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K LfIllTATEAIO . . . . . nOXOpoHbI MaxaTMbI r aHAH. KpOB8.BOH BOHHbl, a 3aTeM B rHraHTcKHH KOHeHTpa- IJ;HOHHhIH JIarepb. Kor.u;a B Mae 1945 r. pemHM rHT- JIepa PyxHyJI, KpynHeiiwHH HeMeHH HCTOpHK cI>pH- pHX. MeiffieKe MytlHTeJIbHO pa3MhllliJIHJI 0 TOM, nOqeMY me OB, HHTeJIJIeKTYa.n H }"IeHblH, a TaKme COTHH H TLICJrtrn era HeMeKHX co6paTbeB nOmJIH 3a <lnopepoM MOJII4>oM IHTJIepoM, y6e»<aJI COOH H MHJIJIHOHDI CO- OTeqecTBeHHRKOB, 'tIT0 pyroro nyrH y repMaHHH BeT. MeHHeKe, H He OH OHH, MHJIC$I CBoeH BHHOH O  OH KO I{tImIhT . A BeAD MomHO BcnOMHHTh, KaK .u;OJIro Be D;hI He RMeJIH CBoero eHHoro rocy.u;apCTBa, KOTO- poe l\!orJIO 6hI 3HaTh HX OT BparOB, nOKpOBHTeJIh- CTBOBaTh npoMhIIIIJIeHHOCTH H KYJIbType. E,lJ;HHaJI rep- MaHCKaH HMnepHH B03HHKJIa TOJIhKO B 1871 r. BoJIbmHHCTBO jKHTeJIeH HMnepHH BOCnpHHHJIH ee pom- eHne KaK ap Bora, KOTOpDIH H8.KOHe CMHJIOC- THBIL"ICJI H HeCqaCTHhlMH HeMaMH. B C03HaHHH MH."IJIHOHOB JIIOeH nocny.u;HO )KHJIa MDICJIb, tJTO ro- cy.n;a pcTBO, KOJIJIeKTHB ShIme HHTepeCOB OTeJIhHOii Jll1H OCTn, BhIme Bcero Ha CBeTe, tJTO C03aHHYIO Ha- KOHeD; IIMnepHIO, C06paHHYIO Boe.n;HHO HaD:HIO Ha,ZJ;O no- CTOHHHO 06eperaTh, 3aIl\HaTb H YKpenJIHTb, nOMHH o Tex BpeMeHax, Kora JII060H 3aBOeBaTeJIh QYBCTBO- Barr ce6ft B repM8HHH KaK OMa. rHTJIep o6ea.n co- OTeqecTBeHHHKaM C03.n;aTb Morym;ecTBeHHoe rocyap- CTBO, H Tor.n;a HCTopHeCKaSl naMSlTh HeMIJ;eB, YHH>KeHHhIX nOCJIe nopameHHSI B IIepBoH MHPOBOH BOHHe 1914-1918 rr., Cpa60TaJIa: HaIJ;HH nOllIJIa 3a TeM JIR):tepoM, KOTOpbIH BOnJIOaJI B ce6e Me'tJ:TDI MHO- rHX nOKOJIeHHH. Hy a ceifqac HCTOpHSI TaKme mHBeT B C03HaHHH B03poaceHHoH repMaHHH. HeMIJ;hI He JII06HT rOBopHTh 0 C06DITHHX 1933-1945 rr., HO, 1\ Kor.n;a B 70-e rr. Espony 3aXJleCTHYJIa BOJIHa Memy- HapOHoro TeppopH3Ma, HMeHHO ceKpeTHDIe CJJym6DI cl>pr HaH60JIee meCTKO H s$cpeKTHBHo rpOMHJIH TaH- Hble opraHH3aIJ;HH y6HHIJ; - HHKTO B pecny6JIHKe 60JIee He )KeJIaJI B03BpeHHH B my ucmopulO. pyroH npHMep CBSl3aH C CllIA. 3TO MOJIo.u;aH CTpaH8 H MOJIO.u;OH Hapo.n;, IlX HCTopHtJeCKRH CYb- 6a HaC'tJ:HThIBaeT HeMHorllM 60JIee 200 JIeT. Ho HC- TOpHH mHBeT B C03HaHHH aMepHKaHeB. B CIlIA C03aHbI nepBOKJIaCCHhIe BoopymeHHLIe CHJIhI, npe- KpaCHaH nOJIHH.R H pa3Be,ltKa. Ho B 60JIbmHHCTBe mTaTOB HaCeJIeHHe 6oopYJICeno. KOJIbThI, 6paYHHH- rH, BHH'tIeCTephI XpaH.HTCH B OC06HHKax II KBapTII- pax. MHorHe aMepHKaHhI He c06HpaJOTCH HCnOJIh- 30BaTb HX, HO npHBhIKJIH, 'lT06hI opymHe 6hIJIO no PYKOH. OHH npRBLIKJIH K 3TOMY co BpeMeH nep- BblX nepeceJIeHneB, KOTopble BeJIH BOHHY C HeH- CKHMH nJIeMeHaMH, C 6aH.D;HTaMH H pyr C py- rOM. Tora y <l>eAepaJIbHOrO npaBHTeJIhCTBa He XBaTaJIO CRn II cpe.n;CTB AJIH 3aHThI HaCeJIeHHH, H KOJIhT Hepe,ltKO CTaHOBHJIC.H e.n;HHCTBeHHhIM cpeA- CTBOM JI.H 3aHThI )KH3HH II ,ltOCTOIIHCTBa. B He- KOTOphIX WTaTax ,lt0 CHX nop HeqerO 11 AYMaTb 06 OTMeHe 3aKOHa 0 CB060,ltHOH npOAWKe opymHH - HH'tIerO He BhIHeT, SToro opymH.R: ucmopu.R npo- CTO TaK He OT.u;aCT. HTaK, HCTOpHSI cym:eCTByeT KaK BOKpyr JIIOAeH, TaK H BHYTPH HHX, B rJIy6HHe C03HaHHH. OCTaeTCSI CeJIaTh eHHCTBeHHO JIOrH'tJ:HhIH BhIBO.n; - 'tJ:eJIOBe- 'tIeCTBO He npOCTO )KHBeT H8 nJIaHeTe 3eMJISI, qeJIO- BeqeCTBO :JICU6em 6 oco6oil peaJlbHOCmU, U,M.Jl Komo- poil - H cmopuSl. 9 
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I  I nEPB06blTHblVl MIIIP HeaHepTaJIhIJ;hl CTaJIH 3aCeJI.HTh npeme 6e3JIIO- Hhle 06JIaCTH IOra EBponhl, A3HH, AcpPHKH. IIpe- npHHMHBble H CMeJIble, OHH OTBamHBaJIHCh 3a- 6HpaThC.H B neepbl, Kya YXOHJIH Ha 3HMHIOIO Cn.HqIty orpOMHhle neepHhle MeBeH. BhICOTa 3THX 3BepeH OCTHraJIa 2,5 M, JIHHa - 3 M, H TaKHX KpynHblx mHBOTHhlX y6HBaJIH JIIOH, BOOpymeHHble KOnh.HMH, KaMH.HMH, y6HHaMH. OrpoMHhle CKOnJIe- HH.H Me,D;BemhHX KOCTeH HaHeHhl B neepax rep- MaHHH, IIIBeHn;apHH, ABCTpHH H -n;pyrHx CTpaH. HeaHepTaJIbn;bl YCOBepmeHCTBOBaJIH OpYH.H, H30- 6peTeHHhIe nHTeKaHTponaMH: HX cpopMa CTaJIa 60- JIee npaBHJIbHOH H pa3Ho06pa3Hoii. HeaHepTaJIbn;bl HOCHJIH oemy H3 lliKYP H YMeJIH CTpOHTh npoc- Tble mHJIHa, a OKOJIO 60 TbIC. JIeT Ha3 HayqHJIHCb 06hlBaTb orOHh. YCKOp.HIOTC.H TeMnbl pa3BHTH.H: Tex- HHKa o6pa60TKH KaMH.H COBepllieHcTByeTC.H Tenepb ropa30 6hlCTpee, qeM npeme. BcnOMHHM, CKOJIb- KO BpeMeHH cyecTBOBaJIH 0PYH.fI nHTeKaHTponOB, a opY,D;H.H, H3rOTOBJIeHHhle HeaHepTa.rrhn;aMH, 6blJIH B 06Hxoe 70 ThIC. JIeT, nOCJIe qero HX CMeHHJIH 60JIee COBepmeHHhIe. o ,D;OBOJIbHO BbICOKOM YPOBHe pa3BHTH.fI HeaHep- TaJIhIJ;eB H HX KYJIhTyphI MomHO CYHTb no TOMY, qTO OpYH.fI B pa3HhlX 06JIaCT.HX 3eMJIH, HaCeJIeH- HhIX HMH, yme He 6hIJIH TaKHMH OHHaKOBbIMH, KaK npeme. B 3TO BpeM.H HaqHHaeT CKJIahIBaThC.H OHa H3 oc06eHHOCTeH KYJIhTyphI 'tJeJIOBe'tleCTBa - ee pa3Ho06pa3He. B 3TO me BpeM.H nO.HBJIHIOTC.H HeRO- -, -' - -x- -<-- v?-..-- I 3 ,. ) 2 - ! - .. . :..; \) ) t . . ; -,- -< 4 ' 5 - t' 6  (J 8  :. 9 7 .  .... OpYAHSI cpeAHero naAeoAHTa: 1, 6, 8, 9 - OCTpHSI; 2 - pe3eU; 3 - CKpe60K; 4 - npoKOI\Ka; 5 - KOCTSIHoe 0pYAMe AhSI 06pa60TKH KaMHSI; 7 - MeTaTel\bHblA KaMeHb. 14 "' ".... .... no.... .,t:;::\( ...."":.=i-r.." r apnYH. Topble npH3HaKH cpH3H'tJeCKHx OTJIHqHH 06HTaTeJIen pa3HhIx 06JIaCTeH, cpOpMHpYIOTC.H pacbl. OTHOmeHH.H Memy JIIOhMH B rpynnax, KOTOphI- MH mHJIH HeaHepTaJIbIJ;bI, CTaHOB.HTCSI BCe npO'tlHee. IIoHHMa.H, qTO npHHaJIemaT K n;enOqKe CMeHHIO- HXC.H nOKOJIeHHH, JIIOH CTaJIH XOpOHHTb CBOHX YMepmHx. HeKOTopble mHBOTHhle Tome He 6pOC81OT CBOHX YMepIIIHX CopoHqeii: HanpHMep, C'IOHhI 3a- 6paChlBaIOT HX BeTKaMH. MomeT 6blTh, npHTa.., CBOHX nOKOHHHKOB H npeKH HeaH,D;epTa.JIbneB. JIIO Cnen;HaJIhHO pbIJIH .fIMbI, Kya KJIaJIH Y"\IepmHX. t.{aCTO norpe6eHH.H, npHqeM MHOrO'tlHCJIeHHble, e- JIaJIH B neepax. XOpOHHJIH Bcex - jKeHm;HH, e- Teii, CTaphIX OXOTHHKOB. HepeKO T81(ne norpe6e- HH.H oKpymaJIH KaMH.HMH, B HHX OCTaBJIHJlli opyn< e, 'tJepen KaKorO-HH6Yh He60JIbIIIOrO jKHBOTHOro, ame IJ;BeThI. OCTaHKH nOCbInaJIH KpaCHOH oxpo.... H..H KJIaJIH KYCO'tJKH 3Toro MHHepaJIa p.HOM c epIIllIM. BepO.HTHO, KpaCHbIH n;BeT yme Tora BocnpHH a- JIH KaK n;BeT mH3HH. JIIOH He TOJIbKO OC03HaJIH He06xo,D;HMOCTb 3a60- THTbC.H 0 CJIa6hIX H 60JIhHbIX, HO H nOJIytlHJI B03- MomHOCTb 3TO eJIaTh. ,n:JI.H Toro 'tJTo6bI T.Hme.rro pa- HeHHhIH qeJIOBeK BbI3OpOBeJI, 0 HeM He06xolUl 0 6bIJIO 3a60THThC.fI, eJIHThC.H C HHM nHm;eH. B no- rpe6eHH.HX HaXO.HT CKeJIeTbl .HBHO T.HmeJIO 60JIhHhIX JIIOeH, a B OHOM H3 HHX 06HapYjKHJIH OCTaHK MymqHHhI 6e3 PYKH. 3Ha'tJHT, JIlOH yme MOrJIH .z:r;o- 6bIBaTb CTOJIhKO nHH, 'tIT06bI npOKOpMHTh He TO.'Tlb- KO nopaCTaIOm;HX eTeH, HO H CJIa6bIX, 60JIbHhIX, CTapHKOB. HaBepHoe, B TaKHX YCJIOBH.HX HaQ8.JIH CI<JIa;J;bIBaThC.H npeCTaBJIeHHH 0 xopomeM H n'IOXO B OTHOllieHH.HX JIlOeii, T. e. MOpaJIhHhle HOp'dbl. HeaHepTaJIbn;hI 6blJIH nepBbIMH JIIObMH, 0 hOTO- pbIX MomHO CKa3aTb, 'tJTO OHH COBepmaJIR KaKne-TO 06p.fIbI. B rreIl\epax HaXO,l);.fIT Cnen;HaJIbHO C06paHBbIe H ajKe paCCTaBJIeHHble B onpeeJIeHHOM nopHJJ;1\.e 'tIe- perra MeBeeH. OKOJIO HHX, BH,l];HMO, H nponcxo m 3TH 06phI. IIpHMeqaTeJIbHO, tITO Oc06hIM 06paao OT- HOCHJIHC& H K qepenaM JIIOeH: 06HapymeHhI OTeJIb- Hble 3axopOHeHH.H 'tJepenOB B CrreHaJIbBbIX HMax. KOHe'tJHO, HaM TPYHO npeCTaBHTh, 'tITO npOHCXO H- JIO B neepax BORpyr STHX tIepenOB. HeT B03MOHO- CTH CYHTb 06 3TOM H no o6bl'tJa.fIM J);8JKe CaMhIX OT- CTaJIblX COBpeMeHHbIX nJIeMeH, Beb HeaBJtepTa.1JbbI 6bIJIH HaIIIHMH BbIMepIIIHMH npe.n;K8MH H oc06eHHo- CTH HX BOCnpH.HTH.H MHpa OTJIWlaJIHCb OT MHpoorny- IQeHH.H 60JIee pa3BHTbIX JIIOeii. MomHo npe.nnOiaraTb, 'tJro OXOTHHKH-HeaHepTaJIbn;hl C'tJHTaJIH ce6.H poACTBeB- HHKaMH MeBeeH, KaK JIIO,D;H 60JIee n03Hnx SDOX, BepHBlliHe B cBoe pOCTBO C pa3HhI'\iH BH,Z:taMH )It - BOTHhIX. TaKHe npe,n;cTaBJIeHH.H Ha3DIB81OT TOTe H3- MOM. CKopee Bcero HeaHepTaJIbn;bI BepHJIH B arH- qeCKHe CHJIbI - B03MomHOCTh B03eHCTBOBaTb Ha JIIOeH HJIH pyrHe CYIQeCTBa C n;eJIhlO 06HTbC.H OT HHX meJIaeMhIX nocTynKOB. MarHQeCKHe eHCTB $I 
Tpe6YI<>T npHCYTCTBHH He Toro, K KOMY TLI XOqellib 06paTHThCH, a ero CHMBOJIWIeCKOH 3aMeHbI: H306pa- meRBSI HJIH 'tIero-JIH60 npHHaJIemaIQero eMY - BO- JIOC, KycOtIKa o.ZJ;ejKbl. MomHo norOBopHTb C H306pa- meHHe - H 3TO cyecTBo CeJIaeT TO, 'liTO Tbl XOqemb. BOJIOChI Bpara MomBO Cmeqb - H OH 3a6o- JIee'!' 1 YMI>EIT. TaKHe npOCTeHmHe npeCTaBJIeHH.H yme MOrJIH 6bITh y HeaH.l(epTaJIbqeB. w «qEJIOBEK PA3YMHbII1» Ceiiqac ee He COBceM .HCHO, KaK npOHCXOAHJIa CMe- Ha HeaHepTanba qenOBeKOM COBpeMeHHoro Tllna. M3BeCTHO, 'liTO OH nO.HBIIJIC.H KaK 6bI BHe3anHO B EB- pone, IOro-BocToqaoH A3HH H Aij>pHKe. B IIaJIecTHHe Ha.ii.neHbI CKeJIeTbI HeaHepTaJTheB 60JIee pa3BHThIX no cpaBHeHHIO C ,ZJ;pyrHMII CBOHMH COpOHqaMH, yme o6JI8):taBmnx npH3HaKaMH qeJIOBeKa, KOToporo npem.n;e Ha3bIBaJIH KpOMaHbOHeM, a cei{qac npenOqHTaIOT 60JIee o6ee Ha3BaHHe - .qeJIOBeK COBpeMeHHoro THnat. (Ero Ha3bIB81OT nO-JIaTbIHH homo sapiens sa- piens - K8.K 6hI .qeJIOBeK AB8)KhI pa3YMHbI:H) no CpaBHeHIIIO C HeaHAepT8.JIbeM, KOTOphIH JIHllib homo sapiens neandertalensis - .qeJIOBeK pa3YMHbIH He- aH.ZJ;epTaJIhCKRH. .) JIIOH, BbITeCHHBlliHe HeaHep- TaJIheB 40-30 ThIC. neT Ha38,l);, yme He HMeJIH qepT, nplfJJ;aBaBmHX me npe.n;meCTBeHHHK8.M HeCKOJIbKO 3Be- pOnO,lt06HbIH 06JIHK: HX PYKH CTaJIH MeHee MOHbI- MH, n06 - 60JIee BbICOKHM, y HUX nO.fIBHJICSI no.n;60- POOqHbIH BhICTyII. IToSlBJIeHHe qeJIOBeKa COBpeMeHHoro THna COBna- .n;aeT C HaqanOM nOCJIe.n;Hero nepHO,ZJ;a peBHero Ka- MeHHoro BeKa - OKOJIO 35 TbIC. JIeT Ha3a,lJ;. B STY snoxy, npO,ltOJImaBlliyroC.H HeOJIrO no cpaBHeHHIO C npe.n;bIJJ;H'\iII, Bcero 23-25 TLIC. JIeT, JIIO,lJ;H 3ace- JIHJIH Bce KOHTHHeHThI, KpOMe, pa3yMeeTC.H, AHTapK- THAhl. ITo B03HHKIIIHM 6JIaro.n;ap.H OJIeeHeHHIO «MOC- TaM)) OHB npOHHKJIH B ABcTpaJIHIO. 3TO CJIyqHJIOCb, }aK nOJIararoT, OKOJIO 20 ThIC. JIeT Ha3a. BepO.fIT- HO, 40-10 ThIC. JIeT Ha3a.n; 6hIJIa 3aCeJIeHa AMepH- Ka: OHH H3 nyreH npOHHKHOBeHB.fI Tya JIIOeH - ,lJ;HO BepHHroBa rrpOJIHBa, KOTopoe 6hIJIO cYlliefI. Ta- KHM 06pa30M, HaCTO.HHMH OTKpbIBaTeJI.HMH HOBbIX KOHTHHeHTOB CTaJIH OTHIO)J;h He eBponeHCKHe Mope- IIJIaBaTeJIH, a JIIO.ZJ;H KaMeHHoro BeKa. B TY nopy OqeHL BbICOKoro ypOBH.fI pa3BHTH.fI OC- 'THrJIa TeXHHK8 H3rOTOBJIeHH.fI KaMeHHbIX OPYH:H. 66"8Ka. L  V  1 1 Pa3Hbie cnoco6bl 3rOTOBAeHHH KaMeHHblX °PYAHH.  OTAeAeHHe nAaCTHH. nEPBOE>bITHbIVl MIIIP I I MHorHe H3 HHX Tenepb H3rOTOBJI.H.1IH H3 nJIaCTHH npa- BHJIhHOH <pOPMbI, KOTophIe OT.n;eJI.HJIH, .OTmHMaJIH. OT .fI,lJ;pH npH3MaTHqeCKOH cpOpMLI. nJIaCTHHbI pa3HhIX pa3MepOB nO,lJ;BepraJIH ,lJ;OnOJIHHTeJIbHOH 06pa60TKe t npHTynJI.fI.H KPaH HJIH CHHMa.H C nOMOID;blO KOCT.fIHOrO .1IH60 epeB.fIHHOrO HHCTpYMeHTa TOHKHe tIeWyHKH C nOBepXHOCTH. CaMbIM npHro.n;HbIM KaMHeM ,lJ;JIH H3ro- TOBJIeHH.H OPYHH 6bIJI KpeMeHh, KOTOpDlli qaCTO BCT}>e- qaeTC.fI B npHpo.n;e. HCnOJIh30BaJIH TaKme pyrHe MH- HepaJIbI, KOTopbIe .1IerKO paCKaJIbIBaJIHCh, 6hIJIH .nOCTaTOqHO TBepbIMH H MeJIK03epHHCTbIMH. HeKOTO- pble HomeBIIHbIe nJIaCTHHhI 6bIJIH TaKHMH OCTpbIMII, .  . J . 'It !11111. \. . \ \ it . . . \ . ,  .. ., f " 3 II ..... . . , . .J 2 \. , ..... I I 6 '.' .. . I' .. . , . ..&. . t  " ., " , . 7 . . , , .'- 5 " , , . \ .1 I 8 -. OpYAHSI nOMHero ApeBHeKaMeHHOro BeKa: 1,7 - HaKOHe'iHHKH CTpeA; 2, 4, 6 - HaKOHe'iHHKH ApoTHKOB 3 - HrAa; 5 - npoKOAKa; 8 - CKpe60K. 15 
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I LlPEBHII1I11 BOCTOK B CTpaHe ,n;OJIrH, OrpaHHqHJI ,n;OJIrOBOe pa6CTBO Tpe- MH ro,naMH, HO cnpaBHThCH C np06JIeMOH ,n;OJIrOB eMY TaK H He y,n;aJIOch. He My,n;peHO, Be,n;h cpe,n;H TaMKa- pOB 6bIJIH He TOJIhKO ToprOBhI, HO H C60pHKH HaJIOrOB, H xpaHHTeJIH apCKOH Ka3HhI. Bo BBe,neHlIH K 3aKOHaM XaMMypanH rOBopHT: «Map,n;YK HanpaBHJI MeHH, qT06bI cnpaBe,n;JIHBO PY- KOBO,n;HTh JIIO,n;hMH H ,n;aTh CTpaHe CqaCThe, Tor,n;a H BJIOmHJI B YCTa CTpaHhI HCTHHY H cnpaBe,n;JIHBOCTh H YJIlliHJI nOJIOmeHHe JIIO,n;eH.. HanOMHHM, qTO Map,n;YK 6hIJI caMhIM nO'tlHTaeMhIM 60rOM BaBHJIOHa. aph, TaKRM 06pa30M, nhITaeTCH npHMHpHTh HHTe- peChI pa3HhIX JIIO,n;eH - T8.MKapOB, MYWKeHYM, BOH- HOB, npOCThIX 06HHHHKOB, onHpaHCh Ha BOJIIO Bep- XOBHoro 60JKeCTBa. Map,n;YK, no CJIOBaM XaMMypanH, He npOCTO Ha- rpam,naeT nOKopHhIX H HaKa3hIBaeT OCJIYWHHKOB - 60r ,n;aeT JIIO,n;HM CBO,n; npaBHJI, YCTaHaBJIHBalOHX cnpaBe,n;JIHBOCTh B HX B3aHMOOTHoweHHHX ,n;Pyr C ,n;pyrOM. Ho - Qepe3 :u;apH!.. XaMMypanH TaK H He y,n;aJIOCh C03,n;aTh KpenKoe rocy,n;apCTBO. Yme npH npaBJIeHHH ero ChIHa CaM- CYHJIYHhI BaBHJIOHH.H nOTepneJIa pH,n; THmeJIhIX no- pameBHH OT CBOHX coce,nen, H ee BJIa)J;eHHH COKpa- THJIHCh. HaqaJIaCh nOJIOca Hey,n;aq. B 1595 r. ,n;o H. a. CTapOBaBHJIOHCKOe :u;apCTBO 6hIJIO YHRqTOmeHO BTopr- illHMHCH xeTTaMH II KaCCHTaMH, KOTophIe nOTOM npaBHJIH Mem,n;ypeqheM OKOJIO 400 JIeT (CM. CT. .XeTTCKoe n;apCTBO.). Ho XaMMypanH Bce me ,n;06HJICH 60JIhWerO, qeM ero npe,n;llieCTBeHHHKH HJIH apH coce,n;HHX CTpaH. OH nepBbIM H3 npaBHTeJIeH ,n;peBHOCTH copa3MepHJI CHJIY 3aKOHa C CHJIOR apH II npR3HaJI 3a no,n;,n;aH- HbIMH npaBO caMHM 3a60THThCH 0 CBoeR mH3HR. IIpaB,n;a, HeKOTophIe eHhIe CqHTalOT TeKCT Ha CTOJI- .. t o - -\ .  . ... \) ....... .... ... . - '"  , ,n" ft' -..  --\  \\   , "'1....  to ", \ 'ft , , .. BaBAOHCKaSi WKOAa. 52 6e B CY3ax He CBO,n;OM 3aKOHOB a oeTOM roCYA8- pH nepe,n; 60raMH. Ha'tlHHaH C npaBJIeHHH XaMMypanH BaBH '"lOB OKOJIO 1200 JIeT 6hIJI KYJIhTYPHhIM H Ha}"lHhI"\f ueHTpOM IIepe,n;HeH A3HH. MHorHe ,n;OCTHJKeHHH ,n;peBHHX BaBHJIOHHH BOWJIH B cOBpeMeHHhIH 6hIT: BCJIe,n; 3a BaBHJIOHCKHMH mpeaMH CTaJIH AeJlHTh ro,n; Ha ,n;BeHMnaTh MeCH:u;eB, qac - Ha 'filHYThI H ceKYH,n;bI, a Kpyr - Ha TpHCTa meCTh,n;eCHT rpa;:ty- COB. BJIaro,n;apa Tpy,n;OJII06HBhIM BaBHJIOHCKH UHC- aM ,no Hac ,n;OlliJIO co,n;epmaHHe mYMepCKHX npe- ,n;aHHH. IIpHqeM OT,n;eJIhHhIe paCCKa3hI CBe,neHhI HMH B 60JIhWHe :U;HKJIhI, a HX co,nepmaHHe yMeJIO npH- cnOC06JIeHO K cOBpeMeHHocTH. HayqHaH H KYJIhTypHaH mH3Hh BaBHJIOHa OKa3a- JIaCh MaJIO 3aBHcHMon OT nepeMeH B ero no- JIHTHqeCKOH cy,n;h6e. MeHHJIHCh :u;apH H 3aBoeBaTe- JIH, a B BaBHJIOHe TaK me nOqHTaJIH 1IapYKa, c03,n;aBaJIH 6H6JIHOTeKH H 06aJIH B CnenH8..ThHhIX WKOJIaX MOJIO,n;hIX nHc:u;oB. B 689 r. ,n;o H. a. BaBHJIOH B HaKa3aHHe 3a no- CTOHHHhIe MHTemH 6hIJI nOJIHOCThlO pa3pymeH no npHKa3Y accHpHHcKoro apH CHHaxxepH6a (C::\f. CT. «ACCHPHH»). Qepe3 HeKOTopoe BpeMH ropo,n 6hI1: OTCTpoeH BHOBh H 06peJI HeBaHHhIH npe»:;J;e 6 ecK. BeplliHHhI CBoero paCBeTa OH ,n;OCTHraeT npH BaBH- JIOHCKOM ape HaByxo,n;oHocope II (605-562 IT. 0 H. a.). BMeCTO Y3KHX KpHBhIX YJIOqeK 6hIJIH npo 0- meHhI npHMhIe ,n;JIHHHhIe YJIHhI npOTHmeHHOCTDIO ,n;o 5 KM, KOTophIe HCnOJIh30BaJIHCh ,n;JIH TOp>KeCT- BeHHhIX npoeccHH; OHH ,neJIHJIH ropo,n; Ha npa- BHJIhHhIe KBapTaJIhI. BhIJIO B03,n;BHrHYTO BeJIHKO- JIenHOe CBHTHJIHm;e - ceMHcTyneIrCIaTbIH, nOXO>KHll Ha nHpaMH,n;y xpaM BhICOTOH 91 M. TaKHe co- opymeHHH B Mem,n;ype'tlbe Ha3hIBaJIH «3RKKypaT-. BocxHeHHe COBpeMeHHHKOB BhI3hIBaJIII H .ltBe MOHhIe 060pOHHTeJIhHhIe CTeHhI BaBHJIOHa: Kam- ,n;aH 6-7 M TOJIm;HHOH. rJIaBHhIH BXO,n; B ropo;t 6DL'I qepe3 BeJIHKOJIenHO YKpaweHHhIe BopOTa, noc:ssnqeH- HhIe 60rHHe MWTap. Ha HHX :u;apb HaByxooHOCOp II HanHCaJI: «51 CTpOHJI BaBHJIOH, npeKpacHeHllilIl H3 ropo,n;OB... Y nopora ero BOpOT nOCT.aBHJI H or- pOMHhIX 6hIKOB H 3MeeB C HoraMH, qero He np MaJI ,n;o MeHH em;e HH O,n;HH :u;aph.. HeKOTopbIe H3 peJIhe<}>HhIX H306pa:>KeHHH ,nHKOBHHHhIX mHBOTHhIX Ha BopOTax MlliTap apxeOJIOraMH HaHAeHhI H BOC- CTaHOBJIeHhI; no 3aMhICJIY :u;apH, OHH OJI)KHhI 6hIJIH oTnyrRBaTh OT ropo,n;a BparOB. K ceMH qy,n;ecaM CBeTa npHqHCJIHJIH B AJ)eBBOCTH II C03,n;aHHhIe no npHKa3Y BaBHJIOHCKHX nape'" BH- CHqHe Ca,lthI, B KOTOphIX ,n;epeBh.H KaK 6hI B36HpaJIHCh no,n; caMoe He60. TaKoH a<}><t>eKT ,n;OCTHraJICH 6JIaro- ,n;apH TOMY, 'qTO OHH 6hIJIH nOCWKeHbI Ha CnenH8JIbBO BhICTpoeHHhIX Teppacax, npHMhIKalOHx K napCKO- MY ,n;BOPY. IIo-BH,n;HMOMY, yxo,n; 3a ,n;epeBhHMH Tpe- 60BaJI 60JIhIIIHX XJIOnOT, HO npaBHTeJIeH BaBILlIOH8 aTO He CMYaJIO. CBoeH :u;eJIH OHH ,n;06wmCh - "IIO,ttH 6hIJIH nOpa:>KeHhI... BneqaTJIeHHe, KOTopoe npoH3Bo,n;HJI BaBH'IOH, 6hIJIO CTOJIh CHJIhHhIM, 't.J:TO ,n;ame qepe3 130 JIeT noc- JIe C03,n;aHHH aTHX BeJIHKOJIenHDIX 3,n;aHHH rpeqeCKHH HCTOpHK repooT nHCaJI 0 HeM KaK 0 .CJIaBHeHWe- 
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XETTCKOE UAPCTBO I ' "I  :»)}r  /' ..' .'i!' . . . " 1\) .  . ":'. .: tJ . 'I . .,'. :.:.; :.: :.: 0 -- 0 I - 1 . ":: [) I "\(-  -- D · - - . .... ' - . 0 .0_ .. . .  " . .......,. (.:    Ii € I\: - .,..  ............--  . '. J ..! , \  "   ,. '  f r , ..   .. ", . . '\. ... .... " I ::) t I r,  ) : I , J !. l ! ; .._,.;:';}' "=' ;, V . .'t f J \I..  \ j .....  fI -:: _ -'  ,:",,,:,:: -, "0 t J  . _ · _ - -  ---=-  ":.:. -, 1: tl \: \ .. . ( . .. . . . , . . 06pa3U bI aoopyxeHHSI erHnTSlH. B Er nTe nOqHTaJIOC:b MHOmeCTBO 60roB. HeKOTO- phle H3 HHX 6hL1IH O'tleHb peBHHMH H nOXOHJIH 60JIh- me Ha )KHBOTHbIX, qeM Ha JIIO,ZJ;eli. IIx H306pameHHH HMelOT C06aq:bH rOJIOBbI, pora H.1IH PyrHe npH3HaKH 3Bep,eii. Bo MHornx ropo,nax 060iKeCTBJI.HJIH mHBOT- HhIX - KomeK, 6LIKOB, KpOKO.nHJIOB - H co,nepmaJIH ,HX B CneIUi8.JIbHbIX nOMem;eHHHX, npyax HJIH cToH- JIax. OcKop6.neHHe mHBOTHhIX HaKa3bIBaJIOCh CMepThlO, ROO HaHOCHJIC.H ep6 60raM, KOTOpbIX OHH OJIHe- TBOp.H.J"'Ill. B KroKOM HOMe 6hIJIH CBOH 60rM (HHor,n;a MaJIO H3BeCTHhIe 3a ero npe,neJIaMH), HO cym;ecTBoBa- JIB II 06eerHneTCKHe 60:>KeCTBa, xpaMhI KOTOphIX CTpOIIJIHC:b no BceH CTpaHe: rop, Pa, OCHpHC, RCHAa H ;:ijJ. H8.H60JIee MorecTBeHHhIM CHTaJIH 60ra ca- XETTCKOE UAPCTBO }1.o Haqarra XX B. Y'tleHbIe nO'tlTH HHqerO He 3HaJIH o xeTTax. .XeTe.HHe. (B PYCCKOM nepeBo.ne) KpaTKO yno HHaJIHCh B BH6JIHH. B erHneTCKHX H RCCHPHH- CKHX Ha;:tnHCHX BCTpe'tlaeTCH ynoMHHaHHe 0 .CTpa- He XeTa. HJIK .XaTTH.. H3 erHneTCKHX HCTOqHH- 'KOB MOJKHO nOHHTh, 'tlTO B 1300 r. ,no H. s. xeTTbI BoeB c ErHnTOM 38 rocno,nCTBO H CHpHeH H IIaJIecTHHoH (CM. CT. .,npeBHHH ErHneTt). Boph6a 3-Ta 38.KOH"t{HJIaCL, TaK cKR3aTh, tBHH'tlhlOt - 3Ha- 'tlHT, xeTThI OKa3aJIHC:b OCTOHHhIMH conepHHKaMH Moro BJIHSlTeJI:bHOrO HOMa. Kor,n;a nOCJIe pacnMa .rweB- Hero napCTBa CTOJIHa CTpaHbI 6:bIJIa nepeHeceHa H3 MeMc}>Hca B €l>HBhI, BepXOBH:bIM 60JKeCTBOM CTaJI CqH- TaT:bCH c}>HBaHCKHH AMOH-Pa. M3BeCTHO em;e, qTO <pa- paOH :3xHaToH nOnhITaJIC.H 3anpeTHT:b nOKJIOHeHHe BceM 60raM, KpOMe 60ra COJIHeqHOrO ,nHCKa no HMeHH ATOH. Ho npHB.H3aHHOCT:b erHnTSlH I( CTaphIM 60raM OKa3a- JIaC:b CHJIbHee CTpaxa nepe rp03HhIM apeM. IIonhIT- Ka 9XHaTOHa He YaJIaCh, Hero npeeMHHKH nOCTapa- JIHC:b CTepeT:b IDKe n8MHTb 0 HeM. ErHnTHHe CBH3:bIBaJIH MH<phI 0 60rax C HBJIeHHH- MH npHpO)J;bI, cMeHoH BpeMeH rOAa, pa3JIHBaMH HHJIa. Kor,n;a HaqHHaJIH )J;YTh :>KapKMe BeTphI H3 nYCTbIHH, mHTeJIH ErHnTa rOBOpHJIH 0 TOM, qTO KOBapHhIH 60r nYCTbIHH CeT y6HJI CBoero 6paTa OCR- pHca If Teneph 6e3pa3,neJIhHO rocnO,ZJ;CTByeT B MHpe. ITo npe,nCTaBJIeHHHM erHnTHH, CJIe3:bI 60I'HHH HCH- ,nhI, OnJIaKHBalOeH CBoero MYJKa OCHpHca, BhI3:bI- BRJIH pa3JIHBLI HHJIa. HaqaJIo BCXO)J;a noceBOB CqH- TaJIOCh BOCKpeceHHeM OCHpHca, KOToporo cnac ero C:bIH rop. Bce STO CTaJIO H3BeCTHO nOCJIe Toro, KaK B XIX B. cppaHY3 €l>paHcya lliaMnOJIhOH pacilln$pOBaJI erH- neTCKHe HepOrJIHc}>bI, H yqeHhIe CMOrJIH npOqHTaT:b Ha,nnHCH B nHpaMH)J;ax H .KHHry MepTBblXt C onH- caHHeM nO,lJ;3eMHOro QapcTBa MepTBhIx. HeKoTophIe H3 MHqJOB 6bIJIH 3anHcaHhI Ha naDHpyce - erHneT- CKOM npe,n;meCTBeHHHKe 6YMarH, H3rOTOBJIHBmeMCH CJIOmHbIM cnoc060M H3 pacTeHHSI nanHpyc, - H co- XpaHHJIHCb ,n;o HamHX AHeii. OJIroe BpeMH erHnTHHaM y,naBaJIOCh oxpaHHTb ,nOJIHHY HHJIa OT qYJKe3eMHbIx BTOpJKeHHH. 3a nep- BhIe 2 ThIC. JIeT erHneTcKoH HCTOpHH CTpaHa Bcero O,nHH pa3 6hIJIa 3aBOeBaHa KOqeB:bIMH nJIeMeHaMH rHKCOCOB OKOJIO 1710 r. ,no H. s. (CM. CT. .BoeHHoe ,neJIO peBHero BOCTOKa.). MeHhme 'tleM Qepe3 200 JIeT 3aBOeBaTeJIeH H3rHaJIH, H ErHneT BCTynHJI B snoxy ,nJIHTeJI:bHOrO paCnBeTa. O,nHaKo no coce,nCTBY C HHM, B ITepe,n;Heii A3HH, o,nHa 3a ,n;pyroH CTaJIH B03HHKaTh arpeCCHBHhIe AepmaBbI. B 6oph6e C HHMH ErHneT YCTOHTb He CMor. B I TbICHtleJIeTHH AO H. 3. CTpaHY B ,nOJIHHe HHJIa 3aBOeB8.JIH CHaq.aJIa aCCH- pHHnhI, nOTOM - HpaHn:bI, rpeKH H, H8.KOHeu, pHM- JI.RHe. Ho H no,n; qymoH BJIaCTblO erHnT.HHe )J;OJIro COXpaHHJIH HenOBTopHMYIO KY JIhTYPY, BocnOMHHaHHH o BeJIHKOM npOmJIOM CBoeH pO)J;HHhl. H He YCTynHJIH MOHOH erHneTCKoli ,n;epmaBe HH Ha nOJIe 6paHH, HH B HCKYCCTBe )J;HnJIOMaTHH. HaqaBmHecSI B KOHe XIX B. paCKonKH B neHT- p8JIbHbIX paiiOHax MaJIOH A3HH (coBpeMeHHaH Typ- H.H) nOKa3aJIH, qTO neHTp XeTTcKoro rr;apCTBR co CTOJIHneH XaTTyca pacnOJIaraJICH HMeHHO 3)J;eCL. Ap- XeOJIOrH HanIJIH COTHH rJIHHHHLIX nJIHTOK nOKphITLIX nHChMeHaMH. 3HaqKH Ha MHorHX nJIHTKax OKa38JIHCh 3HaKOMLI yqeH:bIM - 3TO 6LIJIa aKKCKaH KJIHHOnHCL XeTT:bI nepeHHJIH ee Y :>KHTeJIeH MeiK)J;ypeqhs. 59 
I LlPEBHV1111 BOCTOK IIpotIecT:b HX, OHaKO, He YaJIOC:b - HanHCH 6hIJIH COCTaBJIeHhI Ha HeH3BeCTHOM (xeTTCKOM) SI3bIKe. Pac- WHcppOBaJI HX B 1915 r. qeWCKHH H3hIKOBe,n; Be,npmHx IPo3HhIH. OH ,nOKa3aJI, qTO xeTTCKHH H3hIK po,nCTBeH CJIaBHHCKHM, repMaHCKHM, pOMaHCKHM H3hIKaM, co- CTaBJIHIOHM HH,n;oeBponeHcKyro .H3hIKOBYIO ceMhlO. .D:ocTaTOqHO cpaBHHTh xeTTCKHe CJIOBa «BaTap», «,n;a- JIyramTH», «He6Hm)) C HX PYCCKHMH aHaJIOraMH «Bo,na», «OJIrOTa» (T. e. ,lJ;JIHHa), «He60». 9TO OTKphI- THe CTaJIO HaHOH ceHcaHeH. IIOJIaJIOCh, qTO xeT- ThI CTO.HJIH OC06HHKOM Ha )];peBHeM BOCTOKe, Be,n;h 3,n;eCh rOBOpHJIH Ha H3:bIKaX acl>po-a3HaTCKOH ceMbH, noxomHX Ha COBpeMeHHhIe apa6CKHH H eBpeHCKHH. M3 r JIy6HH:bI BeKOB HatIa.7IH npocTynaTh cBoeo6pa3HhIe OqepTaHHH MHpa, B KOTOpOM iKHJIH xeTThI. 06hItIaH H YCTaHOBJIeHH.H, CBOHCTBeHH:bIe HH,ZJ;oeBponeHCKHM Ha- pOJ];aM, xeTThI COeHHHJIH C 38.HMCTBOBaHHhIMH Y CBO- HX coceeii-conepHHKOB - aCCHpHHeB, BaBHJIOHHH, erHnTSIH H XYPPHTOB. 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IIocJIe OC- JIa6JIeHH.H ErHnTa, npHMepHO C 900 r. .n;o H. 3., c1>H- HHKHIO HaQHHaIOT npH6HpaTb K PYKaM aCCHpHHCKHe n;apH. 3a 100 JIeT MHpHOH nepe.n;bIlliKH (1000- 900 rr. .n;o H. 3.) <}>HHHKHHaM y.n;aJIOCb MHoroe: apb THpa XHpaM 06e.n;HHHJI no,lJ; CBoeH BJIaCTblO Bce npH6pemHhIe 3eMJIH, 3HaQHTeJIhHO paCWHpHJI OCT- pOBOK, Ha KOTOpOM pacnOJIaraJICSl THP, npHCbInaB 63 
I LlPEBHIt1I11 BOCTOK ... .... J , " .. "-   ......- ..,  ...  .. -- .' " ... ,.., " - . -. ....... . t , . ..-- KpblMTble AYXH. PeAbe<fJ. C\OHOBaR KOCTb. 750 r. AO H. 3. K HeMY 3eMJIIO CO CTOpOH:bI MaTepHKa, nOCTpOHJI HOBbIe xpaMbI MeJIbKapTa H BepXOBHOH 60rHHH Ac- TapTbI, a B xpaM 60ra BaaJIa DomepTBOBaJI 30JIOTYIO KOJIOHHY. 06bIQHO Kam.n;blH H3 KpynHbIx <}>HHHKHHCKHX ro- pO.n;OB BblcTynaJI KaK eHTp He60JIbmOrO caMOCTO.H- TeJIbHOrO apCTBa. BJIacTb apeH 6bIJIa CJIa60H, ee OrpaHH'tIHBaJIH COBeTbI ropo.n;CKHX CTapeHmHH. Bo- JIee Toro, npaBHTeJIH <}>HHHKHHCKHX ropo.n;OB HMe- HOBaJIH ce6.H «ap.HMH. TOJIbKO nepe.n; CBOHMH no.n;- aHHhIMH. B .n;HnJIOMaTH'tIeCKOH nepenHCKe HH erHnT.HHe, HH xeTTbI He Ha3bIBaJIH «n;apHMH. npa- BHTeJIeH Bn6JIa, THpa H CH.n;OHa. IIocJIe 3aXBaTa ct>HHHKHH aCCHpHHn;aMH MeCTHbIM mHTeJI.HM npHmJIOCb HaBcer.n;a OTKa3aTbC.H OT .n;aJIe- KO HJJ;HX nOJIHTH'tIeCKHX nJI8.HOB H cocpeJJ;OTO'tIHTb- CH Ha BbIrOJJ;ax MOpCKOH H CYXODyrrHOH TOprOBJIH. <I>HHHKHHD;hI YMeJIH H3BJIeKaTb BblrOJJ;bI H3 mH3HH B «npOXO.ZJ;HOM .n;Bope. IIepe.n;HeH A3HH. TeXHH'tIeCKHe HOBIIIeCTBa, peMeCJIeHHble npHeMhI OHH OCBaHBaJIH 6blCTpO. Yme K 1500 r. .n;o H. 3. B BH6JIe Hay-qHJIHCh OKpaIIIHBaTb IIIepCTHHhIe TKaHH B OtIeHb KpaCHBblH nypnypHbIH BeT. 3TH TKaHH cpa3Y me BOmJIH B MOJ];Y II nOJIb30BaJIHCb orpOMHbIM cnpocoM - KynHTb HX MOrJIH TOJIhKO OtIeHb 60raTbIe JIIOJJ;H. PaCKOUKH JJ;peB- HHX cpHHHKHHCKHX ropo.n;oB OTKpbIJIH B3rJI.H.ZJ;aM ap- xeOJIOrOB rpYJJ;bI nYCTbIX paxoBHH, OCT8.BillHXC.H nOCJIe nOJIy-qeHH.H KpaCKH: CYJ];H no KOJIHtIeCTBY OTXOJ];OB, MomHO JJ;orMbIBaTbC.R 0 pa3Maxe npOH3BOJJ;CTBa H 60- raTCTBe <pHHHKHHCKHX .ToprOBn;eB TKaH.HMH. KpaCHTeJIb J];06bIBaJIC.H H3 MOpCKHX MOJIJIIOCKOB, H TaBHY ero npo- II3Bo.n;CTBa cPHHHKHHbI He OTKpbIBaJIH HHKOMY. BbI- COKO IJ;eHHJIHCb B )l;peBHOCTH Ii npeKpaCHbIe H3.n;eJIH.H qJHHHKHHCKHX peMeCJIeHHHKOB H3 6pOH3bI H cepe6pa, a n03J];Hee - 3HaMeHHToe CTeKJIO H3 CH.ZJ;oHa, ceKpe- TbI H3rOTOBJIeHH.H KOToporo Y.iKe B Cpe.n;HHe BeKa ne- pemJIII K BeHeIJ;HaHIJ;aM. 64 <DHH....KHRcK....e KynUbi. IIpHBbItlKa nOJIyqaTb 60JIbWne 6ap 'hTTInt npH ));QC- TaTO'tIHO cB06oJJ;HOH »\H3HH no)); BJIaCTb10 C 1ffi.6hIX MeCTHblX npaBHTeJIeH n06ymAaJIa clJHHHKHHChHX ToprOBeB YCKOJIb3aTb OT HamHMa erHneTCKHX H accHpHHCKHX n;apeH.. CnacTH CBOIO mH3Hb H H. eCTBO MomHO 6bIJIO, nepeCeJIHBIllHCb B o;nry 3 ToprOBhIX KOJIOHHH, OCHOBaHHhIX <p RHKlt HHnaMH Ha AcppHKaHCKOM (YTHKa H KapcpareH) .II EBponeii- CKOM n06epemb.HX CpeAH3eMHoro MOpH, Ha AT""I8H- TWieCKOM n06epe.>Kbe COBpeMeHHOH HCnaHHH (ro- PO)]; ra;J;ec). CyecTBOBaJIH cpHHHKHHCKHe KOlIOHHH H Ha OCTpOBax KHnp, MaJIbTa, CapAHHH.R H CH- IJ;HJIH.H. rpeKH Ha'tJ:aJIH C03aBaTb 3aMOpCKHe KO- JIOHHH n03me cpHHHKHHn;eB H, KaK npaBHJIO, He CeJIHJIHCb B OCBoeHHbIX TeMH MecTax. TOJIhKO CH- nHJIHH nOKa3aJIaCb rpeKaM JIaKOMbIM KYCKO'd, OHH OTTeCHHJIH nOTOMKOB nepeCeJIeHneB H3 THpa K 3anaHOH OKOHe'tJ:HOCTH OCTpOBa. <t>HHHKHHhI nepBbIMH npOT.HHYJIH 'tJepe3 Cpe- )];H3eMHOe Mope HHTH ToprOBbIX CBH3eii, COTKaB H3 HHX nOTOM 'tIaCTYIO ceTb. OHH onpeAeJII '1H Bpe e- Ha roa, YJJ;06Hble JI.H aJIbHHX nJUlBaHHH, pa3Be- )];aJIH YKpOMHbIe, 3aHeHHbIe OT BeTpoB 6yxThI H YCTpOHJIH Y)I;06HbIe r8.BaHH. Kopa6JIH II3 THpa c HocaMH, YKpameHHblMH )l;epeB.HHHbIMH JIoma.ztHHhI- MH rOJIOBaMH, B Te'tIeHHe OJIroro Bpe'deHH HaT.H- rHBaJIH HHTH, CB.H3bIBaBWHe ErHneT H CHqHJIHlO, KHnp H H6epHIO, KaK B )l;peBHOCTH Ha3bIBaJICH IlH- peHeHCKHH nOJIYOCTpOB. Ho C));eJIaTb CJIe;tyIOInHH mar H CnJIOTHTb, nOJJ;06HO rpeKaM, Bce cpe H- 3eMHOMopCKHe 3eMJIH B e.n;HHoe KYJIbTYPHoe npo- CTpaHCTBO cpHHHKHHbI TaK H He CMOrJIH. ,n:JI.R 3TO- ro Y HHX, nO-BH)];HMOMY, He OKa3aJIOCb OCTaTOqHO npO'tJ:HOH rOCYAapCTBeHHOH Ii rrOJIHTeCKOH OCHO- Bbl. K TOMY me <pHHHKHHCKoe 06eCTBO KaK 6hl pa3BOHJIOCb: BepXH JIerKO nepeHHMaJIH BhICOhyro KYJIbTYPY ErHnTa H BaBHJIOHa, a npOCTOll Hapo ynopHo )];epmaJIC.H 3a .n;peBHHe 06bftIaH H BepOBa- HH.H. <I>HHHKHHIJ;:bI Ha npOT.HmeHHH CBoeH ,n:OJIroH HCTOpHH (BH6JI cyecTBOBaJI yme BO BTOpO.... no- JIOBHHe III ThIC.H'tIeJIeTH.H )1;0 B. 3.) nbITaJIHCh CO- e.n;HHHTh HecoeAHHHMoe: OHH meJIaJIH OCT8.BaTbC rocnoaMH B MHpe 30JIOTa, .n;parOneHHbIX COCYAOB, nypnypHbIX TKaHeH H npH STOM CTpe:\!HJIHCb 38 ro- pH30HT, 3a repaKJIOBhI CTOJInbI - Tya, r,lte HeT HH ecnOTOB, HH pa60B. 
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BOJIDnme eBpeHCKHe KOJIOHHH cyecTBOBaJIH B BaBHJIOHe, B ErHnTe Ha OCTpOBe 3JIet!>SHTHHa H B A.JIeKcaHpHH; B PHMe Tome 6bIJIa .n;OBOJIbHO 3HaqHTeJIbHaH no 'lfiIC- JIeHHOCTH eBpeHCKa.H 06HHa. IIocJIe BOCCTaHHH Bap- Kox6bI .n;Hacnopa OXBaTHJIa rpeHIO, MaKe.n;OHHIO, KHpeHaHKY. rpeqeCKHH reorpa(}> CTpa60H nHCaJl: .EBpeH Ha- CeJIHIOT nOqTH BC"e ropo.n;a, H B MHpe HeJIerKO HaH- TH MeCTO, r.n;e 6hI He mHJIH npe.n;CTaBHTeJIH 3TOro nJIeMeHH)). PeJIHrH03HbIe H Han;HOHaJIbHbIe qyBCTBa, 060CTpeHHbIe TparKtleCKOH cy.n;b60H HX pO-ttKHbI, CM- 3hIBaJIH eBpeeB .n;HacnopbI KpenKHMH Y3aMH Ii He ,n;aBaJIH paCTBOpHTbC.H cpe.n;H Hapo.n;OB, K KOTOpbI.L 3a6paCbIBaJIa HX cYAP6a. \. \ "\ .. Ba3a 1013 l-1epHxOHa. 1700 r. NJ H. 3. 
ACCV1PV151 .51 - CHHaXXepu6, BeJIHKHH apb, MoryqHH apb, apb 06HTaeMOrO MHpa, napb ACCHpHH, apb '1eThI- pex CTpaa CBeTa.... - TaK aCCHpHHCKHH apb CH- HaxxepH6 Ha'lHHaeT paCCKa3 0 CBOHX BoeHHbIX no- xoax. OH npHKa38JI MaCTepaM HaHeCTH 3TH rOpeJIHBhIe CJIOBa Ha KaMeHb, '1T06bI CJIaBa 0 ero MOeCTBe COXpaHfiJIaCb Be'lHO... OmJIH O HaC H BbICe'leHHbIe H3 KaMHS H306pa- meHHH aCCHpHHCKHX apeH B nOJIHbIH pOCT; HX JIH- a H (j>HrypbI BbIpamalOT MOD, pemHMOCTb CMeCTH Bce Ha CBoe nyrH, npeOOJIeTb JII06yIO nperpay. BarJIH)]; IJ;apH - XHHbIH B3rJISI opJIa, PYKH C BbI- nYKJIbI'dH MbImn;aMH HanOMHHalOT JIbBHHbIe JIanbI, nbImHbIe BOJIOCbI, YJIOmeHHbIe Ha cnHHe, - JIbBH- HYJO rpHBY; apb CTOHT Ha 3eMJIe HenOKOJIe6HMO, KaK 6:&IK... HaBepHoe, B peBHOCTH He 6bIJIO Hapoa, KOTO- pbIH nOKJIOHHJICH 6bI CHJIe H BJIaCTH TaK, KaK ac- CHpHHqbI. CJIOBa apH CHHaxxepH6a He 6bIJIH XBac- TOBCTBO:\I. Bo BpeMH ero npaBJIeHHH (OKOJIO 700 r. o H. 3.) B COCTaB ACCHPHHCKOH ep:>KaBbI BXOHJIH BaBHJIOHHH, CHpHH, IIaJIecTHHa C HyeeH, OTeJIb- Hble paiiOBbI 3aKaBKa3bH. IIpH HaCJIeHHKax CH- HaxxepH6a ACCHpHa npHCOeHHHJIa Ha HeKOTopoe BpeMH TaKme ErHneT H 3JIaM. CHHaxxepH6y C ero HaCJIeHRKa..'\!H Y8JIOCb 3aBoeBaTb nO'lTH <cBeCb 06H- TaeMbIH MHp. (KOHe'lHO, B npeeJIax, H3BeCTHbIX aCCHpHHna..'d) . Ha'IHH8JI8Cb me HCTOpHH ACCHpHH OBOJIbHO MHp- HO. Ee ,ttpeBHeH CTOJIHeH 6bIJI He60JIblliOH ropo DIyp, OT KOToporo n03Hee nOJIyqHJIa CBoe Ha- 3BaHHe H BCS ,ttepmaBa. ACCHpHSI CT8JIa nepBOH B PSlY Morym;ecTBeHHbIX HMnepHH peBHOCTH. Ew;e nOCJIe,n;He BeKe II TbICH'IeJIeTHH JI.O H. 3. Ha YJIH- ax mypa peJI.KO BCTpe'lanHCb BOHHM, HO TaM 6bIJIO O'lleHb MHoro KynOB. KaK me nOJIY'tIHJIOCb, '1TO He60JIbmOH ToprOBbIH ropo npeBpaTHJICH B eHTp orpoMHOH epmaBbI, HaBOHBIIIeH ymac Ha HapOJI. ITepeJI.HeH A3HH? DIyp pacnOJIaranCH B BepxHeM Te'leHHH peKH THrp, rJI.e mHJIH B OCHOBHOM ceMHTCKHe HapObI. 3ecb CXOJI.HJIHCb ToproBbIe nyrH )];peBHero MHpa. C ceBepa Ha lOr, B MemJI.ype'lbe, Be3JIH 30JIOTO H cepe6po, MeJI.b H OJIOBO, pa60B. B ceBepHbIe 3eMJIH oTnpaBRHJIH JIH npOJI.amH 3epHo H paCTHTeJIbHOe UapcKasI OXOTa. AC01PII151  MaCJIO, H3eJIHS HCKYCHbIX peMeCJIeHHHKoB. mHTeJIH mypa co BpeMeHeM nOHSJIH, 'l{TO cMorYT pa360- raTeTb, nOKynaH TOB8pbI ]3 OHHX cTpaHax H nepe- npOJI.aBaa B pyrHx. 3aHHMaTbcH nocpe,n;HH'tIeCKOH TOprOBJIeH MOrJIH TOJIbKO YMHbIe, xHTpbIe H OTBa>K- HbIe JIIOH. Kyny npHXOHJIOCb oT6HBaTbcSI OT Ha- neHHH pa360HHHKOB; OH OJI)KeH 6b1JI YMeTb JIa- )J;HTb C Bom,n;.RMH HKHX nJIeMeH, y KOTOpbIX nOKynaJI pa60B; eMY CJIeOBaJIO 3HaTb H3bIKH, Hpa- Bbl H 06bI'IaH '1ymHx cTpaH, 6b1Tb 06XOHTeJIbHbIM C 8pHMH H HX BeJIbMOm8MH, nOToMY '1TO caMbIe oporHe TOBapbI npOaBaJIHCb B apcKHx BOpn;ax. )];JIH y,n;06CTBa TOprOBJIH B 'IIymHx 3eMJISlX Kynn;bI CTpOHJIH CBOH nOCeJIKH, mHJIH TaM cpe,n;H MeCTHbIX mHTeJIeH H JIHllib H3peKa B03BpaW;aJIHCb Ha pOH- HY 3a TOBapOM. B C8MOM me lliype 60raTbIe KynbI 3anpaB- JIHJIH BceMH ropo,n;CKHMH eJIaMH. BbICOKHe OJIm- HOCTH B ropOCKOM ynpaBJIeHHH 3aHHMaJIH mpebI caMbIX nO'lHTaeMbIX xpaMOB. apeH B mype ee He 6bIJIO. ropo pOC H 60raTeJI, He HymaHcb B )J;a- JIeKHX BoeHHbIX noxo,n;8X. ACCHPHH:&I mHJIH B nJIOJI.OpOHbIX CTenHbIX nperopbSlX. 3eMJIH 3JI.eCb JI.8.BaJIa 06HJIbHbIe ypom8.H Awwyp6aHanaA, 04HH H3 nOCAeAHHX accHpHHCKHX uapeA, c06paA B CBoet1 CTOAHue HHHeBHH 6oraTe£1wylO 6H6AHoTeKY wYMepcKHx H BaBHAOHCKHX AHTepaTypHblx npoH3Be4eHHt1 H Hay"tHbix TpaKTa- TOB. llOCToHHcTBa 3TOH 6H6AHoTeKH 3aKAIOyaAHCb He TOAbKO B 6oAbwOM KOAHYecTBe «rAHHSlHblX KHHr», c06paHHbfx uapeM. Bnep- Bble B HCTOpHH KHHrH nOA6HpaAHcb H pacCTaBASlAHcb no pa3.6e- AaM, C y"teToM C04ep)KaHHSI; nOCAaHUbi uapSi pa3be3)K3AH no Bcei1 cTp3He, pa3b1CKHBaSi B xpaMax 4peBHHe Ta6AHYKH H cnHCblBaSi HX MSI uapcKOt1 6H6AHoTeKH. Uapb BHHMaTeAbHO CAe.t1HA 3a nonOA- HeHHeM 6H6AHOTeKH. nOXo)Ke, YTO OH nOCTaBHI\ nepeA co6oH ueAb co6paTb H coxpaHHTb BCe 3HaYHTeAbHoe, LtTO 6b1AO HanHca- HO B Me:>K.AypeLtbe 3a .t1Ba C nOAOBHHOH TbICSI"tel\eTHSI HCTOpHH cTpaHbI. BHHMaTeAbHoe H3YLteHHe 4peBHHx Ta61\HLteK n06}')KAaAo He- KOTOpblX H3 aCCHpHt1CKHX BeAbMO)K K caMocToSiTeAbHoMY AHTe- paTypHoMY TBOpYeCTBY. OyeHb Bblpa3HTel\bHbI accHpHHcKHe aHHaAbI- paCCK33b1 0 BoeHHblX nOX04ax uapeA, 3 TaK)Ke HpaBO- HTeAbHble HCTOpHH BpO.t1e nOBeCTH 0 npeMY4poM nHcue H co- BeTHHKe aCCHpHHCKHX uapeH no HMeHH AXHKapa. B03MO)KHO, pacuBeT aCCHpHt1CKOA AHTepaTypbl 6b1A y)Ke He 3a rOpaMI-t, Kor4a B 61 2 r. AO H. 3. BaBHAOHSIHe H MH.t1S1He nOCTaBHAH nOCAe4HIOIO TOYKY B aCCHpH£1CKOH HCTOpHH. n0406HO AHTepaTypHblM BKycaM aCCHpHt1ueB, HX XY40)KecT- BeHHble npHCTpaCTHSI TaK)Ke pa3BHBaAHCb nOA BaBHAOHCKHM B03- 4eACTBHeM. B TO )Ke BpeMSI CKYAbnTypHble YKpaweHHSI uapcKHX 4BOpUOB B HHHeBHH nOKa3b1B3IOT, YTO aCCHpH£1ubl AI06HI\H TOLt- HOCTb B 4eTaASIX H306pa)KeHHt1, HX peaAH3M, YMeAH H3S1WHO pac- nOAaraTb cpHrypbl H3 6apeAbecpax. _BaBHAoHcKoe H306pa3HTeAb- Hoe HCKYCCTBO 3Toro BpeMeHH 6blAO 60Aee CHMBOAHLtHblM; XY.t10)KHHKH CTpeMHAHCb nepe4aTb B nepBYtO 04epe.t1b CMblCA H30- 6pa>KeHHSI, 06pawaSi MaAO BHHMaHHSI Ha peaAHCTHLteCKHe 4eTa- AH. O.t1HHM H3 BblCWHX 4OCTH)KeHHH aCCHpHHCKOH CKYAbnrypbl cnpaBeMHBO CLtHralOTCSI 6apel\becpbl YMHpatOwet1 AbBHUbl, y6H- ToA Awwyp6aHanaAOM BO BpeMSI uapcKOt1 OXOTbi Ha AbBOB. 71 
I LlPEBHCi1 BOCTOK nepenpaaa aCCHpHRCKHX BOHHOB Ha 6YPAJOKax. A}"iHHKH. 6e3 OnORHHTeRhHOrO nOnHBa, n03TOMY OPOCH- TeRhHhIe KaHaJIbI H 3eMRHHhIe nROTHHhI 6hIRH 'Iae Bcero He HymHhl. BORhmaSi KpeCThHHCKaH ceMhH 06pa6aTbIBaJIa CBOH HeJI caMOCTOHTeJIhHO, He 06- paaHCh 3a nOMOhlO HH K coceHM, HH K xpaMY, naCJIa 6hIKOB H OBe B mHpOKHX H npHBOJIhHhlX OKpeCTHbIX CTen.RX. ACCHpHHCKHH KpeCThHHHH Mor caM npOKopMHTh ce6H H CBOIO ceMhIO, 6blJI CB060- eH II He3aBHCHM, nJIaTHJI CpaBHHTeJIhHO He60JIhmHe H8JIOrH. 3TO MomeT nOKa3aTbCH CTpaHHbIM, HO HMeHHO H3-38 CBoero 6JIarOnOJIytlHSI accHpHHCK8JI epeBHSI nO'lTH He MeHHnaCh Ha npOTHmeHHH BeKOB. B HeR oJIro cOXpaHSlJIHCh nep:so6hlTHhIe nopHKH, nOJIHaH BJIaCTh OTIJ;a H BceMH qneHaMH ceMhH, O'leHb Kpen- RHe CBH3H Memy KpeCTbHHaMH-06HHHHKaMH. e- peBHH HcnpaBHo nOCTaBJISlJIH B ropo npOYKTOBhIe HaJIOrH H M01l0hIX Mym'lHH lIH nOnOJIHeHHH ap- MHH, a ropo nO'lTH He BMemHBaJIC.R B CellhCKHe ,n;ella. He3aBHCHMOe, 3aacHTO'lHOO KpeCTbHHCTBO 6bIJIO rJIaBHOH onopOH aCCHpHHCKoro rocyapCTBa. B nepBblH pa3 MHpHaH H 60raTa.H mH3Hh Ammy- pa 6hL1Ia nOCTaBJIeHa no yrp03Y OKOJIO 1800 r. o B. 3. B 3TO BpeM.H coce)J;HHe rocyapcTBa BaBHJIOH H MapH, a n03Hee BOBoe apCTBO MHTaBHH H xeTTbI CTaJIH BhITeCHSlTb aCCHpHHCKHX KynqoB C HaCHmeH- HhIX MeCT H 60raTblX phIHKOB. Ammyp nonp060BaJI 6hlJIO BoeBaTb, HO CHlI JIS HepaBHOH 60pb6hI He XBaTHlIO, H OH nOTepHlI He3aBHCHMOCTh. Ha HeCKOJIh- KO BeKOB ToprOBhIH ropo Ha THrpe YXOHT B TeHh. IIpHMepHo B 1350 r. o H.3. accHpHHqhI BHOBh CTaJIH He3aBHCHMbIMH OT MHTaHHH H BaBHJIOHa 6JIa- roapH nOMOH CBOHX COlO3HHKOB - erHnTSIH. Te- nepb HymHo 6bIJIO 3aBJIeTb oporaMH, ROTophIe BellH K no6epemhlO CpeH3eMHoro MOp.R, K 60raThlM CHpHHCKHM ropoaM. CaMbIM BamHhIM Y'IaCTKOM 6hlllH nepenp8.BbI Qepe3 peRY EB(}>paT, KOTopbIe He Mor MHHOBaTb HH O.nHH Kyne. H jtOCTHmeHHH 72 He3aBHCHMOCTH H JISI 60ph6hl 3a CBOH HHTepeChI Heo6xoHMa 6hlJIa HCHnJIHHHpOBaHHaH, xopomo opraHH30BaHHaH, CHJIbHaH apMHH no eHHbIM py- KOBOCTBOM. TaK BOeHa'laJIhHHK Ammypa (-Hm- maKKYMt), BJIaCTb KOToporo nepeaBaJIaCb no a8- CJIecTBY, Ha6paJI CHJIY H npHHSlJI qapcKHH THTYR. It aCCHpHHaM npHxOHT BoeHHaH ya'la. OHH cOKpymalOT pacnOJIOmeHHOe B cpeHeM Te'lleHHH Q D o  ,', ",  . .. . "  I. .. oil"" . ':::," .' ,'- . .. . '. , \. .. : ..', , :. \ ' !.} ',,\ / . "' f '\' I 11,;.' '_.. \ . \. C', ,t' -....-. 01. .... .-.' So .....,':..,..1,,:, I,.. .._  '-... ... t. AcCHpHAUbi rpa&.T ropoA. 
EB<ppaT8 8pCTBO MHT8HHH, npHCOe):tHHHIOT qaCTh ero TeppHTopHH, CTPOHT Y peKH KpenOCTH H Hn npo- TSlmeHHH ,ABYX BeKOB (1300-1100 IT. lJ.O H. 3.) YlJ.ep- mHBaIOT nepenpaBbI lIepe3 EB<ppaT, BeYHe K MOplO. BJIaro,ttapH 3TOMY OHH orp8HWlHBalOT ToprOB- JlIO conepHHICOB H co6HpalOT 60JlLWHe nOmJlHHbI C KynItOB. HHora aCCHpHHCKaH apMHH OTnp8.BJlHJlaCh H B ):t8JILHHe nOxO.z:thI. BepHYBmHCb H3 TaKoro no- XO):t8 C 60JlLmOH lJ.06eH, It8PL HepeKO CTpOHJI CTOJlHItY-RpenOCTL, OXPaHHR B HeR CBOH COKpOBH a. IIocJle,ltHeH H HaH60Jlee pOCKomUOH H3 TaKHX CTOJl CT8JIa n03AHee HHHeBHR - caMhlH H3BeCT- HhIH H3 aCCHPHHCRHX ropOOB. ,lU>eBHHH Ammyp BCe 60JIee OTX0lJ.HT Ha 3MHHH nJl8H: YJlHhI HOBhlX ro- pOAOB 3anOJlHSlIOT yme He ToproBqLI, 8 COJlaTbI. BoeHHble ycnexH aCCHpHHIteB 6bIJlH 6J1eCTftH" MR, HO CJla60CTL apcKoH BJl8CTH BCe me CKa3bIBa- Jl8Ch. mpenaM H 3H8TH He Hy'fteH 6LIJI CHJILHLIH Itaph. OHH npHBblKJIH C8MH ynpaBJIHTL CTp8BOH. ame 3HaMeHHThIH nOJIKOBOAe n06elJ.HTeJIL Ba- BHJIOHa apL TyKYJIhTH-HHHYPTa I (1244-1208 rr. .zto H.3.) 6hIJI 06'L.HBJIeH CYMaCWelJ.WHM H JIHmeH TpOHa, elJ.Ba OR nOnhITaJIC.H YCTaHOBHTb B ACCHpHH CBOIO HeOrpaHWleHHYIO BJIaCTb H BBeCTH nhIWHbIe npHBopHhIe epeMOHHH no B8BHJIOHCKOMY 06pa3qy. CTP8HOH no-npemHeMY npaBHJIH 60raTbIe TOprOBIthl H mpeIthI; OHH YCTyn8.JIH napIO CJI8.BY H BoeHHYIO Ao6hIqy, HO He BJIaCTh. B MHpHoe BpeMH ItapL 3a nHpaJIC.H B CBoeH CTOJIHIte-COKpOBHHHe, H OC060H Ho6HOCTH B HeM HHKTO He HcnbITblB8JI. STOT nopHAOK 6ldJI HapymeH OKOJIO 1100 r. o H.3. HameCTBHeM KO'lleBHHKOB-ap8.MeeB. ACCHpHHhI nOTepHJIH Bce BJI8)J;eHHH Ha EB(j>paTe, qaCTb TeppH- TOpHH Ha THrpe Ii OTCTynHJIH B 6J1HmHHe npeWOpb.R. no coceAHHM CTpaHaM KoeBHHKH HaHeCJlH ee 60- nee CHJlLHLIH Y):t8p. IIo3ToMY, KorAa accHpHHD;bI Onp8BHJIHCL 11 HaaJIH HOBbIe 3aBoeBaHHH B IIepe HeH A3HH (OKOJIO 900 r. AO H. 3.), Y HHX B TeqeHHe ee 100 neT He 6LIJlO AOCTOHHhlX conepHHKOB. ACCHpHHCKHe n;apH cYMeJIH BOCnOJIb30BaTbCH o6 CTOHTeJILCTBa H H 3HatlHTeJILHO YKpenHJlH CBOIO BJIaCTL. OHK npHMeHHJlH HOBhIH cnoco6 BeeHHH BOHHhI, YC1'pamHBWHH Bce HapOhI IIepeHeH A3HH (CM. CT. .BoeHHoe eJIo peBHero BOCTOKa))). Ac- CHpHHIUd HanaJIH BcerAa HeomHAaHHo H 6hICT po, nOA06HO y.u;apy MOJIHHH. IIJIeHHbIX 'tJ:e Bce- ro He 6p8.JIH: eCJIH H8CeJIeHHe 3axBaqeHHOrO ropoAa COnpOTHBJIHJIOCL, TO ero YHHQTOm8.JIH nOJlHOCTLIO B Ha3H.zt8.HHe BceM HenOKopHbIM. )];o6HBaHCb OT no 6emeHHLIX nOCJIym8HH.R, HX JIHW8JIH pOAHHLI, ThI CSlQ8.MH neperOHHs{ HOBIdX nOMaHHLIX D;apSi B lJ.PY rHe MeeTa, Hepe.D;KO o'tJ:eHb A8JIeKO. Bee AeJI8JIOCb AJIH Toro, 'tJ:To6hI YCTpamHTL 3aBOeBaHHble HapOhI, CJlO MHTb HX ):tyx, BOJIIO K cBo6oAe. ACCHpHHbI rpa6H. JIB nOKopeBHLIe CTp8HhI AeC8THJleTH.RMH. O):tHaKO rpo3HhIe 8CCHpHHCRHe uapH TaR H He CMOrJIH HOJIrO 06'LeAHHHTh 3aBoeBaHHhIe CTpaHhI, C03AaTL KpenKoe rOCYAapCTBO. 30PKOCTL opJIa no- MOraJIa HM 6bICTpO 38.Me'tJ&TL M.HTemH Ha ORpaH- H8X ):tepm8BhI, JILBHH8..R xpa6pocTb - npoTHBOCTO- JlTh BparaM B OTKphITOM 6010, ynopcTBO 6hIKR BhIpyqa.nO Tor,qa, Kor,qa nopameHHe K83aJIOCh He AC01PIl1  MHHyeMhIM, HO 3THX Ka'tJ:eCTB 6hIJIO HeAOCTaTOllHO JlSI pemeHHSI HOBhIX 38q. Be3 KOHa rpa6HTb 3aBoeBaHHhIe CTpaHhI OKa3a- JIOCb HeB03MomHO: HeKOMY CTaJIO 3aceBaTL c06cTBeH- Hble nOJIS H 38.HHMaTbCH peMeCJI8.MH. ¥ accHpHHueB 6LIJIO CJlHmKOM MHoro BOeHatlaJIhHHKOB H CJIHIIIROM MaJIO QHHOBHHKOB, 'tITo6hI C06HP8Tb HaJlOrH. IIHceq Mor 3aMeHHTL COJlA8Ta TOJIbKO TaM, r)J;e HaCeJleHHe 06POBOJIbHO COrJIaCHJIOCL 6hI .mHTb nO):t BJI8CTblO aCCHpHHl1.eB. TaKHX HapO.ztOB Ha )];peBHeM BOCTOKe He 6hIJIO - 3axBaT1lHKOB HeHaBHeJIH Bce. CJlOmHOCTb B03HHKJIa Y aCCHpHHeB H c Topro BbIMH ropOA8MH, KOTopLIe H8 npoTHmeHHH BceH CBO- eii' HCTOpHH nOJlb30BaJIHCb OC06bIMH npaBRMH: OHH He WIaTHJlH 60JIbWHX HaJIOrOB, HX 'ftHTeJIH OCBo60)K AaJIHCh OT apMeRCKOH CJIym6bI. COXP8.HHTb 3TH npH- BHJlerHH aCCHpHHhI He XOTeJIH, HO H OTMeHHTL HX Tome He MOrJlH, onacaHCb nOCTOHHBbIX MHTemeH. O.D;HHM H3 TaKHX BOJlhHbIX ropO.ZJ;OB 6hm BaBHJIOH. KYJIbTYPY, peJIHrUIO H nHChMeHHOCTh aCCHpHHUbI nepeHHJlH B OCHOBHOM OT B8BHJIOHa. YB8meHHe K 3TOMY ropOAY 6LIJIO CTOJlh BeJlHKO, qTO Ha HeKOTO poe BpeMH OH CTaJI K8K 6hI BTOpOH cToJlHqeH ACCH- pHH. IIpaBHBwHe B HHHeBHH n;apH eJIaJlH 60raTbIe nO.ztapKH BaBHJlOHCKHM XpaMaM, YKp8maJIH ropo.zt BopaMH H CTaTYSlMH, 8 B8BHJIOH TeM He MeHee OCTaBaJICH u.eHTpOM onaCHLIX 3arOBopOB H M.HTemeH npOTHB aCCHpHHCKOH BJIaCTH. AeJIo KOH'tJ:HJIOCb TeM, 'liTO apb CHHaxxepH6 B 689 r. 11.0 H. 3. npHKa38.JI YHH'tJ:TomHTb BeCb ropo)t H 3aTODHTb MeCTO, ua RO- TOpOM OB CTOHJI (CM. CT. .BaBWIOH.). ¥maCHhIH no CTynOK apH BhI3BaJI HeAOBOJIhCTBO ]tame B caMOH HHHeBHH, H, XOT.H ropo 6bIJI 6LICTpO OTCTpoeH 3a- HOBO npH CLIHe CHHaxxepH6a AccapxaMOHe, OTHO- IlleHHH Me ACCBpHeH H B8BHnOHOM HcnopTHXHCb OKOH'I8TeJlLHO. ACCHpHH TaK H He CMOrJla onepeTb- CH Ha aBTopHTeT BamHeHwero peJIHrH03HOro H KYllb- TypHoro u.eHTpa IIepeAHeH A3HH. rJlaBHaH me 6e.zta accHpHHqeB OK83aJIaCL TeCHO CBH3aHHOH C HX 6J1eCTftHMH BoeHHhIMH n06eaMH.  , \,  , \. OxOTa Ha AbOOB AcotPHR. 883-559 IT. AO H.3. 73 
I PEBH1I1 BOCTOK B BOHHax C CWI:bHhIM H MOJIO rocy-napCTBOM Ypap- TY (800-700 rr. o H.3.) RCCHpHHCKa.H epmaBa He pa3 6:bIBaJIa Ha rpaHH nOpameHH.H (CM. CT. . YpapTY.). QT06hI n06e.n;HTh, aCCHpHHnhI 3aMeHHJIH (OKOJlO 750 r. .no H.3.) OnOJI'IeHHe apMHeH, COCTO.HeH H3 COJI.n;aT- HaeMHHKOB, cneqHaJIhHO 06}"IeHHLIX BoeHHOMY eJIY. QT06LI coepmaTh TaRoe BOHCKO, apH BbIHym.n;eHbl 6h1JIH CHOBa H CHOBa OTnpaBJI.HTbC.H B rpa6HTeJlbCKHe noxOLI. C 3Toro BpeMeBH 6bICTPO yxy.n;maeTC.H nOJIOmeHHe CB060.nHLIX KpeCTbSIH - npemHHX OnOJI'IeHneB. BeJIb- MomH Ha'lHHaIOT 3aKa6aJI.RTh H nopa60aTL HX. 06e3- p;OJIeHHble accHpHHqLI, CMemHBa.HCL C npHrHaHHLIMH YPAPTY It 800 r. 11.0 H. 3. H CTpaHaMH IIepe.n;HeH A3HH HaBHCJIa yrpo3a aCCHpHHCKoro nopa60eHHH (CM. CT. .ACCHpHSIt). Ka3aJIOCh, 'tITO HaTHCKY aCCHpHHCKHX apMHH He MomeT npOTHBOCTOSITb HHKTO - HH CJIa- 6LIe apH BaBHJIOHa, HH npaBHTeJIH MeJIKHX .OC- KOJIKOB» BeJIHKOH. XeTTCKOH .n;epmaBLI, HH BomH Ewe B rAy60KoA ApeBHOCTH BOCTOYHble paHoHbI MaAOH A3HH H 3aKaBKa3bSl 6b1AH ueHTpaMH MeTaMyprHH. 3ecb 04eHb paHo Hay- Lfl1AHCb Cnl\aBASlTb BMecTe Meb H 01\080, nOA}'4aSl 6pOH3Y; MeCb )Ke, nO-BH4HMOMY, BnepBble HayaAOCb WHpOKoe npoH380ACTBO >Kel\e3a H H3rOTOBAeHHe )l(eAe3HOro 0PY)KHSI H 0pYAHH Tpya. KY3HeUbi YpapTY YHaCAe408aAH MHorOBeKOBOH onblT CBOHX 6e3- BeCTHbiX npeAweCTBeHHHKOB. It1x H3.deAHSI H3 cepe6pa H 6pOH3bl ueHHAHCb Lfpe3Bbl4at1HO BbiCOKO H pacnpocTpaHSlAHCb no BceMY Cpe4H3eMHOMOpblO. ApxeOAorH 06HapY)KHI\H H3rOTOBAeHHbie B Ypapry MeTaMH4eCKHe npe4MeTbi B MaAOH A3HH, Ha rpe4ecKHx OCTp08ax 3reHCKoro MOpSl, 8 MaTepHKOBOH rpeUJ.1H, OCTHraAH OHH H llpeBHet1 I-1TaAI-tH. '-Iawe Bcero Macrepa YKpaWaAJ.1 MeTaMHLfecKHe 4aWH J.1 6AIOAa CUeHaMJ.1 Cpa)KeHJ.1H, 6era KOAecHHU, cpHrypaMH Bca4HHKOB. 80- HHCTBeHHblH xapaKTep ypapT08 npoSiBASIACSI H B 06bl4ae )KepTBO- BaTb B xpaMbl cneUHaAbHO H3rOTOBAeHHbie H3 AparoueHHblx Me- TaMOB WHTbI, WAeMbi J.1 KOI\LfaHbl.AJ\SI CTpeA. It1Hor Aa H306pa)KaAHCb H MHpHble )t(epTBOnpJ1HOWeHHSI, KOTOpblMJ.1 PYKOBOI-tAH )t(peUbi. MeTaMH4ecKHe H3AeAHSI ypa pTCKHX MacTepo8 J.1MeAH ycnex He TOAbKO y aCCHpHHueB H )KHTeAeH CpeA.H3eMHOMopbSl. CTHAb H TeXHHKa H3rOTOBAeHJ.1S1 paroueHHOCTeH 04eHb 3aHHTepeCOBaAH nepcOB  MIo1AStH. npHMepHO C 600 r. 40 H. 3., nOCAe B03HHKHOBe- HHSI CHa4aAa MHAHHCKOH, a nOTOM nepCHCKOi1 Aep)l(aBbI, onbiT 3aKaBKa3CKHX KY3HeUOB Wl-tpOKO pacnpOCTpaHHACSI no BceMY nepe4HeMY BocrOKY. YpapTbl C03AaAH BbiCOKYIO KYAbTYPY ropOACKoro CTpoHTeAb- CTBa. '-IacTb ypapTcKHX ropoOB nOCTpoeHa no 3apaHee cqcTaB- AeHHOMY nAaHY, YTO 6b1BaAO Ha ApeBHeM BocroKe 40BOAbHO pe- KO. OCHOBaTel\H ropoAOB CTpeMHAHCb HcnOAb30BaTb OCo6eHHOCTH peAbe<1>a - B03BblweHHOCTJ.1, 6epera peK, LfT06bl AYLfwe «BnH- caTb» ropo4 B OKpY)I(alOWYIO MeCTHOCTb H 3aWHTIo1Tb ero OT Hana- eHHi1. no LfeTKOMY apXHTeKTypHOMY nAaHY CTpoJ.1AHCb H ABOp- Ubi MeCTHbiX npaBHTeAeA, TalOKe OTAHLfaBwHecSi 3THM OT uapcKHX ABOpUOB B ApyrHx crpaHax BOCTOKa: TaM no06Hble coopY)t(eHHSI 4awe Bcero AOCTpaHBaAHcb BOKpyr ueHTpaAbHoro SIpa, pa3pac- TaSiCb KaK CHe)KHbIA KOM 11 npeBpawaSicb B 40BOAbHO 6eccpop- MeHHbie 3AaHHSI. ABOpUbi H xpaMbl B YpapTY YKpawaAHcb pocnH- CSlMH  KaMeHHblMH H3BaSlHHSlMH. 74 H3 .l);8.JIhHHX CTpau HeCB06011.HLIMH JIIO-nl:. ,OKa3hIB- IOTC.H y ce6J1 Ha pO.nHHe B MeHhmHHCTBe... MOecT- BO BeJIHKOH .l);epmaBbI aaqHHaeT 6hICTpO OCJIa eBaTh. If B 614 r. .no H. 3. MH.HHe B3S1JIH peBHIOIO CTOJIllIY CTpauhI Awmyp, a 'tIepe3 .l);Ba ro.n;a OHH B COlO3e c oCB060.n;HBmHMCH BaBHJIOHOM pa3rpOMHJIH HHHeBmo (CM. CT. «.[U>eBHHH HpaH))). ACCHpHH HC'Ie3JIa C JIHa 3eMJIH. OKa38.JIOCh,  C03.naT:b KpenKoe rocy.n;apCTBO C nOMOblO CTpaxa HaCHJIHH H rpa6eme:a HeB03MomHO. 3TOMY }"IHT H HCTOpHSI He60JILDIOrO ropOKa, KynhI KOTOpOro CHa- 'Iana XOTeJIH JIHDIL OHoro -- CBo6011.HO ToprOBaTL Ha MHpHLIX BOCTO'lHLIX pLIHKax. nJIeMeH, HaCeJISIBmHX HpaHCKoe Harop:be H 3aK8.B- Ka3Le. YCTaHOBJIeHHe aCCHpHHCKoro rocno.n;CTBa 03- Ha'laJIO JISI 3THX Hapo.n;OB KaTRCTpo<PY - Belt» OHO HeMHHYeMO nOBJIeKJIO 6hI CTpamHoe pa30peHHe 3a- BoeBaHHLIX CTpaH H MaCCOBoe HCTpe6JIeHHe JIIQ en. R BCe .me B TO BpeMa, Kora MO:b ACCHpHH- CKOB: ep:>K8.BhI 6hIJIa nOHCTHHe orpOMHa, B nepe- HeH A3HH HaIIIeJIC.H Hapo, KOTOpLIH He TOJIbKO pe- IIIHJICa Ha OTKPIdTYro 60ph6y C rp03HhL Bparo , HO H nOqTH BhIHrpaJI Y Hero CMepTeJILHOe npOTH- B060pCTBO. PeqL HeT 0 6JIH3KOpOCTBeHHhIX n"Ie- MeHax, HRCeJISIBIIIHX ropHhIe OJIHHhI 38.KaBKa3:bSf npHMepHO B TOM paHOHe, r.n;e CeH'IaC CXOHTCH rpaHHLI TYPHH, HpaHa H ApMeHHH. Ha 3TO TeppHTopHH CJIOmHJIHCL Tora Ba CHJILHLIX COIQ- 38 nJIeMeH, .n;B8 rocyapcTBa - YpapTY H MaHHa. QeHTpaMH HX CTaJIH .n;OJIHHLI ropHhIX 03ep B8..H H ¥PMH.H. ACCHpHHLI O nophI .no BpeMeHH He o6pa.. BHHMaHHSI Ha C06hITH.H, npOHCXO)];HBmHe H8 ce ep- HbIX oKpaHHRx HX .n;epmaBLI. BJI8):thIKH MHpa OT- HOCHJIHCL K ypapTaM KRK K OHOMY 113 . Horo- 'IHCJIeHHhIX nOJlYHKHX nJIeMeH, C'tIHTaH, "tJ:TO HX CJIe.n;yeT ,l(epmaTL B nOCTO.HHHOM cTpaxe H H8.KR3h1- BaTL 3a HenOCJIywaHHe KapaTenhHhIMH noxon ACCHpHHhI .HBHO He11.00eHHB8JIH ypapTOB. R n03,a- Hee 3TOT HapO)]; npo.n;eMOHCTpHpOBaJI CBOH BoeHHhIe,. nOJIHTHqeCKHe, MHHHCTpaTHBHhIe H KYJI:bTypHLle .l);apOBaHHH. ACCHpHHCKHe n03HHH B IIepe He.... A3HH OKa3aJIHCb He TaKHMH npO'lHhIMH, K8.K 0.- HO 6hIJIO nOYMaTL. apH YpapTY MeHya (810- 786 rr. o H.3.) Hero CLIH AprHwTH I (786- 764 rr. o H. 3.) Ha'laJlH 3TO YMeJIO HCnOJIh30BaTh. 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B KIOJIe 330 r. ,n;o H. 3. apb ,a;or- HaJI CBoero conepHHKa. C pOCTHhIMH B03rJIaCaMH, no,n;rOHas KOHa, OB 6YKBaJIbHO JIeTeJI K TOMY MeCTY, Ky,a;a eMY yKa3bIBaJIH, H HaKOHe HaCTHr ,l(apHa. TOT YMHPaJI, nOKlfilYTLIH BCeMH, npe,n;aTeJIhCKH cpameHHhIH CBOHM caTpanoM BeccoM. COH,n;S C KOHS, ArreKCaH,n;p nonDITaJICJI paCCJIbIlliaTb ero npecMepTHbIe CJIOBa. Ko- r,a;a me apHH III HcnYCTHJI .D;YX, ArreKcaH,n;p B03Bec- THJI BOHCKY, 'tITO Hp8HCKHH D;apb ceJIaJI ero CBOHM npeeMHHKO . He HanpaCHO OB BOCCeJI Ha TpOH Axe- MeHH,ltOB, npHHOCHJI mepTBhI 60ry Map,a;YKY B BaBH- JIOHe H npHK838JI BOCCTaHOBHTb rp06HHD;Y KHpa - oc- HOBRTeJI nepcR,n;cKoH )];epmaBhd OTHbIHe A.neKCaHp CTaJI .38KOHHhIMt npeeMHHKOM H HaCJIe,lJ;HHKOM ,l(a- pHS III B8 nepCHCKOM TpOHe. AneKCaHAP C YAHBHTeJIbHOii JIerKOCTbID YCBOHJI BOCTO'tIHbIe MeTObl ynpaBJIeHHS. OH Bce-TaKH He 6@n rpeKO , 8 TOHbKO npHKOCHYJICfi K rpe'tIeCKOH KYJIbType, HO He BDHTaJI ee, HeCMOTps Ha CBOID JII060Bb K rOMepy. 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