB3nOB 060JIOIIKa TB3Jla, BbInOJIIIHH BeCbMa BaJKHbIe <l>YHKUHH, SlBJIHerCH cro OTBCTCTBCIIHbIM 3JICMCHTOM. I1MeHHo OT ce KaIlCCTBa H COOTBeT- CTBIIH CBOCMY Ha311aIlCHlIID 3aBHCHT npO'lHOCTb TB3JIa B ueJlOM H H30- JIHUHH npO,lI,YKTOB ,lI,eJIeIiIiH. MaTepHaJIbl H KOHCTpyKUHH 060JIOIlKH ,lI,OJlJKHbI: 1) HMeTb B03MOJKII0 MelibIlIce CCIlelIliC 3aXBaTa IICHTpOHOB; 2) 06JIa,lI,arb ,lI,OCTaT04I10 BblCOKOH Tcn.'1onpOBO.lI.HOCTblO; 3) 6blTb KOpp03HOIIII0- H 3p03HOHIl0-CTOHKHMH no OTHOIlICHHIO K Ten.lOHOCHTCJIIO (BO,lI,C, JKH,lI,KIIM MeTaJI.'IaM HJIH OpraHH'leCKHM BClUe- cTBaM) ; 4) HMeTb xopoIlIHe McxaHIIIleCKIiC CBoHcTBa, rapaHTHpYlOlUHC CTa- 6HJIblIOCTb <pOpMbI, pa3MepOB H coxpaHcHlic rcpMeTHIlHocTH TB3JIOB II nJIOTIIOrO IIpHJIerallIIH H,a:epiloro TOnJIHBa K 060JIOIlKe; 5) 6bITb cpaBHIITCJIbHO .il-eIlIeBblM H HMerb no B03MOJKIIOCTH HC- CJJOJKHYIO TeXHOJlOrHIO 06pa60TKH; 6) 06ccncIlHBaTb B03MOJKHOCTb nOCJIC,lI,YlOlUeii: XHMHIlCCKOH: nepc- pa60TKII oTpa60TaBIlIHx 06J1Y'leHHblX TB3JIOB. B HaCTOHlUee BpeMH B KaIlecrBe MaTepHaJIOB ,lI,JIH 060JIOIleK IIP"- MelIHiOT rJIaBHbIM 06pa30M aJIIOMHHHH:, MarHHH, II.HpKOHHii: H IIX CIIJla- Bbl. JI.JISI BbICOKHX TeMnepaTYP, B IlaCTHOCTH ,lI.JIH H,lI,epUbIX peaKTopOB lIa 6bICTpbIX HeH:TpOHaX, XOpOIlIHM MaTCpHaJIOM ,lI,JIH 060JIOIIeK TB3- JIOB CJIYJKHT lIepJKaBelOlUaH CTaJlb, XOTH olia H 06JIa,lI,aCT 60JIbIlIHM ceIleHHeM 3aXBaTa HeH:TpOHOB, 'lTO Tpe6yeT rrpHIIHTHH OIIpe,lI,eJIeHHblX Mep ,lI,JIH KOMIICHCa[HH HX norepb. AJIIOMHHHii: - pacnpocTpaHcHHblH MaTepHaJI ,lI,JIH 060JIOIICK TB3JIOB, pa60TalOlUHx B pcaKTopax, oXJIaJK,lI,aeMbIx BO;'l.Oii: C TCMnepaTypoii: 100°C H HHJKe. ITpHMeHeHHe KOpp03HOHHO-CTOHKHX CnJIaBOB Ha OCIIO- Be aJIIOMHIIHH C He60JIbIlIHMH ,lI,06aBKaMH JKCJIe3a, KpeMIIHH, HHKeJlH, 6CPHJIJIHH, THTalIa n03BOJIHeT B 3HaIlHTCJIbHOH CTcnelIH (npHMepHO ,lI,0 300 °C) nOBbICIITb npC,lI,CJIbIIYIO TCMncpaTYPy, lionycKalOlUYIO IIpHMe- IICHHe aJIIOMIIHHH KaK MaTCpHaJIa ,lI,JIH 060JIOIlCK TB3JIOB. AJlIOMHHHH B KaIlCCTBe MaTepIIaJIa 060JIOIIeK npIIMeHHJICH npeHMYlUecTBeHHO B peaKTopax C TB3JIaMII H3 MeTaJIJIHIlCCKOro ypaHa, KOTopbIe CJIYJKHJlH .lI.JIH npOH3BO,lI,CTBa II.1YTOHHH. ManIHH, 06JIa,lI,alOlUHH CCIleHHeM 3aXBaTa HCHTpOHOB B 5 pa3 MCHbIlIHM, IfCM aJIIOMHHHH, ycneIlIlIo npHMeHHIOT KaK MaTepHaJl 060- JIOIleK TOJlbKO ,lI,JIH pcaKTopoB C ra30BblM OXJIaJK,lI,eHHeM (C0 2 ) npH TeMnepaTYpc ,lI,0 500°C, TaK KaK MarHHH: lIeJIb3H HCIIOJIb30BaTb B KOH- TaKTe C rOpHIleH: BO,lI,Oii:. B BeJIHK06pHTaHHH, r,lI,e IIpeHMYlUeCTBeHHO 75 
HCIIOJIb3YJOT nO,lI,06HhIC peaKTOpbl, pa3pa6oTaH CnJIaB MarnoKc-12, co- ,lI,epJKalUHH KpOMC MarHHH OKOJIO 0,8% a.'IIOMHIIHH H 0,01 % 6CpHJI- JIIfH. MOJKHO Hcno.lb30BaTb lIeKOTOpble CnJIaBbI Ha OCIlOBe .Mg - Zr - Mn ,lI,JISI 060JJO'iCK TB3JIOB, pa60TalOlUHx C ra30BbIM OXJIaJK.lI.eIlHCM. XOpOIlIHC pe3YJIbTaTbl ,lI,aeT pa3pa6oTalIHblH: B CCCP MarHlIeBbIH: CnJI8B, cO,!:J.cpJKalUliH 0,2-15 % 6CpHJJJIHH. HaH50JIce pacnpocTpaHclfHhlM KOHCTPYKUHOHHblM MaTepna.'lOM B cOBpeMcHHbIx 3I1CpreTH'leCKIIX H,il,CpllhiX pcaKTopax, B 1JaCTHOCTII IIPH- MeHHCMhIM JI.JIH o60JIO'leK TB3.10B, HBJIHeTCSI HHpKOHHH: H cro CnJIaBbI, xapaKTepH3yeMbIc MaJIbIM CCl/CHHCM 3aXBaTa HciiTpOHOB. O,lI,lIaKO UHP- KOIlHH, HCnOJIb3yeMbIH ,lI,JIH 3THX uCJIeH:, .llOJIJKell 6bITb 06H3aTeJIbHO O'llilUeH OT 06bl'l1l0H: B HCM IIpliMCCH racpHHH, HMelOlUero B OTJIH'lHe OT II.HpKOHHSI O'lClib 60JIbIlIOC CC'ieHHC 3aXBaTa IlcihpOHOB. YIIHKa.'Ih- I1bIe Ka'lCCTBa IlHpKOHHH C,lI,CJIaJIH ero IlWpOKO IIplfMeH5ICMbIM II IICp- CIICKTIIBHblM KOIICTPYKUHoHllbl:.r MaTeplIaJIOM B HJl.epHOH 3HeprCTIIKC. I1cno.'1b30BaHlic II.lfpKOHHH Hero CIIJIaBon B pcaKTopOCTpoeHHH 06y- C.'10BJIeHO y,lI,aIlHhlM COIlCTaHHCM cro H,lI,CpHO-cpH3HIlCCKHX xapaKTepH- CTHK C XOpOIlIIIMH MCXalIH'leCKHMH CBOHCTBa.\1H. l1.HpKOlIHH: II CnJIaBhI IIa cro OCHOBe .J,OCTaTOIlIfO KOpp03HOHHO- CTOHKH ,lI,aJKe IIpli cpaBIlHTeJIbHO BblCOKOH TeMnepaTYpc B aTMoccpcpe MllorliX ra30B, B TOM 'lHCJIe B03,lI,yxa, II B cpc,'I,e pa3o/1HIlHhlX BO.lUIhJX paCTBopOB H HCKOTOpblX TCnJIOHOCHTeJICH. I103TOMY IIX npliMellSlIOT B KaIleCTBC 060JIO'leK TB3JIOB B BO,lI,O-BO.il-HHhIX peaKTopax BB3P BCCX TlinOB, a TaKJKe CY,lI,OBblX H.il-epIl0-3HcpreTH4eCKHX YCTallOBKax Ha JIe- ,lI,OKOJIaX «JIeHHH», «ApKTIIKa» (<<JI. J3peJKHCB»), «CH6Hpb». 113- neCTHO, IlTO II.HpKOHHH: 5IBJIHJICH KOHCTpyKLl.HOlIHblM M aTCpHaJIOM 060- JIO'lCK TB3JIOB aMepHKaHcKlix CYJl.OBbIX peaKTopoB IIO.lI.BO,lI,HOH: O.lI.KII «HaYTHJIYc» H CY,lI,Ha «CaBalIHa», 3J1CpreTII'iCKHX BO,lI,O-BO,lI,5IHbIX pC- aKTopoB LUHnnHHrnopTcKoH, pe3J1.eHCKOH: H .lI.pyrHx aMepHKaHcKHx A3C C peaKTopaMH BOJJ:o-nO,lI,HIlOrO THna. B IIOCJIC.lI.HeC BpeMH JWpKO- HIICBbIe CnJIaBhI CTaJIH IIpHMeHHTh B 51,lI,CpHblX KHn5llUliX peaKTopax II peaKTopax no,lI, .lI.aBoI'ICHHCM (,lI,0 10 MITa). OCHOBHblMH CIIJIaBaMH II.HpKOIlHH, IIpliMCIIHCMhIMH B peaKTopax, pa60TalOililix Jla BO.lI.e If no,lI, BblCOKHM ,lI,aBJICHHeM, HBJI5IIOTCH TaK lJa- 3bIBaCMhlC JllIpK8JIOH. MexaHHIlccKHC CBOHCTBa HHpKao/locB, oc06eHHO npH nonhlweIlllbIX TeMnepaTypax, 3HaIlHTeJIbliO BbIIlIe, IleM IlilCToro UHpKOIlHH. CIIJIaBbI THna IIHpKaJIOeB JIerKO 06pa6aThIBalOTc5I ,LlaBJIC- HHeM KaK B ropHIlcM, TaK II B XOJIO,lI,I10M COCTOHIlHII. HHOr,lI,a B II.c.'I5IX IIOBbIIlICHHH KOpp03HOHII0H: CTOHKOCTH CIIJIaBOB II.HpKOHIIH:-OJIOBO B HHX BBO,lI,HT Me,lI,b. l1.HpKOHHH )J.OBOJIbHO ,lI,opor, OC06CHHO oIlHlUeHlIblH OT racpHHH. TeM IIC MeHee CnJIaB Ha ero oCl/onc - II.HpK8JIOH (OJKeIlHT) npliMCHHeTCSI BO Bce YBeJIHIlHBalOlUHXCH M aCIlITa6ax, B IlaCTlIOCTH Ha Bcex COBeT- CKHX A3C C pcaKTopaMH BB3P. CocTaB 3Toro CIIJIaBa (%) 1,3Sn, 0,07-2,0 Fe, 0,16Cr, 0,1 Ni, OCT8JIhI/Oe-Zr. TB3JIbl C 060JIOIlKOH: 113 II.HpKOHHH Hero CnJlaBOB MOJKIfO npHMClIHTb npH TCMnepaType .lI.0 540°C, a nOKpblTbIe HepJKaBelOlUeii CTaJIbIO -,lI,aJKe ,lI,0 650-700°C. BecbMa ncpcIIeKTHBlIbIMH CnJIaBaMH II.HpKOHHH .il-JIH HCnOJIb30BaIlH5I B BO.lI.e H IIape B IlaCTOHlUCe BpeM5I CIlHTalOT ,lI,BOHlJbIe cnJlaBbI II.11pKO- 76 
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1) BCKpblTHC TB3JIOB, nepCBO,lI, TOnJIHBa B pacTBop, Y,lI,a.'1eHHC 060- JIOIlI<H; 2) Bbl,lI,c.leHHC H3 pacTBopa ypalla, IIJIYTOHHH H HCIITYlIHH, HX pa3- .lICJIeHHC H OIlHCTKa OT npO,lI,YKTOB ,lI,eJICHH5f; 3) nOJIY4cIIHC cOe,lI,HHCHHH ypalla, nJIYToHHH H HCIITYIIHH, IIpHrok HbIX .lIJISI JJ:a.lbHclllllcro HCnOJIb30BaHHH; 4) 3axopolleHHe JKH,lI,KHX H TBCp,lI,bIX pa,lI,HOaKTHBllbIX OTXO,lI,OB, 3a- III.HTa pa604ero nepcoHa.'1a Ii oKpYJKalOlUeH Cpe.lIbI OT BpC,lI,HOrO B.'IHH- IIHH ra3006pa311blx pa.lIHOaKTHBHbIX npO,lI,YKTOB ,lI,CJICIIHH. BaJKHCHlllHM BOIIpOCOM pereliepaUHH 06JIYIlclIIIoro TOnJIHBa HBJIH- CTCH IIc06xo.LI.HMa51 CTcnCllb O'lHCTKH OT pa.u:HoaKTHBllbiX npOJJ:YKTOB ;c.leIl1l5l. Lly60KaH, IIpaKTH'leCKH nOJIHaH OQuCTKa ypaHa, nJIYTOHHH, IICnTYIIHH H TpaHCnJIYTOIIHeBblX 3JICMeHTOB OT - H V-H3JIY'laTCJICH lIe- 06XOAHMa nOTOMY, IlTO B nponcccc BTOpHQIlOrO HCnOJIb30BallHH perc- lIeplipOBaHllOro 5IJJ:cpHoro TOnJIHBa, KaK npaBHJIO, IIpHMCII5IIOTCH OIIC- paUJiH, BbInOJIHHCMblC HC.lIHCTaHilIiOIlHO: nOJIY'lCIiHe reKcaqnopHJJ:a ypafIa, pa3.lICJICIIHC H30TOIIOB 235U H 238lJ lIa ra30.lIH<p<PY3HOHHbIX HJIH ICHTpli<PYJKHhIX YCTaIIOBKax H oc06eHHO B npOII.eCce TaK Ha3bIBaeMOH- pccpa6pHKaUHH TB3JIOB C npHMCHCIIHeM MCTaJIJIyprHIlCCKHX MeTO;lOB (npCCCOBaHIIC, H3rOTOBJICHHC Ta6JIeTOK, CIICKaHHC, H3roTOBJIeHHe c60- pOK Ii 1'. II,). ,.a.1H 3TOro Tpe6YCTCH, IlT06bl pa,lI,HOXHMHtJ:eCKaH nepe- pa60TKa 06. I IYIlCHHoro HJJ:cpHoro TOnJIHBa 06CCIICIlHBaJIa K03<p<PHUHCHT O'IHCTKII OT palHoaKTHBHbIX npO.lIYKTOB ,lI,eJIeHHH nOpH.lIKa 10 7 -10 8 . IlaH60.1cC 1I0JIHO TCXIlOJlorHIlCCKHM Ii 3KOHOMH'leCKHM Tpc60BaHH- HM OTBeIlalOT BO,lI,lIble 3KcTpaKilHolIHblC cxeMbI, KOTopbIe 06eCneIlJma- lOT CJIC,lI:YlOlUHe nOKa3aTeJIH H3BJIC'leUHH H pa3,ZI.eJICUHH ll.eHHbIX 3.'Ie- MCHTOB H HX OIlHCTKY: K03<fxl>HIJ.HeHT OIlHCTKH: ypaHa OT IIJI)'TOIIHH . . . . . . IIJIYTOHHH OT ypaHa . . . . . . ypaHa OT IIpO)l;YKTOB ,ne.ne!lHH. . IIJIYTOHHK OT IIpO,nYKTOB n:eJICHHK H3BJIelleHHe ypaHa H IIJIyrOHHSI, % CTeIICllb pcreHepal.{HH, %: a30THoii KHCJIOThI 3KeTpareHTa 10 7 10 6 10 7 1()8 99,9 95 99,7 113 06pa3YIOIlIHxCH npH 5I.lICpHbIX pCaKII.H5IX ueHHblX COCTaU.'I5IIO- lUHX 06JIYIlcHHoro TOnJIHBa (3TO oc06elIHo OTIIOCHTC5f K pcaKTopaM Ha 6blCTpblX HeihpoHax) nOMHMO HYKJIH,lI,OB caMHX ypana H nJIYToHHH HllTepCC npe,lI,cTaBJIHIOT HcnTYHIIH:, aMepHUHH:, KlOpHH, CTpOlIllHH, uc- 3HH H .lIp. LLeJIeco06pa3HocTb H3BJIeIleHHH 3THX 3JICMeHTOB ,lI,HKryCTC5I JlaCTOHTCJIbHOii nOTpe6HocTbi0 HOBOH: TeXHIiKH n HCnOJIb3yeMbIx elO MaTCpHaJIaX, nOCKOJIbKY MHorHC H3 nepe'lHCJIelillbIX 3J1'eMeHTOB 06JIa- ,lI,aIOT YHHKaJIbllblMH CBOHCTIaMH. KpOMC TOro, KOMTTJIeKCIIOCTb H3BJIC- IleHHH nOJIe311bIX KOMIIOHCIITOB B npHIIII.HIIC cIIoc06cTByeT nOBbIIlIeHHlQo 3KOHOMHIlHOCTH rrpoH3BO;:I.CTBa, B ,lI,aHHOM CJIYIlac aTOMIlOH 3HcprcTHKH 92 
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2) B03MO:>KHOCTb opraHH3alum nOCJIc,n:YIOr.u:cro ce.'ICKTHBIIOro pac. TBOpCHHSI Cep,lJ,C4HHKOB TB3JIOB II H3B.'IeqeHH51 uellHblX KOMnOHeHTOB 06JIY'leHHoro 51,lJ,CpIlOrO TonJ1HBa; 3) Y,lJ,aJICIIHe 060J10'leK H KOHCTPyKUHOHHbIX MaTCpIIaJIOB 6e3 IIX pacTBopcHH51 II 06pa30BaHHH :>KH,LI.KIIX OTXO,n:OB, '1TO n03BOJJ51eT oCY- r.u:eCTBHTb HX nOCT05IHHOe xpaHeHHe B TBep.u:OM KOMnaKTIIOM BH,il.e. PIIC, 6 7. ArpcraT ;J;,l!1 pe3KII TB3- .10B. I - r:peccoBaH YCTaHoBKa, 2 - 6JIOK HOMe", J - KaMepa 1I0)l.aQll, 4 - KaMe- pa KOHTpOH KYCKOB IlpaKTII'IeCKOe oCyr.u:eCTBJICIIHC npOUCCCOB MeXaHH'ICCKOrO y;I.aJIe- JlII5I 060JIO'leK TB3JIOB Tpe6YCT 3Ha'lHTCJIblIbiX KanHTaJIbHbTX 3aTpaT. KpOMe TOro, npH pC3Ke TB3JIOB 06pa3yeTc51 .J.OBOJIbHO MHOrO BbICOKO- aKTHBHOH nbIJIII(TOnJIIIBO) H nllpO<pOpHOrO MaTepHaJIa (UHpKOIIHeBbIe CnJIaBbI), '1TO, eCTCCTBeHHO, YCJIO:>KH5IeT 3KCnJIyaTaUHlo .u:aHlIoro Tex- HO,,10rW.leCKoro Y3JI3, oc06eHHO npH npOBe,lJ,eHIIII peMOJ!THbIX II npo- <p1I.TJaKTH'IeCKHX onepallHH. 6.5. XHMHileCKHe MeToAbl YAaneHHSI o60nO'IeK TB3nOB 060JI04KII TB3JIOB MO:>KHO Y,lJ,aJIIITb nYTeM HX p3CTBOpeHH51. :::hOT XHMH4eCKHH MCTO,lJ, ,lJ,OBOJIbHO ycnernHo npHMCH5IeTC5I B npollecce ne- pcpa60TKH 06JIY'IeIlHbIX TB3JIOB C 060JI04KOH II3 aJIIOMHIIHeBbIX cnJIa- BOB. JI.JI5I Y.J.aJIeHII5I 060.'IO'lCK H3 Hep:>KaBeIOr.u:eii CTaJIH II CnJIaBOB UHP- KOHIi51 OJ! IIC npHMeH51eTCH. MCTO,lJ, XHMII'IeCKOrO y.n:aJICHII5I 060JIO'lKH B HeKOTopbIX TeXHOJIOrII- tIeCKHX CxeMax npe,lJ,ycMaTpllBaCT COBMeCTIIoe paCTBopeHIIC II 060JIOtI- KII H TOnJIHBa. 110 ,lJ,PYrHM cxeMaM paCTBopCIIHIO nO,lJ,BCpraCTC51 TOJIb- KO 060.l0'lKa. MCTO,lJ, XHYlH'ICCKOrO y,lJ,aJIeHH5I 060.'IOtIKlf mncpeCCIl TeM, tITO ero MO:>Kl\O HCIIOJIb30BaTb ,lJ,JI5I nepcpa60TKH TB3JIOB, pa3Hoo6pa3- HbIX no reOMeTpH'IeCKOH KOH<pHrypallHH:, B TOM tIHCJIe H HCCTalI,lJ,apT- HbIX, Cyr.u:CCTBeHHbIM lIe,lJ,OCTaTKOM MeTO,lJ,a XHMH'IeCKOrO y,lJ,a.'IeHIIH' 060JIO'lKH SIBJI51eTC5I, KaK Y1Ke YKa3bIBaJIOCb, 3I1a'lHTeJIbHOe YBeJIH'lCHIIe 06'beMa :>KH,lJ,KIIX OTXO,lJ,OB H YCJIO:>KHeIlHC HX COCTaBa. 060JlOQKH H3 aJiIOMHHHH Hero CnJlaBOB. PaCTBopeIlH02 aJIIOMHHHC- BOH 060JIOtIKH TB3JIOB Ii3 npllpO,lJ,Horo MCTaJIJIH'IeCKoro ypall3 MO:>KHO oCyr.u:CCTBIITb B paCTBopax a30THOH KHCJIOTbI B npIICYTCTBHH KaTaJIH- 3aTopa - HIITpaTa PTYTH (B KOHlleHTpauHII npHMeplIO 0,0025 M 101 
Hg2+). B 3aBHCH:\10CTH OT KOHI.I,eIlTpau,HIl a30THOM KHCJIOTbI paCTBOpe- HHe aJIIOMHHHeBOH 060JIOQKH MO:>KHO npOBeCTH CC.'IeKTHBHO, nO'lTIi He 3aTparHBa51 MeTaJIJIllqeCKHA ypaH HJIH COBMeCTHO C nOCJIC,lJ,HIIM, QTO Aaer 3KOHOMHIO BO BpeMCHH. O,lJ,HaKO B 3TOM CJIyqae HY:>KHO C'IHTaTb- CSI C HeH36e:>KHbIM 3arp513HeimeM :>KH,lJ,KHX OTXO,lJ,OB nOCJIe,lJ,YIOr.u:HX CTa- .il.IlH ncpepa60TKH 3Ha'lIlTeJIbHbIM KOJIH'IeCTBOM cO.lcA aJIIOMHHIl51, 3a- TPY,lJ,II51IOr.u:HM COKpar.u:eHHe HX 06'bCMa npH ynapHBaHHII. 1103TOMY 'lar.u:e npH6craIOT K paCTBopCHHIO aJIIOMIlHHeBoA 060JIO'lKH B roP51QIlX paCTBopax WeJIO'lH (e,lJ,KOM HaTpe). 3TOT npou,ecc npOTCKaCT ,lJ,OCTa- TO'lIiO 6bICTpO no ypaBHeHllIO AI + NaOH + H 2 0 -+ NaAI0 2 + 1,5H 2 H cOnpOBO:>K,lJ,aeTCH BbI,lJ,eJICHHeM 29,4 MJI.:>K IIa 1 Kr pacTBopeHHoro aJIIO:\11111 IIH. 06pa30BaHlle BO,lJ,OpO,lJ,a C03,lJ,aeT onaCHOCTb nO:>KapOB H B3pbIBOB, 'ITO KpaHllc HC:>KeJIaTCJlbIlO, OC06CHHO CC:JIH Y'ICCTb BbICOKYIO pa,lJ,Hall.H- OHHyIO onaCHOCTb 06'bCKTOB nepepa60TKH. Il03ToMY 06bI'IIIO BbI;1:e.1C- BIle nO,lJ,opO,lJ,a n0LI.aB.l51IOT .LI.06aBKOA HHTpliTa IlJIH IIHTpaTa HaTpHH. EOJlbllIOH H36bITOK HHTpaTa IIaTpHSI cnoc06ell nOJIIIOCTbIO npe,il,OTBpa- TIlTb 06pa30BaHHe BO,lJ,OpOLI.a HJIIi aMMHaKa, eCJIIl C06JIIO,lJ,aIOTC51 yc- JIOBHH pCaKu,HH AI + NaOH + 1,5NaN0 3 -+ NaAI0 2 + 0,5H 2 0 + 1,5NaN0 2 . O.aHaKO YCTaHOBnCHO, tzTO MHHHMa.'lbHoro BbI.aeJIeHH!I B3pbIBoonaCHbIX ra30B M01KHO J{OCTHtzb npH rrpOBc.aeHHH rrpOll.ecca rro ypaBHeHHIO Al + 0,85NaOH + I,05NaN0 3 ..... NaAI02 + O,9NaN0 2 + 0, 15NH 3 + 0,2H 2 0. PaCTBopCHlie a,lIOMIIHII!I B IlI.eJIOqH npoTeKacT B COOTBeTCTBHH C KHHeTllqeCKHM ypaBHeHHeM peaKlI.HII rrepBoro rrOp!!J{Ka -dC;dt = K (SjV) C. I'.!le C - MOJI!lpHa!l KOHueHTpall.H!I IlI.eJIoqa B MOMelIT t; S - nJIOIll.aAb nOBepxHocTH aJIIOMHHH!I, CM 2 ; t - BpeM!!, MHH; V - 06"be\l pacTBOpHTeJI!I, :1. K:O!!CTaHTa CKOpOCTH peaKll.HH K =2,6.10-' JI/ (CM' MH!!). CKOpOCTb pacTBOpellH!I aJIIOMHHH!I B03pacTaeT C YBeJIHQeHHeM TeMnepaTypbl H KOHlI.eHTpaUHII IlI.eJIoqll H npH 100°C COCTaBJI!!eT (.aJI!I pacTBopa 10 % NaOH H 20 % NaNO g ) B cpeAHeM 0,1-0,15 MM/MHH. DOTep!! ypaHa BCJIe.aCTBHe ero norrYTHoro pacTBOpCHH!!, Kor.aa IICrrOJIb3ye'PC!I pacTBop NaOH B KOH- v;eIITpaUHH He BblUIe 30 %, OqeHb MaJIbi. CJIeAyeT TaK1Ke no.a.acp1KIIBaTb MOJI!lpHOe OTHOllieIlHe KOHlI.eHTpall.HI"i e.aKoro HaTpa II aJIIOMHHH!! B pacTBope lIe MeHee 1,65: 1 BO H36c)/(aHHe He06paTHMoro Bblna.aeHHH rH.!I:pOOKHCH aJIIOMIIH!!H B pe3YJIbTaTe pa3JIO- )KeUIIH aJIIOMHHaTa. OnHCaHHbIA npou,ccc, B '1aCTJIOCTIl, npHMeH51JICSI Ha 3aBO,lJ,e no ne- pepa60TKC 06JIY'leHHblx TB3JIOB <pHPMbI «EBpOKeMHK» B MOJIe (BeJIb- fIl51). Ha 3TOM npe,lJ,npHHTHIi onepau,IIIO pacTBopeHHH 060JIO'lKH npo- BOLI.HJIH B CJIC,lJ,YIOr.u:eM nOpHLI.Kc; BH3qaJIe BBO,lJ,HJlH' pacTBop e,lJ,KOrO HaTpa KOHu,CHTpaI.l,HeA He 60JIee 1..\1, a 3aTeM nOCTeneHHO ,lJ,06aBJIHJIH 10 M pacTBop NaOH, '1T06bI nOLI.,lJ,ep:>KHBarb 60JIec HJIH MeHce nOCTO- SIHHYIO CKOpOCTb npou,ecca. 102 
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B BO){HOH, TaK H B OpraHHtICCKOH <pa3aX (nOJIHMCpH3allHH, ,lJ,HCCOIIHa- I.I,HH, KOMnJICKC006pa30BallHC H T. n.). 3aKOH p3Cnpe,lI.eJIeHHH B O,lJ,H- HaKOBOH CTenCHH CnpaBC,lI.JIHB KaK ,lJ,JIH <pH3HtIeCKOrO, TaK H ,lJ,JIH Xlf- MlltIeCKOrO MexaHH3MOB 3KCTpaKIIHH. ECJIH p3Cnpe,lI.eJIHeMOe Ber.u:eCTBO 3KCTparHpyeTcH no XHMHtIeCKOMY MexaHH3MY (T. e. OHO nO,lJ,BepraCTCH H3MCHCHHIO), TO 3aKOH pacnpe- AeJICHHH lIenOCpe,lJ,CTBeHIIO CJIe.rr.yeT H3 paBelICTB3 XHMHtIeCKHX nOTeH- I.I,HaJIOB KOMnOHeHTOB B pa3HbIX <pa3ax H MO:>KeT 6bITb BbIpa:>KeH C Y4e- TOM aKTHBHOCTH <pa3 P T = a 1 /a 2 , f,J.e P T - TCpMO,lJ,HHaMH4eCKaH KOHCTaHTa pacnpe,lI.eJIeHHH; al If a2- aKTHBIIOCTb OpraHHtIeCKOH H BO,lJ,IIOH <pa3 COOTBeTCTBeHHO. Cor.laCHO 3TOH <popMYJIe OTlIornCHHe aKTHBIIOCTCH KOMnOHCHTOB B ,lJ,BYX <pa3ax B COCTOHIIHH paBHOBCCHH H npH nOCTOHHHOH TCMnepaType - BeJIHtIHHa nOCTOHHHaH. KOHCTaHTa pacnpe,lJ,eJICIIHH MO:>KeT 6bITb Bblpa:>KeHa C nOMor.u:bIO. 3aKOHa ,lJ,CHCTBHH Macc. TaK, ,lI.JIH HCHTpaJIbHbIX <poc<popopraIIHtICCKHX COe,lI.HHCHHH H 3<pHpOB peaKIIHH 3KCTpaKIIHH 3aKalltIHBaeTCH 06pa30- BaHHeM 3KCTparHpYCMoro KOMnJIeKCa, npaKTH'ICCKH He ,lI.HCCOILHHpO- BallHoro B OpraHH'IeCKOH <pa3C, M Z + + zA- -qS = MA z ' qS, f1I.e Mz+ - HOH 3KCTparHpyeMoro MeTaJIJIa; A- - aHHOH; S - 3KCTpa- feHT; q - COJIbBaTHOC tIHC.TJO (opraHH4eCKafI <pa3a 0603HatIClIa '1CpTOH Ha,lJ, CHMBOJIaMH). KOHCTaHTa paBHOBeCHH olIOH peaKIIHH, nOJIyqHBIIIaH lIa3BaHHe Tep- MO,lJ,HHaMHtICCKOM KOIlCTaHTbI 3K cTpaKu,HH , HMeeT BH,lI. K. (MAz.qS]yc = [Mz+)[A-)z1'+I[S)q1' . r,lI.e y - KOHI.I,eHTpau,HOHHble iK03<P<PHI.I,HeHTbI aKTHBHOiCTH (V::!:: - cpe.'!:- HHH K03<p<pHIIHeHT aKTHBHOCTII BO,lJ,HOH <pa3bI; 1'c - K03<p<PHllHeIlT aK- THBHOCTII COJIbBaTa B OpraHHtIeCKOH <pa3e; 1's - K03<p<pHHHeHT aKTHB- HOCTH 3KCTpareHTa). KBa,lJ,paTHbIC CK06KH 0603HaqaIOT KOHllCHTpaI.l,HIO COOTBCTCTBYIOr.u:HX COe,lI.HlleHHH HJIH HOIIOB. 3HatICHHH K03<p<pHIiHeIlTOB aKTHBHOCTH H3BeCTHbI B OCHOBHOM JIHrnb ){JIH HCMHOrHX KOMnOIlCHTOB B BO,lJ,HOH <pa3C, n03TOMY B TeXIIOJIOrHIi AJIH paC4eTOB qar.u:e nOJIb3yIOTCH TaK Ha3bIBaeMOH KOHlleHTpallHOHHOH KOHCTaHTOH R 6e3 ytIeTa K03<p<pHIL HeHTOB a KTHBHOCTH R = (MAz.qS) [MZ+) (A-J z (S)q . ECJIU D=Copr/CBOlJ,H, TO D=K[A-]Z[ S] q. CBH3b MC)K,lI.y KOHlleHT- pau,HOHHOH KOHCTaHTOH 3KCTpaKIIHH H TepMO,lI.HHaMHtIeCKOH MO:>KHO BbIpa3HTb B BH,lI.e q K - - K z+I 1's - 1' -. 1' 122 
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rH.n:pOKcaMOBble KHCJlOTbI, KOMnJleKCYIOI.l{He I.I,HpKOHHH H HH06HH. 3TJf: KOMnJIeKCbI HC BblMbIBaIOTC51 npll COf(OBOH OTMbIBKe H HaKanJIHBaIOTC51 B OpraHH4CCKOH <pa3e. TaKHM 06pa30M, YXY,lJ,llIeIIHe 04HCTKM llCllllbIX KOMnOHCHTOB OT npOf(YKTOB f(CJIeHHH 06'bHCHHeTCH B OCHOBHOM !IpO- f()'KTaMH BTOpH4HOrO pa3JIO:>KeHHH. HeCMOTpH Ha HHepTHOCTb pa30aBHTeJIH THna li-napa<pHlIOB, npH COBMeCTHOM rrpHCYTCTBHH C TB<P OIl BJIHHeT I1a <pH3HKO-XHMHLJCCKHe cBoikTBa OpraHH'ICCKOH <pa3bI. nO Mepe CHH)I{eIlHH KOlIllCHTpaIlHH TB<P K03<P<PHllHCHT pacnpef(eJlCIlHH 3KCTparHpYC:\lOro 3JICMeIlTa Y:'1CHb- waeTCH. Ha K03<p<pHllHeHT pacnpC1I.eJIeHHH 3aMCTHO BJIIfHeT TaKIKe npHpo.a.a pa36aBHTeJIH. cKOpOCTb pa3JIO:>KCHHH TB<P B pa3JIH411bIX pa36aBliTc.'IHX IleO,lJ,HIIaKOBa. ApOMaTH4eCKHC yr.'leBOf(OpOJl.bI 6JIaro.a.a- pH Ila.1H4HIO 6eH30JIbIlOrO KOJIblla OKa3hIBaIOT 3aIlU:lTIIOC BJIHHIIHC Ha MOJIeKYJIbI TB<P H npHBO,lJ,HT K CHH:>KCHHIO BbIXOf(a KHCJIbIX aJIKHJI<poC- <paTOB. C nOBbIIUCHHeM TeMnepaTypbI CKOpOCTb rH.n:pOJIH3a TB<P 3a- MCTHO YBeJIH4HBaCTCH. B TO :>KC BpeMH OHa CHH./KaCTCH C YBeJIH'IeHHeM ,lJ,OJIH pa36aBHTeJIH B opraUH4eCKOH <pa3e. TaKHM 06pa30M, 06pa3YIOIII.HeCH no;I. ,lJ,eHCTBHeM Yl3.'Y'ICHHH npo- ,lJ,YKTbI pa3JIO:>KeHHH TB<P H pa36aBHTe.1H CYUI.CCTBCIIHbIM 06p330M YXY,lJ,WaIOT npouecc 3KCTpaKI.I,HH: CHHIKaIOT K03<p<pHIIHCIIT 04HCTKH llCH- HbIX KOMnOHellTOB OT npOf(yKTOB f(CJIeIlHH, yXYf(rnaIOT pa3,lJ,CJIeHHe <pa3, YBeJIH'IHBaIOT nOTcpH ypaHa, nJIYTOHHH H HenTYHHH, nOBblllIaIOT ypo- Bellb aKTHBHOCTH B peI.l,HpKYJIllpYIOI.l{eM opraHll4eCKOM paCTBope. DpH IIepepa60TKe TB9.l0B peaKTopoB H3 TeIlJIOIlblX lIeihpoHax D HCXOJIHOM IIOA- HOM pacTBope IIPH KOHLleHTpaLlHH ypaHa 300 r/,'I cOJIep)KaUHe paJ{lIoaKrHBHblx npo- .ZI.YKTOB .ZI.eJIeHII!I B 3aBHCHMocrH OT rJIy6HHbI BblrOpaHII!!, KaMilallHIl peaKTopa H Bpe- MeHIl Ox.la1K.ZI.eHH!I TB9JIOB MO)Ker JIOCTHraTb 500' KH!JI, a npH nepepa60TKe TB9JIOB peaKTopOB Ha 6b1crpblx HeHTpoHax - 1000 KH/JI. B 9TO\ol CJIyqae 3a OJIIIH 060POT 9KCTpaKlI.II11 OpraHHqeCKa!l <jJa3a IIoJ{BepraeTC!! 06JIyqeHilIO B .ZI.03e JIO 1,08.10 fp. Ha nOBe.Zl.eHlle ypana, II.1YTOHH!I H HenrYHHH 9Ta .ZI.03a 06JIyqeHIIH He OKa3b1BaeT BJlII!lHH!I, HO B npOll.eCce 3KCTpaKLlHH B ro.10B110M anilapaTe 06pa3YlOIlI.lleC!I npo- .ZI.YKTbI pa3JI01KeIlH!I TE<t>-ME<t> H .z:I:E<t> (c KOHlI.eHrpall.lIeH 60JIee 1 r/JI) 6y AYT KOMnJIeKCOBaTb I.(HpKOIIHH, JKeJIe30 H J{pyrHe MeTaJIJIbI, 06pa3Y!! Me1K<jJa3Hble B3BeCH. 33TPY.Zl.H!!IOIlI.He IIpOBe.Zl.eHHe 9KcrpaKLlHoHHoro IIpoLlecca. DpH 9TOM He IICKJIlOqaeTCSI B03MO)KHOCTb KOMnJIeKCOBaHH!I nJIYTOHII!! II ero nOTepH. HCrrOJIb30BaHHe 3KCTpareHTa 6e3 04HCTKH OT 06pa3YIOI.l{HXCH MOHO- M .n:H6YTHJI<poc<paTOB He3<p<peKTHBHO. Hcm6()JIee pacnpOCTpaHeHHbIM MeTO,lJ,OM pcreIlCpaI.l,HH 3KCTparCHTa Me2K,lJ,Y llHKJIOBbIMH ooopOTaMH HBJIHeTCH I.l{eJI04UaH HJIH Kap60HaTHaH npOMbIBKa. OpH 06pa60TKC' 3KCTPareHTa BO.lI.HbIM paCTBopOM COf(bI y.n:aJIHIOTCH B OCHOBHOM npOf(YK- TbI pa3JIO:>KeIlHH TB<I> B BH,lJ,e xoporno paCTI30pHMbIX B Bo.n:e HaTpHe- BHX COJleH o  2 (c 4 H s P)2 P "- OH o ,y' + Na 2 c0 3 -+ 2 (c 4 H.o)h P "- ONa + CO 2 + HO. 132 
TaK3H 06pa60TKa 3KCTparCHTa BnOJIHC OCTaT04Ha H n03BOJIHeT no- BTOpllO HcnO.'Ib30BaTb ero IlpaKTH'IeCKH C nepBOlla4aJIbilOH 3<p<pCKTHB- 1I0CTbIO. npH CO)J.OBOH: HJIH I.l{CJI04I10H npOMbIBKC y.u:a.TJ5ICTCH 4aCTb npO,lJ,YKTOB pa3.10IKeHH51 pa36aBHTeJIH. DpH HCITOJIb30BaHHH yr.qeBO)(OpO)(1I0ro pa36aBHreJI!! ITpO)(YKTbI ero pa3.'I01KeIlH5I 1I0crenellil0 HaKanJIHBalOrC!I B OpraHHqCCKOii <jJa3e, YXY)(II1a!l rHJ{pOJ{HllaMHKY npo- lI.eCca, YBCJIHqHBa!l IIPO)(o.'I1KHTeJIbHOCTb paCCJIaHBaHH!I <jJa.3 H CIIHJKa!l K03<jJ<jJIlLlHeHT OqHCTKH uellHblX KOMIIOHeHTOB. [J03rOMY 06b1qHO IIPH CYMMapHOH )(03e 06JIyqeHH!I OKO,10 7,2.10 5 rp 3KcTpareHT BblBO)(HTC!! H3 IIpouecca H nO)(BepraeTC!! 60.1ee rJIY- 60KOH pereHepaUIIH, HallpH\fep MeTO;:J.OM RaKYYMHOH )(HCTHJIJI!!UHH, HJIH IIpOCTO C1KllraCTC!!. EOJICC tzaCTO npOH3BO)(!!TC!! BblBOJ{ 'lacrH oTpa60TaHlloro 3Kcrparellra Ii BBe)(eHHe CBe1Kero. [JonOJIlleHHe CBe)KHM 3KcTparcII fO\f npOBO)(HTC!! TaKMC J{JI!I BOCIIOJIHCHH!I cro MexaHHtzeCKHX nOTepb, AOCTHralOIlI.HX IIPH HOpMaJIbHOM IIpoueccc 3KcII.lyaraLlHH HeCKO,1bKHX IIponenToB Ha I T IIepepa6aTbIBaeMoro CblPh!!. 3ro ITO- nO.QHCIIHe nOJIIIOCTblO HCKJIIOqaeT OlTaCIIOe naKOnJIelIIIC IIpoAYKroB pa3JIOMeIlH!I pa36aBHTc.'J!I. 11 Bce MC B YC,'IOBH!!X npoH3BoJ{cTBa oc06eHHo IIPH peMolITllblX pa6oTax. KOr)(a BblBe)(eHllblH 3KcTparcHT 3arp!!3H!lCTC!! (\faCJIaMH II )(p), nOBroplloe HCnOJIb30BaHHe ero He pCKO\fell)(yeTC!I. B 3TOM CJlY'lae BblBe)(ellllblH 3KcrpareHT )(OJI- 1KeH nOCTYIIHTb Ha 3axoponCHHe, KaK 06b1'lIIbIC OTXO,>IbI PcrCHcpHpOBarb ero 3KOHO- MHqeCKH HCBblrOJ{HO. JIyqIIlHH cnoco6 ero o6pa60TKH - C)KHraIlHC, KOTopoe npOBO- J{HrC!! C yqeTOM HaJIHqH!I B HCM IIJIYTOHH!! H <jJoc<jJopa 8.3. 3KCTpaK","JI ypaHa " a30THOH K"CnOTIol T&cP 3KCTpaKI.I,HH ypaHa. B TCXHOJIOrH4CCKHX a30THOKHCJIbIX paCTBopax nOCJIe paCTBopeIlHH TB3JIOB ypaH HaXOJI.HTCH B BHf(C ypalIHmIHTpaTa. 3KCTpaKIW5I ypalIHJIHHTpaTa TB<P onHC bIBaCTCH ypaBHeH HeM Uo+ + 2N0 3 + 2TB<P  U0 2 (N0 3 )2' 2TB<P. TepMOf(HHaMH4eCKYIO KOHcTallTY paBHOBCCH5I 3TOH peaKI.I,HH (KOHCTaH- TY 3KCTpaKllHII) MO:>KIIO 3anH caTb B BH,lJ,C K - [U0 2 (N0 3 )2,2TE<I>hc - [UO+[ [NO;F[TE<I>]21' I' . r f(e y= - Cpe,lJ,HHH: K03<p<pHIIHeHT aKTHBUOCTH HOHOB B BO,lJ,HOH: <pa3e; Yc - K03<p<p H U,IICHT aKTHBHOCTH COJIbBaTa 13 oprallH4eCKOH: <pa3e; YT- K03<P<P HlHeHT aKTHBHOCTH 3KcTpareHTa. IloCKOJIbKY K03<p<pHllHeHT pacnpe,lJ,CJIeHH5I CCTb OTHornCHHe aHaJIH- TH4ecKoH KOHueHTpallHH MeTaJIJIa B opralIH4ecKoH <pa3e K 3HaJIHTH4e- CKOH: KOHI.I,eHTpaI.l,HII MeTaJIJIa B BOf(HOH <pa3e DU02+ = COPr!CBOlI.H> 2 TO 3aBHCHMOCTb MC:>Kf(y K03<P<PHI.I,HeHTOM pacnpC,lJ,c.TJeHHH H KOHCTaH- TOU 3KCTpaKllHH MO:>KHO BbIpa3HTb ypaBHeHHeM 2 DU02+ = K [N03]2y [ TB<I> ]2 J!... = R [NO;F [ TB<P ]2, 2  133 
r,Jc K - KOHI.I,eHTpaI.l,HOHHaH KOHCTaHTa 3KCTpaKIIHH. TaKHM 06pa30M, K03<P<PHI.I,HCHT pac- npe;:r.eJIeHHH ypallHJI-HHTpaTa npH 3KC- TP3KllHH TB<P npHMO nponOpI.l,HOHaJIeH KOHCTaHTe 3KCTpaKI.I,HH, KBa.n:paTY KOH- ILelITpaI.l,HH N0 3 -HOHOB H KBaD:paTY KOH- u,elITpallHH cB060;:r.Horo TB<P. Pacnpc.n:CJICHHe ypaHHJI-HHTpaTa B pa3JIHI[HbIX KOHIICIITpallHHX VIC:>Kf(Y BOD:- HOlI <pa30H H paCTBOpa1H TG<P B pa36a- BHTeJIC nOKa3aHO lIa pHC. 8.2. 113 PHCYH- Ka BHJIIO, 4TO pOCT KOHlleHTpaI.l,HH ypaHa B OpraHH'leCKOH <pa3e 3aMeJJ:JIHCTCH no Mepe YBeJIH4elIHH cro KOHI.I,eIIT- paI.l,HH B BOf(IIOM paCTBOpc, 4TO CBH3aHO C YMClIbrneHHeM KOIII.l,eHTp3- I.I,HH CB06of(HOrO TB<P B OpraHH'leCKoi'r <pa3C. no TOH IKe npH4HHC CHH- :>KaeTCH KOHI.I,eHTpallHH ypaHa B OpraHII'leCKOH <pa3C npH p336aBJIe- HHH TB<P pa36aBHTCJleM. 5l.u:CpHOC TOnJIHBO B TB3JIaX HaXOf(HTCH B pa3JIHI[lIbIX KOMn03HHHHX C ,lJ,PYrHMH MCTaJI.TlaMH (Mg, AI, Mo H .u:p.), KOTopbIe npH pacTBope- HHH nepCXOf(HT B paCTBopHMble a30THOKHC.l bIC COJIH H CJIy){{aT Bblca- JIHBaTCJICM npH 3KcTpaKllHH ypaIIa. HaJIH4He B paCTBopax I!bICaJIHBa- TeJIeH npHBO.ll:HT K YBeJIH'ICHHIO KOHneIITpallHH HHTpaT-aIlHolloB, T. c. K nOBblrneIIHIO aKTHBIIOCTH BO,lJ,IIOH <pa3bI, a CJIef(OB3TCJIbIl0, H K POCTY K03<P<PHllHeHToB pacnpc.n:e.'IeIIHH ypalla. KpoMe Toro, KaTHOlIbI Bblca- JIHBaTeJIH CBH3bIBaIOT CB060f(HYIO BO,lJ,)' (rHf(paTHpYIOTCH) H TCM ca- MbIM YMeIIbrnaIOT aKTHBllOCTb BO,lJ,bI n CTeneIIb rH.n:paTaIlHH ypaHHJI- HHTpaTa. 4eM 60.'1bIIIC rHll.paTHpOsalIbI KaTHOHbI Bblca.'1HBaTeJIH, TC1\1 3<p<pcKTHBllee BbICaJIHBaHI1C H BbIllie K03<p<pHUHCHT pacnpef(c.TJeIIHH (Ta6JI.8.5). EMKOCTb oprauH4ccKOH <pa3bI no ypaIIY nporropuHOllaJIbHa COf(Cp- :>KaIIHIO B HCH TB<P. np3KTHLJCCKH CMKOCTb TCXHH4CCKoro IIcpa36aB- JICHHOrO TB<P npH6JIH./K3CTC5I K 400 r/JI ypaHa. 3TO 6JIH3KO K CTCXHO- ... 11::1  JOO '" s-'::- ::.: .. ., .,  .", 200 '" i:jj ""''' EH   100 I}   IJ 100 200 JOO ,tcmJ.qeHmpaqUQ i/paHulI-Humpama. 6 Oaf/Hali IpQ3e, r /11 fOO% PRC. 82. PacnpeJJ.eJlelIHC ypaHRJI-HHTpara npll 3KCTpaKUHH T5<1> pa3uaB,1eHHblM KepocHHoM 50 '10 JO 20 fO T a 6 JI II U a 8.5. CpaBHeHlle 3<jJlJ>eKTa BbiCaJIHBaHH!I ypaHa npll 3KCTpaKl(HH TBIJ> BblCaJlHBaTCJlb D KOl!uel!TpaUH>I BbIC3J1HBaTeJl>l B BO,'J.1I0M paCTBOpe, % (no Mdcce) NH 4 N0 3 NaN03 Ca (N03)2.4H20 Al (NOsh.9H20 Fe (N0 3 !a.9H 2 0 31,6 33,64 32,46 4,5 4,6 0,12 0,44 2,0 28,12 31,9 134 
MeTpHIIeCKOMY 3IIa'lCHHIO, KOTOpOe npH nOJIlIOM CBH3bIBaUHH TB<P ypaH'HJI-HHTpaTOM ,l(OJI:>KI\O COCTaBJIHTb 440 r/JI. 3KcTpaKHSI a30THoH KHCJlOTbI T6c)). B 330TIIOKHCJIO:vr p3CTBOpf' ypaHHklIHTpaTa npHcYTcTByeT 3IIa'lHTeJIbHOe KOJIH'IeCTBO cB060.n:HOH a30THOH KHCJIOTbI. Gila HMeeT cpaBHHTeJIbHO BbICOKHH K03<p<PHllHeHT pacnpeJJ:cJlcHHH, a B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT YCJIOBHH: 3KcTpaKILHH CJIY:>KHT BbI- ca.1HBaTCJIeM ,lJ,JIH yparra, nJIYTOHHH H HenTYHHH, B.'IHHH IIa HX KOH- CTaliTbI 3KcTpaKIHH. OT KOJIIeHTpauHH 330TIIOH KHCJIOTbI B 3HaqHTeJIb- HOH CTenCHH 3amlCHT BaJICIITIIOC COCTOHHHC 3KcTparHpycMblx BeI.l{CCTB H K03<p<pHIlHCHT HX O'lHCTKH OT p3.1.HOHYKJIHf(OB. IlpH pe3KcTpaKUHH ypaIIa KOIIlleliTpallH5I a.30TrroH KHC.l0TbI TaK:>KC HBJIHeTCH onpef(eJImo- IIHM <paKTopOM npH BbI60pc pC)KHMOBIIpoIlccca. OC06CIIII0 '1YBCTBH- TCJIbHbI K a30TIIOH KHCJIOTC 3KCTp3KIUlOIIHbIH a<p<PHllalK nJIYTolllIH H HenryHHH, OnepalllIH HX pa3,lJ,CJICHHH, cTa6HJIH3au,H5I BaJICHTHbIX <pOP1 H3BJIeKaeMblX 3JICMeHTOB. TE<P C 330THOH KHCJIOTOH 06pa3ycT no- CpC.u:CTBO:vr BOf(OpOf(HOH CBH3H COJIbBaTbl, pacTBopHMbIC B TB<P, o . . .HON0 2  (C4H90h P = 0 . . .HON '\ o . . .HON0 2 IloBc,l(cHHe HN0 3 npH 3KCTpaKllHH onHCbIBaCTC5I. )I.BYMH ypaBHCIIH5I.- MH: npH KOHICIlTp311HH cc .l{0 5 M 06p33yeTC5I. MOIIOCOJIbBaT + - --- H + NO;;- + TB<P  HN0 3 . TB<P, a npH KOHelITpaIlHH BbIllle 5 M - f(HCOJlbB3T 2H+ + 2NO;;- -1- TB<P  (HN0 3 )2 TB<P. K03<P<PHllHCIITbl pacnpef(eJICHHH MOHO- H ;HCOJIbBaTa COOTBCTCTBelIHO BblpalKalOTC:H ypaBHcIIHHMH. Dl = K1lNO;] '\' [ TB<P ]..Y!- ; '¥c D 2 = K 2 [NO;] 2 '\' [ TB<P ] '¥T . '¥c r,lJ,c KI H K 2 --repMO.l{HHaMH4eCKHC KOHCTaTbl 3KCTpaKllHH; ,\,:!:-cpe,lJ,- HHH K03<p<PHllHeHT aKTHBIIOCTH HOHOB B BOf(IIOH <pa3e; ,\,c - K03<P<PHIH- ellT aKTHBHOCTH COJlbBaTa B opraHH4CCKOH <pa3C; ,\,T - K03<P<PHllHCHT aKTHBHOCTH 3KCTpareHTa (B KBaf(paTHbIX cKo6Kax - iKOIII.I,eHTpalUIH peareHTOB) . C BBef(eHHCM K-OHllCIITpaI.l,HOHHblX KOHCTaHT 3KCTpaKllHH K 3TH ypaBHellH5I. yrrpolllalOTCH: Dl = Kl [NO:!] [ TB<P ]; Dz = K 2 [NO;1 2 I TB<P ]. 135 
Ha pHC. 8.3 nOKa3alIO pacnpCf(CJICHHe a30TIlOH: KHCJIOTbI MCIK.u:y BOf(HOH H opraJIHQeCKOif <pa3aMH npH pa3JIHQHOif KOHu,cHTpau,HH TB<P, npHQCM rpalIIIUbl o6pa30BaHHH MOIIO- H f(HCO.lbBaTa HJIH HX CMCCH He YCTaJlOBJIeHbI. C nOBblrnCHHeM TCMncpaTypbl K03<pcpHllHeHT pacnpe.u:e- .1IeHH HN0 3 CHHIKaCTCH (pHC. 8.4). ':::\ C:> '< '-' <L  * :to '" '" %- "" _ 3 C;)""'>  <J; 2 :::\ :::r '"  0: <L :::r '"  --  ;-l I D HN ;;-- - - O,tf 0,3 0,2 ..1....I...J o I 2 3 * 5 6 7 B 9 IC !ill KOHl4eHmpaljUJ, HNO J IJ IJO(}'IOU. rpa3e, III PIIC. 83 PacnpeAeJICHHe a30TIlOH KIlC- JlOTbi MC)KJ{Y BOJ{llOii <jJa30H H opra.. IIH'JeCKOH: 1 - Hcpa36aBJlCHHbliI TBet>; 2 - 40 '/, TE</>+60 % KepOCHI!a, 3 - 20'/, To</>+ +80 % KepocHHa PIlC. 84. TeMncparYPHa!l 3aBHCHMOCTb K03<jJ<jJHHHeHTa pacnpeJ{e,1eHIl!! a30T- Holi KHC,10TbI npH [T5<1» = 1,47 M. UH<jJpbI Y KpllBbIX - KOHlI. e HTpaUHH a30rHoli KHCOTM B HCXOHOM pac- TlJOpe COBMeCTHaH 3KCTpaKI.I,HH 16<1> ypaHa H a30THOH: KHCJIOTbI. IlpH- CYTCTByIOllJ,aH B BO)I.HOH <pa3c a30T!laH KHCJIOTa OKa3bIBaeT CH.1blIoe I3JIH5IHHe I1a 3KCTpaKI(HIO ypa!lHJI-HHTpaTa TB<P. 3aBHCHMOCTb K03<p- <pJIlUIeIIToB pacnpe)I.eJICJlHH HIITpaTOB ypamiJIa, TOpH5I, nJIYTOJlHH H 3MCP}!HH5l MC:>K,lJ,Y OprallH'-ICCKOH H BO.u:HOH <pa3aMH OT KOHIlCHTpanHH a30THOH: KHCJIOTbl nOKa3aHa !la pHC. 8.5. lb pHcYHKa BHf(IIO, tITO C pOCTOM KOHueHTp311HH a30TIIOH KHCJIOTbI K03<p<PHUHeIlTbJ p3cnpc;:J:eJIe- HHH ypaHa, TOpHH H llJIYTOHHH pC3KO YBeJIH'IHBaIOTcH. Ho npH KOH- I.I,eHTpaI.l,HH KHCJIOTbl BbIlliC 6 M K03<P<PHUHCHTbl pacnpClIeJIelIHH CIlH- :>KaIOTC5I, TaK KaK B 3THX YCJIOBHHX OHa 3KCTparHpyeTCH 60JIee aKTHB- HO H n03ToMY YMeHbrnaeT KOHllellTpaUHIO cB0601IHOrO TB<P. IlpH BbI- COKOH KOHUeHTp3u,HH ypalla B BOf(HOM pacTBopc lIa6JIIOf(aeTCH KOHKy- peHllHH MCIK,lJ,Y ypaHHJI-IIHTpaToM H a30TI10M KHCJIOTOH 38 TB<P, B pe- 3YJIbTaTe KOTOpOH C YBCJIHL[CIlHCM KOHu,CHTpaUHIi U0 2 (N0 3 h B no,lJ,- HOH <pa3c npOHCXOf(HT BbITCCHCHHe HN0 3 H3 opraHH4eCKOH: <pa3bI. K03<p<pHu,HeHTbI pacnpef(CJICIIHH ypaHHJI-IIHTpaTa H a30THoH KHC- JIOTbl npH HX COBMeCTHOM I1pHCYTCTBHH B BO.1J:HOM pacTBopc B03paCT"- lOT npH HaJIHtIHH BbIca.'1HBaTeJICH, KOTOpbIC qaCTO 06pa3YIOTCH B pC- 3YJIbTaTC paCTBOpCHHH pH,lJ,a TCnJIOBblf(CJIHIOllJ,HX KOMn03HUHH. H3060- pOT, HaJIHtIHC HJIH BBCf(CHHe B paCTBOp TaKHX HOHOB, KaK CYJIb<PaT, <poc<paT, OKcaJIaT, XJIOpHf( HJIH <PTOPH){, pC3KO yxy f(rnaeT 3KCTpaKI.I,HIO 136 
PU(N0 3 )4 -19% T6lP £=:  '" g to-I :::> B- B- ...,  1:1;  10' ""  '1::> '" g.  toO  10 2 2 II 6 8 10 12 111 /(oH4eHmpaljuP Hila} 6 500HOM pacm50pe, M PHC. 85. 3aBllcilMoCTb K03<jJqmUHeHToB pac- npeJ{e.1CHH!I aKTHHOHJ{OB OT KOHueHTpaUll1l a30THOH KHCJIOTbI PIIC. 86. BJIIIJIHlle 'TeMneparypbl Ha 3KcrpaK- UHlO ypaHIIJI-HHTpaTa 30 %-HbiM pacTBopoM To<\> B KcpocllHe. l..lH<jJpbl y KpHBblX - KOH- lI.ellTpaUH!I ypaHa B BO}].HOH <jJa3e flu 1,0 O,45M 10- 3 o 20 ypaHa (VI), T3K KaK 3TH HOHbI 06pa3YIOT C HHM np04HbIe KOMnJIeKC- IIble COe,lJ,HHeHHH, nJIOXO HJIH npaKTH4CCKII COBCeM He3KCTparHpyeMbIe. C nOBblrneHHeM TeMnepaTypbI K03<p<PIIIIHeIITbl pacnpCf(eJICHHH ypa- HHJI-HHTpaTa YMeHbrnaIOTCH, 4TO 06'bHCHHeTCH BbI,lJ,e.'1eIIHCM TenJIa B PC3YJIbTaTe peaKI.I,HH 06pa30BaHlfH CO.1bBaTa (pHC. 8.6). 3THM 06CTOH- TeJIbCTBOM nOJIb3YIOTCH npH pe3KcTpaKllHH ypaHa (VI), KOTOPYIO .n:JIH 2:  10 ::: '" "''''  "' B- '" 1,0 8-@- '" <>  10- 1 a I Pu(NJ i 20 40 60 80 10D lIacblw,eHllc, ;0 PHC. 8.7. BJIlI!lHHe HaCblIlI.eHH!I opra- HH'leCKOH <jJa3b1 ypaHoM Ha 3KCTpaKUHIO ypaHa II nJIyroHII!I 30 %-HblM pacTBO- pOM T5<\> B KepOCIlHe 10-'  % '" >::> w-zl o , toO 200 JIJO {uj60iJH' r / A PHC. 88. BblTCCHeHHe a30THoH KHC- .10Tbl ypallH,l-HHTpaToM npll 3KcTpaK- lI.HH 20 % -HbiM pacTBopoM T5<\> B KC- pocHHe nOJIHOTbI BbIf(eJIeHH51 MCTaJIJIa H3 opraHH4eCKorr <pa3M npOBOf(HT npn nOBbIrneHHOH TCMnepaType. 110 Mepe HacbII.l{eHHH opraIIH4eCKOH <pa3bI ypaHoM (VI) ero K03<p<pHI.I,HeHT pacrrpe,lJ,eJIeHHH na.n:aCT, HO B TO :>Ke BpeMH Ha6JIIOf(aeTCH BbITCCHeHHe H3 Hee a30THOH KHCJIOTbl H nJIYTO- HHH (pHC. 8.7 H 8.8). 137 
8.4. 3KcrpaK"'HSI nnytOHHSI T&CD nOBeAeHHe nJlYToHHSI npH 3KCTpaKI.I,HH. Ha Bcex CTaf(HHX H3BJIeQC- HHH nJIYToHHH - OTl{eJICHH51 ero OT ypaHa, a<P<PHIJaIKHoH O'lHCTKIf. no- JIYQeHHH COJICM H OKCH,lJ,OB MCTaJIJIa - HC06XOf(HMO YQHTbIBaTb oc06eH- HOCTH n,TJYTOHHH. B npoI.l,CCCC ncpcp360TKH TCXIIOJIOrHtIeCKHX paCTBO- pOB B03MO:>KHbI rHf(pOJIH3 H KO:\1nJIeKCOBaHHe nJIYTOHHH C BbIIIa,lJ,eIlHeM OCaf(KOB. JI.JIH nJI YTOHHH (II I) rH.n:pOJIH3 npOHcxO,lJ,HT B OOJIaCTH pH::::::7+4, ,lJ,JIH n.TJYTOHHH (IV) -B 06JIaCTH pH371 H ,lJ,JIH nJIY- TOHHH (VI) - npH pH::::::5. EMKOCTb no nJIYToHHIO 10-30 % -lIbIX pacTBopoB TB<P OrpaHHqelIa H B 3HatIHTeJIbliOH CTcnCHH 3aBHCliT OT npHpO,lJ,bI pa36aBHTeJIH. IlpH nepCCbII.l{eHHH CHCTCMbI MO:>KCT JICrKO BbInaf(aTb TpCTbH <pa3a, cOf(Cp- :>KaI.l{aH COJIbBaT nJIyToIIH5I. B TO :>Ke BpeMH Hll.CpIlO-6e30naCHblC KOH- JCIITpallHH nJIYTOHHH OrpaHllqClIbI, tITO Tpe6yeT C03AaIUm 511l.epHO-6c3- onaCHOH annapaTypbI H CTpororo KOHTpOJIH. n.1YTOIIHH B BOl{I10M a30TlIOKHC.10M p3CTBope HaXOf(HTCH B meCTH-, 4CTblpex- H TpCXBa.'ICHTIIOM COCT05lIlHHX. IlpH 3KCTpaKllHH I/InpaTOB nJIYTOIlHH TB<P, T3K )KC K3K H B CJIyqac yp3Ha, npOHCXO,lJ,HT 06pa30- BalUle HCrH,lJ,panfpOBaIlHblX COJIbBaTOB n o ypaBIICIIHHM: 2+ -- PU02 + 2N0 3 + 2TB<P  P u0 2 (N0 3 h . 2TB<1> ; Pu 4 + + 4NO; + 2 TB<P  Pu (N0 3 )4' 2TB<P ; 3+ ---- Pu + 3NO; + 3TB<P  Pu (:'.J0 3 h. 3TB<P. 110 alIaJIOrHH C npHBe.n:cHIIbIMH BbIllIC ypaBJICHHHMH ,lJ,JIH ypalIH.'1- HHTpaTa 3aBHCHMOCTb MC:>K,lJ,Y K03<p<pHIHCHTOM pacnpC)I.CJIeHHH nJIYTO- HHH H KOIICTaHTOH 3KCTpaKllHH .n:JIH 3THX pcaKllHH HMeeT BH,lJ, 2 D p 0 2+=Kl[NO;f1I' [ TB<P ]2 =K 1 [NO;]2 I TB<P ]2; u 2 I'c 2 DPuH = K 2 [NO;]4y [ TB<P ]2l = K 2 [NO;]4 [ TB<P F; I'c 3 D Pu 8+ = K3 [NO;P I' I TB<P ]  = K3 [NO;P [TB<P]3. I'c A30TIIaH KHCJIOTa OKa3bIBaeT CHJIbHOC BbICaJIHBaIOI.l{Ce .n:CHCTBHC, tITO OC06CHHO 3aMCTHO ,lJ,JIH nJIYTOHHH (IV), K03<P<PHU,HCIIT pacnpC,lJ,e- JIeHHH KOToporo 3aBHCHT OT KOHlleHTpaI.l,HH HHTpaT-HOHOB B '1CTBCpTOH CTeneHH (CM. pHC. 8.5). O,lJ,HaKO npH BblCOKOH KOHI.I,eHTpaI.l,HH a30THoH KHCJIOTbI (6-7 M) npOHCXO,lJ,IiT BbITCCHeIlHe n.'YToHHH H3 OpraIlHqe- cKoH <pa3bI H CBH3aHHOC C 3THM na)I.eHHC K03<p<pHllHcHTa ero pacnpc- ,lJ,eJICIIHH. AlIaJIOrHQIIaH KapTHHa Ha6JIIOAaCTCH H npH 3KcTpaKIIHH nJIY- TOHHH (VI). fOpa3f(0 C.10:>KHeC nOBef(CHHe nJIYToHHH (IV) H oc06eHHo nJIYTo- HHH (VI) npH 3KCTpaKu,HH TB<P H3 pacTBopoB, co.n:ep:>KaI.l{Hx H a30T- HYIO KHCJIOTY, Ii ypaHHJI-HHTpaT. Ha pHC. 8.9 npHBe,lJ,CHa 3aBHCHMOCTb 138 
5 4 PHC 89. 3aBHcHMoCTb K03<jJ<jJHHHcIITa pacnpeJ{e.1e- IIH!! n.1YToIIH!! (V) OT KOIILleHTpal.(HH ypaHH.'I-HHT- paTa npH cOAeplKaHHH HN0 3 B BOJlIIOH <jJa3e 0,5M (1), 1M (2), 2M (3), 3M (4) II 4M (5) K03<pqHIuHcHTa pacnpe,'J.eleIIHH n.1YTOHIUI (IV) OT KOIIu,eHTpaUHlI YP aIIHJI-HHTP aTa IIpn pa3.1H'IIIOH KHCJIOTHOCTH BO;J.HOH <pa- 3bI. 113 pHCYHKa BHf(HO, 'lOT npHcyTcTBHe ypaHHJI-HliTpaTa f(aIKe B CpaB/lHTe.lbHOH MaJIOH KOlll1.CHTpaUHH pe3KO CHHIKaeT KO- 3<P<PHllHeIIT paCnpC;1.CJIeIlHH n.lyToIIHH. BJIHHHHe H3CblIItellHH ypaHoM OpraHH'Ie- CKOH <pa3bl Ha 3KCTpaKllHIO nJIYTOHHH (IV) nOKa3aHO lIa pHC. 8.7. TaKaH BbITeCH5IIO- I.l{aH cnoco6HoCTb ypaHHJI-HHTpaTa HaCTOJIbKO BeJIHKa, '1TO npH onpc- ,lJ,e.'1CHIIOH CTeneHH IIaCbII.l{CIIH5I ypaHoM OpraHH'IeCKOrr <p33bI n.'IyTo- HHH nOCJIe HeKOToporo HaKOnJICHHH B annapaTC npeKpaI.l{aeT 3KCTpa- rllpOBaTbCH. o 50 fOO 200 Joo flJO IfOHIjCH/npalluR !lPQHQ 660ONoU tpQ3e,rlA 13 TCXIl0.10fHH 3KcTpaKIUIolllIOI0 BbI,J.C.leIlH!! ypaHa H nJIyrOHHH 113 IICXOAHblX BO,1Hb!X paCTBOpOI\ TaKOC 1l0BCACJlHe 1l.1YTOIlI1I1 C03JI.aCT P!!:1. TpYj].HOCTii, TaK KaK, C OJJ.HOH CTOpOllbI, lIaKOIl.1eIlHC n,lYTOHHH B 3KCTpaKUHOIIHOM annaparc )1.0 npeJ{CJIb- Horo 31laqCIIHII MO)/(CT npHBCCTH J( HClKC.lare.lhHbIM nOTcpllM cro C pa<jJHllaTaMII, a c JJ.pyroH - npHBOJ{IIT K 1!0BblllleHIIl0 ero KOHuel!TpaHHH B CHCTCMC H B03\10JKHOMY B03HHKHOBeHHIO KpHTH'IeCKOrl MaCCbl. TaK, n HH)/(HCH 'laCTH 3KCTpaKLlIIOHHOH KO- .10HlIbI, rJJ.e ypaIlHJI-HHTpaT npaKTH'JeCKH OTCYTcrByeT, nJlyrolIHH 3<jJ<jJeKrHBHO 3Kcr- pampycTC!!; B BCPXHCii qaCTH Ko.10Hllbi ypallHJJ-HHrpaT BblTeCHHeT n.1YTOIIHH H3 OprallHqeCKoi1 <jJa3b1 (l!pOHCXOAHT KaK 6b1 pe3KCrpaKl1HH nJIyroHH!!), B pe3Y,%TaTe tJero nJIYTOIlHH lIaKanJJHBaeTC!! B cpCAHeH qaCTH KOJIOHlIbI, rAe ero KOHLleHrpaI1HH MO)Ker npCBblCHTb B HeCKOJlhKO pa3 HCXO,1HYIO HaKOnJIeIlHe nJIYTOHIIH npo.lIOJI)/(a- eTCH AO rex nop, nOKa 30Ha cro lWHlJ,eHTpHpOlJaHHH HC CMeCTHrC5I J{O HH3a KOJIOHHbI. Tor.lIa nJIyroHHH 6YJJ.er nCpeXO)l.HTb B pa<jJHHar Oc06ellHO JIerKO nJIYTOHHH HaKan- JIIiBaeTCH npH lIaJIH'l1l1l nJIYToHH!! (VI), xapaKTepH3YIOIlI.erOc!! cpaBIIHTeJIbHO HH3KHM K03<jJ<jJHuHeHToM pacnpeJJ.eJICHH!!. TeopcrH'lecKH npH OIlTIlMaJIbHblX pelKH\laX HaCbI- IlI.eIIIIH, 3KcTpaKLlHH H npoMblBKH B cMeCHTeJIHX-OrCroHIIHKax H npll 3HaqHTeJIbllO\l qHCJIe 9KCTpaKlI.HOIIHblX cTyneHeH B pe3YJIbTaTe IIaKOnJIenHH KOHueHTpall.H!! nJIYTo- HH!! MOlKeT YBeJIHqHTbCH 1I0 cpaBnellHIO C HCXOAHOH nOqTH B 50 pa3. TaK, B CJIyqae 3KCTpaKII.HII ypaHa II nJIYToHHH 30 %-HblMH TE<I> B napa<jJHHoBoM pa36aBHTeJIC npll HaCblIlI.eHHIl ypaHoM OpraHHqCCKOH <jJa3b1 AO 100 r!JI U0 2 (N0 3 !2 (TeMneparypa KOM- HaTHa!!) KOHueHTpall.HH IIJIyroHH!! B BOJJ.HOH <jJa3c :VJO)/(eT COCraBHTb 40 r/JI H BblIIIe, a B OpraIIH'lCCKOif <jJa3e npH AOCTHJKeHHH [Pu (N0 3 ) ,j 30 r/JI MOJKeT BbinaCTh TpCTbH cpa3a (co.1bBaT nJIYToHH!! C TE<I». DOBbIUIClI1fe TCMnepaTypbI cnoco6crByeT YBe.1H- qeHll10 pacTBopHMocrll COJIbBaTa B opraJIHQeCKOfi <jJa3e. BJIHHIIHC TCMnepaTypbI Ha K03<p<PHllHeHT pacnpe,lJ,eJIemlH nJIYToHHH\ (IV) nOK33alIO Ha pHC. 8.10, 1I3 KOToporo BHf(IIO, LITO K03<p<PHllHCHT p3Cnpef(CJICHHH nJIYTOIlHH B npHCYTCTBHH 3HallHTCJIbIlbIX KOJIHlleCTB yp3Ha YBeJIHllHBaeTCH C nOBbirneHHeM TeMnepaTypbT, TaK KaK YMeHb- llIeHHe KOHCTaHTbI 3KCTpaKI.I,HH ypaHa C nOBbIrneHlIeM TeMnepaTypbI 139 
npHBO,lJ,HT K YBeJIH'IeIIHIO KOHlleIITpaJJ.HH CB060ll:HOrO TB<P, a 3TO B CBOIO O'lepe,lI.b - K YJIY4WCHliIO 3KCTpaKu,HH nJIYTOHHH. 0,lI.H3KO ,lJ,JI51 paCTBopOB C HlI3KOH KOHIl(HTpaIlIICH ypaHa H CO,lI.Cp:>KaHHCM HN0 3 HH:>Ke 6 M K03cpq)lluneIlT p3cnpc.J.eJIeHHH n.'IYTOllHH YMeHbwaeTcH C pOCTOM TeMncp3TypbI. D ,- l r 5r/A '1 1.5 I I . PIIC. 8.10. B,ll1!!Hlle TeMnepaTYPbl Ha 3KcTpaKUHIO UJIYTO- IIHH (IV) H3 2 M BOl\IIOrO pacTBopa a30THoH KHCJlOTbl 20 %-lIbIM pacTBopOM TfiQ> B KepocHHe. I.J;H<jJpbl Y KPH- BblX - KOHueHTpaUHH ypaHH.l-IIHTpaTa B BO.l\HOH <jJa3e PHC. 8 11. BJIH!!IIHC <jJoc<jJaT-HoHoB Ha 3KCTpaKI.{HIO UJIYTO- HHH 30 % -lIh!M pacTBopoM TfiQ> B KcpocHHe IJ pu  4 3 0,5 2 0 0,04 0,08 12 30 40 50 [pot], "1 3 KCTpaKD.lilSl nJlYTOHHSI B npHCYTCTBHH ,lJ,pyrHx KHCJlOT. B BO,lJHbIX p3CTBOp3X, nocTyn3IOI.l{Hx 1I3 3KCTp3KU,HIO, nOMI1:\lO 330TIIOH KHCJIOTbI MorYT rrpaCYTCTBOB3Tb <pTOPH,lI.-, OKC3JI3T-, CYJlb<p3T- H X,'IOPH,lI.-HOHbI. KpOMC TOro, B npoJJ.ecce 3KCTpaKJJ.HH B PC3YJlbT3Te P3,lI.HOJIH33 TE<P o6pa3ycTcH <poc<popHa5I KHCJIOTa. 3TH HOIlbI 06p33YIOT C IIJIYTOHHCM (IV) np04Hble KOMllJICKClIbIC COC,lI.HHCHHH, '1aCTHlJlIO HJIH nO.1HOCTbIO p3CTBOpHMbIe B BO.II.e. BJIHHHHC KOMllJIeKCYIOI.l{HX 3HHOHOB 113 3KCTpa KIlHIO nJlYTOHHH (H YP3Ha) 60JIee 3aMeTII0 npH HH3KOH KHCJIOTHOCTH BO,lJHOrO paCTllO- p3 H YMeHbllIaeTCH B pH,lI.Y P0 4 3-> 50 4 2 -> F-> C 2 0 4 2-> Cl-. CJIC,lJY- eT OTMeTHTb, QTO .II.06aBK3 3THX aHHOHOB B HC60JIbWHX KOIIl.lCHTp3JJ.H- SIX He)KeJIaTeJIbHaH, no ,lI.onYCTHM3 npH 3KCTp3KU,HH ypaH3 H IIJIYTO- HHH. TaK, llPH paCTBopeHHH 06JIY4CHHOro H,lI.epHOrO TOnJIHBa B 330T- HOH: KHCJIOTC HHOr,lI.a ,lI.JIH nOJIIIOTbI BCKpbITH5I HepaCTBopHMbIX OCT3T- KOB ,lJ,063BJI51IOT ,.'J.O 0,05 M <pTOPH.II.-HOHOB. TaKaH KOIIJJ.CHTp3U,HH noCTO- pOlHlllX HOHOB np3KTH'lCCKH HC OTpa:>KaeTCH Ha H3BJIe'lelIHH I1JIYTOHHH. 3aBHcHMoCTb K03<p<pHI.I,HeIITa p3Cnpe,lI.eJIeHHH n.1YTOHHH OT KOHu,eIIT- paJJ.I-ill B nO,lI.HOM <pa3e H3H60JIec CHJIblIOrO KOMnJIeKC006p330BaTeJI5I- HOHa P0 4 3- npH 3KCTp3KI.I,HH ypaIl3 H nJIyTOIlHH 30 % -HbIM paCTBopOM TB<P B yrJICBO,lI.OpO,lI.IIOM p336aBHTCJIC I10Ka3aIl3 Ha pHC. 8.11. KOMll- JICKcYIOI.l{ee ,lJ,CMCTBHe aHHOIlOB II3 nJIYTOIlllH HCnOJIb3yeTcH npH no- BTOpHOH 3KCTpaKI.I,HH yp3Ha ,lJ,JISI OlJHCTKH ero OT nJIYToIIH5I. JI.JIH 3Toro B HCXO,lI.lIbIH: HJIH B npoMbIBHOH p3CTBOp ,lI.06aBJIHIOT I.l{3BeJICBYIO aJIH CCPHYIO KHCJIOTY B KOHICIITpau,HH, 06CCnC'IHB3IOUeH nOJIHOe KOMnJIeK- COBaHHe nJIYToHHH H nepeBO.II. ero B p3<pHHaT. 140 
8.5. Pa3AeneHMe ypaHa M nnYJOHM,. Pa3.u:CJICIlHe ypaHa, nJIYToHH5I, lIenTYIIH51 H 04HCTKa HX OT np0,lI.YK- TOB .u:CJIeHHH - Ba:>KHCHrnCe 3BeHO B npoI.l,ecce nepep360TKH 06JIY'ICR- Horo 51cpuoro TOnJIHBa - OCHOBaHO Ha pa3JIH4HH CBOHCTB 3THX 3JIe- MeUTOB B p33HbIX B3JICHTIIbIX COCTOHIIHHX. I1x xapaKTepliaH oco6eR- HOCTb - cIIoc06HOCTb cYIllecTBoB3Tb B BO,lI.HblX pacTBopax O,lI.ROBpC- MelIllO B HCCKOJIbKHX BaJICHTlIbIX COCTOHIIHHX. CJIe,lI.YCT Y1IHTbIBaTb, 4TO BbICOKaH pa,lI.HaJJ.HH CHJIbHO B03)eHCTBYCT H3 BaJIeHTHbIe COCTOHHHH Becx 3JIeMCHTOB. Kpo\1e TOro, npH [liNOa] :::::::3-4 M B BO,lI.IIO\1 pacTBo- pc B 3H34HTeJIbiiOH KOIIUCHTp3U,IIH lIaXO,lI.HTCH a30THCT3H KHCJIOTa, CHJIbliO BJIHHroII.I.aH 1I3 B3JIeHTllblC <pOpMbI nJIYToHHH H oc06eHHo Hcn- T)'HHH, B CBH3H C 4eM lIa Bcex TeXHOJIOrH'ICCKHX onepallHHx, f,lJ,e npo- HCXO)J.HT CT36HJIH3.<lIlHH 3JICMCHTa B BOCCT31I0BJIeHHOH <popMe, B ncp' BYro 04epe)J.b Tpc6YCTCH HCHTpaJIH30B3Tb ,lI.eHCTBHc a30THcTOH KHCJIO- TbI. B npoI.l,eccc CT36H.'IH33 U,HH B3JIeHTHbIX <pOpM n.1YToIIH51 H HcnTY- HHH 3aMeTIIYIO pOJIb HrparoT T3K:>Ke npHMccH lIeKoTopblX npO,lI.YKTOB ,lJ,CJICHHH (naJI.13,lI.H5I, TcxHeu,HH H )p.) H KOpp03HH (xpoMa H ,lI.p.). B pacTBop3X MorYT npHcYTcTBOB3Tb KOMnJICKC006pa30B3TCJIH (<pTOP, CY,,1b<P3T, CYJIb<p3M3T). Bcc 3TO 33TPY,lI.IIHeT p33)J.eJIeHHC ypaHa, nJIY- TOIlIl51 H HcnTYHHH H HX 04HCTKY OT npO,lI.YKTOB JI.CJICHHH. P331I.CJICHHe ypaHa H nJIYToHHH OCIIOB31I0 Jl3 TOM, 4TO rneCTH- H tICTblpCXB3JIeIITilble nJIYTOHHl1 H yp3H XOpOUIO p3CTBOpHMbl KaK B BOA- JlOH <pa3e, T3K H B 30 % -IIOM pacTBope TE<P B pa363BHTeJIe, a nJIY- TOHHH (III) n04TH Hep3cTBopHM B OpraHH'IeCKOH <p33e TB<I> (Ta6.1. 8.6). IlpH BOCCT3HOBJIeHHH nJIYTolIH51 ,lI.0 TpeXB3JIeHTHOro co- T a 6 ,'111 U a 8.6. CsoHcTsa ypaHa, HenTYHHII H nJIYToHHII B a30THOKHCJIoA cpe)l.e l(03i!J.pHD;HeHT paCl1pel\eJIeRUII aR- THHOHI\OB npH SKcTPaHH 19%-JIbPI OCHoBHoe pacTBopoM TB<f>B KepocHHe U9 COCTOflHHe,. CTa6HJlbHOCTb B pacTBopax HNO. BOI\HhlX pacTBopos OKHcneHHH 1 M HNO.14 M HNO.16 M HNO. U (IV) JIcrKo OKIICJIHCTCH - - - U (VI) CTa611JIeH 5 29 34 Np (VI) JIerKo BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH 2,9 11 10 Np (V) .D:llcnpOnOpll.HOIIHp Y eT npH BbICOKOH HH3KHH 0,13 HII3KHH KHCJIOTHOCTH Np (IV) JIerKo OKHCJI!!eTC!! 0,41 3,0 5,1 Pu (VI) Pu (IV) Pu (III) JIerKo BOCCTaHaBJIHBaeTCH 0,7 .lJ:HcnponOpll.HOHHpyeT "Pll HII3KOH KIIC- 1,4 JIOTHOCTH JIerKo OKHCJIHeTC!! 0,014 2,5 11,5 0,014 :1,4 20 141 
CTOHIIH5I OH nO.'IIIOcTbro nCpeXOD:HT B BO,lJ,HbIH BOCCT3HOBHTeJIbHblH pac-- TBOp H BbIBOD:HTCH H3 npOu,ecca, B TO BpeMH K3K yp31I UCJ1HKOM OCT3. eTCH B OpraHH'IeCKOH <p33C. HCnOJIb3yeMblH BOCCT3HOBHTeJIb )lOJI:>KeH OTBeQ3Tb CJIe.:r.yroIII.HM Tpe- 60B3HHHM: 06JI3,lJ,aTb BbICOKOH H36Hp3TCJIblIOCTblO npH p33,lI.CJICHHK yp3H3 H nJIYTOIIHH, 6bITb Cp3BHHTCJIbHO ,lJ,emCBblM H o6rne,lJ,ocTynllbIM; 6bICTpO H 3<p<peKTHBIlO nepeBOD:HTb nJIYTOHIIH H3 4CTblpex- H rnecTLI- BaJICHTHOro COCTOHHHH B TpCXBaJIeHTIIOC npH HCnOJIb30BaHHH Hc60.1b- rnHX 06DCOB BOCCT3HOBHTCJIbIIOrO paCTBopa C TeM, 4T06bI MO:>KHO 6bIJlO npOH3BO,lI.HTb KOHI.I,eHTpHpOB3HHe nJIYTOHH5I. O,lJ,HO H3 pcrnarornHx CBOHCTB BOCCTallOBHTCJIH - ero KHHeTH4eCK8H cnoc06110CTb. IlpoTHBoTO'lHaH onepaUHH BbIBO,lI.3 nJIYTOHHH H3 opr3- HH'IeCKOH <p33bl 06bI4HO npOBOJl:HTCH II3 BOCbMH HJIH D:CCHTH cTyncHSlx 3KCTp3KTopa C OrpalIH'ICHHhIM BpeMCHCM npe6bIBaHHH BOCCT3HOBHreJIH B KOHTaKTe C Opr3HH'ICCKOH <p330H. HcnblT3110 60JIbHIOe 4HCJIO BOC- CT3HOBHTeJIeH nJIYTOHH5I )10 TpeXB3JIeHTIIoro COCTOHHH5I B UCJI5IX HC- nOJIb30B3HHH HX ,lI.JIH p33,lJ,eJIeHH5I ypaH3 H nJIYTOHHH. 3TO - rH,lI.pa3HJI, rH,lJ,pOKCHJI3MHH, HOHbI :>KCJIC33 (II) II yp3H3 (IV), 3CKOp6HHOBaH KHCJIOTa, BO,lI.OpO,lI.. B nOCJIC,lI.lIce BpeMH H3Y'leII3 B03MO:>KHOCTb 3JIeKTpO- XHMH'ICCKOrO BOCCT3I10BJICIIIIH nJIYTOIIHH. HC,lI.OCT3TKOM rll,lI.pa3HlI3 H rH,lI.pOKCHJI3MHH3 HBJIHCTCH M3JIaH CKO- pOCTb BOCCT3HOBJICHH5I. C YBeJIH'ICIiHeM KOHlteHTpaI.l,HH nJIYTOHHH B p3CTBOpC rH,lI.p33HII CT3110BHTCH lIe3<p<peKTHBHbIM BCJIe,lJ,CTBHe He60.'Ib- 1lI0H CKOpOCTH peaKUHH. fH,lI.pOKCHJIaMHH 3<p<peKTHBCH TOJIbKO B YCJIO- BHHX ,lJ,.lHTCJIbHOrO KOHT3KT3 p3CTBOpOB (OKOJIO 7 MHH), npeBocxo- ,lJ,HllJ,erO npO,lI.OJI:>KHTCJIbHOCTb pa3D:CJleHHH <p33 B ceCHTeJIHX-OTcToi1- HIIKax HJIH KOJIOHII3X; npH BblCOKOH KHCJIOTHOCTH II36JIro,lI.3eTCH 3H3- '1HTeJIbIIOe p33JIO:>KeHHC rHD:pOKCHJI3MHH3. ACKOp6HHOBYro KHCJIOTY If BO.n;OpO,lI. HHor,lI.a HCnOJIb3yroT TOJIbKO IIa CT3,lI.HH a<p<pHHa:>Ka n.TJYToHHSI H HenTYHH51. Hall60JIbrnee npHMellcHHe B npOMblrnJIeHHOCTH H3rnJIH ,lJ,Ba BOCCT3HOBHTeJIH: :>KCJIC30 (II) H YP3H (IV). )l(ene3o (II). Ero HCnOJIb3YlOT H3 pa3JIH'IHbIX 33BO,lJ,3X B <popMe JIu60 CYJIb<p3MaTa, JIH60 HHTpara. CYJIb<p3MaT :>KeJIe3a HarneJI rnHpo- Koe npHMeHeHHe Ha 3aBO,lI.aX ClllA, neCMOTp51 Ha TO, 4TO npH 3TOM YBeJIH4HB3eTCH COJIeBOH COCT3B BO,lI.HbIX pa<pHHaTOB, a 06pa3yroI.l{HeCH CYJIb<p3T-HOIIbI OKa3bIB3roT KOpp03HOHHoe ,lI.eHCTBHe Ha annap3TYPY, oco6eHHO npH ynapKe. HOHbI :>KCJIe3a (II) 6bICTpO BOCCTaH3BJIHB3roT nJIYToHHH (IV) ,lJ,O TpeXBaJICHTHOro COCTOHHH51 Fe 2 + + Pu 4 + -+- Pu 3 + + Fe 2 +, a cYJIb<paMaT-HoH B3aHMO,lJ,CHcTByeT C a30THCTOH KHCJIOTOH NH 2 SO a H + HN0 2 -+- N 2 + H 2 S0 4 + H 2 0 If npe,lJ,oxp3HHeT HOHbI :>KeJIe33 OT OKHCJIeHH51. CKOpOCTb peaKUIIH B3aHMO.ll.eAcTBIIH nJIYToHIIH (IV) C lKeJIe30M (II) OIlHCIiBaeTCft> KHHeTllqeCKIlM ypaBHeHlleM - d [Pu (IV))/dt = k' [Pu (IV)] [Fe (II)]. 142 
KOIICTaliTa CKOpOCTH k' npllMeplIO 06paTHO npOnOpll.HOHaJIbHa KOHlI.eHTp a ll. lI11 HT_HOEOB npH nOCTOHHHOH IIOHIIOH CIIJIe. OTCIO.ZI.a, npHHHMaH BO BHHMaHHC, qTO '1aCTb Pu (IV) HaXOAHTC!! B fHApOJIH30BalilIOH <jJOp\lC, II npeHe6pei a!! rH,'J.pO.1H30Vl Fc2-r, ypaBHC[IHe CKOpOCTIl MO)/(IIO 3anHcaTb B BH.ZI.e - d[Pu (IV)]jdt = k [Pu (IV)] [Fc (II)]j(K + [H+]), r.Zl.e k - KORCTaHTa rll.Zl.pOJIH3a, a k=k' (K +[H +]). Cpe.Zl.Hee 3Ha'leHHe HCTHHHOii KOH- 'cTaHTbI CKOpOCTH k paBlIo 187,2:t4,4 \lHH- 1 IIPH IIOIIHOH CHJIe 2,03 H 2,5°C, a K=0,021. B TCXHOJIOrHtJeCKoii npaKTHKe Onepall.HIO BOCCTaHOBJICHHH nJIYToHIIH lKe- JIe3m! (II) OCYIlI.eCTBJI!!IOT npll HH3KOH (nOp!!.ZI.Ka 0,5 M) KOHlJ,eIlTpaUHH a30TIIOH KHc,mTbI. B CCCP B K34eCTBe BOCCT3I10BJiTCJIH npHMcHHroT HHTpaT :>KCJIe3a (II), 4T06bl H36e:>K3Tb KOpp03HolIHoro ,lI.CHCTBHH cepHoH KHCJIOTbI npH Xp3HeHHH H oc06eHHo yn3pKe p3<pHlIaToB. KHIfCTH4CCKH nponeccbI BOCCTaHOBJICHHH nJIYTOHHH IIHTpaToM H ,CYJIb<p3MaroM :>KCJIe3a (II) nO,lI.06HhI. 0.u:H3KO npH HCnOJIb30BaHHH IIHTpaTa :>KCJIe3a (II) Tpe6yeTcH .u:06aBJICHHe B BocCTaHaBJIIlB3roI.l{HH p3CTBOp cTa6HJIH33TOp3, rJIaBHblM 06p330M rH;:J:p33HII3, KOTOpbIH, TaK :>Ke KaK H cy.TI b<p 3 MaT-HOII, B3aHMO,lJ,CMCTBYCT C a30THCTOH KHCJIOTOM N 2 H 4 + 2HN0 2 -+ N 2 + N 2 0 + 3H 2 0 Ii npen5lTcTByeT OKHCJIeHHro :>KeJIC3a (II). YpaH (IV). B I.I,eJIHX CHH:>KeHHH CTOHMOCTH nepcp300TKH OTXO,lI.OB Ii pcrelIep3I.1,IiH KHCJIOTbl B npOMbIrnJIeHHOCTH B nOCJIe,lI.HHe ro,lJ,bI ,lJ,JI51 p331I.eJIe1IHH yp3H3 H nJIYTOHHH H343JIH npHMCHHTb ypaH (IV), He YCTyn3roI.l{HH no CBOHM Ka4CCTB3M :>KeJIe3Y (II). BOJIee TorQ, CY,lJ,SI no peD:OKC-nOTeIII.I,H3JI3M, yp3H (IV) K3K BOCCTaHOBHTeJIb CHJIbHee :>KeJIe- 3a (II). Yp3H (IV) BOCCTaHaBJIHB3CT nJIYToHliH (IV) no CTeXHOMeT- pH4ecKoH peaKI.I,HH 2pu 4 + + U 4 + + 2H 2 0 -+ 2Pu 3 + + UO+ + 4H+. IIpll nOCTORHHOH KOIlll.elITpall.lI11 H+-IIOHOB ypaBHeHlle CKOpOCTH IIMeeT BH.ZJ. - d [Pu (IV)[/dt = k' [Pu (IV)] [V (IV)] . C yqeTGM BJIllHIlHH H+-lIoHoB, rll.Zl.pOJlll3a IIJIYTOHIIH (IV) (K I =0,021 IIPH IIOH- HOH CHJIC 2 II 2,6°C) H rlUl.pOJIII3a ypaHa (IV) (K 2 =0,005) 3TO ypaBHeHHe MOlKHO .2allllcaTb B BII.ZI.e _ d [Pu (IV)) = k' [Pu (IV)J1V (IV)] = k [Pu (IV)][V (IV)] dt [W]2 (K 1 + [W]) (K 2 + [W]) I1cTHHIIaH KOHCTaiiTa CKOpOCTH npll IIOHHOH CIIJIe 2,05 H 2,6°C k=k'(K I + +[H+]) (K2+[H+]) = 14{):t5 MOJIb/(JI'MIIH). CJIe,lJ,OBaTeJIbHO, CKOpOCTb BOCCTaHOB.TIeHH51 YBeJIH4HBaeTCH C YMeHb- weHHeM KHCJIOTHOCTH paCTBopa (pHc.8.12). B 3aMeTHOH CTeneHH Ha KHHeTHKY npOI.l,eCca BJIH51eT KOHI.I,eHTpaI.l,H51 ypaHa (IV). KaK BH,lJ,HO H3 pHC. 8.13, 4eM BbIrne KOHI.I,eHTp3I.1,HH ypaHa (IV) B BOCCTaHaBJIHBaroI.l{eM p3cTBope, TeM 3<p<peKTHBHee npoTeKaeT ..npoI.l,ecc BOCCTaHOBJIeHHSI. KOHCT.<lHTa CKOpOCTH peaKI.I,HH, oupe,lJ,eJIeH- 143 
IIa51 B BO,lI.I10H 4>a3C, ,lJ,OCT3TO'lHO BCJIHK3, 4TQ6bI 06eCne4HTb 6bICTpOe- (T 1 / 2 ::<::0,3 MHH) BOCCT3HOBJIeHHC nJIYToHHH (IV) ypaHoM (IV) B hOH- TaKTopax, r,lJ,C npOD:OJI:>KHTCJIbllOCTb H3XO:>K,lI.eHIIH pacTBopoB B CMCCH- TeJIbHOH 30HC COCT3BJIHCT 3-4 MHH. Pa3pyrncHHe (oKlfCJIeHHe) ypaH3 (IV) npoTeKaeT 60JIce HHTCHCHB- HO, '1eM OKIICJIeHHe :>KeJIesa (II), nOCKOJIbKy OR (B OT JIHlfHe OT :>KeJIe-  ",,- i:;I 10- 1  i$ I '"  "'=> :0>:;- 10- 2  c:t '" :;j ::r <:j t-  ::r :r;  10- 3 0 r ---  L... (0-1 - '" I:>- ---- , I , .'" I   10- 2 <:j '"  "'"  :;j  10- 3 :;j ",.. <:j  '"   10-'1 o , . I , 1/.1 2 " 6 8 10 BoeMfl, MUH 12 1'1 (6 2 4 6 8 10 12 BpeAl/, MUH 1'1 16 PHC. 8.12. B.1HfllJlle KOHlI.eHTpalJ,JiIl asoTHoH KIICJIOTbI (lI.lI<jJPbl Y KpIlBblX) Ha KHHeTHKY BOCCTBHOBJIeHHH n.1YTO' HIIH (IV) ypaHoM (IV) PHC. 8.13. BJIH!!HHe KOHlI.eHTpallHIt ypaHa (IV) (lI.H<jJPbl Y KpIlBIiIX) Ha KIlHeTHKY BOCCTaHOBJIeHHH nJIYToHHif (IV) sa) 3KcTparnpyeTcH; 3H34HTeJIbHO H3BJIeKaeTCH H aSOTHCTaSI KHCJIOT3- (cTa6HJIH3aTOp He 3KCTparHpyeTCH), B PC3YJIbTaTe 4ero B OpraliHQe- CKOM <pase YP3H (IV) nO,lJ,BepraeTc51 OKHCJIeHHro )1;0 ypaHa (VI) H TeM caMbIM CHH:>KaeTCH KOHueHTp3UH51 ypaHa (IV) B BOtI:HOH <pase. B OTJIH'IHe OT npoI.l,ecca BOCCTaHOBJIeHH51 nJIYToHH51 (IV) :>KeJIe30M (II), KOTOphlH npoTeKaeT TOJIbKO B BO,lJ,HOM pacTBope, npoI.l,ecc BOC- CTaHOBJIeHH51 nJIYToHHH (IV) ypaHoM (IV) npOHCXO,lJ,HT KaK B' BO,lJ,HOH, T3K H B opraHH4ecKoH <pa33x. CKOpOCTb BOCCTaHOBJICHH51 nJIYToHHH (IV) ;:(0 TpeXB3JIenTHOro co- CTOHHHH He3aBHCHMO OT BOCCTaHOBHTeJIH MO:>KlIO yBCJIHIfHTb, eCJIH npo- I.I,ecc BeCTH npH nOBbIrnCHHOH TCMnepaType. O)l;H3KO 3TOH oc06eH- HOCTbro CHCTeMbi npaKTHlfeCKH He nOJIb3yroTCH, TaK K8'K npH nOBbIUIC- HHH TCMnepaTyphl B BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIH paCTBOp B 3H3QHTC.lIbHOH CTC- neHH pe3KCTp3rHpyeTc51 ypaH. B npOMblrnJIeHHbIX YCJIOBHHX p3CXO)l; BOCCTaHOBHTeJIH npCBOCXO,lI.HT ero CTeXHOMeTpH'ICCKOe KOJIH4eCTBO, npH4eM nepepacxotJ; ypaH3 (IV) no cpaBHeHHlO C :>KeJIe30M (II) rOpa3,lJ,0 BbIllIe. 144 
B OCHOBHOM 3TO o6YCJIOBJIeHO OKIfCJIeHlfeM ypaH3 (IV) II IIJIYTOIIIf!l (Ill) a30TIICTOH KHCJIOTOH II KIfCJIOpO.nOM B03,!!.yxa, npOTeKaIOIlI.H'd B OpraHHqeCKOii <jJa3e. O.nlfaKO HeJIb3!! IICKJIIO'laTb TaKlKe BJIIfHHlfe IIOHOB MeTa,'1.l0B nepCMelIIIOH Ba,leIITHO- CTII, npHCYTCTBYIOIlI.HX B nepepa6aTbiBaeMbIX paCTBopax, TaKHX KaK PYTeHIIH, TeXHe- Ullii, MOJIII6.neH, naJIJIa.nIlH II .np., KOTopble HBJI!!IOTCH 3<jJ<jJeKTIIBHblMIl KaTaJIJl3aTO- paMH MHOruX OKIICJIIITeJIbIlO-BOCCTaIlOBHTeJIblIbiX peaKlI.HH, B TOM qHCJIe C yqaCTHeM' HOMOB aKTIIHOH,'J.OB. HanpHMep, 06Hapy)/(eHO, qTO nJIYTOHHii (III), YCTOHqHBblii B. BO.l1HOM a30THOKHCJIOM paCTBope, co.nep)/(aIll.e\l rH,ilpa3HH, OKHCJIHeTC!I .nO qe:rblpex- B3J1eHTHoro COCTOHHH!! B npHCYTCTBHII MIIJlJIHrpaMMOBblX KOHlI.eHTpaUHH TeXHeumJ. TIepepacxo.n BOCCTaHOBHTeJIH B rrpOMbllllJIeHHblX KOHTaKTopax MOlKHO 061>HCIIHTb CJIe.nYIOIlI.HM. B fH.npo.nHHaMllqeCKIIX YCJIOBII!!X pa60TbI 3KCTpaKTopa Ha Bblxo.ne Bo.nHoro paCT BOp a H B CeKL\HH OTMblBKIl ypaHa 113 BO.nHOH <jJa3bI rrJIYTOHIIH B yco- BII!!X nOBblUIeHHOH KHCJIOTnOCTH (1-2 M) qaCTb rrJIYTOHHH (III) 6blCTPO OKHC.'1H- eTCH .nO qeTblpeXBaJIelITHOro COCTOHHIIH. Ha cTynelI1I BBo.na CBelKero BOCCTaHOBHTeJIH OH CHOBa BoccraHaB,'1HBaeTCH J{O TpeXBaJIeHTHOro He3KCTparHpYCMoro COCTOHHIIH, TaKHM 06pa30M, BHYTPIl KOHTaKTopa npOHcxo.nHT qaCTHqHaH PClJ,IIPKYJIHUIIH nJIYTO- 1I1f!! cor JIaCHO, lIarrpHMep, CJIeAYJOIlI.eMY MexaHH3MY: Pu4+ + Fe 2 + -+ Pu 3 + + Fe 3 +; Pu8+ HNO. .... Pu4+. TIoTpe61l0CTb B H36b1TO'lIlOM KOJIHqCCTBe BOCCTaIlOBHTeJI!! Bbl3b1BaeTC!! (KpOMC nOBbI- meHIlOH KHCJIOTHOCTH H naJIHqHH a30THCTOH KHC.10TbI) TaKJKC nll3KOH KOHueHTpa- J.J.lfeH BOCCTaHOBHTeJIH II npo.nOJI)/(HTeJIbIIOCTblO npC6b1BaHHH paCT BOp a B annapaTe IlpaKTH'IeCKH B YCJIOBHHX npoH3Bo.u:CTB3 Ha BOCCT3HOBJICHHe nJIY- TOHH51 :>KeJIe3a (II) paCXO){yeTcH B 2-3 pa3a 60JIbille pac4eTHoro KO JIHQeCTBa, a yp3Ha (IV) - B 4-5 pa3. Ha){o OTMCTIITb, QTO H36bITO'l- HbIM yp3H (IV) JICrKO BbIBO,lI.HTC51 H3 npollccca BMeCTe C nJIYToHHeM. YXY,lJ,rn3H reM C3MbIM K03<p<PHI.I,HeHT pa3,lJ,eJIeHHH ypaHa H n,'YTOHHH H OCJIO:>KH5151 ,lJ,3JIbneHrnyro CTa,lJ,Hro 3<p<PHHa:>Ka nJIYTOHHH. CJIe,lJ,OBaTeJIb- HO, pe:>KHM BOCCT3HOBHTeJIbHOM pe3KCTpaKI.I,HH .n;OJI:>KeH 6bITb TaKHM.. 4T06bI B 30He BbIBO,lJ,a nJIYTOHH51 nOMep:>KHBaJIaCb BbICOKaH KOHu,eHT- paI.l,H51 ypaH3 (IV), 3 B 30HY nO,lJ,nHTKH n9,lJ,aBaJIOCb TaKoe KOJIH4eCTBO TB<I>, KOTopoe n03BOJI51JIO 6bI 3<p<peKTHBHO 3KCTpampOBaTb ypaH (IV} H (VI). 3JIeKTpOXHMHQeCKHH: MeTO)l. BOCCTaHOBJJeHHSI nJJYTOHHSI. B nOCJIeD:- Hee BpeM B03pOC HHTepec K 3JIeKTpOXHMH'IeCKOMY MeTO,lJ,y p33,lJ,eJIe- HH51 ypaHa H nJIYTOHlI5I, KOTOpbIH: no H,lI.eC .l\OJI:>KeH YCTpaH51Tb He){O-- CTaTKH, B03HHKaroI.l{He npH HCnOJIb30BaHHH K3K :>KeJIe3a (II), T3K H ypaHa (IV). B npOMbIlllJIeHHOCTb 3TOT MeTO,lI. nOKa He BHe.n;peH, HO' YCHJIeHHO pa3pa6aTbIBaeTCH B YCJIOBHHX UOJIynpoMblrn.'1eUHbIX YCT3- HOBOK. B CJIO:>KHOH CHCTCMe 330THaH KHCJIOT3 - fH.l\pa3HH - yp3H - nJIY- TOHHH: npH 3JIeKTpOJIH3e npOTeK3eT 60JIbillOC 4I1CJIO XHMHQeCKHX pe- aKI.I,HM. CYMM3PH3H pcaKllHH BOCCTaHOBJICIIHH yp3H3 (VI) ,lJ,0 YP3H3 (IV) H3 KaTO,lI.C npH D:OCT3TO'lHO BbICOKOM KOHu,eHTpaUHH KHCJIOTbI OnHCbIBaeTCSJ yp3BHeIIlleM UO+ + 2e- + 4H+  U 4 + + 2Hp, Eo = 0,338. 145 
'TI3paJIJIC.lbHO MO)KCT npOTCKaTb OOpaTH351 peaKu,H5I OKHCJICHHH yp3Ha (IV) Ha alloAC u 4 + + 2H 2 0 -r UO+ + 4H+ -+ 2e-. B npv.cyrCTBHH rHApa3HHa B OOW.CH !!1/dIKe C aHOOVl H KaTOAOM pCaKlI.HH np07e- KaCT I1PH BblCOKOM ncpeI1anpHJKeHHH D03TOMY I1pCl\no.laraCTCH, qTO neI10Cp e .ll.CTBCH- liO Ha aHOl\C ypall (IV) nc OKIlC.'IHerC!! II qTO qaCTH'IHOC ero OKHc.qeHHC npOHCXO.ll.HT TO.lbKO KBK BTOpH'Ina!! pCaKUH!! B pe3y.%TaTC B3aHMO.ll.ei1cTBIiH C BbIe,l!!IOw.HMCH .KHC.10pO.ll.OM He06paTIIMblH xapaKTep pcaKUIiH UO+ -+U 4 I , a TaKlKe TOT <jJaKT. 'lTO aHO.ll.HOe OKHCJICHHC rH.l(pa3Hlla I1P(H!CXO.ll.HT Ilpll 60JIee HH3KOM nOTCHllllaJIe, qeM Tpe6YCTCH .lI..1H BblAe.lellHH KHCJIOpOAa, C03AalOT B03MO)/(HOCTb npH KOHCTpYlipOBanHIl '3.1eKTpO,lHTllqeCKoi1 aHnapaTypbl H36c)/(aTb IIpHVlClieIlH!! Me,,6paH. B npouccce 3,1CKTPO,lHTIIqeCKoro BoccraHOlJ;IellHH 11,1) TOIIHR O.ll.HOBpeMCHHO HJ{eT 3JIeKTpOJ{Hoe BOCCT2.HOBJIeIlHC HMelOw.eHC!! B CHCTeMe a30THOH KHC.l0Tbl no c.le.ll.YIOw.eH CYMMapHOH peaK11lIH: 3H+ ...).. NO:;- - 2e-  IlN0 2 + 2/1 2 0. 'OKIICJIIITeJIbIlO-BOCCTaHOBHTe.lbHbIH nOTCHUHaJI 3TOH peaKllHH no O:-HOIIleHHlO K HOp- MaJIbHOMY BO.ll.OpO.ll.J!OVlY 3:JCKTpO.ll.Y paBeH +0,94 B. B pe3YJIbTaTe B CHCTe\\C nOF-B- JI!!IOTCH 3IlaQHTeJIbHblC KOIlll.cHTpalJ,HH a30THCTOH KHCJIOThI. fHApa31111, A06aB.151clblH B cHcTeMY i]..1!! cTa6H,lH3aUHH n.1YToHIiH (J II) H ypaHa (IV), Ba3HMo.ll.eHCTByeT C a30THCTOH KHC.10TOH COrJIaCHO MCX3HII3MY N2Ht + HNO l --+ HN 3 ...).. 2/1 2 0 f- / r t ; HN a -I- HN0 2 -+ I\2 0 T N l + H 2 0, BCJIC,!{CTBHe '1cro YCTpaHHeTCH Bpc,llHOe BJIII!!HHC a30THCTOH KIICJIOTbI. lIap!!J{Y C pac- XO.ll.OBaHlleM rHJ{pa3HHa lIa pa3JIO)/(eIlHe a30THCTOH KHCJIOTb! B03MO)/(HO OKHCJIelIHe fH.lI.pa3HHa HenocpeACTBelIHO Ha allO.ll.e no peaKUHH NlHt -+ N 2 + 5H+ + 4e--. OKIICJIIITeJIbHO-BOCCTaHOBHTeJIbHbIH nOTeHlJ,HaJI peaKlJ,HH aHO.ll.HorO OKIICJICHHH rHApa- 3HHa no OTHOIIIeHll1O K BOAOpO.ll.HOMY 3JIeKTpO.1{Y paBeH - 0,23 B. 3To 3HaQHTeJIbHO HlIlKe nOTeHl].lIaJIa BbI.lI.eJIeHIIH KIICJIOpO.ll.a Ila ano.ll.e, paBHoro 1,23 B, B pe3YJIbTaTe pa3JIO)/(eHIIH BOJ{b!, QTO cyw.ecTBeHHo BalKllO npil KOHCTpYHpoBaHHH 3JICKTpOJIHTII- qeCKOH annapaTypb!. BOCCTaHOBJIeHHe nJIYTOHHH B CHCTeMe oCYII.I.eCTBJIHeTCH KaK nYTeM KaTO,lI.HOro BOCCT3HOBJICHHH nJIYTOHHH (IV) ,lJ,0 TpeXBaJIeHTHOro CO- CT05IHH5I, TaK H npH B33HMO,lJ,eHCTBHH ero C 06p33yror.u:HMC5I npH 3JIeKT- pOJIH3e ypaHoM (IV). IlpH pa3,lJ,eJIeHHH ypaHa H nJIYToHH5I BOCCTaHOBJIeHHe nOCJIe,lJ,HerO ocyr.u:ecTBJI5IeTCH B ,lJ,BYX<P33HOH CHCTeMe: 30 % -HbIM TB<P - BO){HbIA a30THOKHCJIbIH p3CTBOp. IlpH KOJIH4eCTBeHHOM npCBOCXO,lJ,CTBe opra- HH4eCKOH <pa3bI nJIYToHHH (IV) B OCHOBHOM UaXO,lI.IITCH B HeH II BOC- CTaHOBJIeHHe ero 3aTpY,lJ,HHeTCH pH,lI.OM 06CTOHTeJIbCTB. 06p33yroII.I.HeCB npH 3JIeKTpOJIH3e HHTPHT-HOHbl B BO,/\HOM pacTBope pa3pyrn3roTcH no ,/\eHcTBHeM ,lJ,06aBJIHeMOrO B cHcTeMY rH,lJ,p33HHa. B opraHH4ecKoA <pa- 3e fH,/\p33HH He paCTBOp5IeTC5I, a 330THCTaH KHCJIOTa XOpOIliO 3KcTpa- 146 
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rJIaBlIblM 06pa30M B BH,n:C HO.z:r;aTa, KOTOpbIH He y,n:aJIHeTCH npo,n:YBKOff B03.z:r;YXOM. npH 3KCTpaKUHH .z:r;o 50 % HOJ{a nepexo,n:HT B pa<pHlIaT, OCTaBUlaHC5I qaCTb lf3BJICKaeTCH 13 OpraHHqCcKYIO <Pa3Y, 06pa3Y5I C TB<1> KOMITJleKC h. TB<1>. OKOJlO ] % Ho,n:a nocTynaeT R I3eHTHJI5IUHIO co c,n:YRKaMH. K03<P<PHUl1eHT pacnpcJ{eJIellH5I Ho,n:a npl1 3KCTpaKIlHH pacTBopoM TB<1> B napa<pHHoBblX yrJleBoJ{opoJ{ax lie 3aBHCHT OT KOII- lLelITpaUHH Ho,n:a H TCMncpaTypbI, HO pC3KO YMeHbllIaCTC5I C POCTO\f KOHueHTpaUHH KHC.'1OTbI, HHTpaToB ypaHHJla H J{pymx MCTaJlJlOB. 1-13- BJICqCHHbIH B OpraHHqecKYIO <Pa3Y HOJ{ npH pC3KcTpaKuHH nJlYToIIHH H ypalla qaCTH'IIIO YXO,.'I,HT C pC3KcTpaKTaMH, OKOJIO 30 % Ho,n:a nona- ,n:aCT B lllCJIOqHble Bo,n:lIbIe paCTRophI nocJlc npoMbIBKH 3KcTpa rCIITa,. a OCTamUaHC5I qaCTb (OKOJlO 40 %) pelLHpKy.l11PYCT B ClfCTCMe ncpRo- ro UHKJla 3cKTpaKUHH }:(O YCTallOI3JICHH5I paI3HOnCCH5I MeiKJI.Y lIaKon.1C- IIHeM Ho,n:a H pacxo,n:oM 3KcTparcHTa. )1,0 HaCT05IIlI,CrO RpCMClI11 IIC 6hI- JIO C006ru:CHHH 0 BbIROJ(e 3KcTpareIITa H3 CHCTeMbl H3-3a BbICOKoro HaKOnJICHHH Ho,n:a B lIeM HJIH RJlH5IHH5I ero Ha npouecc 3KcTpaKuHH. OJ{HaKo Haxo,n:Hll(HHC5I B 3KcTpaKuHoHHOH CHCTCMe HOJ( nOCTenCHHO HaKan.1HBaCTC5I I3 OTXOi(ax, OKa3bIBa5I RPC).(1I0C BJIHHIIHC Ha pa,lJ,HOxH- MH'IeCKHe xapaKTcpHcTHKH BCCX BH,.'I,OB OTXOJ(OB. n03TOMY R CHCTCVlY 3KCTpaKUHH He peKOMCII,n:YCTC5I J{onycKaTb BbillIe 2-3 % HCXOJUIOIO co,n:ep2KaIlH5I Ho,n:a R TOIIJIHBC. nOBe)J.eHHe npo-!l.YKToB ,n:eJleHHSI npJf 9KCTpaKLI.HH. 04HCTKa ypaHa H nJlYTOHH5I OT pa,n:HoIIYKJlI1,n:OB B npolLecce 3KcTpaKUHH TB<1> OCIIO- Balla Ha pa3lIHUC HX K03<p<pHIlHeHTOB pacnpe,n:eJIeHHH (Ta6JI. 8. ]0). Oc060 CTOHT Bonpoc 06 04HCTKe ypaHa OT H30TonOB ue3H5I (I34CS IT 137CS), KOTOpbIH, 6YJI.Y'1H npe,n:cTaBHTCJleM I rpynnbi ncpl1oJ{HqeCKOH: CHcreMbl, xapaKTcpH3yeTC5I He3Ha4HTeJIbHbI:\1 K03<p<pHUHCHTOM pac- npeJ{eJlCHH5I, 110 TeM lIe MeHce OCTaeTC5I B IIC3Ha qHTeJIblIOM KOJIHqeCT- BC B KOHC4HOH npoJ{YKUHH. 3TOT Bonpoc J{O CHX nop He H3yqell. T a 6 JI H II a 8.10. K03t1JtlJHHeHTbI paCllpe.D.eJleHHH ypaHa. nJlYTOHHH H npoilYKToJl,. .D.eJleHHH npH 3KCTpaKH H3 3 M BO.D.HOro pacTBopa 1l30T/WH KHCJlOTbi B npHcYTcTBItIfI 200 r/Jl ypaHHJI-HHTpaTa C HCnOJlb30BaHHeM 30%-HOro pacTBopa 1611» B CHHrHHe (HacbIeHHe 1611» ypaHoM 60%. 25°C) 3JIeMeHT D !I 3JIeMellT D II 3JJ eM eHT D U (VI) 8,1 I HN0 3 0,07 Pu (1 II) 0.008 Pu (TV) 1,55 Zr 0,02 Nb 0,005 Pu (VI) 0,62 Ru 0,01 P33 0,002 ( )1,Jl5I YBCJlHqCHH5l K03<p<pHUHeIlTa OlIHCTKH OT Bcex npOJ{YKTOB ,n:eJlc- HH5I Hc06xOJ{HMO nOBbillIaTb HaCblru:CHHe OpraHHqeCKOH cpa3bI ypalioM (pHC. 8.14). 3TO 06'b5ICH5IeTC5I TeM, lITO C pOCTOM lIaCbIIl(CHH5I YMCHb- llIaeTC5I KO.1HqeCTRO cB060,n:HOrO TB<1>, TeM CaMbIM 3aKOIIOMepil0 Y!VIeHb- llIalOTCH K03<pcpHUHeHTbI pacnpe,n:CJICHH5I npO,n:YKTOB ,n:eJleIIH5I. EC.lli B paCTBOpe npl1CYTCTBYIOT He3KcTpampylOru:HCC5I HHTpaTbI MCTaJlJlOB, KOTopble He YMCHblIIalOT KOHLJ:eUTpaUHIO cBo60J{Horo TB<1>, HanpH!VIep 156 
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BMeCTO cJIa60ro a30THOKI1CJIOrO paCTBOpa ,n:JIH pe3KCTpaKUHH M02K- HO HCnOJIb30BaTb BO,n:HbiC paCTBOpbI COe,n:HHeUHH, 06pa3YIOur.HX C ypa- HHJI-HliTpaTOM KOMnJIeKCbI C HH3KHM K03<p<pHIJ.HeHTOM pacnpe,n:eJIeHHH. TaKHMH KOMnJIeKC006pa30BaTeJI5IMH MOrYT 6b1Tb Kap60HaT-HOH, ma- BeJIeBaH, YKCYCHaH, <pOC<pOpHa51 H cepHaH KHCJIOTbi. O,n:HaKO O,n:Illf KOMnJleKC006pa30BaTeJIH 06pa3YIOT npH pe3KCTpaKUHH HcpaCTBopH- Mble COJIH, ,n:pyrHe uenpHro,n:HbI ,n:JIH ,n:aJIblIeHIlJCH nepepa60TKH. no 3THM C006pa2KeHHHM pC3KCTpaKUHH C KOMnJIeKC006pa30I3aTeJIHMH npaKTH'IeCKH He npHMCHHCTCH. H3BeCTHO, '1TO K03<p<pHUHeHT pacnpc,n:eJICIIHH ypaHa 3aBHCHT OT KOHueHTpaU:HH TB<I> B pa36aBHTeJIe. COBepllIeHHO OqeBH,n:HO, lITO npH YMenbllIeHHH KOHueIlTpaUHH TB<I> HHiKe 30 % pe3KcTpaKUHH ypaHa npoTeKaeT 60JIee ycnellIHo, a, HanpHMep, H3 10 % -HbIX pacTBopoB TB<I> B pa36aBHTeJIe ypaH cpaBHHTeJlbHO JIerKO nOJIIIOCTblO nCpeXO.D:HT B CJla60KHCJIbIH BO,n:HbIH pacTBop 6e3 no,n:orpeBa. OIJHCTKa 06opoTHoro OpraHHIJeCKOrO pacTBopa. npM rJly6HHe BbI- ropaHHH TOnJIHBa ,n:o 30000 MBT'CYT/T H OXJIaiK,n:eHHII 2-3 rO.D:a aK- THBIlOCTb Hcxo,n:Horo Bo,n:Horo pacTBopa, nocTyrralOUJ.ero Ha nepBbIH lI.HKJI 3KcTpaKU:HH, KOJIe6JIeTCH B npe,n:eJIax 100-250 KH/JI. 3a O.z:r;HH 060POT (U:HKJI) 3KcTpaKUHH OpraHHqeCKaH <pa3a nOJI:BepraeTC5I .D:03e 06JIYQeHHH 8,64.10 2 -1,8.10 3 fp. npH 3TOM CJIe.a.yeT 02KH,n:aTb Ha- KOnJIeHHH ,n:H6YTHJI<POC<pOpHOH KIICJIOTbi B cpe,n:HcM 100-150 Mr/JI. 4aCTHqHO npoHcxo,n:HT 06pa30BaHHe npo,n:YKTOB HHTpoBaHHH H OKHC- JICHH5I. GllbiT pa60Tbi IIpOMbillIJICHllbiX YCTaHOBOK 1I0Ka3aJI, '1TO TaKoe HaKOll,lCHHe IIpO- AYKTOB XHMHqeCKOrO H paAHaIJ:HOIlHOro pa3JIO)KeHHSI OpraHH'-ICCKOH cjJa3bI He OKa- 3b1BaeT 3aMCTHoro BJIHSlHHSI lIa IIpOIJ:CCC 3KCTpaKIJ:HH. BCCbMa BCpOSlTHO, qTO IIPH 1l0BTOpHOM HCIIOJIb30BaHHH 060pOTHoro OpraHHqCCKOrO paCTBopa 6C3 Y,lJ.aJIeHIlSI IIpO.IJ.YKTOB rH,lJ.pOJIH3a H paAHOJIH3a HX HaKOllJICIIHC, IICCOMHCHHO, OTpHUaTC.lbHO 1l0BJlIISlJIO 6b1 Ha K03cjJcjJHUHCHTbI O'lHCTKH, rliApoAHHaMHKY IIpOIJ:CCCa II H3BJICqeHHe B llepBYIO O'lCpCAb llJIYTOHHSI. n03TOMY BO BCeX TeXHOJIOfH'IeCKHX CXeMaX ,n:eHCTBYIOUJ.HX M npo- eKTHpyeMbix 3aBO.z:r;OB OpraHHqeCKHH paCTBOp nOCJIC pe3KCTpaKU:HH ypa- Ha no,n:BepraeTCH npOMbIBKe. 06bI'IHO npOMblBKa OpraHl1lIeCKOro paCTBO- pa npOBo,n:HTCSI B TaKOM 2Ke annapaTe, KaK H 3KCTpaKU:HH. )1,JIH 04HCT- KH OT ,n:H6YTHJI<POC<pOpHOH KHCJIOTbi npHMeHHIOT 20 % -Hble BO)];Hble pacTBopbl CO,n:bI H ru:CJIOlIH npH n = 10. YlIHTblBaH TOT <paKT, '1TO pe- aKU:HH CO,n:bI HJ1H ru:eJIO'lH C .z:r;HOYTHJI<POC<pOpHOH KHCJIOTOH npOTeKaeT Me.z:r;JIeHHO (,n:o 20 MHH), KOJIHqeCTBO annapaToB no,n:6HpalOT C paClIe- TOM Ha 3TO BpeMH. 06bIqHO HCnOJIb3YCTCH llIeCTb - BoceMb cTyneHeH CMCCHTeJIH-OTCTOHHHKa, H3 KOTOpblX nOJIOBHHY HCnOJIb3ylOT ,n:JIH OT- MblBKH CO,n:OH, a .z:r;pyrylO ,n:JIH OTMbIBKI1 ru:.eJIO'IbIO. B neKOTopblX cxeMax nOCJIe CO.z:r;OBOH H ru:eJIO'lHOH OTMblBKH rrpe,n:YCMaTpHBaeTCH npOMblBKa KHCJIOTOH. npOMbIBKa OpraHH'IeCKOrO paCTBopa nOCJIe BToporo H TpeTbero UHKJIOB 3KCTpaKUHH ypaHa H a<p<pHHaiKa nJIYTOHHH H HemYHHH 60- JIee npocTa B o<popMJIeHHH. nOcJIe OQHCTKH ero HanpaBJIHIOT Ha nep- BblH U:HKJI 3KcTpaKUHH ,n:JI5I no.z:r;nHTKH. HHor,n:a 3TO ,n:eJIaCTCH H 6e3 O'lHCTKH. 167 
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JIpO,n:YKTOB ,n:CJIeHHH, ypaHa H ,n:Pyrnx npHMCCeH OCTaeTCH )];OBOJIbHO .3<p<peKTHBHOH. TIpH nepepa60TKe TOnJIHBa peaKTOpOB-pa3MfI02KHTeJIeH Ha na.D.HH HOII006MeHHoro a<p<PI1IIa2Ka BbIHBHJIHCb .D.OnOJIIIHTCJIbHbIe TPY)];IIOCTH: pC3KO BbIpOCrneC KOJIH'IeCTBO nJIYTOHI1H nOTpe60BaJIO npH HCnOJlb30BaHHH annapaTOB C H,n:CpHO-6c30naCHOH reOMCTpHCH YBCJIH- "1JCIIHH '1HCJIa OCHOBHbIX H BcnOMOraTCJIbIIbIX annapaTOB, KOMMYHHKa- lJ,HH, KOHTpOJIbHO-H3MepHTeJIbHOH annapaTYPbI H np. n03TOMY npH ncpepa60TKe TOnJIHBa C BbiCOKOH rJIy6HHoH BbiropaHHH 3TOT MeTO.z:r; 8<p<pHHa2KHOH O'lHCTKH HencpCneKTI1BeH. A<P<PHHaJK nJIYTOHHSI 9KCTpaKlJ,Heii aMHHaMH. AMHHbI, oco6eHHO TpCTH'IHbIC, KaK 3KCTpareHTbI npHBJIeKalOT BHHMaHHe BCJIe)];CTBHe HX BbICOKOH H36HpaTeJIbHOCTH H HCKJIIO'IHTeJIbHO 60JIbliiOH conpOTHBJIHe- MOCTH K XHMH'IeCKOMY H pa)];HOJIHTH'ICCKOMY B03,n:eHCTBHIO. TIpocTbIe TpeTH'IHbie aMHHbI, 6Y,'I.Y'IH CJIa6bIMI1 OCHOBaHHHMH, B3aHMO)];eHCTBYIOT c KHCJIOTaH C 06pa30BalIHCM COJIeH no peaKlJ,HH R3N + HX  R 3 NHX. COJIH aMHHOB C ,n:OCTaTO'lIlO BbICOKOH MOJIeKYJIHpIlOH MaCCOH npaK- THqeCKH HepaCTBopHMbI B BO)];e H JIerKO CMellIHBalOTCH C pa3JIH'IHbIMH <>praHH'IeCKHMH pa36aBHTCJIHMH. K03<p<PHll,HeIlTbI pacnpc,n:eJIeHHH 3KC- TpampyeMbix .3JIeMCHTOB nOBblillalOTCH C YBeJIH'IeIlHeM )];JIHHbI yrJIe- BO)];OPO)];HOH 1I,enO'lKH B MOJIeKYJIe aMHHa. AIIHOHbI COJIH aM HHa JIC rKO 3aMeru:aIOTCH: R 3 NHX + HY  R 3 NHY + HX. .Cnoc06HOCTb aHHOHOB K 3aMeru:eHHIO CHH2KaeTCH B PH)];y CIOr< <N0 3 -<CI-<HSOr<F-. CB060,'I.HHH aMHH o6pa3yeTcH npH 06pa- -6oTKe COJIH ru:eJIO'lblO: R 3 NHX + OH-  R3N + HzO + X-. 3KCTpaKlJ,HH nJIYTOHHH (VI) TpCTH'IIIblMH aMHllaMH H3 HHTpaTHbIx epe)]; ocyru:ecTBJIHeTCH no ,n:BYM MexaHH3MaM (npHCOe)];I1HeIlHH H aHH- Olllloro 06MeHa): pu (N0 3 )i + 2R 3 NH N0 3  (R3NHh Pu (N 0 3 )6; Pu (N03)- + 2R 3 NHN0 3  (R 3 NHh Pu (N0 3 )6 + 2N03'. C TO'IKH 3peHHH TepMo,n:HHaMHKH 3TH peaKlJ,HH 3KBHBaJIeHTHbI H paBIlOBeCHble )];aHHbie HC YKa3bIBalOT Ha npe06JIa,n:alUie KaKOH-JIH60 H3 HHX. THnH'IHbIC 3Ha'lellHH K03<p<pHlJ,HCHTOB pacnpe,n:eJIeHHH MeTaJIJIOB npH 3KCTpaKlJ,HI1 0,3 M pacTBopaMH IUiTpaTOB nepBl1'1HblX, BTOpH'IlIbIX, TpeTHlIllbiX aMHHOI3 H '1CTBepTH'IHbIX aMMOlIHeBbiX OCHOBaHHH H3 2 M HN0 3 npHBCJI.ellbI B Ta6JI. 8.16. )1,JIH TpeTH'IHbIX aMHHOB xapaKTepHa BbiCOKaH H36HpaTeJIbHOCTb no OTHOilleIlHIO K nJIYToHHIO (IV). HH3KHe 3Ha 4CII HH K03<p<PHU:HeIIToB pacnpe)];CJICHHH nJIYToHHH (III) 11 (VI) no,n:'1CpKHBaIOT He06xoJJ:HMOCTb KOJIH'IeCTBeHHOH KoppeKTHpoBKH Ba- JIeHTHbIX <pOpM MCTaJIJIa ncpe)]; 3KcTpaKu,HcH. 113BJIe'leHHe npO)];YKTOB )l,CJIeIlHH OqeHb HH3Koe, H3BJIe'leHHe ypaHa (VI) TaK2Ke He3Ha'lHTeJIb- 181 
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npo.z:r;YKUHH. 113BJIe'leHHe HemYHHH HC npe.n.ycMOTpeHO. K03<p<pHUHeHY OtfHCTKH ueHHblX KOMnOHCHTOB OT npO,n:YKTOB ,lleJICHHH Ha nepBOM" BTOpO:\1 H TpeTbeM UHKJIaX paBeH 10 4 -10 5 , 10-10 2 , 3-10 COOTseT- CTBeHHO. Ha OCHOBaHHH 3THX )];aHHbIX, a TaKiKC aHa.1H3a jJ.aHlIbiX ony- 6J1HKOBaHHbiX Hcc.'1e,n:oBaHHH MOiKIIO npe,n:cTaBHTb npHIInHnHa.'lbHYro. CXCMY nepepa60TKH TOnJIHBa PBH. npoBepHcMble B lIaCTOHIII.eC BpeMH B MacwTa6ax onbITlibIX YCTa- HOBOK TCXHOJIOrH'IeCKHC CXCMbI BKJlI04alOT TPH UHKJla 3KcTpaKlLHH 30 % -HbIM pacTBopoM TB<I> B H-,n:O,lleKaHe. Ha nepBoM IlHKJIe 3KcTpaK- UHH lIe npc,n:cTaBJlHCTCH B03M02KHbIM ,n:OCTH'Ib TaKOH BblCOKOH CTenClIIr O'lHCTKH ypalla H nJlyroHHH OT npo,n:YKTOB ,n:eJIeHHH, KaKaH ,n:OCTHfHY- Ta npH nepepa60TKe TB3JIOB PTH. O,n:HHM H3 peliialOIII.HX <paKTOpOB- nOJIY'leHHH BbiCOKOH O'lHCTKH npH 3KcTpaKUHH HBJlHeTCH CTeneHb lIa- CbIru:CHHH 3KCTparCIITa. )1,.151 TB3J10B PTH TaKOC lIaCblru:eHHe 06bI'IHO no,n:,n:ep2KHBaeTCH B npe)];eJIax 90-95 r/JI. (K03<p<PHlLHeHT 04HCTKH paBeH 10 5 ). )1,JlH TB3.10B PBH HacblluclIHe 3KCTparCHTa JIHllIb 60- 70 %, '1TO, HeCOMIICIIHO, OTpHuaTeJIbHO CKa3bIBaeTCH lIa CTcnelIH O'lHCT- KH. nOBblCHTb lIaCbIw.eHHe 3KCTpareHTa npH nepepa60TKe TB3J10B PBH HeJIb3H BCJIc,n:CTBHe onaCHOCTH Bbma,n:CIIHH TpCTbeH <pa3bI H nOBbillIe- HMH nOTcpb nJIYTOIIHH C pa<pHHaTOM ,n:aiKC npM YBCJIH'IeHHH '1HCJIa cTyncHcH 3KCTpaKuHoHHOro annapaTa ,n:o jJ.CCHTH. CJle,n:yeT TaK2Ke ytrH- TblBaTb '1pC3MepIloe HaKonol1CHHe HeKOTopbIX npo,n:yKTOB ,n:eJleIIHH. TaK" Ha 1 l' TOnJIHBa aKTHBHOH 30lIbi npH rJly6HlIe BblropaHHH 100000 MBTX X cYT/T 06pa3yeTcH 11 Kr KceHOHa, 10 Kr ue3HH, 17 Kr pejJ.Ko3cMe.1hHbIX 3JICMeHTOB, 7,1 Kr PYTCHHH, 6,6 Kr UHpKOHHH H 5,4 Kr naJIoI1a,n:HH. 3,aeCb YMeCTHO OCTaHOBHTbCH Ha oc06emTOCTHX 3KCTpaKIlHH MaKpOKOHIlCHTpa- IlHH ypaHa H nJIYTOHHSI, xapaKTepHbIX TO.%KO ,a.151 ncpepa60TKH paCTBopOB C HX BbICOKHM co,acp)KaIIHeM ECJIH ncpepa6aTbIBalOT paCTBOp OT paCTBopellHSI TB3.10B PTH co cpaBIIHTeJIbHO HH3KOH KOHIleHTpaltHCH n.1YTOHHSI, TO npc,anOJIaraeTCSI 06pa- 30BaHHe B OpraHHqCCKOH q,a3c ,aBYX caMOCTOSlTe.lbHO CYIIlCCTBYIOIIlHX COJlbBaTOB ypaHa H IIJlYTOHHSI: U02(N03h.2 113<1>, H Pu (N0 3 )..2 15<1> COOTBeTCTBCHHO. DpH HaCbIIIleHHH ypaHoM OpraHHqeCKOH q,a3bI nJlYToHHH nOCTenelIHO HaKanJIHBaeTCH If annapaTe H OTTeCHSleTCSI B cTopony c6poca paq,HnaTa. DpH 3KCTpaKIlHH MaKpoKo- JIHqCCTB ypaHa H llJIYTOHHSI YCTaHoB.leHa HeH3MCHSle:vJOCTb K03q,q,HIllleHToB pacnpe,ae- .1CHHSI 1l0CJIe,aHcro BO BceM ,aHana30He cro KOHIleHTpaUHH IIPH nOCTOSlHIIOVl co,aep- )KaHHH ypaHa B BO,aHOM pacTBope' 15-300 r/JI B 2-4 M HN0 3 H 4-300 r/JI B 0,5-1 M HN0 3 . ::ITO SlBJICHHe MO)KHO 06'bSlCHHTb TeM, qTO npH ,llOCTaTOqIIO BbICOKOii KOHIleHTpaIlHH MCTaJI.lOB B paBHoBccHOH BO,aHOH q,a3e H, c.leJl.OBaTeJlbHO, npaKTH- qCCKH 1l0JIHOM lIaCbIIIlCHHH OpraHH'ICCKOro paCTBopa MCTaJI.laVlH H a30TIIOH KHCJIOTOfr KOHIlellTpaIlIISl cB060,aHoro 3KCTparCHTa CTpCVlHTCSI K HYJIIO. B 3THX YCJlOBHSlX nJlY- TOHHH ycnelI1HO KOHKypHpyeT C ypaHoM H 3KCTparHpYCTCSI, BepOSlTIIO, Y)Ke lIe CBO- 60.ll.HbIM 3KCTpareHTOM 110 H3BeCTIIOMY Mcxa1lH3V1Y Pu 4 + + 4NO; + 2T13<1> +,= Pu (NOsk2T13<1>, a CBSl3alIHbIM T13 <I> , B qaCTHOCTII ,aHCOJIbBaTOM ypaHHJI-HHTpaTa, no 06MCHHOH MO- JlCKYJISlpHOH peaKIlHH Pu (N0 3 )m + U0 2 (NOah' 2T13<1> +'= Pu (NOa)m' 2T13<1> + U0 2 (NOah. 191 
TIpH 60JIbIDOH KOHIJ;eHTpaIJ,HH ypaHa B CeCH Pu 4 --uq+ H npCH'IIYlIJ.CCTBCIiHOH '3KCTpaKIJ,HH ypaHa TEet> IlO cpaBliellHlO C nJIYTOHHe'll paBEoBccHC 1l0c.'1C.lI.IIeH peaKIJ;HH <C.lI.8HHyro BJICBO. Bc.'Ie,n:cTBHe CHIf2KCHHH K03<p<pHUHCHTOB O'lHCTKH ypaHa H nJIYToHHH Ha ncpBoM UHKJIe B pe3y.'IbTaTe yMeHbllIellHH Hacblru:eHHH 3KcTpareHTa BO Bcex TeXHOJIOrH'IeCKHX CXC!>1ax nepepa60TKH TB3JIOB PBH npe,n:yc- MOTpCHbi TPH UHKJIa 3KCTpaKlLHH KaK ,n:.1H ypaHa, TaK H ,n:JIH nJIYToHH. K HJIJIIOCTPHPYCMbI::\1 cxeMaM CJIe,n:ycT .z:r;06aBHTb CJIC.il.YIOru:He 3aMe- 'tJaHHH. ECJIH nJIYTOHHH He BblBO,n:HTCH H3 npou:ecca, a CJIe,n:yeT '1epe3 Bce TPH UHKJIa COBMeCTHO C ypaHoM, B03HHKalOT Tpy,n:HOCTH ero pe- :3KCTpaKU:HH, nOCKOJIbKY B YCJIOBHHX HH3KOH KHCJIOTHOCTH ypaH-nJIYTO- HHeBoro pe3KCTpaKTa (15 r/JI HN0 3 ) nJIYToHHH nOJIHMepH3yeTcH. no- 3TOMY Ha nOCJIe,n:HHe cTyneHH 3KcTpaKuHoHHoro annapaTa lIe06xo.z:r;HMO BBOjJ,HTb a30THYlO KHCJIOTY BbiCOKOH KOHueHTpaUHH (11 M), '1TO, He- OMHCHHO, 3aTpy,n:HHT BeCb XO pe3KCTpaKlLHH. C 3TOH TO'lKH 3peHMH BapHaHT cxeMbI C pa3,n:eJIeHHCM ypaHa H nJIYTOllHH npc,n:nO'lTHTeJIeH, 110 3THM iKe C006pa2KeHHHM ,n:JIH pa3,n:eJIeHHH ypaHa H nJIyroHHH BbI- BO,n: nOCJIe,n:llcro H3 npOIecca uc.1eco06pa3HO ocym:eCTBJIHTb na nepBOM II.HKJIe (<ppaIlHY3CKaH cxeMa npc,n:ycMaTpHBaeT BbIBO,n: nJIYTOHHH Ha nepBOM H BTOpOM UHKJIax). npH nepepa60TKe TB3J10B aKTHBHOH 30HbI H Topu:eBbIX 3KpaHOB B YCJIOBHHX COBMCCTHoro H3BJIe'leHHH ypana H n.TJYTOHHH 6e3 HX pa3.z:r;e- JIeHHH B KOHe'lllOM npo,n:YKTe 6y,n:CT co,n:epiKaTbCH H36blTOK ypaHa (3a '1eT TOp1l,CBbIX TB3JIOB). n03TOMY B CXCMe npe.z:r;YCMOTpeHa TaK Ha3bI- BaeMaH BblTeCIlHTeJIbHa51 pC3KCTpaKUHH n.1YTOHHH COBMeCTHO C ypa- HOM B COOTHOllIeHHH, npHrOHOM nOC.1C lIeKOTopOH KoppeKTHpOBKH ,n:.TJH pe<pa6pHKaUHH TB3JIOB. npOUCCC BbITeCHHTeJIbHOH pe3KCTpaKUHH 3a- KJIIO'IaeTCH B npO:\1bIBKC opraHHLfeCKOH <pa3bI, BbIXO,n:HI1I,CH H3 nepBoro :annapaTa ncpBoro Il.HKJIa, HC paCTJ30pOM BOCCTaIlOBHTeJIH, a BO,n:HbIM HaCblilI,eHHbIM paCTBopOM ypaHa, KOTOpbIH BblTeCHHeT nJIYTOHHH B CTpO- fO 3a,n:aIlIlOM COOrHOllICHHH C ypaHOM. 3TO COOTHOllIeHHe perYJIHpyeT- CH 06'beMOM no,rr,aBaCMoro Ha npOMblBKY paCTBopa ypaHa, KOHUCIlTpa- II.HCH B HeM nOCJIe,n:Hcro, a TaK2Ke KOJIH'IeCTBOM CBeiKcro 3KCTpareIna, paCTBopOM KOToporo npOMblBaeTCH pe3KCTpaKT nJIYTOHHH H ypaHa. .1J.JIH nOJIHOrO pa3,!I,eJIenHH ypaHa H nJIYTOHHH HcnblTblBalOT .z:r;Ba npOBepeHHbiX BOCCTaHOBHTeJIH: HHTpaT 2Ke.1e3a (II) B BH,n:C paCTBopa B m,n:pa3Hlle 11 HHTpaT ypaHa (IV) TaKiKe B rH,n:pa3HHe. ECJIH Y'lCCTb HX pacxo,n:, ,n:aJIeKO npeBOCxO,!I,Hru:HH paCLfeTHbIH, TO npH TaKOH KOH- II.eHTpaU:HH ypaHa ,!I,aHHbIH TCXHOJIOrHLfeCKHH npHeM 6y,n:eT He JIY'IllIHM. DOJlee nepcnCKTHBeH 3JIeKTpOXHMH'IeCKHH MeTO,n:, KOTOpbIH B HaCTOH- .LU.CC BpCM5I HHTCHCHBIIO pa3pa6aTbiBaeTCH ,n:JIH pa3,n:CJleHHH ypaHa H nJlYTOHHH npH nepepa60TKe TOnJIHBa PTH. .1J..'IH peaJIH3aUHH TeXHOJIOrHLfeCKOH CXCMbi perCllepaUHH TOnJIHBa peaKTopOB-pa3MH02KHTC.1CH, oc06eHHO npH KOpOTKOM ncpHO,n:c OXJIa2K- )J.CHHH, He06xo,n:HMO pellIHTb pH,n: np06.1CM, KOTopbIe HBJIHIOTCH cneUH- .q>H'ICCKHMH ,n:JIH ,n:aHIIOro THna TOnJIHBa H 06YCJIOBJICHbi BbICOKOH y.z:r;eJIbHOH aKTHBHOCTblO H BbiCOKH\1 co,n:ep2KaHHCM nJIYTOIIH5I. 06JIYQeHHe 3KCTpareHTa. O,n:HOH H3 OCHOBHbiX Tpy,n:HOCTeH npH ne- pepa60TKe TB3JIOB PBH MeTo,n:aMH 3KCTpaKUHH HBJIHeTCH pa,n:HauHoH- 11.92 
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1f3 06JIYtIeHHOrO TOnJIHBa PTH, 3Ha'lHTCJlbHO HC pa3JIHtIaIOTCH, TO ;I.JlH nJIYTOIIH5I 3TO pa3JIHqHe ReCbMa 3aMeTIIO. I130TonHbIll COCTaB il3BJIeKaeMOro nJlYTOIIHH TaKOI3, tITO R I1eM 6y,n:YT npOTeKaTb (a, n)- peaKHHH, R PC3YJlbTaTC KOTOpbIX nOTOK I1eHTpOIlOI3 COCTaBHT npHMCp- 1I0 300 HCHTp.j(c.r). TaKHM o6pa30M, npn nOBTopllOM npOH3I3o,n:CTBC TOnJIHBa H3 TaKoro nJlYTOIIHH Tpe6ycTcH 3ailHTa OT IICIlTpoHlIOro H3- .:lY'lCHHH H M02KeT R03HHKHYTh Bonpoc 06 3KOIlOMHLJCCKOH IlcJlcco06- pa3HocTH rJly60KOH: O'lHCTKIl UCHIIhIX KOMITOHeHTOI3 OT npo;LYKTOI3 ,n:e- JIeHHH. B pcrcHcpnpoBaIllIoM IIJ1YTOHIIH CO.1CpiKHTCH 3I1atIHTeJlbHaH ,n:OJl51 241 Pu (,n:o 4-5 % ), H3 I\OToporo co npeMCHe'V! 06pa3YCTC5I ,\,-aKTl1BlIhIH 241An, '!TO Bhl3bIBaeT He06xo,cw'V!OCTb }!.HCTaIlILHOIIHoro IIpORe):{eHH npouccca pe<pa6pHKanHII TB3.10B. O.i.UIHM H3 R03MOiKHhIX nYTCH pellICIIH5I 3TOH: np06J1CMbI 5I13J151eTCH 04HCTKa pereHcpaIHOHHoro n.aYTOHH5I OT I1aKOnHBlUCrOC5I aMepHILH5I HenOCpC;I.CTBeIIHO nepc;I. 113- rOTOR.leHHCM T133J10R C nOIIYTllbIM 113RJIeLJCIIIICVI noc.1C;IlIcro. 06pa6oTKa OTXO,n:OB. npI1 pcrCH2paIlHII Ton.1HBa P6H BO.1.HbIVlI1 MCTO,JaMH 06pa3yroTC5I B OCIIOUHOM TaKHC iKe ra3006pa3Hh1C, 2Kll,n:KHe Ii TBep}!.bIe OTXO.L(bI, KaK H I1PH lIepcpa60T!\C Ton.1HBa PTH, HO HX KO- ..lIllfCCTBO R03paCTaCT lIa nOp5l,1.0K. XapaKfCp np06"le1, CRH3allllbIX C 06pa60TKoll H YJJ.a.1CIIHeM OTXO}!.OI3 B nponeccc perCllepalLHH, ;1..'151 TOnJIHBa P6H npaKTH'IeCKH TOT iKC, '1TO H /1.JIH TOrrJlHBa PTH. )1,0- 1I0.1HHTCJlhlIhiC Tpy,n:HOCTH MorYT 6blTb BhI3BaHhI B03MO)KHbIMll OCTaT- KaMH HaTpHH Ha TR3.1ax HJlH B HilX, 60.1CC BblCOKHM CO.J.cpiKaHHeM Tpallcn.1YTOIIHCBbIX 3J1CMCIIT0I3 H npo,n:YKTOB ,n:CJIeHHH H 60JICe KOPOT- KHM nCpH0.10M Bbl,n:CpiKKH TOnJlHBa nepe}!. ncpcpa60TKOH. '4ACTb III nOnY"IEHHE OKCHAOB H3 PEfEHEPHPOBAHHOrO 'SI'AEPHOfO TOnnHBA r JlABA 9 npOH3BOACTBO OKCHAOB YPAHA 9.1. Oco6eHHocTM Hcnonb30BIHHJI pereHepHpOBaHHOrO TonnHBI B npouecce percHcpaUHll 06J1yqeHHOrO 5IJl.epHOro TOnJlHRa MCTO- )J.aMH TpI16YTllJI<poc<paTHoH 3KcTpaKILHH. ,n:OCTHraeTCH ,n:OCTaTO'lHaH O'lHCTKa ypalla H nJlYToHHH OT npo,n:YKTOI3 ,n:eJICHHH, n03ROJlHIOru:aH npoH3Bo,n:HTb HX ,n:aJIbHcHllIYIO ncpcpa60TKY 6C3 CnClLHaJIbiiOH 3alliH- Tbi OT HOHH3MpYIOru:ero H3J1Y'ICIIH5I. O,n:IIaKo npH 06J1Y'lCHHH ypalioBoro TOTI.1JHUa B 5I.z:r;eplloVi peaKTopc B HCM HaKanJlHBalOTCH 232U 11 236pU, pa,n:HoaKTllRHbJH pacna,n: KOTOpbIX .conpoBoiK,n:acTcH V-H3JIYQeIIHCM, npH4eM HeKOTOpbIC ,n:OLJepHHC npo- JI.YKTbI HX pacna,n:a 06J1a,n:aIOT K TO MY iKe - H V-H3JIY'leHHCM C BbICO- 7* 195 
KOH 3Hepmeif: 236pU a .... 232U _ 22BTh a .... 224Ra a .... 220Rn -+ 2,85 rot\a 72 rO,lla I, 95 ro;ta 3,64 cyr .... 216PO"" 2l2Pb (3- .... 212Bi a 55,3 c 0,15 c 10,64 ro;ta (3- I 66,6 MHH 64% 60.6JlHH -I -+ 20BTI 212pO (3- I 3, I MHH t B npouecce XHMH'ICCKOH nepepa60TKH 06J1YQeHHOrO TOnJIHBa 232U He MOiKeT 6b1Tb OT,n:e.1JeH OT ypaHa, a 236pU - OT nJlYTOHHH, '1TO npH- BO,n:HT K nOBbIllIeIlHOH l'-aKTHBHOCTH perCHepHpOI3aIlIlbiX ypaHa H nJlY- 'IOHHH. 06pa30Balllie HYK.'lHjJ:OB 232U If 236pU npOHCXO,IT,HT BCJIC,n:CTBHC TOro, QTO co.z:r;cp/KaI1I,HCCH n HCXO):{IIOM ypaIloBoM TOnJIHBC 238U, 235U H 234U B H,n:CpIiOM pcaKTOpc npeTcpneBaIOT c.'1C,n:YIOru:MC npCBpaIICIlHH: 23BU (n, 2n) 237U ()237Np (n, 21/) 236Np (, 50 %) 236pU (ex) 232U; 235U(n, y)236U(n, y)237U()237Np(n, 2n)236Np(, 50%)236PU(ex)232U; 234U (ex) 230Th (n, 1') 231Th () 23LPa (n, 1') 232Pa () 232U; 234U (n, 3n) 232U. a _ 208Pb , 3-10-' c KpoMe TOro, nOCKo.'IbKY HCXO.D:HOC ypaIIoBoc Ton.1HBO BCJIc,n:CTI3He pa.D:HOaKTHBlIoro pacna.n:a '1aCTH 234U H 235U CO.z:r;CpiKHT 230Th H 231Pa. 06pa30BaHHc 232U H,n:CT H no pCaKIH\IM 23°Th (n, y) 2:nTh ()231Pa (n, y) 232Pa () 232U; 231Pa (n, 1') 232Pa ()232U. TIoc.'Ie,n:HHe liCnO'lKH npcBparu:e1fI1H HrpalOT 3Ha'lHTeJIbHYIO pOJIl> npH 06.1YIIeuHH npHpo,n:Horo ypana, B KOTOpOM Bcer.z:r;a npHCYTCTByeT HeKOTopoe KOJIH'IeCTBO TOpHH H npOTaKTHHH5I, TaK KaK B npou:ecce nOJIY'leHHH coe,n:HIIeIlHH ypaHa H3 py,n: He y,n:aeTCH nOJIHOCTblO O'lHCTHTl> HX OT 3THX 3J1eMeHTOB. HaJlH'IHe TOpHH npHBOjJ:HT K 06pa30BaHMIO 232U H no peaKIHHM 232Th (n, 2n),231Th () 231Pa (n, 1') 232Pa () 232U; 232Th (n, 1') 233Th () 233Pa (n, 2n) 232Pa () 232U; 232Th (n, 1') 233Th () 233Pa () 233U (n, 2n) 232U, npH'IeM nepBaH uenO'lKa HBJlHCTCH OCHOBHblM nyTeM HaKOnJIeHHH (60- JIee 98 %) 232U H3 232Th. nOCKOJIbKY B npoliccce XHMHQeCKOH nepepa60TKH 06JIY'IeHHOrO ypaHoBoro 'IOnJIHBa 232U OCTaCTCH B pcrcHepHpoBaHHoM ypaIIc, a 236pU - 13 BbI)];eJIeHHOM IIJlYTOHHCBOM npo.n:YKTe, npH nOBTopHOM 06- JIY'leHHH ypaHa H nJIYToHH5I co,n:epiKaHHc 3THX lIYKJIH,n:OB 6y,n:eT B03- pacTaTb. TIpH'IeM HaKOnJIeHHe 232U H 236pU B ypaHoBoM TOnJlHBC npll! nOBTopHoM ero HCnOJIb30BallHH 6y.z:r;eT YBCJIH'IHBaTbc5I H BCJlC.D:CTBHC 196 
HaJIH4HH B perCHCpHpOBaHHOM JIH'IeCTBa 237Np: 236U (n, 1') 237U () 237Np (n, 2n) 236Np (, 50 %) 236pU (ex) 232U; 237Np(n, 2n)236Np(, 50%)236PU(ex) 232 1J. ypaHe 236U, a TaK2Ke neKOToporo KO- B CBH3H C HaJIH'IHeM nepBoH peaKU:HH HaKOnJIeHHe 236U B ypaHo- BOM TOnJIHBe BeCbMa HC2KeJIaTeJIbHO, TaK KaK cro npHcYTcTBHe Tpe- 6yeT nOBbIllICHMH CO)];ep2KaHHH 235U B perCHcpHpOBaHHOM TOnJIHBe npH npOH3Bo,n:CTBe TI33J10B ,n:JIH cJIe.z:r;YIOru:eH KaMnaHHH. O,n:HaKo npH o6JIY- 4eHHH ypaHoBoro TOnJIHBa B H.z:r;CpHOM pcaKTOpc npOHcxo.z:r;HT He TOJIb- KO 06pa30BaHHe 232U H 236PU, HO H HX 4aCTH'IHOC I3blrOpaHHe, n03T0- MY co,n:ep2KaHI1C 3TH X IIYKJIH.z:r;OB cyru:eCTI3eHHO 3aI3HCHT 01' YCJIOBHH 06- JIY'ICHHH (THna peaKTopa, <pJIlOeHCa HeHTpoHoB H npOJI:OJl2KHTeJIbIIO- cm KaMnaHHH). BCJIe,n:cTBHc pa.z:r;HoaKTHBHoro pacna,n:a 232U H 236pU co,n:epiKaHHe HX B pereHepHpoBaHHblx ypaHe H nJIYToHHH 6y.z:r;eT CHJIb- 1I0 3aBHCCTb H OT BpeMeHH BbI,n:ep2KKH oTpa60TaBllIero TOnJlHI3a ncpeJJ XHMH'IeCKOH nepepa60TKoH, H 01' .z:r;JIHTeJIbIIOCTH xpaHeHHH ero nOCJIC pereIIepaIHH .z:r;o nOBToplloro HCnOJIb30BaHHH B H,n:epHblx peaKTopax. 232U B OCHOBHOM 06pa3yeTcH B pe3YJIbTaTC pa,n:HoaKTHBIIoro pac- na,n:a 236PU, n03ToMY YMeHbllIeHHe BpeMeHH BbI,n:epiKKH oTpa60TaBllIe- ro TOnJIHBa MC2K,n:y BbIrpY3KoH ero H3 peaKTopa H XHMH4CCKOH nepe- pa60TKoH CHHiKaeT KOHu:eHTpauHIO 232U B pcreHcpHpoBaHHoM ypaHe, 1I0 YBCJlH'IHBaCT co,n:ep2KaHHe 236pU B nJIYTOHHH. YBCJII14CHHe BpeMeHH OXJIa)K)];eHHH 06JIY'ICIlIIblX TB3JIOB nepe.z:r; pcreIIepalLHeH Bbl3blBaeT 3a- MeTIIoe B03paCTaHHe KOHueHTpaU:HH 232U B ypaHe. B TO 2KC BpeMH Ta- Koe YBCJIH'IeHHC BbI,n:Cp2KKH npHBo,n:HT K HCKOTOPOMY CHM2KeHHlO KOH- 1I,CI!TpaUl1H 236PU. TaKHM 06pa30M, co.z:r;ep2KaHHe 232U H 236PU B pere- IIepHpoBaHHbIx ypaHe H nJIYToHHH 3aBHCHT OT MHOrHX <paKTopOB H KOHueHTpaU:HH 232U B ypaHe COCTaBJIHeT 2.10-7+1.10-100/0, a KOH- uCHTpaU:HH 236PU B nJIYToHHH 1.10- 5 + 1.10- 7% . BKJIa,n: 236PU H npo.z:r;YKTOB era pacna.z:r;a B cYMMapHYIO aKTHBHOCTb BbI)];e.'IeHHOrO H3 06JIY4eHHoro TOnJIHBa nJIYToIlHH He3Ha'lHTeJIeH, eCJIII cro KOHu:eHTpaU:HH He npeBblllIaeT 10- 6% . npH 60JIbllIeM co,n:ep2KaHHH 236PU lIe06xo,n:HMO Y4HTblBaTb, 4TO - H l'-aKTHBHblC npo.z:r;YKTbI era pacna,n:a 6y,n:YT c03,n:aBaTb pa,n:Ha1l,HOHHYIO onaCHOCTb npH H3rOTOBJIC- IIHH nJlYToHHeBoro HJIH CMellIaHHoro TOnJIHBa H TB3J10B Ha HX OCHOBe. npH 3TOM pa,n:naUHOHHaH onaCHOCTb np" npOH3Bo,n:CTse nJIYTOHHeBO- fO TOIIJlHI3a cyru:eCTBeHHO 3aBHCHT ot BpeMeHH xpaHCHH5I BbI.z:r;eJIeHHOrO IIJlYTOHH5I ,n:o nOBTopHoro HCnOJIb30BaHHH, C YBCJlH4CIIHeM KOToporo B pe3YJIbTaTC pa,n:HoaKTHBHoro pacna)];a 236pU B03paCTaeT KOJIH'IeCTBO 232U H COOTBCTCTBCIIIIO npO.il.YKTOB ero pacnaJ{a. CJIe,n:yeT HMCTb B BH,n:y, '1TO Bbl.z:r;eJIeHIIbIH H3 06JIY4eHHoro ypaHo- Boro TOnJlHBa nJIYTOIlHH npc,n:craBJIHeT C060H CMCCb H30TonOB, B KO- TOpOH 3IIa'lHTCJIbHYIO .z:r;OJIIO COCTaBJIHCT 241PU, KOTOpblH B pe3YJIbTaTe -pacna,n:a npCBparu:aCTCH B 241Arn. YBeJIH4CHHC BpeMCIIH xpaHeHHH IIJlYTOHHCBoro npo,n:YKTa npHBo,n:HT K HaKOnJICI!HIO B HeM 241Arn, a-pac- na,n: KOTOpOro conpoBoiK,n:acTcH I'-H3JIYQeHl1eM, H, CJlc):{oBaTeJIbHO, OH TaK2Ke 6y,n:eT c03.z:r;aBaTb nOBbIIIleHHYIO pa,n:HauHoHlIYIO onaCIIOCTb. DpH 197 
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paTa fla'lHHaeTCH npH HarpeBaHHH BbIIIle 160°C H npoxo,n:HT ,n:OBOJlbIlO 6b1CTpO npH TeMnepaTYPc 200°C C 06pa30BailHeM nOCJIe-,n:OBaTCJlbHO TpHrH.apaTa, ):{HrH,n:paTa, 3aTCM 6e3I3o,n:I1oro ypaHHJI-HHTpaTa H, lIaKO- HCll, TpHoKcH,n:a ypalla. CYMMapllblH npouecc MOiKHO onHcaTb ypaBHe- HHeM U0 2 (N03h' 6Hp -+ U0 3 + N0 2 + NO + O 2 + 6H 2 0. npl1 ,n:eHI1TpaUHH B BaKYYMe B HHTepBaJlC 250--450°C npo,n:YKTOM peaKUHH 51BJlHCTCH aop<pHbIH TpHOKCH,n: ypaHa. Pa3J102KeHHC cro npH aTMoc<pcpHOM ,n:aI3J1eHI1H H TCMncpaTYpc 300--500°C npHBo,n:HT K 06- pa30BaHHIO KpHCTaJlJlH'IeCKoro 1'-U0 3 . npH nOBbIllIeHHH TCMnepaTypbI ,n:o 600-900°C 06pa3yeTcH U 3 0 8 . BbI,n:CJIHlOlliHeCH B npou:ecce pa3J10- 2KCHH5I reKCarHJI:paTa ypaIlHJI-I1HTpaTa OKCH,n:bI a30Ta YJIaBJIHBalOT H I1CnOJlb3yIOT ,n:JlH nOJIY'IeHHH HN0 3 . 1-'13-3a HenpepblI3l1b1X H3MeHeHHil ypaIlHJI-I1HTpaTa npH <pa30I30M nepexo.L(e OT 2KHJ{KOCTH K TBep.n.oMY COCTOHIIHIO H Heo6xo,n:HMOCTH nC.1eJJ.CTBHe 3H.aOTCpMH'IIIOCTH npolLecca pa3JIOiKeHHH (tJ.H 573 = = 590 K)1,iK/MO.'1b) nOCTOHlllloro nO;1.Bo,n:a 60JlbliiOrO KOJlH'-IeCTBa TenJla oCYIII;eCTBJIeHHe npouecca )l;eIIHTpalLHH )1;0 nOJIY'lcHHH Tpc6yeMoro BbI- COKOKa'-IeCTBCHHoro npo,n:YKTa B npOMbIllIJIellHOM MacwTaGc BCTpC'IaeT onpc,n:e.1enHbie TPy,n:HOCTH. $H3HQCCKI1C CBOHCTBa nOY'IeHHblX OKCH)I;OB 3aBHCHT OT YCJIOBHH npOBe;1.eIIHH npouecca ,n:CHHTpaU:HH (KOHCTPYKUHH annapaTa, TeMne- paTypbI, ,n:aBJIeHHH H T. n.). TaK, B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT YCJlOBHH nOJIY'Ie- IIHH HaCbInHaH Macca U0 3 MOiKCT H3MeHHTbCH B npe)];eJlax 0,65- 4,6 r/cM 3 , y)];eJIbllaH nOBcpxHOCTb 'IaCTHU: U0 3 - 0,1-1,0 M2/r. npOlJ.ccc ,n:eHHTpaUHH MOiKHO npoBo,n:HTb KaK nepHo,n:H'-ICCKH, TaK H HenpepblBHo, HO B HaCTOHIII;CC BpeMH npe,n:nO'-ITeHHC OT,n:mOT nocJle,n:- HeMY sapHaHTY, TaK KaK B 3TOM cJlY'lae HCnOJlb3YIOT 60Jlcc 3<p<peKTI1B- IIbie annapaTbi KHnHIII;cro CJlOH, n03BOJlHIOIII;He 311a'lHTeJlbHO HHTeHCH- <pHuHpoBaTb npouecc. )1,.151 C03,n:aHI1H B annapaTC nCCB,n:OOiKHiKeHHoro CJlOH I1CnOJlb3YIOT rpaHY.1bI U0 3 , no,n:;J.epiKHI3ae\1bIC no I33I3CWeHHOM COCTOHHHH C nOVIOllibIO B03J1.YWHoro ,n:YTbH. 060rpCB ocymeCTI3JIHIOT '-IepC3 CTellKH annapaTa OT BHellIHero HCTO'lHHKa. CKOHlLCHTpHpOBau- HbIH paCTBOp ypaHHJI-HI1TpaTa BBO,n:HT B annapaT <PopCYHKaMH. B annapaTax KHn5lw.ero CJIOSI pa3JIO)KeHHe rCKCarH.lI.paTa ypaHHJI-I!IITpaTa npo- HCXO.ll.IIT C BbiCOKOH CKOpOCThlO yhY'IellHe KHneTIIKH npou.ecca, npOBC.lI.eHHOe R yc- .10BHSlX, 6.1H3KIIX K Ha6JIIO.ll.aCMbIM H al!napaTax KHnSlw.clo C.l0Sl, IIOKa3aJIO, 'ITO B lIHTCpBa.TJe Te\mcpaTYP 200-350 DC pa3JIO)KenllC MO)KHO OI!HCaTh .lI.BYMSI peaKl(HSlMII ncpBoro nOpSl.ll.Ka: U0 2 (N03h.6H20 -+ U0 2 (N03)2.H20 + 5Hp; U0 2 (N03kH20-U03 + H 2 0 + 2N0 2 + 0,50 2 , k, = 2,96.10 5 exp (- 46 700/RT) (B HHTCpBaJIe 200 - 350 0 C); k 2 = 2.08.10 11 exp (- 159 500/RT) (B IIHTCpBaJIe 250-350° C). k 1 Ii k 2 - B MHH- 1 199 
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U0 2 - PU02 BJIHHIOT TaKl1e cpaKTOpbI, KaK CIIoc06 npHrOTOB.1CHl1fl HCXO.lI.HbIX nOpOlliKOB H TenepaTypa, a TaK)Ke aTl\wccpepa cnCKaIlHH. CMelliaHIIOC OKCH.lI.HOC ypaH-nJIYTOHI1CBOC TOnJII1BO MO:>KHO H3ro- TOBHTb npCCCOBaHHCM H CIIeKaHHCM nopOlliKOB, nO.1Y4eHHbIX JJ.I3YH MeTo.a;aMH: CMCIlIeHHeM OT)].eJlbHO npHrOTOBJIellHbIX U0 2 II PU02 H rrpOKaJIHBalIHeM OCa.ll.KOB, BM.lI,eJICHlIbIX npH COBMeCTHOM OCa)KjJ.elIl1l1 ypaHa H nJIYTOHI1H 113 HI1TpaTHbIX paCTBopOB aMMHaKOM. I1MCHHO BTO- pOH: MCTO.lI. .lI.aCT B03MO.>KHOCTb nOJIY4HTb OKCl1.!1.HOe TOnJIHBO llaHBblC- llIeH rrJIOTHOCTH H C 60JIce paBIIOMepHbIM pacnpe.lI.CJIeHHeM KOMnOHeII- TOB B fOTOBOH npO.lI.YKLI.HH. )1..151 npOBe.lI.eHHH npoQecca COBMeCTHOfO OCa2K.u.eHHH HCnOJIb3YlOT paCTBopbI ypaHHJI-HHTpaTa, CO.lI.ep2KaIII.HC onpe.lI.eJICHHOC KOJIHIJeCTBO HHTpaTa nJIYToHHH (IV). .LI.JIH nepeBO.lI.a nJIYTOHHH B lJeTbIpeXBaJIeHT- Hoe COCTOHHHe npHMCHHIOT ncpeKHCb Bo)].opO.lI,a. 06pa60TKa TaKHX pac- TBOpOB BO.lI.HbIM HJIH ra3006pa3IIbIM aMl1aKOM B IlIHpOKOM HHTepBaJIe TeMnepaTYP 25-98°C npH nOMep)KaHI1H pH Cpe.ll.bJ, paBHoM 7-10, npHBO.lI.HT K nOJIY4ellHIO HY:>KIIOrO Ka4CCTBa OCa.lI,KOI3. Pa3pa60TaIl BeCbMa 3<p<peKTHBHbIH npHeM oCYllI.eCTBJICHH5I npouecca OCa)K)].CHI1H, 3aKJIIO'IalOllI.HH:CH B TOM, 4TO 06pa60TKY pacTBopOB npoBo.lI.HT KaK 6bI B npOTHBoToKe, B nYJIbCHpYlOllI.eH KOJIOHHC. (I10.lI,06HbIll nprrcM, KaK 6bIJIO YKa3aHo, HCnOJIb3yeTcH H .lI.JI5I OCa2K.lI.CHHH nOJIHypaHaToB aMMO- HHH). I1CXO.lI,HMH: pacTBop H aMMl1aK nO.lI,alOT COOTBeTCTBeHHO CHH3Y H cBepxy KOJIOHHbI; 3cp<pCKTHBIl9C ncpeMeIlIHBaIlHc JWCTHracTcH KaK Bpa- llI.eHHeM LI.eHTpaJIbHOrO BaJIa C MeIlIaJIKaMH, TaK H nYJIbCaLI.Hell. r JIaB- Hoe .>Ke .lI.OCTOHIICTBO annapaT3 3aK.TJI04aeTCH B TOM, 'ITO B YCTaIlOBI1B- IlIeMCSI pe)KHMe KOHLI.eIITpaUHH OCa.ll.HTeJIH Ha Ka)K)].OH nOCJIe)].YlOllI.eH CTa.lI.HH (CBepxy BHH3) MeHbIlIe, 4eM Ha npC)].bI.lI.Ylll.eH:, Ha O.ll.HO H TO JKe 3Ha4eHHe, onpe.ll.CJISIeMOe COOTHOIlIeHHeM nOTOKOB paCTBopa 11 oca- ,lJ.HTeJISI. TaKHM 06pa30M, Ha ncpBbIX cTyneHHx .lI.OCTl1raCTCSI HH3Koe 3Ha4eHHe pH cpe)].bI, B PC3YJIbTaTe IJcro nOJIY4alOT JIerKO <PHJIbTPYIO- llI.HeCSI OCa.lI.KH; Ha nOCJIe)].HHX CTa.lI,HHX npH 60JIee BbICOKOH: KOHLI.CHT- paLI.HH OCa.lI.HTeJIH 06CCnelJHBaeTCH KOJIH4CCTBeHHoe BbI.lI.eJIeHHC 060HX MeTaJIJIOB H3 pacTBopa. B 3TOM annapaTC, KpoMe TOro, .lI.OCTHraeTC5I 3cp<peKTHBHaH rOMOfeHH3aLI.HH. DOJIY'IeIIHbIH: OCa.lI.OK OT<pHJIbTpOBbIBa- JOT H npOMbIBalOT .lI.JIH y)].aJIeHHH HHTpaTa aMMOHHSI CJIa6bIM paCTBO- pOM aMMHaKa. D pOMbITbIH: oca,!!:OK npOCYIlIHBalOT H npOKaJIHBalOT Ha B03.lI.yxe B Tpy6'IaTOH: neIJH, a 3aTeM .lI.JIH BOCCTaHOBJIeHHH U 3 08 H ypa- Ha, a TaK2Ke 4aCTH4IIoro YMCHbIlIelIHH nOBepXHOCTI1 OKCH.lI,OB npOKa- JIHBalOT B aTMoc<pepe a30Ta HJIH aprOHa, CO.ll.ep)Kamero 4-5 % BO.!l.O- pO.lI.a. CxeMa uerrH annapaTOB rrpoLI.eCca nOJIY'ICHHH nopOlliKa CMeCH U0 2 H PU02 npHBe.ll.Cna IIa pHC. 9.3. KOHe'lHbIM npo)J.YKTOM 3THX one- paLI.HH: SlBJIHeTCH TBep)].bIH pacTBop .lI.HOKCH.lI.OB ypaHa H nJIYToHHH C COOTHOIlIeHHeM Me: 0= 1: 1,97-;-2,03. DOPOIlIKH, nOJIY4eHHbIe 3THM rrYTeM, XOpOlliO cnCKalOTCH rrpH 1550°C B aTMoc<pep BO.lI.OpO.lI.a HJIH YfJIeKHCJIOfO ra3a. DJIOTHOCTb nOJIY4CHHbIX Ta6JIeTOK COCTaBJIHeT OKO- JIO 95 % TeOpeTHIJeCKoit TaKoc OKCH.lI.Hoe TOnJIHBO o6JIa.u.aeT BbICOKOH: pa.lI.HaLI.HOHHOH CTOH:KOCTblO, 11 ero MO)KHO HCnOJIb30BaTb npH 60JIbIlIOH rJIy6HHe BbIfopaHHH. 204 
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pllMOCTb nCpOKCI1,iJ.a YBCJIII'IHBaeTCH. HCKJIIO'IeHHC COCTaBJIHIOT JIHIlIb CYJIbcpaT-HOllbl, HaJTH'IHC KOTOpbIX B paCTBOpaX a30THOH KHCJIOTbI npH- BO)l.HT K YMCllblIleHHIO paCTBOpHMOCTH nCpOKCH,.'I.a JIJIYTOHHH. ,lJ,J15:I Ha1160.1ee nOJIHOrO Bbl.ll.CJIeHHH nJIYTOIlHH B OCa.!l.OK OnTHMaJIb- HbIMH HBJIS!IOTCH CJIe.ll.YIOw.He YC.10BH5:I: [Pu] = 10+ 100 r/JI, [HN0 3 J = =3 M, [S04 2 -] =0,2 M, 1136wTO'IIIOe cO.ll.Cp.>KaHHC H 2 0 2 B pacTBope 2-3 M. OCa)K,'J.eI!HC npOBO.ll.5:IT B Te'ICHHe 0,5 q )J.06aBJIeHHeM 30 % -HO- fO pacTBopa H 2 0 2 , 3aTCM nYJIbIJY BW)J.ep.>KHBaIOT 1 'I H <PHJIbTpYIOT (B Ka'IeCTBe CPHJIbTPYIOW.efo MaTepHaJIa HCnOJIb3yIOT I1Cp.>KaBeIOw.yJO CTaJIb); npH 3TOM OCTaTO'IHa5l KOHLI.eHrpaLI.H5I nJIYToHH5l B MaTOqHOM pacTBopc COCTaBJI5IeT 0,3 r/JI. DpH OCa.>K.lI.eHHH ncpoKcH)J.a DJIYTOHIUI IIPH 60JJCC BblCOKOH KHCJIOTHOCTH (4,7 M HN0 3 ) H TllI.aTCJIbHOM IWIIT- pOJIC YCJlOBHH OCa)K)J.eHI15l OTna)J.aeT He06xo)J.H}lOCTb B .lI.06aBJIeHHH cy.lbcpaT-HoHoB. PcrCHCpaLI.HH MaT04HbIX pacTBopoB OCYlll.eCTBJIHeTCSl nYTcM pa3pymcHHH nepcKHcH BO)J.opO.ll.a HafpeBaHHcM H B03BpaToM TIJlYTOIIHH B UHKJI Ha 3KcTpaKUHIO. D pH OCa)K.lI.eHHH nepOKCH.lI.a nJIYTOHHH MO.>KHO nOJIY'IHTb npO.ll.YKT BbICOKOH CTenCHlI IJHCTOThl, TaK KaK B 3TOM cJlY'Iac npOHCXO.ll.HT 3<p- cpeKTMBIl aH O'IHCTKa OT 60.1blIlHIICTBa KaTHOIlOB C K03cpcpH[J,n:CHTaMH O'IHCTKH: 3Jle'lleHT U Ni, Cr Fe AI, Ca, Be Mn Zr, Nb, Mg Ru I(03qxpH- 10 2 2.10 2 10 2 103 10 4 50 4 l(HeHT OQHCTKH OCHOBIIOH: lle)J.OcTaTOK nepOKCH.lI.I10ro OCa)K)J.cHlIH COCTOHT B TOM, IJTO B 3TOM npouccce HCnOJIb3yIOT npO.!l.YKTbI, KOTopble B onpe.ll.CJIeH- HbIX YCJIOBHHX MOfYT pa3JIafaTbCH CO B3pbIBOM, oc06elIHO B npHCYT- CTBHH HeKOTopbIX npHMeCeH:, HanpHMCp .>KCJIe3a, BaHa)J.HH. 3TH npH- MeCH KaTaJIH3HpYIOT pa3JIO.>KCHHe nepCKHceH, 'ITO Tpe6yeT TllI.aTeJIb- Horo KOIITpOJI5I 'IHCTOTbI pcaKTHBOB H YCJIOBHH: OCa.>K.lI.eHH5:I H CYlliKH. OnpC.lI.eJIeHHbIH HHTcpec npe)J.CTaBJIHCT OCa)K.lI.eHHe H3 BO)J.HbIX pac- TBOpOB cjJTOPUOOB nAYT01iUfl, TaK KaK n03BOJIHeT 3IIa'IHTeJIbHO COKpa- THTb nOCJIe.ll.OBaTeJIbHbIH LI.HKJI OnCpaLI.HH: npeBpaw.eHH5:I COJIeH: nJIYTO- IIH5l B MCTaJIJI. OCa.>K.lI.eHHbIH: H3 BO,lJ.HbIX paCTBopOB cpTOpH.lI. nJIYTOHH5I (III) nO.ll.BepfaeTcH JIHlIlb oncpaUHH .lI.em.lI,paTaUHH, nOCJIe qero cro MO.>KIIO HenOcpe.ll.CTBeHHo HanpaBJIHTb Ha MCTaJIJIyprH'ICcKYIO nJIaBKY .lI.JI5l nOJIYIJeJTHH MeTaJIJIH'IeCKOrO nJIYToIlHH. D pH .lI.eH:CTBHH n.1aBHKOBOll KHCJIOTbI lIa a30THOKHCJIbIe paCTBopbI nJIYToHH5I (III) BbI.lI.eJIHCTCH PuF 3 .nH 2 0, pacTBopHMOCTb KOToporo npH npOBe)J.cHHH npouecca OCa.>K,!!:CHHH B onpe.ll.eJIeHHbIX CTpOfO KOHTpO- JIHpyeMbIx YCJIOBH5:IX He npeBwIlIaeT 10 Mf!JI. O.n.HaKo TaKoe HH3Koe cO.ll.ep.>KaHHC nJIYToHH5:I B MaTO'IHOM pacTBope B03MO.>KHO JIHIlIb B CJIY- IJae OTCYTCTBH5:I .lI.Pymx BaJIeHTHbIX cpOpM nJIYToHHH (npH OCa.>K.lI.eHHH 212 
PUF3 H3 a30TIIOKHCJIbIX paCTBOpOB, cTa611.1113HpOBaI!HbIX CY.1hcpaVIH- 1I0BOH: H aCKop6111!0ROH: KI1CJIOTaMH). KpoMc TOIO, lIe06xoJ:I1MO rro.ll.- Cp)KHBaTb COOTHOlliCHHe a30THOH: H nJIaBHKOUOH KHC.l0T I1PH oca/l\J1.e- 111111 OKOJIO 3. B TO )Ke BpeMH ;J.JIH 1I0JIY'ICHI1H KPYIIHOKpI!CTa.1JIHlJC- CKOro XOpOlliO cpll.lbTpyeMoro oca.ll.Ka 3TO COOTIIOlIlCHHC I!C06XOJ:I1MO nOBbIlIlaTb .lI.O 6-7. DpolJ.ccc OCa)K.lI.eIII1H PuF 3 \10)KHO npOBO,'I.HTb KaK nepHO,lJ.HLJeCKH, TaK H lICllpCpbIBHO. OnTHMaJIbHblC YCJIOBH5I Oca)K,1.C- HHH HaH60JIee nOJIIIO MorYT 6W'Ib BbljJ.cp)KaHbI npH npOBe.ll.CHHI! oca)K- )J.eHHH B ,lJ.Be CTa)J.HI1. ,lJ,.1H nOJIYlJCIIHH O.ll.HOpO.ll.lIOfO KpHCTaJl.1H'ICCKOrO oca)J.Ka lIa nepBoH CTa)J.I1H OCa)K.lI.eHHe npoBo)J.HT npH nepeMclIlHBaHHH H nO.ll..lI.ep.>KaHHH COOTIIOlIlCHHH a30TIIOH H n.laBHKOBOH KHCJIOT paBHhlM HJIH 60JICC 6 nYTcM 0)J.I10BpCMellIIOH: nO)J.a'IH co cTporo onpe;J.CJIeHHOH CKOpOCTbIO I1CXO)J.HOfO paCTBopa, cO,'J.cp)Kaw.cro 50-70 r/JI nJIYTOHI1H (III), H oca)J.HTCJIH, COCT05l1lI.CrO H3 CMeCH 2,7-4 M HF H 4-5 M HN0 3 ; B KalJCCTRC 6ycpcpa HCnOJIb3YIOT 0,1 M paCTBop HN0 3 11.111 MaTOlJl!bIH paCTBOp OT npC.lI.bl)J.yw.ero OCa)KjJ.eIIHH. 06pa30BaBlIla5ICH nYJIbna nepeTeKaCT B ,lJ.PYfOH annapaT, fjJ.C )J.JIH H8:100.1CC nOJIHOrO OCa)K,lJ.eHHH nJlYTOlIl1H .lI.06aBJIHIOT HF, lJT06bI ClIH3HTb COOTIlOlllelIHH HN0 3 /HF ,'J.O 3 H Mellec, a 3aTeM OHa nocTynaeT Ha <p1J.lhTpaIlHIO. B u,eJIHX npC.!I.OTBpaw.eIlHH OKHCJICHHH PuF3 )1.0 TeTpaq>TOpl!;J,a Oca.lI,OK TlllaTeJIhllO npOMbIBaIOT 0,8 M HF .lI.JIH Y JlaJICHHH a30THOH: KHCJlOTbI. DOJIblIlHM npeHMylll.ecTBOM npolJ.ecca OCa)K)J.eIIHH PUF3 HBJIHeTCH cro IIH3KaH paCTBopHMOCTb, BCJIC)J.CTBHe 'Iero n.1YTOHHH B MaTO'IHbIX pacTBopax cO,'I:ep)KHTC5I O'IClIb MaJIO Hero pereHepaIWH He Tpe6YCTCH. OCIIOBIIOH IIC.lI.OCTaTOK cpTopH.lI.HOrO OCa)K.lI.eHI1H - BbICOKaH arpeCCHB- HOCTb CMeClf HF H HN0 3 , lJTO BbI3bIBaeT He06xo,lJ.HMOCTb npHMeHCHH5I cneu,HaJIbHbIX KOpp03HOHHO-CTOHKHX MaTepHaJIOB ,lJ.JIH annapaTOB. KpOMC TOro, acpcpHHa)KHbIH: 3cpcpeKT 3Toro MeTO)J.a OlJHCTKH nJIYTOHHH 3HaLJHTeJIbHO HH.>Ke, lJeM OKCaJIaTHOrO HJIH nCpOKCH.lI.HOfO npouecca. ,lJ,ocTaTOLJHaH O'IHCTKa (K03cpcpliLI.HeHT O'IHCTKH 10-20) npOHCXO.!l.HT OT Fe, Ni, Cr, B TO BpeM5I KaK pH,lJ. TaKHX npHMeCeH:, KaK AI, Zr, U II ,lJ.p., MO.>KeT OCa.>K)J.aTbCH C nJIYTOHHCM. D03TOMY paCTBOpw nJIYTO- HHH, IIocTynalOw.l1c Ha OCa)K.lI.ellHe PUF3. )J.OJI.>KIIbI 6bITb )J.OCTaTO'IHO 1JHCTbIMH. ITpH .n;ci1cTBIHI II,laBIfKOBOH KIIC.10TbI Ha Bo.n;Hble paCTBopbI II,lYTOHHH (IV) ocalK- .naCTCH ero KpIfCTaJlJlOrlf.n;paT pur.2,5 H 2 0. O.n;HaKo B Tex1I0,10mtleCKGH npaKTHKe 3TOT MeTO.n; BbI.n;eJlCHHH IIJlYTOHIIH H3 paCTBopOB He IIpHMeH5IeTCH, TaK KaK paCTBopH- MOCTb pur B KIfCJlbIX paCTBopax cyrn;cCTBeHHO BbIllle, qeM PuF3, H, KpOMe Toro, TeTpa<jJTopH.n; npe.n;CTaBJIHeT COUOH nJloxo <jJH.lbTpylOrn;lfiicH H Tpy.n;HO ooe3BOlKHBalO- rn;HHCH oca.n;oK. TIpaKTHIJCCKIfH HIlTepec npe.n;CTaBJIHeT ocalK.n;ellHe H3 BO.n;HbIX paCTBopOB KO \-I II- .1eKCllbIX <jJTopaMMOIlHeBbiX CO.1Ci! TCTpa<jJToplf.n;a IIJlYTOHHSI, KOTopble .1erKO pa3J1ara- IOTCSI IIPH npOKaJlHBaHHH (250-500 0 C) .n;o ue3Bo.n;Horo PuF.. CocTaB oupa3YIO- rn;IfXCH oca.n;KOB 3aBHCHT OT YCJlOBHH ocalK.n;eHHH. BbIcoKaH OCTaTOtlHaSI KIfCJlOTIIOCTb H HH3KaH KOHn;eHTpan;HH <jJTopHcToro aMMOHHSI cIIoc06CTBYlOT BbI.n;e,leHHIO IJ TBep.n;ylO <jJa3Y aMMoHIfHneHTa<jJToplf.n;a IIJlYTOHHH NH4PuFs. HaIIpoTIiB, 60JlbillOH H36b1TOK oca.n;HTCJlSI H HH3KaH OCTaTOtlHaH KHCJlOTHOCTb IIpIfBO.n;HT K IIpeHMyrn;ecTBeHHoMY ocalK.n;eHHIO .n;HaMMoHHHreKca<jJTopH.lla II.1YTOIIHH (NH 4 hPuF 6 . B pCaJlbHbIX YCJlOBHHX :213 
OCa1K.lI.CIIH5I OCa.ll.OK CO.ll.Cp1KHT oue q>a3b1 C npe06,1a.ll.aHHCM CO,1H (NH 4 )zPuF 6 . <I>TOP- aMMOIlHClJhIe CO.1H cO.u:Cp)KaT .'!HIlIb an.COp6I{HOIIIIY!O B.1ary, KOTOpa5I npaKTHt!CCKW 1I0JJHOCTb!O y;J.a.l5ICTC5I IIPH BblCYUlHBallHH OCa.ll.Ka npH 85-90 DC. 10.2. nony"eHHe AHOKCHAOB nnYToHHSI H HemYHHSI B CI1CTCMC IIJIYTOIIHH - KHCJIOpO..'l. 113BeCTlIbI pa3.111LJllhIC COCiI.H!lC- 111151: MOHOOKCH,J. nJIYToHHH, nOJIYTopnbIH OKCHJI. H .lI.p. Ho lIaH60JIec YCTOHLJHR .lI.HOKCI1.l1. nJIYToHHH PU02 - nopollioK OT )KeJITOrO ,lJ.0 TCMIIO- KOpH'IlieBOrO IlBCTa C TeOpCTI1'ICCKOH: n.10THOCTbI0 11,44::t 0,0 1 r/cM 3. B TCpOJl.I1HaMHLJeCKOM OTIIOliICIIHH PU02 npe.ll.CTaBJIHCT c060H: O'Iellb npOtIlIOC coe)J.I1HelIHe (H0298 = -1056,7::t 4,6 K,lJ,)K/MOJIb). TCMnepa- Typa nJIaBJIellH5I PU02 2400°C. ,L:LIIOKCII.lI. rr.1YTOHH5I 1I0JIY'laIOT rrpOKa,1HBaHHeM nI.lI.pOOKHCH, ncpOKCHAa, OKca- .1aTa, cY,lbq>aTa, HHTpaTa n.1YTOIIH5I (IV) II .lI.p. PeaKI{HOIlHaH cnOCOUllOCTh PuOz 3aBHCHT OT COCTaBa HCXO.ll.IIOrO IJeII{eCTBa H YCJIOBHM npOKa,lHBaI!H5I. CHJIbHOnpOKa- .'ICIIHhIe 06pa3I(bi BCCb\Ia YCTOH'IHBhI, IJ TO BpeM5I KaK nO:IY'IeHHbIe npH HH3hoi{ TCMlIepaType paCTBopiIIOTC5I B H 2 S04 H HN0 3 H JICfKO BCTYllaiOT B peaKI{HIO nI.lI.- pOq>TopllpOBalIH5I J]..1H :1O.1Y'IeIIH5I BecoBoM q>OpMbI PL.02 IIco6xo.ll.HMa5I TC\lncpaTypa rrpOKaJIHBalIH5I COCTaBJIiIeT 500-600 DC; O.ll.HaKO npaKTH'IeCKH rrOJIHOe rrpCBpaII(eIIHC coe;J:HHeIIHlI II.1YTOHH5I B .lI.HOKCH.lI. Ha6JIIO.lI.aCTC5I .lI..1iI nepeKIICH npH 150, .lI..15I HHTpa- Ta - npH 230 H .lI..15I OKCaJIaTa - IIPH 300 DC TepMI1LJeCKaH YCTOHlJHBOCTb )J.HoKcH,lJ.a n.1YToIIIIH n03BOJIHeT npH- MeHHTb cro R Ka1JeCTBC H,lJ.CpHOrO TOnJIHBa B peaKTopax C BbICOKOH pa60'ICH TeMncpaTypOH:. ,lJ,HOKCH.lI. nJIYToHHH, HCnOJIb3yeMbIH: ,lJ.JIH H3- rOTOBJIeHII5I TB3JIOR, .lI.OJI)KCH 6bITb no B03MO)KHOCTH HHepTHbIM Bernc- CTBOM, IIC BCTynaIOw.HM B XHMHLJCCKHC pcaKUHH C .lI.pyrHMH KOMnOIIeH- TaMH 51.l1.eplIOrO TOnJIHBa Ii M3TepHaJIOM 060JIOLJKH TB3.'IOB. TaKHM Tpe60Ba1I11H\1 OTBeLJaeT PU02, nOJIYLJCHHbIH: npOKaJIHBalll1eM oca;J.KoB COJIeH: npH RbICOKOH: TeMncpaType, TaK KaK C nOBbIlliCHHeM TCMncpa- TypbI nOlJTH aMopcpHbIll PU02 npH06pCTaeT KpHCTaJI.1H1JCCKYIO CTPYK- TYPY, OT JIHLJaIOllI.yIOcH IIH3KOH peaKUHOlllIOH cnoc06HoCTbl0. DpH npoH3BO.ll.cTBe .lI.lI0KclfJl.a n.1YTOIII1H, npCJl.Ha3Ha'ICHHOrO ,lJ.JIH H3fOTOBJlelll1H TB3JIOB (KcpaMH'IeCKHH PU02), fJIaBHaH 3a..'l.a'Ia 3aKJIIO- IJaeTCH B TOM, IJT06bI nOJIY1JCHHMH B pe3YJIbTaTC TCpMHQeCKOrO pa3- JIO)KCHHH COJIeH nopOlIlKo06pa3IfbJH MaTepHaJI CneKaJICH B Ta6JIeTKH C nJIOTHOCTblO, 6JIH3KOll K TeOpCTHLJCCKOH:. ,lJ,JIH nOJIY1JCHI1H Ta6J1eTOK C TaKOH nJIOTHOCTblO B KaIJCCTRC HCXOJl.Horo coe,!!:HHeHHH HCnOJIb3YIOT rIlJl.pOKCH,lJ. nJIYTOHH5:I PU(OH)4.xH20, KOTOpbIH nO.'Iy1JaIOT ,lJ.eH:CTBHeM aMMHaKa lIa a30THOKHCJIbIC paCTBOpbI nJIYTolIHH (IV). OCa}K,lJ.eIlHe fH,lJ.poKcH.lI,a nJIYToHH5I Ha1JHHaCTCH npH pH = 3,5, a pacTBopHMOCTb cro npH 30°C H pH = 6,5 COCTaB.1HCT OKOJIO 0,3 Mr/.'I. ,lJ,J1H nO.'ly'ICIlIIH XOpOlliO cpHJIbTPye:\1bIX oca)J.KOB OCa)K.lI.CHI1C CJIe.ll.OBa- JIO 6bI npOBO,iJ.HTb npH nOBblliICHllOH: TCMnepaType, OJl.II.aKO nJIOTIIOCTb nOJlY1JaeMbIX R 3TOM cJIY'Iae Ta6JIeTOK 113 PU02 CHH)KaeTC5:I. ,lJ,JIH no- JIY'IellHH Ta6J1CTOK !le06XO)J.I1Moro Ka'ICCTBa HaH60JIee UCJIeC006pa3HO OCa)K)J.aTb fH.lI.pOKCH.lI. n.1YTOHH5I npH KOMHaTIIOH: TCMncpaType C no- CJIe.ll.YlOllI.HM npOKaJIHBaHHeM oca)J.Ka Ha B03,lJ.YXC npH 400°C H cneKa- 214 
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11.6. ra3oclJTopHAHblH MeToA pereHepa"'HH oTpa6oTaBwHx TB3nOB peaKTopoB Ha 6b1CTpblX HeHTpOHax B COBCTCI\O C0103e HCCJIC,1.0I3aH ra30cpTopH.lI.IIbI11 cnoc06 pcre- HCpalJ.HII oTpa60TaBIlIHx TB30110B peaKTopoB Ha 6bICTpbIX II clITpOH ax, BKJIIOLJalOw.I1H pH.lI. npHIIUHnHaJlbllO HOBbIX HayqllbIX II TeXHH1ICCKHX pelliell II H. B LJaCTIIOCTII, 3TO OTHOCHTCH K nCpI30Ha'I3JIbIlOH OnCpalJ.HH nO:J:rOTOBKH TI33J10R K cpTOpHp0I33I1HIO. Ha OCIlOBe nO,1.p06110ro IICC.1C- )J.OBaIlH5I npllllHT npouccc TCpHI'ICCKOro on.laBJICH1I5I 060.101lCK TB3JIOR. DbIJIO TaK)!{e npl1l1HTO peIlIclIHc 06 OTKa3e OT npl1MCIICHIIH Ha nCpI3hlH: D3r JIH1I. 3cpcpCKTHRHoro npHIlIuma nCCB.lI.OO)KH)!{CHHOrO KHn5lIltcro C.105I .lI.JIH OCIIOBHOH oncpaUIIH cpTopHpOBallH5J, IlIHpOKO Hcno.1b3YC\10ro 3a py6C)!WM, O)J.llaKO I1\1CIOlltCrO p5l)J. cyrncCTI3C[lHbIX IIC:J:OCTaTKOB, 0 KO- TOpblX YKa3bTBaJlOCh BbIUle. Ha OCIIOBC nO,ll.p0611bIX HCC.1C,1.0BaIlIlH fTOI3C,1.CHIIH 11 pacnpC;\c.rICIIJlH aKTHIIOH.il.OR H npo,'J.YKTOI3 )J.C.1ellll51 6blJIa npHII5ITa TCXIIOJIOrllLJCCl\aH CXC\1a pa3.l1.CJIellllH II O'HlCTKII HX ;10 Tpc6YCMbIX KOH.lI.HIJ.HH C n0\10lIlbIO COp6UHH Jla T13Cp;thIX cop6ellT3x. I1pHIIHTaH .lI.J1H .il.a.lblleHlIlct'i oTpa- 60TKH 13 orrbTTHo-npOMbIllIJICIIIIO\1 MacIIITa6e TeXllO.'IOrHH BK.rJIOLJaCT CJlC/1,yIOIUl1e oncpaUHH: 1) pa3/tc.1KY C60POK lIa OT)J.CJIblibIC TI33JIbI; 2) yjJ.aJIellHC OOOJIOLJCK MCTO.ll.OM TepMI111eCKOro OnJlaI3.1CHHH; 3) cpTO- pHpoBa III1C oTpa 60TaBJUCrO HjJ.cpJlOro TOTI.'IHBa; 4) OLJHCTKY ra30Boro nOTOKa 13 cpOpKOH.lI.CHCaTOpc; 5) O'IHCTKY B BbIcoKoTeVlncpaTypJlOH COp6UHOHIIOH KOJIOIIKe; 6) COp6IHIO B KOJIOHKC npH 100°C; 7) .lI.O- O'IHCTKY rCKcacpTopll,1.a ypalla no CXCMe ;J.CCOp6UHH - COp6UH5I; 8) ;e- cop6n m o II KOll1l.CIIC31tHIO rCKcacpTopll.ll.a ypaHa; 9) nor.10IueHHC OCTa- T01lHOH aKTHRllOCTII B 1\0JIOllhC C XIIMnOrJIOTIITCJIC:\1. ArrrrapaTYPllo-TeXIIOJIOrIlLJeCKa5I CXCMa pcrcHepaUHI1 51,l1.CpliOrO Ton- J1HBa cpTOpH.lI.HbIM MCTO/1.0M, KOTopaH I1pe;tHa3I1a'IClla B KaLJeCTRC on- THMaJIbHOrO BapHallTa ra30cpTopHjJ.lloro MCTOjJ.a pcrCllepall.HH TI33JIOB peaKTopoB Jla 6bICTpbIX I1CHTpOHax, B TOM 4HCJIe peaKTopOB EOP-60, pa3pa6aTbIBacTcH B nop5J.lI.KC Me)!{.lI.YHap0.il.HOro HaY'IliO-TCXIIHLJCCKOrO COTPY.lI.I1HLJCCTBa CTpall C3B. Ha 0)J.I10M H3 CI1Mn03HYM0I3, npoBe;J.cH- HbIX B paMKax C3B (1981 1'.), OTMeLJa.'IaCh B03MO)!{1I0CTh nepcpa60T- KH ra30cpTopH.lI.llbTM MCTOjJ.OM TOrrJlHBa C HeOOJIbIIlHM BpCMCIICM BbI- )J.ep)!{KI1 (3-6 MCC) C 99 % -HhIM H3I3J1e1lCHHCM ypaHa H nJlYTOHII5J. 11.7. Y AaneHHe o60nOlteK MeToAoM TepMHltecKoro onnaBneHHSI B c.1YIJaC npHMCHeHIIH HCBO.n:llbIX MCTO.n:OB ncpepaooTKH oTpaooTaBIUHx TB3J10B, II IJaCTHOCTH npH ra30qJTOpH.n:HOM cnoc06c perellepaLLHH TB3.10B peaKTopOB lIa 6b1CT- pbIX IIcihpollax, npe.n:CTaB.1HeTCH IIc.1ecoopa3l1blM B LLC.1HX YHHTapHOCTH npHHLLHnOB TeXHO:lOrHH .n:.1H y.n:a,leHHH 060,10IJKH HcnO.lb30BaTb TaK)KC HCBO,lHhIII npOLLecc I(aK QbI.10 nOKa3allO paHCC, npH pa3pyweHHII OOOJlOIJeK MCXallHIJeCKHMH MCTo.n:aMH H.n:Cp- HOC TOnJlHBO .1HlIlb OOHa)KaeTCH, 110 HC OT.n:eJlHeTCH OT HHX TaKoe OTJl.C.1CHHC, KaK npaBH,10, npOHcxo.n:1IT TOJlhKO B pe3YJlbTaTC BbIUIC.1aIJHBaHHH paCTllOpHMOH IJaC7H oTpa60TaBUIero TB3J1a B a30THoH KIlC,10Te. COBCTCKHMH HCC.1c.n:OBaTemIMH pa3paoo- TaH MeTOJl. TCpMHIJeCKOrO y.n:aJleHHH oOOJlOIJeK, B TOM tlHc,1e H H3 Hep)KaBelOllJ,eii: CTa.1H, npHMellHeMOH B KaIJeCTBe KOHCTPYKLLHOHHoro MaTcpHa.la .n:JlH TB3J10B peaKTO- 222 
pOB ila 6blCTpblX HeihpOllaX l1J{e51 MeTOJ{a COCTOIIT n TOM, 'I TO oTpa60TaBllJHe TCn- .10Bbl;\e.1511OllJ,lIe C60pKII (TBq 6C3 npeJ{BapIlTe.lbHOH pa3;J:C:IKII HarpCBalOT J{O< TeMnepaTypbl, npll KOTOpoii CTaJlbHble .llCTaJlII n.laB5ITC5I II OTJ{e.1HIOTC5I OT TOn.lI1Ba. KaK IIOK33blB3KJT TCpMOJI.IIH3MHlfCCKlle .lI.3HllblC II BbInO.1IIClIlIbl ":;KCnCpII\1CHTbl. 130CCT3HOB,leHIIC llBY-0KIICII ypalla B pe3y.lbTaTe B3aHMOJ{eHl'TBIIH co CTa.1blO IICB03- MOMHO J{aMC npll OlfCHb BblCOKIIX TeMnep3TypaX. THO/.lb! CTCpMHCI!OrO 'fllna nO.l- 1I0CTbIO BCKpblBalOTOI npll TeMnep3Type 1450-1500° C I! TelfCHllC HCCKO.1bKHX MIIHYT. BCKpl>lTIIC TBO/.l01! J{lIcnepclloHHoro Tllna npOllcXolllIT B TClfeHlle 20-50 MIIH. TIopo- WOK .lI.BYOKIICII ypaHa B npOLLeCCe HarpeBaHH5I II On.131!.leHIIH 060.10lfKH CIICKaeTC5I B CpaBHIITe.lbHO npOlfHble 6pllKCTbl J{lIaMeTpO\1 4-4,5 MM, J{.lI1HOII 10-30 M\1 If n.l0THOCTblO 8-8,5 r/cM. TaKlle 6pllKeTbl .1erKO OT.l1.C.1HIOTCH OT C.1I1TKa CTa.1II Ko- .1HlfCCTBO ypaHa, 3aXB3TblBaeMOC CTa,1blO B npoLLecce on.1aB.1CIIII5I, He HpeBblIII3cT 0,05 % YHOC ypaHa C n03rOHHCMblMII npoJ{YKTaMII npll TeMncpaTYpc 1450°C HC npeBb!WaCT 0,006 %. B Ton.mBe OCTaeTCH ncero 0.5 % CTa.111 B BHJ{C Me.1KHX Bh.110- lfeHIIH 3a\1elfCHO, 'I TO npll TepMHlfCCKOM Y J{a.leHHII 060JlOlfKH npOIICXOJ{HT BbIJI.C.1CHHC HeKOTopOH .l1.0JIII .1CTYlfIlX npOJ{YKTOB .l1.c.leHII5I, r.1aBHh1M 06pa30M 6.1aropoJ{HblX ra- 30B. TepMlIlfeCKIIH \1CTOil. n npllMeHCHIIII K TB:1.1aM pC3h TOpOB Ha 6hlCTphiX HcihpOII3X 06.1aflaeT J{OCTaTOlfHO OO,lbIIlOH npOIl3BOil.IITC.lbIlOCThKJ II n03BO:IHCT il.HCTaHII.HOHHO< 06pa6aThIBaTb nO.1HOCTblO 11.111 no lf3CTnM C60PKII TB3.IOB np3KTHlfeCKII OC3 npe;J:Ba- pllTe.'lbHolI Bbl.ll.CpMKII, npHlfe\1 B03MOMII0 HcnO.1b30B3HHC TCII."3 paCH3J,a p311.1I0aK- TIIBHblX npOJ{YKTOB ;J.e.leHIIH Pa3pa60TaHHhlH npOL(CCC MOMCT 06ecnelfllTb MIIHIIM3,lb- Hble nOTcpll ;J.IIOKCII1l0B ypaHa II n.1YTOIIIIH II no.1Y ' leIIlle IIC3HalfHTe.lblloro l\O.lII'ICCT- Ba OTXOll.OB B <pOPMC', y;J.06HOH .l1..1H 3axopOHCHIIH, 1136eM3Tb nb!.lHllJ,IIX <ppaKLLHII n pe3y.lbTaTe cneKaHIIH Me.1KIIX '13CTHLL 'fOn.lI1Ba J{O on:13B.leIlIlH 060.10lfKII. OCIJ060MJ{eHHOC OT 060.10lfKII Ton.1IIBO B BlIlI.C CHClfCIiHhlX 6pllKeTOB MO)KIIO IIC' nOcpe.l1.CTBeHHO 1I3npaB.1HTb Ha <pTopllpon3Hlle. 11.8. CDTOpHpOBaHHe o6ny'teHHblx TB3nOB peaKTopOB Ha 6b1CTpblX HeHTpOHax HII)KC H3.1araIOTCH pe3YJIhTaTbI OnbITHOH npOBcpKH ra30cpTopH.lI.HOif TeXHOJIOrHH, npOBC.lI.eHlIOH Ha YCTaHOBKe «<I>peraT». I1CCJlC.lI.OBall Ra- pHaHT B03rOHKI1 reKcacpTopH.!I.a ypaHa C nOCJIC.lI.YIOW.IIM OTjJ.eJICHIICM conYTCTBYlOllI.HX npO.ll.YKTOB jJ.CJIeHH5I COp6UHCH: IIa TBCp.lI.bIX cop6ellTax. DpO,'I.YKT noc.rre BCKpbITHH TB3J10B MeTOjJ.OM TCpMH'ICCKOro OnJlaB- JleHHH COCTOHJI 1I3 rpaHYJI, HMeBIlIHX CPOPMY npaBHJlbHbIX UHJIHII.lI.pH4C- CKHX BTYJIOK, KOTopble npll CJIa60M MCXaHII'IeCKOM B03;1.eHCTBIII1 JIer- KO paCCblIIaJIHCh, 06pa3YH KpynKY. B 3TOH KpyrrKe BCTpeLJaJlHCb 'IaC- THUbI ,lJ.HaMeTpOM npHMepHO 2 MM, COCTOHllI.lIC H3 CTaJlI1, CO.ll.ep)KaHHC KOTOpOH B pa311bIX 06pa3uax BapbHpOBaJIO B npe.ll.CJIax 1-5 %. 3KC- ncpHMCHTbI,Ha yCTaHOI3Ke 6bIJIH BbIIIOJIHeHbI. B .lI.BYX BapHaHTax: jJ..15I TOnJlHBa, npOIlIC.lI.lIlcrO 3-MCCHlJHYIO BbI.lI.ep)KKY nOCJIe BblrpY3KH 113- peaKTopa BOP-60, H .lI.JI5I TOnJlHBa 6-MeCHLJlloii BbI.lI.ep.>KKH. Bblropa- IIl1e TOrrJIHBa B o6ollx CJlY'IaHX COCTaBJIHJIO 9,6 %. Y .lI.CJlbHaH -a KTI1B- HOCTb TOnJIHBa 3-MCCH'IHOH BbI,lJ.ep.>KKH .lI.OCTliraJIa 28740 KH/Kr, Y,lJ.CJIb- Ha5I y-aKTI1BIIOCTb 9,8.10 3 f-3KB Ra/Kf 235U, Y.lI.CJlbHOC TenJIOBbJ.lI.CJIeHHC 95,8 BT/Kr, BCJle.ll.CTBHe 'Iero Macca B 1 Kr TOnJII1Ba, 3aCblIIaHiIaH B COCY.il. .lI.l1aMeTpOM 100 M, caMopa30rpeBaJlaCb .lI.O 210°C. Pa.ll.HOXH- 223 
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